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Sample records for women seeking medical

  1. Stage at Diagnosis and Delay in Seeking Medical Care Among Women With Breast Cancer, Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Pakseresht, Sedigheh; Ingle, Gopal Krishna; Garg, Suneela; Sarafraz, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with cancer often delay seeking medical advice in developing countries. It can adversely influence the outcome of disease. Objectives: The present study was performed to determine the stage at diagnosis and delay in seeking medical care among women with breast cancer in Delhi, India. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on a census (case series) approach to reach all women (172) diagnosed with primary breast cancer “detected in surgery Out Patient Department (OPD) from January 2007 to December 2009” at Lok Nayak Hospital, Delhi, India. Patients were interviewed using a self-structure questionnaire. Seeking behavior variables were awareness of problem, first consultation, followed physician's advice, detection of problem, system of medicine and gap between knowing the problem and consultation (patient delay). Statistical Analysis was performed using the Microsoft SPSS-pc version 14.0 statistical program. The analytic methods were used (mean, standard deviation, X2, Fisher's Exact Test, K-S, Kruskal-Wallis) for variables. All statistical tests were performed at a significance level of 5% (P < 0.05). Results: the mean age of women was 46.99 years. 38.4% of women were ≤ 40 years. 61% of women were in stage IV of cancer at the time of diagnosis. The mean duration of gap between knowing the problem and consulting a physician (patients delay) was 10.90 months. There was no significant association between stage of cancer and consultation gap. A significant association was found between the stage of breast cancer and income; women with lower income had a higher stage of breast cancer (P < 005). Conclusions: A significant association was found between ages of women with their delays in consultation. Delay is still prevalent amongst women with breast cancer. It seems necessary to design educating programs for women in both clinical and community settings, about breast cancer and early detection practices. PMID:25763229

  2. Intimate Partner Violence among Midlife and Older Women: A Descriptive Analysis of Women Seeking Medical Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormanti, Mary; Shibusawa, Tazuko

    2008-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence (IPV) may occur throughout a woman's life course, there has been a paucity of research on the experiences of victimization among midlife and older women. This article examines both the prevalence of IPV among a sample of women ages 50 to 64 (N = 620), who were recruited at an emergency department and primary care…

  3. Medically indigent women seeking abortion prior to legalization: New York City, 1969-1970.

    PubMed

    Belsky, J E

    1992-01-01

    If the efforts now underway to limit access to abortion services in the United States are successful, their greatest impact will be on women who lack the funds to obtain abortions elsewhere. There is little published information, however, about the experience of medically indigent women who sought abortions under the old, restrictive state laws. This article details the psychiatric evaluation of 199 women requesting a therapeutic abortion at a large municipal hospital in New York City under a restrictive abortion law. Thirty-nine percent had tried to abort the pregnancy. Fifty-seven percent had concrete evidence of serious psychiatric disorder. Forty-eight percent had been traumatized by severe family disruption, gross emotional deprivation or abuse during childhood. Seventy-nine percent lacked emotional support from the man responsible for the pregnancy, and the majority were experiencing overwhelming stress from the interplay of multiple problems exacerbated by their unwanted pregnancy. PMID:1628716

  4. Identifying Risk Factors for PTSD in Women Seeking Medical Help after Rape

    PubMed Central

    Tiihonen Möller, Anna; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Methods Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital, Sweden. Baseline assessments of mental health were carried out and followed up after six months. Results Thirty-nine percent of the women had developed PTSD at the six month assessment, and 47% suffered from moderate or severe depression. The major risk factors for PTSD were having been sexually assaulted by more than one person, suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD) shortly after the assault, having been exposed to several acts during the assault, having been injured, having co-morbid depression, and having a history of more than two earlier traumas. Further, ASD on its own was found to be a poor predictor of PTSD because of the substantial ceiling effect after sexual assaults. Conclusions Development of PTSD is common in the aftermath of sexual assaults. Increased risk of developing PTSD is caused by a combination of victim vulnerability and the extent of the dramatic nature of the current assault. By identifying those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD appropriate therapeutic resources can be directed. PMID:25340763

  5. Decision making by single women seeking abortion.

    PubMed

    Quinn, M

    1980-01-01

    30 single women attending the Auckland Medical Aid Center (AMAC) for an abortion during a 3-week period in May 1977 were interviewed about the factors leading up to the pregnancy, the impact of the pregnancy on their relationships with relevant others, and the process of obtaining an abortion. The prospective subjects were divided into 2 age groups, 16-20 and 21-25 years and 2 residence groups, Auckland city area or beyond this area. The proportion of the sample selected from each category was intended to approximate proportions as reported for all AMAC clientele. Of the 30 women interviewed, half were aged less than 20 years and half were more than 20. 24 of the women were European and the remainder Polynesian. 3 women had previously been married, in 2 cases resulting in children. 3 women had given birth; 2 of these women were solo parents while 1 woman had had her child adopted. All those who had either married or given birth were in the 21-25 year age group. In 20 cases the women had decided on abortion either before pregnancy even occurred or as soon as it was confirmed. This along with the fact that only 2 women in this sample actually made the decision to seek an abortion after arriving at the clinic suggests that counseling directed at helping women decide the future of the pregnancy after arrival at the hospital is largely superfluous. Other major problems of the women which caused considerable stress included obtaining a doctor's referral to AMAC, the physical difficulties in getting to AMAC, changes the pregnancy precipitated in relationships between women and those they confided in. 2/3 of the younger group made little or no use of contraception. None gave ignorance as a reason for nonuse. Women in the older age group tended to use more sophisticated techniques, such as oral contraception (OC), IUD, or diaphragm; the younger women relied on condoms or used nothing at all. In addition to the 7 women who had never used contraception, a further 12 women

  6. Medical Student Attitude toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kligfeld, Marnin; Hoffman, Kaaren I.

    1979-01-01

    To explore the antecedents of emotional distress among physicians, the relationship between year in medical school and student attitude toward seeking professional psychological help was investigated using students at the University of Southern California. For women, no attitudinal changes were noted; an early, significant positive change was…

  7. Women Empowerment through Health Information Seeking: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Sabzevari, Sakineh; Negahban Bonabi, Tayebeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Today, women empowering is an important issue.  Several methods have been introduced to empower women. Health information seeking is one of the most important activities in this regard. A wide range of capabilities have been reported as outcomes of health information seeking in several studies. As health information seeking is developed within personal-social interactions and also the health system context, it seems that the qualitative paradigm is appropriate to use in studies in this regard. This study aimed to explore how women’s empowerment through health information seeking is done. Methods In this qualitative content analysis study, data collection was done with regard to inclusion criteria, through purposive sampling by semi-structured interviews with 17 women and using documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneous with data collection. Results Four central themes were emerged to explain women’s empowerment through health information seeking that included: a) Health concerns management with three subcategories of Better coping, Stress management, Control of situation, b) Collaborative care with two subcategories of Effective interaction with health professions and Participation in health decision making c) Individual development d) Self-protection with four sub- categories of Life style modification,  Preventive behaviors promoting, Self-care promoting, and  medication adherence. Conclusion The results of this study indicate the importance of women empowerment through foraging their health information seeking rights and comprehensive health information management. PMID:26005690

  8. "Something's Gotta Give:" Advanced-Degree Seeking Women's Experiences of Sexism, Role Overload, and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Lindsey M.

    2014-01-01

    With the rise in advanced-degree seeking women and the minimal research on the dual impact of sexism and role overload, the current study aims to better understand the impact of sexism and role overload on psychological distress in a particular sample of advanced-degree seeking women. Seventy-six female medical student participants (mean age 24.7)…

  9. Irish women who seek abortions in England.

    PubMed

    Francome, C

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, 4158 women from Ireland and 1766 from Northern Ireland traveled to England for abortions. This situation has been ignored by Irish authorities. The 1992 case of the 14-year old seeking an abortion in England finally caught legal attention. This study attempts to help define who these abortion seekers are. Questionnaires from 200 Irish abortion seeking women attending private Marie Stopes clinics in London and the British Pregnancy Advisory Services clinic in Liverpool between September 1988 and December 1990 were analyzed. Findings pertain to demographic characteristics, characteristics of first intercourse, family discussion of sexual activity, and contraceptive use. From this limited sample, it appears that Irish women are sexually reserved and without access to modern methods of birth control and abortion. Sex is associated with shame and guilt. 23% had intercourse before the age of 18 years and 42% after the age of 20. 76% were single and 16% were currently married. 95% were Catholic; 33% had been to church the preceding Sunday and 68% within the past month. Basic information about menstruation is also limited and procedures such as dilatation and curettage may be performed selectively. 28% of married women were uninformed about menstruation prior to its onset. Only 24% had been using birth control around the time of pregnancy. The reason for nonuse was frequently the unexpectedness of intercourse. 62% of adults and 66% of women believe in legalizing abortion in Ireland. British groups have tried to break through the abortion information ban by sending telephone numbers of abortion clinics to Irish firms for distribution to employees. On November 25, 1992, in the general election, there was approval of constitutional amendments guaranteeing the right to travel for abortions and to receive information on abortion access. The amendment to allow abortion to save the life of the mother was not accepted. PMID:1483530

  10. Women in Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Glynis; Kidder, Louise H.

    Research on the characteristics of women in non-traditional fields, e.g., medicine, has yielded complex information in terms of adherence to sex-role stereotypes. To determine whether students' attitudes toward helping and achieving followed sex-role typing and were different at various stages in medical school, 384 male and female oncology…

  11. Contraceptive knowledge and attitudes among women seeking induced abortion in Kathmandu, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Berin, Emilia; Sundell, Micaela; Karki, Chanda; Brynhildsen, Jan; Hammar, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Objective To map the knowledge about and attitudes toward birth control methods among women in Kathmandu, Nepal, and to compare the results between women seeking an induced abortion and a control group. Method This was a cross-sectional cohort study with matched controls. Women aged 15–49 years seeking medical care at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Kathmandu Medical College were included and interviewed. A case was defined as a woman who sought an elective medical or surgical abortion. A control was defined as a woman who sought medical care at the outpatient department or had already been admitted to the ward for reasons other than elective abortion. A questionnaire developed for the study – dealing with different demographic characteristics as well as knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives – was filled out based on the interview. Results A total of 153 women were included: 64 women seeking an abortion and 89 controls. Women seeking an abortion had been pregnant more times than the control group and were more likely to have been informed about contraceptives. Women with higher education were less likely to seek an abortion than women with lower education. There was no significant difference in knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives between cases and controls. The women considered highest possible effectiveness to be the most important feature when deciding on a birth control method. Conclusion Women seeking abortion in Kathmandu had shorter education and a history of more pregnancies and deliveries than women in the control group. Education and counseling on sex and reproduction as well as on contraceptive methods probably need to be improved in Nepal to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Attitudes about contraceptives need to be further investigated to develop better and more effective methods to educate women about family planning in order to increase reproductive health. PMID:24672261

  12. Women's rights, domestic violence, and recourse seeking in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Bates, Lisa M; Islam, Farzana

    2008-03-01

    This article seeks to deepen understanding of the reasons that abused women in a resource-poor rural setting seek recourse so seldom and with so little success. Data from in-depth interviews and group discussions are used to explore the range of responses to domestic violence and to examine barriers to recourse seeking. Findings illustrate how the combination of poverty and gender inequality, inequities in the legal framework, and patriarchal attitudes and corruption in both formal and informal institutions at the local level discourage abused women from seeking recourse and decrease the likelihood of a favorable outcome when they do. PMID:18292373

  13. Medical women of the West.

    PubMed Central

    Scully, A L

    1988-01-01

    The presence in the West of women physicians with degrees from regular medical schools spans a period of approximately 130 years. Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania graduated many of these early women physicians. The first woman medical graduate of a western school was Lucy M. Field Wanzer, who finished in 1876 at the Department of Medicine, University of California in San Francisco. Soon thereafter, schools that would become Stanford University and the Oregon Health Sciences University schools of medicine, as well as the newly founded University of Southern California, were contributing to the pool of women physicians. The University of Michigan Medical School, the first coeducational state medical school, also educated some of the western women physicians, who by 1910 numbered about 155. This regional account of the progress of women physicians as they strove to become an integral part of the profession emphasizes the familiar themes of altruism, ingenuity, and perseverance that characterized their efforts. Images PMID:3074578

  14. Abortion-seeking behaviour among Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Sedgh, Gilda; Oye-Adeniran, Boniface A; Adewole, Isaac F; Hussain, Rubina; Singh, Susheela

    2008-03-01

    This study used data from a community-based survey to examine women's experiences of abortion in Nigeria. Fourteen percent of respondents reported that they had ever tried to terminate a pregnancy, and 10% had obtained an abortion. The majority of women who sought an abortion did so early in the pregnancy. Forty-two percent of women who obtained an abortion used the services of a non-professional provider, a quarter experienced complications and 9% sought treatment for complications from their abortions. Roughly half of the women who obtained an abortion used a method other than D&C or MVA. The abortion prevalence and conditions under which women sought abortions varied by women's socio-demographic characteristics. Because abortion is illegal in Nigeria except to save the woman's life, many women take significant risks to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Reducing the incidence of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion can significantly impact the reproductive health of women in Nigeria. PMID:17711597

  15. Women in Science Seek Equal Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoagland, K. Elaine

    1977-01-01

    Women scientists met to make policy recommendations on issues related to the participation of women in scientific research. The group suggested programs that would reduce sex-role stereo-typing at the lower educational levels as a way to prevent the wastage of talent that they feel now occurs in the sciences. (Author/MA)

  16. Understanding why women seek abortions in the US

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current political climate with regards to abortion in the US, along with the economic recession may be affecting women’s reasons for seeking abortion, warranting a new investigation into the reasons why women seek abortion. Methods Data for this study were drawn from baseline quantitative and qualitative data from the Turnaway Study, an ongoing, five-year, longitudinal study evaluating the health and socioeconomic consequences of receiving or being denied an abortion in the US. While the study has followed women for over two full years, it relies on the baseline data which were collected from 2008 through the end of 2010. The sample included 954 women from 30 abortion facilities across the US who responded to two open ended questions regarding the reasons why they wanted to terminate their pregnancy approximately one week after seeking an abortion. Results Women’s reasons for seeking an abortion fell into 11 broad themes. The predominant themes identified as reasons for seeking abortion included financial reasons (40%), timing (36%), partner related reasons (31%), and the need to focus on other children (29%). Most women reported multiple reasons for seeking an abortion crossing over several themes (64%). Using mixed effects multivariate logistic regression analyses, we identified the social and demographic predictors of the predominant themes women gave for seeking an abortion. Conclusions Study findings demonstrate that the reasons women seek abortion are complex and interrelated, similar to those found in previous studies. While some women stated only one factor that contributed to their desire to terminate their pregnancies, others pointed to a myriad of factors that, cumulatively, resulted in their seeking abortion. As indicated by the differences we observed among women’s reasons by individual characteristics, women seek abortion for reasons related to their circumstances, including their socioeconomic status, age, health, parity and

  17. Exploring University Students' Online Information Seeking about Prescription Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhalaf, Ahmad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    This study explored university students' information seeking behaviors related to prescription medication (PM) information. Specifically, it examined the different sources students use for PM information, their use and perceptions of online sources, the types of PM information they seek, their concerns about, and methods they apply to verify the…

  18. A comparison of risk factors for women seeking labiaplasty compared to those not seeking labiaplasty.

    PubMed

    Veale, David; Eshkevari, Ertimiss; Ellison, Nell; Costa, Ana; Robinson, Dudley; Kavouni, Angelica; Cardozo, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with the desire for labiaplasty. We compared 55 women seeking labiaplasty with 70 women in a comparison group who were not seeking labiaplasty. Measures administered included the Perception of Appearance and Competency Related Teasing Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Disgust Scale Revised, and the Genital Appearance Satisfaction scale with open-ended questions about their genitalia. Approximately a third of the labiaplasty group recalled specific negative comments in the past towards their labia, a proportion significantly greater than the three per cent in the comparison group. Participants reporting genital teasing also showed higher Genital Appearance Satisfaction scores than those who were not teased. However, women seeking labiaplasty were, compared to the comparison group, no more likely to have a history of neglect or abuse during childhood. There was no difference between the groups on disgust sensitivity or the perception of being teased in the past about their competence or appearance in general. PMID:24239491

  19. Indications for Seeking a Medical Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodrich, David L.; Kaplan, Allen M.

    2006-01-01

    Recognizing barriers to academic success and full student development, some of which are medical in nature, is a primary task of school psychologists. Expanding biomedical information compels school-based psychologists to collaborate with medical professionals when their input can clarify diagnostic issues and expand treatment choices. This…

  20. Cognitive factors influencing women to seek care during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M J; Ewigman, B; Campbell, J; Benfer, R; Furbee, L; Zweig, S

    1991-08-01

    To assess the relationship of cognitive factors to a pregnant woman's decision to seek prenatal care, a semi-structured interview instrument was administered to 30 women soon after they were seen for care. A content analysis of interview transcripts was performed to identify variables affecting the decision to seek care. Variables were coded numerically, and those correlated with number of weeks gestation at first visit for pregnancy care were entered into a stepwise linear multiple regression model. Three variables accounted for 74% of the variance in the week of gestation at which pregnancy care began. Women who desired the pregnancy, wished confirmation of the pregnancy, and experienced pregnancy-related symptoms tended to seek care earlier. Results were discussed in terms of the usefulness of this integration of quantitative and qualitative methods for the study of factors related to seeking pregnancy care and the need to consider cognitive factors when designing programs to improve the delivery of prenatal care. PMID:1936719

  1. Treatment decision-making and information-seeking preferences in women with pelvic floor disorders

    PubMed Central

    Raker, Christina A.; Myers, Deborah L.; Clark, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis The Autonomy Preference Index (API) and Control Preferences Scale (CPS) measure information-seeking and decision-making preferences. Our objective was to validate these scales in women with pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) and identify variables associated with decision-making preferences. Methods Women seeking care for PFDs completed the API and the CPS. Psychometric properties were determined. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of information-seeking and decision-making preferences. Results One hundred ten women were recruited. Both scales demonstrated good psychometric properties (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.5 to 0.7; Cronbach’s alpha = 0.8 for the API, and r=−0.3 between the API and CPS). Based on scores, women had strong preferences to be well informed, but were more neutral in their decision-making preferences. In multivariable analyses, higher education levels were associated with a stronger desire for seeking medical information. Conclusions Women seeking care for PFDs vary in their preferences for participating in treatment decisions. PMID:20424822

  2. Interpersonal Violence Among Women Seeking Welfare: Unraveling Lives

    PubMed Central

    Lown, E. Anne; Schmidt, Laura A.; Wiley, James

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. Exposure to violence is a widespread problem among women who receive welfare benefits. Research has focused on partner violence among women with children on Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), ignoring low-income women without dependent children who are eligible for General Assistance (GA). Methods. We report findings from a survey of 1235 women seeking TANF (N=1095) and GA (N=140) throughout a California county. Results. Estimates of recent physical, sexual, and severe violence were high in both populations. However, the highest rates occurred among women without children seeking GA, suggesting that they are at higher risk for sexual violence and more severe forms of physical violence, especially from intimate partners. This increased risk is partly accounted for by the co-occurrence of other serious health and social problems. In multivariate analyses, past-year violence was associated with substance use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5, 2.9), recent homelessness (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4, 2.6), family fragmentation including divorce or separation (AOR=3.1, 95% CI 1.8, 5.2), or foster care involvement (AOR=2.2, 95% CI=1.1, 4.5) Conclusions. Welfare reform created TANF programs to address domestic violence. Women seeking GA may need similar services because of the high prevalence of violence. PMID:16809602

  3. Care Seeking Patterns Among Women Who Have Experienced Gender-Based Violence in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Sonya; Seritan, Andreea L; Miller, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    This study explored patterns of abuse and care seeking among women victims of gender-based violence (GBV) in Afghanistan. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 Afghan women (M age = 19 years) living in a shelter for victims of GBV. Interviews were analyzed thematically. Participants reported experiencing multiple forms of abuse. The majority received medical treatment for abuse-related health concerns. However, less than half reported abuse to health care providers or were asked by health care providers about the context of their injuries. Strategies to improve health care responses to GBV are needed to ensure safety and support for Afghan women. PMID:26681300

  4. Domestic violence against women seeking induced abortion in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiuling; Guo, Sufang; Qu, Chuanyan

    2005-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence, type and severity of domestic violence (DV), and determine the factors related to DV among women seeking induced abortion in China. A total of 1215 women seeking induced abortion were interviewed. The results show that the prevalence of DV among participants was 22.6%. The violence included 18.1% sexual abuse, 7.8% physical abuse and 3.0% emotional abuse. Among abused women, 46 (16.8%) experienced violence frequently; 4.4% experienced three types of violence (sexual, physical and emotional violence). The number of times of having induced abortion in the abused group was significantly higher than that in the nonabused group (p<.001). There is statistically significant association between the occurrence of DV and relevant factors including fear of partner, quarreling with partner, partner's economic control, receiving the cold shoulder from partner (p<.001, OR 1.8-2.5). PMID:16022850

  5. Personality, attrition and weight loss in treatment seeking women with obesity.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, R; Calugi, S; Compare, A; El Ghoch, M; Petroni, M L; Colombari, S; Minniti, A; Marchesini, G

    2015-10-01

    Studies on small samples or in single units applying specific treatment programmes found an association between some personality traits and attrition and weight loss in individuals treated for obesity. We aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment personality traits were associated with weight loss outcomes in the general population of women with obesity. Attrition and weight loss outcomes after 12 months were measured in 634 women with obesity (mean age, 48; body mass index (BMI), 37.8 kg m(-2)) seeking treatment at eight Italian medical centres, applying different medical/cognitive behavioural programmes. Personality traits were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), eating disorder features with the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ). Within the 12-month observation period, 32.3% of cases were lost to follow-up. After adjustment for demographic confounders and the severity of eating disorders, no TCI personality traits were significantly associated with attrition, while low scores of the novelty seeking temperament scale remained significantly associated with weight loss ≥ 10% (odds ratio, 0.983; 95% confidence interval, 0.975-0.992). Additional adjustment for education and job did not change the results. We conclude that personality does not systematically influence attrition in women with obesity enrolled into weight loss programmes in the community, whereas an association is maintained between novelty seeking and weight loss outcome. Studies adapting obesity interventions on the basis of individual novelty seeking scores might be warranted to maximize the results on body weight. PMID:26256916

  6. African American Women's Beliefs, Coping Behaviors, and Barriers to Seeking Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Earlise C.; Clark, Le Ondra; Heidrich, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about African American women's beliefs about mental illness. In this qualitative study we employed the Common Sense Model (CSM) to examine African American women's beliefs about mental illness, coping behaviors, barriers to treatment seeking, and variations in beliefs, coping, and barriers associated with aging. Fifteen community-dwelling African American women participated in individual interviews. Dimensional analysis, guided by the CSM, showed that participants believed general, culturally specific, and age-related factors can cause mental illness. They believed mental illness is chronic, with negative health outcomes. Participants endorsed the use of prayer and counseling as coping strategies, but were ambivalent about the use of medications. Treatment-seeking barriers included poor access to care, stigma, and lack of awareness of mental illness. Few age differences were found in beliefs, coping behaviors, and barriers. Practice and research implications are discussed. PMID:19843967

  7. Unsuccessful prior attempts to terminate pregnancy among women seeking first trimester abortion at registered facilities in Bihar and Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Zavier, A J Francis; Kalyanwala, Shveta; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J

    2013-03-01

    Many abortion seekers in India attempt to induce abortion on their own, by accessing oral medication/preparations from a chemist without a prescription or from an unauthorized provider, and present at registered facilities if these attempts fail. However, little is known about those whose efforts fail or the ways in which programmes and policies may address the needs of such women. This paper explores the experiences of women whose efforts failed, including their socio-demographic profile, the preparations they used, and the extent to which they experienced serious complications, delayed seeking care from an authorized provider, or delayed abortion until the second trimester of pregnancy. Data come from a larger study assessing the feasibility of the provision of medical abortion by non-physicians; a total of 3394 women who sought medical abortion from selected clinical settings in Bihar and Jharkhand between 2008 and 2010 constitute the sample. Prior to visiting the clinic, nearly a third of these women (31%) had made at least one unsuccessful attempt to terminate the unwanted pregnancy by using a range of oral medications/preparations available over-the-counter in medical shops. Logistic regression analysis suggests that educated women (OR 1.6-1.7), those from urban areas (OR 6.2) and those from Bihar (OR 1.6) were significantly more likely than women with no education, rural women and those from Jharkhand to have used such medication. Also notable is that the average gestational age of women who had made a previous attempt to terminate their pregnancy was almost identical to that of women who had not done so when they presented at the registered facility. These findings may inform policies and programmes that seek to identify and reduce the potential risks associated with unauthorized abortion-seeking practices, and highlight the need to fully inform women, chemists and providers about oral medications, what works and what does not, and how effective medication

  8. Women's experiences with medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Heather M; Biswas, Kamal; Griffin, Risa; Menzel, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Menstrual regulation has been legal in Bangladesh since 1974, but the use of medication for menstrual regulation is new. In this study, we sought to understand women's experiences using medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with rural and urban women between December 2013 and February 2014. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computer recorded and coded for analysis. The majority of women in our study had had positive experiences with medication for menstrual regulation and successful outcomes, regardless of whether they obtained their medication from medicine sellers/pharmacies, doctors or clinics. Women were strongly influenced by health providers when deciding which method to use. There is a need to educate not only women of reproductive age, but also communities as a whole, about medication for menstrual regulation, with a particular emphasis on cost and branding the medication. Continued efforts to improve counselling by providers about the dose, medication and side-effects of medication for menstrual regulation, along with education of the community about medication as an option for menstrual regulation, will help to de-stigmatise the procedure and the women who seek it. PMID:26529099

  9. The importance of job characteristics in determining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population, a longitudinal survey study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The working population is ageing, which will increase the number of workers with chronic health complaints, and, as a consequence, the number of workers seeking health care. It is very important to understand factors that influence medical care-seeking in order to control the costs. I will investigate which work characteristics independently attribute to later care-seeking in order to find possibilities to prevent unnecessary or inefficient care-seeking. Methods Data were collected in a longitudinal two-wave study (n = 2305 workers). The outcome measures were visits (yes/no and frequency) to a general practitioner (GP), a physical therapist, a medical specialist and/or a mental health professional. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out separately for men and women for workers with health complaints. Results In the Dutch working population, personal, health, and work characteristics, but not sickness absence, were associated with later care-seeking. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the frequency of visits to the GP. Women experience more health complaints and seek health care more often than men. For women, experiencing a work handicap (health complaints that impede work performance) was the only work characteristic associated with more care-seeking (GP). For men, work characteristics that led to less care-seeking were social support by colleagues (GP frequency), high levels of decision latitude (GP frequency) and high levels of social support by the supervisor (medical specialist). Other work characteristics led to more care-seeking: high levels of engagement (GP), full time work (GP frequency) and experiencing a work handicap (physical therapist). Conclusions We can conclude that personal and health characteristics are most important when explaining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking

  10. Perceived discrimination, socioeconomic disadvantage and refraining from seeking medical treatment in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Wamala, Sarah; Merlo, Juan; Boström, Gunnel; Hogstedt, Christer

    2007-01-01

    Study objective To analyse the association between perceived discrimination and refraining from seeking required medical treatment and the contribution of socioeconomic disadvantage. Design and setting Data from the Swedish National Survey of Public Health 2004 were used for analysis. Respondents were asked whether they had refrained from seeking required medical treatment during the past 3 months. Perceived discrimination was based on whether respondents reported that they had been treated in a way that made them feel humiliated (due to ethnicity/race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, age or disability). The Socioeconomic Disadvantage Index (SDI) was developed to measure economic deprivation (social welfare beneficiary, being unemployed, financial crisis and lack of cash reserves). Participants Swedish population‐based survey of 14 736 men and 17 115 women. Main results Both perceived discrimination and socioeconomic disadvantage were independently associated with refraining from seeking medical treatment. Experiences of frequent discrimination even without any socioeconomic disadvantage were associated with three to nine‐fold increased odds for refraining from seeking medical treatment. A combination of both frequent discrimination and severe SDI was associated with a multiplicative effect on refraining from seeking medical treatment, but this effect was statistically more conclusive among women (OR = 11.6, 95% CI 8.1 to 16.6; Synergy Index (SI)  = 2.0 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.2)) than among men (OR = 12, 95% CI 7.7 to 18.7; SI = 1.6 (95% CI 1.3 to 2.1)). Conclusions The goal of equitable access to healthcare services cannot be achieved without public health strategies that confront and tackle discrimination in society and specifically in the healthcare setting. PMID:17435207

  11. Survey of the Situation of Infertile Women Seeking In Vitro Fertilization Treatment in China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xuan; Wang, Gongxian; Liu, Sisun; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Fang; Qiu, Yun; Huang, Xiaojin

    2013-01-01

    Background. In previous studies, people's knowledge of reproductive health and infertile women's psychological states was surveyed in several countries. However, there has been limited information concerning the psychological states of infertile women seeking treatment and the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in China. Methods. Infertile women were asked to complete short questionnaires on the day that their oocytes were retrieved; these questionnaires covered the durations of their infertility, levels of education, sources of pressure, and psychological states. Data concerning IVF outcomes were provided by embryologists and clinicians. The correlations between the duration of infertility and educational level, psychological state and education level, and psychological state and outcome of IVF were analyzed in the cohort study. Results. The duration of infertility in more than half of the females was longer than 5 years. Compared with less-educated women, women with higher levels of education sought treatment earlier and their rates of depressive symptoms were lower. There is an association between negative emotions and outcome of IVF. Conclusions. The survey of the situations of infertile women seeking IVF treatment in China indicates the importance of popularizing knowledge concerning reproductive health. Improving medical conditions, reducing the costs of treatment, and developing social culture will aid in relieving the stress of infertile women and improving assisted reproductive treatment. PMID:24369006

  12. Romance and help-seeking among college women: "it hurts so much to care".

    PubMed

    Riessman, C K; Whalen, M H; Frost, R O; Morgenthau, J E

    1991-01-01

    Although previous research shows that adult women in intimate relations tend to enjoy better health than women without partners, this study finds the opposite tends to be true for late adolescent women. We followed a college entering class prospectively for 4 years and measured romantic involvement and various aspects of health and illness behavior in a questionnaire. Health service use was determined from the medical record, and disaggregated into distress and health maintenance visits, as well as visits expressly for psychological counseling. First year students who were romantically involved had more physical symptoms, more medical visits, but not more counseling visits, than non-involved women. At senior year, they continued to have more health maintenance, more counseling, but not more distress visits, and they tended to experience greater interference in social role performance due to illness when compared to non-involved women. When several mediators of the relationship between romantic involvement and health service use were controlled-number and intensity of physical symptoms, sexual activity, stress in the relationship, and social network characteristics--the differences persisted. Romance appears to motivate help-seeking among late adolescent women for reasons that are not easily explained empirically. Recent work on adolescent women's development offers theoretical leads that can guide future investigations. PMID:1807069

  13. Women's Decisions to Not Seek Formal Help for Partner Violence: A Comparison of Intimate Terrorism and Situational Couple Violence.

    PubMed

    Leone, Janel M; Lape, Megan E; Xu, Yili

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the help-seeking decisions of low-income women (n = 389) in two types of physically violent heterosexual relationships-intimate terrorism (i.e., physical violence used within a general pattern of coercive control) and situationally violent (i.e., physical violence that is not part of a general pattern of coercive control). Intimate terrorism victims were significantly more likely than situational couple violence victims to cite fear as a reason for not seeking help from the police, medical centers, and counselors/agencies. In contrast, situational couple violence victims more often said that they did not need help. Regression analyses also indicate that additional violence-related factors predict women's help-seeking. Findings emphasize the importance of distinguishing between types of male partner violence and recognizing women's exertions of personal choice and perceptions of dangerousness when examining their decisions about seeking help from service providers. PMID:24366964

  14. Predictors of Care Seeking in Women with Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Minassian, Vatche A; Yan, Xiaowei; Lichtenfeld, Marc J; Sun, Haiyan; Stewart, Walter F

    2012-01-01

    Aims To determine predictors of health care utilization in women with urinary incontinence (UI) from the population to specialty care. Methods The General Longitudinal Overactive Bladder Evaluation – UI is a population-based study on the natural history of UI in women ≥ 40 years of age. Prevalence of UI was estimated by using the bladder health survey (BHS). Survey data were linked with electronic health records (EHR) to examine factors associated with a clinical UI diagnosis using logistic regression. Risk factors analyzed included: UI symptoms, subtypes, bother, severity, duration and effect on quality of life, and demographic and other health characteristics. All statistical tests were two-sided with a p-value < 0.05 being significant. Results The overall prevalence of any UI based on responses to the BHS was 1,618/4064 (40%). Of the 1,618 women with UI, there were only 398 (25%) women with EHR (clinical) diagnosis of UI. Women with UI versus those without UI were more likely to be have a BMI >25kg/m2 (70% versus 58%), more likely to be parous (91% versus 87%) and college educated (54% versus 46%), P<0.001. After adjusting for confounders in the model, variables significantly associated with clinical UI diagnosis included: older age (OR=1.96), higher parity (> 1 birth) (OR=1.76), higher urgency UI (OR=1.08), adaptive behavior (OR=1.2), and UI bother scores (OR=1.01), as well as more frequent outpatient visits (OR=1.03), P<0.05. Conclusions UI is a highly prevalent condition with only a minority of women seeking care. Factors associated with health care utilization include older age, parity (1+), number of doctor visits, urgency UI subtype, UI bother and impact on behavior. PMID:22378605

  15. Help-Seeking in a National Sample of Victimized Latino Women: The Influence of Victimization Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schally, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine formal and informal help-seeking responses to interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino women. In addition, an examination of help-seeking by victimization type was undertaken. Data came from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study that obtained help-seeking rates among a victimized…

  16. Online women-seeking-women personal ads and the deployment of "tomboy" identities.

    PubMed

    Farr, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This article examines online women-seeking-women (WSW) personal ads that engage with tomboy identities and ideologies. This research demonstrates the importance of body and physicality among lesbian personal ads and the diversity of women using online personal ads. The meaning of "tomboy" in the language of WSW personal ads suggests major themes of use including: as an intermediate identity distinct within a butch/femme dichotomy, as a tempering agent for traditional femininity, as a fluid construct of personality, physicality, and body, as an understood descriptor of a particular aesthetic or physicality, and as synonymous with butch. To be a tomboy is to be simultaneously understood as a social stereotype, but also as complex, fluid, and of multiple meanings. PMID:21973069

  17. Women Faculty Seeking Tenure and Parenthood: Lessons from Previous Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armenti, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    This research explores the problems that women professors encounter when combining the pursuit of tenure with having and raising children. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 women academics at one Canadian university. These women believe that engaging in childbearing/childrearing practices prior to obtaining tenure is detrimental to their…

  18. Contraception in women with medical problems

    PubMed Central

    Dhanjal, Mandish K

    2008-01-01

    Women with medical disease have a higher incidence of maternal mortality compared with healthy women, with cardiac disease now being the most common cause of maternal death in the UK. A handful of medical conditions exist where pregnancy is not recommended due to mortality rates approaching 50%. It is imperative that such women have the most reliable methods of contraception available. Contraceptive agents may themselves affect medical disease, or may interact with medications used by such women. There may be a range of contraceptive agents suitable for each medical condition. The contraceptive selected should be tailored to suit the individual. The following points should be considered when deciding on the most appropriate contraceptive agent: efficacy, thrombotic risk (oestrogen containing contraceptives), arterial risks (oestrogen containing contraceptives), infective risk (e.g. insertion of intrauterine device [IUD]), vagal stimulation (e.g. insertion of IUD, ESSURE®), bleeding risks with patients on anticoagulants, interaction with concomitant drugs, effects of anaesthesia and ease of use. This review aims to cover the different contraceptive agents available and the best ones to use for certain medical illnesses. PMID:27582790

  19. GENDER-RELATED FACTORS INFLUENCING WOMEN'S HEALTH SEEKING FOR TUBERCULOSIS CARE IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Oshi, Daniel C; Oshi, Sarah N; Alobu, Isaac N; Ukwaja, Kingsley N

    2016-01-01

    This is a qualitative, descriptive study to explore gender-related factors that influence health seeking for tuberculosis (TB) care by women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. In-depth interviews based on interview guides were conducted with participants selected through purposive sampling in communities in the state. The results show that gender relations prohibit women from seeking care for symptoms of TB and other diseases outside their community without their husbands' approval. Gender norms on intra-household resource ownership and control divest women of the power to allocate money for health care seeking. Yet, the same norms place the burden of spending on health care for minor illnesses on women, and such repeated, out-of-pocket expenditures on health care at the village level make it difficult for women to save money for use for health care seeking for major illnesses such as TB, which, even if subsidized, still involves hidden costs such as transport fare. The opening hours of TB clinics do not favour their use by most women as they are open when women are usually engaged in income-generating activities. Attending the clinics may therefore entail opportunity costs for many women. People with chronic, infectious diseases such as TB and HIV are generally stigmatized and avoided. Women suffer more stigma and discrimination than men. Stigma and discrimination make women reluctant to seek care for TB until the disease is advanced. Policies and programmes aimed at increasing women's access to TB services should not only take these gender norms that disempower women into explicit consideration but also include interventions to address them. The programmes should integrate flexible opening hours for TB treatment units, including introduction of evening consultation for women. Interventions should also integrate anti-stigma strategies led by the community members themselves. PMID:26627885

  20. Predictors of seeking emergency medical help during overdose events in a provincial naloxone distribution programme: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Graham; Amlani, Ashraf; Buxton, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to identify factors that may be associated with help-seeking by witnesses during overdoses where naloxone is administered. Setting Overdose events occurred in and were reported from the five regional health authorities across British Columbia, Canada. Naloxone administration forms completed following overdose events were submitted to the British Columbia Take Home Naloxone programme. Participants All 182 reported naloxone administration events, reported by adult men and women and occurring between 31 August 2012 and 31 March 2015, were considered for inclusion in the analysis. Of these, 18 were excluded: 10 events which were reported by the person who overdosed, and 8 events for which completed forms did not indicate whether or not emergency medical help was sought. Primary and secondary outcome measures Seeking emergency medical help (calling 911), as reported by participants, was the sole outcome measure of this analysis. Results Medical help was sought (emergency services—911 called) in 89 (54.3%) of 164 overdoses where naloxone was administered. The majority of administration events occurred in private residences (50.6%) and on the street (23.4%), where reported rates of calling 911 were 27.5% and 81.1%, respectively. Overdoses occurring on the street (compared to private residence) were significantly associated with higher odds of calling 911 in multivariate analysis (OR=10.68; 95% CI 2.83 to 51.87; p<0.01), after adjusting for other variables. Conclusions Overdoses occurring on the street were associated with higher odds of seeking emergency medical help by responders. Further research is needed to determine if sex and stimulant use by the person who overdosed are associated with seeking emergency medical help. The results of this study will inform interventions within the British Columbia Take Home Naloxone programme and other jurisdictions to encourage seeking emergency medical help. PMID:27329442

  1. Women Empowerment and Its Relation with Health Seeking Behavior in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Mainuddin, AKM; Ara Begum, Housne; Rawal, Lal B.; Islam, Anwar; Shariful Islam, SM

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Over the last few decades, Bangladesh has made significant progress towards achieving targets for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and women empowerment. This study is aimed at identifying the levels and patterns of women empowerment in relation to health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 200 rural married women in Cox’s Bazar district in Bangladesh using multi stage sampling technique and face-to-face interview. Data was collected on socio-economic characteristics, proxy indicators for women empowerment in mobility and health seeking behavior related decision making. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify associations between women empowerment in relation to health seeking behavior on mobility and decision making, controlling the effect of other independent variables. Results: The results showed that only 12% women were empowered to decide on their own about seeking healthcare and 8.5% in healthcare seeking for their children. In multivariate analysis women empowerment in health seeking behavior was higher among age group 25-34 years (OR 1.76, [CI = 0.82-3.21]), women’s education, husband’s education, age at marriage > 18 years (OR 6.38, [CI = 0.98-4.21]) and women’s working status (OR 16.44, [CI = 0.79-2.71]). Conclusion: Women empowerment enhances their decision-making authority regarding health seeking behavior. Acknowledging and adopting the implications of these findings are essential for an integrated health and development strategy for Bangladesh and achieving the MDGs. PMID:26175761

  2. Cultural Values, Counseling Stigma, and Intentions to Seek Counseling among Asian American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miville, Marie L.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2007-01-01

    The authors explored the extent to which Asian American college women's perceived stigma about counseling mediated the relationship between their adherence to Asian cultural values and intentions to seek counseling, Participants, 201 Asian American college women (age range = 18-24 years), completed measures of Asian cultural values, perceived…

  3. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja

    2015-01-01

    Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. Conclusion. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high. PMID:26078881

  4. Sexual sensation seeking in Spanish young men and women with different sexual orientations.

    PubMed

    Gil-Llario, María Dolores; Morell-Mengual, Vicente; Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Giménez-García, Cristina; Castro-Calvo, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the relation of sexual orientation and gender to sexual sensation seeking. Participants were 382 individuals (200 men, 182 women) between 17 and 29 years old who completed the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale. Of the 382 participants, 52.46% self-reported heterosexual orientation, and 47.64% self-reported homosexual orientation. The results showed differences with Sexual Sensation Seeking being more frequent among heterosexuals and men. There were no differences between heterosexual and homosexual men. Heterosexual women had higher sexual sensation seeking scores than did homosexual women. These results and their possible implications for the effective development of prevention and intervention programs in affective-sexual education are discussed. PMID:24918266

  5. A theory-based approach to understanding suicide risk in shelter-seeking women.

    PubMed

    Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Smith, Phillip N

    2015-04-01

    Women seeking shelter from intimate partner violence are at an increased risk for suicide ideation and attempts compared to women in the general population. Control-based violence, which is common among shelter-seeking women, may play a pivotal role in the development of suicide ideation and attempts. Current risk assessment and management practices for shelter-seeking women are limited by the lack of an empirically grounded understanding of increased risk in this population. We argue that in order to more effectively promote risk assessment and management, an empirically supported theory that is sensitive to the experiences of shelter-seeking women is needed. Such a theory-driven approach has the benefits of identifying and prioritizing targetable areas for intervention. Here, we review the evidence for the link between coercive control and suicide ideation and attempts from the perspective of Baumeister's escape theory of suicide. This theory has the potential to explain the role of coercive control in the development of suicide ideation and eventual attempts in shelter-seeking women. Implications for suicide risk assessment and prevention in domestic violence shelters are discussed. PMID:24415137

  6. Help-seeking rates for intimate partner violence (IPV) among Canadian immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Ilene; Forte, Tonia; Mont, Janice Du; Romans, Sarah; Cohen, Marsha M

    2006-09-01

    We examined rates of help seeking for intimate partner violence (IPV) among recent (0-9 years in Canada) and non-recent (10+ years in Canada) immigrant women. Data from a national, cross-sectional, telephone survey were used. Help-seeking variables included disclosure of IPV, reporting IPV to police, use of social services subsequent to IPV, and barriers to social service use. Recent immigrant women, compared with non-recent immigrant women, were significantly more likely to report IPV to police and less likely to use social services. Findings have important implications for prevention and detection of IPV in immigrant communities and in future research. PMID:16893805

  7. Handling of medical knowledge in sport: Athletes' medical opinions, information seeking behaviours and knowledge sources.

    PubMed

    Gerbing, Kim-Kristin; Thiel, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    Medical care in sport comprises a variety of treatments, from scientifically proven biomedicine to complementary and alternative medicine. Information and knowledge about these diverse treatment options is spread by different sources. Thus, athletes encounter information of varying content, quality and background. This exploratory pilot study addresses athletes' medical opinions, their health-related information seeking behaviour and the knowledge sources they utilise. Questionnaires were used to examine n = 110 German athletes (n(male) = 69, n(female) = 41; mean(age) = 24.28 ± 4.97 years) at high performance levels (national team and/or European championship and/or World championship n = 22; first national league and/or German championship n = 51, second national league and/or State championship n = 37) from various Olympic sports. A cluster analysis regarding the athletes' attitudes towards sport medicine exhibited four different types of athletes: 'the autonomous athlete', 'the open-minded athlete', 'the functionalistic athlete' and 'the conservative athlete'. In general, our findings show that the most used and trusted information sources are physicians and physiotherapists. However, medical information is trusted the most if it is experience- and field-tested, and comes from the athletes' sport-specific network. Our findings also suggest that professional medical knowledge management in competitive sport is needed. PMID:25563758

  8. Treatment seeking, vaginal discharge and psychosocial distress among women in urban Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Kostick, Kristin M; Schensul, Stephen L; Jadhav, Kalpita; Singh, Rajendra; Bavadekar, Amruta; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2010-09-01

    Vaginal discharge (safed pani in Hindi, meaning "white water") is one of the leading symptoms for which women in India seek care. Treatment-seeking for safed pani is disproportionately high among poor women, representing a physical, emotional and financial burden for low-income families. Safed pani is only rarely indicative of a reproductive tract or sexually transmitted infection. The discrepancy between symptom reports and observed pathology has led some researchers to characterize safed pani as a culturally based expression of more generalized negative life situation. Data are drawn from two prevention intervention studies (2002-2006 and 2007-2012) conducted in economically marginal communities in Mumbai. Results show that husbands as problem generators and spousal abusers and women's greater perceived empowerment and reported tension are significantly associated with safed pani. These results provide the basis for identifying women at greater risk for psychosocial distress and providing supports at the locations at which they seek treatment. PMID:20533080

  9. Understanding barriers to Malaysian women with breast cancer seeking help.

    PubMed

    Norsa'adah, Bachok; Rahmah, Mohd Amin; Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Knight, Aishah

    2012-01-01

    Delay in help-seeking behaviour which is potentially preventable has a major effect on the prognosis and survival of patients with breast cancer. The objective of this study was to explore reasons for delay in seeking help among patients with breast cancer from the East Coast of peninsular Malaysia. A qualitative study using face- to-face in-depth interview was carried out involving 12 breast cancer patients who had been histo-pathologically confirmed and were symptomatic on presentation. Respondents were selected purposely based on their history of delayed consultation, diagnosis or treatment. All were of Malay ethnicity and the age range was 26-67 years. Three were in stage ll, seven in stage lll and two in stage lV. At the time of interview, all except one respondent had accepted treatment. The range of consultation time was 0.2-72.2 months with a median of 1.7 months, diagnosis time was 1.4-95.8 months( median 5.4 months )and treatment time was 0-33.3 months (median 1.2 months). The themes derived from the study were poor knowledge or awareness of breast cancer, fear of cancer consequences, beliefs in complementary alternative medicine, sanction by others, other priorities, denial of disease, attitude of wait and see and health care system weakness. Help-seeking behaviour was influenced by a complex interaction of cognitive, environmental, beliefs, culture and psycho-social factors. Breast cancer awareness and psychological counselling are recommended for all patients with breast symptoms to prevent delay in seeking clinical help. PMID:23098462

  10. Reproductive health care seeking behavior among urban slum women of Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Elizabeth, Adhapillil Mathai; Khan, Abdul Mazeed; Rashid, Wahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The study tries to understand what are the dimensions of Reproductive Health care seeking behavior among the urban slum women in Delhi, their level of awareness and treatment seeking patterns? Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in one of the slum in south district of Delhi. 253 women of reproductive age group were selected by systematic random sampling. Interpersonal interview was conducted to seek information on the selected parameter. Results: Around three/fourth women had undergone for blood pressure check up, weight recording and stomach/abdomen check up during pregnancy. Only 39.9% received advice on avoiding intake of medicine during pregnancy. About 14.6% mentioned that at least 40 days rest were required for resuming daily routine activities after delivery. Thus majority of these slum women are ignorant about the importance of post natal care which was necessary for post delivery care of the women and her infant. Conclusion: The correct knowledge on the importance of ANC and PNC and various checkups need to be carried out during pregnancy and postnatal period needs to be imparted to these women. Thus, health education and health promotion campaigns are needed for bring changes in the existing health-seeking behaviors among urban slum women. PMID:27462629

  11. Partnered Decisions? U.S. Couples and Medical Help-Seeking for Infertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Katherine M.; Johnson, David R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined male partners' influence on the decision to seek medical help for infertility using the National Study of Fertility Barriers. Building upon an existing help-seeking framework, we incorporated characteristics of both partners from 219 heterosexual couples who had ever perceived a fertility problem. In logistic regression analyses, we…

  12. Intended care seeking for ovarian cancer symptoms among U.S. women.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Trivers, Katrina F; Stewart, Sherri L

    2016-06-01

    To investigate U.S. women's intended care seeking for symptoms associated with ovarian cancer, data from the 2012 HealthStyles Fall survey of U.S. adults were examined. Analyses were limited to women with no history of gynecologic cancer (N = 1726). Logistic regression models for intended care seeking within 2 weeks of symptom onset were developed. A minority of women recognized that unexplained pelvic or abdominal pain (29.9%), unexplained bloating (18.1%), and feeling full after eating a small amount of food (10.1%) can indicate ovarian cancer, and 31.1% mistakenly believed that the Papanicolaou (Pap) test screens for the disease. In the multivariate regression models, the most consistent, significant predictors (p < 0.01) of intended care seeking within 2 weeks of symptom onset were age (older women were more likely to seek care) and awareness that symptoms could signal ovarian cancer. Care seeking in response to ovarian cancer symptoms may be delayed among younger women and those who do not recognize the potential significance of symptoms. Raising awareness of ovarian cancer symptoms may promote early detection. However, educational efforts should emphasize that symptoms associated with ovarian cancer may also result from benign conditions. PMID:27419020

  13. The Epidemiology of Female Rape Victims Who Seek Immediate Medical Care: Temporal Trends in the Incidence of Sexual Assault and Acquaintance Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magid, David J.; Houry, Debra; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Ziller, Andrew; Soules, Michael R.; Jenny, Carole

    2004-01-01

    Women who seek medical care following sexual assault are usually evaluated and treated in an emergency department (ED). Therefore, EDs can be an important source of sexual assault surveillance data. The authors compared the incidence of sexual assault presenting for emergency care in a single county during July to November of 1974 and 1991.…

  14. Seeking Authenticity: Women and Learning in the Catholic Worker Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Marilyn McKinley; Taylor, Edward W.

    2007-01-01

    Oral history interviews form the basis of an investigation into both the context and the everyday actions that contributed to the learning environment for women within the Catholic Worker Movement during the 1930s and 1940s. Findings reveal that narrators (a) were grounded in a variety of learning environments including family, Catholic Church,…

  15. College Women: Eating Behaviors and Help-Seeking Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prouty, Anne M.; Protinsky, Howard O.; Canady, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Late adolescent college women (N=578) were surveyed regarding eating disorders. Participants found to have eating disorders were younger and more likely to be white, in a sorority, and Christian. Additionally, they were most likely to say that they would prefer a close friend to support them when dealing with disordered eating, followed by their…

  16. Seeking life balance: the perceptions of health of Cambodian women in resettlement.

    PubMed

    Catolico, Olivia

    2013-07-01

    This grounded theory study in California, United States was an inquiry into the perceptions of health of Cambodian women in resettlement. The sequelae of significant life trauma on the health of women who escaped political conflict have received little attention in the nursing literature. Thirty-nine Cambodian women were recruited through a social service organization and verbal referrals. Open-ended questions and a conversational approach to dialogue and data gathering facilitated the interview process. Women were interviewed at home or the local temple. Seeking life balance emerged as the core perspective of this study. The relationships between thematic categories of seeking life balance, patterns of knowing, and caring for self were salient. Outcomes of these interrelationships further moved women's health toward disharmony or harmony. The findings of this study are limited by sampling participants in a tightly networked community and may serve as a pilot for future research. PMID:23545697

  17. Stigma, shame and women's limited agency in help-seeking for intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Namy, Sophie; Nyoni, Joyce; Rweyemamu, Datius; Salvatory, Adrophina; Steven, Ester

    2016-01-01

    In Tanzania, 44% of women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime, but the majority never seeks help, and many never tell anyone about their experience. Even among the minority of women who seek support, only 10% access formal services. Our research explored the social and structural barriers that render Tanzanian women unable to exercise agency in this critical domain of their lives. We collected qualitative data in three regions of Tanzania through 104 key informant interviews with duty bearers and participatory focus groups with 96 male and female community members. The findings revealed numerous sociocultural barriers to help-seeking, including gendered social norms that accept IPV and impose stigma and shame upon survivors. Because IPV is highly normalised, survivors are silenced by their fear of social consequences, a fear reinforced by the belief that it is women's reporting of IPV that brings shame, rather than the perpetration of violence itself. Barriers to help-seeking curtail women's agency. Even women who reject IPV as a 'normal' practice are blocked from action by powerful social norms. These constraints deny survivors the support, services and justice they deserve and also perpetuate low reporting and inaccurate estimates of IPV prevalence. PMID:26156577

  18. Young Adults Seeking Medical Care: Do Race and Ethnicity Matter?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to medical care, National Health Interview Survey Does health insurance coverage differ by race and ethnicity for young ... having health insurance coverage. Definitions Terms related to health insurance Health insurance coverage: Health insurance is broadly defined ...

  19. Female circumcision: desperately seeking a space for women.

    PubMed

    Ladjali, M; Toubia, N

    1990-04-01

    Female Circumcision (FC) is "the total or partial cutting away of the female external genital organs." There are 3 types of FC: 1) Sunna where the foreskin of the clitoris is removed; 2) excision which involved removal of a part or all of the clitoris with a part or all of the labia minora; and 3) infibulation or pharaonic circumcision (the most severe type) which includes excision and removal of the labia majora only leaving a small hole to allow the exit of urine and menstrual fluid. FC carries the high risk of HIV infection because it is often practiced without anesthesia and with either a razor blade or a knife. The damages go beyond the physical--they include long-term side effects on women's physical and psychological health. The international battle against FC includes a series of legislative and political acts: 1) In 1946 the British Colonial government made one of the earliest efforts of its kind by making pharaonic circumcision in Sudan a felony and punishable by imprisonment; 2) In 1959 Egypt passed a law making circumcision illegal; 3) In 1977 the Special Committee of Non- Governmental Organizations on Human Rights of the United Nations in collaboration with WHO and UNICEF organized a sub-committee to investigate the status of women in 20 African countries and published a report; 4) In 1979 WHO held a conference in Sudan entitled "The Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children" whose outcomes were published in a report; 5) In 1980 WHO forbade the practice of FC; 6) In 1984 a Pan-African seminar was held in Dakar, Senegal that established the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Practices Affecting Women and Children (IAC); 7) In 1985 the UN Nairobi Conference on The Women's Decade passed resolutions against FC; 8) In 1988 the 39th Assembly of the WHO/Africa Region passed a resolution calling for the abolition of female sexual mutilation. Presidents of several African countries have condemned FC including Benin, Burkina Faso

  20. Quality of life and mental health among women with ovarian cancer: examining the role of emotional and instrumental social support seeking.

    PubMed

    Hill, Erin M

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of emotional and instrumental social support seeking in the quality of life (QOL) and mental health of women with ovarian cancer. Participants were recruited through the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and one hundred women took part in a mail questionnaire that collected information on their demographics, medical status, social support seeking, QOL and mental health including anxiety, depression and stress. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the influence of emotional and instrumental social support seeking on QOL and mental health. After controlling for remission status, greater emotional social support seeking was predictive of higher overall QOL, social/family QOL, functional QOL and lower depression scores. Instrumental social support seeking was not significant in the models. The results illustrate that social support seeking as a coping mechanism is an important consideration in the QOL and mental health of women with ovarian cancer. Future studies should examine the psychological and behavioral mediators of the relationship to further understand the QOL and mental health of women with ovarian cancer. PMID:26549407

  1. Sexual function and help seeking for urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pakgohar, Minoo; Sabetghadam, Shadi; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common condition, especially in middle-aged and older women. UI is known to affect sexual function. Many women with UI do not consult a doctor about their condition. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of sexual function and help seeking in postmenopausal women with urinary incontinence. This cross-sectional correlation study took place from March to May 2012. The subjects were selected by a clustered sampling method from various zones of Rasht (North of Iran). The data were collected using personal data forms, Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis, Incontinence Severity Index, and Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS17 at the significant level of P < .05 and then were compared by parametric and nonparametric tests. A total of 313 menopausal women aged 45 to 60 years (mean 52.9) were recruited for the study. The mean sexual function score was 31.07 ± 7.52. Only 27.3% of subjects seek care for urinary incontinence. There was a significant correlation between sexual function and help seeking. The results of this study indicate that there is a significant correlation between sexual function and help seeking in postmenopausal women who participated in the present study. Health-care professionals should pay more attention to sexual symptoms of UI and make patients aware of available treatments. PMID:26882204

  2. Information Needs and Information Seeking in Community Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogdill, Keith W.; Friedman, Charles P.; Jenkins, Carol G.; Mays, Brynn E.; Sharp, Michael C.

    2000-01-01

    Fifteen community-based primary care physician-preceptors were interviewed while working with and without a medical student concerning questions that had arisen that required further investigation. Follow-up indicated that preceptors generated fewer questions when students were present; the proportion of questions pursued also decreased when…

  3. Analyzing Traditional Medical Practitioners' Information-Seeking Behaviour Using Taylor's Information-Use Environment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatokun, Wole Michael; Ajagbe, Enitan

    2010-01-01

    This survey-based study examined the information-seeking behaviour of traditional medical practitioners using Taylor's information use model. Respondents comprised all 160 traditional medical practitioners that treat sickle cell anaemia. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. Frequency and percentage…

  4. Battered Women in Nonemergency Medical Settings: Incidence, Prevalence, Physician Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamberger, L. Kevin; Saunders, Daniel G.

    Although many battered women seek help from their family physicians as outpatients, rates of current and lifetime victimization among outpatient female patients have not been well studied. This study tested two hypotheses regarding whether battered women presented to the clinic in a different manner than did nonbattered women. First, within the…

  5. Predictive validity of the attitudes toward medical help-seeking scale

    PubMed Central

    DiLorenzo, Terry A.; Dornelas, Ellen A.; Fischer, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examines the predictive validity of the action/intention subscale of the attitudes toward seeking medical help scale in a college sample. Participants Participants were 51 female undergraduates recruited from psychology classes. Data were collected at two time points between January and April, 2011. Methods Students completed the attitudes subscale and a measure of medical contacts twice, over a two month interval. Results Internal consistency and test–retest reliability of the measure were supported. Correlations between time one attitudes and medical contacts/intentions at time two provide evidence for predictive validity of the measure. Conclusion This relatively brief, psychometrically sound measure of attitudes toward medical help seeking can be used to identify individuals who may be reluctant to seek health care and to assess the effectiveness of health education programs. PMID:26844063

  6. Barriers to Urinary Incontinence Care Seeking in White, Black, and Latina Women

    PubMed Central

    Willis-Gray, Marcella G.; Sandoval, Juan S.; Maynor, Jean; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Siddiqui, Nazema Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We compared barriers to urinary incontinence (UI) healthcare seeking between white, black, and Latina women. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of white, black, and Latina women. Women completed the Barriers to Incontinence Care Seeking Questionnaire (BICS-Q), the Incontinence Quality of Life Instrument (I-QOL), the Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis (QUID), and the Incontinence Severity Index (ISI). The primary objective was to assess barriers to UI care seeking among groups, as measured by the BICS-Q. Secondary objectives were to assess factors associated with barriers to incontinence care and to compare specific barriers using BICS-Q subscale scores. Regression analyses were used to further assess for differences among groups while adjusting for potential confounding variables. Results We included a total of 93 subjects, including 30 white, 33 black, and 30 Latina women. Mean I-QOL, QUID, and ISI scores were not significantly different among our three groups. Barriers, based on BICS-Q scores, were lowest in white women and higher in blacks and Latinas (2.9 vs. 7.3 vs. 10.9 respectively, p<0.001). When adjusting for potential confounders such as age, income, education, presence of UI, ISI score, and I-QOL score, Latinas continued to demonstrate higher barriers compared to white or black women (β= 7.4, 95% CI: 2.2–12.7; p=0.006). There were no significant differences between black women compared to other groups in the adjusted analyses. Conclusions Latinas experience more barriers to UI healthcare seeking compared to white and black women. PMID:25185610

  7. Health information-seeking behavior and older African American women.

    PubMed Central

    Gollop, C J

    1997-01-01

    This study explored the ways in which urban, older, African American women obtain health information and some of the factors that influence such activity. Among the possible determinants examined were self-perceived literacy, access to health information, and mobility. The findings suggest that respondents receive health information from their physicians, the mass media, and members of their social networks. The results of this research also indicated that members of this population have a highly positive perception of the public library, although only a small segment use the library regularly, and that it may be in the interest of the library to investigate the role it could play in providing health information to older adults. PMID:9160150

  8. Health information-seeking behavior and older African American women.

    PubMed

    Gollop, C J

    1997-04-01

    This study explored the ways in which urban, older, African American women obtain health information and some of the factors that influence such activity. Among the possible determinants examined were self-perceived literacy, access to health information, and mobility. The findings suggest that respondents receive health information from their physicians, the mass media, and members of their social networks. The results of this research also indicated that members of this population have a highly positive perception of the public library, although only a small segment use the library regularly, and that it may be in the interest of the library to investigate the role it could play in providing health information to older adults. PMID:9160150

  9. Dangers of cornstarch powder on medical gloves: seeking a solution.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Long, William B; Gubler, Dean K; Rodeheaver, George T; Thacker, John G; Borel, Lise; Chase, Margot E; Fisher, Allyson L; Mason, Shelley S; Lin, Kant Y; Cox, Mary J; Zura, Robert D

    2009-07-01

    This article reviews information on the hazards of cornstarch powder on medical gloves. Dusting powders were first applied to latex gloves to facilitate donning. After 1980, manufacturers devised innovative techniques without dusting powder. It has been well documented that these powders on gloves present a health hazard to patients and health care workers by 5 different mechanisms. First, the glove cornstarch has documented detrimental effects on wound closure techniques. Second, this powder potentiates wound infection. Third, cornstarch induces peritoneal adhesion formation and granulomatous peritonitis. Finally, these powders serve as carriers as latex allergen and they precipitate a life-threatening allergic reaction in sensitized patients. These well-documented hazards of glove powder have caused the United Kingdom and Germany to ban cornstarch powder on medical gloves over 10 years ago. PMID:19546685

  10. Help Seeking Behavior of Women with Self-Discovered Breast Cancer Symptoms: A Meta-Ethnographic Synthesis of Patient Delay

    PubMed Central

    Khakbazan, Zohreh; Taghipour, Ali; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Patient delay makes a critical contribution to late diagnosis and poor survival in cases of breast cancer. Identifying the factors that influence patient delay could provide information for adopting strategies that shorten this delay. The aim of this meta-ethnography was to synthesize existing qualitative evidence in order to gain a new understanding of help seeking behavior in women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms and to determine the factors that influence patient delay. Methods The design was a meta-ethnography approach. A systematic search of the articles was performed in different databases including Elsevier, PubMed, ProQuest and SCOPUS. Qualitative studies with a focus on help seeking behaviors in women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms and patient delay, published in the English language between 1990 and 2013 were included. The quality appraisal of the articles was carried out using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative research checklist and 13 articles met the inclusion criteria. The synthesis was conducted according to Noblit and Hare’s meta-ethnographic approach (1988), through reciprocal translational analysis and lines-of-argument. Findings The synthesis led to identification of eight repeated key concepts including: symptom detection, initial symptom interpretation, symptom monitoring, social interaction, emotional reaction, priority of medical help, appraisal of health services and personal-environmental factors. Symptom interpretation is identified as the important step of the help seeking process and which changed across the process through active monitoring of their symptoms, social interactions and emotional reactions. The perceived seriousness of the situation, priority to receive medical attention, perceived inaccessibility and unacceptability of the health care system influenced women’s decision-making about utilizing health services. Conclusion Help seeking processes are

  11. Racial and ethnic disparities in internet use for seeking health information among young women

    PubMed Central

    Laz, Tabassum H.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the influence of race/ethnicity on seeking health information from the internet among women aged 16–24 years. Methods A self-administered survey was conducted on 3181women regarding their internet use and obtaining information on reproductive health (menstruation, contraception, pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections) and general health from the internet. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine the association between race/ethnicity and online health-related information seeking after adjusting for covariates. Results Racial/ethnic disparities were noted in overall internet use and its use to locate health information. Overall, more white (92.7%) and black (92.9%) women used the internet than Hispanics (67.5%). More white women (79.2%) used it to find health information than blacks and Hispanics (70.3% and 74.3%, respectively). Compared to white women, blacks and Hispanics were less likely to seek information on contraception [(odds ratio (OR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58–0.91) and (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61–0.92)], and more likely to seek information on pregnancy tests [(OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.28 −2.18) and (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.09–1.81] and sexually transmitted infections [(OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.11–1.73) and (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01–1.54)] respectively. With regard to general health issues, such as how to quit smoking, how to lose weight, alcohol/drug use, mood disorders, and skin disorders, blacks, but not Hispanics, were significantly less likely to seek online information than whites. Conclusions Disparities in the way women from different backgrounds use the internet for health-related information could be associated with overall health awareness. PMID:23130608

  12. How does gender influence immigrant and refugee women's postpartum depression help-seeking experiences?

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, J M; Donnelly, T T

    2013-10-01

    The number of migrants arriving in Canada from non-European countries has grown significantly over the past three decades. How best to assist these escalating numbers of immigrant and refugee women to adapt to their new environment and to cope with postpartum depression (PPD) is a pressing issue for healthcare providers. Evidence has shown that immigrant and refugee women experience difficulties in accessing care and treatment for PPD. This qualitative study was conducted with 30 immigrant and refugee women using in-depth interviews to obtain information about the women's PPD experiences. The primary aim was to explore how cultural, social, political, historical and economic factors intersect with race, gender and class to influence the ways in which immigrant and refugee women seek help to manage PPD. Results reveal that immigrant and refugee women experience many complex gender-related challenges and facilitators in seeking equitable help for PPD treatment and prevention. We will demonstrate that (a) structural barriers and gender roles hinder women's ability to access necessary mental healthcare services and (b) insecure immigration status coupled with emotional and economic dependence may leave women vulnerable and disadvantaged in protecting themselves against PPD. PMID:22962942

  13. Medical Conditions and Symptoms Associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Low-Income Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Szanton, S.; Taylor, T.J.; Page, G.G; Campbell, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have consistently reported rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women that are twice that of men. In men and women, PTSD has been associated with comorbid medical conditions, medical symptoms and lower self-rating of health. In low-income urban women, rates of PTSD are even more elevated than in suburban women and may be related to observed health disparities. Methods In this study, 250 women seeking healthcare at an urban clinic were interviewed for a PTSD diagnosis, major depressive disorder (MDD), the experience of traumatic events, the experience of current and past common medical conditions and symptoms, and subjective rating of health. A chart review was used to assess healthcare use in the past year. Results More current (5.2 vs. 3.8, p < 0.05) and past medical conditions (4.6 vs. 3.3, p < 0.05) were reported by women with a lifetime history of PTSD than by women without this history, after controlling for demographics and current depression. Women with lifetime PTSD also had more annual clinic appointments (5.9 vs. 3.8 p < 0.03) and were 2.4 times (p < 0.05) more likely to report lower appraisal of their physical health. Conclusions These findings suggest that urban health-seeking women with PTSD experience health impairments that may cause increased morbidity and that healthcare providers should consider the health ramifications of PTSD when providing medical care to women. PMID:19183098

  14. Home Journeys: Im/mobilities in Young Refugee and Asylum-Seeking Women's Negotiations of Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirriyeh, Ala

    2010-01-01

    Research with refugees and asylum seekers tends to be divided into research with adults or research with children under the age of 18. This is despite relational approaches to studying age that contest such dichotomous and fixed understandings of "life-stages". This article seeks to provide an insight into the experiences of young women who in…

  15. Racial Differences in Self-Reported Healthcare Seeking and Treatment for Urinary Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Women from the EPI Study

    PubMed Central

    Berger, MB; Patel, DA; Miller, JM; DeLancey, JO; Fenner, DE

    2011-01-01

    Aims Objectives of this study are: 1) To examine the prevalence of healthcare seeking among black and white women with self-reported urinary incontinence (UI), 2) To investigate barriers to treatment for incontinence, and 3) To investigate commonly used therapeutic modalities for UI. Methods This is a planned secondary analysis of responses from 2812 black and white community-dwelling women living in southeastern Michigan, aged 35-64 years, who completed a telephone interview concerning UI, healthcare-seeking behaviors and management strategies. The study population was 571 subjects (278 black, 293 white) who self-identified as having urinary incontinence. Results Of these women with UI, 51% sought healthcare with no statistically significant difference between the two races (53% black, 50.6% white, p 0.64). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, a higher likelihood of seeking healthcare was associated with increased age, body mass index lower than 30 kg/m2, prior surgery for UI, having regular pelvic exams, having a doctor, and worsening severity of UI. There was no significant association between hypothesized barriers to care seeking and race. Almost 95% of the subjects identified lack of knowledge of available treatments as one barrier. Black and white women were similar in percentage use of medications and some self-care strategies, e.g., pad wearing and bathroom mapping, but black women were significantly more likely to restrict fluid intake than white women and marginally less likely to perform Kegels. Conclusions Black and white women seek healthcare for UI at similar, low rates. Improved patient-doctor relationships and public education may foster healthcare seeking behavior. PMID:21717504

  16. Maternal Complications and Women's Behavior in Seeking Care from Skilled Providers in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Yalew, Alemayehu Worku; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal complications are morbidities suffered during pregnancy through the postpartum period of 42 days. In Ethiopia, little is known about women's experience of complications and their care-seeking behavior. This study attempted to assess experiences related to obstetric complication and seeking assistance from a skilled provider among women who gave birth in the last 12 months preceding the study. Methods This study was a cross-sectional survey of women who gave birth within one year preceding the study regardless of their delivery place. The study was carried out in six selected districts in North Gondar Zone, Amhara Region. Data was collected house-to-house in 12 selected clusters (kebeles) using a pretested Amharic questionnaire. During the survey, 1,668 women were interviewed. Data entry was done using Epi Info version 3.5.3 and was exported to SPSS for analysis. Logistic regression was applied to control confounders. Results Out of the total sample, 476 women (28.5%, 95% CI: 26.4%, 30.7%) reported some kind of complication. The most common complications reported were; excessive bleeding and prolonged labor that occurred mostly at the time of delivery and postpartum period. Out of the total women who faced complications, 248 (52.1%, 95% CI: 47.6%, 56.6%) sought assistance from a skilled provider. Inability to judge the severity of morbidities, distance/transport problems, lack of money/cost considerations and use of traditional options at home were the major reasons for not seeking care from skilled providers. Belonging to a wealthier quintile, getting antenatal care from a skilled provider and agreement of a woman in planning for possible complications were significantly associated with seeking assistance from a skilled provider. Conclusion Nearly half of the women who faced complications did not use skilled providers at the time of obstetric complications. Cognitive, geographic, economic and cultural barriers were involved in not using skilled

  17. Contesting the cruel treatment of abortion-seeking women.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    This article draws on legal arguments made by civil society organisations to challenge the legal reasoning that apparently produced the decision in the Ms Y case in Ireland in August 2014. I show how legal standards of reasonableness and practicality ought to be interpreted in ways that are respectful of the patient's wishes and rights. The case concerned a decision by the Health Service Executive, the Irish public health authority, to refuse an abortion to a pregnant asylum seeker and rape survivor on the grounds that a caesarean section and early live delivery were practicable and reasonable alternatives justified by the need to protect fetal life. I argue that the abortion refusal may not have been a reasonable decision, as required by the terms of relevant legislation, for four different reasons. First, the alternative of a caesarean section and early live delivery was not likely to avert the risk of suicide, and in fact did not do so. Second, the consent to the caesarean section alternative may not have been a real consent in the legal sense if it was not voluntary. Third, an abortion refusal and forcible treatment fall below the norms of good medical practice as interpreted through a patient-centred perspective. Fourth, an abortion refusal that entails forms of cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment ought not to be a reasonable action under the legislation. PMID:25555759

  18. Experiences of Infertile Women Seeking Assisted Pregnancy in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Fahimeh; Behboodi-Moghadam, Zahra; Borimnejad, Leili; Ghaffari, Saeed Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are complicated and stressful techniques and the social and cultural norms are major obstacles against their use. Many qualitative studies have been done in the field of women’s experiences of infertility, but less is known about the experiences of infertile women seeking assisted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to understand and describe the experience of women who have used assisted reproductive technologies for their current pregnancy. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted based on a content analysis approach. With purposive sampling, 12 pregnant women who were using ART were recruited from Avicenna Fertility Center in Tehran. Women were selected purposefully and with maximum variation. Interviews were performed after a positive test of pregnancy and women were introduced to researchers in their first visit of pregnancy in the prenatal clinic. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed concurrently. Semi-structured interviews were coded, categorized and the themes were also identified. Results: Four main themes were uncovered which included struggle to achieve pregnancy, fear and uncertainty, escape from stigma and the pursuit to achieve husband satisfaction. Conclusion: It is essential for these women to be counseled and prepared by their health care providers after the use of ARTs. Distress can be reduced for infertile women seeking assisted pregnancy when they are prepared for possible failures, empowered to deal with stigma, and have their partners’ involvement in counseling sessions. PMID:27110521

  19. Human papillomavirus infections in women seeking cervical Papanicolaou cytology of Durango, Mexico: prevalence and genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Reyes-Romero, Miguel Arturo; Carrera-Rodríguez, Margarita

    2006-01-01

    Background HPV infection in women from developing countries is an important public health problem. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalences of HPV infection and HPV genotypes in a female population of Durango City, Mexico. Also to determine whether any socio-demographic characteristic from the women associated with HPV infection exists. Methods Four hundred and ninety eight women seeking cervical Papanicolaou examination in three public Health Centers were examined for HPV infection. All women were tested for HPV DNA PCR by using HPV universal primers. In addition, all positive HPV DNA PCR samples were further analyzed for genotyping of HPV genotype 16, 18 and 33. Socio-demographic characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Twenty-four out of four hundred and ninety-eight (4.8%) women were found infected by HPV. HPV genotype 16 was found in 18 out of the 24 (75%) infected women. Two of them were also coinfected by HPV genotype 18 (8.3%). In the rest 6 PCR positive women, genotyping for HPV genotypes 16, 18 and 33 were negative. Conclusion The prevalence of HPV in women of Durango City is low; however, most infected women have high risk HPV genotype. The women who were studied showed low frequency of risk factors for HPV infection and this may explain the low prevalence of HPV infection. The high frequency of high risk HPV genotypes observed might explain the high rate of mortality for cervical cancer in our region. PMID:16504014

  20. Brazilian policy responses to violence against women: government strategy and the help-seeking behaviors of women who experience violence.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Ligia; d'Oliveira, Ana Flavia Lucas; Zimmerman, Cathy; Heise, Lori; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Watts, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades, international covenants have been signed and countries have implemented strategies and legislation to address violence against women. Concurrently, strong evidence on the magnitude and impact of violence against women has emerged from around the world. Despite a growing understanding of factors that may influence women's vulnerability to violence and its effects, key questions about intervention options persist. Using evidence from a WHO household survey on domestic violence, our paper discusses women's help-seeking patterns and considers these findings in relation to Brazil's policies and strategies on violence against women. For the WHO survey, data from a large urban center (the city of São Paulo) and from a rural region (Zona da Mata Pernambucana [ZMP]) was collected. Findings from this survey indicate that in São Paulo, only 33.8% of women who experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) sought help from a formal service provider, including health, legal, social, or women's support services; in the Forest Zone of the State of Pernambuco, an even smaller proportion (17.1%) sought formal assistance. The majority of women were likely to contact only informal sources of support, such as family, friends, and neighbors. Women who used formal services were primarily those who experienced more severe levels of violence, were severely injured, had children who witnessed the violence, or whose work was disrupted by the violence. Although Brazil adopted progressive laws and national and local strategies to address violence against women (VAW), messages about violence and equality need to reach informal networks and the wider community in order to national anti-violence policies to be successful in supporting women before violence becomes intolerable.. To translate international standards and national policies into actions that genuinely reach women experiencing violence, states must carefully consider evidence on women's options and decision

  1. The Efficacy of a Condensed "Seeking Safety" Intervention for Women in Residential Chemical Dependence Treatment at 30 Days Posttreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash Ghee, Anna; Bolling, Lanny C.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a condensed version of the "Seeking Safety" intervention in the reduction of trauma-related symptoms and improved drug abstinence rates among women in residential chemical dependence treatment. One hundred and four women were randomly assigned to treatment including a condensed (six session) "Seeking Safety"…

  2. Factors Influencing Help-Seeking Behavior among Battered Korean Women in Intimate Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jae Yop; Lee, Ji Hyeon

    2011-01-01

    In total, 123 battered Korean women who used domestic violence agencies were asked where they had turned for assistance in response to intimate partner violence. This study examined the factors related to use of formal and informal resources by these women. Formal resources included police, medical, legal, and shelter; informal were family or…

  3. University students' intention to seek medical care promptly if symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases were suspected.

    PubMed

    Godin, G; Fortin, C; Mahnès, G; Boyer, R; Nadeau, D; Duval, B; Bradet, R; Hounsa, A

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors explaining intention to seek medical care promptly if STD symptoms were suspected. A random sample of 1617 undergraduate students completed a questionnaire assessing intention, attitude, perceived norm among friends, perceived behavioral control, and risk of disease, along with different socio-demographic variables. The regression of intention on all variables yielded an adjusted R2 of 0.32 (P < 0.0001). The factors explaining this variance were the perceived advantages, easiness, and social norm among friends regarding seeking medical care promptly, age, and gender. Perception of risk to delay seeking medical care and perceived personal risk of getting STDs were not significant variables. Overall, the results indicate the need to develop programs for male first-year students. These programs will have to influence the attitude, that is, the perceived advantages of seeking medical care promptly if STD symptoms are suspected. Seeking advice from students' friends, and perception of these friends as a significant reference source if STD symptoms are suspected, should also be promoted. PMID:8503056

  4. Elder American Indian Women's Knowledge of Pelvic Floor Disorders and Barriers to Seeking Care

    PubMed Central

    Dunivan, Gena C; Komesu, Yuko M; Cichowski, Sara B; Lowery, Christine; Anger, Jennifer T; Rogers, Rebecca G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse knowledge among elder Southwestern American Indian women and to assess barriers to care for pelvic floor disorders through Community Engaged Research. Methods Our group was invited to provide an educational talk on urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse at an annual meeting of American Indian Elders. Female attendees ≥55 years anonymously completed demographic information and two validated questionnaires; the Prolapse and Incontinence Knowledge Questionnaire (PIKQ) and Barriers to Incontinence Care Seeking Questionnaire (BICS-Q). Questionnaire results were compared to historical controls from the original PIKQ and BICS-Q validation study. Results 144 women completed questionnaires. The mean age was 77.7 ± 9.1 years. The mean PIKQ UI score was 6.6 ± 3.0 (similar to historic gynecology controls 6.8 ± 3.3, p=0.49) and the mean PIKQ POP score was 5.4 ± 2.9 (better than historic gynecology controls 3.6 ± 3.2, p<0.01). Barriers to care seeking reported by the elder women were highest on the BICS-Q subscales of “Cost” and “Inconvenience”. Conclusions Urinary incontinence knowledge is similar to historic gynecology controls and pelvic organ prolapse knowledge is higher than historic gynecology controls among elder Southwestern American Indian women. American Indian elder women report high levels of barriers to care. The greatest barriers to care seeking for this population were related to cost and inconvenience, reflecting the importance of assessing socioeconomic status when investigating barriers to care. Addressing these barriers may enhance care seeking Southwestern American Indian women. PMID:25185612

  5. Medical apps in endocrine diseases – hide and seek

    PubMed Central

    von Jan, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Quantitative review and categorization of available endocrinology related mobile apps for the iOS platform (Apple®) and outline of search strategies to identify appropriate mobile apps for this field. Methods: A total of 80 endocrinology related search terms were collected and grouped into 8 main categories covering different areas of endocrinology. These terms were then used to perform comprehensive searches in three categories of Apple’s app store, namely ‘Medicine’, ‘Health and Fitness’, and ‘Reference’. Results: Altogether, matches were found for only 33 of the 80 collected endocrinology related search terms; the majority of matches were found in the medical category, followed by matches for the health and fitness (27/33), and reference (16/33) categories. Restricting the search to these categories significantly helped in discriminating between health related apps and those having another purpose. The distribution of apps per category roughly matches what one can expect considering available data for incidence and prevalence of corresponding endocrinological conditions. Apps matching terms belonging to the spectrum of glucose homeostasis disorders are the most common. For conditions where patients do not have to constantly monitor their condition, apps tend to have a reference or educational character, while for conditions that require a high level of involvement from patients, there are proportionally more apps for self-management. With a single exception, the identified apps had not undergone regulation, and information about the data sources, professional backgrounds, and reliability of the content and integrated information sources was rare. Conclusions: While applying a good search strategy is important for finding apps for endocrinology related problems, users also need to consider whether the app they have found respects all necessary criteria regarding reliability, privacy and data protection before they place their trust in

  6. Physical violence by husbands: magnitude, disclosure and help-seeking behavior of women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Azim, Safia; Bhuiya, Abbas; Persson, Lars Ake

    2006-06-01

    This paper explores the magnitude of physical violence by husbands, the disclosure of it and the help-seeking behavior of abused women in urban and rural Bangladesh. The data come from a larger study on domestic violence against women conducted in Bangladesh during 2000-2004. All ever-married women covered by the population-based survey component (n=2702) conducted in 2001 were included in the current analysis. We also draw on in-depth interviews with 28 women who were physically abused by their husbands. Results show a high prevalence of lifetime physical spousal violence against women: 40% in urban and 42% in rural areas. Most of the abused women (66%) were silent about their experience. The main reasons behind this silence were high acceptance of violence, stigma and fear of greater harm. Sixty percent of urban and 51% of rural abused women never received any help from others. Only 2% ever sought help from institutional sources, from where support was not forthcoming. Women approached these sources only when they could not endure anymore or the violence became life threatening or children were at risk. The findings show that although providing appropriate services is absolutely necessary, it is also important to foster the use of such services and to help women overcome the barriers for accessing these services. PMID:16426717

  7. Medical Help-Seeking for Sexual Concerns in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Melissa K.; Zajdlewicz, Leah; Wootten, Addie C.; Nelson, Christian J.; Lowe, Anthony; Dunn, Jeff; Chambers, Suzanne K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although sexual dysfunction is common after prostate cancer, men's decisions to seek help for sexual concerns are not well understood. Aim Describe predictors of actual prior help-seeking and intended future medical help-seeking for sexual dysfunction in prostate cancer survivors. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 510 prostate cancer survivors assessed masculine beliefs, attitudes, support/approval from partner/peer networks (subjective norm), and perceived control as predictors of medical help-seeking for sexual concerns. A theory of planned behavior (TPB) perspective was used to examine actual prior and planned future behavior and contributing factors. Statistical analyses included multiple and logistic regressions. Main Outcome Measures Intention to see a doctor for sexual advice or help in the next 6 months was measured using the intention subscale adapted from the Attitudes to Seeking Help after Cancer Scale. Prior help-seeking was measured with a dichotomous yes/no scale created for the study. Results Men were Mage 71.69 years (SD = 7.71); 7.54 years (SD = 4.68) post-diagnosis; received treatment(s) (58.1% radical prostatectomy; 47.1% radiation therapy; 29.4% hormonal ablation); 81.4% reported severe ED (IIED 0–6) and 18.6% moderate–mild ED (IIED 7–24). Overall, 30% had sought sexual help in the past 6 months, and 24% intended to seek help in the following 6 months. Prior help-seeking was less frequent among men with severe ED. Sexual help-seeking intentions were associated with lower education, prior sexual help-seeking, sexual importance/ priority, emotional self-reliance, positive attitude, and subjective norm (R2 = 0.56). Conclusion The TPB has utility as a theoretical framework to understand prostate cancer survivors' sexual help-seeking decisions and may inform development of more effective interventions. Masculine beliefs were highly salient. Men who were more emotionally self-reliant and attributed greater importance to sex

  8. Health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of Dominican women with lymphoedema of the leg: implications for lymphoedema management programs

    PubMed Central

    Person, Bobbie; Addiss, David G; Bartholomew, L Kay; Meijer, Cecilia; Pou, Victor; van den Borne, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Background In the Dominican Republic, a Latin American country with filariasis-endemic areas, more than 63,000 people have lymphatic filariasis and more than 400,000 people are at risk of future infection. In this paper, we explore the health beliefs, health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of women with lymphoedema in filariasis-endemic areas to better understand the needs of women when developing lymphoedema morbidity control programs. Methods Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews of 28 women, 3 focus group discussions with 28 women, field notes and photographs. Results Women described exhaustive and expensive attempts at seeking a cure for their lymphoedema. Family members were influential in providing women with initial care seeking referrals to indigenous healers credited with influence over physical, mental, spiritual and supernatural properties of illness. When indigenous treatments proved to be ineffectual, the women sought care from trained healthcare providers. Most healthcare providers incorrectly diagnosed the edema, failed to adequately treat and meet the needs of women and were viewed as expensive. Most women resorted to self-prescribing injectable, oral, or topical antibiotics along with oral analgesics as a standard practice of self-care. Conclusion Healthcare providers must understand a woman's cultural perspectives of illness, her natural networks of support and referral, her behavioural practices of care-seeking and self-care and the financial burden of seeking care. In the culture of the Dominican Republic family members and traditional healthcare providers are influential advisors on initial health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices. For this reason family-oriented interventions, support groups for women and their families, community education and training on simple, low cost lymphoedema management techniques for indigenous healers are viable ways to influence the early detection, diagnosis and

  9. Midlife crisis perceptions, experiences, help-seeking, and needs among multi-ethnic malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Wong, Li Ping; Awang, Halimah; Jani, Rohana

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, researchers explored attitudes toward midlife crises, experience with midlife crises, help-seeking, and needs among multi-ethnic Malaysian women. A total of 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 89 Malaysian women of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Women expressed concern over physical aging and decline in their physical functional health. Having a midlife crisis was frequently reported. Issues that were frequently reported to trigger a midlife crisis, such as empty nest syndrome, impact of aging on sexual and reproductive function, extended parenthood, caring for aging or ill parents, and career challenges were noted by the study participants (listed here in order of most to least frequently reporting of these themes across the group discussions). Overall, these issues were associated with attitudes about aging. A comparatively less open attitude toward sexual attitudes and help-seeking for sexual problems were found among the Malay and Indian women. This may imply that intervention to increase positive attitudes concerning both sexuality and help-seeking intentions should be culturally specific. The use of religious coping for comfort and consolation was frequently reported; therefore, those providing midlife crisis prevention and intervention programs should consider involving faith-based interventions in the Malaysian setting. PMID:23127220

  10. Pregnancy-Related Health Information-Seeking Behaviors Among Rural Pregnant Women in India: Validating the Wilson Model in the Indian Context

    PubMed Central

    Das, Ashavaree; Sarkar, Madhurima

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Understanding health information-seeking behaviors and barriers to care and access among pregnant women can potentially moderate the consistent negative associations between poverty, low levels of literacy, and negative maternal and child health outcomes in India. Our seminal study explores health information needs, health information-seeking behaviors, and perceived information support of low-income pregnant women in rural India. Methods: Using the Wilson Model of health information-seeking framework, we designed a culturally tailored guided interview to assess information-seeking behaviors and barriers to information seeking among pregnant women. We used a local informant and health care worker to recruit 14 expectant women for two focus group interviews lasting 45 minutes to an hour each. Thirteen other related individuals including husbands, mothers, mothers-in-law, and health care providers were also recruited by hospital counselors for in-depth interviews regarding their pregnant wives/daughters and daughters-in-law. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by coding the data into thematic categories. Results: The data were coded manually and emerging themes included pregnancy-related knowledge and misconceptions and personal, societal, and structural barriers, as well as risk perceptions and self-efficacy. Lack of access to health care and pregnancy-related health information led participants to rely heavily on information and misconceptions about pregnancy gleaned from elder women, friends, and mothers-in-law and husbands. Doctors and para-medical staff were only consulted during complications. All women faced personal, societal, and structural level barriers, including feelings of shame and embarrassment, fear of repercussion for discussing their pregnancies with their doctors, and inadequate time with their doctors. Conclusion: Lack of access and adequate health care information were of primary concern to pregnant women and their families

  11. Perceived racism and vascular reactivity in black college women: moderating effects of seeking social support.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rodney

    2006-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study explored the association of perceived racism and seeking social support to vascular reactivity in a college sample of 110 Black women. Perceived racism and seeking social support were assessed via self-report, and vascular reactivity was measured before and during a standardized speaking task. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived racism was positively related to changes in systolic blood pressure. These analyses also indicated that seeking social support moderated the relationship between perceived racism and systolic blood pressure changes. This interaction effect persisted after controlling for several potential confounders. Follow-up regression analyses showed that perceived racism was positively associated with reactivity among participants who were low in seeking social support. A significant relationship was not observed between perceived racism and systolic blood pressure changes among participants who were high in seeking social support. Perceived racism and seeking social support were not significantly associated with changes in diastolic blood pressure. These findings highlight the importance of examining psychosocial factors that may mitigate the hypothesized relationship between perceived racism and reactivity. PMID:16448294

  12. Shared medical appointments: facilitating interdisciplinary care for midlife women.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Holly L; Maxwell, Richard; Saporito, Jennifer; Bronson, David

    2005-11-01

    Shared medical appointments (SMAs) are a new way to deliver woman-focused interdisciplinary care for midlife women. SMAs are a series of one physician to one patient encounters with other patient observers. The women's health physician addresses each woman's unique medical needs individually but in the context of a shared setting. The major focus is on delivering individual medical care with the benefits of additional time spent educating women patients and answering questions. PMID:16313217

  13. 42 CFR 102.60 - Documentation an eligible requester seeking medical benefits must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Documentation an eligible requester seeking medical benefits must submit. 102.60 Section 102.60 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Required Documentation for Eligible Requesters...

  14. 42 CFR 102.60 - Documentation an eligible requester seeking medical benefits must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Documentation an eligible requester seeking medical benefits must submit. 102.60 Section 102.60 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Required Documentation for Eligible Requesters...

  15. 42 CFR 102.60 - Documentation an eligible requester seeking medical benefits must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Documentation an eligible requester seeking medical benefits must submit. 102.60 Section 102.60 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Required Documentation for Eligible Requesters...

  16. 42 CFR 102.60 - Documentation an eligible requester seeking medical benefits must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Documentation an eligible requester seeking medical benefits must submit. 102.60 Section 102.60 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Required Documentation for Eligible Requesters To Receive Benefits § 102.60...

  17. 42 CFR 102.60 - Documentation an eligible requester seeking medical benefits must submit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentation an eligible requester seeking medical benefits must submit. 102.60 Section 102.60 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Required Documentation for Eligible Requesters...

  18. Social and Cultural Factors Influence African American Men's Medical Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Gunter, Katie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factors that influenced African American men's medical help seeking. Method: Thematic analysis of 14 focus groups with 105 older, urban African American men. Results: African American men described normative expectations that they did not go to the doctor and that they were afraid to go, with little explanation. When they…

  19. Lung Cancer Stigma as a Barrier to Medical Help-Seeking Behavior: Practice Implications

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Harris, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of perceived lung cancer stigma and timing of medical help-seeking behavior in symptomatic individuals. Data sources A convenience sample was recruited from an academic thoracic oncology clinic and community hospital-based outpatient radiation center in a large city in the southeastern United States. This descriptive, cross-sectional study used survey methodology and semi-structured interviews to examine the relationship of perceived lung cancer stigma and delayed medical help-seeking finding a statistically significant positive correlation. Additional examination revealed positive correlations between the stigma and shame, social isolation, and smoking-related stigma subscales and delay. The discrimination-related subscale was not associated with delay. In addition, smoking status was not related to perceived lung cancer stigma. Conclusions Findings support an association between lung cancer stigma and delayed medical help-seeking behavior. Therefore, lung cancer stigma is a potential barrier to timely medical help-seeking behavior in lung cancer symptoms, which can have important patient outcome implications. Implications for practice As primary care nurse practitioners, awareness that lung cancer stigma exists for patients is essential regardless of smoking status and efforts to decrease this barrier to timely healthcare are important. PMID:25736473

  20. Correlates for legal help-seeking: contextual factors for battered women in shelter.

    PubMed

    Wright, Caroline Vaile; Johnson, Dawn M

    2009-01-01

    Legal redress can play a critical role in interrupting the pattern of domination and control inherent in intimate partner violence (IPV), yet it remains an infrequent strategy among battered women. The current study employed a contextual framework for investigating the correlates for engagement in the criminal justice system for a sample of 227 sheltered battered women. Results indicated that individual, relational, and system-level factors were all associated with two legal help-seeking behaviors: having a civil protection order and criminal prosecution. In particular, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology, social support, and prior experience with police officers were significant correlates for legal help-seeking. Results highlight the need for a coordinated community response to IPV, addressing both legal needs and psychological needs simultaneously. PMID:20055214

  1. Examining Sexual Orientation Disparities in Unmet Medical Needs among Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,810), this study examines disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation identity during young adulthood. We use binary logistic regression and expand Andersen’s health care utilization framework to identify factors that shape disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation. We also investigate whether the well-established gender disparity in health-seeking behaviors among heterosexual persons holds for sexual minorities. The results show that sexual minority women are more likely to report unmet medical needs than heterosexual women, but no differences are found between sexual minority and heterosexual men. Moreover, we find a reversal in the gender disparity between heterosexual and sexual minority populations: heterosexual women are less likely to report unmet medical needs than heterosexual men, whereas sexual minority women are more likely to report unmet medical needs compared to sexual minority men. Finally, this work advances Andersen’s model by articulating the importance of including social psychological factors for reducing disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation for women. PMID:25382887

  2. The Prevalence of Internet and Social Media Based Medication Information Seeking Behavior in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bahkali, Salwa; Alfurih, Suha; Aldremly, Maha; Alzayyat, Ma'an; Alsurimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa

    2016-01-01

    The internet has become an important resource to help people search for online medication information. This study aims to report the prevalence and profile of Saudi online medication seeking behavior. Conducted via a web-based survey with Twitter participants between January-February, 2015, the primary outcome measures were the self-reported rates of using the internet to search for medication related information. A valid sample of 4847 participants was collected over the period of the study. Out of the total participants, 68.3% (n=3311) were found to seek online medication related information frequently. Most of the social media users were female 83.5% (n=2766). The majority of respondents 63.6% (n= 3081) used Google, followed by Twitter 28.7% (n= 1392), Snapchat 21%, (n=1019), WhatsApp 13.8% (n= 670), Instagram 11.4%, (n= 553), and Facebook 5.5 % (n= 267), with few searching YouTube 1.3% (n=65) to access online medication information. Findings indicate that the Saudi population actively uses the internet and social media to obtain medication information. Further studies are needed to explore the influence of the internet and social media on user perception, attitude, and behavior with the use of online medication information. PMID:27350524

  3. Control and support models of help-seeking behavior in women experiencing domestic violence in India.

    PubMed

    Mahapatro, Meerambika; Gupta, R N; Gupta, Vinay K

    2014-01-01

    In India, there is limited prioritization of domestic violence, which is seen as a private and family matter, and handled as a social responsibility rather than a complaint or crime. Despite the Domestic Violence Act, implemented in 2006, the widespread phenomenon of domestic violence across Indian states goes unreported. Using control and support models, this article aims to examine women's behavior in seeking help while dealing with partner violence. It is a population-based analytical cross-sectional study covering 14,507 married women from 18 states of India, selected through a systematic multistage sampling strategy. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to generate data. It was observed that legal complexities combined with social realities make the life of an average Indian woman insecure and miserable. Most women surveyed preferred the social-support model and opined that if they face domestic violence, they would seek help from their parents as the first option in the order of preference. The responses of women while dealing with domestic violence are often spontaneous and determined by the pressing need to resolve matters within the home/community, rather than addressing them in the public domain of state institutions where procedures are cumbersome and lengthy. A new integrated development model proposed by several communities aims to prevent domestic violence through the intervention of health care systems. PMID:25069150

  4. House to house, shelter to shelter: experiences of black women seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support, PMID:25996432

  5. A checklist approach to caring for women seeking pregnancy testing: Effects on contraceptive knowledge and use

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica; Papic, Melissa; Baldauf, Erin; Updike, Glenn; Schwarz, E. Bimla

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess how a checklist reminding clinicians to deliver a bundled intervention affects contraceptive knowledge and use 3 months after women seek walk-in pregnancy testing. Methods Pre-intervention, an inner-city family planning clinic provided unstructured care; during the intervention period, clinic staff used a checklist to ensure women received needed services. Women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing who wished to avoid pregnancy for at least 6 months were asked to complete surveys about their contraceptive knowledge and use immediately after and 3-months after visiting the study clinic. To assess the significance of changes over time, we used logistic regression models. Results Between January 2011 and May 2013, over 1500 women sought pregnancy testing from the study clinic; 323 completed surveys (95 pre-intervention and 228 during the intervention period). With this checklist intervention, participants were more likely to receive emergency contraception (EC) (22% vs. 5%, aOR=4.64, 95% CI 1.77-12.17), have an intrauterine device or implant placed at the time of their clinic visit (5% vs. 0%, p=0.02), or receive a contraceptive prescription (23% vs. 10%, p<0.001). Three months after visiting the study clinic, participants from the intervention period were more knowledgeable about intrauterine and subdermal contraception and were more likely to be using intrauterine, subdermal or injectable contraception (aOR=2.18, 95% CI 1.09-4.35). Conclusions Women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing appear more likely to receive EC and to have switched to a more effective form of birth control in 3 months following their visit when clinic staff used a 3-item checklist and provided scripted counseling. Implications A checklist reminding clinic staff to assess pregnancy intentions, provide scripted counseling about both emergency and highly-effective reversible contraception, and offer same-day contraceptive initiation to women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing

  6. Drug Use, Drug Severity, and Help-Seeking Behaviors of Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    PubMed Central

    CORLISS, HEATHER L.; GRELLA, CHRISTINE E.; MAYS, VICKIE M.; COCHRAN, SUSAN D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Illicit substance use and abuse may be an important contributor to behavioral health problems of lesbian and bisexual women. This paper describes the nature and extent of self-reported illicit and licit drug use, associated severity, and substance use-related help-seeking behaviors in an urban/metropolitan community sample of sexual minority women in California. Methods Self-administered questionnaire data from 2011 lesbian and bisexual women recruited through multiple strategies were used. Multiple logistic regression was employed to describe patterns of reported drug use and to compare lifetime severity of drug use with demographic characteristics, recent drug use, indicators of current social and emotional problems, and help-seeking behaviors. Results Drug use, especially marijuana (33% used in the past year), was fairly common. Overall, 16.2% of the women in the study reported lifetime drug use that was associated with self-reported severity of substance use, and another 10.8% indicated moderate-risk use. Extent of lifetime drug use was positively correlated with self-reported recent drug use as well as current life problems. Of the respondents who evidenced more problematic drug use, 41.5% indicated that they had received professional help for a substance use problem, and 16.3% wanted but had not received such help. Conclusions The women in this study reported elevated rates of illicit drug use that was frequently associated with impairment and specific life problems. A significant proportion wanted and had not received professional treatment for their drug use problems. Future studies that examine pathways by which lesbians and bisexual women can obtain referrals and treatment for substance use problems are needed. PMID:16796483

  7. Family support for women's health-seeking behavior: a qualitative study in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt).

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Ayumi; Higuchi, Michiyo; Labeeb, Shokria Adly; Mohamed, Asmaa Ghareds; Chiang, Chifa; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2014-02-01

    This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women's health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women's health-seeking behavior in areas including maternal health and common illnesses of women and children. Our results showed that maternal health issues were often discussed by husbands and wives, while mothers-in-law had little apparent influence. We also found that women could access support resources more easily than expected through their extended families. Our study showed that husbands had an important role in encouraging women's health in the family, while the effect of mothers-in-law on women's health-seeking behavior was not substantial. The study indicated that women received considerable support from co-resident family members, their natal family, and their neighbors, which helped women in seeking health services. PMID:25129988

  8. Help-Seeking Behaviors and Reasons for Help Seeking Reported by a Representative Sample of Women Victims of Intimate Partner Violence in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanslow, Janet L.; Robinson, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to understand and support the process of help seeking by victims of intimate partner violence are of considerable urgency if we are to design systems and responses that are capable of actively and appropriately meeting the needs of victims. Using data from the New Zealand Violence Against Women Study, which drew from a representative…

  9. Frequency of Symptoms and Health Seeking Behaviours of Menopausal Women in an Out-Patient Clinic in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dienye, Paul Owajionyi; Judah, Funsho; Ndukwu, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms and health seeking behaviour of women with menopausal symptoms attending the General Outpatient Department of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Method: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study in which data was collected from menopausal women using a three-part, pre-tested questionnaire for a period of three months (July–September 2010). Part 1 consisted of information regarding socio-demographic and general medical information. Part 2 consisted of the modified version of the menopause rating scale (MRS). Part 3 sought for information on their health seeking behaviour. Data was analysed using EPI INFO version 6.04d software package. Results: A total of 385 women were recruited with ages ranging from 35 to 95 years, and a mean of 58.4 ± 10.39 years. The most prevalent menopausal symptoms were loss of libido (92.47%), muscle pain (87.53%), joint pain (85.45%) and tiredness (80.26%). Urinary symptoms had the least prevalence (7.79%). Results on the severity of menopausal symptoms showed that 28.25%, 49.84% and 21.9% were experiencing severe, moderate and mild menopausal symptoms, respectively. Loss of libido (79.21 %) was the most severe symptom followed by urinary symptoms (40%). The patent drug dealers were the most consulted (51.4%) followed by health workers (44.7%). The traditional healers were consulted by a small percentage (3.8%). Conclusion: The most common menopausal symptom among the patients in this study was loss of libido and the least common was urinary symptoms. The symptoms are similar to findings in other parts of the world but their prevalence and severity differ. In spite of the available health facilities in these communities, the utilization of the services of patent drug dealers is still very high but the traditional healers were poorly utilized. PMID:23777719

  10. Trait mindfulness and early maladaptive schemas in women seeking residential substance use treatment: A preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness has received an abundance of research attention in recent years, largely due to mindfulness-based interventions demonstrating positive mental and physical health outcomes. However, less research has examined individual’s trait levels of mindfulness and how it is related to mental health, particularly among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the relation between trait mindfulness and early maladaptive schemas (EMS), which are dysfunctional cognitive and behavioural patterns that theoretically underlie the development of mental health problems, among women seeking residential substance use treatment. Pre-existing, adult female, patient records from a residential substance abuse treatment facility were reviewed (N = 67). Results demonstrated that higher trait mindfulness was negatively associated with 12 of the 18 EMS. Moreover, patients who endorsed multiple EMS reported lower trait mindfulness than patients who endorsed zero (or one) EMS. These findings are the first to examine the relation between trait mindfulness and EMS among women seeking substance use treatment. Findings suggest that EMS and trait mindfulness are robustly related and future research should examine whether mindfulness-based interventions reduce EMS. PMID:26366142

  11. Women's Medical Professional Corporation v. Taft.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Court Decision: 353 Federal Reporter, 3d Series 436; 2003 Dec 17 (date of decision). The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit reversed a lower court decision and held that Ohio's partial-birth abortion law was constitutional because the law permitted the procedure in the event of significant maternal health risk and did not prohibit dilation and evacuation (a lawful abortion procedure). Women's Medical Professional Corporation challenged the constitutionality of Ohio's ban on partial-birth abortion, claiming that the law did not contain an adequate exception for maternal health and that it unduly burdened a woman's right to abort a nonviable fetus by dilation and evacuation (D&E). The Sixth Circuit held that the law's maternal health exception was valid under the Fourteenth Amendment because it allowed partial-birth abortion when there is significant maternal health risk. The court rejected the plaintiff's assertion that partial-birth abortion should be allowed at any physician's discretion and noted that precedent allows states to "restrict an abortion procedure except when the procedure is necessary to prevent a significant health risk." The court also held that the law did not ban D&E, the most common second-trimester abortion procedure, because the law explicitly tracked the medical differences between D&E and partial-birth abortion, it provided an exception for D&E, and it focused on other distinctions between D&E and partial-birth abortion. For these reasons, Ohio's partial-birth abortion ban did not unduly burden a woman's right to terminate a pregnancy and was therefore constitutional. PMID:16477714

  12. Community Characteristics Associated With Seeking Medical Evaluation for Suspected Child Sexual Abuse in Greater Houston.

    PubMed

    Greeley, Christopher Spencer; Chuo, Ching-Yi; Kwak, Min Ji; Henin, Sally S; Donnaruma-Kwoh, Marcella; Ferrell, Jamie; Giardino, Angelo Peter

    2016-06-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) affects over 62,000 children annually in the United States. A primary obstacle to the success of a public health prevention strategy is the lack of knowledge around community level risk factors for CSA. We evaluated community level characteristics for children seeking care for suspected CSA in the Greater Houston area for 2009. There was a total incidence rate of medical evaluations for suspected CSA of 5.9/1000 children. We abstracted the medical charts of 1982 (86 %) children who sought a medical evaluation for suspected CSA at three main medical systems in the Greater Houston area for 2009. We evaluated 18 community level variables from the American Community Survey for the 396 zip codes these children lived in. The mean number of cases per Greater Houston zip code was 2.77 (range 0-27), with 62 % of zip codes not having a case at any of the three sites surveyed. Zip codes with a higher than Houston average rate of vacant houses, never married females and unemployed labor force with high family poverty rate, were associated with an increased rate of children seeking care for suspected CSA. We demonstrated zip codes level characteristics which were associated with an increased rate of children seeking care for suspected CSA. Our modelling process and our data have implications for community based strategies aimed at improved surveillance or prevention of CSA. The process of identifying locally specific community level factors suggests target areas which have particular socioeconomic characteristics which are associated with increased rate of seeking CSA evaluations. PMID:26803840

  13. Misuse of Prescription Opioid Medication among Women: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Lorraine; Poole, Nancy; Schmidt, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Background. National data from Canada and the United States identify women to be at greater risk than men for the misuse of prescription opioid medications. Various sex- and gender-based factors and patient and physician practices may affect women's use and misuse of prescription opioid drugs. Objectives. To explore the particular risks, issues, and treatment considerations for prescription opioid misuse among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Methods. A scoping review for articles published between January 1990 and May 2014 was conducted on sex- and gender-based risks and treatment considerations among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Results. A total of 57 articles were identified. The present narrative review summarizes the specific risks for the misuse of prescription opioid medication among women who have experienced violence and trauma, Aboriginal women, adolescents and young women, older women, pregnant women, women of a sexual minority, and transwomen. Discussion. The majority of the literature is descriptive, with few studies that evaluate approaches and interventions to respond to the issue of chronic pain, trauma, and misuse of prescription opioids among women, particularly vulnerable subgroups of women. Conclusions. Trauma-informed and women-centred approaches that address women's vulnerabilities and complex needs require further attention. PMID:27445597

  14. Using verbal and social autopsies to explore health-seeking behaviour among HIV-positive women in Kenya: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is limited understanding of the factors that influence decisions to seek HIV care and treatment services in community settings. The aim of this study was to explore the socio-cultural and health system factors affecting health-seeking behaviour among deceased women in Kenya who were living with HIV at the time of death. Methods Out of a total of 796 deaths for which a caregiver was available to provide information, retrospective data were drawn from verbal and social autopsies administered to caregivers of 218 women who had died of AIDS-related illnesses aged 15 to 49 years. Information was collected on essential elements of the care-seeking process from the onset of severe illness episodes and analysed using qualitative and quantitative techniques. Results Results from the quantitative data showed that poor women were less likely to access formal health services (OR = 0.2; p < 0.001) compared to non-poor women. The qualitative data showed that socioeconomic status, poor knowledge and understanding of AIDS-related illness, distance to facility and transportation costs, medical pluralism, stigma, low HIV risk perception, lack of family support and health care system barriers contributed to delays/constraints in seeking care. Conclusions The findings highlight important issues that have implications for addressing challenges faced by women living with HIV, including non-adherence to treatment regimen and late diagnosis of HIV. Provision of transportation subsidies as part of the national social safety-net strategy can help in addressing financial constraints associated with transportation costs among poor women living with HIV. PMID:24968717

  15. Irish midwives’ experiences of providing maternity care to non-Irish women seeking asylum

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Carolyn L; Murphy-Lawless, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Background Immigration and asylum seeking has been an important social and political phenomenon in Ireland since the mid 1990s. Inward migration to Ireland was seen in unprecedented numbers from 1995 onward, peaking in 2002 with 11,634 applications for refugee status. Asylum and immigration is an issue of national and international relevance as the numbers of displaced people worldwide continues to grow, reaching the highest level in 20 years at 45.2 million in 2012. Midwives provide the majority of care to childbearing women around the world, whether working as autonomous practitioners or under the direction of an obstetrician. Limited data currently exist on the perspectives of midwives who provide care to childbearing women while they are in the process of seeking asylum. Such data are important to midwifery leaders, educators, and policy-makers. The aims of this study were to explore midwives’ perceptions and experiences of providing care to women in the asylum process and to gain insight into how midwives can be equipped and supported to provide more effective care to this group in the future. Methods Data were collected via indepth unstructured interviews with a purposive sample of ten midwives from two sites, one a large urban inner city hospital, and the second, a smaller more rural maternity hospital. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Results Five themes emerged from the data, barriers to communication, understanding cultural difference, challenges of caring for women who were unbooked, the emotional cost of caring, and structural barriers to effective care. Conclusion Findings highlight a need to focus on support and education for midwives, improved maternity services for immigrant women, and urgent policy revision. PMID:24516340

  16. Reproductive Tract Infections in Rural Vietnam, Women's Knowledge, and Health-Seeking Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Anna; Lan, Pham Thi; Marrone, Gaetano; Phuc, Ho Dang; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    We interviewed 1,805 women in a rural setting in Vietnam with the aim of investigating women's knowledge regarding reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and their health-seeking behavior. We found that women's overall knowledge was poor. Furthermore, only one-third of the symptomatic women sought health care. RTIs affect millions of women globally each year. Most vulnerable are women in low- and middle-income countries where poverty and gender inequities affect their access to health care services. Findings from our study can be used in similar rural settings worldwide to understand and manage the widespread problem of RTIs. PMID:24850497

  17. [Rape-related pregnancy in Brazil: the experience of women seeking legal abortion].

    PubMed

    Machado, Carolina Leme; Fernandes, Arlete Maria Dos Santos; Osis, Maria José Duarte; Makuch, Maria Yolanda

    2015-02-01

    In Brazil, abortion is permitted by law in cases of rape-related pregnancy. This study reports on various aspects in the experience of women that have been sexually assaulted: diagnosis of the pregnancy, seeking legal abortion, and hospitalization in a university hospital. This was a qualitative study that interviewed ten women 18 to 38 years of age, with at least eight years of schooling, one to five years after legal abortion. The women had been previously unaware of their right to a legal abortion, were ashamed about the sexual assault, kept it secret, and had not sought immediate care. The diagnosis of pregnancy provoked anxiety and the wish to undergo an abortion. Women treated through private health plans received either insufficient orientation or none at all. Respectful treatment by the healthcare staff proved relevant for the women to cope with the abortion. The study highlights the need to publicize the right to abortion in cases of rape-related pregnancy and the healthcare services that perform legal abortion, in addition to training healthcare and law enforcement teams to handle such cases. PMID:25760168

  18. Substance Use and Partner Violence among Urban Women Seeking Emergency Care

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Roy, Lolita

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance misuse are co-occurring problems that disproportionately affect low income urban women seeking care in emergency departments (EDs) and represent leading causes of injuries that result in ED visits. This paper examines temporal bi-directional associations between different types of drug and alcohol use and different types of IPV in a longitudinal study of a representative sample of 241 low income, urban women receiving emergency care from an ED in the Bronx, New York. After adjusting and matching for socio-demographics and potentially confounding multi-level risk and protective covariates, women who reported using heroin in the prior six months at Wave 1 were twice as likely as non-heroin using women to indicate any physical, injurious or sexual IPV at subsequent waves and were 2.7 times more likely to indicate experiencing an injury from IPV at subsequent waves. Crack or cocaine use in the past 6 months at Wave 1 was associated with an increased likelihood of injurious IPV and severe verbal abuse at subsequent waves. Findings also suggested that sexual IPV was significantly associated with subsequent use of crack or cocaine. The multiple bidirectional associations found linking these problems underscore the need for conducting routine screening for IPV and substance misuse among women in low income, urban EDs, and for improving linkages to services that will ultimately reduce the risk of morbidity, disability, and mortality related to these co-occurring problems. PMID:22023020

  19. 'Intimate mothering publics': comparing face-to-face support groups and Internet use for women seeking information and advice in the transition to first-time motherhood.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sophia Alice

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to an understanding of the changing nature of support and information-seeking practices for women in the transition to first-time motherhood. In the context of increasing digitalisation, the significance of new virtual spaces for parenting is discussed. The paper demonstrates how women seek out alternative forms of expertise (specifically, non-medical expertise) and social support. The author argues for the importance of 'intimate mothering publics' through which women gather experiential information and practical support. These publics can act as a space for women to 'test' or legitimise their new identity as a mother. Intimate mothering publics are particularly useful for thinking about the meaning-making practices and learning experiences that occur during intimate online and face-to-face interactions. A variety of types of online support may be used during pregnancy. Surreptitious support in particular involves users invisibly receiving advice, information and reassurance that might otherwise be lacking. Access to intimate mothering publics is motivated by a number of factors, including feelings of community or acceptance, the desire to be a good mother or parent, emotional support and the need for practical and experiential advice. PMID:25339096

  20. Medication adherence among transgender women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Baguso, Glenda N; Gay, Caryl L; Lee, Kathryn A

    2016-08-01

    Medication adherence is linked to health outcomes among adults with HIV infection. Transgender women living with HIV (TWLWH) in the US report suboptimal adherence to medications and are found to have difficulty integrating HIV medication into their daily routine, but few studies explore the factors associated with medication adherence among transgender women. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine demographic and clinical factors related to self-reported medication adherence among transgender women. This secondary analysis is based on data collected from the Symptom and Genetic Study that included a convenience sample of 22 self-identified transgender women, 201 non-transgender men, and 72 non-transgender women recruited in northern California. Self-reported medication adherence was assessed using the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Adherence Questionnaire. Gender differences in demographic and clinical variables were assessed, as were differences between transgender women reporting high and low adherence. Transgender women had lower adherence to medications compared to non-transgender males and non-transgender females (p = .028) and were less likely to achieve viral suppression (p = .039). Within the transgender group, Black/African-Americans reported better adherence than participants who were Whites/Caucasian or other races (p = .009). Adherence among transgender women was unrelated to medication count and estrogen therapy, but consistent with other reports on the HIV population as a whole; transgender women with high adherence were more likely to achieve viral suppression compared to the transgender women with low adherence. Despite the high incidence of HIV infection in the transgender population, few studies focus on TWLWH, either in regard to their adherence to antiretroviral therapies or to their healthcare in general. To address ongoing health disparities, more studies are needed focusing on the transgender population's continuum of care in

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Physical Health Symptoms Among Women Seeking Help for Relationship Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Casey T.; Vogt, Dawne S.; Mechanic, Mindy B.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between intimate partner aggression and physical health symptoms among a sample of help-seeking women experiencing relationship aggression (N = 388). Using a structural equation modeling framework, the authors found posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms to fully mediate the associations of both physical and psychological aggression with physical health symptoms. The influence of PTSD symptoms on physical health symptoms was partially mediated by anger/irritability. Results were consistent with studies from other trauma groups suggesting that PTSD is pivotal with respect to explaining the effects of trauma on health. PMID:17874920

  2. Initial loss of productive days and income among women seeking induced abortion in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Potdar, Rukmini; Fetters, Tamara; Phirun, Lam

    2008-01-01

    The study describes the loss of productive time and income related to abortion care and care-seeking among 110 women presenting at public and private sector abortion providers in Cambodia. Data were collected through women's exit interviews, and descriptive analysis was used to examine lost time and income against a number of explanatory variables, such as gestational age of pregnancy, type of abortion provider and facility, type of uterine evacuation procedure, number of health visits, and the woman's occupation. Results indicate that lost time and earnings increase with the number of visits to obtain the termination, gestational age, and selection of a private physician or non-governmental organization clinic. Lost time and earnings also vary by the woman's type of employment. The study underscores the need for safer, accessible, and more affordable abortion services in order to ensure that these services are available for all women. Even in the Cambodian context, where abortion is unrestricted during the first trimester of pregnancy, the study findings show that the process of searching for and obtaining high-quality abortion care was unnecessarily complicated and costly to women and their household members. PMID:18308261

  3. "Why doesn't she seek help for partner abuse?" An exploratory study with South Asian immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farah; Driver, Natasha; McNally, Mary Jane; Stewart, Donna E

    2009-08-01

    This study explores why South Asian immigrant women with experiences of partner abuse delay seeking help from professionals. Three focus groups were conducted in Hindi language with South Asian immigrant women in Toronto. Twenty-two women participated with a mean age of 46 years (range 29-68 years). Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed data using constant comparison techniques within and across the groups. We found that three major themes emerged from the discussions: reasons for delayed help-seeking, turning points and talking to professionals. Women expressed delaying help-seeking to the point when "Pani sar se guzar jata he" (water crosses over your head). Their dominant reasons for delayed help-seeking were social stigma, rigid gender roles, marriage obligations, expected silence, loss of social support after migration and limited knowledge about available resources and myths about partner abuse. Women usually turned for help only after experiencing pronounced mental and physical health problems. The findings are interpreted in light of participants' immigration context and the socio-cultural norms of patriarchy, collectivism and familism. Prevention approaches to address partner abuse and delayed help-seeking among South Asian immigrant women should include tailored community education, social services to reduce vulnerability, and cultural competency of professionals. Further research and program evaluation is needed to advance the field. PMID:19576669

  4. The Association between Medical Education Accreditation and Examination Performance of Internationally Educated Physicians Seeking Certification in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zanten, Marta; Boulet, John R.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine medical education accreditation practices around the world, with special focus on the Caribbean, and to explore the association between medical school accreditation and graduates' examination performance. In addition to other requirements, graduates of international medical schools seeking to…

  5. Treatment seeking in reproductive age women with RTIs/STIs: a community based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M A; Mishra, R; Kansal, S; Mishra, C P; Jha, S K; Hasan, H

    2011-03-01

    The socio-cultural and economic contexts in developing countries influence the epidemiology or STIs and helps in making them an important public health priority. This study was carried out to explore the health care seeking pathway of the women suffering from RTls/STls. influence or major socio-demographic variables on treatment seeking pattern. This cross sectional study was carried out comprising or eight hundred reproductive age (15-49 years) women selected following a multistage sampling procedure. The information pertaining to health seeking behaviour were collected from them using a pre-designed pretested interview schedule. Quantum of RTIs/STIs in the study group was estimated and symptomatics were asked specially about time lag between appearance of symptoms and seeking acre; reason for not seeking care; outcome of treatment they have taken if any. Out of total 359 subjects with symptoms of RTls/STls only about one-third (37.3%) had sought treatment. Only a few (4.5%) had sought treatment within 1 month of appearance of symptoms. Considering it to be physiological about half of the subjects (45.3%) did not seek treatment. The treatment seeking pattern was highly associated with the level of education (p = 0.000). Reluctance in seeking treatment, delay in its initiation, prelerence for unqualified practitioners in first consultation and significant association between education and treatment seeking pattern emphasize BCC and service provision for control and prevention of RTls/STls. PMID:23785881

  6. The influence of ethnic group variation on victimization and help seeking among Latino women.

    PubMed

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schally, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal violence research on Latinos has largely ignored the ethnic group variations that are included under the pan-ethnic term Latino. The current study adds to the literature by utilizing a national sample of Latino women to examine the interpersonal victimization experiences and help-seeking responses to victimization by ethnic group. The sample was drawn from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas Study (SALAS; Cuevas & Sabina, 2010) that surveyed 2,000 self-identified adult Latino women. For the purpose of this study, victimization in the United States was examined among Mexican ethnics (73.3% of sample), Cuban ethnics (14%), and other ethnics (12.8%). Mexican ethnicity was found to be significantly associated with increased odds of experiencing any, physical, sexual, threat, and stalking victimization. Findings also show that higher levels of Latino orientation and being an immigrant were associated with decreased odds of experiencing any victimization, whereas Anglo orientation, as measured by the Brief ARSMA-II (Cuéllar, Arnold, & Maldonado, 1995), was associated with greater odds of experiencing any victimization. Anglo orientation was significantly associated with formal help seeking. Taken as a whole, these findings emphasize the importance of bilingual and culturally competent services and also reveal that culturally competent services includes developing an understanding of the cultural differences between Latino ethnic groups. Specifically, service providers should be aware that Latinos of Mexican ethnicity may face unique risks for victimization. PMID:25111549

  7. Concomitant forms of abuse and help-seeking behavior among white, African American, and Latina women who experience intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Sharon M; Cerulli, Catherine; Zhao, Xi; Tang, Wan; Watts, Arthur; Xia, Yinglin; Talbot, Nancy L

    2011-08-01

    This study uses National Violence against Women Survey data to investigate the differential impact of concomitant forms of violence (sexual abuse, stalking, and psychological abuse) and ethnicity on help-seeking behaviors of women physically abused by an intimate partner (n = 1,756). Controlling for severity of the physical abuse, women who experienced concomitant sexual abuse are less likely to seek help, women who experienced concomitant stalking are more likely to seek help, whereas concomitant psychological abuse is not associated with help seeking. Ethnic differences are found in help seeking from friends, mental health professionals, police, and orders of protection. Implications for service outreach are discussed. PMID:21821618

  8. Problems of Colleagueship for Women Entering the Medical Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutner, Nancy G.; Brogan, Donna R.

    1981-01-01

    Women students from two southern medical schools were found to be as likely as their male peers to hold unfavorable attitudes toward other female students or to be unsure of how they felt. (Author/MK)

  9. Influence of pregnancy perceptions on patterns of seeking antenatal care among women in reproductive age of Masaka District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Atekyereza, Peter R; Mubiru, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    Maternal mortality remains a challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda. Antenatal Care (ANC) is one of the recommended measures to improve maternal and child health. However, the influence of pregnancy definition and perception on patterns of seeking regular and timely antenatal care among women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) is not known. The objectives of this study were to: (i) understand the women's social definitions and perceptions on their pregnancy; (ii) understand the socio-cultural beliefs related to pregnancy among women of the reproductive age group; and, (iii) examine the influence of social definitions, perceptions and beliefs about pregnancy on women's antenatal care seeking behaviour patterns to inform the decentralised health care delivery system in Uganda. A total of 45 women, mothers and expectant women who were purposively selected from Kimanya sub county of Masaka district in Uganda participated in the study. Ten key informant interviews and four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted. Key findings indicate that the women's socio-definitions and perceptions of pregnancy influence their seeking behaviour on antenatal health care. To the women with a positive orientation towards antenatal care, pregnancy provides joy, happiness, pride, promotes their social status and safe-guards their marriage. Pregnancy is rewarding with care, love, support and gifts. Women who shun antenatal care perceive pregnancy to be a source of misery, sadness, pain and suffering. It is an uncomfortable and regrettable experience. Women also hold socio-cultural beliefs on pregnancy, which are culturally constructed and rooted in taboos, rituals and practices of their communities. It is therefore important to sensitise women and those who attend to them when they are pregnant to understand these perceptions and definitions to motivate them to seek antenatal and postnatal care for better maternal and child health. PMID:26891521

  10. “It’s not easy to acknowledge that I’m ill”: a qualitative investigation into the health seeking behavior of rural Palestinian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This qualitative study sets to fill a gap in knowledge by exploring the health seeking behaviour of rural women living in the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt). The existing literature on the oPt has so far focused on unravelling the country’s epidemiological and health system profile, but has largely neglected the assessment of factors shaping people’s decisions on health care use. Methods Based on a conceptual framework rooted in the Anderson behavioural model, we conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with purposely selected women and seven key informant interviews in three purposely selected villages in Ramallah district. Results Our findings indicate that women delay seeking professional care, use self-prescribed medications and home treatment, and do not use preventive and educational health services. Their health seeking behaviour is the result of the interplay of several factors: their gendered socio-cultural role; their health beliefs; financial affordability and geographical accessibility; their perceptions of the quality of care; and their perceived health needs. Conclusions Findings are discussed in the light of their policy implications, suggesting that adequate health policy planning ought to take into considerations socio-cultural dimensions beyond those directly pertinent to the health care system. PMID:23705933

  11. Antepartum morbidities and health seeking behaviour among women in an urban slum of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Jain, Tanu; Garg, Suneela; Singh, M M; Kaushik, Annu; Batra, Sachin; Gupta, V K; Ingle, G K

    2011-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the pattern of antepartum morbidities and its relationship with socio-economic, demographic characteristics and the health seeking behaviour among 214 women in an urban slum community of Delhi. Interviews were conducted in the households using a pretested semi-structured schedule. The age at marriage, age at co-habitation, and age at child-birth were below 18 years in 36.4%, 32.7%, and 5.1% respectively. The average number of antepartum morbidities per woman was 1.7. Commonest morbidities were: Urinary problems (11.2%), swelling over hands and feet (9.3%), fever > 3 days duration (7.5%), antepartum bleeding (7.0%), etc. The antepartum morbidities were found to be significantly higher among wives of illiterate (p = 0.01) husbands and of unskilled workers (p = 0.01). Out of 144 morbidities, consultation was sought for 101 morbidities (70.1%), mostly in a government hospital (78.2%). Main reasons for non-consultation among 43 women were: Non-availability of persons to accompany (32.6%), or to look after the children (23.3%) and feeling unnecessary to consult (23.3%). Study findings revealed the need for family support, sensitising men about women's health problems during pregnancy and education regarding identification of danger signs during pregnancy for reducing maternal morbidity and related mortality. PMID:22187764

  12. Substance use among women receiving post-rape medical care, associated post-assault concerns and current substance abuse: Results from a national telephone household probability sample

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Walsh, Kate; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine post-rape substance use, associated post rape medical and social concern variables, and past year substance abuse among women reporting having received medical care following a most recent or only lifetime incident of rape. Method Using a subsample of women who received post-rape medical care following a most recent or only rape incident (n=104) drawn from a national household probability sample of U.S. women, the current study described the extent of peritraumatic substance use, past year substance misuse behaviors, post-rape HIV and pregnancy concerns, and lifetime mental health service utilization as a function of substance use at time of incident. Results One-third (33%) of women seeking post-rape medical attention reported consuming alcohol or drugs at the time of their rape incident. Nearly one in four (24.7%) and one in seven (15%) women seeking medical attention following their most recent rape incident endorsed drug (marijuana, illicit, non-medical use of prescription drugs, or club drug) use or met substance abuse criteria, respectively, in the past year. One in twelve (8.4%) women reported at least monthly binge drinking in the past year. Approximately two-thirds of women reported seeking services for mental health needs in their lifetime. Post-rape concerns among women reporting peritraumatic substance use were not significantly different from those of women not reporting such use. Conclusions Substance use was reported by approximately one-third of women and past year substance abuse was common among those seeking post-rape medical care. Implications for service delivery, intervention implementation, and future research are discussed. PMID:23380490

  13. Considering Care-Seeking Behaviors Reveals Important Differences Among HIV-Positive Women Not Engaged in Care: Implications for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jason J.; Verdecias, Niko; Cunningham, Chinazo O.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We sought to examine characteristics of HIV-positive women with varying levels of engagement in care and care-seeking behaviors. From 2010 to 2013, in a multi-site US-based study of engagement in care among HIV-positive women, we conducted baseline interviews, which included socio-demographic, clinical, and risk behavior characteristics, and barriers to care. We used multinomial logistic regression to compare differences among three distinct categories of 748 women: engaged in care; not engaged in care, but seeking care (“seekers”); and not engaged in care and not seeking care (“non-seekers”). Compared with women in care, seekers were more likely to be uninsured and to report fair or poor health status. In contrast, non-seekers were not only more likely to be uninsured, but, also, to report current high-risk drug use and sexual behaviors, and less likely to report transportation as a barrier to care. Examining care-seeking behaviors among HIV-positive women not engaged in care revealed important differences in high-risk behaviors. Because non-seekers represent a particularly vulnerable population of women who are not engaged in care, interventions targeting this population likely need to address drug use and be community-based given their limited interaction with the health care system. PMID:25561307

  14. Considering care-seeking behaviors reveals important differences among HIV-positive women not engaged in care: implications for intervention.

    PubMed

    Blackstock, Oni J; Blank, Arthur E; Fletcher, Jason J; Verdecias, Niko; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2015-01-01

    We sought to examine characteristics of HIV-positive women with varying levels of engagement in care and care-seeking behaviors. From 2010 to 2013, in a multi-site US-based study of engagement in care among HIV-positive women, we conducted baseline interviews, which included socio-demographic, clinical, and risk behavior characteristics, and barriers to care. We used multinomial logistic regression to compare differences among three distinct categories of 748 women: engaged in care; not engaged in care, but seeking care ("seekers"); and not engaged in care and not seeking care ("non-seekers"). Compared with women in care, seekers were more likely to be uninsured and to report fair or poor health status. In contrast, non-seekers were not only more likely to be uninsured, but, also, to report current high-risk drug use and sexual behaviors, and less likely to report transportation as a barrier to care. Examining care-seeking behaviors among HIV-positive women not engaged in care revealed important differences in high-risk behaviors. Because non-seekers represent a particularly vulnerable population of women who are not engaged in care, interventions targeting this population likely need to address drug use and be community-based given their limited interaction with the health care system. PMID:25561307

  15. Library use and information-seeking behavior of veterinary medical students revisited in the electronic environment.

    PubMed Central

    Pelzer, N L; Wiese, W H; Leysen, J M

    1998-01-01

    Veterinary medical students at Iowa State University were surveyed in January of 1997 to determine their general use of the Veterinary Medical Library and how they sought information in an electronic environment. Comparisons were made between this study and one conducted a decade ago to determine the effect of the growth in electronic resources on student library use and information-seeking behavior. The basic patterns of student activities in the library, resources used to find current information, and resources anticipated for future education needs remained unchanged. The 1997 students used the library most frequently for photocopying, office supplies, and studying coursework; they preferred textbooks and handouts as sources of current information. However, when these students went beyond textbooks and handouts to seek current information, a major shift was seen from the use of print indexes and abstracts in 1987 towards the use of computerized indexes and other electronic resources in 1997. Almost 60% of the students reported using the Internet for locating current information. Overall use of electronic materials was highest among a group of students receiving the problem-based learning method of instruction. Most of the students surveyed in 1997 indicated that electronic resources would have some degree of importance to them for future education needs. The electronic environment has provided new opportunities for information professionals to help prepare future veterinarians, some of whom will be practicing in remote geographical locations, to access the wealth of information and services available on the Internet and Web. PMID:9681170

  16. Determinants of three stages of delay in seeking care at a medical clinic.

    PubMed

    Safer, M A; Tharps, Q J; Jackson, T C; Leventhal, H

    1979-01-01

    Factors affecting delay were studied in patients seeking treatment for the first time for a particular symptom at clinics in a major, innercity hospital. On the basis of the patients' retrospective report, the total time from first noticing a symptom to the seeking of treatment was divided into three sequential stages: 1) appraisal delay--the time the patient takes to appraise a symptom as a sign of illness; 2) illness delay--the time taken from deciding one is ill until deciding to seek professional medical care; and 3) utilization delay--the time from the decision to seek care until the patient goes to the clinic and uses its services. The variables used to predict the length of delay for each of the three stages and for total delay included reports on concrete, sensory perceptions and abstract, conceptual beliefs about one's symptoms, behavioral factors such as strategies for self-appraisal and techniques for coping with illness, emotional reactions, negative imagery elicited by the illness threat, situational barriers, and socio-demographic factors. Patients experiencing a very painful symptom and patients who did not read about their symptom had a short appraisal delay. Patients with old symptoms and those who imagined possible, severe consequences of their illness had long illness delays. Utilization delay was shortest for persons who were not concerned about the cost of treatment, who had a painful symptom, and who were certain that their symptom could be cured. Patients who had short total delays were persons who did not have a competing personal problem and who had a painful symptom. All of these predictors were significantly correlated with the measure of delay at or beyond the p = .01 level. It was concluded that different factors mediate delay in each of the three stages and that studies which use only a single measure of total delay are likely to be of limited value in understanding delay. PMID:759741

  17. Latin American women's experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted.

    PubMed

    Zamberlin, Nina; Romero, Mariana; Ramos, Silvina

    2012-01-01

    fact that some women eventually need to seek medical care at a hospital where they might be sanctioned for having an abortion and even reported to the police. PMID:23259660

  18. Reproductive health care for asylum-seeking women - a challenge for health professionals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dealing with pregnancy, childbirth and the care of newborn babies is a challenge for female asylum seekers and their health care providers. The aim of our study was to identify reproductive health issues in a population of women seeking asylum in Switzerland, and to examine the care they received. The women were insured through a special Health Maintenance Organisation (HMO) and were attending the Women's Clinic of the University Hospital in Basel. We also investigated how the health professionals involved perceived the experience of providing health care for these patients. Methods A mixed methods approach combined the analysis of quantitative descriptive data and qualitative data obtained from semi-structured interviews with health care providers and from patients' files. We analysed the records of 80 asylum-seeking patients attending the Women's Clinic insured through an HMO. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 care providers from different professional groups. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively. Qualitative data analysis was guided by Grounded Theory. Results The principal health problems among the asylum seekers were a high rate of induced abortions (2.5 times higher than in the local population), due to inadequate contraception, and psychosocial stress due to the experience of forced migration and their current difficult life situation. The language barriers were identified as a major difficulty for health professionals in providing care. Health care providers also faced major emotional challenges when taking care of asylum seekers. Additional problems for physicians were that they were often required to act in an official capacity on behalf of the authorities in charge of the asylum process, and they also had to make decisions about controlling expenditure to fulfil the requirements of the HMO. They felt that these decisions sometimes conflicted with their duty towards the patient. Conclusion Health policies for asylum

  19. Domestic abuse against elder women and perceived barriers to help-seeking.

    PubMed

    Newman, Frederick L; Seff, Laura R; Beaulaurier, Richard L; Palmer, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    The study's (n = 447) purposes were to (1) describe relationships of abuser behavior to elder women's perception of barriers to help-seeking; (2) compare fit of model to participants' levels of abuse, race-ethnicity, age, and gender and relationship of identified close other; and (3) determine extent to which the model differentiated relationship of abuser to participant and level of abuse. Analyses identified six factors contributing to the overall barrier score, accounting for 84% of total variance (χ2/df = 1.527, CFI = .989, RMSEA = .034), including three internal and two external factors and a single abuser behavior factor that were invariant across participant characteristic; however, covariances did differ. PMID:23627428

  20. Searching for Excellence & Diversity: Increasing the Hiring of Women Faculty at One Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Jennifer T.; Fine, Eve; Pribbenow, Christine Maidl; Handelsman, Jo; Carnes, Molly

    2014-01-01

    One opportunity to realize the diversity goals of academic health centers comes at the time of hiring new faculty. To improve the effectiveness of search committees in increasing the gender diversity of faculty hires, the authors created and implemented a training workshop for faculty search committees designed to improve the hiring process and increase the diversity of faculty hires at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. They describe the workshops, which they presented in the School of Medicine and Public Health between 2004 and 2007, and they compare the subsequent hiring of women faculty in participating and nonparticipating departments and the self-reported experience of new faculty within the hiring process. Attendance at the workshop correlates with improved hiring of women faculty and with a better hiring experience for faculty recruits, especially women. The authors articulate successful elements of workshop implementation for other medical schools seeking to increase gender diversity on their faculties. PMID:20505400

  1. Women seeking second opinion for symptomatic uterine leiomyoma: role of comprehensive fibroid center

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to describe our early experience with a comprehensive uterine fibroid center and report our results in women seeking a second opinion for management of symptomatic uterine leiomyoma. Methods We performed a HIPAA-complaint, IRB-approved retrospective study of women seeking second opinion for management of uterine fibroids at our multidisciplinary fibroid treatment center in a tertiary care facility from July 2008 to August 2011. After a review of patients’ history, physical examination, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, treatment options were discussed which included conservative management, uterine-preserving options, and hysterectomy. We performed Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables between the cohort that did or did not undergo a uterine-preserving treatment. Differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. Results The mean age of the 205 patient study cohort was 43.8 years (SD 7.5). One hundred sixty-two (79.0%) patients had no prior therapy. Based on MRI, one or more fibroids were detected in 178/205 (86.8%), adenomyosis in 8/205 (3.9%), and a combination of fibroid and nonfibroid condition (i.e., adenomyosis, endometrial polyp) in 18/205 (8.8%). In those who desired to transition their care to our institution (n = 109), 85 patients underwent 90 interventions: 39 MRgFUS (magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound surgery), 14 UAE (uterine artery embolization), 25 myomectomies, 8 hysterectomies, 3 polypectomies, and 1 endometrial ablation. Five patients had two procedures. Intramural and subserosal fibroids were most commonly treated with MRgFUS followed by myomectomy and then UAE; in contrast, pedunculated fibroids were frequently managed with myomectomy. Conclusions Multidisciplinary fibroid evaluation may facilitate the increase use of less invasive options over hysterectomy for symptomatic fibroid treatment. PMID:25512867

  2. Medical Mistrust and Discrimination in Health Care: A Qualitative Study of Hmong Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, Sheryl; Kue, Jennifer; Keon, Karen Levy; Lo, Patela

    2011-01-01

    Low rates of breast and cervical cancer screening among Hmong women have been documented. Mistrust of Western medicine and the health care system, as well as experiences of discrimination in health care, may be barriers to seeking health care for this population. In this study, we explored medical mistrust among Hmong women and men, their experiences with discrimination in health care, and how these factors may influence Hmong women’s breast and cervical cancer screening behavior. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with women and men who were members of the Hmong community in Oregon. Transcripts of 83 interviews were analyzed using content analysis. Despite personally trusting Western medicine and the health care system, participants shared reasons that some Hmong people feel mistrust including lack of understanding or familiarity, culture, and tradition. Although mistrust was thought to result in delaying or avoiding breast or cervical cancer screening, more frequently trust was described as positively influencing screening. In addition, few participants reported being treated differently during breast or cervical cancer screening because they were Hmong. When discussing health care more broadly, however, some participants described differential (e.g., disrespectful or rude) treatment. Such experiences led to feelings such as anger and sadness and affected behavior, including willingness to seek care and choice of provider. Medical mistrust and perceived discrimination were not major barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening in this study. Additional studies are needed to assess whether our findings reflect the experiences of other Hmong. PMID:22116737

  3. Information Activities in Medical Library : Tokyo Women's Medical College Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Masayuki

    The library facilities, resource materials, training of librarians and so on are described at first. The library collection is that of middle sized medical library. However, since the facilities are not enough to handle it, it is necessary for the library to be supplemented by information services. Then primary information services such as reading of materials, interlibrary loan and journal acquisition system of the recent issues for each laboratory is outlined. Secondary information services centered around on-line information retrieval service, contents sheet service and preparation of index cards are also described. What a medical library should be is considered in terms of its relation to information services.

  4. Ethnic differences in breast cancer prevention information-seeking among rural women: will provider mobile messages work?

    PubMed

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Although growing research supports cancer survivor information-seeking, little is known about breast cancer prevention information-seeking among women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in breast cancer risk factor knowledge, information sources, and desired mobile messages among Hispanic and non-Hispanic rural women. Women were recruited to complete a survey at an imaging center during a mammography screening visit. A total of 156 women (mean age = 61, SD = 12.07) completed the survey. Breast cancer risk factor knowledge was significantly higher for non-Hispanic women compared to Hispanic women (p = .035). Television, magazines, and Internet were the most frequent information sources. Providers were the most frequent interpersonal information source. Nearly 87 % used cell phones and 47 % used texting. Hispanic women were more likely to desire breast cancer prevention cell voice messages (p < .001) and text messages (p = .001) compared to non-Hispanic women. No significant differences were found for text appointment reminders by ethnicity. Health educators and clinicians must promote mobile messages for Hispanics and non-Hispanics for mammography adherence, breast cancer prevention education, and best practices to manage screening appointments. PMID:24163017

  5. Linking Engineering and Medical Training: A USC program seeks to introduce medical and engineering students to medical device development.

    PubMed

    Tolomiczenko, George; Sanger, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Medical students are attracted by the prospect of a meaningful addition to their clinical work. Engineering students are excited by a unique opportunity to learn directly alongside their medical student peers. For both, as well as the scientific community at large, the boutique program at the University of Southern California (USC) linking engineering and medical training at the graduate level is instructive of a new way of approaching engineering education that can potentially provide benefits to both students and society. Students who have grown up in an era of ?mass customization? in the retail and service industries can enjoy that same degree of flexibility also in the realm of education. At the same time, society gains engineers who have developed an increased empathy and awareness of the clinical contexts in which their innovations will be implemented. PMID:26583889

  6. Do students' attitudes toward women change during medical school?

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, S P; Ferguson, K E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medical school has historically reinforced traditional views of women. This cohort study follows implementation of a revitalized curriculum and examines students' attitudes toward women on entry into an Ontario medical school, and 3 years later. METHODS: Of the 75 students entering first year at Queen's University medical school 70 completed the initial survey in September 1994 and 54 were resurveyed in May 1997. First-year students at 2 other Ontario medical schools were also surveyed in 1994, and these 166 respondents formed a comparison group. Changes in responses to statements about sex-role stereotypes, willingness to control decision-making of female patients, and conceptualization of women as "other" or "abnormal" because they are women were examined. Responses from the comparison group were used to indicate whether the Queen's group was representative. RESULTS: Attitudinal differences between the primary group and the comparison group were not significant. After 3 years of medical education students were somewhat less accepting of sex-role stereotypes and less controlling in the doctor-patient encounter. They continued, however, to equate adults with men and to see women as "not adult" or "other." Female students began and remained somewhat more open-minded in all areas studied. INTERPRETATION: A predicted trend toward conservatism was not seen as students became older, more aware and closer to completion of medical training, although they continued to equate adults with male and to see women as "other." Findings may validate new curricular approaches and increased attention to gender issues in the academic environment. PMID:10065081

  7. Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border.

    PubMed

    Bochaton, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's. PMID:25454637

  8. A systematic review of the factors associated with delays in medical and psychological help-seeking among men.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Omar; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A; Hunter, Myra S

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the factors associated with men's low rates of medical and psychological help-seeking, a systematic review of these is missing. Such an overview can help to inform health psychologists of the barriers to the performance of adaptive health behaviours, such as prompt help-seeking, and could inform theoretical advancements and the development of targeted interventions to facilitate prompt help-seeking among men. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative empirical papers on factors associated with delays in men's medical and psychological help-seeking. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed, and we used the databases PsycINFO, Medline, Embase and PsycARTICLES (with keywords: men/male*/gender*, help*/seek* and health*/service*/utili*[sation]) for papers in English. 41 citations (amounting to 21,787 participants aged 15-80 + ) met the inclusion criteria. Approximately half of these used qualitative methodologies (i.e., semi-structured interviews and focus groups), while half used quantitative methodologies (i.e., questionnaires). We identify a number of recurring cognitive, emotional, health-service related and socio-demographic help-seeking factors/predictors from the 41 papers. Of these, the most prominent barriers to help-seeking were disinclination to express emotions/concerns about health, embarrassment, anxiety and fear, and poor communication with health-care professionals. PMID:26209212

  9. Narratives of Ugandan women adhering to HIV/AIDS medication.

    PubMed

    Matovu, Sarah Natalia; La cour, Karen; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2012-12-01

    Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is essential to improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS; however, it still remains a challenge especially for young African women. The purpose of the study was to explore how young women with HIV/AIDS in Uganda experience the influence of their everyday life occupations on adherence to HAART after more than 1 year on the medication. Narratives of six participants were elicited using two semistructured interviews within a period of 1 month. Narrative analysis was used to develop themes reflecting the participants' stories of coping with everyday activities. The participants described their adherence to HAART in relation to everyday life occupations as a "tug of war", which describes the struggles they had taking medication because they were afraid of being discriminated by peers and the general society. They also expressed fear of not being included in many activities if people knew they have HIV/AIDS because there are many beliefs associated with the illness especially for young women in which they are branded promiscuous. However, in the Ugandan culture, women are considered to be home makers, which restricted their activities mostly around domestic work making it hard for them to prioritize their medication, and when they young women prioritized, it was all about fun activities that seemed to consume much time, hence contributing to the poor adherence. It is therefore important to assess the everyday occupations of young women before they start taking medication, so that HAART is scheduled in accordance with their everyday life occupation to reduce poor adherence. The implications of the study on practice is that it will enable occupational therapists working with persons with HIV/AIDS develop age-specific activities taking into consideration HAART as an everyday life activity rather than one that needs to be incorporated into their already existing activities, hence improving their

  10. Within the Bounds: The Role of Relocation on Intimate Partner Violence Help-Seeking for Immigrant and Native Women With Histories of Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Crisafi, Denise N; Jasinski, Jana L

    2016-07-01

    Our study examines the effects of abused women's relocation and recentness to an area on informal and formal help-seeking, and how access to personal and social resources affect these relationships. Secondary data analysis was conducted using a sample of 572 women with histories of abuse and homelessness who were interviewed at shelters in the state of Florida. Findings from nested linear regressions demonstrate that relocation affects formal help-seeking while recentness to an area affects informal help-seeking. Access to personal resources also predicts women's use of both informal and formal resources. Implications for intimate partner violence help-seeking are discussed. PMID:26612273

  11. Differential Associations Between Partner Violence and Physical Health Symptoms Among Caucasian and African American Help-Seeking Women

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Katherine M.; Bauer, Margret R.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Pineles, Suzanne L.; Harrington, Ellen F.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between partner violence and physical health symptoms is well-established. Although some researchers have theorized that the physical health effects of partner violence may be worse for ethnic minority women, there is little research addressing this topic. The current study examined whether African American women demonstrate a differential association in this relationship than Caucasian women. This study included 323 women (232 African American, 91 Caucasian) who participated in a larger investigation of the psychological and psychophysiological correlates of recent partner violence among women seeking help for the abuse. Race was examined as a moderator of the relationship between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms. Although mean levels of partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms did not significantly differ between African American and Caucasian women, linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant positive relationship between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms for African American women; whereas there was no association observed between these variables for Caucasian women. Post hoc analyses revealed that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms partially mediated the association between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms for the African American women. The current findings underscore the importance of considering race when studying the effect of partner violence on women’s health. PMID:23616911

  12. Reproductive Tract Infections and Treatment Seeking Behavior among Married Adolescent Women 15-19 Years in India

    PubMed Central

    Prusty, Ranjan Kumar; Unisa, Sayeed

    2013-01-01

    Background: India is home to the highest number of adolescents in the world. Adolescents in India suffer from lack of knowledge and empowerment to make informed sexual and reproductive health decisions. This paper analyses the prevalence of reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted infections (RTI/STI) and treatment seeking behavior among married adolescent women in India aged 15-19 years. Methods: Data from the District Level Household Survey (DLHS, 2007-08) of India were used. The prevalence of RTIs symptoms and treatment seeking behavior among women by different socio-demographic characteristics was analyzed. Factor analysis was utilized to create an index using information about 11 symptoms of RTI/STI collected in the survey. Linear and binary logistic regressions were used to know the association between infections and treatment seeking behavior with socio-demographic factors. Results: About 15 percent of adolescent women reported having any symptoms of RTI/STI. The main symptoms reported were low backache, pain in the lower abdomen, pain during intercourse and itching or irritation around the vulvar region. Factor analysis showed the concentration of diseases in three clusters - infection in around the vulva, other reproductive infection and abnormal discharge; and intercourse related problems. Major predictors of both symptoms of reproductive infections and treatment seeking behavior from multivariate analysis are age, education, wealth, region and awareness about RTI/STI. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Knowledge and treatment seeking behavior is poor among adolescent women in India. There is need for programmatic and policy emphasis on increasing knowledge and awareness through family life education including in educational curriculum at school level.

  13. Ethnic differences in cancer symptom awareness and barriers to seeking medical help in England

    PubMed Central

    Niksic, Maja; Rachet, Bernard; Warburton, Fiona G; Forbes, Lindsay J L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ethnic differences in cancer symptom awareness and barriers to seeking medical help in the English population are not fully understood. We aimed to quantify these differences, to help develop more effective health campaigns, tailored to the needs of different ethnic groups. Methods: Using a large national data set (n=38 492) of cross-sectional surveys that used the Cancer Research UK Cancer Awareness Measure, we examined how cancer symptom awareness and barriers varied by ethnicity, controlling for socio-economic position, age and gender. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Awareness of cancer symptoms was lower in minority ethnic groups than White participants, with the lowest awareness observed among Bangladeshis and Black Africans. Ethnic minorities were more likely than White British to report barriers to help-seeking. South Asians reported the highest emotional barriers, such as lack of confidence to talk to the doctor, and practical barriers, such as worry about many other things. The Irish were more likely than the White British to report practical barriers, such as being too busy to visit a doctor. White British participants were more likely than any other ethnic group to report that they would feel worried about wasting the doctor's time. Overall, Black Africans had the lowest barriers. All differences were statistically significant (P<0.01 level), after controlling for confounders. Conclusions: Our findings suggest the need for culturally sensitive and targeted health campaigns, focused on improving recognition of cancer symptoms among ethnic minorities. Campaigns should tackle the specific barriers prevalent in each ethnic group. PMID:27280638

  14. Labour exploitation and health: a case series of men and women seeking post-trafficking services.

    PubMed

    Turner-Moss, Eleanor; Zimmerman, Cathy; Howard, Louise M; Oram, Siân

    2014-06-01

    Research on the health of trafficked men and on the health problems associated with trafficking for labor exploitation are extremely limited. This study analysed data from a case series of anonymised case records of a consecutive sample of 35 men and women who had been trafficked for labor exploitation in the UK and who were receiving support from a non-governmental service between June 2009 and July 2010. Over three-quarters of our sample was male (77 %) and two-thirds aged between 18 and 35 years (mean 32.9 years, SD 10.2). Forty percent reported experiencing physical violence while they were trafficked. Eighty-one percent (25/31) reported one or more physical health symptoms. Fifty-seven percent (17/30) reported one or more post-traumatic stress symptoms. A substantial proportion of men and women who are trafficked for labor exploitation may experience violence and abuse, and have physical and mental health symptoms. People who have been trafficked for forced labor need access to medical assessment and treatment. PMID:23649665

  15. Is military sexual trauma associated with trading sex among women veterans seeking outpatient mental health care?

    PubMed

    Strauss, Jennifer L; Marx, Christine E; Weitlauf, Julie C; Stechuchak, Karen M; Straits-Troster, Kristy; Worjoloh, Ayaba W; Sherrod, Christina B; Olsen, Maren K; Butterfield, Marian I; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2011-01-01

    A robust association between sexual trauma and trading sex has been documented in civilian samples but has not been examined in veterans. Women veterans experience high rates of sexual victimization across the lifespan, including during military service (military sexual trauma [MST]). Associations between MST and trading sex were examined in 200 women enrolled in a crosssectional study of HIV risks and seroprevalence among women receiving outpatient mental health care at a Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center. Each woman completed an assessment interview composed of validated measures that queried childhood sexual trauma; substance use; and risk behaviors, including trading sex for money, drugs, shelter, food, or other things. History of MST was derived from mandated VA screening results and chart notes. Overall, 19.7% reported a history of trading sex. Those who reported trading sex had a higher rate of MST than those who did not report trading sex (87.2% vs. 62.9%, respectively). A multivariable logistic regression model examined the relationship between trading sex and MST, controlling a priori for substance abuse and childhood sexual trauma (both associated with trading sex in civilian samples) and education, which was associated with trading sex in our sample. In this adjusted model, MST was associated with trading sex: odds ratio = 3.26, p = .025, 95% confidence interval = [1.16, 9.18]. To our knowledge, this is the 1st report of an association between MST and trading sex. Results extend previously observed associations between sexual trauma and trading sex in civilian cohorts and underscore the pernicious influence of sexual victimization across the lifespan. PMID:21534097

  16. ‘Friendly allies in raising a child’: a survey of men and women seeking elective co-parenting arrangements via an online connection website

    PubMed Central

    Jadva, V.; Freeman, T.; Tranfield, E.; Golombok, S.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the characteristics, motivations and expectations of men and women who search for a co-parent online? SUMMARY ANSWER Male and female prospective co-parents differed in terms of their motivations, choice of co-parent and expectations of co-parenting, while differences according to sexual orientation were less marked. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Very few studies have addressed the experiences of elective co-parents, i.e. men and women who are not in a relationship with each other creating and raising a child together. No study has examined the motivations and experiences of those who seek co-parents online. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION An online survey was completed by 102 participants (61 men, 41 women) who were members of Pride Angel, an online connection website that facilitates contact between people looking for someone with whom to have a child. The survey was live for 7 weeks. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Details of the survey were emailed to all members of Pride Angel. The survey obtained data on participants' demographic characteristics, motivations, choice of co-parent and expectations of co-parenting. Data were analysed to examine differences by gender and by sexual orientation within each gender. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Approximately one-third of men and one half of women seeking co-parenting arrangements were heterosexual. The majority (69, 68%) of participants were single, although significantly more gay and bisexual men (15, 36%) and lesbian and bisexual women (11, 55%) had a partner compared with heterosexual men (4, 20%) and heterosexual women (2, 12%), respectively. Overall, the most important motivation for seeking co-parenting arrangements was in order for both biological parents to be involved in the child's upbringing. Co-parents were looking for someone with a good medical history. Most female co-parents expected the child to live with them, whereas male co-parents either wished the child to reside

  17. Medical and surgical therapies for alopecias in black women.

    PubMed

    Callender, Valerie D; McMichael, Amy J; Cohen, George F

    2004-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem that challenges the patient and clinician with a host of cosmetic, psychological and medical issues. Alopecia occurs in both men and women, and in all racial and ethnic populations, but the etiology varies considerably from group to group. In black women, many forms of alopecia are associated with hair-care practices (e.g., traction alopecia, trichorrhexis nodosa, and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia). The use of thermal or chemical hair straightening, and hair braiding or weaving are examples of styling techniques that place African American women at high risk for various "traumatic" alopecias. Although the exact cause of these alopecias is unknown, a multifactorial etiology including both genetic and environmental factors is suspected. A careful history and physical examination, together with an acute sensitivity to the patient's perceptions (e.g., self-esteem and social problems), are critical in determining the best therapy course. Therapeutic options for these patients range from alteration of current hair grooming practices or products, to use of specific medical treatments, to hair replacement surgery. Since early intervention is often a key to preventing irreversible alopecia, the purpose of the present article is to educate the dermatologist on all aspects of therapy for hair loss in black women--including not only a discussion of the main medical and surgical therapies but also an overview of ethnic hair cosmetics, specific suggestions for alterations of hair-care practices, and recommendations for patient education and compliance. PMID:15113284

  18. Peri-Abortion Contraceptive Choices of Migrant Chinese Women: A Retrospective Review of Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Sally B.; Wei, Zhang; Cooper, Annette J.; Lawton, Beverley A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Migrant Asian women reportedly have low levels of contraceptive use and high rates of abortion in New Zealand. Chinese make up the largest proportion of migrant Asian in New Zealand. This study aimed to describe the contraceptive choices of Chinese women seeking abortion; to examine method choice in relation to demographic characteristics (including length of stay) and to determine whether Chinese women were over-represented among abortion clinic attendees. Methods Retrospective review of medical records at a public hospital abortion clinic involving 305 Chinese women. Previously collected data for European (n = 277) and Maori women (n = 128) were used for comparative analyses. Regression analyses explored correlates of contraceptive method choice. Population census data were used to calculate rates of clinic attendance across ethnic groups. Results Chinese women were not over-represented among clinic attendees, and had similar rates of contraceptive non-use pre-abortion as women in comparison groups. Use of the oral contraceptive pill by Chinese was lower pre-abortion than for other ethnic groups, but choice of this method post-abortion was similar for Chinese (46.9%, 95% CI 41–52.7) and European women (43.7%, 95% CI 37.8–49.7). Post-abortion choice of an intrauterine device did not differ significantly between Chinese (28.9%, 95% CI 23.8–34.3) and Maori women (37%, 95% CI 28.4–45.7), but was higher than uptake of this method by European women (21.7%, 95% CI 17–27.0). Age, parity and previous abortion were significant predictors of post-abortion method choice by Chinese women (p<0.05). Conclusions Following contraceptive counseling at the clinic, Chinese women chose more effective contraceptive methods for use post-abortion than they had used previously. As the population of migrant Chinese in New Zealand continues to increase, strategies are urgently needed to provide new arrivals with appropriate information and advice about

  19. Psychosocial factors in maternal phenylketonuria: women's adherence to medical recommendations.

    PubMed Central

    Waisbren, S E; Hamilton, B D; St James, P J; Shiloh, S; Levy, H L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study identified factors predicting adherence to medical recommendations in maternal phenylketonuria, which can result in severe fetal damage. METHODS. Sixty-nine women with phenylketonuria, 68 of their acquaintances, and 69 women with diabetes mellitus were interviewed annually for 5 years. A model in which each stage in the maternal phenylketonuria life cycle represented a treatment-related goal provided a means to assess adherence. RESULTS. At the stages of prevention of unplanned pregnancy, treatment initiation, and diet continuation throughout pregnancy, attitudes and social support were associated with adherence to medical recommendations. No specific variables were associated with outcome at reproductive decision making, but women with phenylketonuria were more likely to delay making a decision, resulting in unplanned and, hence, untreated or late-treated pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS. Women with phenylketonuria differed from their acquaintances and diabetic women in many respects, suggesting that special programs are needed. Greater emphasis on reproductive decision making is especially needed. Interventions that focus on improving social support networks and attitudes about treatment may increase adherence to recommendations. PMID:7503337

  20. Gender, Sexual Health Seeking Behavior, and HIV/AIDS Among Tarok Women in North-Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Orisaremi, Titilayo Cordelia

    2016-06-01

    In this study, which was part of a larger project I undertook in North-central Nigeria, I explored the differences in the sexual health seeking behavior of Tarok women and men and how these differences affect the spread of HIV. With the help of three research assistants, I conducted 16 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in four Tarok communities in North-central Nigeria. I found certain negative effects of gender inequality on women's sexual health seeking behavior in particular, a situation that has adverse implications for HIV acquisition and transmission. I therefore concluded that addressing the challenges of gender inequality is imperative for a sustained fight against HIV and AIDS in Nigeria. PMID:25365697

  1. A Pilot Study of Seeking Safety in a Sample of German Women Outpatients with Substance Dependence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Dorina; Grundmann, Johanna; Schulze, Claudia; Stubenvoll, Martina; Kosar, Marita; Junker, Marita; Najavits, Lisa M; Schäfer, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Seeking Safety is an integrated coping skills therapy for substance use disorder (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Our aim was to examine the effects of Seeking Safety in a sample of female German outpatients with current SUD and PTSD. A total of 53 women were offered 12 weekly sessions of Seeking Safety, conducted in group modality. Women (N=33) who attended at least six sessions were considered minimum-dose completers and were in the analysis. We measured PTSD and substance use symptoms using the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI-Lite) at end-of-treatment and three-month follow-up. Additional measures were the Brief Symptom Checklist (BSI) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-25). Our sample reported chronic SUD, multiple prior detoxifications, and serious childhood trauma. We found medium to large effect sizes for improvements in PTSD symptoms, general psychopathology, and interpersonal problems at end-of-treatment, all of which were sustained at follow-up. Alcohol use improved significantly only at follow-up. This study suggests that the model was associated with positive effects, at least in a subgroup of women attending a minimum of sessions. Limitations include the lack of a control condition as well as an intention-to-treat analysis. PMID:26514284

  2. An internet forum analysis of stigma power perceptions among women seeking fertility treatment in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Natalie Anne; Saint Onge, Jarron M

    2015-12-01

    Infertility is a condition that affects nearly 30 percent of women aged 25-44 in the United States. Though past research has addressed the stigmatization of infertility, few have done so in the context of stigma management between fertile and infertile women. In order to assess evidence of felt and enacted stigma, we employed a thematic content analysis of felt and enacted stigma in an online infertility forum, Fertile Thoughts, to analyze 432 initial threads by women in various stages of the treatment-seeking process. We showed that infertile women are frequently stigmatized for their infertility or childlessness and coped through a variety of mechanisms including backstage joshing and social withdrawal. We also found that infertile women appeared to challenge and stigmatize pregnant women for perceived immoral behaviors or lower social status. We argue that while the effects of stigma power are frequently perceived and felt in relationships between infertile women and their fertile peers, the direction of the enacted stigma is related to social standing and feelings of fairness and reinforces perceived expressions of deserved motherhood in the United States. PMID:26584236

  3. Health information seeking and use outside of the medical encounter: is it associated with race and ethnicity?

    PubMed

    Rooks, Ronica N; Wiltshire, Jacqueline C; Elder, Keith; BeLue, Rhonda; Gary, Lisa C

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adults in the United States of America (USA) are seeking and using health information within their medical encounters. The theory of uncertainty management suggests that patients reduce health care uncertainty by increasing their understanding of disease etiology or treatment options, improving patient-doctor communication, and enhancing knowledge of disease self-management through health information seeking. However, research shows racial and ethnic minorities are less likely than Whites to seek health information and use it in their physician visits. How racial and ethnic minorities use health information outside of their medical encounters is unknown. In this study we used data from the 2007 USA Health Tracking Household survey, a nationally-representative survey of civilian, non-institutionalized Americans (n = 12,549). Using logistic regression we found African Americans were no different from Whites in seeking health information and using it when they talked with their doctors. Latinos were significantly less likely than Whites to seek health information and less likely to use it when they talked with their doctors. But, among those who sought health information, African Americans and Latinos were significantly more likely than Whites to use health information to change their approach to maintaining their health and better understand how to treat illnesses. Also, education significantly moderated the relationship between race/ethnicity and health information seeking. However, results were mixed for education as a moderator in the relationship between race/ethnicity and health information use. Future research should focus on interventions to improve how African Americans and Latinos interface with providers and ensure that health information sought and used outside of their medical encounters augments treatment protocols. PMID:22154611

  4. Violence-related coping, help-seeking and health care-based intervention preferences among perinatal women in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Decker, Michele R; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Sabri, Bushra; Jethva, Meghna; Raj, Anita; Donta, Balaiah; Silverman, Jay G

    2013-06-01

    Domestic violence is a significant public health issue. India is uniquely affected with an estimated 1 in 3 women facing abuse at the hands of a partner. The current mixed-methods study describes violence-related coping and help-seeking, and preferences for health care-based intervention, among perinatal women residing in low-income communities in Mumbai, India. In-depth interviews were conducted with women who had recently given birth and self-reported recent violence from husbands (n = 32), followed by survey data collection (n = 1,038) from mothers seeking immunization for their infants ages 6 months or younger at 3 large urban health centers in Mumbai, India. Participants described fears and other barriers to abuse disclosure, and there was a low level of awareness of formal support services related to violence. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicated that formal help-seeking is uncommon and that informal help sources are most frequently sought. Quantitative results revealed that, while few (<5%) women had been screened for violence in the health care setting, most (67%) would be willing to disclose abuse if asked. When presented with a list of possible clinic-based violence support interventions, participants endorsed crisis counseling and safety planning as most helpful (90.9%). Findings provide direction for violence-related intervention services for perinatal women. A multipronged approach that includes strengthening the informal support system, for example, neighbors and family members, as well as facilitating access to formal services building on the health care system, warrants exploration in this context. PMID:23295374

  5. Seeking the Holy Grail or the Status of Women in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Annette M.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews some of the progress in the last 15 years in counseling women. It notes that at this stage of the status of counseling women, there is a need to treat women as individuals who are as different from each other as they are from men. (NG)

  6. Patterns of seeking medical care among Egyptian breast cancer patients: relationship to late-stage presentation.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Shimaa M; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A; Hablas, Ahmed; Elbana, Eman S; Soliman, Amr S

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Egyptian women, accounting for 37.6% of female tumors, and is often diagnosed at later stages. The objective of this study was to investigate breast cancer patient navigation through the health care system in the Nile Delta. Interviews were conducted with 163 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients at the Tanta Cancer Center (TCC), the major cancer center of the region. Patients described their medical care pathway from the initial symptom experienced until their arrival at TCC. Patients whose initial contact was with a general surgeon (OR: 7.6, 95% CI: 2.1, 27.6), primary care provider (OR: 12.2, 95% CI: 2.9, 51.0), or gynecologist (OR: 8.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 53.4) were significantly more likely to experience a delay in reaching the TCC as compared to those visiting a surgical oncologist. Overcoming health care system and patient navigation barriers in developing countries may reduce the time for breast cancer patients to reach a cancer center for early management. PMID:21807518

  7. Why support a women's medical college? Philadelphia's early male medical pro-feminists.

    PubMed

    Peitzman, Steven J

    2003-01-01

    The male founders and early faculty of Philadelphia's Woman's Medical College were mostly abolitionist physicians, zealous moralists for whom medical feminism formed only one of the cherished causes they could "manfully" and righteously defend. Male faculty of the late nineteenth century comprised "self-made" men, mostly new specialists, for whom strict sexism probably seemed inconsistent with progressive medicine. For some of these physicians-obviously a small minority-defending medical women and breaking the barriers of fraternity could be consistent with "manly" responsibility. The outcome of the collaboration of women and the dissident men physicians in nineteenth-century Philadelphia amounted to another seeming paradox: the majority of the male medical profession, both locally and nationally, tyrannically hindered women's entry into the profession, yet medicine opened its doors in advance of law and the clergy; and where this first occurred, such as in the community centered on Woman's Medical College, a novel gender rearrangement arose based on collaboration and friendship. PMID:14523261

  8. Contraceptive practices among women seeking termination of pregnancy in one public hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Oluwole, Ebenezer O.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is significantly high contraceptive knowledge in South Africa, but the uptake of contraceptives is average to low with resultant soaring of unplanned pregnancy and rising statistics of termination of pregnancy (TOP) services. This study aimed to establish the contraceptive practices among women in the South African population seeking TOP in one public hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among women seeking TOP in a women’s clinic. Self-administered questionnaires were used as data collection tool, and the data collected were entered into SPSS software for analysis, using descriptive statistics to calculate frequencies and percentages while chi-square test was used to determine the associations between the socio-demography and contraceptive practices of the participants. Results Majority of the women were aged between 20 and 29 years, had secondary education, unemployed, single and resided in townships. Contraceptive uptake prior to termination of pregnancy (CTOP) among them was 44.1%, but 85.8% had good contraceptives knowledge. Their contraceptive practices are determined by partner’s opinion, source and availability of contraceptives, previous CTOP, side effect of contraceptives and having children. Age group, educational level and employment status were found to be related to the contraceptive practices of the participants but were not statistically significant. Conclusion To reduce unplanned pregnancies and subsequent number of women seeking CTOP, the socio-economic factors associated with contraceptive practices as well as the programmes, policies and guidelines of contraceptives need to be improved on for any improvement on the factors determining contraceptive practices. PMID:27608676

  9. Fourth World Conference on Women. Seeking action for equality, development, peace.

    PubMed

    Seufert-barr, N

    1995-06-01

    There is a strong international push to secure broader rights for women. In the 20 years since the first global conference on women's issues was held in Mexico City, governments have adopted legislation which promotes equal opportunity, treatment, and rights, and women are entering the labor market in unprecedented numbers. There is evidence that investments in women have had an enormous impact upon society overall, but millions of individual women continue to face discrimination in social, economic, political, and cultural spheres. They are disproportionately denied access to positions of leadership, undereducated, underpaid, die from complications related to childbirth and unsafe abortions, and are battered and killed by men. The Fourth World Conference on Women will be held September 4-15, 1995, in Beijing, to allow participants to assess the progress and shortfalls of the past two decades and identify action to be taken into the next century. The UN-sponsored global meeting will offer governments, nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, and individuals the opportunity to review their efforts and renew their commitment to improve the equality and conditions of women and defend their human rights. The main objectives are to adopt a plan of action against obstacles to the advancement of women worldwide, to determine priority actions to be taken by the international community over the period 1996-2001, and to mobilize men and women at the grassroots level to achieve those objectives. A parallel nongovernmental organization forum on women will be held August 30 - September 8, also in Beijing. PMID:12289951

  10. Why do women seek ultrasound scans from commercial providers during pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Julie; Griffiths, Frances E; Verran, Alice; Ayre, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The commercial availability of ultrasound scans for pregnant women has been controversial yet little is known about why women make use of such services. This article reports on semi-structured interviews with women in the UK who have booked a commercial scan, focusing on the reasons women gave for booking commercially provided ultrasound during a low-risk pregnancy. Participants' reasons for booking a scan are presented in five categories: finding out the sex of the foetus; reassurance; seeing the baby; acquiring keepsakes and facilitating bonding. Our analysis demonstrates that women's reasons for booking commercial scans are often multiple and are shaped by experiences of antenatal care as well as powerful cultural discourses related to 'good' parenting and the use of technology in pregnancy. Sociological and public debate about the availability of commercial ultrasound and its social and personal impacts should consider the wider sociocultural context that structures women's choices to make use of such services. PMID:26094706

  11. Seeking medical advice if HIV symptoms are suspected. Qualitative study of beliefs among HIV-negative gay men.

    PubMed Central

    Godin, G.; Naccache, H.; Pelletier, R.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify beliefs associated with seeking medical advice promptly when symptoms of HIV infection are suspected among HIV-negative gay men. DESIGN: Qualitative study of beliefs among focus group participants. SETTING: Quebec city, Que, metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Referred sample of 20 HIV-negative gay men 18 to 45 years old who attended bars, university, or gay associations in Quebec city. METHOD: Three focus groups of five to seven subjects were formed and each 2-hour session was tape-recorded. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: Participants thought that seeking medical advice promptly when symptoms of HIV are suspected would help them be informed about their health status and would eliminate unnecessary anxiety and fear, but would force them to face reality and make major changes. Barriers were the quality of the relationship with their physicians and concern about discussing their sexual lives. Normative beliefs were sought from members of community groups, circles of close friends, health providers, and the media. CONCLUSIONS: Several beliefs could influence the motivation of seronegative gay men to seek medical advice promptly when symptoms of HIV infection are suspected. These beliefs should be integrated into programs promoting early consultation with physicians and into clinical counseling, as integration could facilitate early treatment and care. Physicians should give special attention to establishing relationships of trust with these patients. PMID:10790818

  12. Study of the Types of Domestic Violence Committed Against Women Referred to the Legal Medical Organization in Urmia - Iran

    PubMed Central

    Aghakhani, Nader; Sharif Nia, Hamid; Moosavi, Ehsan; Eftekhari, Ali; Zarei, Abbas; Bahrami, Nasim; Nikoonejad, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Today, domestic violence against women is a growing epidemic that can be observed in many countries. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the types of domestic violence against women who were referred to the Legal Medical Organization of Iran in Urmia, Iran in 2012. Materials and Methods: The descriptive survey included demographic information, abuse screening, and items regarding partner involvement. Data was gathered using face-to-face structured interviews. The study population included 300, women 18 years of age or older, and data was collected about their demographic characteristics and the types of domestic violence they experienced. SPSS software version 16 was used for the analyses. Results: The majority of participants were in the 25 – 30 age group, and 83% of them were battered by their husbands in various ways. No significant relationships were observed between violence and unemployment, increasing age, and home ownership. Conclusions: The prevalence of abuse reported by women in this population suggests that many women that are referred to the Legal Medical Organization of Iran may have a history of abuse. Abused women may have different reasons for seeking a divorce. If routine screening for abuse is included in counseling, health providers will have the opportunity to develop a safety plan and initiate appropriate referrals. PMID:26834806

  13. Ondansetron and sertraline may interact with 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 polymorphisms to reduce drinking in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent women: exploratory findings

    PubMed Central

    Kenna, George A.; Zywiak, William H.; Swift, Robert M.; McGeary, John E.; Clifford, James S.; Shoaff, Jessica R.; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 exon III polymorphisms with gender in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent (AD) individuals while alternately taking ondansetron and sertraline. Evidence suggests that alcohol dependence may be influenced by a genetic interaction that may be gender specific with temporal changes making pharmacological treatment with serotonergic drugs complex. The main trial was a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory study with 77 non-treatment-seeking AD individuals randomized (55 completed, 49 complete data) to receive 200mg/day of sertraline or 0.5mg/day of ondansetron for 3-weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then placebo for three weeks followed by a second ASAE, then receive the alternate drug, in a counterbalanced order, for three weeks followed by a third ASAE. Results for men were not significant. Women with the LL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving ondansetron and SS/SL 5-HTTLPR genotypes receiving sertraline (matched), drank significantly fewer drinks per drinking day (DDD) during the 7-days prior to the first and third ASAEs than women receiving the mismatched medication (i.e. sertraline to LL and ondansetron to SS/SL). In a three-way interaction, 5-HTTLPR alleles by DRD4 alleles by medications, women with the LL genotype who received ondansetron and had DRD4 ≥7 exon III repeats drank significantly fewer DDD as did SS/SL women who received sertraline but conversely had DRD4 <7-repeats in the 7-day period leading up to the first and third ASAEs. Consistent with these data was a significant reduction of milliliters consumed ad lib during these same ASAEs. These exploratory findings add possible support to gender and genetic differences among AD individuals in response to serotonergic pharmacotherapies. Future trials should be powerful enough to take into account that endophenotypes and a targeting of serotonergic interactions

  14. Ondansetron and sertraline may interact with 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 polymorphisms to reduce drinking in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent women: exploratory findings.

    PubMed

    Kenna, George A; Zywiak, William H; Swift, Robert M; McGeary, John E; Clifford, James S; Shoaff, Jessica R; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 exon III polymorphisms with gender in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals while alternately taking ondansetron and sertraline. Evidence suggests that alcohol dependence may be influenced by a genetic interaction that may be gender-specific with temporal changes making pharmacological treatment with serotonergic drugs complex. The main trial was a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory study with 77 non-treatment-seeking AD individuals randomized (55 completed, 49 complete data) to receive 200 mg/day of sertraline or 0.5 mg/day of ondansetron for 3 weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then placebo for 3 weeks followed by a second ASAE, then receive the alternate drug, in a counterbalanced order, for 3 weeks followed by a third ASAE. Results for men were not significant. Women with the LL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving ondansetron and SS/SL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving sertraline (matched), drank significantly fewer drinks per drinking day (DDD) during the 7 days prior to the first and third ASAEs than women receiving the mismatched medication (i.e., sertraline to LL and ondansetron to SS/SL). In a 3-way interaction, 5-HTTLPR alleles by DRD4 alleles by medications, women with the LL genotype who received ondansetron and had DRD4≥7 exon III repeats drank significantly fewer DDD as did SS/SL women who received sertraline but conversely had DRD4<7 repeats in the 7-day period leading up to the first and third ASAEs. Consistent with these data was a significant reduction of milliliters consumed ad libitum during these same ASAEs. These exploratory findings add possible support to gender and genetic differences among AD individuals in response to serotonergic pharmacotherapies. Future trials should be powerful enough to take into account that endophenotypes and a targeting of serotonergic interactions may be

  15. Women's Health in Women's Hands: A Pilot Study Assessing the Feasibility of Providing Women With Medications to Reduce Postpartum Hemorrhage and Sepsis in Rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Gail C.; Chirangi, Bwire

    2014-01-01

    In rural Africa, deaths from childbirth are common and access to health care facilities with skilled providers is very limited. Leading causes of death for women are bleeding and infection. In this pilot study, we establish the feasibility of distributing oral medications to women in rural Tanzania to self-administer after delivery to reduce bleeding and infection. Of the 642 women provided with medications, 90% of the women took them appropriately, while the remaining 10% did not require them. We conclude that is it feasible to distribute oral medications to rural women to self-administer after delivery. PMID:24786175

  16. Domestic violence and mental health: a cross-sectional survey of women seeking help from domestic violence support services

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Giulia; Agnew-Davies, Roxane; Bailey, Jayne; Howard, Louise; Howarth, Emma; Peters, Tim J.; Sardinha, Lynnmarie; Feder, Gene Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Background Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) are associated with increased risk of mental illness, but we know little about the mental health of female DVA survivors seeking support from domestic violence services. Objective Our goal was to characterise the demography and mental health of women who access specialist DVA services in the United Kingdom and to investigate associations between severity of abuse and measures of mental health and health state utility, accounting for important confounders and moderators. Design Baseline data on 260 women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a psychological intervention for DVA survivors were analysed. We report the prevalence of and associations between mental health status and severity of abuse at the time of recruitment. We used logistic and normal regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. The following mental health measures were used: Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment, and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale to measure posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) measured abuse. Results Exposure to DVA was high, with a mean CAS score of 56 (SD 34). The mean CORE-OM score was 18 (SD 8) with 76% above the clinical threshold (95% confidence interval: 70–81%). Depression and anxiety levels were high, with means close to clinical thresholds, and more than three-quarters of respondents recorded PTSD scores above the clinical threshold. Symptoms of mental illness increased stepwise with increasing severity of DVA. Conclusions Women DVA survivors who seek support from DVA services have recently experienced high levels of abuse, depression, anxiety, and especially PTSD. Clinicians need to be aware that patients presenting with mental health conditions or symptoms of depression or anxiety may be experiencing or have experienced DVA. The high psychological

  17. Domestic violence and mental health: a cross-sectional survey of women seeking help from domestic violence support services

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Giulia; Agnew-Davies, Roxane; Bailey, Jayne; Howard, Louise; Howarth, Emma; Peters, Tim J.; Sardinha, Lynnmarie; Feder, Gene

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) are associated with an increased risk of mental illness, but we know little about the mental health of female DVA survivors seeking support from domestic violence services. Objective To characterize the demography and mental health of women who access specialist DVA services in the United Kingdom and to investigate associations between severity of abuse and measures of mental health and health state utility, accounting for important confounders and moderators. Design Baseline data on 260 women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a psychological intervention for DVA survivors was analyzed. We report prevalence of and associations between mental health status and severity of abuse at the time of recruitment. We used logistic and normal regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. Mental health measures used were: Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment, and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) to measure posttraumatic stress disorder. The Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) measured abuse. Results Exposure to DVA was high, with a mean CAS score of 56 (SD 34). The mean CORE-OM score was 18 (SD 8) with 76% above the clinical threshold (95% confidence interval: 70–81%). Depression and anxiety levels were high, with means close to clinical thresholds, and all respondents recorded PTSD scores above the clinical threshold. Symptoms of mental illness increased stepwise with increasing severity of DVA. Conclusions Women DVA survivors who seek support from DVA services have recently experienced high levels of abuse, depression, anxiety, and especially PTSD. Clinicians need to be aware that patients presenting with mental health conditions or symptoms of depression or anxiety may be experiencing or may have experienced DVA. The high psychological morbidity in this population means that trauma

  18. The Effect of a First Child on Female Labor Supply: Evidence from Women Seeking Fertility Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cristia, Julian P.

    2008-01-01

    Estimating the causal effect of a first child on female labor supply is complicated by the endogeneity of fertility. This paper addresses this problem by focusing on a sample of women from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) who sought help to become pregnant. After a certain period, only some of these women gave birth. Results using this…

  19. Knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital, southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia maternal mortality rate is very high more than one in five women die from pregnancy or pregnancy related causes. The use of contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion is an important strategy to minimize maternal mortality rate. Among various forms of contraception, emergency contraceptives are the only one that can be used after sexual intercourse offering chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital (JUSH). Methods Institution base cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive was conducted at JUSH from April to June, 2011Data was collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Results In this study 89 women were interviewed. More than half of them (48) were from urban area and 41 were from rural area.46 (51.7%) of them were single. Of all the respondents only nine women had awareness about emergency contraceptive. Seven of the women mentioned pills as emergency contraception and only two of them mentioned both pills and injectable as emergency contraception. All of them have positive attitude towards emergency contraception but none of them have ever used emergency contraceptives. Conclusion and recommendation The finding revealed pregnancy among women of 15-19 years was very common. The knowledge and practice of emergency contraception is very low. But there is high positive attitude towards emergency contraceptives. Since there is much deficit on knowledge of women on emergency contraceptives, in addition to making them accessible; programs targeted at promotion and education of emergency contraceptives is helpful to prevent unwanted pregnancy. PMID:22410271

  20. Rural Australian women's legal help seeking for intimate partner violence: women intimate partner violence victim survivors' perceptions of criminal justice support services.

    PubMed

    Ragusa, Angela T

    2013-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study applies a sociological lens by framing the IPV and legal help-seeking experiences of rural Australian women gained from 36 in-depth face-to-face interviews as socially contextualized interactions. Findings reveal police and court responses reflect broader social inequalities and rurality exacerbates concerns such as anonymity and lack of service. Cultural differences and power imbalances between survivors and formal support providers are manifested to inform future research seeking to improve survivors' willingness to engage and satisfaction with formal services. Finally, the important role police and the criminal justice system play in de-stigmatizing IPV and legitimating its unacceptability is argued a crucial, yet unrecognized, key to social change. PMID:22929344

  1. Abused South asian women in westernized countries and their experiences seeking help.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Johnson, E Diane

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this qualitative systematic review were to better understand domestic abuse among South Asian (SA) women in westernized locales and to make evidence-based inferences related to helping services. Thirty English-language research reports met the inclusion criteria. Findings were extracted, assessed for quality, and analyzed using an iterative approach. Based on the results, domestic abuse appears to be grounded in the context of SA mores and the experience of immigration. Situational circumstances and language barriers make it difficult for SA women to reach and utilize helping services. Nurses are urged to consider these barriers as they assist SA immigrant women to enhance their well-being. PMID:24274242

  2. The effects of discrimination and acculturation to service seeking satisfaction for Latina and Asian American women: implications for mental health professions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bu; Appel, Hoa; Ai, Amy L

    2011-01-01

    There is ample research showing that there are health disparities for minorities with respect to seeking mental health services in the United States. Although there are general barriers for minorities in seeking service health, minority women are more vulnerable due to their negative experiences and lower satisfaction in receiving health care, compared to men. This study utilized the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) data set, which is the first population-based mental health study on Latino and Asian Americans, to give a full description of Latina and Asian American women's experience in mental health service seeking and identifies the opportunities in increasing their satisfaction levels. The results showed that perceived discrimination attributed to gender or race/ethnicity is negatively predicting levels of satisfaction of mental health service seeking. Older age, higher education levels, longer duration in the United States, and better mental health, are positively related to satisfaction levels for Latina and Asian American women. PMID:21213187

  3. Writing women into medical history in the 1930s: Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead and "medical women" of the past and present.

    PubMed

    Appel, Toby A

    2014-01-01

    Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead (1867–1941), a leader among second-generation women physicians in America, became a pioneer historian of women in medicine in the 1930s. The coalescence of events in her personal life, the declining status of women in medicine, and the growing significance of the new and relatively open field of history of medicine all contributed to this transformation in her career. While she endeavored to become part of the community of male physicians who wrote medical history, her primary identity remained that of a “medical woman.” For Hurd-Mead, the history of women in the past not only filled a vital gap in scholarship but served practical ends that she had earlier pursued by other means—those of inspiring and advancing the careers of women physicians of the present day, promoting organizations of women physicians, and advocating for equality of opportunity in the medical profession. PMID:25345770

  4. Medical and social problems among women headed families in Baghdad

    PubMed Central

    Lafta, Riyadh K; Hayawi, Ali H; Khudhairi, Jamal M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Women-headed families tend to be the most marginalized and poverty prone in any given community. One in 10 Iraqi households is headed by woman according to International Organization for Migration, though their assessments suggest that this ratio rises to 1 in 8 in displaced families. Objective: To draw attention to the exposure and vulnerability of women headed families to key medical and social problems. Methods: This cross – sectional study was conducted from March through February 2011. Eleven non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were chosen to be the pool of data collection, in addition to 50 primary, intermediate, and secondary schools for girls. The actual participants were 720 with a response rate of (97%). Women headed families participated in the study were distributed in different areas of Baghdad and the districts around. Results: Hypertension is the leading disease (20%) followed by arthritis (9.6%), heart disease (7.6%), and diabetes mellitus (5.2%), the least was tuberculosis (0.1%). On the other hand, the number of sons and daughters with chronic disease was 159 (6.4%). Respiratory system disease is at the top of the list at a rate of (20.6 per 1000) while the gastrointestinal disease is at the bottom at a rate of (1.6 per 1000). 7.8% of the studied household-heading women were exposed to violence that was either verbal (75%) or physical (25%), the source was the woman's parents (42.9%), husband's family (34%), neighbors (8.9%), and others (14.3%). The percentage of problematic sons (17.9%) who show different types of behavior, (30.2%) of them not obeying their mothers, (21%) hit their brothers, (9.3%) insulting the mother, (2.3%) have problems with neighbors. PMID:25003041

  5. Heterogeneous and decreasing HIV prevalence among women seeking antenatal care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Behets, Frieda; Edmonds, Andrew; Kitenge, François; Crabbé, François; Laga, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Background We examined HIV prevalence trends over 4.5 years among women receiving antenatal care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, by geographic location, clinic management and urbanicity. Methods Quarterly proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of pregnant women with HIV positive results were determined using aggregate service provision and uptake data from 22 maternity units that provided vertical HIV prevention services from October 2004 to March 2009. Assuming linearity, proportions were assessed for trend via the Cochran–Armitage test. Multivariable binomial regression was used to describe detailed prevalence trends. Results HIV testing was offered to 220 006 pregnant women; 210 348 (95.6%) agreed to be tested and 191 216 (90.9%) received their results. A total of 3999 women were found to be HIV positive, a prevalence of 1.90% (95% CI: 1.84–1.96%). The median quarterly proportion of women testing positive for HIV was 1.94% (range: 1.44–2.44%). Prevalence was heterogeneous in terms of maternity management, urbanicity and geographic location. Modeling suggested that the overall prevalence dropped from 2.04% (95% CI: 1.92–2.16%) to 1.77% (95% CI: 1.66–1.88%) over 4.5 years, a relative decrease of 13.2% (95% CI: 3.53–22.9%). Trend testing corroborated this decline (P < 0.01). Conclusions The decreasing HIV prevalence among Kinshasa antenatal care seekers is robust and encouraging. The relatively low prevalence and the weak existing healthcare system require prevention of mother-to-child transmission interventions that strengthen maternal and child healthcare service delivery. Complacency would be unwarranted: assuming a uniform national crude birth rate of 50/1000 and 1.8% antenatal HIV prevalence, approximately 7000 pregnant HIV infected women in Kinshasa, and 60 000 nationwide, are in need of care and prevention services yearly. PMID:20453017

  6. The emotional-psychological consequences of infertility among infertile women seeking treatment: Results of a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Seyede Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infertility is a major life event that brings about social and psychological problems. The type and rate these problems in the context of socio-cultural of different geographical areas and sex of people is different. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explain the psychological consequences of infertility in Iranian infertile women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was done using qualitative content analysis on 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children in 2012. They were purposefully selected with maximum sample variation from a large Fertility Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using 32 semi-structured interviews and analyzed by the conventional content analysis method. Results: The findings of this study include four main themes: 1. Cognitive reactions of infertility (mental engagement; psychological turmoil). 2. Cognitive reactions to therapy process (psychological turmoil; being difficult to control in some situations; reduced self-esteem; feelings of failure). 3. Emotional-affective reactions of infertility (fear, anxiety and worry; loneliness and guilt; grief and depression; regret). 4. Emotional-affective reactions to therapy process (fear, anxiety and worry; fatigue and helplessness; grief and depression; hopelessness). Conclusion: This study revealed that Iranian infertile women seeking treatment face several psychological-emotional problems with devastating effects on the mental health and well-being of the infertile individuals and couples, while the infertility is often treated as a biomedical issue in Iranian context with less attention on the mental-emotional, social and cultural aspects. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Seyede Batool Hasanpoor-Azghady) PMID:24799871

  7. Young women and their reproductive health needs in a family practice setting: factors influencing care seeking in Vitoria, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    E St Louis, Michael; C Figueiredo, Ninive; Milbratz, Ildes; Page-Shafer, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Background. Young women often have diverse options for addressing their reproductive health and other health needs in urban settings. In Brazil, they may access care through the government-run Family Health Program (FHP). Understanding factors associated with service utilization can enhance access to and delivery of appropriate services. Objectives. To describe demographic, behavioural and clinical characteristics of young women accessing services through FHP in Vitória, Brazil. Methods. From March to December 2006, women aged 18–29 years were recruited into a population-based, household survey. Responses were analysed to assess previous 6 months utilization of FHP services in this population and characteristics associated with accessing care through this public family practice model. Results. Of 1200 eligible women identified, 1029 enrolled (85.7%). Median age was 23 (interquartile range 20–26) years, 42.7% were married or cohabitating with a male partner. A majority (72%) accessed FHP services in the preceding 6 months, principally for routine and gynaecological visits. Factors independently associated with seeking FHP included: ever tested for human immunodeficiency virus, using anal sex as contraceptive method and reporting a current vaginal discharge. Prior commercial sex work, previous diagnosis with an sexually transmitted infection or using oral sex as a contraceptive method were associated with less use of FHP services. Conclusions. A public option for delivery of FHP has attracted wide utilization across a cross-section of young women in Vitoria, Brazil. Greater sensitization to specific practices and needs of this population, especially around reproductive health, could further enhance the services provided by family practitioners. PMID:19770219

  8. Medications for the Risk Reduction of Primary Breast Cancer in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of these medications: (1) Women who have a ... health care professional about the potential benefits and harms of taking a risk- reducing medication such as ...

  9. New Challenges for Women Seeking an Academic Career: The Hiring Process in Portuguese Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Teresa; Santiago, Rui

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the potential impact of changes in recruitment and hiring processes in Portuguese higher education institutions--under the New Public Management framework--on the representation of women in academia. Based on official data from the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education, two major…

  10. The Resume Characteristics Determining Job Interviews for Middle-Aged Women Seeking Entry-Level Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Emily; Lahey, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining an entry-level job can be critically important for women with little education, particularly those who have taken time out of the labor force. This article uses archival data from a field experiment, called a resume audit study, to examine the characteristics of entry-level resumes that are important to potential employers. In accordance…

  11. Effects of Social Injustice on Breast Health–Seeking Behaviors of Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Shelly-Ann; Williams, Edith M.; Stoneberg-Cooper, Chayah M.; Glover, Saundra H.; Williams, Michelle S.; Byrd, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The study uses qualitative research to gain a better understanding of what occurs after low-income women receive an abnormal breast screening and the factors that influence their decisions and behavior. A heuristic model is presented for understanding this complexity. Design Qualitative research methods used to elicited social and cultural themes related to breast cancer screening follow-up. Setting Individual telephone interviews were conducted with 16 women with confirmed breast anomaly. Participants Low-income women screened through a national breast cancer early detection program. Method Grounded theory using selective coding was employed to elicit factors that influenced the understanding and follow-up of an abnormal breast screening result. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and uploaded into NVivo 8, a qualitative management and analysis software package. Results For women (16, or 72% of case management referrals) below 250% of the poverty level, the impact of social and economic inequities creates a psychosocial context underlined by structural and cultural barriers to treatment that forecasts the mechanism that generates differences in health outcomes. The absence of insurance due to underemployment and unemployment and inadequate public infrastructure intensified emotional stress impacting participants’ health decisions. Conclusion The findings that emerged offer explanations of how consistent patterns of social injustice impact treatment decisions in a high-risk vulnerable population that have implications for health promotion research and systems-level program improvement and development. PMID:23448411

  12. “Keeping the Boogie Man Away”: Medication Self-Management among Women Receiving Anastrozole Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wickersham, Karen; Happ, Mary Beth; Bender, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The oral hormonal agent anastrozole improves clinical outcomes for women with breast cancer, but women have difficulty taking it for the five-year course. The unique medication-taking experiences related to self-management of anastrozole therapy for women with early stage breast cancer are not known. Our purpose was to describe the medication-taking experiences for postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer who were prescribed a course of anastrozole therapy. Twelve women aged 58 to 67 years, midway through therapy, participated in audio-recorded interviews. Women's medication-taking experiences involved a belief in their importance and an imperative to take anastrozole. We found that women's side effect experiences, particularly menopausal symptoms, were significant, but only one woman stopped anastrozole due to side effects. Medication-taking included routinization interconnected with remembering/forgetting and a storage strategy. Some women noted a mutual medication-taking experience with their spouse, but most felt taking anastrozole was something they had to do alone. Our results provide insight into the way some women with early stage breast cancer manage their hormonal therapy at approximately the midpoint of treatment. Next steps should include examinations of patient-provider communication, potential medication-taking differences between pre- and postmenopausal women, and the effects of medication-taking on clinical outcomes. PMID:23326655

  13. Gender Differences in Internalizing Symptoms and Suicide Risk Among Men and Women Seeking Treatment for Cannabis Use Disorder from Late Adolescence to Middle Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Foster, Katherine T; Li, Ningfei; McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Gray, Kevin M

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis continues to rise in popularity as the perception of its harmfulness decreases and evidence of its deleterious developmental effect increases. While internalizing distress and suicide risk have been linked with cannabis use problems [DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (CUD); DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence] it remains unclear how this association varies over the course of development in treatment-seeking men and women. The current study utilized the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) to conduct a cross-sectional comparison of internalizing distress and suicide risk among men (n=437) and women (n=163) spanning ages 18-50 who met DSM-5 criteria for CUD. Interactions between gender and developmental stage (i.e., late adolescence, early adulthood, and middle adulthood) were observed for suicide risk and anxiety but not depression problems. Specifically, women seeking CUD treatment in late adolescence and middle adulthood exhibited significantly higher rates of anxiety and suicide risk compared to men seeking treatment during the same developmental stages. Internalizing distress and suicide risk did not differ between treatment-seeking men and women in the early adult stage. Overall, results suggest that the structure of risk for CUD may differ in men and women across the lifespan and that women presenting for CUD treatment during late adolescence and middle adulthood may uniquely benefit from intervention designed to address these elevations in anxiety and suicide risk. PMID:27211992

  14. Medical and Obstetric Complications among Pregnant Women Aged 45 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Grotegut, Chad A.; Chisholm, Christian A.; Johnson, Lauren N. C.; Brown, Haywood L.; Heine, R. Phillips; James, Andra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older. Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM) codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35–44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes. Results Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35. Conclusion Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may

  15. Radiation exposure of fertile women in medical research studies

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    Fertile women may be exposed to ionizing radiation as human subjects in medical research studies. If the woman is pregnant, such exposures may result in risk to an embryo/fetus. Fertile women may be screened for pregnancy before exposure to ionizing radiation by interview, general examination, or pregnancy test. Use of the sensitive serum pregnancy test has become common because it offers concrete evidence that the woman is not pregnant (more specifically, that an embryo is not implanted). Evidence suggests that risk to the embryo from radiation exposure before organogenesis is extremely low or nonexistent. Further, demonstrated effects on organogenesis are rare or inconclusive at fetal doses below 50 mSv (5 rem). Therefore, there may be some level of radiation exposure below which risk to the fetus may be considered essentially zero, and a serum pregnancy test is unnecessary. This paper reviews the fetal risks and suggests that consideration be given to establishing a limit to the fetus of 0.5 mSv (50 mrem), below which pregnancy screening need not include the use of a serum pregnancy test.

  16. Perceived Relapse Risk and Desire for Medication Assisted Treatment among Persons Seeking Inpatient Opiate Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Genie L; Herman, Debra S.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with opioid addiction do not receive medication at the time of discharge from brief inpatient detoxification programs despite the high risk of relapse and the availability of three FDA-approved medications. We surveyed 164 inpatient opioid detoxification patients to assess desire for pharmacotherapy following detoxification program discharge. Participants were predominantly male (71.3%) and 80% had detoxed in the past. Reporting on their most recent previous inpatient detoxification, 27% had relapsed the day they were discharged, 65% within a month of discharge, and 90% within a year of discharge. 63% reported they wanted medication-assisted treatment (MAT) after discharge from the current admission. The odds of desiring a treatment medication increased by a factor of 1.02 for every 1% increase in perceived relapse risk (p < .01). These data suggest patient preference discussions including relapse risk could increase post-detox abstinence. PMID:23786852

  17. Roy Porter student prize essay: More than quacks: seeking medical care in late colonial New Spain.

    PubMed

    Samayoa, Marianne B

    2006-04-01

    This article draws upon letters to a colonial physician, contemporary printed medical advice and published medical texts to confirm that formal medical assistance and information about treatment options were available in late colonial New Spain. Publications approved and supervised by the government, doctors, and pharmacies provided up-to-date medical treatments, and individuals actively sought health care from physicians and pharmacists, and expected relief from their ailments. A tradition of government participation in public health in Spain supported structures in New Spain where the latest European advances joined local traditions and experimentation. Although historians may question the effectiveness of any particular cure or treatment, they must accept that individuals in late colonial New Spain participated in their own health care and expected relief from their ailments. PMID:17153157

  18. Perceived relapse risk and desire for medication assisted treatment among persons seeking inpatient opiate detoxification.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Genie L; Herman, Debra S; Stein, Michael D

    2013-09-01

    Most patients with opioid addiction do not receive medication at the time of discharge from brief inpatient detoxification programs despite the high risk of relapse and the availability of three FDA-approved medications. We surveyed 164 inpatient opioid detoxification patients to assess desire for pharmacotherapy following detoxification program discharge. Participants were predominantly male (71.3%) and 80% had detoxed in the past. Reporting on their most recent previous inpatient detoxification, 27% had relapsed the day they were discharged, 65% within a month of discharge, and 90% within a year of discharge. 63% reported they wanted medication-assisted treatment (MAT) after discharge from the current admission. The odds of desiring a treatment medication increased by a factor of 1.02 for every 1% increase in perceived relapse risk (p<.01). These data suggest patient preference discussions including relapse risk could increase post-detox abstinence. PMID:23786852

  19. [Medical claims and women's experience. Physician-performed abortions in the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Usborne, C

    2000-01-01

    The campaign for abortion reform in the Weimar Republic occasioned passionate disputes between factions supporting and opposing liberalization of abortion laws. Nevertheless, both camps agreed on one issue: that doctors, and only doctors, should be authorized to terminate a pregnancy. The implication was that an operation induced by a registered medical practitioner was safe, while so-called back-street operations were always dangerous. By and large, this view has also been accepted by historians, often uncritically. This article shows that evidence of the very real risks of terminating a pregnancy was open to cultural and political manipulation. The claims of academic physicians were often contradictory: on the one hand, they dismissed the risks of medical procedures as a way of fighting lay abortions; on the other hand, they exaggerated these risks as a way of explaining unsuccessful surgeries. Using a case study from Bavaria at the beginning of the Republic, this article shows the ambiguous role doctors played and the biased view of the courts. It also sheds light on the experience of abortion-seeking women, whose interests were largely ignored by the law enforcement agencies. PMID:14674407

  20. Rx for Success. Improving the Climate for Women in Medical Schools and Teaching Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrhart, Julie Kuhn; Sandler, Bernice R.

    The report focuses attention on those areas of medical school education that may have a negative effect on women students' confidence and competence. It examines the different ways that male and female medical students experience their training and the particular stresses that women may face, including: role conflicts; questions about commitment;…

  1. Gender Inequality Prevents Abused Women from Seeking Care Despite Protection Given in Gender-Based Violence Legislation: A Qualitative Study from Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite its burden on a person’s life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals’ experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda. Methods Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis. Results The theme “Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women’s health care seeking when women are abused” expressed the health care professionals’ experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter. Conclusion Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV. PMID:27152680

  2. Help-seeking patterns among women experiencing intimate partner violence: do they forgo the criminal justice system if their adjudication wishes are not met?

    PubMed

    Cerulli, Catherine; Kothari, Catherine; Dichter, Melissa; Marcus, Steve; Kim, Tae Kuen; Wiley, Jim; Rhodes, Karin V

    2015-01-01

    Following a criminal case disposition, an intimate partner violence (IPV) victim's willingness to seek future police and prosecutorial assistance may depend on her prior experiences within the system. This longitudinal study examines the relationship between IPV victims' future help-seeking based on past experiences. We hypothesized women would return to the criminal justice system if their adjudication wishes corresponded with prosecutors' actions. Contrary to the hypothesis, results suggest women return to the criminal system and other venues even if prosecutors' actions do not correspond to their earlier stated wishes. This has important policy implications given pro-prosecution protocols that encourage adjudication regardless of a woman's participation. PMID:25774412

  3. Perspective: partnering for medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa: seeking the evidence for effective collaborations.

    PubMed

    Kolars, Joseph C; Cahill, Kathleen; Donkor, Peter; Kaaya, Ephata; Lawson, Aaron; Serwadda, David; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2012-02-01

    One of the major needs for medical schools and health systems in less affluent countries is system strengthening through the training and development of faculty, doctors, nurses, and other skilled health care workers. Partnering with medical schools in more affluent countries such as the United States is one potential approach for medical schools in underresourced areas, such as Sub-Saharan Africa. Most commonly, these partnerships have focused on research agendas or limited educational exchanges. In this perspective, the authors present an approach to strengthening collaborative relationships between three medical schools in the United States and four in Sub-Saharan Africa. The approach is explicitly focused on achieving partnerships that enable institutions to improve care. It developed from an initiative to fund partnerships or "collaboratives" that address 10 key learning questions determined to be central to focusing efforts on strengthening education systems and, in turn, improving health in Sub-Saharan Africa. The leaders of the schools involved in these partnerships met multiple times across three years to discuss how their collaboratives could address the ten learning questions including what is the best approach and what are the key ingredients for creating effective, multidimensional collaborations between academic institutions in the North and institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa. Collaboratively, they defined a framework of evidence that can be used for evaluating their current initiatives and, potentially, for structuring future partnerships. PMID:22189887

  4. Physician Internet Medical Information Seeking and On-line Continuing Education Use Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casebeer, Linda; Bennett, Nancy; Kristofco, Robert; Carillo, Anna; Centor, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 2,200 physicians indicated that nearly all have Internet access and use it primarily for medical information and professional development, not for communicating with patients. Credibility of source, speed, accessibility, and searching ease were most important. Barriers included information overload and too little information…

  5. Differences among college women for breast cancer prevention acquired information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and daughter-initiated information to mothers.

    PubMed

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine among college women acquired breast cancer prevention information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and information given to mothers. Using a cross-sectional study, a survey was administered to college women at a southwestern university. College women (n = 546) used the Internet (44 %) for active breast cancer prevention information-seeking and used the Internet (74 %), magazines (69 %), and television (59 %) for passive information receipt. Over half of the participants desired breast cancer prevention apps (54 %) and texts (51 %). Logistic regression analyses revealed predictors for interest to receive apps were ethnicity (Hispanic), lower self-efficacy, actively seeking online information, and older age and predictors for interest to receive texts were lower self-efficacy and higher university level. Eighteen percent of college women (n = 99) reported giving information to mothers and reported in an open-ended item the types of information given to mothers. Predictors for giving information to mothers were actively and passively seeking online information, breast self-exam practice, and higher university level. Screenings were the most frequent types of information given to mothers. Breast cancer prevention information using apps, texts, or Internet and daughter-initiated information for mothers should be considered in health promotion targeting college students or young women in communities. Future research is needed to examine the quality of apps, texts, and online information and cultural differences for breast cancer prevention sources. PMID:23979671

  6. Reproductive health characteristics of young Malawian women seeking post-abortion care.

    PubMed

    Levandowski, Brooke A; Pearson, Erin; Lunguzi, Juliana; Katengeza, Hans R

    2012-06-01

    Abortion is illegal in Malawi except when the pregnancy endangers the mother's life, yet complications of abortion account for the majority of admissions to gynecological wards. This study collected data on all post-abortion care (PAC) cases reporting to all PAC-providing health facilities in Malawi over a 30-day period. Of a total of 2,028 PAC clients, 20.9% were adolescents (age 10-19) and 29.6% were young adults (age 20-24). More than half of adolescents and almost 80% of young adults were married. Less than 5% of adolescents and 22.5% of young adults reported using contraception when they became pregnant. Being unmarried was associated with previous abortion and contraceptive use among young adults. These statistics indicate a high proportion of unwanted pregnancy and lack of access to modern contraception among young women. Programs to increase access to pregnancy prevention services and protect young women from unsafe abortions are greatly needed. PMID:22916557

  7. Exploring inequalities in access to care and the provision of choice to women seeking breast reconstruction surgery: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Potter, S; Mills, N; Cawthorn, S; Wilson, S; Blazeby, J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast reconstruction (BR) may improve psychosocial and cosmetic outcomes after mastectomy for breast cancer but currently, few women opt for surgery. Reasons for this are unclear. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore access to care and the provision of procedure choice to women seeking reconstructive surgery. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of patients who had undergone BR and professionals providing specialist care explored participants' experiences of information provision before BR. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative technique of grounded theory. Sampling, data collection and analysis were performed concurrently and iteratively until data saturation was achieved. Results: Both patients and professionals expressed concerns about the provision of adequate procedure choice and access to care. Lack of information and/or time, involvement in decision making and issues relating to the evolution and organisation of reconstructive services, emerged as potential explanations for the inequalities seen. Interventions to improve cross-speciality collaboration were proposed to address these issues. Conclusion: Inequalities in the provision of choice in BR exist, which may be explained by a lack of integration between surgical specialities. Pathway restructuring, service reorganisation and standardisation of training may enhance cross-speciality collaboration and improve the patient experience. PMID:23928662

  8. Medical schools seek to overcome "invisibility" of gay patients, gay issues in curriculum.

    PubMed Central

    Robb, N

    1996-01-01

    Dr. Gary Gibson of Cambridge, Ont., went many years without identifying a single gay patient in his practice. When he "came out" about his homosexuality in 1981, about 15 of his patients revealed they were gay. Gibson, a professor of family medicine at the University of Western Ontario who is active in the College of Family Physicians of Canada, says such information is useful, because "if they don't identify, they may not get the medical advice they need." He wants medical students to receive more education in gay and lesbian issues, and recently drafted a gay and lesbian curriculum for postgraduate family medicine, which has been endorsed by the CMA. Images p766-a p766-b p768-a p768-b p770-a PMID:8823221

  9. Surrogate motherhood as a medical treatment procedure for women's infertility.

    PubMed

    Jovic, Olga S

    2011-03-01

    The content of this work is conceived on the research of the consequences of surrogate motherhood as a process of assisted procreation, which represent a way of parenthood in cases when it is not possible to realize parenthood through a natural way. Surrogate motherhood is a process in which a woman (surrogate mother) agrees to carry a pregnancy with the intent to give the child to the couple with whom she has made a contract on surrogate maternity after the birth. This process of conception and birth makes the determination of the child's origin on its mother's side hard to determine, because of the distinction of the genetic and gestation phases of the two women. The concept of surrogate motherhood is to appear in two forms, depending on the existence or the non-existence of the genetic link between the surrogate mother and the child she gives birth to. There are gestation (full) and genetic (partial) surrogates each with different modalities and legal and ethical implications. In Serbia, Infertility Treatment and the Bio-medically Assisted Procreation Act from 2009 explicitly forbids surrogate motherhood, despite the fact that an infertile couple decides to use it, as a rule, after having tried all other treatment procedures, in cases when there is a diagnosis but the conventional treatment applied has not produced the desired results. Given the fact that no one has the right to ignore the sufferings of people who cannot procreate naturally, the medical practice and legal science in our country plead for a formulation of a legal framework in which to apply surrogate motherhood as an infertility treatment, under particular conditions. PMID:21528795

  10. Seeking Safety Pilot Outcome Study at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Najavits, Lisa M; Lande, R Gregory; Gragnani, Cynthia; Isenstein, Debra; Schmitz, Martha

    2016-08-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder are two of the most prominent psychiatric disorders among military service members. Seeking Safety (SS) is an evidence-based behavioral therapy model for this comorbidity. This article reports results of a study of SS conducted in a military setting. Our pilot trial addressed outcomes, feasibility, and satisfaction. SS was conducted as is to evaluate its impact without adaptation for military culture. The sample was 24 outpatient service members (from the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines) with 33% minority representation. Inclusion criteria were current PTSD and/or SUD. Ten clinicians participated in this study after receiving SS training. Results showed significant improvements on most outcomes, including substance use on the Brief Addiction Monitor; PTSD symptoms on the PTSD Checklist-Military Version (total and criterion D); and the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (sexual abuse trauma index and anxiety subscale); functioning on the Sheehan Disability Scale (total and family subscale); psychopathology on the Zung Depression Scale total; the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS)-24 (total and subscales depression functioning, emotional liability, and psychosis); and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (total and anxiety subscale); and coping on the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (total). Satisfaction was strong. Discussion includes methodology limitations and next steps. PMID:27483508

  11. An Interactional Perspective on the Relationship of Immigration to Intimate Partner Violence in a Representative Sample of Help-Seeking Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bo Vatnar, Solveig Karin; Bjorkly, Stal

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a study of the possible impact of immigration on interactional aspects of intimate partner violence (IPV) among help-seeking women. Are there differences concerning (a) IPV categories, (b) IPV severity, frequency, duration, regularity, and predictability, (c) guilt and shame, (d) partners' ethnicity, and (e) children being…

  12. Neurotic Disorders of General Medical Outpatients in Xi’an, China: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Help-Seeking Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Chunping; Ma, Lihua; Wang, Bo; Yan, Yongping; Huang, Yueqin; Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Li, Lu; Lang, Hongjuan; Hua, Qianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study assessed knowledge of neurotic disorders, and attitudes and preferences toward professional help and treatment for them, among general medical outpatients in general hospitals in Xi’an, China. Methods General medical outpatients (N=372) from general hospitals in China were recruited by using a stratified cluster sampling method between June and September 2010. In face-to-face interviews, participants age 16 years or older were assessed for their knowledge, attitudes, and help-seeking preferences in regard to neurotic disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and panic disorder). Demographic data were also collected. Results Lack of insight into neurotic disorders was common among medical outpatients in general hospitals of Xi’an, China. Twenty-four percent to 58% of the outpatients had some knowledge of the symptoms and treatment of neurotic disorders. Only 11% of the outpatients would reveal to others that they or a family member suffered from neurotic disorders. When faced with the problem of neurotic disorders, the preference of the respondents was to visit a psychiatrist in a general hospital (44%), and only 17% would visit a physician in a psychiatric hospital. Major ways for the outpatients to obtain knowledge regarding neurotic disorders were via radio and television (36%), and only 18%223% of outpatients obtained knowledge about neurotic disorders through printed public health materials and by attending lectures. Conclusions Study results underscore the need for information campaigns aimed at improving the mental health literacy of general medical outpatients. Such campaigns must consider culturally relevant beliefs to facilitate the development of specific educational programs. PMID:24733481

  13. Beliefs, perceptions and health-seeking behaviours in relation to cervical cancer: a qualitative study among women in Uganda following completion of an HPV vaccination campaign

    PubMed Central

    Hasahya, Olivia Topister; Berggren, Vanja; Sematimba, Douglas; Nabirye, Rose Chalo; Kumakech, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Despite earlier information campaigns to introduce human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination, which also targeted cervical cancer, misinterpretation and misunderstanding of the subject remain high. Women in Uganda present with cervical cancer at an advanced stage due to poor health-seeking behaviours, with an associated high mortality rate. This project explored beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, and health-seeking behaviours in relation to cervical cancer among women in Uganda after an HPV vaccination project had been rolled out. Design A qualitative study design was used, with six focus group discussions (FGDs) that included 36 women, aged 25–49 years, with no previous history of cervical cancer symptoms or diagnosis. The women were interviewed in February and March 2013. The transcribed data was analysed using content analysis. Results Three themes emerged: feeling unprotected and unsafe, misbelief and wondering about cervical cancer, and fear of the testing procedure. Participating women had heard of cervical cancer but preferred to wait to access cervical cancer screening until symptom debut. Conclusions There are still barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in Uganda, where there is a need for culture-specific, sensitive information and interventions to address the issues of improving the cervical cancer screening uptake among these women. Societal context needs to be taken into account when implementing community-based health education. PMID:26895145

  14. Contraceptive care at the time of medical abortion: experiences of women and health professionals in a hospital or community sexual and reproductive health context

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Carrie; Cameron, Sharon; Lawton, Julia; Glasier, Anna; Harden, Jeni

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine experiences of contraceptive care from the perspective of health professionals and women seeking abortion, in the contexts of hospital gynaecology departments and a specialist sexual and reproductive health centre (SRHC). Materials and methods We conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 46 women who had received contraceptive care at the time of medical abortion (gestation≤9 weeks) from one SRHC and two hospital gynaecology-department-based abortion clinics in Scotland. We also interviewed 25 health professionals (nurses and doctors) involved in abortion and contraceptive care at the same research sites. We analysed interview data thematically using an approach informed by the Framework method, and comparison was made between the two clinical contexts. Results Most women and health professionals felt that contraceptive counselling at abortion was acceptable and appropriate, if provided in a sensitive, nonjudgemental way. Participants framed contraceptive provision at abortion as significant primarily as a means of preventing subsequent unintended conceptions. Accounts of contraceptive decision making also presented tensions between the priorities of women and health professionals, around ‘manoeuvring’ women towards contraceptive uptake. Comparison between clinical contexts suggests that women's experiences may have been more positive in the SRHC setting. Conclusions Whilst abortion may be a theoretically and practically convenient time to address contraception, it is by no means an easy time to do so and requires considerable effort and expertise to be managed effectively. Training for those providing contraceptive care at abortion should explicitly address potential conflicts between the priorities of health professionals and women seeking abortion. Implications This paper offers unique insight into the detail of women and health professionals' experiences of addressing contraception at the time of medical abortion. The

  15. Syndromic treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in women seeking primary care for the genital discharge syndrome: decision-making.

    PubMed Central

    Behets, F. M.; Miller, W. C.; Cohen, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    The syndromic treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in women seeking primary care in clinics where resources are scarce, as recommended by WHO and implemented in many developing countries, necessitates a balance to be struck between overtreatment and undertreatment. The present paper identifies factors that are relevant to the selection of specific strategies for syndromic treatment in the above circumstances. Among them are the general aspects of decision-making and caveats concerning the rational decision-making approach. The positive and negative implications are outlined of providing or withholding treatment following a specific algorithm with a given accuracy to detect infection, i.e. sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Other decision-making considerations that are identified are related to implementation and include the stability of risk factors with regard to time, space and the implementer, acceptability by stakeholders, and environmental constraints. There is a need to consider empirically developed treatment algorithms as a basis for policy discourse, to be evaluated together with the evidence, alternatives and arguments by the stakeholders. PMID:11731816

  16. Concomitant use of prescription medications and dietary supplements in menopausal women; an approach to provider preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula; Stargrove, Mitchell Bebel; Dog, Tieraona Low

    2010-01-01

    Dietary supplements are becoming increasingly popular as therapies for symptom relief among menopause-age women in the United States. However, a large gap exists between research in the concomitant use of prescription medications and dietary supplements and provider preparedness to guide patient decision making. Many menopausal women take prescription medications, over the counter medications, and herbs and dietary supplements for climactic symptoms or other health conditions. With any drug, there is the potential for interactions. Women taking medications with a narrow therapeutic index, such as anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, and drugs for the treatment of chronic diseases, are at particular risk. Patients should be queried regarding their use of dietary supplements when starting or stopping a prescription drug, or if unexpected reactions occur. When counseling patients, one must carefully consider the risks and benefits of each supplement and medication being taken by each individual. PMID:21168291

  17. The Impact of an Online Educational Video and a Medical Amnesty Policy on College Students' Intentions to Seek Help in the Presence of Alcohol Poisoning Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oster-Aaland, Laura; Thompson, Kevin; Eighmy, Myron

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact of a medical amnesty policy and an online alcohol poisoning video on college students' intentions to seek help when witnessing alcohol poisoning symptoms. Students were randomly assigned to receive an amnesty policy, alcohol poisoning video, or both. The group that received both treatments was most likely to seek…

  18. Documentation of Contraception and Pregnancy When Prescribing Potentially Teratogenic Medications for Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Postlethwaite, Debbie A.; Hung, Yun-Yi; Armstrong, Mary Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Certain medications are identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as class D or X because they increase the risk for birth defects if used during pregnancy. Objective To assess pregnancy rates and the frequency of contraceptive counseling documented with prescriptions for class D or X drugs filled by women of reproductive age. Design Description of prescriptions filled in 2001. Setting A large health maintenance organization in northern California in 2001. Patients 488 175 women age 15 to 44 years who filled a total of 1 011 658 class A, B, D, or X prescriptions. Measurements Medications dispensed, contraceptive counseling, and pregnancy testing. Results A class D or X prescription was filled by 1 of every 6 women studied. Women who filled a prescription for class D or X medications were no more likely than women who filled prescriptions for safer, class A or B medications to have received contraceptive counseling, filled a contraceptive prescription, or been sterilized (48% vs. 51% of prescriptions). There was little variation by clinical indication in rates of contraceptive counseling with class D or X prescriptions, except for isotretinoin. Women who filled a class D or X prescription were only slightly less likely to have a pregnancy documented within 3 months than women filling a class A or B prescription (1.0% vs. 1.4% of prescriptions). Limitations International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes underestimate contraceptive counseling. Documentation of a positive pregnancy test after filling a prescription may overestimate medication use in early pregnancy. Women who filled several prescriptions are overrepresented in prescription analyses. Conclusion Prescriptions for potentially teratogenic medications are frequently filled by women of childbearing age without documentation of contraceptive counseling. PMID:17876020

  19. Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant women in Uyo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abasiubong, Festus; Bassey, Emem Abasi; Udobang, John Akpan; Akinbami, Oluyinka Samuel; Udoh, Sunday Bassey; Idung, Alphonsus Udo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction There is increasing evidence that self-medications among pregnant women are common in many developing countries. Despite the adverse impact on pregnancy, there are few programs available for their control. The objective of this study was to assess the level of self-medication amongst Nigerian pregnant women in order to determine possible harmful effects on fetus. Methods Five hundred and eighteen 518 pregnant women, aged between 18 and 40 years, drawn from three General hospitals in Akwa Ibom State were assessed for self-medication and substance abuse using an instrument, adapted from a modified form of 117-item self-report questionnaire based on the WHO guidelines for students’ substance use survey. Results Of the 518 pregnant women assessed, 375 (72.4%) indulged in one form of self-medication or the other; 143 (27.6%) used only drugs prescribed from the antenatal clinic. A total of 157 (41.9%) pregnant women self-medicate fever/pain relievers; 47 (9.1%) mixture of herbs and other drugs; 15 (4.0%) sedatives; 13 (3.5%) alcohol; while 5 (1.3%) used kolanuts. Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and witchcrafts, preventing pregnancy from coming out, for blood; poor sleep, fever and vomiting and infections. There was a significant difference in the rate of using analgesics (X2=9.43, p=0.001); and antibiotic (X2=4.43, p=0.001) among pregnant women who were highly educated compared to those with little or no education. However, the level of education has no impact in the usage of native herbs. Conclusion This study shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment. There is need for adequate education of pregnant women during antenatal clinics on the potential danger of self-medication so as to prevent child and maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23308320

  20. Alcoholism and African-American women: a medical sociocultural perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, J. H.; Rogers, C.

    1996-01-01

    Today's research explaining women's usage of alcohol is inaccurate. Researchers have failed to include the powerful variable of race. African-American females are increasing their use of alcohol, yet the literature fails to tell why. To understand alcoholism among African-American women, it is necessary to conceive their culture, values, and role in society. This article highlights the biopsychosocial issues impacting female African Americans, and the need for unbiased research and treatment. Women who have the dual status of addiction and are members of a racial minority face a special range of stressors. Therefore, clinicians who serve them must possess more than generalized clinical skills. PMID:8776062

  1. Women's experiences and views about costs of seeking malaria chemoprevention and other antenatal services: a qualitative study from two districts in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Tanzanian government recommends women who attend antenatal care (ANC) clinics to accept receiving intermittent preventive treatment against malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) and vouchers for insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) at subsidized prices. Little emphasis has been paid to investigate the ability of pregnant women to access and effectively utilize these services. Objectives To describe the experience and perceptions of pregnant women about costs and cost barriers for accessing ANC services with emphasis on IPTp in rural Tanzania. Methods Qualitative data were collected in the districts of Mufindi in Iringa Region and Mkuranga in Coast Region through 1) focus group discussions (FGDs) with pregnant women and mothers to infants and 2) exit-interviews with pregnant women identified at ANC clinics. Data were analyzed manually using qualitative content analysis methodology. Findings FGD participants and interview respondents identified the following key limiting factors for women's use of ANC services: 1) costs in terms of money and time associated with accessing ANC clinics, 2) the presence of more or less official user-fees for some services within the ANC package, and 3) service providers' application of fines, penalties and blame when failing to adhere to service schedules. Interestingly, the time associated with travelling long distances to ANC clinics and ITN retailers and with waiting for services at clinic-level was a major factor of discouragement in the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women because it seriously affected their domestic responsibilities. Conclusion A variety of resource-related factors were shown to affect the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women in rural Tanzania. Thus, accessibility to ANC services was hampered by direct and indirect costs, travel distances and waiting time. Strengthening of user-fee exemption practices and bringing services closer to the users, for example by promoting community-directed control of

  2. Medical Students' Comfort with Pregnant Women with Substance-Use Disorders: A Randomized Educational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Brittany; Skipper, Betty; Riley, Shawne; Wilhelm, Peggy; Rayburn, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a rehabilitation residence for pregnant women with substance-use disorders yielded changes in their attitudes and comfort levels in providing care to this population. Methods: This randomized educational trial involved 96 consecutive medical students during…

  3. Asian/Pacific Islander Women in Medical Education: Personal and Professional Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wear, Delese

    2000-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to identify the complex issues facing Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women students at one Midwestern medical school as they subjectively experience their medical training. Students reported parental and Asian community influences on their decision to enter medicine; most thought faculty perceive them as "quiet," often…

  4. The influence of socio-cultural interpretations of pregnancy threats on health-seeking behavior among pregnant women in urban Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although antenatal care coverage in Ghana is high, there exist gaps in the continued use of maternity care, especially utilization of skilled assistance during delivery. Many pregnant women seek care from different sources aside the formal health sector. This is due to negative perceptions resulting from poor service quality experiences in health facilities. Moreover, the socio-cultural environment plays a major role for this care-seeking behavior. This paper seeks to examine beliefs, knowledge and perceptions about pregnancy and delivery and care-seeking behavior among pregnant women in urban Accra, Ghana. Methods A qualitative study with 6 focus group discussions and 13 in-depth interviews were conducted at Taifa-Kwabenya and Madina sub-districts, Accra. Participants included mothers who had delivered within the past 12 months, pregnant women, community members, religious and community leaders, orthodox and non-orthodox healthcare providers. Interviews and discussions were audio-taped, transcribed and coded into larger themes and categories. Results Evidence showed perceived threats, which are often given socio-cultural interpretations, increased women’s anxieties, driving them to seek multiple sources of care. Crucially, care-seeking behavior among pregnant women indicated sequential or concurrent use of biomedical care and other forms of care including herbalists, traditional birth attendants, and spiritual care. Use of multiple sources of care in some cases disrupted continued use of skilled provider care. Furthermore, use of multiple forms of care is encouraged by a perception that facility-based care is useful only for antenatal services and emergencies. It also highlights the belief among some participants that care from multiple sources are complementary to each other. Conclusions Socio-cultural interpretations of threats to pregnancy mediate pregnant women’s use of available healthcare services. Efforts to encourage continued use of

  5. Improving medication adherence in African-American women living with HIV/AIDS: Leveraging the provider role and peer involvement.

    PubMed

    Okoro, Olihe; Odedina, Folakemi T

    2016-01-01

    African-American women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV-related morbidity and mortality. To address the burden of HIV/AIDS among this at-risk population, there is need to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence and affect their care-seeking behavior and specifically adherence to antiretroviral treatment. A preliminary qualitative study was conducted with a sample of the target population (n = 10) using grounded theory as the methodological approach. Similarly, 21 healthcare providers - physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and case managers - were then interviewed. A thematic analysis of the transcripts compared care-provider perceptions and narrated experiences with those from the patient participants. Themes related to patient care perceived to enhance medication adherence included (1) provider-patient relationship; (2) holistic and patient-centered care; (3) adequacy of patient education and counseling; (4) modeling adherence behavior; and (5) motivation. Two intervention strategies are proposed - Peer educators as an integral part of the care team and Patient Advisory Groups as a feedback mechanism to enhance effective delivery of patient care in the target population. This exploratory research lays a foundation for the design of targeted interventions to improve linkage to care and enhance medication adherence in African-American women living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26278429

  6. The Most Commonly Dispensed Prescription Medications Among Pregnant Women Enrolled in the United States Medicaid Program

    PubMed Central

    Palmsten, Kristin; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Chambers, Christina D; Mogun, Helen; Lai, Sophia; Gilmer, Todd P; Huybrechts, Krista F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the 20 most common prescription medications and the 10 most common prescription medications classified in the former U.S. Food and Drug Administration categories D or X dispensed to pregnant women enrolled in the U.S. Medicaid program. Methods We conducted a cohort study of 1,106,757 pregnant women with live births using 2000-2007 Medicaid Analytic eXtract data. We used outpatient pharmacy records to identify medication dispensings and reported the proportion of pregnancies that were dispensed at least one prescription medication. Maternal age and race and ethnicity–stratified estimates were compared using prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results During pregnancy, 82.5% of the cohort had a dispensing for one or more prescription medication. The most commonly dispensed medications during pregnancy included nitrofurantoin (21.6%), metronidazole (19.4%), amoxicillin (18.0%), azithromycin (16.9%), and promethazine (13.5%). Proportions were highest among younger women for several medications; eg, nitrofurantoin (23.9% vs 15.4%; PR: 1.55, CI: 1.52-1.58), metronidazole (20.7% vs 12.0%; PR: 1.73, CI: 1.69-1.77), and azithromycin (21.1% vs 11.0%; PR: 1.93, CI: 1.89-1.97) were more common among women younger than 20 than among women aged 35 years or older. Proportions were highest among white women with some exceptions; eg, compared with white women, metronidazole was more common among black women (29.8% vs 14.4%; PR: 2.07, CI: 2.05-2.09). Excluding fertility treatments, 42.0% had at least one dispensing for a D or X medication during pregnancy. Codeine (11.9%) and hydrocodone (10.2%) were the most common D medications. Conclusions Medications used to treat infections were the most commonly dispensed prescription medications. Dispensing of commonly used prescription medications during pregnancy varied by maternal age and race–ethnicity. PMID:26244530

  7. Variables associated with seeking information from doctors and the internet after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertisements for prescription medications.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Joshua; Teichman, Chaim

    2014-01-01

    This study examines variables associated with seeking information from doctors, the Internet, and a combination of both doctors and Internet after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertisements. Data were analyzed from 462 college students. Younger age, women, and health insurance were associated with greater odds for doctor; women, subjective norms, intentions, and greater time since seen doctor were associated with greater odds for Internet; and African American, Hispanic, subjective norms, intentions, and health insurance were associated with greater odds for both doctor and Internet. Marketers of direct-to-consumer advertisements can use these findings for tailoring and targeting direct-to-consumer advertisements. PMID:24878404

  8. The impact of mass media health communication on health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior of u.s. Hispanic population.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Mass media health communication has enormous potential to drastically alter how health-related information is disseminated and obtained by different populations. However, there is little evidence regarding the influence of media channels on health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behaviors among the Hispanic population. The Pew 2007 Hispanic Healthcare Survey was used to test the hypothesis that the amount of mass media health communication (i.e., quantity of media-based health information received) is more likely to influence Hispanic adults' health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior compared to health literacy and language proficiency variables. Results indicated that quantity of media-based health information is positively associated with health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior above and beyond the influence of health literacy and English and Spanish language proficiency. In a context where physician-patient dynamics are increasingly shifting from a passive patient role model to a more active patient role model, media-based health information can serve as an influential cue to action, prompting Hispanic individuals to make certain health-related decisions and to seek more health advice and information from a health provider. Study implications are discussed. PMID:22888787

  9. [100 years ago: landmarks in the medical education of women].

    PubMed

    Völker, A

    1989-08-01

    The discussion about the study of medicine for women rose in high waves in Germany in the middle of the eighties of the last century. A lecture on this topic held by the anatomist Waldeyer in 1888 was typical for the reservations of the majority of the German professors. It led to a polemics by means of which a convinced suffragatte tried to refute those prejudices which had to be overcome before beginning with 1908 the way to the Prussian universities was judicially made free for the German women. PMID:2683428

  10. Women's beliefs about medication use during their pregnancy: a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Twigg, M J; Lupattelli, A; Nordeng, H

    2016-08-01

    Background Previous research has examined the number and extent of medicines taking in pregnant women but not their beliefs and risk perception surrounding their use. Objective To describe beliefs and risk perception associated with medicines use for the treatment of common acute conditions among UK women and explore whether this is related to actual medicines use. Settings Cross-sectional, web-based study in the UK. Methods Pregnant women and mothers within 1 year of giving birth were invited to participate in an online cross-sectional questionnaire-based study via a pregnancy website in the UK. Anonymous data were collected from women regarding their use of medicines (both over-the-counter and prescribed) and their beliefs regarding medicines use during pregnancy. Main outcome measures Pregnant women's beliefs about medicines and their relation to pharmacological treatment of acute conditions in pregnancy. Results Pharmacological treatment of conditions in pregnancy ranged from 65.4 % for urinary tract infections (UTIs) to 1.1 % for sleeping problems. Almost three out of ten women avoided using some medications during pregnancy. For heartburn and UTIs, women who did not treat the condition viewed medicines in general as being overused, more harmful and less beneficial, than those who treated the condition. In general, UK pregnant women perceived medicines to be beneficial and slightly overused. Conclusions Women's beliefs about medications impact on treatment of specific conditions in pregnancy such as heartburn and UTIs. Healthcare professionals should explore patient's beliefs regarding medication at the first maternity care visit to promote appropriate medication use in pregnancy. PMID:27241342

  11. Exploring predictors of medication adherence among HIV positive women in North America

    PubMed Central

    Tyer-Viola, LA; Corless, IB; Webel, A; Reid, P; Sullivan, KM; Nichols, P

    2015-01-01

    Objective Women infected with HIV live with many factors that affect antiretroviral (ARV) medication adherence. Social Action Theory (SAT) explains how context, environment, and psychological factors influence behavior. How these factors are related to HIV adherence in women is unique. The purpose of this analysis was to explore the relationships among contextual, environmental, and regulatory factors with ARV medication adherence in order to assist care providers in improving care for women living with HIV. Design Convenience descriptive multicenter Setting Sixteen HIV clinics and service organizations in North America Participants This sample was drawn from a larger study of 2,182 persons living with HIV recruited from clinics and service from September 2009 to January, 2011. Our study included 383 North American women living with HIV who were taking ARV medications. Methods We assessed the relationship of contextual, environmental, and psychological factors specific to women living with HIV with adherence to ARV medication. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to examine the effects of these factors on self-reported ARV adherence. Results Age, depression symptoms, stigma, and engagement with health care provider, and four psychological factors were correlated with self-reported ARV medication adherence (p = .01). Regression analysis indicated that adherence self-efficacy and depression symptoms accounted for 19% for 3-day and 22% for 30-day self-reported medication adherence. Conclusions Adherence self-efficacy and depression symptoms predict ARV medication adherence in women and should be evaluated by nurses. Future research is needed to identify antecedents to and interventions that support adherence self-efficacy and decrease depression symptoms. PMID:24502460

  12. Thanks, but No Thanks: Women's Avoidance of Help-Seeking in the Context of a Dependency-Related Stereotype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Juliet R. H.; Hopkins, Nick; Greenwood, Ronni M.

    2012-01-01

    The stereotype that women are dependent on men is a commonly verbalized, potentially damaging aspect of benevolent sexism. We investigated how women may use behavioral disconfirmation of the personal applicability of the stereotype to negotiate such sexism. In an experiment (N = 86), we manipulated female college students' awareness that women may…

  13. The Association between Trust in Health Care Providers and Medication Adherence among Black Women with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Willie M.; Efird, Jimmy T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Black women have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the world. Reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. The historical legacy of medical maltreatment of Blacks in the U.S. provides some insight into distrust in the medical profession, refusal of treatment, and poor adherence to treatment regimens. Methods: Black women (N = 80) who were prescribed antihypertensive medications were recruited from urban communities in North Carolina. Study participants completed the Trust in Physician and Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy questionnaires. An exact discrete-event model was used to examine the relationship between trust and medication adherence. Results: Mean age of study participants was 48 ± 9.2 years. The majority of participants (67%) were actively employed and 30% had incomes at or below the federal poverty level. Increasing levels of trust in the health care provider was independently associated with greater medication adherence (PTrend = 0.015). Conclusion: Black women with hypertension who trusted their health care providers were more likely to be adherent with their prescribed antihypertensive medications than those who did not trust their health care providers. Findings suggest that trusting relationships between Black women and health care providers are important to decreasing disparate rates of hypertension. PMID:24350234

  14. Medical genetics, public understanding and patient experiences: An exploratory qualitative study of recently pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garman, Jamie L.

    The purpose of the study was to document how individuals' experiences and understanding of genetics concepts affects their medical experiences. Recently pregnant women were interviewed because they represent a population that needs to comprehend biological and genetic information to understand their health. Three women were designated as science experts (SE) defined as having extensive university level science education and three women were designated as science non-experts (SNE). In general, SEs described a more positive pregnancy experience. Both SEs and SNEs demonstrated a basic understanding of genetic concepts but varied in the application of concepts to personal medical issues. Participants' views and experiences of pre and postnatal tests were linked to their understanding of nature of science components such as recognition that tests have limitations. Results from this study indicate an incomplete understanding of the nature of science among participants may have led to unsatisfactory medical experiences.

  15. Performance of Women Medical Graduates from Medical College, Baroda, 1949-74

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, R. V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Women account for 15 percent of the total admissions in medicine and present overall better examinations than men. Obstetrics and gynecology is the most common speciality selected by women, and job satisfaction is found in 87 percent. Sixty-six percent are married to other doctors, and 39 percent emigrate. (Author/LBH)

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of health professionals and women towards medication use in breastfeeding: A review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medicines, especially those available over-the-counter, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals such as general practitioners and pharmacists. The primary aim of this review therefore, was to investigate the literature relating to health professionals' and women's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards medication use and safety in breastfeeding. The limited literature that was uncovered identified that general practitioners and pharmacists have poor knowledge, but positive attitudes, and variable practices that are mostly guided by personal experience. They tend to make decisions about the use of a medicine whilst breastfeeding based on the potential 'risk' that it poses to the infant in terms of possible adverse reactions, rather than its 'compatibility' with breast milk. The decision-making process between health professionals and women is usually not a negotiated process, and women are often asked to stop breastfeeding whilst taking a medicine. Women, in turn, are left dissatisfied with the advice received, many choosing not to initiate therapy or not to continue breastfeeding. Some directions for future research have been suggested to address the issues identified in this critical area. This review is important from a societal perspective because many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medications, especially those available without prescription, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals, which is ultimately influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and practices. However, there is an absence of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials on the safety of medications taken during breastfeeding, which naturally would hinder health professionals from appropriately advising women. It is equally important to know about women's experiences of advice received from health professionals, and whether

  17. Medical and Psychological Risks and Consequences of Long-Term Opioid Therapy in Women

    PubMed Central

    Darnall, Beth D.; Stacey, Brett R.; Chou, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-term opioid use has increased substantially over the past decade for U.S. women. Women are more likely than men to have a chronic pain condition, to be treated with opioids, and may receive higher doses. Prescribing trends persist despite limited evidence to support the long-term benefit of this pain treatment approach. Purpose To review the medical and psychological risks and consequences of long-term opioid therapy in women. Method Scientific literature containing relevant keywords and content were reviewed. Results and Conclusions Long-term opioid use exposes women to unique risks, including endocrinopathy, reduced fertility, neonatal risks, as well as greater risk for polypharmacy, cardiac risks, poisoning and unintentional overdose, among other risks. Risks for women appear to vary by age and psychosocial factors may be bidirectionally related to opioid use. Gaps in understanding and priorities for future research are highlighted. PMID:22905834

  18. Reasons and remedies for under-representation of women in medical leadership roles: a qualitative study from Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bismark, Marie; Morris, Jennifer; Thomas, Laura; Loh, Erwin; Phelps, Grant; Dickinson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To elicit medical leaders’ views on reasons and remedies for the under-representation of women in medical leadership roles. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews with medical practitioners who work in medical leadership roles. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Setting Public hospitals, private healthcare providers, professional colleges and associations and government organisations in Australia. Participants 30 medical practitioners who hold formal medical leadership roles. Results Despite dramatic increases in the entry of women into medicine in Australia, there remains a gross under-representation of women in formal, high-level medical leadership positions. The male-dominated nature of medical leadership in Australia was widely recognised by interviewees. A small number of interviewees viewed gender disparities in leadership roles as a ‘natural’ result of women's childrearing responsibilities. However, most interviewees believed that preventable gender-related barriers were impeding women's ability to achieve and thrive in medical leadership roles. Interviewees identified a range of potential barriers across three broad domains—perceptions of capability, capacity and credibility. As a counter to these, interviewees pointed to a range of benefits of women adopting these roles, and proposed a range of interventions that would support more women entering formal medical leadership roles. Conclusions While women make up more than half of medical graduates in Australia today, significant barriers restrict their entry into formal medical leadership roles. These constraints have internalised, interpersonal and structural elements that can be addressed through a range of strategies for advancing the role of women in medical leadership. These findings have implications for individual medical practitioners and health services, as well as professional colleges and associations

  19. Use of non-medical methods of labor induction and pain management among U.S. women

    PubMed Central

    Kozhimanil, Katy Backes; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Attanasio, Laura B.; Gjerdingen, Dwenda K.; McGovern, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited documentation of non-medical methods of labor induction and pain management during childbirth in the U.S. We estimated the prevalence of non-medical interventions for induction and pain management and examined the association between medical and non-medical care during labor. Methods We used a nationally-representative survey of U.S. women who gave birth in 2005 (N=1,382) to examine use of non-medical methods of labor induction and pain management. Using logistic regression, we calculated odds of non-medical and medical interventions to induce labor or mitigate pain, and the odds of medical induction and obstetric analgesia by whether non-medical methods were used. Results Nearly 30% of women used non-medical methods to start labor, and over 70% of women used non-medical pain management. Doula support was the strongest predictor of non-medical methods of labor induction (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 3.0) and labor pain management (AOR = 5.7). Use of non-medical pain management was significantly associated with decreased odds of medical pain management (OR = 0.65); this relationship was attenuated with covariate adjustment. Conclusions Non-medical methods to induce labor and manage pain during childbirth are commonly used by U.S. women. Future research should examine effectiveness of these strategies and their influence on medical services use. PMID:24344703

  20. Plenty of moustaches but not enough women: cross sectional study of medical leaders

    PubMed Central

    Wehner, Mackenzie R; Nead, Kevin T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To draw attention to sex related disparities in academic medical leadership by investigating the representation of female leaders compared with leaders with moustaches. Design Cross sectional analysis. Setting Academic medical departments in the United States. Participants Clinical department leaders (n=1018) at the top 50 US medical schools funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Main outcome measures The proportions of female leaders and moustachioed leaders across institutions and specialties (n=20). Additionally, the moustache index: the proportion of women compared with the proportion of moustaches, analyzed with multinomial logistic regression models. Results Women accounted for 13% (137/1018) of department leaders at the top 50 NIH funded medical schools in the US. Moustachioed leaders accounted for 19% (190/1018). The proportion of female department leaders ranged from 0% (0/20) to 26% (5/19) across institutions and 0% (0/53) to 36% (19/53) across specialties. Only seven institutions and five specialties had more than 20% of female department leaders. The overall moustache index of all academic medical departments studied was 0.72 (95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.90; P=0.004). Only six of 20 specialties had more women than moustaches (moustache index >1). Conclusions Moustachioed individuals significantly outnumber women as leaders of medical departments in the US. We believe that every department and institution should strive for a moustache index ≥1. Known, effective, and evidence based policies to increase the number of women in leadership positions should be prioritized. PMID:26673637

  1. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

  2. Variations in Help-Seeking, Battered Women's Relationship Course, Emotional Well-Being, and Experiences of Abuse over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Margret E.; Goodman, Lisa A.; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Despite assumptions that leaving the batterer offers the best chance for improvement in battered women's lives, few studies provide conclusive data on this issue. Although many women eventually reunite with partners, also unexamined is the influence of relationship course over time. Five waves of data from 206 low-income, largely Black,…

  3. Korean American women's perceptions about physical examinations and cancer screening services offered in Korea: the influences of medical tourism on Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death for Korean-Americans (KAs), while cancer screening rates among KAs have been consistently low. Seven semi-structured focus group interviews with 34 KA women aged 40 or older in the Washington, DC metropolitan area were conducted to explore the perceptions of KA women about seeking physical examinations and cancer screening services in Korea. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Informants positively perceived the use of health screening services in Korea in comparison to seeking such services in the US. Decision-making factors included cost benefits, high quality services, and more convenient screening procedures in Korea. These benefits outweighed the risks of delaying health care and travelling a vast distance with incurring additional travel costs. Motivations to seek these services in Korea included opportunities to visit their homeland and to enjoy comfortable communication with their native language. The increase of available information about Korean medical services due to the industry's aggressive marketing/PR was identified as a facilitator. Most informants did not recognize possible negative health outcomes of obtaining services in Korea such as inappropriate follow up care if having abnormal findings. Educational programs are needed to educate KAs about the benefits and risks of getting the services in Korea and proper follow up care in the US. Health care providers need to know the different cancer risks and screening needs for this population. PMID:24322599

  4. Safety Strategy Use Among Women Seeking Temporary Protective Orders: The Relationship Between Violence Experienced, Strategy Effectiveness, and Risk Perception.

    PubMed

    Parker, Elizabeth M; Gielen, Andrea C; Castillo, Renan; Webster, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study examined safety strategy use in relation to intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, perceived effectiveness of the strategies, and perception of danger from IPV among 197 abused women. More than 90% of the women used 1 or more strategies in the 6 months prior to their interview. Severe physical and sexual violence were significantly associated with an increased use of placating strategies. Perceived effectiveness of the strategies was high yet not associated with strategy use. Increased perception of danger from IPV was significantly associated with increased use of safety planning strategies. The findings suggest that safety planning should be tailored to fit women's specific contexts. Safety planning discussions should focus on strategies that reduce women's risk of continued violence and build on women's strengths. PMID:26159732

  5. DEPRESSIVE AND POSTTRAUMATIC SYMPTOMS AMONG WOMEN SEEKING PROTECTION ORDERS AGAINST INTIMATE PARTNERS: RELATIONS TO COPING STRATEGIES AND PERCEIVED RESPONSES TO ABUSE DISCLOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Flicker, Sharon M.; Cerulli, Catherine; Swogger, Marc T.; Talbot, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship of abuse-specific coping strategies and perceived responses to abuse disclosure to symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress among 131 women seeking a protection order against an intimate partner. Disengagement, denial, and self-blame coping strategies, as well as blaming of the participant by others, were associated with greater depressive and posttraumatic symptoms. None of the strategies of coping or responses to abuse disclosure were negatively related to depressive or posttraumatic stress symptoms. Findings suggest that mental health providers may find it useful to address these negative styles of coping while public education campaigns should target victim-blaming. PMID:22735315

  6. Factors facilitating patient satisfaction among women with medically unexplained long-term fatigue: A relational perspective.

    PubMed

    Lian, Olaug S; Hansen, Anne Helen

    2016-05-01

    Bodily conditions that are difficult to identify, explain and treat with the aid of medical knowledge and technology appear to be particularly challenging to medical encounters. Patients are often dissatisfied with the help they receive, and they often experience that their medical needs are not met. To explore factors facilitating patient satisfaction among patients with a medically unexplained condition, we ask: what is the importance of individual versus relational factors in facilitating patient satisfaction in clinical encounters between general practitioners (GPs) and women with medically unexplained long-term fatigue? We approach this question through a statistical analysis of survey data collected from a net sample of 431 women recruited through a patient organisation for people suffering from myalgic encephalomyelitis in 2013. Participants were asked about their experiences with general practitioners in the Norwegian national health system in two different phases: shortly after illness onset, and current regular general practitioner last 12 months. The questions evolved around themes concerning shared understanding and decision making, being taken seriously, being paid due respect and being treated as an equal partner. Through descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analyses, we explored how their experiences were related to individual and relational factors, respectively. Free-text comments from the questionnaires were used while interpreting the results. The analysis illuminates that relational aspects in medical encounters between GPs and ME patients, especially continuity, congruence in doctor-patient views and being seen by a specialist, are important catalysts of patient satisfaction. The probability of being satisfied with the initial investigation was more than six times higher in women who were referred to specialists, compared to those who were not. We conclude that continuity of care and experiences of being in a

  7. An Exploration of Emerging Professional Identity in Women Osteopathic Medical Students: Does Gender Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunatov, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative inquiry study was to gain a richer understanding from the perspective of gender about how third and fourth year women osteopathic medical students at the University of Pikeville-Kentucky College of Osteopathic Medicine (KYCOM) constructed their developing professional identities as future osteopathic physicians. This…

  8. Women's participation in the medical profession: insights from experiences in Japan, Scandinavia, Russia, and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Aditi; Sambuco, Dana; Jagsi, Reshma

    2014-11-01

    Although much literature has focused on the status of female physicians in the United States, limited English-language studies have examined the role of women in the medical profession elsewhere in the world. This article synthesizes evidence regarding the status of female physicians in three purposively selected regions outside the United States: Japan, Scandinavia, and Russia and Eastern Europe. These three regions markedly differ in the proportion of female physicians in the workforce, overall status of the medical profession, cultural views of gender roles, and workforce policies. Through a review of studies and articles published between 1992 and 2012 examining women's representation, status measures such as salary and leadership positions, and experiences of female physicians, the authors discuss potential relationships between the representation of female physicians, their status in medicine, and the overall status of the profession. The findings suggest that even when women constitute a high proportion of the physician workforce, they may continue to be underrepresented in positions of leadership and prestige. Evolving workforce policies, environments, and cultural views of gender roles appear to play a critical role in mediating the relationship between women's participation in the medical profession and their ability to rise to positions of influence within it. These insights are informative for the ongoing debates over the impact of the demographic shifts in the composition of the medical workforce in the United States. PMID:25320867

  9. Women's Participation in the Medical Profession: Insights from Experiences in Japan, Scandinavia, Russia, and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Aditi; Sambuco, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Although much literature has focused on the status of female physicians in the United States, limited English-language studies have examined the role of women in the medical profession elsewhere in the world. This article synthesizes evidence regarding the status of female physicians in three purposively selected regions outside the United States: Japan, Scandinavia, and Russia and Eastern Europe. These three regions markedly differ in the proportion of female physicians in the workforce, overall status of the medical profession, cultural views of gender roles, and workforce policies. Through a review of studies and articles published between 1992 and 2012 examining women's representation, status measures such as salary and leadership positions, and experiences of female physicians, the authors discuss potential relationships between the representation of female physicians, their status in medicine, and the overall status of the profession. The findings suggest that even when women constitute a high proportion of the physician workforce, they may continue to be underrepresented in positions of leadership and prestige. Evolving workforce policies, environments, and cultural views of gender roles appear to play a critical role in mediating the relationship between women's participation in the medical profession and their ability to rise to positions of influence within it. These insights are informative for the ongoing debates over the impact of the demographic shifts in the composition of the medical workforce in the United States. PMID:25320867

  10. The Trends in Health Care Delivery for Women: Challenges for Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisman, Carol S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses four trends in the U.S. health care system that affect how women's health care is delivered: (1) the restructuring of primary care; (2) initiatives in quality assessment; (3) changes in patterns of health insurance coverage; and (4) threats to the health care safety net. Indicates that medical educators must link training to these…

  11. Psychosocial Outcomes of Children of Unipolar Depressed, Bipolar, Medically Ill, and Normal Women: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carolyn A.; Hammen, Constance L.

    1993-01-01

    Studied behavior problems, social competence, internalizing/externalizing behaviors, academic performance, and school behavior of 96 children (ages 8-16) of unipolar depressed, bipolar, medically ill, and psychiatrically normal women over 2 years. Children of unipolar mothers showed significantly poorer functioning on all measures; greater…

  12. Augmenting Antidepressant Medication Treatment of Depressed Women with Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples: A Randomized Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Wayne H.; Wittenborn, Andrea K.; Golden, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first study to evaluate adding emotionally focused therapy for couples (EFT) to antidepressant medication in the treatment of women with major depressive disorder and comorbid relationship discord. Twenty-four women and their male partners were randomized to 6 months of medication management alone (MM) or MM augmented with EFT (MM +…

  13. Increasing participation in cancer research: insights from Native Hawaiian women in medically underserved communities.

    PubMed

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue; Mitschke, Diane; Lono, Joelene

    2004-09-01

    The cancer burden falls heavily on Native Hawaiian women, and of particular concern are those living in medically underserved communities where participation in potentially helpful clinical studies may be limited. Difficulty in accrual of Native Hawaiian women to a culturally-grounded intervention led researchers to conduct focus groups aimed at exploring attitudes towards research, use of a traditional Hawaiian practice for family discussion, and study promotion. Social marketing theory guided the development of discussion questions and a survey. Through purposive sampling, 30 women from medically underserved communities were recruited. Content analysis was used to identify major discussion themes. Findings indicate that lack of informational access may be a major barrier to participation. Study information disseminated through community channels with targeted outreach to social and religious organizations, promotion through face-to-face contact with researchers, and culturally tailored messages directed to families were preferred. Community oriented strategies based on linkages with organizational networks may increase participation. PMID:16281696

  14. Rural Australian Women's Legal Help Seeking for Intimate Partner Violence: Women Intimate Partner Violence Victim Survivors' Perceptions of Criminal Justice Support Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragusa, Angela T.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study…

  15. "Grief that Has No Vent in Tears, Makes Other Organs Weep." Seeking Refuge from Trauma in the Medical Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Paddy

    2012-01-01

    This paper will look at work carried out with asylum-seeking families and children within a hospital paediatric setting, exploring theories that can help us to understand how highly traumatic experiences, emotionally and cognitively unprocessed, may become expressed bodily. The case examples will show how these shattered and dislocated patients…

  16. Joint breast and colorectal cancer screenings in medically underserved women

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Terry C; Arnold, Connie L; Wolf, Michael S; Bennett, Charles L; Liu, Dachao; Rademaker, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast and colon cancer screening in rural community clinics is underused. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative interventions designed to promote simultaneous screening for breast and colon cancer in community clinics. Methods A 3-arm, quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted during May 2008-August 2011 in 8 federally qualifed health clinics in predominately rural Louisiana. Baseline screening rates reported by the clinics was <10% for breast cancer (using mammography) and 1%-2% for colon cancer (using the fecal occult blood test [FOBT]). 744 women aged 50 years or older who were eligible for routine mammography and an FOBT were recruited. The combined screening efforts included: enhanced care; health literacy-informed education (education alone), or health literacy-informed education with nurse support (nurse support). Results Postintervention screening rates for completing both tests were 28.1% with enhanced care, 23.7% with education alone, and 38.7% with nurse support. After adjusting for age, race, and literacy, patients who received nurse support were 2.21 times more likely to complete both screenings than were those who received the education alone (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-4.38; P = .023). The incremental cost per additional woman completing both screenings was $3,987 for education with nurse support over education alone, and $5,987 over enhanced care. Limitations There were differences between the 3 arms in sociodemographic characteristics, literacy, and previous screening history. Not all variables that were significantly different between arms were adjusted for, therefore adjustments for key variables (age, race, literacy) were made in statistical analyses. Other limitations related generalizability of results. Conclusions Although joint breast and colon cancer screening rates were increased substantially over existing baseline rates in all 3 arms, the completion rate for both tests was

  17. Rural Zulu women's knowledge of and attitudes towards medical male circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Andrew; Ogbonnaya, Harbor

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical male circumcision (MMC) is a key strategy in the South African HIV infection prevention package. Women may have a potentially powerful role in supporting such a strategy. Circumcision is not a traditional part of Zulu society, and Zulu women may have limited knowledge and ambivalent or negative attitudes towards MMC. Aim This study employs quantitative data to expand insight into rural Zulu women's knowledge of and attitudes towards MMC, and is important as women could potentially yield a powerful positive or negative influence over the decisions of their partners and sons. Setting A hospital-based antenatal clinic in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Methods Participants were 590 pregnant, mostly isiZulu-speaking women. Data on their knowledge of and attitude towards MMC were collected using a questionnaire and were analysed descriptively. Results The majority of the women supported MMC; however, knowledge of the potential benefits was generally poor. Most would encourage their partners and sons to undergo MMC. The preferred place for the procedure was a hospital. Conclusion Zulu participants supported MMC and would support their partners and children being circumcised. Knowledge around potential benefits was worryingly poor, and further research into disseminating information is essential. The findings highlight the need for an expanded campaign of health education for women, and innovative means are suggested to enhance information accessibility. Reasons for preferring that MMC be carried out in hospital need to be explored further. PMID:26245595

  18. Home medication injection among Latina women in Los Angeles: implications for health education and prevention.

    PubMed

    Flaskerud, J H; Nyamathi, A M

    1996-02-01

    Reuse of needles and syringes after home injection of medications and vitamins may be a risk for transmission of HIV. An exploratory study was done to determine (1) how commonly injectable medications were used in the home; (2) whether needles and syringes were reused; and (3) common practices for cleaning needles and syringes. A survey was conducted of low income Latina women (n = 216) who were attending a Public Health Foundation nutrition programme for women, infants and children (WIC) in Los Angeles. To clarify and expand on the survey findings, focus group interviews were done with an additional 55 women attending WIC. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive and comparative statistics. Qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. The use of injectable medications purchased in Mexico was fairly common (43.5%); reuse of disposable needles and syringes (48%) and sharing (36%) among injectors were also common. Methods of cleaning needles and syringes were inadequate to CDC recommended guidelines. Injectors and non-injectors differed significantly in ethnicity, religion, and marital status. The only significant predictor of medication injection was educational level. Analysis of qualitative data revealed the reasons that Latina subjects were injecting medication; how they were transporting medicines from Mexico; and how they were cleaning their equipment. The practical implications for health education and prevention programmes should include an awareness that home use and reuse of needles for injection of medications may be common in some social groups and that knowledge of the potential dangers in reuse and sharing of needles may not extend to home medication injection. PMID:8664373

  19. Knowledge and Attitude of Medical Nurses toward Oral Health and Oral Health Care of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Suzana; Saddki, Norkhafizah; Yusoff, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of medical nurses regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study of 133 nurses in the district of Tumpat, Kelantan (Malaysia) used self-administered questionnaires. Results Most nurses knew that dental plaque is associated with periodontal disease (97.7%). However, most nurses erroneously believed that tooth decay (86.5%) and excessive sugar consumption (87.2%) led to periodontal disease. About half of the nurses knew about the relationship between periodontal disease of pregnant women and low birth weight (43.6%) and preterm birth (48.9%). Many nurses had the misconception that the developing foetus draws calcium from the mothers’ teeth (78.2%). Most nurses had good attitudes toward improving their oral health knowledge (97.0%) and agreed they should help to deliver oral health education to pregnant women (94.0%). Age, length of service as a nurse, and length of service in antenatal care had no effect on the scores for the nurses’ knowledge and attitude regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Conclusion Medical nurses had limited knowledge about oral health of pregnant women and had some misunderstandings about oral health, although they had good attitudes. Age, length of service as a nurse, and length service in antenatal care had no effect on the knowledge and attitude scores of the nurses. PMID:27540327

  20. The medical management of abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive-aged women.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Linda D; Gueye, Ndeye-Aicha

    2016-01-01

    In the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, once a thorough history, physical examination, and indicated imaging studies are performed and all significant structural causes are excluded, medical management is the first-line approach. Determining the acuity of the bleeding, the patient's medical history, assessing risk factors, and establishing a diagnosis will individualize their medical regimen. In acute abnormal uterine bleeding with a normal uterus, parenteral estrogen, a multidose combined oral contraceptive regimen, a multidose progestin-only regimen, and tranexamic acid are all viable options, given the appropriate clinical scenario. Heavy menstrual bleeding can be treated with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, combined oral contraceptives, continuous oral progestins, and tranexamic acid with high efficacy. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs may be utilized with hormonal methods and tranexamic acid to decrease menstrual bleeding. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are indicated in patients with leiomyoma and abnormal uterine bleeding in preparation for surgical interventions. In women with inherited bleeding disorders all hormonal methods as well as tranexamic acid can be used to treat abnormal uterine bleeding. Women on anticoagulation therapy should consider using progestin-only methods as well as a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist to treat their heavy menstrual bleeding. Given these myriad options for medical treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding, many patients may avoid surgical intervention. PMID:26254516

  1. Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, and Determinants Emergency Contraceptive Use among Women Seeking Abortion Services in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Meskerem; Assefa, Nega; Alemayehu, Tadesse

    2014-01-01

    Background Unplanned pregnancy from casual sex, unplanned sexual activity, and sexual violence are increasing. Emergency Contraceptives (EC) are used to prevent unplanned pregnancies thereby preventing the occurrence and consequences of unplanned pregnancy. Emergency contraception is widely available in Ethiopia particularly in major cities. Yet the use of EC is very low and abortion rate in cities is high compared to the national average. Objectives To assess knowledge, attitude and practice and determinants on the use of emergency contraception among women obtaining abortion service at selected health institutions in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 390 women selected by multi-stage random sampling technique. The samples were generated from government and private for non profit health facilities. Participant’s knowledge and attitude towards emergency contraception were measured using composite index based on 7 and 9 questions, respectively and analyzed using mean score to classify them as knowledgeable or not, and have positive attitude or not. Practice was assessed if the women reported ever use of emergency contraception. Determinants of use of emergency contraception were analyzed using logistic regression. Result Out of 390 women interviewed, 162 women (41.5%) heard about EC, only 133 (34.1%) had good knowledge, and 200 (51.3%) of the respondents had positive attitudes towards to EC. Ever use of EC was reported by 38 (9.7%). Age, living arrangement, education, marital status, religion were found to be significantly associated with the use of emergency contraceptives. Women with poor knowledge were less likely to use EC compared to the knowledgeable ones [AOR = 0.027, 95% CI (0.007, 0.105)]. Conclusion The study identified that most respondents lack adequate knowledge on the method of EC. In addition ever use of EC is very low. Recommendations Health professions should give attention in

  2. The Association between Medical Education Accreditation and the Examination Performance of Internationally Educated Physicians Seeking Certification in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zanten, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the first phase of the present research was to examine medical education accreditation practices around the world, with special focus on the Caribbean region, to determine the association of accreditation of medical schools with student/graduate performance on examinations. The aim of the second phase of this research…

  3. HIV Prevalence, Risk Behavior, Knowledge and Beliefs among Women Seeking Care at a Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Shastri, Jayanthi S.; Shastri, Aditi; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2013-01-01

    Three hundred women presenting to a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Mumbai, India were surveyed and HIV tested. Thirty-nine percent were HIV-infected; 80% were current sex workers, and HIV-infection was not significantly associated with past-year sex work. Only 44% always used condoms with their non-commercial sex partners. Most believed condom preparation is a male responsibility (58%), condom use is a sign that partner trust is lacking (84%), and, if a woman asks her partner to use a condom, he will lose respect for her (65%). All women at STI clinics in India need HIV testing and culturally sensitive risk intervention. PMID:23659311

  4. Seeking Balance: The Importance of Environmental Conditions in Men and Women Faculty's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Shannon K.; Newell, Ellen E.; Gardner, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Faculty retention is of increasing importance in the current economic climate. We examined the role of an institution's environmental conditions (e.g., climate, collegiality, and administration) in faculty well-being (i.e., job satisfaction, intent to leave, emotional and physical health). Women reported significantly lower well-being and a…

  5. Dimensions of Functional Social Support and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Investigation of Women Seeking Help for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvak, Michael K.; Taft, Casey T.; Goodman, Lisa A.; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined 4 separate dimensions of functional social support (tangible, appraisal, self-esteem, and belonging) as predictors of change in depression over 4.5 years in a sample of women reporting intimate partner violence. Method: Participants were recruited as they sought help for violence perpetrated by a current or former male…

  6. A Rural Perspective on Perinatal Depression: Prevalence, Correlates, and Implications for Help-Seeking among Low-Income Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sarah Kye; Proctor, Enola K.

    2009-01-01

    Context/Purpose: To examine a low-income sample of women in the rural Midwest (N = 1,086) who were screened for perinatal depression through the outreach and education activities within a Healthy Start Initiative project. Specifically, we describe the frequency and severity of depressive symptoms, explore social and demographic correlates of…

  7. Control with anorexiant medications.

    PubMed Central

    Volume, C. I.; Farris, K. B.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To show why women are still seeking anorexiant medications despite current concerns over their use. DESIGN: In-depth interviews using grounded theory methodology. SETTING: Participants chose where they were to be interviewed. PARTICIPANTS: Women older than 18 years who had previously taken or were currently taking anorexiant medications for the purpose of losing weight. METHOD: Nine women completed two semistructured in-depth interviews during which they described their experiences from the time they began pharmacologic therapy for obesity until they discontinued the medications. Interview data were compiled and analyzed until saturation was reached. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: Control was an important factor for the women. Their previous lack of control was due to frustration with failed dieting attempts and feeling pressure from others to lose weight. Prescription medications controlled physiologic hunger while the women sought to lose weight. Increased control over hunger and a decrease in weight gave participants confidence to continue their weight-loss efforts without the medications. Once the medications were discontinued, the women were able to maintain weight control through various lifestyle modifications. CONCLUSIONS: Anorexiant medications provide some women with a perception of control that helps them lose weight and not regain it. Health care professionals should be aware of their patients' struggles with weight loss and understand the importance of these medications for some patients. PMID:9839060

  8. Baseline observations from the POSSIBLE EU® study: characteristics of postmenopausal women receiving bone loss medications

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Cyrus; Roux, Christian; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Guillemin, Francis; Jonsson, Bengt; Ortolani, Sergio; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Horne, Rob; Kakad, Shilpa; Shepherd, Susan; Möller, Gerd; Marciniak, Anne; Martinez, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Summary Prospective Observational Scientific Study Investigating Bone Loss Experience in Europe (POSSIBLE EU®) is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study that utilises physician- and patient-reported measures to describe the characteristics and management of postmenopausal women on bone loss therapies. We report the study design and baseline characteristics of 3,402 women recruited from general practice across five European countries. Purpose The POSSIBLE EU® is a study describing the characteristics and management of postmenopausal women receiving bone loss medications. Methods Between 2005 and 2008, general practitioners enrolled postmenopausal women initiating, switching or continuing treatment with bone loss treatment in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Patients and physicians completed questionnaires at study entry and at 3-month intervals, for 1 year. Results Of 3,402 women enrolled (mean age 68.2 years [SD] 9.83), 96% were diagnosed with low bone mass; 55% of these using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Most women (92%) had comorbidities. Mean minimum T score (hip or spine) at diagnosis was −2.7 (SD 0.89; median −2.7 [interquartile range, −3.2, −2.2]) indicating low bone mineral density. Almost 40% of the women had prior fractures in adulthood, mostly non-vertebral, non-hip in nature, 30% of whom had at least two fractures and more than half experienced moderate/severe pain or fatigue. Bisphosphonates were the most common type of bone loss treatment prescribed in the 12 months preceding the study. Conclusions POSSIBLE EU® characterises postmenopausal women with low bone mass, exhibiting a high rate of prevalent fracture, substantial bone fragility and overall comorbidity burden. Clinical strategies for managing osteoporosis in this population varied across the five participating European countries, reflecting their different guidelines, regulations and standards of care. PMID:21258637

  9. Use of medical, surgical and complementary treatments among women with fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, Vanessa L; Jacoby, Alison; Learman, Lee A; Schembri, Michael; Gregorich, Steven E; Jackson, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the use of medical management, uterus-preserving surgery (UPS), and complementary treatments among women with uterine fibroids. Study design Prospective cohort study of 933 premenopausal women ages 31-54 years with symptomatic fibroids who participated in the Study of Pelvic Problems, Hysterectomy, and Intervention Alternatives (SOPHIA) for an average of 4.3 years (SD 2.5 years). Incident use of fibroid treatments was determined through annual interviews. Linear regression models were used to compare changes in fibroid-related symptoms among women who underwent UPS versus those who did not undergo surgery. Results Participants were racially and ethnically diverse, with a mean age of 43 years. During study follow-up, 531 participants (57%) did not undergo UPS or hysterectomy, 250 (27%) had at least one UPS, and 152 (16%) underwent hysterectomy. Complementary and alternative treatments were commonly used, including exercise (45%), diet (34%), herbs (37%), and acupuncture (16%): participants reported significant symptom improvement and few side effects with these interventions. In multivariable linear regression models, women who did not undergo surgery during the study reported improvement in dyspareunia (p<.001), pelvic pain (p<.001), and menstrual cramps (p<.001). However, women who underwent UPS reported greater overall resolution of “pelvic problems” compared with women who did not have surgical treatment (difference in change score 1.18 on a 4-point Likert scale, p<.001). Conclusion UPS are effective treatments for women with fibroids, but many women use hormonal or complementary treatments and report significant symptom improvement without surgical intervention. PMID:25445104

  10. Improving the Safety and Effectiveness of Medical Device Therapy in Women.

    PubMed

    Zusterzeel, Robbert; O'Callaghan, Kathryn M; Caños, Daniel A; Sanders, William E; Marinac-Dabic, Danica; Strauss, David G

    2016-05-01

    When not enough women are included in many clinical trials, an information gap on medical device safety and effectiveness exists, which can make it difficult to detect sex-specific results. In this article we discuss potential reasons for the underrepresentation of women and the regulatory research conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) used in supporting regulatory decisions. We demonstrate that important differences in cardiovascular device performance between women and men exist. Furthermore, concrete steps are outlined on the possible ways these sex-specific results can be detected and how a recent FDA Action Plan and Guidance Document aim at encouraging female participation in clinical trials and the appropriate analysis thereof. PMID:27028582

  11. Medical and Obstetric Outcomes Among Pregnant Women With Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jennifer L.; Kuklina, Elena V.; Bateman, Brian T.; Callaghan, William M.; James, Andra H.; Grotegut, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate nationwide trends in the prevalence of maternal congenital heart disease (CHD) and determine whether women with CHD are more likely than women without maternal CHD to have medical and obstetric complications. METHODS The 2000–2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes to identify delivery hospitalizations of women with and without CHD. Trends in the prevalence of CHD were determined and then rates of complications were reported for CHD per 10,000 delivery hospitalizations. For Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2008–2010, logistic regression was used to examine associations between CHD and complications. RESULTS From 2000 to 2010, there was a significant linear increase in the prevalence of CHD from 6.4 to 9.0 per 10,000 delivery hospitalizations (P<.001). Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that all selected medical complications, including mortality (17.8 compared with 0.7/10,000 deliveries, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 22.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 13.96–34.97), mechanical ventilation (91.9 compared with 6.9/10,000, adjusted OR 9.94, 95% CI 7.99–12.37), and a composite cardiovascular outcome (614 compared with 34.3/10,000, adjusted OR 10.54, 95% CI 9.55–11.64) were more likely to occur among delivery hospitalizations with maternal CHD than without. Obstetric complications were also common among women with CHD. Delivery hospitalizations with maternal CHD that also included codes for pulmonary circulatory disorders had higher rates of medical complications compared with hospitalizations with maternal CHD without pulmonary circulatory disorders. CONCLUSION The number of delivery hospitalizations with maternal CHD in the United States is increasing, and although we were not able to determine whether correction of the cardiac lesion affected outcomes, these hospitalizations have a high burden of medical and obstetric complications. PMID

  12. Prevalence of adult domestic violence among women seeking routine care in a Native American health care facility.

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, D G; Fairchild, M W; Stoner, S

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and sociodemographic factors associated with, adult domestic violence within a Native American community. METHODS: Adult women in the community were surveyed. RESULTS: Of 371 eligible women, 341 (92%) were surveyed. Among respondents, 179 reported a history of at least 1 episode of domestic violence. Fifty-six (16.4%) reported violence within the previous 12 months. Age under 40 years and living in a household receiving governmental financial assistance were independently associated with 1-year prevalence of adult domestic violence. CONCLUSIONS: Adult domestic violence is prevalent within this Native American community. Additional research is required to characterize further the relationship between domestic violence and socioeconomic status. PMID:9772854

  13. Key determinants of induced abortion in women seeking postabortion care in hospital facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ilboudo, Patrick GC; Somda, Serge MA; Sundby, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. Materials and methods A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. Results The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59–30.41); whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42–19.24); and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.08–11.10). On the contrary, being married was protective against induced abortion, with women who reported being married having an 83% (OR 0.17, CI 0.03–0.89) lower chance of having an induced abortion, even when the pregnancy was unwanted. Conclusion This study has identified three major determinants of induced abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Improved targeted programs on family planning counseling, methods of contraception, and availability of contraceptives should be widely promoted. PMID:24920938

  14. Smartphone Medical Applications for Women's Health: What Is the Evidence-Base and Feedback?

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Emma; Dancey, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Background. Smartphone medical applications have a major role to play in women's health with their roles being very broad, ranging from improving health behaviours to undertaking personalised tests. Objective(s). Using Medline, Web of Knowledge, and the PRISMA guidelines 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified, with mobile interventions being tested on 1603 females, in relation to key aspects of health. Using a similar systematic approach an iPhone database search identified 47 applications (apps) developed to improve women's health. Findings. Ten RCTs used text messaging or app interventions to support weight loss, with significant improvements being observed in eight studies. For other aspects of women's health RCTs are needed to determine possible health benefits. iPhone store data analysis identified that a substantial number of women's health apps did not have star ratings or feedback comments (68 and 49 per cent, resp.), raising concerns about their validity. Conclusion. Peer-review systems, supporting statements of evidence, or certification standards would be beneficial in maintaining the quality and credibility of future health-focused apps. Patient groups should also ideally be involved in the development and testing of mobile medical apps. PMID:24454354

  15. Quality of life, coping strategies and support needs of women seeking Traditional Chinese Medicine for infertility and viable pregnancy in Australia: a mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertility affects about 15% of couples in Western-societies with most progressing to fertility clinics for treatment. Despite being common, infertility is often experienced as a lonely road for affected couples. In this paper we expand on our previously published findings of women’s experiences with infertility or difficulty of viable pregnancy who had sought Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) therapy in Australia, and focus on women’s quality of life, coping strategies, and support needs. Methods We applied mixed methods using the Tuebingen Quality of Life and the COPE questionnaires and in-depth interviews with 25 women with primary or secondary infertility, recurrent miscarriages or unexplained stillbirth, and who had consulted a TCM practitioner. We used a thematic approach to analyse the interviews, and descriptive statistics to evaluate questionnaire responses. Results Women reported through both questionnaires and interviews compromised quality of life due to the high level of distress, guilt, grief, and frustration caused by infertility. However, our women represented a highly motivated sample, actively seeking alternative support. While the TCM approach to infertility management increased women’s sense of personal agency and control through education and continuity of care, the need for greater understanding and support on a societal level remains. Conclusions In infertility, ongoing emotional and instrumental support is pivotal to the wellbeing and quality of life of the affected. Traditional Chinese Medicine addresses some support needs in infertility not routinely available in the Western model of care. More peer-led and professional-led support groups are greatly needed for women experiencing infertility to help break isolation and raise awareness of integrative approaches to fertility management. PMID:23570255

  16. Expanding Women's Rural Medical Work in Early Modern Brittany: The Daughters of the Holy Spirit

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Tim

    2012-01-01

    During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of early modern Brittany. PMID:21724643

  17. Expanding women's rural medical work in early modern Brittany: the Daughters of the Holy Spirit.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Tim

    2012-07-01

    During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of early modern Brittany. PMID:21724643

  18. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-04-19

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  19. "Of and beyond medical consequences": Exploring health information scanning and seeking behaviors of Filipino domestic service workers in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Bernadas, Jan Michael Alexandre C; Jiang, L Crystal

    2016-08-01

    The increasing trend for women in developing countries to engage in international and temporary labor migration has exposed female migrant workers to health inequities. In this article, we problematize the impact of international and temporary labor migration on the health of Filipino domestic workers in Hong Kong by exploring their general patterns of health information acquisition. Through a series of focus group discussions with Filipino domestic workers in Hong Kong, we found that employers serve as stakeholders in migration health, social networking sites can be a platform for participatory health promotion, and religious beliefs and behaviors can promote favorable health behaviors. PMID:26491977

  20. Marmara University Medical Students’ Perception on Sexual Violence against Women and Induced Abortion in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Lüleci, Nimet Emel; Kaya, Eda; Aslan, Ece; Şenkal, Ece Söylem; Çiçek, Zehra Nadide

    2016-01-01

    Background: Historically, sexual assault is a common issue in Turkey. As doctors are one of the steps to help sexually assaulted women, medical students should have basic knowledge of and sensitivity regarding this subject. Another common women’s public health issue is induced abortion. In countries where access to abortion is restricted, there is a tendency towards unhealthy abortion. Aims: The aims of this study are: (1) to determine the attitudes and opinions of Marmara University Medical Faculty students about sexual assault against women and induced abortion and (2) to propose an educational program for medical students about sexual assault and abortion. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The questionnaires were self-administered and the data were analyzed using SPSS v.15.0. First, the descriptive statistics were analyzed, followed by Chi-square for contingency tests assessing differences in attitudes toward sexual assault and induced abortion by factors such as gender and educational term. Differences were considered statistically significant at p<0.05. Results: About 89.6% of the participants (n=266) reported that they had never been sexually assaulted and about 11.5% of the women (n=19) had been sexually assaulted. There was no significant relationship between previous sexual assault and gender (p>0.05). Although there was no significant difference regarding the extent of punishment by victim’s status as a virgin, 21.3% (n=63) agreed that punishment should be more severe when the victim was a virgin. About 40.7% (n=120) agreed that the legal period of abortion in Turkey (10 weeks) should be longer. The majority (86.1%, n=255) agreed that legally prohibiting abortions causes an increase in unhealthy abortions. Conclusion: An educational program on these issues should be developed for medical students. PMID:27403386

  1. Validity of Self-Reported Medication Use Compared With Pharmacy Records in a Cohort of Older Women: Findings From the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Drieling, Rebecca L; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Beresford, Shirley A A; Boudreau, Denise M; Kooperberg, Charles; Heckbert, Susan R

    2016-08-01

    Inaccurate self-reported data on medication exposure lead to less reliable study findings. From 2013 to 2015, we assessed the validity of information on medication use collected via a mailed medication inventory among 223 Women's Health Initiative participants who were members of a health-care delivery system. Self-reported information on medication use was compared with pharmacy records for statins, calcium channel blockers, β-blockers, and bisphosphonates. We assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) for current medication use. We assessed agreement on duration of use (<2, 2, 3, 4, or ≥5 years) by means of the weighted κ statistic. The mean age of participants was 77 years. Statins, β-blockers, and calcium channel blockers were each reported by over 15% of women, and bisphosphonates were reported by 4.5%. Compared with pharmacy records, the sensitivity, specificity, and PPV for self-reported use of statins, β-blockers, and calcium channel blockers were all 95% or greater. The sensitivity and PPV for bisphosphonate use were both 80% (95% confidence interval: 44, 97), and specificity was 99% (95% confidence interval: 97, 100). The κ statistic for duration of use was 0.87 or greater for all 4 medication classes. Compared with pharmacy records, self-reported information on current medication use and duration of use collected via mailed medication inventory among older women had almost perfect agreement for use of statins, β-blockers, and calcium channel blockers. PMID:27402774

  2. New Zealand needs guidelines for the safe and responsible inclusion of pregnant women in medical research.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a crucial window of time that influences long-term population health. As a matter of justice, pregnant woman are entitled to high quality, evidenced-based care. As a matter of population health, we need to better understand foetal development, particularly the impact of lifestyle, stress, chronic conditions and clinical treatment during pregnancy. Pregnancy continues to be dominated by the precautionary principle, advocating for the routine exclusion of pregnant women from medical research, particularly intervention studies, on the grounds of foetal vulnerability. But this stance simply shifts the risk into the community. Due to a lack of evidence-based data, many pregnant women are refused medically important drugs, are subject to dangerous delays in getting drugs, or are prescribed drugs that are thought 'safe', despite evidence of possible teratogenicity. I argue that New Zealand needs to shift to a default position of inclusion of pregnant women in research; and to develop guidelines to facilitate their safe and responsible inclusion. The uniqueness of pregnancy gives rise to specific questions regarding research ethics. These questions warrant focused debate and the answers cannot simply be deduced from the general principles of research ethics we currently have in New Zealand. PMID:27362600

  3. Rates of Bone Loss Among Women Initiating Antidepressant Medication Use in Midlife

    PubMed Central

    Ruppert, Kristine; Cauley, Jane A.; Lian, YinJuan; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Finkelstein, Joel S.; Greendale, Gail A.; Solomon, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Concern has been raised that medications that block serotonin reuptake may affect bone metabolism, resulting in bone loss. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare annual bone mineral density (BMD) changes among new users of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), new users of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and nonusers of antidepressant medications. Design and Setting: We conducted a prospective cohort study at five clinical centers in the United States. Participants: The study included 1972 community-dwelling women, aged 42 years and older, enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Exposure: The use of antidepressant medications was assessed by interview and verified from medication containers at annual visits. Subjects were categorized as nonusers (no SSRI or TCA use at any examination), SSRI users (initiated SSRI use after the baseline SWAN visit), or TCA users (initiated TCA use after the baseline visit), using a computerized dictionary to categorize type of medication. Main Outcome Measures: BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at annual visits. Results: BMD was compared among 311 new users of SSRIs, 71 new users of TCAs, and 1590 nonusers. After adjustment for potential confounders, including age, race, body mass index, menopausal status, and hormone therapy use, mean lumbar spine BMD decreased on average 0.68% per year in nonusers, 0.63% per year in SSRI users (P = .37 for comparison to nonusers), and 0.40% per year in TCA users (P = .16 for comparison to nonusers). At the total hip and femoral neck, there was also no evidence that SSRI or TCA users had an increased rate of bone loss compared with nonusers. Results were similar in subgroups of women stratified by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (<16 vs ≥16). Conclusions: In this cohort of middle-aged women, use of SSRIs and TCAs was not associated with an increased

  4. Drug interactions associated with methadone, buprenorphine, cocaine, and HIV medications: implications for pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    McCance-Katz, Elinore F.

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy in substance-abusing women with HIV/AIDS presents a complex clinical challenge. Opioid-dependent women need treatment with opioid therapy during pregnancy to protect the health of mother and developing fetus. However, opioid therapies, methadone and buprenorphine, may have drug interactions with some HIV medications that can have adverse effects leading to suboptimal clinical outcomes. Further, many opioid-dependent individuals have problems with other forms of substance abuse, for example, cocaine abuse, that could also contribute to poor clinical outcomes in a pregnant woman. Physiological changes, including increased plasma volume and increased hepatic and renal blood flow, occur in the pregnant woman as the pregnancy progresses and may alter medication needs with the potential to exacerbate drug interactions, although there is sparse literature on this issue. Knowledge of possible drug interactions between opioids, other abused substances such as cocaine, HIV therapeutics, and other frequently required medications such as antibiotics and anticonvulsants is important to assuring the best possible outcomes in the pregnant woman with opioid dependence and HIV/AIDS. PMID:20965297

  5. [Medical care provided to pregnant women with HIV/AIDS in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Karla Santana Azevedo; Alves dos Prazeres, José Carlos; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Valdanha Netto, Américo

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the perinatal results of the prophylactic measures adopted in the prevention of the vertical transmission of HIV. The study was carried out using the medical records of 168 women with HIV and their newborns in a public maternity unit of Fortaleza, in the state of Ceará, from 2005 to 2009. The data was obtained between the months of March and September 2010 and was analyzed using the program SPSS 10.0. The women diagnosed before pregnancy received timely care that permitted them an effective antiretroviral therapy and a greater number of check-ups (p<0,05). Antiretroviral therapy was administered to 97.6% of the pregnant women, and triple therapy in 88.7%. AZT was administered intrapartum in 95.2% of the women and oral AZT in syrup to 100% of the newborns. Birth by cesarean section was predominant (92.8%) and was associated to the intrapartum use of AZT when compared to vaginal birth (p<0.001). Cesarean section favored intrapartum administration of AZT. PMID:24500549

  6. Substance Use, Depression and Mental Health Functioning in Patients Seeking Acute Medical Care in an Inner-City ED

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Maureen A.; Barry, Kristin L.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Blow, Frederic C.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the behavioral health of a consecutive sample of 5,641 adult emergency department (ED) patients aged 19 through 60 presenting for medical care in a large, inner-city hospital emergency department. Twenty-three percent met criteria for major depression; average mental health functioning, as measured by the mental health component of the SF-12, was half of a standard deviation lower than in the general population; 15% met criteria for alcohol or drug abuse/dependence in the past year. Comorbidity was high. These behavioral health disorders may complicate treatment and diagnosis of the chief presenting complaint. These findings, coupled with the high rates of these disorders, suggest the importance of screening and either beginning appropriate treatment or offering appropriate referral for such disorders in ED settings. PMID:21086057

  7. Lipid-Lowering Medication Use and Aggression Scores in Women: A Report from the NHLBI-Sponsored WISE Study

    PubMed Central

    OLSON, MARIAN B.; KELSEY, SHERYL F.; MATTHEWS, KAREN A.; MERZ, C. NOEL BAIREY; ETEIBA, WAFIA; McGORRAY, SUSAN P.; CORNELL, CAROL E.; VIDO, DIANE A.; MULDOON, MATTHEW F.

    2010-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to examine the association between the use of lipid-lowering medication and aggressive responding, hostility, cynicism, and depression scores in women undergoing coronary angiography. Methods The cohort included 498 women from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study. WISE is a four-center study of women with chest pain who underwent quantitative coronary angiography for suspected myocardial ischemia. The psychosocial indices included the Cook Medley Hostility questionnaire, measuring aggression, hostility, and cynicism, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Compared to those not on lipid-lowering medication, women receiving lipid-lowering pharmacotherapy were older (62 vs. 55 years, p < 0.001) and had more hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and coronary artery disease (CAD, defined as ≥50% stenoses in at least one epicardial artery) (all p < 0.003). Women on lipid-lowering medication had higher aggressive responding scores than those not on medication, 3.0 ± 1.8 vs. 2.7 ± 1.7, respectively (age-adjusted p < 0.003). This association persisted after adjustment for coronary risk factors, education, and extent of angiographic disease (CAD) (p < 0.005), and after exclusion of women using psychotropic medications (p < 0.001). Hostility, cynicism, and depression scores did not differ by medication use. Conclusions In women, lipid-lowering medication may predispose to aggression without affecting hostility or mood, but this hypothesis requires evaluation in placebo-controlled clinical trials. PMID:18321170

  8. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Contraception among Postpartum Women Attending Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Bajracharya, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Failure to plan a pregnancy can adversely affect the health of the family as a whole. High parity is related to increased maternal, perinatal and infant deaths and is associated with nutritional problems of both mother and child. Hence, good knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among women are important. This study is aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among the postpartum women attending Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital. Objective To determine the knowledge, attitude and the practice of various contraceptive methods among the postpartum women. Method A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology on 400 postpartum women (within 42 days of delivery) who delivered and came for follow-up in this institution. All the postnatal women were interviewed with pre-designed questionnaire and information on sociodemographic variable, awareness and knowledge of various contraceptive methods, previous and current use of family planning methods, source of information, utilization and reasons for use/non-use of family planning methods were obtained. Data collected were entered and analyzed using SPSS 20. The results were presented as percentages, means, tables and charts. Result Majority of the participants 363 (90.8%) were aware of contraceptive usage. Amongst 60.5% of women who had previously used contraception, OCPs were the commonest one. Maximum number of participants (60.35%) had used modern contraceptives in the past. The most common source of information on contraception was media (55.7%). The reason of using contraception was spacing between the subsequent pregnancies, while the most common reason of discontinuation or not willing to use family planning methods was husband being abroad, fear of side effects and not knowing which contraceptives to use. Conclusion The contraceptive awareness and knowledge among the postpartum women was high but

  9. Tools for integrating women's health into medical education: clinical cases and concept mapping.

    PubMed

    Weiss, L B; Levison, S P

    2000-11-01

    The authors describe two teaching tools, case-based learning and concept mapping, and how they support cross-disciplinary, multidisciplinary, and interdisciplinary learning, use a biopsychosocial model, and promote the integration of sex- and gender-based science into the medical curriculum. The process of case development at MCP Hahnemann University (MCPHU) is outlined in detail for a specific case. That case, which integrates three different components of women's health, is then presented in full. The authors then provide an example of a concept map dealing with women and alcohol use; the map defines current knowledge and serves as a blueprint for developing curricular goals and learning objectives for the topic. Properly constructed concept maps and cases help teach patient-centered approaches to problem solving, address sex- and gender-based differences in disease as well as in pathophysiology and pharmacology, integrate psychosocial issues-such as family dynamics, environmental stressors, access to health care, effective gender-based communication between patient and provider, and cultural variations-along with biomedical ones, and encourage a multidisciplinary approach to patient care. The authors maintain that these tools might be used to transform medical education by making it more integrated and interdisciplinary. PMID:11078666

  10. Long-term Cognitive and Functional Effects of Potentially Inappropriate Medications in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. The use of potentially inappropriate medications in older adults can lead to known adverse drug events, but long-term effects are less clear. We therefore conducted a prospective cohort study of older women to determine whether PIM use is associated with risk of functional impairment or low cognitive performance. Methods. We followed up 1,429 community-dwelling women (≥75 years) for a period of 5 years at four clinical sites in the United States. The primary predictor at baseline was PIM use based on 2003 Beers Criteria. We also assessed anticholinergic load using the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden scale. Outcomes included scores on a battery of six cognitive tests at follow-up and having one or more incident impairments in instrumental activities of daily living. Regression models were adjusted for baseline age, race, education, smoking, physical activity, a modified Charlson Comorbidity Index, and cognitive score. Results. The mean ± SD age of women at baseline was 83.2 ± 3.3. In multivariate models, baseline PIM use and higher ACB scores were significantly associated with poorer performance in category fluency (PIM: p = .01; ACB: p = .02) and immediate (PIM: p = .04; ACB: p = .03) and delayed recall (PIM: p = .04). Both PIM use (odds ratio [OR]: 1.36 [1.05–1.75]) and higher ACB scores (OR: 1.11 [1.04–1.19]) were also strongly associated with incident functional impairment. Conclusions. The results provide suggestive evidence that PIM use and increased anticholinergic load may be associated with risk of functional impairment and low cognitive performance. More cautious selection of medications in older adults may reduce these potential risks. PMID:24293516

  11. Information-seeking Behavior During Residency Is Associated With Quality of Theoretical Learning, Academic Career Achievements, and Evidence-based Medical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Braun, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Data regarding knowledge acquisition during residency training are sparse. Predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements and evidence-based medical practice during residency are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study on residents and attending physicians across several residency programs in 2 French faculties of medicine. We comprehensively evaluated the information-seeking behavior (I-SB) during residency using a standardized questionnaire and looked for independent predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice among I-SB components using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Between February 2013 and May 2013, 338 fellows and attending physicians were included in the study. Textbooks and international medical journals were reported to be used on a regular basis by 24% and 57% of the respondents, respectively. Among the respondents, 47% refer systematically (4.4%) or frequently (42.6%) to published guidelines from scientific societies upon their publication. The median self-reported theoretical learning quality score was 5/10 (interquartile range, 3–6; range, 1–10). A high theoretical learning quality score (upper quartile) was independently and strongly associated with the following I-SB components: systematic reading of clinical guidelines upon their publication (odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–17.44); having access to a library that offers the leading textbooks of the specialty in the medical department (OR, 2.45, 95% CI, 1.33–4.52); knowledge of the specialty leading textbooks (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.09–4.10); and PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01–3.73). Research Master (M2) and/or PhD thesis enrolment were independently and strongly associated with the following predictors: PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.46–11.53); knowledge of the leading medical journals of the

  12. Information resources to aid parental decision-making on when to seek medical care for their acutely sick child: a narrative systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Sarah; Roland, Damian; Jones, Caroline HD; Thompson, Matthew; Lakhanpaul, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the effectiveness of information resources to help parents decide when to seek medical care for an acutely sick child under 5 years of age, including the identification of factors influencing effectiveness, by systematically reviewing the literature. Methods 5 databases and 5 websites were systematically searched using a combination of terms on children, parents, education, acute childhood illness. A narrative approach, assessing quality via the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool, was used due to non-comparable research designs. Results 22 studies met the inclusion criteria: 9 randomised control trials, 8 non-randomised intervention studies, 2 qualitative descriptive studies, 2 qualitative studies and 1 mixed method study. Consultation frequency (15 studies), knowledge (9 studies), anxiety/reassurance (7 studies), confidence (4 studies) satisfaction (4 studies) and antibiotic prescription (4 studies) were used as measures of effectiveness. Quality of the studies was variable but themes supported information needing to be relevant and comprehensive to enable parents to manage an episode of minor illness Interventions addressing a range of symptoms along with assessment and management of childhood illness, appeared to have the greatest impact on the reported measures. The majority of interventions had limited impact on consultation frequencies, No conclusive evidence can be drawn from studies measuring other outcomes. Conclusions Findings confirm that information needs to be relevant and comprehensive to enable parents to manage an episode of minor illness. Incomplete information leaves parents still needing to seek help and irrelevant information appears to reduce parents’ trust in the intervention. Interventions are more likely to be effective if they are also delivered in non-stressful environments such as the home and are coproduced with parents. PMID:26674495

  13. Antihypertensive medications and sexual function in women: Baseline data from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Holly N.; Evans, Gregory W.; Berlowtiz, Dan R.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Conroy, Molly B.; Foy, Capri G.; Glasser, Stephen P.; Lewis, Cora E.; Riley, William T.; Russell, Laurie; Williams, Olubunmi; Hess, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Hypertension is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and kidney disease, but treatment can substantially reduce risks. Many patients avoid antihypertensive medications due to fear of side effects. While associations between antihypertensives and sexual dysfunction in men have been documented, it remains unclear whether antihypertensives are associated with sexual dysfunction in women. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from women in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to evaluate the relations among class of antihypertensive medication and the outcomes (a) sexual activity and (b) sexual function. Methods SPRINT enrolled individuals 50 and older with hypertension at high risk for cardiovascular disease. A subset of participants completed questionnaires regarding quality of life (QoL), including sexual function. Antihypertensive class was determined by medications taken at baseline. Results Of 690 women in the QoL subset of SPRINT, 183 (26.5%) were sexually active. There were no significant differences in sexual activity among women taking one or more antihypertensives and women not taking any. Women taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ACEI/ARB) had higher odds of sexual activity [OR 1.66 (1.12-4.27), p=0.011]. Among sexually active women, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction was high (52.5%). No class of medication was associated with sexual dysfunction in the multivariable model. Conclusions ACEI/ARB use was associated with higher odds of sexual activity. While prevalence of sexual dysfunction was high, no single class of antihypertensive medication was associated with sexual dysfunction. PMID:27032074

  14. Africa's middle class women bring entrepreneurial opportunities in breast care medical tourism to South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ahwireng-Obeng, Frederick; van Loggerenberg, Charl

    2011-01-01

    Africa's distribution of specialized private health services is severely disproportionate. Mismatch between South Africa's excess supply and a huge demand potential in an under-serviced continent represents an entrepreneurial opportunity to attract patients to South Africa for treatment and recuperative holidays. However, effective demand for intra-African medical tourism could be constrained by sub-Saharan poverty. Results from interviewing 320 patients and five staff at the Johannesburg Breast care Centre of Excellence, however, reject this proposition, Africa's middle class women being the target market estimated to grow annually by one million while breast cancer incidence increases with middle-class lifestyles. Uncovering this potential involves an extensive marketing strategy. PMID:22392794

  15. HIV stigma and discrimination in medical settings: stories from African women in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cannon Poindexter, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in New Zealand's HIV and immigration situations have sparked a need to understand the experiences of HIV-positive African newcomers there. Here a narrative lens was brought to a previous qualitative study to harvest stories about discrimination in medical settings in New Zealand, told by four HIV-positive African women. Despite describing positive experiences with specialist HIV providers, their accounts shed light on weaknesses within the health care system regarding the rights and treatment of immigrants living with HIV. Participants reported inappropriate use of universal precautions, violations of confidentiality rights, discriminatory comments about Africans or persons with HIV, and misinformation about HIV transmission. Interventions must include enforcement of The Privacy Law and consistent training and monitoring of employee behavior in health care organizations. PMID:24028736

  16. “If You Are Not Circumcised, I Cannot Say Yes”: The Role of Women in Promoting the Uptake of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Osaki, Haika; Mshana, Gerry; Wambura, Mwita; Grund, Jonathan; Neke, Nyasule; Kuringe, Evodius; Plotkin, Marya; Mahler, Hally; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Weiss, Helen; Changalucha, John

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention in Tanzania was introduced by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in 2010 as part of the national HIV prevention strategy. A qualitative study was conducted prior to a cluster randomized trial which tested effective strategies to increase VMMC up take among men aged ≥20 years. During the formative qualitative study, we conducted in-depth interviews with circumcised males (n = 14), uncircumcised males (n = 16), and participatory group discussions (n = 20) with men and women aged 20–49 years in Njombe and Tabora regions of Tanzania. Participants reported that mothers and female partners have an important influence on men’s decisions to seek VMMC both directly by denying sex, and indirectly through discussion, advice and providing information on VMMC to uncircumcised partners and sons. Our findings suggest that in Tanzania and potentially other settings, an expanded role for women in VMMC communication strategies could increase adult male uptake of VMMC services. PMID:26402231

  17. Seeking the Balance: A Native Women's Dialogue. Panel Presentation at the State of Indian American Conference, Cornell University (October 10, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Katsi; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Seven Native American women (including Mohawk, Bolivian, Apache, Nicaraguan Miskito, and Hopi women) discuss women's responsibilities and roles within the family and community, spirituality, birth and puberty ceremonies, child rearing and traditional education of the young (particularly girls), the healing of men through women, union organizing in…

  18. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-04-01

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  19. My Horse Is My Therapist: The Medicalization of Pleasure among Women Equestrians.

    PubMed

    Lee Davis, Dona; Maurstad, Anita; Dean, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Pink t-shirts that proclaim "My horse is my therapist" are for sale in a wide variety of horse-sport catalogues. Literature on the healing power of human-nonhuman animal encounters and the practice of a variety of animal-assisted therapy programs, such as hippotherapy and equine-facilitated therapy, show dramatic growth over the last 30 years. Less attention is paid to the role that horse-human interactions may play in more popular accountings of well-being and impairment among a sample of everyday riders. Analysis of 50 lifecycle narratives, collected from accomplished but nonprofessional equestriennes, demonstrates the complex and ambiguous ways in which women draw from their experience of human-horse relationships as they challenge and transgress the borderlands between pleasure and impairment. Combining the perspectives of multispecies ethnography and medical anthropology that engages the complexities of well-being, analysis is informed by and contributes to recent controversies concerning the medicalization of normality and pleasure in DSM 5. PMID:25348804

  20. Medical eligibility, contraceptive choice, and intrauterine device acceptance among HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy in Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Lisa B.; Feldacker, Caryl; Jamieson, Denise J.; Tweya, Hannock; Cwiak, Carrie; Bryant, Amy G.; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Chaweza, Thomas; Mlundira, Linly; Kachale, Fanny; Stuart, Gretchen S.; Hoffman, Irving; Phiri, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine medical eligibility for contraceptive use, contraceptive preference, and acceptance of a copper intrauterine device (IUD) among a cohort of HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods All HIV-infected women who received ART and sought contraceptive services at the Lighthouse clinic, an integrated HIV/ART clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, between August and December 2010 were invited to participate in a structured interview. Eligibility and preference for the following contraceptive methods were assessed: combined hormonal contraceptives, progestogen-only pills, copper IUD, injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), and contraceptive implants. Results The final sample included 281 women; five were pregnant. The remaining 276 women were eligible for at least three contraceptive methods, with 242 (87.7%) eligible for all five methods evaluated. After counseling, 163 (58.0%) selected DMPA and 98 (34.9%) selected an IUD as their preferred contraceptive method. Regardless of their method of choice, 222 (79.0%) women agreed to have an IUD placed on the same day. Conclusion Most methods of contraception are safe for use by HIV-infected women. Approximately 80% of the women were willing to receive an IUD. Efforts must be made to increase education about, and access to, long-acting reversible methods that may be acceptable and appropriate contraceptive options for HIV-infected women. PMID:24890746

  1. Gestational carriers: A viable alternative for women with medical contraindications to pregnancy*

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Katharine F.; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Compare the efficacy of surrogate or gestational carrier (GC) cycles to that of autologous in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSI) in patients with gynecologic or medical co-morbidities contraindicative to pregnancy. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Infertility patients from a single university hospital-based program from 1998-2009. Intervention(s) 128 GC cycles from 80 intended parents were identified and compared with 15,311 IVF or ICSI cycles. Main Outcome Measure(s) The peak estradiol (E2), number of oocytes retrieved, cycle cancellation, ongoing pregnancy, and live-birth were compared between GCs and autologous IVF carriers. Indications for GC use were also identified. Multiple cycles contributed by the same patient were accounted for using multivariable generalized estimating equations and two-sided Wald p-values. Results Uterine factors (67%) was the most common indication for using a GC, followed by non-gynecologic medical conditions including coagulopathies (13%), end stage renal disease (10%), cardiovascular disease (5%) and cancer (5%). Adjusting for age, ovulation induction in GC cycles had similar peak E2 levels and number of oocytes retrieved relative to IVF cycles (p = 0.23 and 0.43, respectively). Clinical pregnancy (49% vs. 42%, p = 0.28) and live-birth rates (31% vs. 32%, p = 0.74) were also comparable. A sub-analysis of GC cycles in those women with uterine factor indications, demonstrated significantly higher clinical pregnancy rates (OR = 2.0; CI = 1.2 - 3.5) with 60% greater odds of live-birth relative to IVF/ICSI cycles, however this odds was not statistically significant for differences in live-birth (CI = 0.9 - 2.9). Conclusions: GCs are a viable alternative to start families for patients with medical co-morbidities precluding pregnancy. PMID:25664218

  2. Women in the C-Suite: A Study of How Succession Planning May Best Be Utilized for Career Advancement of Medical College Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Yvette E.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated and analyzed medical school executives' perceptions of the low level of advancement of women into the healthcare c-suite. As well, medical school executives' recommendations for increasing the number of women entering and experiencing sustained success in executive positions were assessed. Related to these observations were…

  3. "Can I Ask That?": Perspectives on Perinatal Care After Resettlement Among Karen Refugee Women, Medical Providers, and Community-Based Doulas.

    PubMed

    LaMancuso, Kate; Goldman, Roberta E; Nothnagle, Melissa

    2016-04-01

    This study characterized the perspectives of Karen refugee women in Buffalo, NY, their medical providers, and Karen interpreters/doulas on perinatal care for Karen women in resettlement. In-depth qualitative interviews with Karen women (14), Karen doulas/interpreters and key informants (8), and medical providers (6) were informed by the social contextual model and focused on women's questions about and opinions of perinatal care in Buffalo and on providers' experiences caring for Karen patients. Karen women expressed gratitude for and understanding of perinatal care in Buffalo, and providers described Karen patients as agreeable but shy. Karen doulas offered an alternative view that exposed women's many questions and concerns, and described how doula training empowered them as patients' advocates. Low self-efficacy, trauma histories, and cultural expectations may contribute to Karen women's seeming agreeability. Doulas/interpreters possess insider knowledge of women's concerns and facilitate communication between patients and the care team. PMID:25724151

  4. Understanding Disparities in Service Seeking Following Forcible Versus Drug- or Alcohol-Facilitated/Incapacitated Rape.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kate; Zinzow, Heidi M; Badour, Christal L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S

    2016-09-01

    Victims of drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR) are substantially less likely to seek medical, rape crisis, or police services compared with victims of forcible rape (FR); however, reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. The current study examined explanatory mechanisms in the pathway from rape type (FR vs. DAFR/IR) to disparities in post-rape service seeking (medical, rape crisis, criminal justice). Participants were 445 adult women from a nationally representative household probability sample who had experienced FR, DAFR/IR, or both since age 14. Personal characteristics (age, race, income, prior rape history), rape characteristics (fear, injury, loss of consciousness), and post-rape acknowledgment, medical concerns, and service seeking were collected. An indirect effects model using bootstrapped standard errors was estimated to examine pathways from rape type to service seeking. DAFR/IR-only victims were less likely to seek services compared with FR victims despite similar post-rape medical concerns. FR victims were more likely to report fear during the rape and a prior rape history, and to acknowledge the incident as rape; each of these characteristics was positively associated with service seeking. However, only prior rape history and acknowledgment served as indirect paths to service seeking; acknowledgment was the strongest predictor of service seeking. Diminished acknowledgment of the incident as rape may be especially important to explaining why DAFR/IR victims are less likely than FR victims to seek services. Public service campaigns designed to increase awareness of rape definitions, particularly around DAFR/IR, are important to reducing disparities in rape-related service seeking. PMID:25846758

  5. [Social medical themes and the health intervention: violence against women in the professional's discourse].

    PubMed

    Kiss, Lígia Bittencourt; Schraiber, Lilia Blima

    2011-03-01

    This study deals with violence against women as a health care matter. It was part of a research in public services of São Paulo (Brazil), including the prevalence of violence among users from 15 to 49 years old; the study of their medical records; the description of the services; and interview with 50 professionals, focusing the routine and the ideals of health work, the perception on the existence of violence cases, the offer of assistance or its obstacles and the representations on violence. This article analyses the content of the professional narratives and uses the other data to characterise the assistance context. Confirming the literature, violence was almost always regarded as a relevant problem but outside the professional's intervention boundaries. Isolated actions and in a personal basis were reported. Fear and professional impotence were mentioned, but none positive aspect for potential interventions. The professionals showed lack of knowledge of specialized reference services. In conclusion, the difficulties in the acceptance of violence cases should be worked in three dimensions: the narrow definition of professionals' competence that excludes violence as an object; the absence of technological definitions for professional actions; and effective support in their services. PMID:21519682

  6. Barriers to HIV Medication Adherence: Examining Distinct Anxiety and Depression Symptoms among Women Living with HIV Who Experienced Childhood Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Willie, Tiara C.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2016-01-01

    Experiencing sexual violence in childhood or adolescence is highly prevalent among some women living with HIV, often resulting in anxiety and depression symptoms in adulthood. Anxiety and depression have been associated with HIV medication nonadherence, yet little research has assessed distinct components of anxiety and depression as risk factors of HIV medication nonadherence. The current study examined distinct symptom components of anxiety and depression as predictors of HIV medication nonadherence among women living with HIV and childhood sexual abuse enrolled in a coping intervention. This secondary analysis included a sample of 85 women living with HIV and childhood sexual abuse and being prescribed antiretroviral medication who completed measures on anxiety, depression, and medication adherence. Results from a logistic regression analysis suggest that distinct components of anxiety may be related to medication nonadherence among this population. Targeted mental health interventions for this population may increase adherence to antiretroviral medication. PMID:26010763

  7. Barriers to HIV Medication Adherence: Examining Distinct Anxiety and Depression Symptoms among Women Living with HIV Who Experienced Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Willie, Tiara C; Overstreet, Nicole M; Sullivan, Tami P; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B

    2016-01-01

    Experiencing sexual violence in childhood or adolescence is highly prevalent among some women living with HIV, often resulting in anxiety and depression symptoms in adulthood. Anxiety and depression have been associated with HIV medication nonadherence, yet little research has assessed distinct components of anxiety and depression as risk factors of HIV medication nonadherence. The current study examined distinct symptom components of anxiety and depression as predictors of HIV medication non-adherence among women living with HIV and childhood sexual abuse enrolled in a coping intervention. This secondary analysis included a sample of 85 women living with HIV and childhood sexual abuse and being prescribed antiretroviral medication who completed measures on anxiety, depression, and medication adherence. Results from a logistic regression analysis suggest that distinct components of anxiety may be related to medication nonadherence among this population. Targeted mental health interventions for this population may increase adherence to antiretroviral medication. PMID:26010763

  8. Women in medical physics: a preliminary analysis of workforce and research participation in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Crowe, S B; Kairn, T

    2016-06-01

    Although the participation of women within the science, technology, engineering and mathematics workforces has been widely discussed over recent decades, the recording and analysis of data pertaining to the gender balance of medical physicists in Australia and New Zealand remains rare. This study aimed to provide a baseline for evaluating future changes in workforce demographics by quantifying the current level of representation of women in the Australasian medical physics workforce and providing an indication of the relative contribution made by those women to the local research environment. The 2015 Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) member directory and list of chief physicists at ACPSEM-accredited radiation oncology and diagnostic imaging training centres were interrogated to identify the gender balance of medical physicists working in Australia and New Zealand. A specific investigation of the employment levels of all medical physicists in Queensland was undertaken to provide an example of the gender balance at different levels of seniority in one large Australian state. Lists of authors of medical physics presentations at ACPSEM annual conferences and authors of publications in the ACPSEM's official journal, were used to provide an indication of the gender balance in published research within Australia and New Zealand. The results of this study showed that women currently constitute approximately 28 % of the medical physics workforce in Australia and New Zealand, distributed disproportionally in junior roles; there is a decrease in female participation in the field with increasing levels of seniority, which is particularly apparent in the stratified data obtained for the Queensland workforce. Comparisons with older data suggest that this situation has changed little since 2008. Examination of ACPSEM conference presentations suggested that there are similar disparities between the gender-balance of proffered and

  9. "Why are you pregnant? What were you thinking?": How women navigate experiences of HIV-related stigma in medical settings during pregnancy and birth.

    PubMed

    Greene, Saara; Ion, Allyson; Kwaramba, Gladys; Smith, Stephanie; Loutfy, Mona R

    2016-02-01

    Having children is a growing reality for women living with HIV in Canada. It is imperative to understand and respond to women's unique experiences and psychosocial challenges during pregnancy and as mothers including HIV-related stigma. This qualitative study used a narrative methodological approach to understand women's experiences of HIV-related stigma as they navigate health services in pregnancy (n = 66) and early postpartum (n = 64). Narratives of women living with HIV expose the spaces where stigmatizing practices emerge as women seek perinatal care and support, as well as highlight the relationship between HIV-related stigma and disclosure, and the impact this has on women's pregnancy and birthing experiences. PMID:26684355

  10. A Case Analysis of a Model Program for the Leadership Development of Women Faculty and Staff Seeking to Advance Their Careers in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calizo, Lee Scherer Hawthorne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore a model of leadership development for women faculty and staff in higher education. This study is significant because it explored the only identified campus-based program open to both faculty and staff. The campus-based Women's Institute for Leadership Development (WILD) program at the University of…

  11. Treating tobacco use disorder in pregnant women in medication-assisted treatment for an opioid use disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Akerman, Sarah C; Brunette, Mary F; Green, Alan I; Goodman, Daisy J; Blunt, Heather B; Heil, Sarah H

    2015-05-01

    Smoking is associated with adverse effects on pregnancy and fetal development, yet 88-95% of pregnant women in medication-assisted treatment for an opioid use disorder smoke cigarettes. This review summarizes existing knowledge about smoking cessation treatments for pregnant women on buprenorphine or methadone, the two forms of medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder indicated for prenatal use. We performed a systematic review of the literature using indexed terms and key words to capture the concepts of smoking, pregnancy, and opioid substitution and found that only three studies met search criteria. Contingency management, an incentive based treatment, was the most promising intervention: 31% of participants achieved abstinence within the 12-week study period, compared to 0% in a non-contingent behavior incentive group and a group receiving usual care. Two studies of brief behavioral interventions resulted in reductions in smoking but not cessation. Given the growing number of pregnant women in medication-assisted treatment for an opioid use disorder and the negative consequences of smoking on pregnancy, further research is needed to develop and test effective cessation strategies for this group. PMID:25592332

  12. Misoprostol use in medical evacuation of spontaneous miscarriage: Pilot drug use evaluation study at the Women's Hospital in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    ElSalem, Samah A.; AlSaad, Doua T.; Abdulrouf, Palli V.; Ahmed, Afif A.; AlHail, Moza S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Misoprostol is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 that induces cervical effacement and uterine contractions at all gestational ages, thus facilitating uterine evacuation and pregnancy termination. Successful medical evacuation of spontaneous miscarriage with minimal adverse effects can be performed using misoprostol-only regimen if given as indicated and if the administered dose, frequency of the dosage, and number of total doses are appropriate. Aim: To conduct a drug use evaluation by investigating indications, appropriateness of dosing, and clinical outcome of misoprostol-only regimen when used for medical evacuation of spontaneous miscarriage at the Women's Hospital in Doha, Qatar. Materials and methods: A retrospective descriptive drug use evaluation was conducted on women with spontaneous miscarriage who received misoprostol for medical evacuation during August 2013. The current practice at the Women's Hospital was compared with the recommendation from the World Health Organization (WHO). Patients were stratified into three groups based on weeks of amenorrhea. Results: A total of 107 patients received misoprostol during August 2013, of which 33 (31%) were included in the study. In these patients, the main indication for misoprostol use was missed miscarriage (54.5%). In the group of patients at ≤ 9 weeks of gestation, 80% received an initial dose of 800 μg, 80% received frequency within the WHO recommendation, and the majority had surgical evacuation (80%). In the group of patients at 10–12 weeks of gestation, more than 80% received an initial dose of 800 μg, 6% received frequency within the WHO recommendation, and more than 75% had successful medical evacuation. In the group of patients at 13–22 weeks of gestation, more than 80% received an initial dose of 400 μg, more than 80% received frequency within the WHO recommendation, and 54% had successful medical evacuation. Overall, more than 70% of the patients received ≤ 3 total doses of

  13. “I AM PROUD OF MYSELF, JUST THE WAY I AM” (MWEN FYÈ DE TÈT MWEN, JAN MWEN YE YA): A QUALITATIVE STUDY AMONG YOUNG HAITIAN WOMEN SEEKING CARE FOR SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS (STIS) IN HAITI

    PubMed Central

    Severe, Linda; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Deschamps, Marie M.; Reif, Lindsey; Post, Kendall; Johnson, Warren D.; Pape, Jean W.; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Haitian women are twice as likely as men to have HIV/AIDs. Factors underlying the feminization of HIV are complex. Self-esteem is an important correlate of sexual behavior. However, its meaning and impact on health behaviors may be influenced by cultural factors. This qualitative study took place in Haiti 4 months after the 2010 earthquake and examines the meaning of self-esteem among young Haitian women seeking treatment for a recurrent sexually transmitted infection (STI). The meaning of self-esteem was derived from a sense of gratitude and was rooted in their ability to provide for family. This may have led to behaviors such as not using condoms or having sex with partners in concurrent relationships. This article highlights the resilience and resourcefulness of Haitian women, provides insight into how women with apparent positive self-images were led to make choices that placed them at high risk for contracting HIV, and concludes with recommendations for future interventions. PMID:24694329

  14. "I am proud of myself, just the way I am" (Mwen fyé de tét mwen, jan mwen ye ya): a qualitative study among young Haitian women seeking care for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Severe, Linda; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Deschamps, Marie M; Reif, Lindsey; Post, Kendall; Johnson, Warren D; Pape, Jean W; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2014-04-01

    Haitian women are twice as likely as men to have HIV/AIDs. Factors underlying the feminization of HIV are complex. Self-esteem is an important correlate of sexual behavior. However, its meaning and impact on health behaviors may be influenced by cultural factors. This qualitative study took place in Haiti 4 months after the 2010 earthquake and examines the meaning of self-esteem among young Haitian women seeking treatment for a recurrent sexually transmitted infection (STI). The meaning of self-esteem was derived from a sense of gratitude and was rooted in their ability to provide for family. This may have led to behaviors such as not using condoms or having sex with partners in concurrent relationships. This article highlights the resilience and resourcefulness of Haitian women, provides insight into how women with apparent positive self-images were led to make choices that placed them at high risk for contracting HIV, and concludes with recommendations for future interventions. PMID:24694329

  15. Job Satisfaction of Married, Divorced, and Single Working Women in a Medical Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lottinville, Elinor; Scherman, Avraham

    1988-01-01

    Examined whether early divorce would affect job satisfaction of professional or clerical/technical women (N=88) working in hospitals and explored differences among married, divorced, and single working women in their perceptions of different areas of their work. Results revealed significant positive relationship between job level and job…

  16. Family physicians can play important role helping women overcome drinking problems.

    PubMed Central

    Lechky, O

    1995-01-01

    When alcoholic women seek medical assistance, it is more likely to be because of distress over interpersonal or family problems, and their complaints of anxiety, depression and insomnia will be treated with prescription drugs. The alcoholism, which presents differently in women than men, is often left undiagnosed and untreated. However, even when women seek help for a drinking problem, traditional and male-dominated support groups may not meet their unique needs. When it comes to alcoholism, men and women are certainly not created equal. PMID:7728702

  17. Influenza Vaccination among Pregnant Women: Patient Beliefs and Medical Provider Practices.

    PubMed

    Stark, Lauren M; Power, Michael L; Turrentine, Mark; Samelson, Renee; Siddiqui, Maryam M; Paglia, Michael J; Strassberg, Emmie R; Kelly, Elizabeth; Murtough, Katie L; Schulkin, Jay

    2016-01-01

    ACOG's research department recruited four medical centers to participate in a study on the attitudes and practices of medical providers and pregnant patients regarding influenza vaccination. Medical providers and patients were given voluntary surveys and medical record data was collected over two flu seasons, from 2013 to 2015. Discrepancies between self-reports of medical providers and patients and medical records were observed. Nearly 80% of patients self-reported accepting the influenza vaccine, but medical record data only reported 36% of patients accepting the vaccine. Similarly, all medical providers reported giving recommendations for the vaccine, but only 85% of patients reported receiving a recommendation. Age, education, a medical provider's recommendation, and educational materials were found to positively influence patient beliefs about the influenza vaccine. Accepting the vaccine was influenced by a patient's previous actions, beliefs, and a medical provider's recommendation. Patients who reported previously not accepting the vaccine and had negative feelings towards the vaccine but accepted it while pregnant reported concern for the health and safety of their baby. Future research should focus on groups that may be less likely to accept the vaccine and ways to dispel negative myths. Medical provider should continue to strongly recommend the vaccine and provide educational materials. PMID:27559272

  18. Influenza Vaccination among Pregnant Women: Patient Beliefs and Medical Provider Practices

    PubMed Central

    Samelson, Renee; Siddiqui, Maryam M.; Paglia, Michael J.; Strassberg, Emmie R.; Kelly, Elizabeth; Murtough, Katie L.; Schulkin, Jay

    2016-01-01

    ACOG's research department recruited four medical centers to participate in a study on the attitudes and practices of medical providers and pregnant patients regarding influenza vaccination. Medical providers and patients were given voluntary surveys and medical record data was collected over two flu seasons, from 2013 to 2015. Discrepancies between self-reports of medical providers and patients and medical records were observed. Nearly 80% of patients self-reported accepting the influenza vaccine, but medical record data only reported 36% of patients accepting the vaccine. Similarly, all medical providers reported giving recommendations for the vaccine, but only 85% of patients reported receiving a recommendation. Age, education, a medical provider's recommendation, and educational materials were found to positively influence patient beliefs about the influenza vaccine. Accepting the vaccine was influenced by a patient's previous actions, beliefs, and a medical provider's recommendation. Patients who reported previously not accepting the vaccine and had negative feelings towards the vaccine but accepted it while pregnant reported concern for the health and safety of their baby. Future research should focus on groups that may be less likely to accept the vaccine and ways to dispel negative myths. Medical provider should continue to strongly recommend the vaccine and provide educational materials. PMID:27559272

  19. Experiences, Feelings and Thoughts of Women Undergoing Second Trimester Medical Termination of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Inga-Maj; Christensson, Kyllike; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Main Objective The objective of this study was to explore women's expectations and experiences of undergoing second trimester abortion. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using a screening questionnaire and semi-structured interviews for data collection. Thirty-one women filled out the questionnaire and 23 of them were later interviewed. The questionnaires were analyzed by descriptive statistics. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Most Important Findings Indications for the abortion were fetal malformation or unintended pregnancy. The women expressed similar feelings and these were irrespective for the reason for having an abortion. Both physical and mental pain was experienced during the abortion process and described by the women. Taking the mifepristone-pill was experienced as especially emotionally difficult for many participants. Professional support from the staff together with support from the partner, a friend or relative helped in transforming the worries related to something unknown to feelings of coping with a new and hard experience. Prior to the abortion most women stated that they did not want to view the fetus but women who chose to view the fetus described this as a way of confronting the reality and an opportunity to say farewell to the pregnancy/fetus. The analysis of the interview transcripts revealed five themes mirroring the women's experiences, thoughts and feelings related to the abortion. Conclusions The decision to undergo second trimester abortion sometimes exposes women to strong and conflicting emotions which are irrespective for the reason for having an abortion. Despite this women do not regret their decision to terminate the pregnancy. This analysis shows that their rational thinking outweighs their emotionally difficult feelings. It is important for the attending staff to be responsive to the needs of each individual woman whatever the indication is for the abortion

  20. Comparison on information-seeking behavior of postgraduated students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and University of Isfahan in writing dissertation based on Kuhlthau model of information search process

    PubMed Central

    Abedi, Mahnaz; Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan; Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Nouri, Rasoul; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Information-seeking behaviors have been one of the main focuses of researchers in order to identify and solve the problems users face in information recovery. The aim of this research is Comparative on Information-Seeking Behavior of the Postgraduate Students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Isfahan University in Writing Dissertation based on Kuhlthau Model of Information Search Process in 2012. Materials and Methods: The research method followed is survey and the data collection tool is Narmenji questionnaire. Statistical population was all postgraduate students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Isfahan University. The sample size was 196 people and sampling was stratified randomly. The type of statistical analyses were descriptive (mean and frequency) and inferential (independent t test and Pearson's correlation) and the software used was SPSS20. Results: The findings showed that Isfahan Medical Sciences University followed 20% of the order steps of this model and Isfahan University did not follow this model. In the first stage (Initiation) and sixth (Presentation) of feelings aspects and in actions (total stages) significant difference was found between students from the two universities. Between gender and fourth stage (Formulation) and the total score of feelings the Kuhlthau model there has a significant relationship. Also there was a significant and inverse relationship between the third stage (Exploration) of feelings and age of the students. Conclusion: The results showed that in writing dissertation there were some major differences in following up the Kuhlthau model between students of the two Universities. There are significant differences between some of the stages of feelings and actions of students’ information-seeking behavior from the two universities. There is a significant relationship between the fourth stage (Formulation) of feelings in the Kuhlthau Model with gender and third stage of the Feelings

  1. The organization and delivery of women's health care in Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Yano, Elizabeth M; Washington, Donna L; Goldzweig, Caroline; Caffrey, Cynthia; Turner, Carole

    2003-01-01

    Congressional eligibility reforms have profoundly changed the array of services to be made available to women veterans in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care facilities. These include access not only to primary and specialty care services already afforded VA users, but also to a full spectrum of gender-specific services, including prenatal, obstetric, and infertility services never before provided in VA settings. The implications of this legislative mandate for delivering care to women veterans are poorly understood, as little or no information has been available about how care for women veterans is organized. This article reports on the first national assessment of variations in the organization of care for women veterans. PMID:12732441

  2. Meta-synthesis exploring barriers to health seeking behaviour among Malaysian breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Foo Qing; Murugiah, Muthu Kumar; Khan, Amer Hayat; Mehmood, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to health seeking constitute a challenging issue in the treatment of breast cancer. The current meta- synthesis aimed to explore common barriers to health seeking among Malaysian breast cancer patients. From the systematic search, nine studies were found meeting the inclusion criteria. Data extraction revealed that health behavior towards breast cancer among Malaysia women was influenced by knowledge, psychological, sociocultural and medical system factors. In terms of knowledge, most of the Malaysian patients were observed to have cursory information and the reliance on the information provided by media was limiting. Among psychological factors, stress and sense of denial were some of the common factors leading to delay in treatment seeking. Family member's advice, cultural beliefs towards traditional care were some of the common sociocultural factors hindering immediate access to advanced medical diagnosis and care. Lastly, the delay in referral was one of the most common health system-related problems highlighted in most of the studies. In conclusion, there is an immediate need to improve the knowledge and understanding of Malaysian women towards breast cancer. Mass media should liaise with the cancer specialists to disseminate accurate and up-to-date information for the readers and audience, helping in modification of cultural beliefs that hinder timing health seeking. However, such intervention will not improve or rectify the health system related barriers to treatment seeking. Therefore, there is an immediate need for resource adjustment and training programs among health professional to improve their competency and professionalism required to develop an efficient health system. PMID:25640342

  3. Factors Supporting and Inhibiting Adherence to HIV Medication Regimen in Women: A Qualitative Analysis of Patient Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Fagbami, Oluwakemi; Oluwasanjo, Adetokunbo; Fitzpatrick, Carrie; Fairchild, Rebecca; Shin, Ann; Donato, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy reduces morbidity and mortality; however rates of non-adherence are variable among women for unclear reasons. This study was a single-center qualitative analysis of interviews with 18 female HIV-positive non-adherent patients (defined by virologic failure) to explore psychosocial factors impacting adherence. Factors identified were categorized as promoting, inhibiting or having no effect on adherence. Three themes, characterized as social factors, illness factors and other societal pressures, were identified. Medical systems support, family support and compliance for children were most commonly identified as promoting adherence, while psychiatric comorbidities, lack of medical systems support and side effects were identified most often as inhibitors of adherence. While stigma was frequently identified, it was not seen as a barrier to adherence. Enhancing relationships between patients and their providers as well as their community support systems are critical avenues to pursue in improving compliance. Interventions to promote compliance are important avenues of future research. PMID:26157537

  4. Violence against women.

    PubMed

    Nelson, T

    1996-01-01

    This essay opens its discussion of violence against women by referring to the 1994 television broadcast of a 10-year-old Egyptian girl undergoing female genital mutilation (FGM) without benefit of infection control measures or anesthesia at the hands of a local barber. After presenting a brief description of FGM, its various justifications, and its impacts on its victims, the official Egyptian policy is described as ambiguous, and the broadcast is shown to have caused influential religious leaders and medical personnel to defend FGM and, thus, led to postponement of a bill to outlaw FGM. The next section of the essay shows that Egypt's response to FGM reflects the international debate on all forms of violence against women emerging from and reinforcing the social relationships that give men power over women. These forms of violence include domestic violence in almost all societies; the dowry-related, bride-burning homicides that claim 5000-12,000 lives each year in India; son preference that leads to abortion of female fetuses and female infanticide; and crimes such as rape, sexual abuse, and forced prostitution. The essay continues with a look at the costs of violence hidden in the damage to women that increases health care costs substantially and reduces economic productivity. Violence towards women, which occurs throughout the world and can prevent women from participating in public life or from controlling their fertility, is a male tool to inhibit women from gaining autonomy outside the home. The essay concludes that victims of violence are beginning to break the silence that surrounded these deeds and are seeking legislative protection. Laws may not result in real-life changes, but the movement to eliminate FGM may prove to be the first success in women's efforts to achieve human rights. An example is the important precedent being set in the US by a woman seeking asylum to avoid facing an arranged marriage and FGM in her native Togo. PMID:12291323

  5. Predictors of Health Care Use Among a Predominantly Hispanic, Urban Sample of Individuals Seeking IPV Services

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Sarah L.; Laughon, Kathryn; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Hispanics, Blacks, and women are disproportionately burdened by intimate partner violence. Barriers to seeking medical care play an important role in victims accessing the full myriad of services they need. A secondary analysis of data collected over a 6-month period at a coordinated domestic violence social agency was completed to assess predictors of seeking medical care after experiencing intimate partner violence. A hierarchical logistic regression was conducted to assess the predictive ability of socioeconomic factors, type of abuse, and severity of abuse. Hispanic victims of intimate partner violence were less likely to seek medical attention compared to non-Hispanic Whites, even after controlling for socioeconomic factors, type of abuse, and severity of abuse, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = .40, p = .05, 95% CI [.164, .995]. Victims reporting physical abuse were over seven times more likely to seek medical attention, AOR = 8.02, p = .04, 95% CI [2.35, 27.34]. Medical care needs to be incorporated into coordinated social services offered to victims of intimate partner violence. PMID:23268315

  6. Physiological employment standards IV: integration of women in combat units physiological and medical considerations.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Yanovich, Ran; Moran, Daniel S; Heled, Yuval

    2013-11-01

    Anthropometric and physiological factors place the average female soldier at a disadvantage relative to male soldiers in most aspects of physical performance. Aerobic and anaerobic fitness levels are lower in women than in men. Thus, women have a lower overall work capacity and must therefore exert themselves more than men to achieve the same output. The lower weight and fat-free mass and the higher body fat of women are associated with lower muscle strength and endurance, placing them at disadvantage compared with men in carrying out military tasks such as lifting and carrying weights or marching with a load. Working at a higher percentage of their maximal capacity to achieve the same performance levels as men, women tire earlier and are at increased risk of overuse injuries. Their smaller size, different bone geometry and lower bone strength also predispose women to a higher incidence of stress fractures. Although training in gender-integrated groups narrows the gaps in fitness, significant differences between the genders after basic training still remain. Nevertheless, integration of women into military combat professions is feasible in many cases. Some 'close combat roles' will still be an exception, mainly because of the extreme physical demands that are required in those units that are beyond the physiological adaptability capacities of an average female. There is no direct evidence that women have a negative impact on combat effectiveness. Once the gender differences are acknowledged and operational doctrines adjusted accordingly, female soldiers in mixed-gender units can meet the physical standards for the assigned missions. PMID:23238928

  7. Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... involve the use of estrogen alone or estrogen plus progestin. For women with heart disease, estrogen alone will not prevent heart attacks, and estrogen plus progestin increases the risk for heart attack during ...

  8. Physiological and Medical Aspects That Put Women Soldiers at Increased Risk for Overuse Injuries.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Fleischmann, Chen; Yanovich, Ran; Heled, Yuval

    2015-11-01

    Anthropometric and physiological factors place female soldiers at a disadvantage relative to male soldiers in most aspects of physical performance. Average aerobic and anaerobic fitness levels are lower in women than in men. Thus, women have a lower overall work capacity and must exert themselves more than men to achieve the same output. The lower weight and fat-free mass and the higher body fat of women are associated with lower muscle strength and endurance, placing them at a disadvantage compared with men in performing military tasks such as lifting and carrying weights, or marching with a load. Working at a higher percentage of their maximal capacity to achieve the same performance levels as men, women tire earlier. Their smaller size, skeletal anatomy, and different bone geometry also predispose women to a higher incidence of exercise-related injuries. Consequently, the attrition rate of female soldiers in combat units is higher than that of their male counterparts. This review summarizes the literature on gender-related physiological and anatomical differences that put female soldiers at an increased risk of exercise-related injuries. PMID:26506172

  9. Fatal intimate partner violence against women in Portugal: a forensic medical national study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Rita; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Magalhães, Teresa

    2013-11-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important cause of women's health and socio-familial severe problems, the most extreme being the victims' homicide. This is the first nationwide Portuguese autopsy-based and judicial-proven study about female intimate partner homicide. At least 62 women over 15 years old were killed by current or former men-intimate partners, corresponding to an IPV-related female mortality rate of 0.44/100.000 women; intimate partner violence was the reason of homicide in 60.8% of all autopsied women. The typical Portuguese victim showed to be a young adult woman, employed, killed by a current husband in a long-term relationship, usually with children in common and with a history of previous IPV. The typical Portuguese perpetrator showed to be older than the victim, employed, owning a firearm and without criminal records. At the time of the fatal event 59.7% of the relationships were current. In 57.9% of the former relationships women were killed during the 1st year after its terminus. Near half of the perpetrators attempted or committed suicide afterward. Most women were killed by gunshot wounds (45.2%), especially in the thorax (48.4%), with multiple fatal injuries; 56.5% also presented non-fatal injuries. The detection of prior IPV and the risk evaluation seems to be fundamental to decrease these fatal outcomes, but also, the prevention of perpetrators' alcohol abuse and carrying weapons. This work emphasizes the need to deepen the research on this issue, aiming to contribute to prevent both fatal and non-fatal IPV-related cases. PMID:24237830

  10. [Medical-social study of women incarcerated in the Fleury-Merogis prison in 2000 and 2001].

    PubMed

    Gastone, R

    2003-06-01

    This socio-medical study was conducted in the women's penitentiary of Fleury-Mérogis in 2000 and 2001 and includes a total of about 500 patients of whom 70% are between the ages of 18 and 39. Their level of education varies; 63% of them are foreigners, of which 60% do not speak any French. Their physical state of health is satisfactory in general, but more than half of them suffer from minor psychological problems often secondary to the prison's conditions. Major psychiatric illness is rare. Among their addictions, the one noted most frequently is smoking; alcoholism and drug addiction are less widespread. The author underlines the need for a comprehensive care structure for the prisoners, on the socio-economic and family levels as well as the physical and psycho-pathological levels. He advocates in order that the medical care become the activity of a single service of Internal Medicine, and no longer as it exists in the present system in France with two distinctly separate departments--one in charge of caring for the body, and the other in charge of caring for the mind. Finally, he emphasises the need for a true sense of team work among all of the actors involved in the care of these women in difficult situations. PMID:12891812

  11. Status report from the American Acne & Rosacea Society on medical management of acne in adult women, part 1: overview, clinical characteristics, and laboratory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Harper, Julie C; Graber, Emmy M; Thiboutot, Diane; Silverberg, Nanette B; Eichenfield, Dawn Zhang; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-10-01

    Acne presenting in adult women is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Many affected women have had acne during their teenaged years, have tried several therapies in the past, and are seeking effective treatment. Others are frustrated by the inexplicable emergence of acne as an adult when they never had it as a teenager. Both groups seek an explanation of why they have acne, are often psychosocially affected by its effects on appearance and self-esteem, and all are wanting effective and safe treatment. Clinicians are encouraged to connect favorably with each patient through careful history and physical examination and to consider underlying causes of androgen excess. Practical approaches to examination and laboratory evaluation are discussed. PMID:26682286

  12. Social capital and under-utilization of medication for financial reasons among elderly women: evidence from two Brazilian health surveys.

    PubMed

    Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; de Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2013-12-01

    This cross-sectional study assesses the prevalence and examines the role of social and demographic factors, health conditions, health system characteristics and contextual factors of under-utilization of medication for financial reasons among elderly women. Participants in the Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte Health Survey (GMBH) and the eleventh phase of the Bambuí Cohort Study of the Elderly were assessed. Among elderly women in the GMBH, the prevalence of under-utilization was 11.4%, and in Bambuí, the rate was 5.4%. Self-perception of health (OR, 3.46; 95%CI, 1.32_9.10); daily life limitations (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.31-5.78) and perception of help (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.07-5.25) had independent associations with under-utilization among GMBH residents. A poor perception of both cohesion in the neighborhood (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.02-5.56) and the physical environment (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.10-6.03) significantly increased the likelihood of under-utilization among Bambuí residents. These results provide important clues to identifying possible risk factors for under-utilization, highlighting the need to develop strategies targeting the amplification of the involvement between elderly women and their community to reduce the extent of under-utilization in later life. PMID:24263888

  13. African American Women's Perceptions and Attitudes Regarding Participation in Medical Research: The Mayo Clinic/The Links, Incorporated Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, LaPrincess C.; Parker, Monica W.; Balls-Berry, Joyce E.; Halyard, Michele Y.; Pinn, Vivian W.; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To examine perceptions and attitudes toward health-related research participation among professional African American women. Methods: Participants were members of an African American women's service organization, The Links, Incorporated. Data were collected via self-administered questionnaires at The Links, Incorporated 2012 National Assembly. Sociodemographics, prior research experience, intention to participate (ITP), willingness to participate (WTP) in a variety of research studies and attitudes about research participation were measured. Results: A total of 381 surveys were analyzed. A majority of respondents were married (66%), employed (69%), and college educated (96%). Median age was 59; 38% reported prior research participation. Overall, 78% agreed with the statement, “Participation in research will mean better care,” 24% agreed “Participation in research is risky” and 3% agreed “Scientists cannot be trusted.” Fifty-two percent agreed with the statement, “Research conducted in the U.S. is ethical.” Mean ITP in research was 4.9±1.7 on a rating scale of 1 (“definitely no”) to 7 (“definitely yes”). WTP was highest for an interview study and providing a blood sample, and lowest for clinical trial and medical record review. Conclusion: Attitudes toward research participation were generally favorable among professional African American women; many expressed WTP in a variety of research study types. PMID:25046058

  14. White coats and no trousers: narrating the experiences of women technicians in medical laboratories, 1930–90

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, J. M.; Tansey, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory technicians are a vital part of any working lab. Not only is their knowledge and expertise important for the success of research, but they also often maintain the lab's intellectual and social life. Despite the importance of their work, they are rarely acknowledged in publications, and leave only a few traces within the historical record—the voices of women laboratory technicians are even harder to uncover. This paper attempts to correct this imbalance by presenting the narratives of women who worked as laboratory technicians at places such as the National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), the Wellcome Research Laboratories, and established hospital and university labs in Cambridge, Oxford and London. The data were collected though narrative interviews. Specifically, the paper looks at the roles of these women within the lab, their experiences of the social and gender dynamics of the lab, and the development of expertise in regard to the work they carried out and the extent to which they received credit for their contributions to science. PMID:26489181

  15. Survey of Women Physicians on Issues Relating to Pregnancy during a Medical Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinal, Sara; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study on women physicians' timing of pregnancy are reported, with 70 percent of the respondents considered "after completion of residency" to be the best time to become pregnant. Only a third reported that their training or work sites had maternity leave policies. (Author/MLW)

  16. Integration of an academic medical center and a community hospital: the Brigham and Women's/Faulkner hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Andrew J; Otten, Jeffrey R; Goldszer, Robert C; Hanson, Margaret; Trull, David J; Paulus, Kenneth; Brown, Monte; Dzau, Victor; Brennan, Troyen A

    2005-03-01

    Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), a major academic tertiary medical center, and Faulkner Hospital (Faulkner), a nearby community teaching hospital, both in the Boston, Massachusetts area, have established a close affiliation relationship under a common corporate parent that achieves a variety of synergistic benefits. Formed under the pressures of limited capacity at BWH and excess capacity at Faulkner, and the need for lower-cost clinical space in an era of provider risk-sharing, BWH and Faulkner entered into a comprehensive affiliation agreement. Over the past seven years, the relationship has enhanced overall volume, broadened training programs, lowered the cost of resources for secondary care, and improved financial performance for both institutions. The lessons of this relationship, both in terms of success factors and ongoing challenges for the hospitals, medical staffs, and a large multispecialty referring physician group, are reviewed. The key factors for success of the relationship have been integration of training programs and some clinical services, provision of complementary clinical capabilities, geographic proximity, clear role definition of each institution, commitment and flexibility of leadership and medical staff, active and responsive communication, and the support of a large referring physician group that embraced the affiliation concept. Principal challenges have been maintaining the community hospital's cost structure, addressing cultural differences, avoiding competition among professional staff, anticipating the pace of patient migration, choosing a name for the new affiliation, and adapting to a changing payer environment. PMID:15734807

  17. Medical men, women of letters, and treatments for eighteenth-century hysteria.

    PubMed

    Meek, Heather

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores evolving treatments for hysteria in the eighteenth century by examining a selection of works by both physician-writers and educated literary women. The treatments I identify--which range from aggressive bloodlettings, diets, and beatings, to exercise, fresh air, and writing cures--reveal a unique culture of therapy in which female sufferers and doctors exert an influence on one another's notions of what constitutes appropriate management of women's mental illness. A scrutiny of this exchange of ideas suggests that female patients were not simply oppressed and silenced by male practitioners; rather, their collective voice, intellect, and expertise helped to form progressive treatments for eighteenth-century hysteria. PMID:23192402

  18. Participation in medical research as a resource-seeking strategy in socio-economically vulnerable communities: call for research and action.

    PubMed

    Ravinetto, Raffaella M; Afolabi, Muhammed O; Okebe, Joseph; Van Nuil, Jennifer Ilo; Lutumba, Pascal; Mavoko, Hypolite Muhindo; Nahum, Alain; Tinto, Halidou; Addissie, Adamu; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Grietens, Koen Peeters

    2015-01-01

    The freedom to consent to participate in medical research is a complex subject, particularly in socio-economically vulnerable communities, where numerous factors may limit the efficacy of the informed consent process. Informal consultation among members of the Switching the Poles Clinical Research Network coming from various sub-Saharan African countries, that is Burkina Faso, The Gambia, Rwanda, Ethiopia, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Benin, seems to support the hypothesis that in socio-economical vulnerable communities with inadequate access to health care, the decision to participate in research is often taken irrespectively of the contents of the informed consent interview, and it is largely driven by the opportunity to access free or better quality care and other indirect benefits. Populations' vulnerability due to poverty and/or social exclusion should obviously not lead to exclusion from medical research, which is most often crucially needed to address their health problems. Nonetheless, to reduce the possibility of exploitation, there is the need to further investigate the complex links between socio-economical vulnerability, access to health care and individual freedom to decide on participation in medical research. This needs bringing together clinical researchers, social scientists and bioethicists in transdisciplinary collaborative research efforts that require the collective input from researchers, research sponsors and funders. PMID:25302444

  19. Traditional Chinese medical herbs staged therapy in infertile women with endometriosis: a clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhaorong; Lian, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease defined as the presence of endometrioid tissue (glands and stroma) outside the uterus. About 30 to 40% patients with endometriosis are infertile. In traditional Chinese medical system, endometriosis associated infertility is mostly caused by kidney deficiency and blood stasis. The herb of reinforcing kidney and removing blood stasis is designed to treat the disease. Material and methods: All the 80 up-to-standard patients were divided into two different groups exactly according to the random principle. They were treated with hormone and traditional Chinese medical herb separately. After half year’s therapy, all the patients received one year’s follow-up. Their transvaginal ultrasonographic changes, serum hormone levels and pregnancy rate were recorded to analysis the effect. Results: No significant difference happened in two groups’ demographic and clinical characteristics (P > 0.05). After the treatment, the effect on serum hormone levels and specific markers are significant (P < 0.05). The transvaginal ultrasonographic changes were positive, too. The text on hepatic and renal function confirmed to the safety of the herb. Compared to hormone therapy, the traditional Chinese medical herb is safe and effective for endometriosis patients with infertility. Conclusion: Compared with hormone therapy, traditional Chinese medical herb’s two-staged therapy is effective and safe for endometriosis patients with infertility. PMID:26550373

  20. Women's health: beyond reproductive years.

    PubMed

    Laskar, Ananya Ray

    2011-01-01

    With changing demographic profile India has more older women than men as life expectancy for women is 67.57 as against 65.46 for men. Gender differences in the aging process reflect biological, economic, and social differences. Both social and health needs of the older women are unique and distinctive as they are vulnerable. The social problems revolve around widowhood, dependency, illiteracy and lack of awareness about the policies and programmes from which they can benefit. Among the medical problems, vision (cataract) and degenerative joint disease top the list, followed by neurological problems. Lifestyle diseases form another single-most important group of health problems in the elderly women. The risk of cardiovascular disease doubles with the outcome being poorer than men. The most common causes of death among women above the age of 60 years are stroke, ischemic heart disease and COPD. Hypertensive heart disease and lower respiratory tract infections contribute to mortality in these women. Common malignancies viz. Cervical, breast and uterus in women are specific to them and account for a sizeable morbidity and mortality. In a study done at Lady Hardinge medical college in Delhi, Hypertension (39.6%) and obesity (12-46.8%) were very common in postmenopausal women. Half or more women had high salt and fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake and stress. There is a need to recognize the special health needs of the women beyond the reproductive age, to be met through strengthening and reorienting the public health services at all levels starting from primary health care to secondary till tertiary care level with adequate referral linkages. All policies and programs need to have a gender perspective. At present there is lack of sensitization and appropriate training of the health personnel in dealing with the needs of elderly. Women too need to be aware to adopt healthy lifestyle and seek timely care. PMID:22298132

  1. Risk Factors for Treatment Failure with Antiosteoporosis Medication: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW)

    PubMed Central

    Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Adachi, Jonathan D; Adami, Silvano; Anderson, Frederick A; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland; Compston, Juliet E; Cooper, Cyrus; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L; Hooven, Frederick H; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Nieves, Jeri W; Netelenbos, J Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S; Wyman, Allison; Rushton-Smith, Sophie K; Watts, Nelson B

    2016-01-01

    Anti-osteoporosis medication (AOM) does not abolish fracture risk, and some individuals experience multiple fractures while on treatment. Therefore, criteria for treatment failure have recently been defined. Using data from the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW), we analyzed risk factors for treatment failure, defined as sustaining ≥2 fractures while on AOM. GLOW is a prospective, observational cohort study of women aged ≥55 years sampled from primary care practices in 10 countries. Self-administered questionnaires collected data on patient characteristics, fracture risk factors, previous fractures, AOM use, and health status. Data were analyzed from women who used the same class of AOM continuously over 3 survey-years and had data available on fracture occurrence. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of treatment failure. Data from 26,918 women were available, of whom 5550 were on AOM. During follow-up, 73/5550 women in the AOM group (1.3%) and 123/21,368 in the non-AOM group (0.6%) reported occurrence of ≥2 fractures. The following variables were associated with treatment failure: lower SF-36 score (physical function and vitality) at baseline, higher FRAX score, falls in the past 12 months, selected comorbid conditions, prior fracture, current use of glucocorticoids, need of arms to assist to standing, and unexplained weight loss ≥10 lb (≥4.5 kg). Three variables remained predictive of treatment failure after multivariable analysis: worse SF-36 vitality score (odds ratio [OR] per 10-point increase 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76–0.95; p = 0.004), ≥2 falls in the past year (OR 2.40; 95% CI 1.34–4.29; p = 0.011), and prior fracture (OR 2.93; 95% CI 1.81–4.75; p < 0.0001). The C statistic for the model was 0.712. Specific strategies for fracture prevention should therefore be developed for this subgroup of patients. PMID:23794198

  2. Does knowledge about bloodborne pathogens influence the reuse of medical injection syringes among women in Pakistan?

    PubMed

    Janjua, Naveed Z; Mahmood, Bushra; Imran Khan, M

    2014-01-01

    Injections with re-used syringes have been identified as a major risk factor for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in Pakistan. We analyzed data from the 2006-2007 Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS) to describe the distribution of injections administered with newly opened syringes and assessed the association of knowledge about bloodborne pathogens with syringe reuse in Pakistan. In the PDHS, women aged 12-49 years were enrolled through a multistage stratified cluster-sampling strategy across Pakistan. Approximately 10,000 women were interviewed to collect information regarding receiving injections, the use of syringes taken out of new unopened packages for their last injections, and knowledge regarding the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), HBV and HCV through the re-use of syringes and transfusion of unscreened blood. Of the 5126/10,023 women who provided information concerning their last injection, 4342 (86%) received this injection with a new syringe taken out of an unopened package. The proportion of injections received with a new syringe increased with the education level, wealth, HIV knowledge and knowledge about HCV/HBV transmission through the re-use of syringes. In the multivariable model, respondents in the 4th (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.1, 95%CI: 1.4-3.0) and 5th (AOR: 2.4, 95%CI: 1.6-3.5) wealth quintiles, with some education (AOR: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1-1.9), those in the 4th quartile of the HIV knowledge score (AOR: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-2.0), and those with the knowledge that a new syringe protects against HCV/HBV and HIV (AOR: 2.3, 95%CI: 1.5-3.5) were more likely to receive injections with a newly opened syringe. The patients' knowledge regarding the transmission of bloodborne pathogens is an important factor in receiving injections with a new syringe. PMID:24861642

  3. Behavioral and Health Outcomes for HIV+ Young Transgender Women Linked To and Engaged in Medical Care

    PubMed Central

    Matone, Meredith; Luan, Xianqun; Lee, Susan; Belzer, Marvin; Fernandez, Maria Isabel; Rubin, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe health and psychosocial outcomes of HIV+ young transgender women (YTW) engaged in care across the United States. When compared to other behaviorally infected youth (BIY), YTW reported higher rates of unemployment (25% vs. 19%), limited educational achievement (42% vs 13%), and suboptimal ART adherence (51% vs. 30%). There was no difference in likelihood of having a detectable viral load (38% vs. 39%) between groups. However, particular isolating psychosocial factors (unstable housing, depression, and lack of social support for attending appointments) increased predicted probability of viral detection to a greater extent among YTW that may have important health implications for this marginalized youth population. PMID:26789394

  4. Career progression of men and women doctors in the UK NHS: a questionnaire study of the UK medical qualifiers of 1993 in 2010/2011

    PubMed Central

    Svirko, Elena; Goldacre, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To report the career progression of a cohort of UK medical graduates in mid-career, comparing men and women. Design Postal and questionnaire survey conducted in 2010/2011, with comparisons with earlier surveys. Setting UK. Participants In total, 2507 responding UK medical graduates of 1993. Main outcome measures Doctors’ career specialties, grade, work location and working pattern in 2010/2011 and equivalent data in earlier years. Results The respondents represented 72% of the contactable cohort; 90% were working in UK medicine and 7% in medicine outside the UK; 87% were in the UK NHS (87% of men and 86% of women). Of doctors in the NHS, 70.6% of men and 52.0% of women were in the hospital specialties and the great majority of the others were in general practice. Within hospital specialties, a higher percentage of men than women were in surgery, and a higher percentage of women than men were in paediatrics, obstetrics and gynaecology, clinical oncology, pathology and psychiatry. In the NHS, 63% of women and 8% of men were working less-than-full-time (in general practice, 19% of men and 83% of women; and in hospital specialties, 3% of men and 46% of women). Among doctors who had always worked full-time, 94% of men and 87% of women GPs were GP principals; in hospital practice, 96% of men and 93% of women had reached consultant level. Conclusions The 1993 graduates show a continuing high level of commitment to the NHS. Gender differences in seniority lessened considerably when comparing doctors who had always worked full-time. PMID:25408921

  5. Women and men report different behaviours in, and reasons for medication non-adherence: a nationwide Swedish survey

    PubMed Central

    Thunander Sundbom, Lena; Bingefors, Kerstin

    Objective The aim of the present study was to analyse gender differences in self-reported non-adherence (NA) to prescribed medication in the Swedish general population. We aimed to study unintentional and intentional NA as well as the reasons given for NA. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to a cross-sectional, random, national sample of people aged 18-84 years in Sweden (n=7985). The response rate was 61.1% (n=4875). The questionnaire covered use of prescription drugs, NA behaviour and reasons for NA. Results Use of prescription drugs was reported by 59.5% (n=2802) of the participants, and 66.4% (n=1860) of these participants did not adhere to the prescribed regimen. No overall gender differences in reporting NA were found. However, when analysing the various types of NA behaviour and the reasons for NA, different gender patterns emerged. Men were more likely to report forgetting [OR=0.77 (95%CI 0.65:0.92)], changing the dosage [OR=0.64 (95%CI 0.52:0.79)] and that they had recovered [14.3%, (OR=0.71 (95%CI 0.56:0.90)] as a reason. In contrast, more women than men reported filling the prescription but not taking the drug [OR=1.25 (95%CI 1.02:1.54)] and reported the development of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) [OR=1.89 (95%CI 1.37:2.59)] as a reason more commonly. The gender differences remained, in most cases, after controlling for confounders such as age, socioeconomic factors, medical problems and attitudes toward drugs. Conclusions Women and men have different patterns of NA behaviour and different reasons for NA. Therefore, if adherence is to be improved, a wide knowledge of all the reasons for NA is required, along with an understanding of the impact of gender on the outcomes. PMID:24155839

  6. The Relationship between Marital and Sexual Satisfaction among Married Women Employees at Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ziaee, Tayebe; Jannati, Yadollah; Mobasheri, Elham; Taghavi, Taraneh; Abdollahi, Habib; Modanloo, Mahnaz; Behnampour, Naser

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There are various elements affecting the healthy family such as marital satisfaction. Various factors such as sexual satisfaction have an important impact on satisfaction of marital relationship. The present study aimed to determine the association of marital satisfaction with sexual satisfaction among sexually active employee women. Methods: This analytical descriptive study was carried on 140 married women employed at educational and medical centers of Golestan University of Medical Sciences. Questionnaires for data collection included Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and self-constructed questionnaire (demographic characteristic and sexual satisfaction). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ2 and Spearman statistical test. Statistical significant level was set as 0.05. Results: The findings showed that in marital satisfaction scale, the majority of the participants (63.6%) were very satisfied and none of them were very unsatisfied. In sexual satisfaction scale, most of the participants (56.4%) expressed extremely satisfaction rate and only 0.7% were not satisfied with their sexual relationship. Marital satisfaction was significantly associated with sexual satisfaction (p ≤ 0.001). So with the increase of sexual satisfaction, there was an increase in marital satisfaction accordingly. The findings indicated that there was a significant association between sexual satisfaction and age (p = 0.086). Level of education was associated significantly with the marital satisfaction (p = 0.038). The effects of sexual satisfaction on marital satisfaction were moderated by number of children and the level of education. Conclusion: The findings have implications for improving of couples' marital satisfaction by highlighting the need for awareness of sexual quality. According to the findings, it seems that development of educational programs and pre-marriage counseling is necessary. Continuous education would be helpful after marriage in

  7. Medical hypothesis: can gonadotropins influence thyroid volume in women with PCOS?

    PubMed

    Cakir, Evrim; Sahin, Mustafa; Cakal, Erman; Ozbek, Mustafa; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that luteinizing hormone (LH) had thyropropic effect on rat and human thyroid membrane. It has been known that patients with PCOS have elevated LH levels in comparison to healthy controls.The goiter prevalence is more common in women than in men regardless of population. The higher incidence of thyroid diseases in women has been previously attributed to higher estradiol levels. Estradiol has been shown to enhance proliferative and mitogenic activities of thyroid cells. However, in recent years chronic estradiol treatment has been shown to reduce volume densities of thyroid follicles, follicular epithelium and thyroid gland volume. It is thought to be due to LH suppression.Therefore we suggested that increased LH levels might provide a stimulus for growth on thyroid and alter thyroid function. Therefore patients with PCOS who had elevated LH levels should be treated by combined estradiol pills such as estrogen-progestin contraceptives for suppression of LH secretion. Further studies are needed to evaluate the association between LH, LH suppression and thyroid volume in patients with PCOS. PMID:23194382

  8. Medical hypothesis: can gonadotropins influence thyroid volume in women with PCOS?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that luteinizing hormone (LH) had thyropropic effect on rat and human thyroid membrane. It has been known that patients with PCOS have elevated LH levels in comparison to healthy controls. The goiter prevalence is more common in women than in men regardless of population. The higher incidence of thyroid diseases in women has been previously attributed to higher estradiol levels. Estradiol has been shown to enhance proliferative and mitogenic activities of thyroid cells. However, in recent years chronic estradiol treatment has been shown to reduce volume densities of thyroid follicles, follicular epithelium and thyroid gland volume. It is thought to be due to LH suppression. Therefore we suggested that increased LH levels might provide a stimulus for growth on thyroid and alter thyroid function. Therefore patients with PCOS who had elevated LH levels should be treated by combined estradiol pills such as estrogen-progestin contraceptives for suppression of LH secretion. Further studies are needed to evaluate the association between LH, LH suppression and thyroid volume in patients with PCOS. PMID:23194382

  9. Consumption of ayahuasca by children and pregnant women: medical controversies and religious perspectives.

    PubMed

    Labate, Beatriz Caiuby

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the Brazilian Government agency responsible for drug-related issues formulated official Resolutions that categorized the consumption of ayahuasca by pregnant women and children in the Santo Daime and União do Vegetal ayahuasca-based religions as an "exercise of parental rights." Although ayahuasca groups do enjoy a relative degree of social legitimacy and formal legal recognition in Brazil, the participation of pregnant women and children nevertheless continues to provoke heated discussion. This article raises the main issues involved in the public debate over this subject. In the first part, a diverse group of biomedical and health specialists was consulted, and their opinions were briefly analyzed. In the second, a full interview with a follower of one branch of Santo Daime, mother of four children who took ayahuasca during all her pregnancies, and whose children all drink ayahuasca, is presented. Her interview reveals important cultural parameters of ayahuasca consumption. The article explores common themes and contradictions found between the biomedical, anthropological, and ayahuasca-users' discourses. It raises central issues regarding the limits of freedom of religion and the state's right to interfere in family matters. The following analysis also has implications regarding the role of science in influencing policy decisions on drug use. PMID:21615005

  10. Medical care of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes: current guidelines and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Cyganek, Katarzyna; Klupa, Tomasz; Szopa, Magdalena; Katra, Barbara; Małecki, Maciej T

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of all types of diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. Diabetes is a common metabolic complication of pregnancy. For many years, pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes was associated with a particularly poor prognosis, and while this has changed dramatically over the last 2 decades, a lot has yet to be done. The continuous relationship between the maternal glucose level and the prevalence of pregnancy complications is well‑documented. The list of outcomes includes congenital malformations, stillbirths, neonatal mortality, macrosomia, hypoglycemia, and many others. Several new therapeutic and monitoring tools have become available over the recent years, for example, short- and long‑acting insulin analogs, personal pumps, and continuous glucose monitoring systems. Interestingly, pregnancy planning and preconception education proved to be particularly effective in improving glycemic control in type 1 diabetic women and achieving therapeutic goals recommended by clinical guidelines. This resulted in the reduction of some maternal and neonatal pregnancy outcomes reported from various populations, but despite this remarkable progress the prevalence of the most common complication, neonatal macrosomia, is still substantially higher than in the newborns of mothers without diabetes. The likely causes of this phenomenon are short episodes of hyperglycemia, particularly postprandial ones, liberal diet, maternal obesity, and substantial weight gain during pregnancy - these potential reasons should be addressed in clinical practice. In the future, new therapeutic devices, such as close‑loop insulin pumps, may help further improve the prognosis in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. PMID:23344642

  11. [Career support systems for female physicians in Tokyo Women's Medical University].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yoriko

    2013-01-01

    Tokyo Women's University has career support systems for a female physician. Basic career support is provided for a young female physician who has children. Our University runs the nursery school which takes care of children in day and night. It also helps mothers (female physician) when children are sick. The university also provides short time office hours system for doctors who take care of their children. Both men and women can take advantage of the system. These systems can assist for female physicians to keep their position in hospitals and universities. Then, the next step of a career support is a project for higher-ranking position. Publishing scientific papers and developing good reputation as excellent physicians are essential for promotion. How can we support female physicians for promotion? Our university establishes a scientific research grant and a one-year scholarship for female physicians. We just start the support, therefore, we expect out come in future. We have been developing support systems for female physicians, however effects have not been sufficient yet. We should take more active action to promote female physicians in our society. PMID:24291989

  12. [Obstetric medical book and women's childbirth in Qing dynasty: the case of the treatise on easy childbirth].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yon Sil

    2015-04-01

    Ye Feng composed what was to become one of the most famous and widely-circulating medical works of the late imperial period, the Treatise on Easy Childbirth. Ye Feng proposed the idea of natural childbirth, When the correct moment for birth had arrived, the child would leave its mother's body as easily as "a ripe melon drops from the stem". He argued attempts to facilitate birth were therefore not only unnecessary, and female midwives artificial intervention was not required. However, this view is to overlook the pangs of childbirth, and women bear responsibility for the failure of delivery. So his views reflect the gender order in male-dominated. Also he constructed the negative image of the midwife and belittle her childbirth techniques. As a result, midwife are excluded from the childbirth field, male doctors grasp guardianship rights of the female body. Ye Feng declared that the key to safe and successful delivery could be summed up in just a few words: "sleep, endure the pain, delay approaching the birthing tub". This view must be consistent with the Confucian norms, women to export to equip the 'patience' and 'self-control'. These norms were exposed desire men want to monitor and control the female body, effect on consolidation of patriarchal family order. In sum, the discourse of "a ripe melon drops from the stem"and "sleep, endure the pain, delay approaching the birthing tub" comprised an important intellectual resource that male doctors drew on to legitimate themselves as superior overseers of women's gestational bodies. PMID:25985779

  13. Medical Scientists

    MedlinePlus

    ... scientists typically have a Ph.D., usually in biology or a related life science. Some medical scientists ... specialize in this field seek to understand the biology of aging and investigate ways to improve the ...

  14. Cost-effectiveness of raloxifene in the treatment of osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women: impact of medication persistence and adherence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingsheng; Si, Lei; Winzenberg, Tania M; Gu, Jieruo; Jiang, Qicheng; Palmer, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Aims Raloxifene treatment of osteoporotic fractures is clinically effective, but economic evidence in support of raloxifene reimbursement is lacking in the People’s Republic of China. We aimed at evaluating the cost-effectiveness of raloxifene in the treatment of osteoporotic fractures using an osteoporosis health economic model. We also assessed the impact of medication persistence and adherence on clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of raloxifene. Methods We used a previously developed and validated osteoporosis state-transition microsimulation model to compare treatment with raloxifene with current practices of osteoporotic fracture treatment (conventional treatment) from the health care payer’s perspective. A Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analysis with microsimulations was conducted. The impact of medication persistence and adherence on clinical outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of raloxifene was addressed in sensitivity analyses. The simulated patients used in the model’s initial state were 65-year-old postmenopausal Chinese women with osteoporosis (but without previous fractures), simulated using a 1-year cycle length until all patients had died. Costs were presented in 2015 US dollars (USD), and costs and effectiveness were discounted at 3% annually. The willingness-to-pay threshold was set at USD 20,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Results Treatment with raloxifene improved clinical effectiveness by 0.006 QALY, with additional costs of USD 221 compared with conventional treatment. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was USD 36,891 per QALY gained. The cost-effectiveness decision did not change in most of the one-way sensitivity analyses. With full raloxifene persistence and adherence, average effectiveness improved compared with the real-world scenario, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was USD 40,948 per QALY gained compared with conventional treatment. Conclusion Given the willingness-to-pay threshold

  15. Comparative Effectiveness of Medication versus Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Low-Income Young Minority Women with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddique, Juned; Chung, Joyce Y.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Miranda, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether there are latent trajectory classes in response to treatment and whether they moderate the effects of medication versus psychotherapy. Method: Data come from a 1-year randomized controlled trial of 267 low-income, young (M = 29 years), minority (44% Black, 50% Latina, 6% White) women with current major depression…

  16. Medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration for legal abortion protect women's health and reduce costs to the health system: findings from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Mendoza, Willis Simancas; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2015-02-01

    The majority of abortions in Colombia continue to take place outside the formal health system under a range of conditions, with the majority of women obtaining misoprostol from a thriving black market for the drug and self-administering the medication. We conducted a cost analysis to compare the costs to the health system of three approaches to the provision of abortion care in Colombia: post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortions, and for legal abortions in a health facility, misoprostol-only medical abortion and vacuum aspiration abortion. Hospital billing records from three institutions, two large maternity hospitals and one specialist reproductive health clinic, were analysed for procedure and complication rates, and costs by diagnosis. The majority of visits (94%) were to the two hospitals for post-abortion care; the other 6% were for legal abortions. Only one minor complication was found among the women having legal abortions, a complication rate of less than 1%. Among the women presenting for post-abortion care, 5% had complications during their treatment, mainly from infection or haemorrhage. Legal abortions were associated not only with far fewer complications for women, but also lower costs for the health system than for post-abortion care. We calculated based on our findings that for every 1,000 women receiving post-abortion care instead of a legal abortion within the health system, 16 women experienced avoidable complications, and the health system spent US $48,000 managing them. Increasing women's access to safe abortion care would not only reduce complications for women, but would also be a cost-saving strategy for the health system. PMID:25702076

  17. Indonesia village programs stress pill continuation while medical clinics start women on method use.

    PubMed

    1976-09-01

    The emphasis of Indonesia's experiment with village distribution of contraceptives, begun in 1974, is on maintenance rather than initiation of oral contraceptive use. As part of the experiment, it was decided to make resupplies available without charge outside the clinics on Java and Bali experimentally. The effort operated on the principles of avoiding standardization and focusing on resupply. In the province of West Java, resupply depots were established in the homes of acceptors whoowere also known village leaders. Each month the depot holders received a resupply, had their record-keeping reviewed, and were advised on how to deal with complaints. Presently, there are about 1600 village distribution centers with each of these units serving several subunits of a village. Effective village distribution efforts have also been established in Central Java and East Java. A unique feature of the East Java program is a lottery created to sustain the interest of those already in the program as well as to attract new acceptors. The Bali program is different from those of East Java in that most acceptors are IUD users. In this program emphasis is on recruiting new acceptors and maintaining those already in the program, and motivational effort is directed to the male. Village distribution effort data in Indonesia suggest that as the number of village distribution outlets increases, the proportion of married women of reproductive age who use contraception also increases. In addition to the government supported family planning program, there is now a combined effort supported by the Indonesian government and Aid to International Development to achieve acceptance of the condom and increased involvement of men in family planning. PMID:12277532

  18. Asymptomatic bacteriurea among pregnant women visiting Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Marahatta, R; Dhungel, B Acharya; Pradhan, P; Rai, S K; Choudhury, D Roy

    2011-06-01

    Urinary tract infection is the commonest bacterial infection in pregnancy. The overall incidence is 5.0-10.0% of all pregnancy. During pregnancy bacterial growth is favoured by increased urinary content of glucose, aminoacids and other nutrients. Other factors responsible for infection are basically related to hormonal effect and mechanical factors. Prolonged stasis of urine in urinary bladder favours growth of micro organism, relaxation of vesico-ureteric junction leads to reflux of urine from bladder to ureter and later up to renal pelvis and later can affect the renal parenchyma affecting the function of kidneys. In addition, some maternal defense mechanism are less effective during pregnancy. Bacteriuria either asymptomatic (5.0%) or symptomatic is common in pregnancy, if left untreated, asymptomatic bacteriuria will lead to acute pyelonephritis in 20.0-30.0%. This may result in abortion, premature delivery, low birth baby and even still birth. About 12.0% of antenatal admission are sepsis due to pyelonephritis. Keeping in mind that UTI in pregnancy leads to increase in maternal morbidity as well as neonatal morbidity and mortality. In this prospective study all asymptomatic consecutive antenatal women were included 200 from each trimester with total of 600 in number to see the incidence in different trimester, most prevalent organisms and it's sensitivity. They were followed up till delivery to see the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriurea in different trimester and its outcome in terms of type of delivery, baby weight, apgar score given at the time of birth and hospital admission for morbidity. PMID:22364093

  19. Birth defects among a cohort of infants born to HIV-infected women on antiretroviral medication

    PubMed Central

    Watts, D. Heather; Huang, Sharon; Culnane, Mary; Kaiser, Kathleen A.; Scheuerle, Angela; Mofenson, Lynne; Stanley, Kenneth; Newell, Marie-Louise; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Delfraissy, Jean-Francois; Cunningham, Coleen K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine rate of and risk factors for birth defects in infants born to HIV-infected women receiving nucleoside and protease inhibitor antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Methods Birth defects were evaluated among infants on the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 316 trial that studied addition of peripartum nevirapine to established ARV regimen for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Maternal therapy was categorized by trimester of earliest exposure. Birth defects were coded using conventions of the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry. Results Birth defects were detected in 60/1414 (4.2%; 95% CI 3.3–5.4%) infants including 30/636 (4.7%; 95% CI 3.2–6.7%) with first trimester ARV exposure and 30/778 (3.9%; 95% CI 2.6–5.5%) with exposure only after the first trimester (P=0.51). Rates of classes of defects were similar between first trimester compared to later exposure groups except heart defects which occurred in 16 (2.5%; 95% CI 1.4–4.1%) with first trimester ARV exposure and in six (0.8%; 95% CI 0.3–1.7%) infants with later exposure (P=0.02). Exposure to ARV was not associated with specific types of heart defects. Two cases of cardiomyopathy were noted. Conclusion ARV use in early pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of birth defects overall. The possible association of ARV exposure with heart defects requires further surveillance. PMID:21142844

  20. Enrollment and Monitoring of Women in Post-Approval Studies for Medical Devices Mandated by the Food and Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    Herz, Naomi; Loyo-Berrios, Nilsa; Tarver, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Disease presentation, prevalence, and treatment effects vary by sex, thus it is important to ensure adequate participation of both sexes in medical device post-approval studies (PAS). Methods: The goals of this study were to determine the participation rate of women in PAS mandated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and if participation varied by clinical area. The study also evaluated the frequency in which enrollment by sex is reported by applicant reports and FDA reviews, as well as the frequency in which final study reports analyze whether outcomes differ by sex. Results: Of 89 studies with enrollment completed, data on sex of participants were available in 93% of submitted reports, while data on enrollment by sex was evaluated and noted in 43% of FDA review memos. Study participation varied by clinical area, with female participation ranging from 32% in cardiovascular PAS to 90% in PAS for reconstructive devices. Of 53 completed studies, data on enrollment by sex was provided in 49 of the final reports. Of these 14% included a multivariate analysis that included sex as a covariate and 4% included a subgroup analysis for female participants. Conclusions: Data on sex was not routinely assessed in FDA reviews. Based on these findings, FDA implemented new procedures to ensure participation by sex is evaluated in PAS reviews. FDA will continue working with applicants to develop PAS that enroll and retain proportions of women consistent with the sex-specific prevalence for the disease or condition the device is used to treat. PMID:24405314

  1. Barriers to health care for abused Latina and Asian immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Bauer, H M; Rodriguez, M A; Quiroga, S S; Flores-Ortiz, Y G

    2000-02-01

    This study identifies social, political, and cultural barriers to help seeking from health care organizations faced by abused Latina and Asian immigrant women. Qualitative data were collected through four semistructured ethnic-specific focus group interviews with 28 abused Latina and Asian immigrant women. Participants who had suffered intimate partner abuse were recruited through urban community-based organizations in San Francisco, California. Sociopolitical barriers to help seeking and patient-provider communication included social isolation, language barriers, and, for some, discrimination and fears of deportation. Sociocultural barriers included dedication to the children and family unity, shame related to the abuse, and the cultural stigma of divorce. Abused Latina and Asian immigrant women face significant social, cultural, and political barriers to patient-provider communication and help seeking. Medical and social service providers and policy makers may improve the quality of care for these women by understanding and addressing these barriers. PMID:10778041

  2. An examination of how women and underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities experience barriers in biomedical research and medical programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraverty, Devasmita

    Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, & Morahan, 2012). Additionally, Blacks and Hispanics are the two largest minority groups that are vastly underrepresented in medicine and biomedical research in the United States (AAMC, 2012; NSF, 2011). The purpose of this study is to examine specific barriers reported by students and post-degree professionals in the field through the following questions: 1. How do women who are either currently enrolled or graduated from biomedical research or medical programs define and make meaning of gender-roles as academic barriers? 2. How do underrepresented groups in medical schools and biomedical research institutions define and make meaning of the academic barriers they face and the challenges these barriers pose to their success as individuals in the program? These questions were qualitatively analyzed using 146 interviews from Project TrEMUR applying grounded theory. Reported gender-role barriers were explained using the "Condition-Process-Outcome" theoretical framework. About one-third of the females (across all three programs; majority White or Black between 25-35 years of age) reported gender-role barriers, mostly due to poor mentoring, time constraints, set expectations and institutional barriers. Certain barriers act as conditions, causing gender-role issues, and gender-role issues influence certain barriers that act as outcomes. Strategies to overcome barriers included interventions mostly at the institutional level (mentor support, proper specialty selection, selecting academia over medicine). Barrier analysis for the two largest URM groups indicated that, while Blacks most frequently reported racism, gender barriers

  3. Racial and ethnic differences in primary, unscheduled cesarean deliveries among low-risk primiparous women at an academic medical center: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cesarean sections are the most common surgical procedure for women in the United States. Of the over 4 million births a year, one in three are now delivered in this manner and the risk adjusted prevalence rates appear to vary by race and ethnicity. However, data from individual studies provides limited or contradictory information on race and ethnicity as an independent predictor of delivery mode, precluding accurate generalizations. This study sought to assess the extent to which primary, unscheduled cesarean deliveries and their indications vary by race/ethnicity in one academic medical center. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional cohort study was conducted of 4,483 nulliparous women with term, singleton, and vertex presentation deliveries at a major academic medical center between 2006–2011. Cases with medical conditions, risk factors, or pregnancy complications that can contribute to increased cesarean risk or contraindicate vaginal birth were excluded. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate differences in delivery mode and caesarean indications among racial and ethnic groups. Results The overall rate of cesarean delivery in our cohort was 16.7%. Compared to White women, Black and Asian women had higher rates of cesarean delivery than spontaneous vaginal delivery, (adjusted odds ratio {AOR}: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.91, and AOR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.17, respectively). Black women were also more likely, compared to White women, to undergo cesarean for fetal distress and indications diagnosed in the first stage as compared to the second stage of labor. Conclusions Racial and ethnic differences in delivery mode and indications for cesareans exist among low-risk nulliparas at our institution. These differences may be best explained by examining the variation in clinical decisions that indicate fetal distress and failure to progress at the hospital-level. PMID:24004573

  4. Anthropometric, medical history and lifestyle risk factors for myeloproliferative neoplasms in the Iowa Women's Health Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Leal, Alexis D; Thompson, Carrie A; Wang, Alice H; Vierkant, Robert A; Habermann, Thomas M; Ross, Julie A; Mesa, Ruben A; Virnig, Beth A; Cerhan, James R

    2014-04-01

    Classical myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are composed of essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and myelofibrosis (MF), the etiology of which is largely unknown. We investigated the role of anthropometric, medical and lifestyle factors with risk of MPN in a prospective cohort of 27,370 women aged 55-69 years at enrollment. After >250,000 person-years of follow-up, 257 cases of MPN were identified (172 ET, 64 PV, 21 MF). Risk factor profiles were mostly unique for the two most common types, ET and PV. ET was associated with energy balance factors including body mass index (RR = 1.52 for >29.3 vs. <23.4 kg/m(2) ; p-trend = 0.042), physical activity (RR = 0.66 for high vs. low; p-trend = 0.04) and adult onset diabetes (RR = 1.82; p = 0.009), while PV was not. PV was associated with current smoking (RR = 2.83; p-trend = 0.016), while ET was not. Regular use of aspirin was associated with lower risk of ET (RR = 0.68; p = 0.017). These results broadly held in multivariate models. Our results suggest distinct etiologies for these MPN subtypes and raise mechanistic hypotheses related to obesity-related inflammatory pathways for ET and smoking-related carcinogenic pathways for PV. Regular aspirin use may lower risk for ET. PMID:24114627

  5. Group Motivational Interviewing to Promote Adherence to Antiretroviral Medications and Risk Reduction Behaviors in HIV Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; DiIorio, Colleen; Kelley, Mary E.; Resnicow, Kenneth; Sharma, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a clinical trial that tested the efficacy of using motivational interviewing (MI) in a group format to promote adherence to antiretroviral medications and risk reduction behaviors (RRB) in 203 predominately African American HIV infected women. It was compared to a group health promotion program. Participants were followed for 9 months. Adherence was measured by MEMS®; and RRB by self-report. Controlling for recruitment site and years on ART, no significant group by time effects were observed. Attendance (≥7/8 sessions) modified the effects. Higher MI attendees had better adherence at all follow-ups, a borderline significant group by time effect (p = 0.1) for % Doses Taken on Schedule, a significantly larger proportion who reported abstinence at 2 weeks, 6, and 9 months, and always used protection during sex at 6 and 9 months. Though not conclusive, the findings offer some support for using MI in a group format to promote adherence and some risk reduction behaviors when adequate attendance is maintained. PMID:21165692

  6. Non-medical use of prescription drugs and HIV risk behaviour in transgender women in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States.

    PubMed

    Benotsch, Eric G; Zimmerman, Rick S; Cathers, Laurie; Pierce, Juan; McNulty, Shawn; Heck, Ted; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    Male-to-female transgender women (TGW) experience high rates of substance use and HIV. A recent substance use trend is the use of prescription medication without a doctor's consent. No research to date has examined the associations between this non-medical use of prescription drugs and HIV risk behaviour in TGW. In the present study, TGW recruited from community venues (N = 104) in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed surveys assessing demographic information, non-medical use of prescription drugs, other substance use, injection practices and sexual risk behaviour. Twenty-four per cent of the sample reported lifetime non-medical use of prescription drugs across the following categories: analgesics (21.2%), anxiolytics (14.4%), stimulants (12.5%) and sedatives (8.7%). Participants reporting non-medical use of prescription drugs were more likely to report other substance use, needle use to inject drugs, injecting silicone and sharing needles. In multivariable analyses, non-medical use of prescription drugs was associated with unprotected sex, sex after engaging in substance use, and commercial sex work, after controlling for demographic factors. Self-esteem and social support from family served as protective factors for non-medical use of prescription drugs. HIV-prevention programmes focused on TGW in the United States may wish to expand their assessment of substance use to include the use of prescription medications without a physician's consent. PMID:26185044

  7. Violence Against Widows in Nepal: Experiences, Coping Behaviors, and Barriers in Seeking Help.

    PubMed

    Sabri, Bushra; Sabarwal, Shrutika; Decker, Michele R; Shrestha, Abina; Sharma, Kunda; Thapa, Lily; Surkan, Pamela J

    2016-05-01

    Widows are a vulnerable population in Nepal. This study examined Nepalese widows' experiences of violence, their coping strategies, and barriers faced in seeking help. Study participants were recruited from Women for Human Rights, an NGO in Nepal. A stratified purposive sampling approach was used to select 51 widows and 5 staff members for in-depth interviews. Twenty-seven women who experienced violence were included in this analysis. Data were analyzed and synthesized using a thematic analysis procedure. Widows reported a range of violent experiences perpetrated by family and community members that spanned psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. Women dealt with abusive experiences using both adaptive (e.g., attempting to move ahead, seeking social support, using verbal confrontation) and maladaptive coping strategies (e.g., suicidal thoughts or self-medication). However, they faced barriers to seeking help such as insensitivity of the police, perceived discrimination, and general lack of awareness of widows' problems and needs. Findings highlight the need for interventions across the individual, family, community, and policy levels. Avenues for intervention include creating awareness about widows' issues and addressing cultural beliefs affecting widows' lives. Furthermore, efforts should focus on empowering widows, promoting healthy coping, and addressing their individual needs. PMID:25657102

  8. Are hysterectomies necessary? Racial-ethnic differences in women's attitudes.

    PubMed

    Dillaway, Heather E

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of comparative information about how women from diverse social locations think about, talk about, and experience the various types of reproductive aging. In this article I analyze racial-ethnic differences in attitudes toward surgically induced menopause (hysterectomy) utilizing data from an interview study of 130 menopausal women. African American women in this study were more suspect of doctors' initial offers of hysterectomies than European American women, with the former group of interviewees still fearing a legacy of racial-ethnic discrimination within medical institutions. Only after seeking a second opinion or finding a trustworthy doctor did African American women feel comfortable accepting a hysterectomy. European American interviewees were not as wary as their African American counterparts and sometimes reported wishing for a hysterectomy. I argue that attitudes toward hysterectomy must be contextualized within women's experiences of racial-ethnic oppression and privilege to be fully understood. PMID:27045199

  9. Connecting the dots: examining transgender women's utilization of transition-related medical care and associations with mental health, substance use, and HIV.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Erin C; Chen, Yea-Hung; Arayasirikul, Sean; Wenzel, Conrad; Raymond, H Fisher

    2015-02-01

    Findings on access to general healthcare for transgender people have emerged, but little is known about access to transition-related medical care for transwomen (i.e., hormones, breast augmentation, and genital surgery). Transgender women have low access to general medical care and are disproportionately at risk for substance use, mental illness, and HIV. We conducted an analysis to determine if utilization of transition-related medical care is a protective factor for health risks to transgender women and to investigate if care differs by important demographic factors and HIV status. A secondary analysis was conducted using data from a 2010 HIV surveillance study using respondent-driven sampling to recruit 314 transwomen in San Francisco. Survey-corrected logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for six psychosocial health problems-binge drinking, injection drug use, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and high-risk intercourse-comparing various levels of utilization of transition-related medical care. Odds ratios were also calculated to determine if utilization of transition-related medical care was related to less overlap of risk domains. We found that Latina and African American transwomen had significantly lower estimated utilization of breast augmentation and genital surgery, as did transwomen who identified as transgender rather than female. Overall, utilization of transition-related medical care was associated with significantly lower estimated odds of suicidal ideation, binge drinking, and non-injection drug use. Findings suggest that utilization of transition-related medical care may reduce risk for mental health problems, especially suicidal ideation, and substance use among transwomen. Yet, important racial/ethnic and gender identity disparities in utilization of transition-related medical care need to be addressed. PMID:25476958

  10. Immediate and delayed treatment seeking among adult sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Millar, Golden; Stermac, Lana; Addison, Mary

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature which seeks to better understand the needs of sexual assault victims presenting for specialized treatment. This study explored aspects of immediate and delayed treatment seeking among 1118 women who presented for treatment to a specialized sexual assault care centre within a large urban hospital. Variables related to demographic and assault-specific characteristics were examined for association with immediate (within 12 hours) or delayed (after 12 hours) treatment seeking. Results indicate the severity of the attack prompted women to seek treatment earlier and that women who were assaulted by a known perpetrator were more likely to delay seeking assistance. Findings are conceptualized under the rubric of sociological and feminist frameworks with suggestions for additional research. PMID:11942469

  11. Analyzing the Relationship of Geographic Mobility and Institutional Prestige to Career Advancement of Women in Academic Medicine Pursuing Midcareer-, Senior-, or Executive-Level Administrative Positions: Implications for Career Advancement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Marsha Renee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of geographic mobility and institutional prestige to career advancement defined as administrative promotions of women seeking midcareer-, senior-, or executive-level positions at academic health centers (AHCs) and their medical schools or in non-AHC related medical schools in the United…

  12. U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2016.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Kathryn M; Tepper, Naomi K; Jatlaoui, Tara C; Berry-Bibee, Erin; Horton, Leah G; Zapata, Lauren B; Simmons, Katharine B; Pagano, H Pamela; Jamieson, Denise J; Whiteman, Maura K

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (U.S. MEC) comprises recommendations for the use of specific contraceptive methods by women and men who have certain characteristics or medical conditions. These recommendations for health care providers were updated by CDC after review of the scientific evidence and consultation with national experts who met in Atlanta, Georgia, during August 26-28, 2015. The information in this report updates the 2010 U.S. MEC (CDC. U.S. medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, 2010. MMWR 2010:59 [No. RR-4]). Notable updates include the addition of recommendations for women with cystic fibrosis, women with multiple sclerosis, and women receiving certain psychotropic drugs or St. John's wort; revisions to the recommendations for emergency contraception, including the addition of ulipristal acetate; and revisions to the recommendations for postpartum women; women who are breastfeeding; women with known dyslipidemias, migraine headaches, superficial venous disease, gestational trophoblastic disease, sexually transmitted diseases, and human immunodeficiency virus; and women who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The recommendations in this report are intended to assist health care providers when they counsel women, men, and couples about contraceptive method choice. Although these recommendations are meant to serve as a source of clinical guidance, health care providers should always consider the individual clinical circumstances of each person seeking family planning services. This report is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice for individual patients. Persons should seek advice from their health care providers when considering family planning options. PMID:27467196

  13. Interests and Stimulus Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, George B.; Donnenwerth, Gregory V.

    1969-01-01

    Examines relationships between Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) and vocational interests measured by the Kuder and Strong Vocational Interest Blank, among alcoholics and undergraduates. Results support construct validity of the SSS and provide further evidence of modes of expression of stimulus-seeking needs in personality. (Author/CJ)

  14. Connecting Hispanic Women in Baltimore to the Mercy Medical Center Sexual Assault Forensic Examiners/Forensic Nurse Examiners Program: A Preliminary Assessment of Service Utilization and Community Awareness.

    PubMed

    Adams, Margaret; Fitzgerald, Sheila; Holbrook, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence and gender-based violence represent a major public health problem causing significant negative mental, physical, and social outcomes for victims. The rapidly growing population of Hispanic women in Baltimore are both more vulnerable to sexual assault and less able to access postassault services. In an effort to assess service utilization and community awareness of the Mercy Medical Center Sexual Assault Forensic Examiners/Forensic Nurse Examiners Program, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 2,322 women who were seen by the program between 2010 and 2013 and found that only 2.5% of the women were identified as Hispanic, about half of what Baltimore City demographic data would predict. This exploratory pilot project, augmented by key informant interviews, reveals that Hispanic women are underutilizing sexual assault services. Multiple barriers exist for Hispanic women in obtaining victim services, including lack of awareness within the community that the services exist, cultural factors, language barriers, lack of awareness of legal rights, and a fear of deportation. PMID:27428791

  15. Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of SPNS interventions designed to engage and retain HIV positive women of color in medical care.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Iliana A; Blank, Arthur E; Eastwood, Elizabeth A; Karasz, Alison

    2015-04-01

    The use of evidence-based strategies to increase access to medical care and improve health outcomes for people living with HIV is a major public health priority in the United States. As part of a multi-site evaluation funded under the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), a process evaluation was conducted with the goal of understanding barriers and facilitators to the implementation of eleven heterogeneous interventions designed to engage and retain HIV positive women of color (WoC) in medical care. Findings identified barriers and facilitators to program implementation at five levels: (1) program; (2) team; (3) agency; (4) partner network; and (5) the larger socio-ecological context. We conclude with a series of recommendations that may be useful for the implementation of similar interventions focused on recruitment and retention of WoC in HIV medical care. PMID:25107362

  16. Characteristics and outcomes of women using emergency medical services for third-trimester pregnancy-related problems in India: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Strehlow, Matthew C; Newberry, Jennifer A; Bills, Corey B; Min, Hyeyoun (Elise); Evensen, Ann E; Leeman, Lawrence; Pirrotta, Elizabeth A; Rao, G V Ramana; Mahadevan, S V

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Characterise the demographics, management and outcomes of obstetric patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS). Design Prospective observational study. Setting Five Indian states using a centralised EMS agency that transported 3.1 million pregnant women in 2014. Participants This study enrolled a convenience sample of 1684 women in third trimester of pregnancy calling with a ‘pregnancy-related’ problem for free-of-charge ambulance transport. Calls were deemed ‘pregnancy related’ if categorised by EMS dispatchers as ‘pregnancy’, ‘childbirth’, ‘miscarriage’ or ‘labour pains’. Interfacility transfers, patients absent on ambulance arrival and patients refusing care were excluded. Main outcome measures Emergency medical technician (EMT) interventions, method of delivery and death. Results The median age enrolled was 23 years (IQR 21–25). Women were primarily from rural or tribal areas (1550/1684 (92.0%)) and lower economic strata (1177/1684 (69.9%)). Time from initial call to hospital arrival was longer for rural/tribal compared with urban patients (66 min (IQR 51–84) vs 56 min (IQR 42–73), respectively, p<0.0001). EMTs assisted delivery in 44 women, delivering the placenta in 33/44 (75%), performing transabdominal uterine massage in 29/33 (87.9%) and administering oxytocin in none (0%). There were 1411 recorded deliveries. Most women delivered at a hospital (1212/1411 (85.9%)), however 126/1411 (8.9%) delivered at home following hospital discharge. Follow-up rates at 48 hours, 7 days and 42 days were 95.0%, 94.4% and 94.1%, respectively. Four women died, all within 48 hours. The caesarean section rate was 8.2% (116/1411). On multivariate regression analysis, women transported to private hospitals versus government primary health centres were less likely to deliver by caesarean section (OR 0.14 (0.05–0.43)) Conclusions Pregnant women from vulnerable Indian populations use free-of-charge EMS for

  17. Community Context and Men's Control-Seeking in Intimate Relationships.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, M Pippin

    2015-01-01

    This study explores social-ecological influences on men's control-seeking in intimate relationships with women. Desire for control is central to the battered women's movement and is incorporated into intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention work. Recent IPV scholarship re-focuses on control, but the role of community contexts is underdeveloped. Community contexts have been associated with men's risk for IPV and evidence supports that social ecology facilitates IPV against women. Given the importance of the social ecology to control in IPV, this study examines community contexts that influence men's control-seeking of women partners. The sample comprised 2,342 in-state, male undergraduate students who completed a cross-sectional survey at a public university. Hypotheses were tested using hierarchical linear modeling. Results support a connection between county contexts and men's control-seeking toward women partners. Implications for IPV research and practice are discussed. PMID:26300340

  18. A women's resource center in a rural setting.

    PubMed

    Gross, V

    1999-01-01

    Many health care consumers have become their own advocates in seeking information. In search of health information, consumers' choices vary--from the Internet, the news media, national and local associations, the public and health sciences libraries, to a growing number of consumer health libraries. To meet consumers' needs for reliable and current health information, the former Geisinger Health System developed the Women's Resource Center at the Geisinger Medical Center, a 548 bed teaching hospital in central Pennsylvania. PMID:10557835

  19. Women’s experiences with medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Heather M.; Biswas, Kamal; Griffin, Risa; Menzel, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Menstrual regulation has been legal in Bangladesh since 1974, but the use of medication for menstrual regulation is new. In this study, we sought to understand women’s experiences using medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with rural and urban women between December 2013 and February 2014. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computer recorded and coded for analysis. The majority of women in our study had had positive experiences with medication for menstrual regulation and successful outcomes, regardless of whether they obtained their medication from medicine sellers/pharmacies, doctors or clinics. Women were strongly influenced by health providers when deciding which method to use. There is a need to educate not only women of reproductive age, but also communities as a whole, about medication for menstrual regulation, with a particular emphasis on cost and branding the medication. Continued efforts to improve counselling by providers about the dose, medication and side-effects of medication for menstrual regulation, along with education of the community about medication as an option for menstrual regulation, will help to de-stigmatise the procedure and the women who seek it. PMID:26529099

  20. Adherence to medication treatment: a qualitative study of facilitators and barriers among a diverse sample of HIV+ men and women in four US cities.

    PubMed

    Remien, Robert H; Hirky, A Elizabeth; Johnson, Mallory O; Weinhardt, Lance S; Whittier, David; Le, Giang Minh

    2003-03-01

    Most studies examining HIV antiretroviral medication treatment adherence involve quantitative surveys. Although these studies have identified factors associated with medical adherence, no single variable or combination of variables is sufficiently consistent to apply to any individual or group of people. Using qualitative methods, an ethnically diverse sample (N=110) of HIV+ women, men who have sex with men, and male injecting drug users in four U.S. cities were interviewed in depth to elicit their experiences, perspectives, and life contexts regarding knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and experiences with HIV medication adherence. Most described multiple influences on medication-taking behavior, describing adherence as a dynamic phenomenon that changes over time with their changing beliefs, attitudes, emotions, and daily and larger life events. Prevalent themes include ambivalence toward HIV medication and intentional nonadherence, usually to address physical side effects. Factors from different domains (e.g., cognitive, emotional, interpersonal) can have compensatory influences on behavioral outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of social action theory, contributing to our theoretical understanding of the phenomenon of adherence. PMID:14534391

  1. Receipt of Post-Rape Medical Care in a National Sample of Female Victims

    PubMed Central

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Barr, Simone C.; Danielson, Carla K.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important for rape victims to receive medical care to prevent and treat rape-related diseases and injuries, access forensic exams, and connect to needed resources. Few victims seek care, and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking are poorly understood. Purpose The current study examined prevalence and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking in a national sample of women who reported a most-recent or only incident of forcible rape, and drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape when they were aged ≥14 years. Methods A national sample of U.S. adult women (N=3001) completed structured telephone interviews in 2006, and data for this study were analyzed in 2011. Logistic regression analyses examined demographic variables, health, rape characteristics, and post-rape concerns in relation to post-rape medical care–seeking among 445 female rape victims. Results A minority of rape victims (21%) sought post-rape medical attention following the incident. In the final multivariate model, correlates of medical care included black race, rape-related injury, concerns about sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy concerns, and reporting the incident to police. Conclusions Women who experience rapes consistent with stereotypic scenarios, acknowledge the rape, report the rape, and harbor health concerns appear to be more likely to seek post-rape medical services. Education is needed to increase rape acknowledgment, awareness of post-rape services that do not require formal reporting, and recognition of the need to treat rape-related health problems. PMID:22813683

  2. Medication Use before, during, and after Pregnancy among Women with Eating Disorders: A Study from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lupattelli, Angela; Spigset, Olav; Torgersen, Leila; Zerwas, Stephanie; Hatle, Marianne; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about medication use among women with eating disorders in relation to pregnancy. Aims To explore patterns of and associations between use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal and analgesic medications and eating disorders in the period before, during and after pregnancy. Method This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). A total of 62,019 women, enrolled at approximately 17 weeks' gestation, had valid data from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry and completed three MoBa questionnaires. The questionnaires provided diagnostic information on broadly defined anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED) and recurrent self-induced purging in the absence of binge eating (EDNOS-P), along with self-reported use of medication six months before, during, and 0–6 months after pregnancy. Results The prevalence of eating disorder subtypes before and/or during pregnancy was: 0.09% AN (n = 54), 0.94% BN (n = 585), 0.10% EDNOS-P (n = 61) and 5.00% BED (n = 3104). The highest over-time prevalence of psychotropic use was within the AN (3.7–22.2%) and EDNOS-P (3.3–9.8%) groups. Compared to controls, BN was directly associated with incident use of psychotropics in pregnancy (adjusted RR: 2.25, 99% CI: 1.17–4.32). Having AN (adjusted RR: 5.11, 99% CI: 1.53–17.01) or EDNOS-P (adjusted RR: 6.77, 99% CI: 1.41–32.53) was directly associated with use of anxiolytics/sedatives postpartum. The estimates of use of analgesics (BED) and laxatives (all eating disorders subtypes) were high at all time periods investigated. Conclusions Use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal, and analgesic medications is extensive among women with eating disorders in the period around pregnancy. Female patients with eating disorders should receive evidence-based counseling about the risk of medication exposure versus the risk of untreated psychiatric illness during pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:26200658

  3. Violence against older women.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Domestic abuse is widespread and indiscriminate. Older women living with domestic abuse experience a number of health-related concerns and significant mental health issues. Research suggests that the needs of older women experiencing domestic abuse are not being met by existing services. This article examines the issues that older women face as a result of abusive relationships and the barriers to seeking help. Research suggests that a stepped approach, tailored to suit older women's needs, could be beneficial. PMID:27384810

  4. Pregnancy-related deaths in rural Rajasthan, India: exploring causes, context, and care-seeking through verbal autopsy.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Kirti; Iyengar, Sharad D; Suhalka, Virendra; Dashora, Kalpana

    2009-04-01

    In 2002-2003, all deaths (n=156) of women aged 15-49 years in a block of southern Rajasthan were investigated to determine the cause of death and care-seeking behaviour. Family members of 156 (98%) of 160 deceased women were interviewed following the comprehensive listing of all deaths among women of reproductive age. Of the 156 deaths, 31 (20%) were pregnancy-related; 77% of these women died during the postpartum period, and 74% of the deaths occurred in the home. Direct and indirect obstetric causes were responsible for 58% and 29% of the deaths respectively; 12% were injury-related deaths. Medical care was sought for 65% of the women, and 29% were hospitalized. Family perception of not being able to afford treatment at distant hospitals was a major barrier to seeking care, and 60% of those who sought care had to borrow money for treatment. Lack of skilled attendance and immediate postpartum care were major factors contributing to deaths. Improved access to emergency obstetric care facilities in rural areas and steps to eliminate costs at public hospitals would be crucial to prevent pregnancy-related deaths. PMID:19489422

  5. Reasons American lesbians fail to seek traditional health care.

    PubMed

    Trippet, S E; Bain, J

    1992-01-01

    What reasons do lesbians have for not seeking health care? From three women's cultural events in 1990, a convenience sample was formed of 503 women (78% of whom were lesbians) who volunteered to complete a pretested qualitative and quantitative instrument. The reasons given for not seeking health care from traditional sources were that (a) low-cost, natural, or alternative care is not provided; (b) holistic care is not provided; (c) little preventive care and education are provided; (d) communication and respect are lacking; and (e) there are few women-managed clinics. PMID:1587777

  6. Characterization of individuals seeking treatment for caffeine dependence.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Laura M; Evatt, Daniel P; Richards, Brian D; Griffiths, Roland R

    2012-12-01

    Previous investigations have identified individuals who meet criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) substance dependence as applied to caffeine, but there is little research on treatments for caffeine dependence. This study aimed to thoroughly characterize individuals who are seeking treatment for problematic caffeine use. Ninety-four individuals who identified as being psychologically or physically dependent on caffeine, or who had tried unsuccessfully to modify caffeine consumption participated in a face-to-face diagnostic clinical interview. They also completed measures concerning caffeine use and quitting history, reasons for seeking treatment, and standardized self-report measures of psychological functioning. Caffeine treatment seekers (mean age 41 years, 55% women) consumed an average of 548 mg caffeine per day. The primary source of caffeine was coffee for 50% of the sample and soft drinks for 37%. Eighty-eight percent reported prior serious attempts to modify caffeine use (mean 2.7 prior attempts), and 43% reported being advised by a medical professional to reduce or eliminate caffeine. Ninety-three percent met criteria for caffeine dependence when generic DSM-IV-TR substance dependence criteria were applied to caffeine use. The most commonly endorsed criteria were withdrawal (96%), persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to control use (89%), and use despite knowledge of physical or psychological problems caused by caffeine (87%). The most common reasons for wanting to modify caffeine use were health-related (59%) and not wanting to be dependent on caffeine (35%). This investigation reveals that there are individuals with problematic caffeine use who are seeking treatment and suggests that there is a need for effective caffeine dependence treatments. PMID:22369218

  7. Induced termination of pregnancy before and after Roe v Wade. Trends in the mortality and morbidity of women. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    The mortality and morbidity of women who terminated their pregnancy before the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade are compared with post-Roe v Wade mortality and morbidity. Mortality data before 1973 are from the National Center for Health Statistics; data from 1973 through 1985 are from the Centers for Disease Control and The Alan Guttmacher Institute. Trends in serious abortion-related complications between 1970 and 1990 are based on data from the Joint Program for the Study of Abortion and from the National Abortion Federation. Deaths from illegally induced abortion declined between 1940 and 1972 in part because of the introduction of antibiotics to manage sepsis and the widespread use of effective contraceptives. Deaths from legal abortion declined fivefold between 1973 and 1985 (from 3.3 deaths to 0.4 death per 100,000 procedures), reflecting increased physician education and skills, improvements in medical technology, and, notably, the earlier termination of pregnancy. The risk of death from legal abortion is higher among minority women and women over the age of 35 years, and increases with gestational age. Legal-abortion mortality between 1979 and 1985 was 0.6 death per 100,000 procedures, more than 10 times lower than the 9.1 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births between 1979 and 1986. Serious complications from legal abortion are rare. Most women who have a single abortion with vacuum aspiration experience few if any subsequent problems getting pregnant or having healthy children. Less is known about the effects of multiple abortions on future fecundity. Adverse emotional reactions to abortion are rare; most women experience relief and reduced depression and distress. PMID:1433765

  8. Abuse and Resilience in Relation to HAART Medication Adherence and HIV Viral Load Among Women with HIV in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen; Cruise, Ruth; Kelso, Gwendolyn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Abuse is highly prevalent among HIV+ women, leading to behaviors, including lower adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) that result in poor health outcomes. Resilience (functioning competently despite adversity) may buffer the negative effects of abuse. This study investigated how resilience interacted with abuse history in relation to HAART adherence, HIV viral load (VL), and CD4+ cell count among a convenience sample of 138 HIV+ women from the Ruth M. Rothstein CORE Center/Cook County Health and Hospital Systems site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Resilience was measured by the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). HAART adherence (≥95% vs. <95% self reported usage of prescribed medication) and current or prior sexual, physical, or emotional/domestic abuse, were reported during structured interviews. HIV viral load (≥20 vs. <20 copies/mL) and CD4+ count (200 vs. <200 cells/mm) were measured with blood specimens. Multiple logistic regressions, controlling for age, race, income, enrollment wave, substance use, and depressive symptoms, indicated that each unit increase in resilience was significantly associated with an increase in the odds of having ≥95% HAART adherence and a decrease in the odds of having a detectable viral load. Resilience-Abuse interactions showed that only among HIV+ women with sexual abuse or multiple abuses did resilience significantly relate to an increase in the odds of ≥95% HAART adherence. Interventions to improve coping strategies that promote resilience among HIV+ women may be beneficial for achieving higher HAART adherence and viral suppression. PMID:24568654

  9. Aging and variety seeking.

    PubMed

    Novak, Deanna L; Mather, Mara

    2007-12-01

    The authors examined the influence of age on variety seeking in 3 experiments. When given choices among jellybeans or music, age differences in variety seeking emerged. Younger adults selected similar levels of variety when choosing what to consume immediately and what to consume later. In contrast, older adults consistently chose less variety when making choices to be consumed at a later time than when making choices to be consumed immediately. This pattern may be related to an increased focus on regulating future emotional experience that is associated with age. PMID:18179293

  10. The Process of Care-seeking for Myocardial Infarction Among Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ängerud, Karin Hellström; Brulin, Christine; Eliasson, Mats; Näslund, Ulf; Hörnsten, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with diabetes have a higher risk for myocardial infarction (MI) than do people without diabetes. It is extremely important that patients with MI seek medical care as soon as possible after symptom onset because the shorter the time from symptom onset to treatment, the better the prognosis. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore how people with diabetes experience the onset of MI and how they decide to seek care. Methods: We interviewed 15 patients with diabetes, 7 men and 8 women, seeking care for MI. They were interviewed 1 to 5 days after their admission to hospital. Five of the participants had had a previous MI; 5 were being treated with insulin; 5, with a combination of insulin and oral antidiabetic agents; and 5, with oral agents only. Data were analyzed according to grounded theory. Results: The core category that emerged, “becoming ready to act,” incorporated the related categories of perceiving symptoms, becoming aware of illness, feeling endangered, and acting on illness experience. Our results suggest that responses in each of the categories affect the care-seeking process and could be barriers or facilitators in timely care-seeking. Many participants did not see themselves as susceptible to MI and MI was not expressed as a complication of diabetes. Conclusions: Patients with diabetes engaged in a complex care-seeking process, including several delaying barriers, when they experienced symptoms of an MI. Education for patients with diabetes should include discussions about their increased risk of MI, the range of individual variation in symptoms and onset of MI, and the best course of action when possible symptoms of MI occur. PMID:25325370

  11. Racial Disparities in Intimate Partner Violence and in Seeking Help With Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tyrone C; Lo, Celia C

    2015-11-01

    Applying Aday and Andersen's health services utilization model, this examination of racial disparities in women's experience of intimate partner violence also looked at racial disparities in mental disorders and in use of mental health professionals' help. We conducted a secondary data analysis of 6,589 women completing the National Violence Against Women Survey. Per our linear regression results, minority women, versus White, tended proportionally to seek less help from mental health professionals. Help seeking by African American women was less likely if they were using illegal drugs; among Hispanic women, additional threats from partner curtailed help seeking from mental health professionals. "Other ethnic minority" women's help seeking decreased with their use of stimulants. Implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:25349016

  12. Status report from the American Acne & Rosacea Society on medical management of acne in adult women, part 3: oral therapies.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Harper, Julie C; Graber, Emmy M; Thiboutot, Diane; Silverberg, Nanette B; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-12-01

    Parts 1 and 2 of this 3-part series provided an overview of the epidemiology, visible patterns, and important considerations for clinical and laboratory evaluation of acne vulgaris (AV) in adult women and reviewed the role of proper skin care and topical therapies in this patient population. In Part 3, oral therapies including combination oral contraceptives, spironolactone, antibiotics, and isotretinoin are discussed along with important considerations that clinicians should keep in mind when selecting oral agents for management of AV in adult women. PMID:26761932

  13. Status report from the American Acne & Rosacea Society on medical management of acne in adult women, part 2: topical therapies.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Harper, Julie C; Graber, Emmy M; Thiboutot, Diane; Silverberg, Nanette B; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-11-01

    In part 1 of this 3-part series, an overview of the epidemiology, visible patterns, and important considerations for clinical and laboratory evaluation of acne vulgaris (AV) in adult women was provided. Proper selection and integration of skin care products is important in the management of AV in this patient population. Part 2 of this series includes a discussion of over-the-counter and prescription topical therapies for adult women with AV. A summary of key randomized controlled trials also is provided. Further well-designed studies are needed, as data on the use of topical agents in this subpopulation are limited. PMID:26682555

  14. Mental health and rape history in relation to non-medical use of prescription drugs in a national sample of women.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Jenna L; Amstadter, Ananda B; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S

    2009-08-01

    The current study examined prevalence and correlates of non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), with particular emphasis on lifetime history of rape and PTSD as risk associates. Interviews conducted via telephone using Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing technology, resulting in a nationally representative sample of 3001 non-institutionalized, civilian, English or Spanish speaking women (aged 18-86 years) residing in households with a telephone. Demographic characteristics, rape history, general health/mental health, and substance abuse variables were assessed. NMUPD was assessed by asking if, in the past year, participants had misused a prescription drug. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted for each theoretically derived predictor set. Significant predictors from each set then entered into final multivariable logistic regression to determine significant predictors of past-year NMUPD. NMUPD was endorsed by 5.5% of the sample (n=164). Final multivariable model showed that Lifetime Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, other forms of substance use/abuse, and a history of drug or alcohol facilitated rape were significantly associated with increased likelihood of NMUPD. Risk reduction efforts targeting non-medical prescription drug use among women who have experienced traumatic events and/or abuse substances are warranted. Trauma-focused interventions for drug or alcohol facilitated rape victims should include treatment or prevention modules that specifically address NMUPD. PMID:19375238

  15. Genetic Drift: the Salernitan school of medicine: women, men, and children. A syndromological review of the oldest medical school in the western world.

    PubMed

    Della Monica, Matteo; Mauri, Roberto; Scarano, Francesca; Lonardo, Fortunato; Scarano, Gioacchino

    2013-04-01

    Ever since the 9th century during the High Middle Ages, the "Schola Medica Salernitana," believed to be the first medical school in the western world, flourished in Salerno, a city in southern Italy. Although an important role is attributed to several men of this school, who were recognized as wise and learned doctors, modern historiography has also reevaluated and extolled the praiseworthy role of women. Contrary to the common beliefs and expectations of a woman's "place" at the time, these women were fully titled physicians. Attention was also paid to the health and welfare of children. However, there are no apparent references to physical disabilities, a mysterious omission that seems incompatible with an institution that stood as a beacon of knowledge for centuries. Mysteries, discoveries, and potential hidden messages are mingled in a fascinating medieval codex yet to be fully deciphered. The medical school reached its maximum splendor between the years of 1000 and 1300 AD. After alternating fortunes, the Salernitan institution began a slow decline due to the explosive development of other universities, such as those in Paris, Bologna, Padua, and most significantly, the nearby University of Naples. It was eventually closed by the King of Naples, Joachim Murat, November 29, 1811. PMID:23444346

  16. Information Seeking Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osiobe, Stephen A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that examined the information seeking behavior of undergraduate students in Nigeria. The factors examined include the main sources of references to the literature used by students, and the effects of class standing and intellectual disciplines on choices of reference sources. (8 references) (CLB)

  17. An Examination of How Women and Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minorities Experience Barriers in Biomedical Research and Medical Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakraverty, Devasmita

    2013-01-01

    Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, &…

  18. Australian women's use of complementary and alternative medicines to enhance fertility: exploring the experiences of women and practitioners

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies exploring the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to enhance fertility are limited. While Australian trends indicate that women are using CAM during pregnancy, little is known about women's use of CAM for fertility enhancement. With the rising age of women at first birth, couples are increasingly seeking assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to achieve parenthood. It is likely that CAM use for fertility enhancement will also increase, however this is not known. This paper reports on an exploratory study of women's use of CAM for fertility enhancement. Methods Three focus groups were conducted in Melbourne, Australia in 2007; two with women who used CAM to enhance their fertility and one with CAM practitioners. Participants were recruited from five metropolitan Melbourne CAM practices that specialise in women's health. Women were asked to discuss their views and experiences of both CAM and ART, and practitioners were asked about their perceptions of why women consult them for fertility enhancement. Groups were digitally recorded (audio) and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed thematically. Results Focus groups included eight CAM practitioners and seven women. Practitioners reported increasing numbers of women consulting them for fertility enhancement whilst also using ART. Women combined CAM with ART to maintain wellbeing and assist with fertility enhancement. Global themes emerging from the women's focus groups were: women being willing to 'try anything' to achieve a pregnancy; women's negative experiences of ART and a reluctance to inform their medical specialist of their CAM use; and conversely, women's experiences with CAM being affirming and empowering. Conclusions The women in our study used CAM to optimise their chances of achieving a pregnancy. Emerging themes suggest the positive relationships achieved with CAM practitioners are not always attained with orthodox medical providers. Women's views and experiences

  19. Help-Seeking After Domestic Violence: The Critical Role of Children.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Shahana

    2016-05-01

    Limited knowledge is available on the conditions that contribute to women's help-seeking after domestic violence in South Africa. Qualitative research conducted with 17 abused women in shelters in South Africa indicate that the best interests of children are influential both in women's decisions to stay in abusive relationships and to seek help. The personal decisions of women to seek help are influenced by powerful social discourses on the best interests of the child. Policy and practice that advocate for the best interests of the child need to prioritize the safety of both mothers and their children in domestic violence situations. PMID:25667195

  20. Women Lead the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Female corporate leaders are becoming more common, but that does not mean it was a snap for them to get there. Much has been said about the hard road faced by women who seek top spots in corporate America. Many point out, for instance, that women executives still often are paid less than their male counterparts, and that they face stereotypes,…

  1. The Clinical Ethnographic Interview: A user-friendly guide to the cultural formulation of distress and help seeking

    PubMed Central

    Arnault, Denise Saint; Shimabukuro, Shizuka

    2013-01-01

    Transcultural nursing, psychiatry, and medical anthropology have theorized that practitioners and researchers need more flexible instruments to gather culturally relevant illness experience, meaning, and help seeking. The state of the science is sufficiently developed to allow standardized yet ethnographically sound protocols for assessment. However, vigorous calls for culturally adapted assessment models have yielded little real change in routine practice. This paper describes the conversion of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV, Appendix I Outline for Cultural Formulation into a user-friendly Clinical Ethnographic Interview (CEI), and provides clinical examples of its use in a sample of highly distressed Japanese women. PMID:22194348

  2. Nursing Care of Women Who Have Undergone Genital Cutting.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Donna Scott

    2015-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC), commonly called female genital mutilation, affects millions of women but is poorly understood by many health care providers. FGC procedures intentionally alter the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons and include partial or total removal of female genital organs. These procedures, which have no medical value, are usually done between birth and puberty. Health consequences vary in severity but can be devastating. Women who have experienced FGC may be reluctant to seek health care or to disclose their condition to providers. Suggestions for culturally competent care of women who have experienced FGC are outlined, focusing on understanding the cultural beliefs and values of women who have undergone these procedures and providing informed and sensitive care. PMID:26460917

  3. Not for industry only: medical students and office-based academic detailing the PIVOT (Pregnant women Influenza Vaccine Optimization Team) initiative.

    PubMed

    Blitz, Daina A; Mallen, Jonathan R; Kwiatkowski, Thomas G; Rabin, Jill M; Dlugacz, Yosef D; Silverman, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Academic detailing is a method of educational outreach that utilizes individualized encounters with physicians to broach specific medical issues in an evidence-based and quality-driven manner. Medical students utilized the matter of influenza vaccination during pregnancy as a lens through which to explore the methods of academic detailing in a community setting. Structured and customized dialogues between North Shore-LIJ affiliated obstetricians and Hofstra North Shore-LIJ medical students were conducted regarding the disparity between the proportion of providers that recommend the vaccine and the percentage of pregnant women being vaccinated annually. Ultimately the project aimed to increase vaccine-carrying rates throughout office based practices in the community, while establishing a viable method for up-to-date information exchange between practicing physicians and academic medicine. While the extent of affected change is currently being quantified, the project proved successful insofar as academic detailing allowed the students to gain access to physicians, and engage in compelling and educational conversations. Both the physicians and students felt these interactions were valuable and well worth continuing. The goal for the future is to expand these practices to other pressing public health issues while continuing to refine the technique. PMID:25926764

  4. Medical abortion in Australia: a short history.

    PubMed

    Baird, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Surgical abortion has been provided liberally in Australia since the early 1970s, mainly in privately owned specialist clinics. The introduction of medical abortion, however, was deliberately obstructed and consequently significantly delayed when compared to similar countries. Mifepristone was approved for commercial import only in 2012 and listed as a government subsidised medicine in 2013. Despite optimism from those who seek to improve women's access to abortion, the increased availability of medical abortion has not yet addressed the disadvantage experienced by poor and non-metropolitan women. After telling the story of medical abortion in Australia, this paper considers the context through which it has become available since 2013. It argues that the integration of medical abortion into primary health care, which would locate abortion provision in new settings and expand women's access, has been constrained by the stigma attached to abortion, overly cautious institutionalised frameworks, and the lack of public health responsibility for abortion services. The paper draws on documentary sources and oral history interviews conducted in 2013 and 2015. PMID:26719008

  5. Medical school entrance and career plans of Malaysian medical students.

    PubMed

    Razali, S M

    1996-11-01

    This study investigates the reasons for entry to medicine and the career perspectives of phase III medical students of the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The majority of the students were Malays from low socio-economic backgrounds who entered medical school after completing a 2-year matriculation course. An interest in medicine and helping people were the two main stated reasons for entry to medical school. A group of students wishing to work in private practice was identified. In comparison to the rest of the study body, students in the group were: not well prepared to enter medical school; dissatisfied with the course; and subject to family influences. A desire for monetary gain motivated their choice of medicine as a career. Overall, 13% of the students wished to change career because they were dissatisfied with their experience of medicine as undergraduates. The study did not find a significant difference in career intentions between female and male medical students. However, women were less likely to seek entrance into private practice or pursue formal postgraduate education. The choice of surgery as a career was confined to men. About 90% of the students had already decided on their future specialty. Four well-established specialties were their most popular choices. The gender of the students had no significant influences of the decision to continue into postgraduate education. The proportion of female students who wished to marry doctors was significantly higher than for male students. PMID:9217903

  6. Retinopathy of Prematurity and Ethnicity in Hawai‘i: A Retrospective Study (1996 – 2006) of Medical Records from Kapi‘olani Medical Center for Women and Children

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Sherry W; Sood, Sneha L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify risk factors for Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) in Hawai‘i's ethnically unique population, with a focus on ethnicity. The study design focused on a 10-year retrospective chart review of neonates at Kapi‘olani Medical Center in Honolulu, Hawai‘i. Results showed that 23.3% of infants of Native Hawaiian and/or Pacific Islander ethnicity (NHPI) developed ROP. Necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage, and the severity of respiratory disease were significantly related (P < .001) to the incidence and severity of ROP. In a multiple logistic regression model, gestational age, birth weight, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and postnatal steroids were significant predictors (P < .001) for presence of ROP. Significant predictors for severe ROP included gestational age (P < .001), birth weight (P = .001), postnatal steroids (P = .001), necrotizing enterocolitis (P = .025), and NHPI ethnicity (P = .004). Further research is recommended. PMID:27011887

  7. New Scholarship on Academic Women: Beyond "Women's Ways."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twombly, Susan B.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews four recent books on academic women. Collectively, they suggest that new scholarship on academic women is more international, reflects a postmodern attention to difference and power, rejects "women's ways" feminism as a sufficient response, and seeks to reclaim issues of power, authority, and politics through attention to policy.…

  8. Group Medical Visits Using an Empowerment-based Model as Treatment for Women With Chronic Pain in an Underserved Community

    PubMed Central

    Kulla, Jill; Shoemaker, Alena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the past decade, group medical visits have become more prevalent. Group medical visits may have some advantages in treating chronic illnesses such as chronic pain as they can be more patient centered. The empowerment model is a novel approach used to provide support, education, and healthy activities guided by participants. Objective: To evaluate the early stages of a chronic pain group medical visit program based on the empowerment model. Methods: This prospective cohort study recruited 60 female participants to participate between October 2004 and May 2005. All enrolled participants completed the SF-36 questionnaire, which was administered at baseline and again after 6 months of participation. Data from chart review included age, race, weight, height, chronic illness, chronic pain diagnosis, and degree of participation. Chronic pain diagnoses included back pain, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid/inflammatory arthritis, and other/unknown. Results: Forty-two participants were enrolled in the program for 6 months. Their average Charleson Comorbidity Index score was 3.1 (SD=1.5). Statistically significant changes (P<.05) were seen in the following SF-36 categories: Role-Physical, Bodily Pain, General Health, Social Function, and Mental Health. All factors trended toward improvement, with the largest improvements seen in Role-Physical and Role-Emotional. Conclusion: Participants in the chronic pain group medical visit program had a high degree of comorbidity and poor health related quality of life in regards to functioning. There was improvement in many domains of health-related quality of life. PMID:26659335

  9. Women in Academic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Thibault, George E

    2016-08-01

    More than a decade ago, women achieved parity with men in the number of matriculants to medical school, nearly one-third of the faculty of medical schools were women, and there were some women deans and department chairs. These trends were promising, but today there are still significant differences in pay, academic rank, and leadership positions for women compared with men in academic medicine. Though there has been progress in many areas, the progress is too slow to achieve previously recommended goals, such as 50% women department chairs by 2025 and 50% women deans by 2030.The author points to the findings presented in the articles from the Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers in this issue, as well as research being published elsewhere, as an evidence base for the ongoing discussion of gender equity in academic medicine. More attention to culture and the working environment will be needed to achieve true parity for women in academic medical careers. PMID:27306968

  10. Medical Care during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Medical Care During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care During ... médica durante el embarazo The Importance of Prenatal Care Millions of American women give birth every year, ...

  11. Behavioral and Health Outcomes for HIV+ Young Transgender Women (YTW) Linked To and Engaged in Medical Care.

    PubMed

    Dowshen, Nadia; Matone, Meredith; Luan, Xianqun; Lee, Susan; Belzer, Marvin; Fernandez, Maria Isabel; Rubin, David

    2016-04-01

    We describe health and psychosocial outcomes of HIV+ young transgender women (YTW) engaged in care across the United States. When compared to other behaviorally infected youth (BIY), YTW reported higher rates of unemployment (25% vs. 19%), limited educational achievement (42% vs 13%), and suboptimal ART adherence (51% vs. 30%). There was no difference in likelihood of having a detectable viral load (38% vs. 39%) between groups. However, particular isolating psychosocial factors (unstable housing, depression, and lack of social support for attending appointments) increased predicted probability of viral detection to a greater extent among YTW that may have important health implications for this marginalized youth population. PMID:26789394

  12. Care Seeking Patterns of STIs-Associated Symptoms in Iran: Findings of a Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nasirian, Maryam; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Kamali, Kianoush; Nabipour, Amir Reza; Maghsoodi, Ahmad; Nikaeen, Roja; Razzaghi, Ali Reza; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding the prevalence of symptoms associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and how care is sought for those symptoms are important components of STIs control and prevention. People’s preference between public and private service providers is another important part of developing a well-functioning STIs surveillance system. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out in spring 2011, using a nonrandom quota sample of 1190 participants (52% female) in 4 densely-populated cities of Tehran, Kerman, Shiraz, and Babol. Two predictive logistic regression models were constructed to assess the association between the socio-demographic determinants (independent variables) and the dependent variables of history of STIs-associated symptom and seeking care. Results: Around 57% (677 out of 1190; men: 29.70% and women: 81.80%) had experienced at least one STIs-associated symptom during the previous year. History of experiencing STIs-associated symptoms among men, was negatively significantly associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.34, CI 95%: 0.17-0.67). Women who were married, in older ages, and had higher educations were more likely to report a recent (past year) STIs symptom, however all were statistically insignificant in both bivariate and multivariable models. Among those who have had STIs-associated symptoms in the last year, 31.15% did nothing to improve their symptoms, 8.03% attempted self-treatment by over-the-counter (OTC) medications or traditional remedies, and 60.93% sought care in health facilities. In both bivariate and multivariable analyses, care seeking among men was insignificantly associated with any of the collected demographic variables. Care seeking among women was positively significantly associated with being married (AOR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.60-3.84). Conclusion: The reported prevalence of STIs-associated symptoms among our participants is concerning. A considerable number of participants had

  13. Barriers to receiving substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    Research presenting outcomes for women who enter substance abuse treatment during pregnancy consistently shows benefits. While treatment has nearly universal benefits, there are many barriers to seeking substance abuse treatment for pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to explore barriers for rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment. There were three eligibility criteria for study participation: (1) aged 18 and older, (2) pregnant, and (3) undergoing short-term inpatient detoxification at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Eighty-five rural women (N = 85) were included in the analysis. Substance use history and previous treatment were assessed with measures adapted from the Addiction Severity Index. Treatment barriers were measured with three qualitative questions and were coded into four overarching categories: availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability barriers. This sample had an extensive substance use history. Almost all participants had used alcohol (98%), marijuana (98%), illicit opiates (99%), and cigarettes (97%). On average, participants reported about two barriers to receiving treatment (Mean = 1.8; SD = 1.3), with over 80% of the sample reporting having experienced any barrier to treatment. The majority experienced acceptability (51%) and accessibility (49%) barriers. Twenty-six percent (26%) of the sample reported availability barriers. A smaller percentage of participants reported affordability barriers (13%). Rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment face many obstacles to receiving needed treatment. More studies on barriers to substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women are needed. Identifying these barriers can help in improving treatment access and services. PMID:22139045

  14. Children's Help Seeking and Impulsivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puustinen, Minna; Kokkonen, Marja; Tolvanen, Asko; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between students' (100 children aged 8 to 12) help-seeking behavior and impulsivity. Help-seeking behavior was evaluated using a naturalistic experimental paradigm in which children were placed in a problem-solving situation and had the opportunity to seek help from the experimenter, if…

  15. Rent Seeking: A Textbook Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecorino, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)

  16. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  17. Soviets seek scientific exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GEOS-A, associated with the Soviet Union's Institute of Earth Physics, is seeking to promote exchange between Soviet and Western geophysicists. GEOS-A is a nonprofit, private organization formed by specialists from the U.S.S.R. Academy of Scientists.GEOS-A aims to promote the transfer of academic research results to industry and education. It also seeks to stimulate international scientific exchange and to support independent nongovernmental programs and expertise in geophysics and ecology. The organization would like to cooperate with Western universities in exchanging students and young scientists and in building scientific relationships between the two countries. This would include inviting students and young specialists for collaborative scientific research, consultations, language practice, and graduate study in any institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Participants would live in rented private apartments in downtown Moscow for approximately one week to several months. All living expenses would be covered at a rate higher than the academy's standard one (unfortunately travel to and from the Soviet Union cannot be covered).

  18. Health seeking and access to care for children with suspected dengue in Cambodia: An ethnographic study

    PubMed Central

    Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore

    2007-01-01

    Background The continuing contribution of dengue fever to the hospitalization and deaths in hospital of infants and small children in Cambodia is associated with delays in presentation for medical attention, diagnosis and appropriate care. It is important to identify the reasons that influence these delays, in order to develop appropriate interventions to redress the impact of dengue. Methods Data on health seeking were collected during an ethnographic study conducted in two villages in the eastern province of Kampong Cham, Cambodia in 2004. Interviews were conducted with mothers whose children had been infected with suspected dengue fever, or who had been sick for other reasons, in 2003 and 2004. Results Women selected a therapeutic option based on perceptions of the severity of the child's condition, confidence in the particular modality, service or practitioner, and affordability of the therapy. While they knew what type of health care was required, poverty in combination with limited availability and perceptions of the poor quality of care at village health centers and public referral hospitals deterred them from doing so. Women initially used home remedies, then sought advice from public and private providers, shifting from one sector to another in a pragmatic response to the child's illness. Conclusion The lack of availability of financial resources for poor people and their continuing lack of confidence in the care provided by government centres combine to delay help seeking and inappropriate treatment of children sick with dengue. PMID:17892564

  19. African American Women's Beliefs About Mental Illness, Stigma, and Preferred Coping Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Heidrich, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma. PMID:19650070

  20. Medical tourism.

    PubMed

    Reed, Christie M

    2008-11-01

    Searches of the literature or Internet using the term "medical tourism" produce two sets of articles: travel for the purpose of delivering health care or travel for the purpose of seeking health care. The first usage primarily appears in the medical literature and is beyond the scope of this article, which focuses on travel to seek health care. Still, there are some aspects these two topics have in common: both are affected by ease and speed of international travel and communication associated with globalization, and both raise questions about continuity of care as well as issues related to cultural, language, and legal differences; both also raise questions about ethics. This article describes some of the motivating factors, contributing elements, and challenges in elucidating trends, as well as implications for clinicians who provide pretravel advice and those who care for ill returning travelers. PMID:19061760

  1. Ethical issues related to professional exposure of pregnant women in the medical field: monitoring and limiting effective dose.

    PubMed

    Santos, J A M; Nunes, R

    2011-03-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations for occupational exposed pregnant women do not imply necessarily the complete avoidance of work with radiation or radioactive materials. Instead, a careful review of the exposure conditions, once the pregnancy is declared, as part of the exercise of the ICRP optimisation principle (based in a teleological ethics point of view) is suggested. The dose limitation (following a deontological ethics point of view) of the fetus/embryo is, however, not clearly well established as happens in the case of workers or members of the public. Also, the justification of practices (to continue to work or not with radiation or radioactive materials) is not clearly addressed in most national or international recommendations. An analysis of this justification (bearing in mind both teleological and deontological ethics) is examined in this work having in mind the best interest of the child-to-be as well as other existing social and economical factors. PMID:21068015

  2. Women at risk: why increasing numbers of women are failing to get the health care they need and how the Affordable Care Act will help. Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey of 2010.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Ruth; Collins, Sara R

    2011-05-01

    Women have greater health care needs than men, and generally play larger roles in the health care of family members. Rising health care costs combined with sluggish income growth has contributed to losses in health insurance among women and rising rates of problems gaining necessary health care and paying medical bills. Women who seek coverage in the individual insurance market face additional hurdles--few plans offer maternity coverage and, in most states, insurance carriers charge higher premium rates to young women than men of the same age. The Affordable Care Act is bringing change for women through required free coverage of preventive care services, small business tax credits, new affordable coverage options, and insurance market reforms, including bans on gender rating. When the law is fully implemented in 2014, nearly all the 27 million working-age women who went without health insurance in 2010 will gain affordable and comprehensive benefits. PMID:21638798

  3. Women's interpretation of and responses to potential gynaecological cancer symptoms: a qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Low, E L; Whitaker, K L; Simon, A E; Sekhon, M; Waller, J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore women's experiences of symptoms potentially indicative of gynaecological cancer in a community-based sample without imposing a cancer perspective. Design A qualitative interview study with thematic analysis of transcripts. Participants 26 women aged ≥30 years, who had experienced a symptom that might indicate gynaecological cancer in the past 3 months, were recruited using a screening questionnaire distributed online and in community settings. Setting London, UK. Results Women attributed gynaecological symptoms to existing illnesses/conditions or considered themselves to be predisposed to them, either through their ‘genes’ or previous personal experience. Normalising symptoms by attributing them to demographic characteristics (eg, age, sex) was common, as was considering them a side effect of hormonal contraception. When women raised cancer as a possible cause, they often dismissed it as unlikely. Responses to symptoms included self-management (eg, self-medicating, making lifestyle changes), adopting a ‘lay system of care’, or consulting a healthcare professional. Triggers to help-seeking included persistent, painful or debilitating symptoms, concern about symptom seriousness, and feeling that help-seeking was legitimised. Barriers to help-seeking included lack of concern, vague symptoms, unusual symptom location, competing time demands, previous negative experiences with the healthcare system, and not wanting to be perceived as a time-waster. Conclusions Attributions of symptoms potentially indicative of a gynaecological cancer were varied, but most often involved women fitting symptoms into their expectations of what was ‘normal’. Normalising acted as a barrier to seeking help from a healthcare professional, alongside competing time demands and negative attitudes towards help-seeking. These barriers may lead to later diagnosis and poorer cancer survival. Our findings could be used to inform the development of interventions

  4. Caffeinated Alcohol, Sensation Seeking, and Injury Risk

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Thomas P.; Egan, Kathleen L.; Goldin, Shoshanna; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background College students who consume caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CaffAlc) are at increased injury risk. This study examines the extent to which a sensation-seeking personality accounts for the relationship between consumption of CaffAlc and negative outcomes. Methods A Web-based survey was administered to stratified random samples of 4907 college students from eight North Carolina universities in Fall 2009. Sensation seeking was assessed using the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) (α=0.81). Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Results 3390 students (71.2%) reported past 30-day drinking, of whom 786 (23.2%) consumed CaffAlc. CaffAlc past 30-day drinkers had higher BSSS scores (3.8 vs. 3.4; p<0.001), compared to non-CaffAlc drinkers. Consumption of CaffAlc was associated with more frequent binge drinking (p<0.001) and drunken days in a typical week (p<0.001), even after adjusting for the BSSS score. CaffAlc students were more likely to be taken advantage of sexually (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.70, p=0.012), drive under the influence of alcohol (AOR=2.00, p<0.001), and ride with a driver under the influence of alcohol (AOR=1.87, p<0.001). Injury requiring medical treatment was more prevalent among CaffAlc students with higher BSSS-8 scores (interaction p=0.024), even after adjustment for drinking levels and student characteristics. Conclusions Sensation seeking does not fully account for the increase in risky drinking among college students who consume CaffAlc, nor does it moderate the relationship between CaffAlc and drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking moderates the risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment among college students who consume CaffAlc. Those with strong sensation-seeking dispositions are at the highest risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment. PMID:24761275

  5. Medical Evaluation of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children. Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, 2d Session. Committee Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    This paper reports a medical evaluation of a federal program providing funds for special nutritious food supplements to low income pregnant and lactating women, infants, and children up to four years of age who are nutritional risks. Growth, dietary intake, and biochemical measures were obtained for study infants at the time of enrollment in the…

  6. Voices of Women Facing HIV-Related Stigma in the Deep South.

    PubMed

    Relf, Michael V; Williams, Megan; Barroso, Julie

    2015-12-01

    One in 139 women will be diagnosed with HIV in their lifetime. Thirty-four years into the epidemic, stigma remains part of the trajectory of the disease process for all individuals with HIV. Stigma associated with HIV makes it difficult for women to access HIV testing and counseling, disclose HIV status to sexual partners and health care providers, seek and remain actively engaged in medical care, effectively self-manage the disease after diagnosis, and adhere to antiretroviral therapy. The current article reports the qualitative results from a study designed to test the feasibility and acceptability of a technologically delivered stigma intervention for women with HIV in the Southeastern United States. Qualitative analysis revealed women with HIV uniformly experience, anticipate, and/or internalize stigma associated with HIV. Consequently, women with HIV experience isolation and a threat to self-concept as they make decisions about disclosure, work to maintain the secrecy of their HIV status, and contemplate a future. PMID:26505522

  7. Profile of female patients seeking in-patient treatment for prescription opioid abuse from a tertiary care drug dependence treatment centre from India

    PubMed Central

    Dayal, Prabhoo; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: There has been a limited focus on prescription drug abuse among women in the country. Choice of psychoactive substance, reasons for initiation and co-occurring disorders have been found to be different among men and women. The current study was aimed at studying the profile of female patients seeking in-patient treatment for prescription drug use over a period of five years at a tertiary care drug dependence treatment centre in India. Methods: Case records of all female patients admitted with substance use disorder at a national level drug dependence treatment centre in north India across five years (between January 2008 and December 2012) were reviewed retrospectively to study their socio-demographic and clinical profile. The information was gathered using a semi-structured proforma and detailed case records. Abstinence, relapse and retention rates were calculated. Results: Over the five years, 31 female patients were admitted with prescription drug abuse. Of them, 12 (39%) used prescription opioids and 11 (36%) used prescription opioid along with benzodiazepines. Commonest prescription opioid was pentazocine used by 87 per cent of the women. Twenty two (71%) women were introduced to opioid by medical practitioners and commonest reason for introduction was pain (among 48%). Common co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses were depressive disorder (26%), cluster B traits/disorder (19%) and somatoform disorder (13%). Eight women did not complete treatment and left against medical advice. Thirteen women were advised maintenance treatment, and 70 per cent of them were retained for at least six months. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings revealed a link between mental illness, pain and non-medical use of prescription opioids among women. Majority of these women received opioids as a legitimate prescription form physician. Therefore, these legitimate prescribers should be trained for pain management to facilitate proper treatment of pain and to

  8. Quality of life among treatment seeking methamphetamine-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Rachel; Ang, Alfonso; Glik, Deborah C; Rawson, Richard A; Lee, Stella; Iguchi, Martin Y

    2011-01-01

    As the number of men and women entering treatment for substance use disorders continues to increase across the country, it becomes vitally important to understand their quality of life (QOL) or perceived health status, in order to inform treatment efforts for improving such outcomes. To date, QOL assessments among methamphetamine (MA) dependent users are limited. This paper examines QOL health status among a sample of 838 treatment seeking MA users at admission. Using regression analysis, predictors of QOL are examined among MA users. Predictors of poor QOL among MA users at treatment admission included being female, white, high school educated or more, married, experiencing psychosocial dysfunction (lifetime trauma, suicide, social conflict), reporting a high frequency of both MA and polydrugs for 15 days or more in the past month, chronicity of MA and polydrug use, injection use, and having co-morbid medical and psychiatric impairment. Employment status was the only factor related to better health status perceptions. This study expands the scope of scholarly examination of MA-dependent users entering treatment, as there has not been a development of coherent profiles of QOL among representative samples of clinical MA-abusing populations to date. PMID:21679268

  9. Physical, Behavioral, and Mental Health Issues in Asian American Women: Results from the National Latino Asian American Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bu; Ai, Amy L.; Lin, Chyongchiou Jeng

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims Asian American women's health has been understudied while the Asian American population is increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine the physical, behavioral, and mental health of Asian American women. Methods Using a nationally representative sample (n=1097) from the National Latino Asian American Study (NLAAS), the first comprehensive epidemiologic survey in the United States, we examined the annual rates of behavioral, physical, and mental healthcare service use, including general medical, specialty mental health, and any medical services, in three major subgroups of Asian American women. Results Health problems varied with three major subgroups of Asian American women. In physical health, Chinese American women reported the highest rates of headache, other pain, hypertension, heart diseases, heart attacks, chronic lung diseases, and asthma. Vietnamese American women reported the highest rates of ulcer, stroke, and diabetes. Filipino American women had the highest rates of cancers and epilepsy. In behavioral health, Filipino women ranked highest on all types of drug use and cigarette smoking, compared with their counterparts. In mental health, Filipino American women reported significantly better mental health self-rating compared with their Chinese and Vietnamese American counterparts. Asian American women from each ethnic group sought health services at distinct rates. However, the help-seeking patterns of health services are similar. Conclusions Asian American women encountered various physical, behavioral, and mental health problems, yet they had low rates of seeking healthcare services. Hence, it is critical to further examine factors associated with the underestimation of physical and mental health problems and underuse of health services by Asian American women. PMID:21777144

  10. Negotiating the neurochemical self: anti-depressant consumption in women's recovery from depression.

    PubMed

    Fullagar, Simone

    2009-07-01

    Anti-depressant treatment can be viewed as an exercise of biopower that is articulated through policies and practices aimed at the reduction of depression, population healthcare costs and effects on labour force productivity. Drawing upon a feminist governmentality perspective, this article examines the discourses that shaped women's experiences of anti-depressant medication in an Australian qualitative study on recovery from depression. The majority of women had been prescribed anti-depressants to treat a chemical imbalance in the brain, manage symptoms and restore normal functioning. One-third of participants identified anti-depressants as helpful in their recovery, while two-thirds were either highly ambivalent about, or critical of, medication as a solution to depression. Thirty-one women who identified the ;positive' benefits of anti-depressants actively constituted themselves as biomedical consumers seeking to redress a chemical imbalance. The problem of depression, the emergence of molecular science and the push for pharmacological solutions are contributing to the discursive formation of new subject positions - such as the neurochemically deficient self. Three themes were identified in relation to medication use, namely restoring normality, signifying recovery success and control/uncertainty. Anti-depressant medication offered women a normalized pathway to successful recovery that stood in stark contrast to the biologically deficient and morally failing self. These women's stories importantly reveal the gender relations and paradoxes arising from biopolitical technologies that shape selfhood for women in advanced liberal societies. PMID:19491233

  11. Attention-Seeking Displays.

    PubMed

    Számadó, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest. PMID:26287489

  12. Attention-Seeking Displays

    PubMed Central

    Számadó, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest. PMID:26287489

  13. Depression Is Treatable, But You Need to Seek Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Infertility White Paper CDC Programs and Activities Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Depression Among Women Depression Treatment ... department for emergency medical treatment. Call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (8255), ...

  14. Racial/ethnic variations in women's health: the social embeddedness of health.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R

    2002-04-01

    This article provides an overview of the magnitude of and trends in racial/ethnic disparities in health for women in the United States. It emphasizes the importance of attending to diversity in the health profiles and populations of minority women. Socioeconomic status is a central determinant of racial/ethnic disparities in health, but several other factors, including medical care, geographic location, migration and acculturation, racism, and exposure to stress and resources also play a role. There is a need for renewed attention to monitoring, understanding, and actively seeking to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health. PMID:11919058

  15. Demographic and psychosocial characteristics of substance-abusing pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hans, S L

    1999-03-01

    Women who abuse drugs and alcohol during pregnancy are an elusive population who often remain unidentified to practitioners and researchers and hence have not been well studied. In trying to understand better the characteristics of women who use drugs during pregnancy, the present article relies extensively on information gathered in studies of women in substance abuse treatment who, as epidemiologic studies show, may be more severely impaired than other substance-abusing women and, therefore, may not be typical of substance-abusing women identified in the course of obstetric practice. Yet, those pregnant women who are actually identified by medical providers as substance users are often those whose behavior raises concerns with health providers (such as presenting for labor having had no prenatal care) and thus also may represent only a relatively impaired group of substance-abusing women. The most objective picture available of the universe of women who use drugs during pregnancy comes from blinded urine toxicology screens conducted at samples of representative hospitals across states and across the country. The startling finding to emerge from these studies is that common perceptions of substance abuse as a problem of poor, ethnic minority, and young individuals is inaccurate and that this perception may all too often be acted on by medical providers in a prejudicial manner. These studies show similar rates of substance use during pregnancy by women of different racial, social class, and age categories. Demographic features are only related to type of substance used, with black women and poorer women more likely to use illicit substances, particularly cocaine, and white women and better educated women more likely to use alcohol, the substance whose teratogenic effects have been most clearly documented. Despite the even distribution of substance use across demographic categories, poor women and women of color are far more likely to be reported to health and child

  16. ‘This Is Real Misery’: Experiences of Women Denied Legal Abortion in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Hajri, Selma; Raifman, Sarah; Gerdts, Caitlin; Baum, Sarah; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to accessing legal abortion services in Tunisia are increasing, despite a liberal abortion law, and women are often denied wanted legal abortion services. In this paper, we seek to explore the reasons for abortion denial and whether these reasons had a legal or medical basis. We also identify barriers women faced in accessing abortion and make recommendations for improved access to quality abortion care. We recruited women immediately after they had been turned away from legal abortion services at two facilities in Tunis, Tunisia. Thirteen women consented to participate in qualitative interviews two months after they were turned away from the facility. Women were denied abortion care on the day they were recruited due to three main reasons: gestational age, health conditions, and logistical barriers. Nine women ultimately terminated their pregnancies at another facility, and four women carried to term. None of the women attempted illegal abortion services or self-induction. Further research is needed in order to assess abortion denial from the perspective of providers and medical staff. PMID:26684189

  17. Escitalopram Reduces Hot Flashes in Non-depressed Menopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Roseanne DeFronzo; Menza, Matthew; Allen, Lesley A.; Marin, Humberto; Bienfait, Karina L.; Tiu, Jade; Howarth, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Background Hot flashes are one of the most troubling manifestations of menopause, affecting about 80% of women. Due to recent controversies about hormone replacement therapy (HRT), many women are seeking alternative treatments. The use of antidepressants to treat hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms has been an active area of investigation. However, the majority of past research in this area has included women with significant medical or psychiatric histories that may influence treatment response. This was the first study to examine the impact of escitalopram on hot flashes, mood, sleep, and quality of life in a healthy sample of non-depressed menopausal women. Methods Twenty-five menopausal women, with no significant psychiatric or medical history, were enrolled. All women were treated with escitalopram (10-20mg flexibly dosed) for 8 weeks. The active treatment phase was preceded by a single blind placebo lead-in period. Results Over the course of the study, women reported significant decreases in both hot flash frequency and severity and improvements in dysphoria, anxiety, quality of life, and sleep. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that escitalopram may be a feasible and effective option for treating hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms in healthy women who might not ordinarily consider antidepressant treatment. PMID:19439155

  18. Battered Women’s Profiles Associated with Service Help-Seeking Efforts: Illuminating Opportunities for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Nurius, Paula S.; Kernic, Mary A.; Holt, Victoria L.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about where battered women present for services and the violence, biopsychosocial, and demographic factors associated with their help seeking can provide social workers with guidance in anticipating needs among this portion of their clientele. The authors examined the service contact patterns of a sample of battered women (N = 448) following an incident of partner violence that triggered legal involvement. Significant group differences, tested with t tests and chi squares, between women who sought compared with those who did not seek services were found on partner violence exposure and biopsychosocial factors. Correlations and regression analyses of relationships among partner violence and biopsychosocial and demographic factors with help-seeking indices show how battered women’s needs differentially relate across a range of service types. Results show distinctive profiles of needs and resources among battered women who seek violence, legal, health, economic, substance abuse, and religious helping services. PMID:25705104

  19. A hard pill to swallow: a qualitative study of women's experiences of adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harrow, Alison; Dryden, Ruth; McCowan, Colin; Radley, Andrew; Parsons, Mark; Thompson, Alastair M; Wells, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore women's experiences of taking adjuvant endocrine therapy as a treatment for breast cancer and how their beliefs about the purpose of the medication, side effects experienced and interactions with health professionals might influence adherence. Design Qualitative study using semistructured, one-to-one interviews. Setting 2 hospitals from a single health board in Scotland. Participants 30 women who had been prescribed tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole or letrozole) and had been taking this medication for 1–5 years. Results Women clearly wished to take their adjuvant endocrine therapy medication as prescribed, believing that it offered them protection against breast cancer recurrence. However, some women missed tablets and did not recognise that this could reduce the efficacy of the treatment. Women did not perceive that healthcare professionals were routinely or systematically monitoring their adherence. Side effects were common and impacted greatly on the women’s quality of life but did not always cause women to stop taking their medication, or to seek advice about reducing the side effects they experienced. Few were offered the opportunity to discuss the impact of side effects or the potential options available. Conclusions Although most women in this study took adjuvant endocrine therapy as prescribed, many endured a range of side effects, often without seeking help. Advice, support and monitoring for adherence are not routinely offered in conventional follow-up settings. Women deserve more opportunity to discuss the pros, cons and impact of long-term adjuvant endocrine therapy. New service models are needed to support adherence, enhance quality of life and ultimately improve survival. These should ideally be community based, in order to promote self-management in the longer term. PMID:24928595

  20. In Their Own Words: A Qualitative Content Analysis of Women's and Men's Preferences for Women's Genitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullinax, Margo; Herbenick, Debby; Schick, Vanessa; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Reece, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly shows that genital attitudes have an impact on sexual well-being and health-seeking behaviours. This study explored what women and men like and dislike about women's genitals. Data are from open-ended items, part of a cross-sectional internet-based survey anonymously completed by 496 women and 198 men. Overall, both women and…

  1. "Big Momma Had Sugar, Imma Have It Too" Medical Fatalism and the Language of Faith Among African-American Women in Memphis.

    PubMed

    Hotz, Kendra G

    2015-12-01

    This essay offers a theological exploration of the relationship between medical fatalism and religious belonging among African-American women in Memphis. Drawing on the work of black and womanist theologians and on conversations with participants in a diabetes intervention program administered by a faith-based community health provider, I argue that how we narrate the meanings of our bodies is irreducibly religious. The language we use to interpret and communicate the meaning of our bodily existence emerges from a set of assumptions, often unarticulated, about what is of ultimate value to us. The essay focuses on three interlocking features that link faith with fatalism or hope: (1) The idea that if "I don't claim that" disease cannot enter my body; (2) the role of faith-based clinics in re-establishing trust with marginalized communities; and (3) how nuanced attention to the social location of health seekers can re-frame our understanding of patient compliance. Disrupting fatalism can only be done from within a health seeker's own narrative, and therefore, healthcare providers who learn these narratives and respect their holiness will develop more effective interventions. PMID:25338304

  2. Women and Computers: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Ruth; Greber, Lisa

    1990-01-01

    Discusses women's central role in the development of the computer and their present day peripheral position, a progression paralleled in the fields of botany, medical care, and obstetrics. Affirms the importance of computer education to women. (DM)

  3. Suboptimal Tradeoffs in Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Wai-Tat; Gray, Wayne D.

    2006-01-01

    Explicit information-seeking actions are needed to evaluate alternative actions in problem-solving tasks. Information-seeking costs are often traded off against the utility of information. We present three experiments that show how subjects adapt to the cost and information structures of environments in a map-navigation task. We found that…

  4. The Wilderness Novelty Seeking Scale.

    PubMed

    Próchniak, Piotr

    2014-10-01

    The purpose was to present the new scale of novelty seeking in the context of wilderness. A study of the psychometric properties of the Wilderness Novelty Seeking Scale was conducted, with an exploratory and a confirmatory factor analysis being carried out and the coefficients of the scale's reliability and stability over time being tested. The convergent validity of the WNSS scale was indicated by positive correlations with sensation seeking, openness to experience, and need for cognition. The divergent validity of the WNSS scale was indicated by non-significant correlations with state-trait anxiety and depression. The correlation between the Wilderness Novelty Seeking Scale and psychological well-being was analyzed. The Wilderness Novelty Seeking Scale seems to be a reliable and valid tool. PMID:25202995

  5. Adherence to Asian Cultural Values and Cultural Fit in Korean American Undergraduates' Help-Seeking Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Park, Yong Sue; Kim, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Differences in and relationships of Asian cultural values, cultural congruity, perception of the university environment, and help-seeking attitudes for 1st- and 2nd-generation Korean American undergraduates (N = 228) were examined. Women reported significantly higher cultural congruity and more positive help-seeking attitudes than did men. Asian…

  6. [Cytotec and abortion: the police, the vendors and women].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Madeiro, Alberto

    2012-07-01

    This paper analyzes the illegal trade in misoprostol, the medication predominantly used for abortion in Brazil. The study analyzed ten cases that came to the attention of the Public Prosecution Service for the Federal District between 2004 and 2010. The cases were organized into three categories: 1. women's stories; 2. profile of the vendors; 3. maternal mortality cases. The research was reviewed by an ethics committee. The main outcomes were: 1. young women in steady relationships use misoprostol in the home or with the assistance of drug vendors. Of the seven women indicted, three were reported on arrival at the public hospital to finalize abortion; 2. the drug vendors work at the community drugstore and are local agents for the sale of misoprostol. They instruct women on how to use the drug and how to prevent infections, but refuse to provide them with care in case of emergency. Traffickers operate via the internet and have a larger inventory of drugs; 3. there were two cases of maternal mortality due to the combination of high risk methods, such as a vaginal probe and misoprostol. The main causes for maternal mortality are the delay in seeking medical care, as the women fear criminal prosecution, and the combined use of misoprostol with high risk methods. PMID:22872341

  7. A National Initiative for Women and Healthcare Providers: CDC’s Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Sun Hee; Polonec, Lindsey; Stewart, Sherri L.; Gelb, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    The Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign raises awareness of the five main types of gynecologic cancer: cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar. It encourages women to pay attention to their bodies and know what is normal for them so they can recognize the warning signs of gynecologic cancers and seek medical care. This report provides an overview of the development of this national campaign. PMID:21933006

  8. Insomnia patients' help-seeking experiences.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Janet M Y; Bartlett, Delwyn J; Armour, Carol L; Glozier, Nicholas; Saini, Bandana

    2014-03-01

    Timely access to appropriate treatment is important for optimizing insomnia management. To date, little is known about insomnia patients' treatment experiences or how they access and engage with the available health care resources. This study sought to capture the help-seeking experiences and behavioral patterns of patients with insomnia who are seeking or receiving specialist care. A purposive sample of 26 insomnia patients from specialist sleep and mental health clinics located in metropolitan New South Wales, Australia was recruited. Participants completed a brief questionnaire, followed by an in-depth, semi-structured interview. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using framework analysis. Three key themes emerged from the data: patients' sleep beliefs, treatment beliefs, and accessing specialized care. The findings show that daytime symptoms arising from insomnia serve as important illness cues for patients to seek medical help. In addition, participants' treatment pathways highlight factors that prevent the widespread use of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), including limited awareness about CBT-I, tentative referral mechanisms, limited service providers, and the high cost of CBT-I. PMID:23514322

  9. The help-seeking strategies of female violent-crime victims: the direct and conditional effects of race and the victim-offender relationship.

    PubMed

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2004-09-01

    The author used national data to examine the help-seeking strategies of female crime victims. The research has two objectives. First, to determine whether help seeking exists as isolated choices or whether there is a discernable set of help-seeking strategies used by victims. Second, the author examined the effects of race and the victim-offender relationship on these help-seeking decisions. Findings identify three help-seeking strategies: (a) minimal or no help seeking, (b) family and friend help seeking, and (c) substantial help seeking (includes help from family, friends, psychiatrists, social service providers, and police). The author found that White women and victims of intimate partner violence are more likely to engage in increasing levels of help seeking. She also found that White women victimized by an intimate partner or other known offender are more likely (as compared to other victims) to seek increasing levels of help and social support. PMID:15296612

  10. Falling through the cracks. Women's experiences of ineligibility for genetic testing for risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, J. L.; Balneaves, L. G.; Buxton, J.; Ratner, P. A.; McCullum, M.; Chalmers, K.; Hack, T.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe experiences of women seeking information about their risk of hereditary breast cancer who fail to meet strict eligibility criteria for genetic counseling and testing. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study. SETTING: Hereditary cancer program in western Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Women who had received notification of their ineligibility for referral for hereditary breast cancer risk assessment (n = 20) and some of their referring physicians (n = 10). Of 28 attempted contacts, five women had moved, one declined the invitation to participate, and two could not be interviewed because of scheduling conflicts. Ten of 20 physicians declined the invitation to participate. METHOD: In-depth, open-ended telephone interviews were conducted. Transcribed interviews were systematically analyzed to identify salient themes. MAIN FINDINGS: Three themes emerged. The first theme, "It's always on your mind," points to the profound concern about breast cancer that underlies women's experiences in seeking genetic testing. The second theme, "A test is a test," reflects women's beliefs that the test was relatively simple and similar to other medical tests in that it would provide a definitive answer. The third theme, "Falling through the cracks," captures the experience of ineligibility. Women reacted with a range of emotional responses and were left frustrated in their search for more specific information about their personal risk for breast cancer. Although women were encouraged to contact their physicians, few did. CONCLUSION: These findings point to the psychological consequences in women who seek genetic testing for risk of breast cancer when they are told they are ineligible and they are not given adequate information and support. PMID:10925759

  11. Relatives’ Advice and Health Care-Seeking Behaviour in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Eloul, Liyam

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: It has been well established that pathways to care are considerably modified by local, social and psychological characteristics as well as the doctor-patient relationship. Scant attention has been paid to the role of family advice in care-seeking. In Omani society, traditional family values and a collective mindset are the norm rather than the exception. This paper examines how family advice affects the trajectory of care seeking. Methodology: During 2006–2007, data was collected through face-to-face interviews among a randomised sample of patients seeking medical consultation in various primary health care centres in the northern region of Oman. This study enrolled a total of 493 patients. The association between the advice of family members as a reason to seek health care and other predictors was analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that the advice of family members in care-seeking is strongly associated with gender, education, history of chronic illness, previous exposure to traditional medicine, and health education, as well as the history of immunisation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the advice of family members remains a strong catalyst for care-seeking in Oman. The psychosocial factors affecting care-seeking leading to underutilisation of services or otherwise are discussed. PMID:21509309

  12. Women in agriculture: risks for occupational injury within the context of gendered role.

    PubMed

    McCoy, C A; Carruth, A K; Reed, D B

    2002-02-01

    Women continue to make significant contributions to farming. Not only do women participate in the traditional roles of homemaker, caregiver, and wife, they also work side-by-side with their spouses in keeping the farm viable. More daughters are entering the farming business, either as partners with other family members or as independent operators. Each year since the United States Department of Agriculture began including gender in the Census of Agriculture, the percentage of women engaged in agriculture has increased, and women's participation in agriculture is increasing faster than in other business segments. This article examines the role of women in agriculture and how sociocultural, economic, and physical factors may affect women's exposure to injury-producing events and their knowledge and beliefs about injury prevention. To date, few studies have examined work-related unintentional injuries among farm women. Even less is known about the extent to which occupational risks are recognized when women seek medical care. Differences in size and stature, increased physical strain, and low maximal oxygen uptake may predispose women to ergonomic-related injuries. Limitations of current research and recommendations for future analyses are discussed. PMID:12002372

  13. Physician Information Seeking Behaviors: Are Physicians Successful Searchers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiatek-Kelley, Janice

    2010-01-01

    In the recent past, physicians found answers to questions by consulting colleagues, textbooks, and professional journals. Now, the availability of medical information through electronic resources has changed physician information-seeking behaviors. Evidence-based medicine is now the accepted decision-making paradigm, and a physician's ability to…

  14. Seeking New Treatments for Endometriosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Media Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Seeking New Treatments for Endometriosis Skip sharing on social media ... genetic mechanisms of endometriosis may help in developing new prevention and treatment strategies. The NICHD’s extramural Gynecologic ...

  15. Computer-Based Medical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    SYMED, Inc., developed a unique electronic medical records and information management system. The S2000 Medical Interactive Care System (MICS) incorporates both a comprehensive and interactive medical care support capability and an extensive array of digital medical reference materials in either text or high resolution graphic form. The system was designed, in cooperation with NASA, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of physician practices. The S2000 is a MS (Microsoft) Windows based software product which combines electronic forms, medical documents, records management, and features a comprehensive medical information system for medical diagnostic support and treatment. SYMED, Inc. offers access to its medical systems to all companies seeking competitive advantages.

  16. Schizophrenia in women and children: a selective review of literature from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Prabha S; Kommu, John Vijay Sagar; Rudhran, Vidyendran

    2012-10-01

    Women and children with psychotic disorders in developing countries may be vulnerable and have considerable social disadvantages. Gender disadvantage has implications for all health outcomes including mental illnesses. In the more relevant gender-related context we discuss several important issues which affect women with schizophrenia, namely stigma, caregiver burden, functional outcome, marriage, victimization and help-seeking. The findings indicate that there are variations in clinical and functional outcomes and age of onset of illness between different regions. Drug side effects, such as metabolic syndrome appear to be quite common, adding to disease burden in women from developing countries. Victimization and coercion may contribute to poor quality of life and health concerns such as STIs and HIV. Stigma among women with schizophrenia appears to play a major role in help-seeking, caregiver burden and issues such as marriage and parenting. Gender-sensitive care and practices are few and not well documented. Research in the area of psychoses in children and adolescents from LAMI countries is sparse and is mainly restricted to a few clinic-based studies. More research is needed on organic and medical factors contributing to childhood psychoses, pathways to care, help-seeking, and impact of early detection and community care. PMID:23057983

  17. Status of Professional Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manicur, Alice R.

    The author presents an historical and cultural analysis of the place of women in society. It is stated that historically women have had to assume an aggressive role to become educated. In addition, as far back as the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, one finds records which indicate that women had to seek opportunities to study and to learn.…

  18. Women and Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Horrigan Conners Center for Women’s Health and Gender Biology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, April, ... Lung Cancer in Women: The Differences in Epidemiology, Biology and Treatment Outcomes, Maria Patricia Rivera MD Expert ...

  19. Women and Vascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Patient information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Women and Vascular Disease Early Warning Symptom for ... major public health issue, the Society of Interventional Radiology recommends greater screening efforts by the medical community ...

  20. Factors Influencing Help-Seeking from Informal Networks among African American Victims of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Katherine E.; Luchok, Kathryn J.; Richter, Donna L.; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the challenges African-American women in abusive relationships face when they consider seeking-help from their informal networks. Data are reported from interviews with 15 African-American women who were self-identified as having survived physical intimate partner violence. A 13-item,…

  1. The Place of Volunteerism in the Lives of Women: Analysis of Four Types of Volunteer Experience: Community Leaders of Pacific City; Equality for Women; Pacific Family Planning; Hospital Volunteers at Urban Medical Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Arlene Kaplan; And Others

    Four types of volunteer experience were examined and compared in order to get some picture of the range of activities open to women within the general category of volunteering and to learn about the array of opportunities and satisfactions open to women who volunteer within the different structural contexts. Data were analyzed from studies of a…

  2. Iraqi women: victims of war and sanctions.

    PubMed

    Aziz, C

    1997-01-01

    In his most recent public statement on family planning (FP), delivered in 1979, Iraq's leader Saddam Hussein noted his opposition to birth control in general but his agreement that family size should be relegated to protect the health of existing children. During the period of the war with Iran, Iraq adopted a pronatalist policy that rewarded mothers of 10 or more children. UN trade sanctions followed the later Persian Gulf War as did uncontrolled inflation. While food and medical supplies are exempt from the sanctions, shortages of drugs and equipment have destroyed what was once the most sophisticated health care system in the Middle East. The Iraq FP Association had became a full member of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in 1973, and the IPPF was able to help the Association obtain materials after the sanctions came into force. The Association, which had five clinics at that time, now has 66 and hopes to reach 2.5 million women by the year 2000. Women seek FP because they can not afford more children. Despite their poverty, women manage to purchase subsidized oral contraceptives. Most of the women are anemic and suffer from water-borne parasites. The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, and the clinics have no drugs for treatment. The inability of even middle-class women to afford approximately US$1/month to purchase sanitary napkins has increased use of rags that cause infection, which in turn makes intercourse painful. The clinics desperately need equipment and supplies and a laboratory. Clinic physicians are depressed by their inability to help women and see no improvement on the horizon. PMID:12293461

  3. A qualitative investigation of women's perceptions of premenstrual syndrome: implications for general practitioners.

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, J; Kremer, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many women consult general practitioners each year, seeking treatment for premenstrual syndrome. This qualitative study presents evidence of women's own perceptions of this problem, which may assist in the provision of individualized health care. AIM: To explore women's constructions of premenstrual syndrome using grounded analysis. METHOD: A qualitative, semi-structured interview study carried out in Northern Ireland. Thirteen women were interviewed individually. Thereafter, 33 women participated in group discussions. Five health visitors then commented individually on the findings. RESULTS: Seven themes emerged from the analysis. These themes suggested that women tend to view the menstrual cycle holistically and that premenstrual syndrome is regarded as debilitating by only a small minority of women. Participants indicated an awareness of the intra- and inter-personal variability of menstrual experience. They were ambivalent about menstruation, viewing it as natural but, at the same time, unnatural in terms of day-to-day existence. Talking to other women served two functions, first by providing a yardstick against which to evaluate their own experiences, and secondly by providing support and advice. In contrast, women tended to talk about menstruation only to selected men, mainly partners, primarily in the interests of educating them. Women viewed menstruation as potentially disempowering by virtue of its uncontrollability, and felt that both a positive attitude and the use of a range of remedies were important for women wishing to become empowered with respect to this aspect of their lives. CONCLUSIONS: Women's own constructions of premenstrual syndrome differ markedly from those as presented in medical textbooks and research literature: secondary sources that have significantly impacted upon general practitioners' attitudes towards this condition. The provision of a range of treatment options, including support groups, is suggested, on the basis of

  4. How personality, coping styles, and perceived closeness influence help-seeking attitudes in suicide-bereaved adults.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Christopher W; Cerel, Julie; Moore, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the impact of personality, coping, and perceived closeness on help-seeking attitudes in suicide bereaved adults. Participants (n = 418; mean age = 49.50; 90% women, 89.7% Caucasian) completed measures of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness), coping, and attitudes toward seeking mental health services. Regression analyses revealed neuroticism as the strongest predictor of help-seeking attitudes. Relatively neurotic adult women bereaved by suicide may be at-risk for developing unhealthy coping styles, low stigma indifference, and more negative help-seeking attitudes. PMID:26745343

  5. Gender Differences in Substance Use, Consequences, Motivation to Change, and Treatment Seeking in People With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Drapalski, Amy; Bennett, Melanie; Bellack, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Gender differences in patterns and consequences of substance use, treatment-seeking, and motivation to change were examined in two samples of people with serious mental illness (SMI) and comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs): a community sample not currently seeking substance abuse treatment (N = 175) and a treatment-seeking sample (N = 137). In both groups, women and men demonstrated more similarities in the pattern and severity of their substance use than differences. However, treatment-seeking women showed greater readiness to change their substance use. Mental health problems and traumatic experiences may prompt people with SMI and SUD to enter substance abuse treatment, regardless of gender. PMID:21174496

  6. Adolescent Pregnancy: A Medical Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taborn, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines the medical and social consequences of adolescent pregnancy, including maternal and infant mortality, and low birth weight. Discusses why pregnant adolescents do not seek prenatal care and implications for health providers. (FMW)

  7. Smoking cessation programs targeted to women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Torchalla, Iris; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Bottorff, Joan L; Qu, Annie; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    The authors of this systematic review aimed to examine tobacco interventions developed to meet the needs of women, to identify sex- and gender-specific components, and to evaluate their effects on smoking cessation in women. The authors searched electronic databases in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PubMed, EBSCO, PsychINFO, CINHAL, and EMBASE; the search was not restricted by publication date. Data was extracted from published peer-reviewed articles on participants, setting, treatment models, interventions, length of follow-up, and outcomes. The main outcome variable was abstinence from smoking. A total of 39 studies were identified. In efficacy studies, therapists addressed weight concerns and non-pharmacological aspects of smoking, taught mood/stress management strategies, and scheduled the quit date to be timed to the menstrual cycle. In effectiveness studies, therapists were peer counselors, provided telephone counseling, and/or distributed gendered booklets, videos, and posters. Among efficacy studies, interventions addressing weight gain/concerns showed the most promising results. If medication can support smoking cessation in women and how it interacts with non-pharmacological treatment also warrant further research. For effectiveness studies, the available evidence suggests that smoking should be addressed in low-income women accessing public health clinics. Further attention should be devoted to identifying new settings for providing smoking cessation interventions to women from disadvantaged groups. Women-specific tobacco programs help women stop smoking, although they appear to produce similar abstinence rates as non-sex/gender specific programs. Offering interventions for women specifically may reduce barriers to treatment entry and better meet individual preferences of smokers. Developing approaches that fully account for the multiple challenges treatment-seeking women face is still an area of research. PMID:22324357

  8. Bipolar disorder in women

    PubMed Central

    Parial, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder in women is a challenging disorder to treat. It is unique in its presentation in women and characterized by later age of onset, seasonality, atypical presentation, and a higher degree of mixed episodes. Medical and psychiatric co-morbidity adversely affects recovery from the bipolar disorder (BD) more often in women. Co-morbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders occur more frequently in women while substance use disorders are more common in men. Treatment of women during pregnancy and lactation is challenging. Pregnancy neither protects nor exacerbates BD, and many women require continuation of medication during the pregnancy. The postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of BD in women. Prophylaxis with mood stabilizers might be needed. Individualized risk/benefits assessments of pregnant and postpartum women with BD are required to promote the health of the women and to avoid or limit exposure of the fetus or infant to potential adverse effects of medication. PMID:26330643

  9. Prevalence of urinary incontinence in Andorra: impact on women's health.

    PubMed

    Avellanet, Mercè; Fiter, Meritxell; Cirera, Eva; Coll, Margarida

    2003-07-16

    BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a frequent public health problem with negative social consequences, particularly for women. Female susceptibility is the result of anatomical, social, economic and cultural factors. The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the prevalence of UI in the female population of Andorra over the age of 15 and, specifically, to determine the influence of socio-demographic factors. A secondary aim of the study is to measure the degree of concern associated with UI and whether the involved subjects have asked for medical assistance, or not. METHODS: Women aged 15 and over, answered a self-administered questionnaire while attending professional health units in Andorra during the period November 1998 to January 2000. A preliminary study was carried out to ensure that the questionnaire was both understandable and simple. RESULTS: 863 completed questionnaires were obtained during a one year period. The breakdown of the places where the questionnaires were obtained and filled out is as follows: 32.4% - medical specialists' offices; 31.5% - outpatient centres served exclusively by nurses; 24% - primary care doctors' offices; 12% from other sources. Of the women who answered the questionnaire, 37% manifested urine losses. Of those,45.3% presented regular urinary incontinence (RUI) and 55.7% presented sporadic urinary incontinence (SporadicUI). In those women aged between 45 and 64, UI was present in 56% of the subjects. UI was more frequent among parous than non-parous women. UI was perceived as a far more bothersome and disabling condition by working, middle-class women than in other socio-economic groups. Women in this particular group are more limited by UI, less likely to seek medical advice but more likely to follow a course of treatment. From a general point of view, however, less than 50% of women suffering from UI sought medical advice. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of UI in the female population of Andorra stands at about 37

  10. Factors associated with seeking treatment for postpartum morbidities in rural India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Aditya; Kumar, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To understand the prevalence of postpartum morbidities and factors associated with treatment-seeking behaviour among currently married women aged 15-49 residing in rural India. METHODS: We used data from the nationally representative District Level Household Survey from 2007-2008. Cross-tabulation was used to understand the differentials for the prevalence of postpartum morbidities and treatment-seeking behaviours across selected background characteristics. Two-level binary logistic regression was applied to understand the factors associated with treatment-seeking behaviour. RESULTS: Approximately 39.8% of rural women suffered from at least one of the six postpartum morbidities including high fever, lower abdominal pain, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, excessive bleeding, convulsions, and severe headache. Morbidities were more prevalent among poor, illiterate, Muslim, and high-parity women. About 55.1% of these rural women sought treatment/consultation for their problems. The odds of seeking treatment/consultation increased as economic status and years of schooling among both the woman and her husband increased. Poor, uneducated, unemployed, Hindu, and tribal women were less likely to seek treatment/consultation for postpartum morbidities than their counterparts were. The odds of seeking treatment/consultation decreased as the distance to the nearest private health facility increased. Most women visited a private hospital (46.3%) or a friend/family member’s home (20.8%) for treatment/consultation. Only a small percentage visited publicly funded health institutions such as a primary health centre (8.8%), community health centre (6.5%), health sub-centre (2.8%), or district hospital (13.1%). Rural women from the northeast region of India were 50% less likely to seek treatment/consultation than women from the central region were. CONCLUSIONS: Providing antenatal and delivery care, and ensuring nearby government healthcare facilities are available to

  11. Medication Errors in Outpatient Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Berrier, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    Medication errors may occur during parental administration of prescription and over-the-counter medications in the outpatient pediatric setting. Misinterpretation of medication labels and dosing errors are two types of errors in medication administration. Health literacy may play an important role in parents' ability to safely manage their child's medication regimen. There are several proposed strategies for decreasing these medication administration errors, including using standardized dosing instruments, using strictly metric units for medication dosing, and providing parents and caregivers with picture-based dosing instructions. Pediatric healthcare providers should be aware of these strategies and seek to implement many of them into their practices. PMID:27537086

  12. An Integrated Web-Based Mental Health Intervention of Assessment-Referral-Care to Reduce Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Medically High-Risk Pregnancies: A Feasibility Study Protocol of Hospital-Based Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Janes-Kelley, Selikke; Tyrrell, Janie; Clark, Lorna; Hamza, Deena; Holmes, Penny; Parkes, Cheryl; Moyo, Nomagugu; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2015-01-01

    Background At prevalence rates of up to 40%, rates of depression and anxiety among women with medically complex pregnancies are 3 times greater than those in community-based samples of pregnant women. However, mental health care is not a component of routine hospital-based antenatal care for medically high-risk pregnant women. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the hospital-based implementation of a Web-based integrated mental health intervention comprising psychosocial assessment, referral, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for antenatal inpatients. Methods This study is a quasi-experimental design. Pregnant women are eligible to participate if they are (1) <37 weeks gestation, (2) admitted to the antenatal inpatient unit for >72 hours, (3) able to speak and read English or be willing to use a translation service to assist with completion of the questionnaires and intervention, (4) able to complete follow-up email questionnaires, (5) >16 years of age, and (6) not actively suicidal. Women admitted to the unit for induction (eg, <72-hour length of stay) are excluded. A minimum sample of 54 women will be recruited from the antenatal high-risk unit of a large, urban tertiary care hospital. All women will complete a Web-based psychosocial assessment and 6 Web-based CBT modules. Results of the psychosocial assessment will be used by a Web-based clinical decision support system to generate a clinical risk score and clinician prompts to provide recommendations for the best treatment and referral options. The primary outcome is self-reported prenatal depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment. Secondary outcomes are postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms; self-efficacy; mastery; self-esteem; sleep; relationship quality; coping; resilience; Apgar score; gestational age; birth weight; maternal-infant attachment; infant behavior and development; parenting stress/competence at 3

  13. Acne in hirsute women

    PubMed Central

    Pupovci, Hatixhe Latifi; Berisha, Violeta Lokaj; Goçi, Aferdita Uka; Gerqari, Antigona

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acne and hirsutism are common manifestations of hyperandrogenism. Aim To investigate whether or not acne is present in women with hirsutism, associated with different clinical, endocrine and ultrasonographic features. Material and methods The prospective study included 135 women with hirsutism, aged 14–46 years. We measured the levels of hormones with radioimmunoassay/immunoradiometric assay methods. Results Acne were present in 63 (47.6%) women with hirsutism. Sixty women had mild forms of acne, including: whiteheads, blackheads, papules and pustules. Only 3 women had moderate to severe acne, including nodules. In a group of women with hirsutism and acne, 6 (9.5%) were obese. In our study we found a high prevalence of androgen excess among hirsute women with acne: total testosterone was increased in 79%, free testosterone in 20.6%, androstenedione in 69.8%, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in 30.1%, 17-OH-progesterone 68.2% and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was decreased in 33.3% of women. Women with hirsutism and acne have received oral contraceptives for a year, without or in a combination with other medication. Thirty-four (53.9%) women have shown improvement in hirsutism and acne. Conclusions In this study we found a high prevalence of acne in hirsute women. The prevalence of acne was higher in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Since these women have associated endocrine changes it is important to correct them with hormonal therapy. PMID:25610349

  14. Gender Differences in Treatment-Seeking British Pathological Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Lutri, Vittorio; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-06-01

    Background and aim Gambling is a widespread recreational activity in the UK. A significant percentage of gamblers develop subclinical or clinically relevant problem gambling issues, but only a low percentage of them seek treatment. Although characteristics of pathological gamblers from treatment-seeking population have been examined in some research, only a few studies have explored the differences between females and males. This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demographics, gambling measures, and clinical variables in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Methods A total of 1,178 treatment-seeking individuals with gambling disorder were assessed at the National Problem Gambling Clinic in London. Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical variables, and gambling behavior habits were obtained during the assessment evaluation. Of the total sample, 92.5% were males and 7.5% were females. Results Males were more likely to be younger, white, and employed than females. In addition, compared to women, men showed a lower PGSI score, an earlier age of onset of gambling behavior, a higher gambling involvement, and preferred specific forms gambling. Female gamblers were more anxious and depressed, while men were more likely to use alcohol and illicit drugs. Conclusions Our findings support the importance of gender differences in a treatment-seeking population of pathological gamblers both in sociodemographic characteristics, gambling behavior variables, and clinical variables. Males and females might benefit from group-specific treatment. PMID:27348561

  15. An exploration of rural and urban Kenyan women's knowledge and attitudes regarding breast cancer and breast cancer early detection measures.

    PubMed

    Muthoni, Ann; Miller, Ann Neville

    2010-09-01

    Many women in Kenya with breast cancer symptoms do not seek medical attention until their cancer is very advanced, leading to high mortality rates and a heavy cancer burden on the nation. In this study we employed eight focus groups with low- and middle-income rural and urban Kenyan women to explore their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors concerning breast cancer and its early detection measures. Topics for discussion were derived from the components of the Health Belief Model (HBM). Findings revealed a huge divide between urban middle-income women and all other groups with respect to knowledge of breast cancer and early detection measures. In addition, women viewed breast cancer as a highly severe disease. Perceived benefits of early detection measures centered around preparing themselves for what was assumed to be inevitable death. PMID:20677038

  16. Teachers Seek Specialized Peer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassini, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Within the wide expanse of social networking, educators appear to be gravitating to more protected and exclusive spaces. While teachers often use such popular mainstream social networks as Facebook, they are more likely to seek out and return to less-established networks that offer the privacy, peer-to-peer connections, and resource sharing that…

  17. Stage 2--Information Seeking Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsenberg, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    A brief overview of one Big6 stage by Mike Eisenberg, followed by articles by two exemplary Big6 teachers, Barbara Jansen and Rob Darrow, offering practical uses of the Big6 in elementary and secondary situations is presented. The two-part nature of information seeking strategies that includes brainstorming and choosing is emphasized.

  18. Information Seeking in Electronic Encyclopedias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchionini, Gary

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the process involved in information seeking focuses on studies of high school students that were conducted to determine how mental models for a print encyclopedia are adapted to a full-text electronic encyclopedia. Three case studies are analyzed, and recommendations for designers of electronic encyclopedias and instructional…

  19. Peer influences within the campus environment on help seeking related to violence.

    PubMed

    Amar, Angela Frederick; Sutherland, Melissa; Laughon, Kathryn; Bess, Renee; Stockbridge, Jennifer

    2012-07-01

    While partner violence and sexual assault are public health concerns affecting college women, most young women do not seek help after the experience. Limited research explores the interpersonal context of help seeking related to violence in young women. The overall purpose of this research was to understand peer factors within a campus culture associated with seeking help in response to violence within a campus environment. Eight focus groups were held with 64 participants representing a broad spectrum of diversity in race and ethnicity. Narrative analysis was the primary method of analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: victim blaming, fear of direct response, and the alcohol factor. The young women's stories demonstrate the effects of friends and campus culture on perceptions of violence and abuse and help seeking. Findings suggest that peers and the social norms of the campus environment influence help-seeking behavior. An understanding of interpersonal level determinants of help seeking is essential for clinically relevant and effective prevention efforts. Nurse practitioners in campus health settings can use this research to guide assessment, intervention, and prevention strategies. PMID:23061163

  20. Medical Veteran Utilization Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan (Robert R.) Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to encourage policy makers, administrators, and personnel officers in hospitals and other health facilities to recruit and hire the thousands of well-trained, experienced men and women who leave the military medical services each year. The document lists the advantages to the medical institution when employing medically…

  1. A Standardized Kudzu Extract (NPI-031) Reduces Alcohol Consumption in Non Treatment-Seeking Male Heavy Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Lukas, Scott E.; Penetar, David; Su, Zhaohui; Geaghan, Thomas; Maywalt, Melissa; Tracy, Michael; Rodolico, John; Palmer, Christopher; Ma, Zhongze; Lee, David Y.-W.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We previously demonstrated that short-term treatment with a standardized kudzu extract (NPI-031) reduced alcohol drinking by men and women in a natural setting. The present study was conducted in non treatment-seeking heavy drinkers to assess the safety and efficacy of four weeks of kudzu extract in an outpatient setting. METHOD This randomized between-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involved two weeks of baseline, four weeks of treatment and two weeks of follow-up. Seventeen men (21–33 years) who reported drinking 27.6 ± 6.5 drinks/week with a diagnosis of alcohol abuse/dependence took either kudzu extract (250 mg isoflavones, t.i.d.) or matched placebo on a daily basis. They reported alcohol consumption and desire to use alcohol using a wrist actigraphy device; twice weekly laboratory visits were scheduled to monitor medication adherence and adverse events. RESULTS Medication adherence was excellent and there were no adverse events, changes in vital signs, blood chemistry, renal or liver function. There was no effect on alcohol craving, but kudzu extract significantly reduced the number of drinks consumed each week by 34–57%, reduced the number of heavy drinking days and significantly increased the percent of days abstinent and the number of consecutive days of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS A standardized formulation of kudzu extract produced minimal side effects, was well-tolerated and resulted in a modest reduction in alcohol consumption in young non treatment-seeking heavy drinkers. Additional studies using treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent persons will be necessary to determine the usefulness of this herbal preparation in reducing alcohol use in other populations. PMID:23070022

  2. Addressing violence against older women.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Domestic abuse is widespread and indiscriminate, causing health-related concerns and mental health issues in older women. Research suggests their needs are not met by existing services. This article examines physical and mental health issues faced by older women as a result of abusive relationships, and the barriers that exist to seeking help. Healthcare professionals can facilitate therapeutic engagement of older women living with domestic abuse. Refuges and related interventions are limited, but developing a stepped approach, tailored to older women's needs, could help. PMID:27369732

  3. Nurses and care of women seeking abortions, 1971 to 2011.

    PubMed

    McLemore, Monica; Levi, Amy

    2011-01-01

    In its first issue in 1972, JOGNN published a review article reporting surveillance data about abortions in the United States (Bourne, Kahn, Conger, & Tyler, 1972). This historical article predated Roe v. Wade, the U.S. Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion. Since this landmark decision, numerous articles have addressed nurses' role in abortion care. We review current literature on nurses and abortion care and use thematic categories to highlight areas of investigation. PMID:22273447

  4. Rabies Exposure: When Should I Seek Medical Attention?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008 Rabies in Domestic Animals, 1958-2008 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States, 2008 Rabid Dogs ... Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid ...

  5. A Study of Information-Seeking Behaviors and Processes of New Zealand Men during Periods of Life-Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellstead, Peta

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand men have poor health outcomes in a range of domains compared to women. They also report barriers (both personal and structural) in their information-seeking behaviors and processes to improve health and wellbeing. This paper reports a research project in progress that is investigating the information-seeking behaviors and processes of…

  6. Patients' Experiences of Seeking Health Care for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Taubenberger, Simone; Tennstedt, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    A gap between experiencing symptoms and receiving effective treatment persists for people with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), even for those who seek health care. In order to better understand how patients experience treatment seeking for LUTS, we interviewed a racially diverse sample of 90 men and women with a range of LUTS about their experiences seeking care. Thematic analysis revealed that patients often disclosed urinary symptoms first to primary care providers during a general examination or a visit for another health problem. Patients seek provider assistance typically when symptoms have intensified or are causing worry, and a desire for treatment trumps potential embarrassment; among women patients, feeling comfortable with a provider also is important for disclosing LUTS. PMID:21898454

  7. Preventive health care for older women: life-style recommendations and new directions.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, L; Benvenuti, E; Bartali, B; Bandinelli, S; Di Iorio, A; Russo, C R; Lauretani, F

    2000-04-01

    One of the key paradoxes in gerontology is that, despite a higher longevity, aging women experience worse health and longer disability than men. However, there is growing evidence that changes in life-style, medical interventions and systematic screening for certain diseases may substantially reduce the excess risk of major chronic conditions and disability in aging women, and therefore improve the quality of their late life. The potentials and public health implications of prevention in older women have been recently emphasized, not only by the scientific literature, but also by the media. More and more women are turning to their primary care physicians or other health professionals to seek counselling and help on how to reduce the burden of chronic disease and disability in old age by quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, increasing physical activity, and coping with stress. Hormone replacement therapy also has a central role in this action of prevention. To maximize compliance, women should be provided a few guidelines that are easy to understand, and can be followed without interfering too much with their daily life activities. This article reviews the current literature on prevention in older women to select preventive strategies that are based on robust scientific evidence. This list of guidelines should be considered as a starting point for all those who are in charge of caring for middle-aged and older women. PMID:10902053

  8. Sexual violence against women is a weapon of war. Special feature -- mothers as refugees.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Rape is recognized as a crime of war. During armed conflict in Bosnia, it was deliberate policy to rape young women to force them to bear the enemy's child. During conflicts in Rwanda, rape was systematically used as a weapon of ethnic cleansing aimed at destroying communities. The national population office in Rwanda estimates that 2000-5000 infants were born as a result of such rape. The general decline in women's health, and in their reproductive health in particular, were two consequences of the wars in Bosnia and Rwanda. Women and girls suffered most from the violence. Systematic rape also has a terrible effect upon women's physical and mental health, including pregnancy-related complications, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and death as a result of induced abortion. Fear of social stigma associated with being raped discourages women who have been raped from seeking help or treatment. Moreover, most women who have been raped have difficulty re-establishing intimate relations, while others desire to bear many more children in order to compensate for children lost during the war. Finally, even women who are not raped during times of conflict may find it necessary to have sex with men in order to secure food, shelter, safe conduct, and/or refugee status for themselves and their children. Health services available to people with injuries or STDs need to be better equipped to provide medical care and counseling. PMID:12321081

  9. Women and medicine.

    PubMed

    Dacre, Jane; Shepherd, Susan

    2010-12-01

    It is now clear that women doctors will soon make up the majority of the medical workforce. Research shows that women often prefer part time and flexible working, and are inclined to favour some specialist fields over others. Although these facts are widely known, as yet it appears that little account has been taken of their economic and organisational consequences. All doctors require sound careers advice, but women doctors reported that this is often poor or inconsistent. Women's preference for flexible working at certain stages of their careers could be a major advantage in health service planning; models need to be developed that recognise women's willingness to work in new ways. Although women are under-represented in positions of national leadership, there is no evidence to suggest that they are disadvantaged in their endeavours, or unwilling to deliver the commitment necessary. However, they may need timely advice and encouragement to reach their full potential. PMID:21413474

  10. Contraceptive Provision in the VA Healthcare System to Women Who Report Military Sexual Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mattocks, Kristin; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Borrero, Sonya; Skanderson, Melissa; Zephyrin, Laurie; Brandt, Cynthia; Haskell, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Women Veterans who suffered military sexual trauma (MST) may be at high risk for unintended pregnancy and benefit from contraceptive services. The objective of this study is to compare documented provision of contraceptives to women Veterans using the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health system who report or deny MST. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included women Veterans aged 18–45 years who served in Operation Enduring or Iraqi Freedom and had at least one visit to a VA medical center between 2002 and 2010. Data were obtained from VA administrative and clinical databases. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were conducted to evaluate the association between MST, ascertained by routine clinical screening, and first documented receipt of hormonal or long-acting contraception. Results: Of 68,466 women Veterans, 13% reported, 59% denied and 28% had missing data for the MST screen. Among the entire study cohort, 30% of women had documented receipt of a contraceptive method. Women reporting MST were significantly more likely than those denying MST to receive a method of contraception (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–1.18) including an intrauterine device (odds ratio [OR] 1.29, 95% CI 1.17–1.41) or contraceptive injection (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05–1.29). Women who were younger, unmarried, seen at a women's health clinic, or who had more than one visit were more likely to receive contraception. Conclusions: A minority of women Veterans of reproductive age receive contraceptive services from the VA. Women Veterans who report MST, and particularly those who seek care at VA women's health clinics, are more likely to receive contraception. PMID:24787680

  11. Providing Young Women with Credible Health Information about Bleeding Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rhynders, Patricia A.; Sayers, Cynthia A.; Presley, Rodney J.; Thierry, JoAnn M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 1% of U.S. women may have an undiagnosed bleeding disorder, which can diminish quality of life and lead to life-threatening complications during menstruation, childbirth, and surgery. Purpose To understand young women’s knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about bleeding disorders and determine the preferred messaging strategy (e.g., gain- versus loss-framed messages) for presenting information. Methods In September 2010, a web-assisted personal interview of women aged 18–25 years was conducted. Preliminary analyses were conducted in 2011 with final analyses in 2013. In total, 1,243 women participated. Knowledge of blood disorders was tabulated for these respondents. Menstrual experiences of women at risk for a bleeding disorder were compared with those not at risk using chi-square analyses. Perceived influence of gain- versus loss-framed messages also was compared. Results Participants knew that a bleeding disorder is a condition in which bleeding takes a long time to stop (77%) or blood does not clot (66%). Of the women, 57% incorrectly thought that a bleeding disorder is characterized by thin blood; many were unsure if bleeding disorders involve blood types, not getting a period, or mother and fetus having a different blood type. Women at risk for a bleeding disorder were significantly more likely to report that menstruation interfered with daily activities (36% vs 9%); physical or sports activities (46% vs 21%); social activities (29% vs 7%); and school or work activities (20% vs 9%) than women not at risk. Gain-framed messages were significantly more likely to influence women’s decisions to seek medical care than parallel loss-framed messages. Findings suggest that the most influential messages focus on knowing effective treatment is available (86% gain-framed vs 77% loss-framed); preventing pregnancy complications (79% gain- vs 71% loss-framed); and maintaining typical daily activities during menstrual periods. Conclusions Lack

  12. "I am nothing": experiences of loss among women suffering from severe birth injuries in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the increased attention on maternal mortality during recent decades, which has resulted in maternal health being defined as a Millennium Development Goal (MDG), the disability and suffering from obstetric fistula remains a neglected issue in global health. Continuous leaking of urine and the physical, emotional and social suffering associated with it, has a profound impact on women's quality of life. This study seeks to explore the physical, cultural and psychological dimensions of living with obstetric fistula, and demonstrate how these experiences shape the identities of women affected by the condition. Methods A cross-sectional study with qualitative and quantitative components was used to explore the experiences of Tanzanian women living with obstetric fistula and those of their husbands. The study was conducted at the Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania hospital in Dar es Salaam, Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, and Mpwapwa district, in Dodoma region. Conveniently selected samples of 16 women were interviewed, and 151 additional women responded to a questionnaire. In addition, 12 women affected by obstetric fistula and six husbands of these affected women participated in a focus group discussions. Data were analysed using content data analysis framework and statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 15 for Microsoft windows. Results The study revealed a deep sense of loss. Loss of body control, loss of the social roles as women and wives, loss of integration in social life, and loss of dignity and self-worth were located at the core of these experiences. Conclusion The women living with obstetric fistula experience a deep sense of loss that had negative impact on their identity and quality of life. Acknowledging affected women's real-life experiences is important in order to understand the occurrence and management of obstetric fistula, as well as prospects after treatment. This knowledge will help to

  13. Nurse versus physician-provision of early medical abortion in Mexico: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial

    PubMed Central

    Ganatra, Bela; Sorhaindo, Annik; Karver, Tahilin S; Seuc, Armando; Villalobos, Aremis; García, Sandra G; Pérez, Martha; Bousieguez, Manuel; Sanhueza, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the effectiveness, safety, and acceptability of nurse provision of early medical abortion compared to physicians at three facilities in Mexico City. Methods We conducted a randomized non-inferiority trial on the provision of medical abortion and contraceptive counselling by physicians or nurses. The participants were pregnant women seeking abortion at a gestational duration of 70 days or less. The medical abortion regimen was 200 mg of oral mifepristone taken on-site followed by 800 μg of misoprostol self–administered buccally at home 24 hours later. Women were instructed to return to the clinic for follow-up 7–15 days later. We did an intention-to-treat analysis for risk differences between physicians’ and nurses’ provision for completion and the need for surgical intervention. Findings Of 1017 eligible women, 884 women were included in the intention-to-treat analysis, 450 in the physician-provision arm and 434 in the nurse-provision arm. Women who completed medical abortion, without the need for surgical intervention, were 98.4% (443/450) for physicians’ provision and 97.9% (425/434) for nurses’ provision. The risk difference between the group was 0.5% (95% confidence interval, CI: −1.2% to 2.3%). There were no differences between providers for examined gestational duration or women’s contraceptive method uptake. Both types of providers were rated by the women as highly acceptable. Conclusion Nurses’ provision of medical abortion is as safe, acceptable and effective as provision by physicians in this setting. Authorizing nurses to provide medical abortion can help to meet the demand for safe abortion services. PMID:26229189

  14. Promoting women's health.

    PubMed

    Doyal, L

    1991-01-01

    The male-dominated medical establishment continues to make health promotion policies for women. Women must have access to a more accurate information base about women's health and the link between their health and socioeconomic roles. They must be full partners in formulating and implementing health promotion strategies. Yet, such a database does not exist due to systemic bias in research. For example, research shows alcoholism affects men and women differently, but prevention and treatment strategies and evaluation of their outcomes do not take this into account. Further, men do not understand subjective aspects of female conditions. In addition, even though women provide most care in our society, health promotion policies do not incorporate their knowledge. Moreover, care of the sick can damage the health of the care giver. Statistics on women's health are lacking, e.g., exhaustion and depression as consequences of child care and housework, especially among poor women. Developed countries continue to use maternal mortality as a means of measuring reproductive hazard, but maternal death is a rarity. In fact, a reproductive mortality rate would be more applicable, which would include deaths from abortions, pregnancy, and contraception. Besides, birth control has real disadvantages, e.g., a painful medical procedure is needed to insert IUDs and they increase the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease. Paid employment has positive and negative effects depending on whether women are alone or have a partner and have children, their income, and educational level. Women in industry face considerable health hazards, e.g., textile workers at increased risk of several lung diseases. Appropriate expenditure on health and social services and sound economic policies at the central level will benefit women's health. Besides, when society values and supports all aspects of women's work and roles, women's health will achieve its potential. PMID:1817541

  15. Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Patient Delay Among Women With Breast Cancer in Rural India.

    PubMed

    Gangane, Nitin; Anshu; Manvatkar, Shiva; Ng, Nawi; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastián, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Delay in seeking health care by women with breast cancer increases mortality risk. This study was conducted in rural India to identify risk factors associated with patient delay. A total of 212 women with primary breast cancer diagnosed between 2010 and 2012 were interviewed. Sociodemographic characteristics, time interval between seeking medical attention and appearance of symptoms, and reasons for delay were inquired. Patient delay was defined as more than 3 months between date of first symptoms and medical consultation. Logistic regression was applied to assess associations between potential risk factors and patient delay. Almost half the women with breast cancer experienced patient delay. Age more than 60 years (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-18.0) was significantly associated with patient delay. Only 6.6% of patients had heard about breast self-examination. Significantly higher number of patients with delay presented with advanced clinical stage (P = .000). Health education programs should be introduced with specific strategies to shorten patient delay. PMID:26658324

  17. Factors associated with retention and viral suppression among a cohort of HIV+ women of color.

    PubMed

    Blank, Arthur E; Fletcher, Jason; Verdecias, Niko; Garcia, Iliana; Blackstock, Oni; Cunningham, Chinazo

    2015-01-01

    Access to sustained HIV medical care is critical to achieving viral suppression. However, a variety of factors may impede or facilitate retention in care or becoming virally suppressed. Though retention and suppression are often treated separately, this study examined both in a cohort of 921 HIV+ women of color who participated in eight demonstration programs across the US. For women who met the inclusion criteria, 83% (n = 587) were retained and 73% (n = 357) were virally suppressed. Average age of women retained was 40.9, and 41.9 for those virally suppressed. The majority were African American/Black or Hispanic/Latina, single, and had no children less than 18 years of age, had health insurance, a high school degree or higher, were stably housed, and unemployed. Some factors associated with retention in care were indecision about seeking HIV medical care (AOR = 0.42) and having children under the age of 18 (AOR = 0.59). Some factors associated with being virally suppressed were living with others (AOR = 0.58), current substance abuse (AOR = 0.38), and fair/poor health (AOR = 0.40). Th