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1

Mexican women seeking safe abortion services in San Diego, California.  

PubMed

Except for in Mexico City, abortion is legally restricted throughout Mexico, and unsafe abortion is prevalent. We surveyed 1,516 women seeking abortions in San Diego, California. Of these, 87 women (5.7%) self-identified as Mexican residents. We performed in-depth interviews with 17 of these women about their experiences seeking abortions in California. The Mexican women interviewed were generally well-educated and lived near the U.S.-Mexican border; most sought care in the United States due to mistrust of services in Mexico, and the desire to access mifepristone, a drug registered in the United States for early medical abortion. Several reported difficulties obtaining health care in Mexico or reentering the United States when they had postabortion complications. Several areas for improvement were identified, including outreach to clinics in Mexico. PMID:23066967

Grossman, Daniel; Garcia, Sandra G; Kingston, Jessica; Schweikert, Suzanne

2012-01-01

2

Women Who Seek Abortions: A Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When New York State's abortion laws were liberalized in 1970, there was a sharp rise in the number of clinic patients who requested abortions. Because social workers at Mount Sinai Medical Center believed that abortion still is an emotional risk for many women, a study was conducted to determine which patients needed intensive counseling. (Author)

Young, Alma T.; And Others

1973-01-01

3

Help-seeking in a national sample of victimized Latino women: the influence of victimization types.  

PubMed

The current study aimed to examine formal and informal help-seeking responses to interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino women. In addition, an examination of help-seeking by victimization type was undertaken. Data came from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study that obtained help-seeking rates among a victimized subsample of Latino women (n = 714; 35.7% of a national sample). Results show a majority (76.6%) of the victimized participants engaged in some form of help-seeking with informal resources (68.9%) more often used than formal (32.5%). Medical attention was the type of formal help-seeking sought most often among victimized women who were injured (34.7%), and parents were the most common source of informal help-seeking (26.6%). However, logistic regression analyses show that help-seeking responses were significantly affected by type of victimization. Latino women who experienced childhood victimization were significantly less likely to engage in formal and informal help-seeking. Latino women who experienced stalking were significantly less likely to engage in formal help-seeking. Victimization with a weapon was significantly related to increased odds of formal help-seeking. Thus, women respond to violence in a way that is shaped by the dynamics of the victimization experience. Practice implications include the need to increase knowledge and availability of formal help-seeking venues. PMID:21859753

Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schally, Jennifer L

2012-01-01

4

Women in Medical School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the characteristics of women in non-traditional fields, e.g., medicine, has yielded complex information in terms of adherence to sex-role stereotypes. To determine whether students' attitudes toward helping and achieving followed sex-role typing and were different at various stages in medical school, 384 male and female oncology…

Bean, Glynis; Kidder, Louise H.

5

Women's help seeking for intimate partner violence in Jordan.  

PubMed

Little is known about Jordanian women's help seeking for intimate partner violence (IPV), despite local and international investment in victim services. Using a clinic based survey (n = 517; response rate 70%) and focus group discussions (FGDs, n = 17) we explored Jordanian women's nonfamily help seeking for physical or sexual IPV. We evaluated survey data using bivariate and multivariate regression and examined FGD transcripts using open coding methodology. Nonfamily help seeking was uncommon, an option only in serious circumstances after familial help was ineffective, and correlated with violence severity and relative violence. Nonfamily resources are underutilized but critical for vulnerable Jordanian women. PMID:23998703

Spencer, Rachael A; Shahrouri, Manal; Halasa, Louma; Khalaf, Inaam; Clark, Cari Jo

2014-01-01

6

Indications for Seeking a Medical Consultation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing barriers to academic success and full student development, some of which are medical in nature, is a primary task of school psychologists. Expanding biomedical information compels school-based psychologists to collaborate with medical professionals when their input can clarify diagnostic issues and expand treatment choices. This…

Wodrich, David L.; Kaplan, Allen M.

2006-01-01

7

Seeking HIV prevention strategies for women.  

PubMed

Women are biologically more susceptible to HIV infection than men through heterosexual penile-vaginal intercourse, and transmission by heterosexual means seems to be increasing. The use of male condoms and partner reduction are currently recommended to reduce the risk of contracting and transmitting HIV. Women can, however, only indirectly influence these behaviors. Many face social and emotional factors which make it impossible to negotiate condom use with an unwilling partner. Scientists are therefore paying greater attention to female barrier methods such as the female condom and spermicides as potential female- controlled ways to help women avoid infection. Noncontraceptive chemical methods in the form of jellies and topical creams are being explored. Limited in vivo scientific data exists on how these methods may prevent the transmission of HIV. The female condom is a thin, plastic sheath which covers the cervix, vagina, and women's external genitalia. It has gone to clinical trials in 1700 women at 71 sites. While many women are in favor of the method, objections to its use have been voiced due to its appearance, the noise made during intercourse, slippage, how it feels during intercourse, expense, reduced sensitivity, and embarrassment. Its potential for re-use must be explored. Only inconclusive results are available on the effectiveness of spermicides. While lab and animal research show nonoxynol-9 can kill HIV, it remains to be seen how much or how often it may be used before mucosal linings become irritated and potentially facilitate the entry of HIV. Many unresolved questions about the mechanics of HIV infection remain to be answered before these methods may be fully endorsed by a wide array of scientists. PMID:12344882

Townsend, S

1993-05-01

8

African American Women's Beliefs, Coping Behaviors, and Barriers to Seeking Mental Health Services  

PubMed Central

Little is known about African American women's beliefs about mental illness. In this qualitative study we employed the Common Sense Model (CSM) to examine African American women's beliefs about mental illness, coping behaviors, barriers to treatment seeking, and variations in beliefs, coping, and barriers associated with aging. Fifteen community-dwelling African American women participated in individual interviews. Dimensional analysis, guided by the CSM, showed that participants believed general, culturally specific, and age-related factors can cause mental illness. They believed mental illness is chronic, with negative health outcomes. Participants endorsed the use of prayer and counseling as coping strategies, but were ambivalent about the use of medications. Treatment-seeking barriers included poor access to care, stigma, and lack of awareness of mental illness. Few age differences were found in beliefs, coping behaviors, and barriers. Practice and research implications are discussed.

Ward, Earlise C.; Clark, Le Ondra; Heidrich, Susan

2010-01-01

9

African American Women's beliefs, coping behaviors, and barriers to seeking mental health services.  

PubMed

Little is known about African American women's beliefs about mental illness. In this qualitative study we employed the Common Sense Model (CSM) to examine African American women's beliefs about mental illness, coping behaviors, barriers to treatment seeking, and variations in beliefs, coping, and barriers associated with aging. Fifteen community-dwelling African American women participated in individual interviews. Dimensional analysis, guided by the CSM, showed that participants believed general, culturally specific, and age-related factors can cause mental illness. They believed mental illness is chronic, with negative health outcomes. Participants endorsed the use of prayer and counseling as coping strategies, but were ambivalent about the use of medications. Treatment-seeking barriers included poor access to care, stigma, and lack of awareness of mental illness. Few age differences were found in beliefs, coping behaviors, and barriers. Practice and research implications are discussed. PMID:19843967

Ward, Earlise C; Clark, Le Ondra; Heidrich, Susan

2009-11-01

10

The importance of job characteristics in determining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population, a longitudinal survey study  

PubMed Central

Background The working population is ageing, which will increase the number of workers with chronic health complaints, and, as a consequence, the number of workers seeking health care. It is very important to understand factors that influence medical care-seeking in order to control the costs. I will investigate which work characteristics independently attribute to later care-seeking in order to find possibilities to prevent unnecessary or inefficient care-seeking. Methods Data were collected in a longitudinal two-wave study (n?=?2305 workers). The outcome measures were visits (yes/no and frequency) to a general practitioner (GP), a physical therapist, a medical specialist and/or a mental health professional. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out separately for men and women for workers with health complaints. Results In the Dutch working population, personal, health, and work characteristics, but not sickness absence, were associated with later care-seeking. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the frequency of visits to the GP. Women experience more health complaints and seek health care more often than men. For women, experiencing a work handicap (health complaints that impede work performance) was the only work characteristic associated with more care-seeking (GP). For men, work characteristics that led to less care-seeking were social support by colleagues (GP frequency), high levels of decision latitude (GP frequency) and high levels of social support by the supervisor (medical specialist). Other work characteristics led to more care-seeking: high levels of engagement (GP), full time work (GP frequency) and experiencing a work handicap (physical therapist). Conclusions We can conclude that personal and health characteristics are most important when explaining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the frequency of visits to the GP. The association between work characteristics and later medical care-seeking differed between health care providers and between men and women. If we aim at reducing health care costs for workers by preventing unnecessary or inefficient care, it is important to reduce the number of workers that report that health complaints impede their work performance. The supervisor could provide more social support, closely monitor workload in combination with work pressure and decision latitude, and when possible help to adjust working conditions. Health care providers could reduce medical costs by taking the work relatedness of health complaints into account and act accordingly, by decreasing the time to referral and waiting lists, and by providing appropriate care and avoiding unnecessary or harmful care.

2012-01-01

11

Survey of the Situation of Infertile Women Seeking In Vitro Fertilization Treatment in China  

PubMed Central

Background. In previous studies, people's knowledge of reproductive health and infertile women's psychological states was surveyed in several countries. However, there has been limited information concerning the psychological states of infertile women seeking treatment and the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in China. Methods. Infertile women were asked to complete short questionnaires on the day that their oocytes were retrieved; these questionnaires covered the durations of their infertility, levels of education, sources of pressure, and psychological states. Data concerning IVF outcomes were provided by embryologists and clinicians. The correlations between the duration of infertility and educational level, psychological state and education level, and psychological state and outcome of IVF were analyzed in the cohort study. Results. The duration of infertility in more than half of the females was longer than 5 years. Compared with less-educated women, women with higher levels of education sought treatment earlier and their rates of depressive symptoms were lower. There is an association between negative emotions and outcome of IVF. Conclusions. The survey of the situations of infertile women seeking IVF treatment in China indicates the importance of popularizing knowledge concerning reproductive health. Improving medical conditions, reducing the costs of treatment, and developing social culture will aid in relieving the stress of infertile women and improving assisted reproductive treatment.

Jin, Xuan; Wang, Gongxian; Liu, Sisun; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Fang; Qiu, Yun; Huang, Xiaojin

2013-01-01

12

Women's satisfaction with medical termination.  

PubMed

One hundred women aged between 14 and 43 completed a questionnaire regarding their experience and satisfaction with medical termination of pregnancy at Bedford Hospital. A visual analogue score from 0-10 was used. Age, occupation, marital status, parity, previous terminations and awareness of the medical method were recorded. Additional comments were also invited. Overall satisfaction with the method was good, with a mean score of 8.19 and women were very appreciative of the care given by nursing staff. Counselling and choice of method offered scored less well and need improvement. Eighty five per cent of this sample had already had a previous termination of pregnancy, with 30 per cent having had two or more, indicating a need for improved contraceptive counselling both before and after the termination. PMID:10228242

Maaita, M E; Prasarman, C; Smith, J; Neale, E J

1999-04-01

13

Is battered women's help seeking connected to the level of their abuse?  

PubMed Central

A total of 289 abused women who sought assistance in several battered women's agencies were interviewed. Of these abused women, 70 percent reported a delay of more than a year in seeking help from the agency, even though many of them reported having experienced severe or life threatening abuse. There was no association between the severity of abuse and the time lapsed in seeking help from an agency, indicating that women exposed to severe, life-threatening physical abuse frequently delay help seeking. Increased attention to barrier to help seeking among battered women and approaches to increasing the accessibility of services for battered women seem warranted.

Reidy, R; Von Korff, M

1991-01-01

14

Clinical features of olfactory disorders in patients seeking medical consultation  

PubMed Central

Background Olfactory disorders are common complaints in ENT clinics. We investigated causes and relevant features of olfactory disorders and the need for gustatory testing in patients with olfactory dysfunction. Material/Methods A total of 140 patients seeking medical consultations were enrolled. All patients were asked about their olfactory disorders in a structured interview of medical history and underwent thorough otolaryngologic examinations and imaging of the head. Results Causes of olfactory disorders were classified as: upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), sinonasal diseases (NSD), head trauma, idiopathic, endoscopic sinus surgery, congenital anosmia, and other causes. Each of the various causes of olfactory dysfunction had its own distinct clinical features. Nineteen of 54 patients whose gustation was assessed had gustatory disorders. Conclusions The leading causes of olfactory dysfunction were URTI, NSD, head trauma, and idiopathic causes. Gustatory disorders were fairly common in patients with olfactory dysfunction. High priority should be given to complaints of olfactory disorders.

Chen, Guowei; Wei, Yongxiang; Miao, Xutao; Li, Kunyan; Ren, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jia

2013-01-01

15

Relationship between English Language Use and Preferences for Involvement in Medical Care among Hispanic Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess how English language use by Hispanic women affects their preferences for participating in decision making and information seeking regarding medical care. Methods: The study included 235 Hispanic women aged 35-61 years participating in a larger multicenter study, the Ethnicity, Needs, and Decisions of Women (ENDOW) Project. Participants were recruited from community settings and primary care public health

Guillermo Tortolero-Luna; Theresa Byrd; Janet Y. Groff; Adriana C. Linares; Patricia D. Mullen; Scott B. Cantor

2006-01-01

16

Pill method failures in women seeking abortion: fourteen years experience.  

PubMed

Predisposing factors to oral contraceptive (OC) failure in reliable pill takers were investigated in a survey of 769 women who presented to Wellington (New Zealand) Hospital in 1981-95 for induced abortion. More than one predisposing factor was found in the majority of cases of pill failure. The highest percentage (37%) of pill failures occurred in women 20-24 years of age. The most common risk factor was diarrhea and/or vomiting, present around the time of conception in 39% of women. Another 21% took antibiotics during this period. Menstrual disturbance prior to the pregnancy occurred in 37.1%--a rate higher than that expected from studies of pill use. A history of previous pill failure was present in 27.8%. Smoking was a risk factor in users of combined OCs. 33.7% of women using the progestogen-only pill and 34.2% of combined OC users were under severe stress at the time pregnancy occurred. As expected, progestogen-only pill users experienced a higher rate of failure relative to the market share, but excess weight and the time of pill taking were not risk factors. These findings suggest a need for careful counseling about the potential of gastrointestinal illness and interacting medications to compromise pill effectiveness. PMID:9830420

Sparrow, M J

1998-10-01

17

Medical problem attributes and information-seeking questions.  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to explore the relationship between certain attributes of a diagnostic problem and a particular information-seeking question. Using case vignettes under experimental conditions, fifty residents in internal medicine and family practice informed the experimenter of the most important thing they would need to know to make a preliminary diagnosis. These data were classified nominally using a preexisting taxonomy. Significant results indicated that Quantification questions tend to be asked under urgent conditions and Verification questions tend to be asked when the least amount of information is presented. While the taxonomy used to classify the questions did not prove rich enough to describe information needs fully, results did suggest some consistency in question asking, a skill that could be developed further during medical education.

Stavri, P Z

1996-01-01

18

Help-Seeking in a National Sample of Victimized Latino Women: The Influence of Victimization Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study aimed to examine formal and informal help-seeking responses to interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino women. In addition, an examination of help-seeking by victimization type was undertaken. Data came from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study that obtained help-seeking rates among a victimized…

Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schally, Jennifer L.

2012-01-01

19

Black Women in the African Diaspora Seeking Their Cultural Heritage through Studying Abroad.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeks to identify the perceptions of African American women toward a study abroad program in West Africa and to make recommendations to increase their participation. Argues that study abroad programs provide opportunities for Black women and African women to learn about each other and share experiences that empower Black women who question their…

Morgan, Rose M.; Mwegelo, Desideria T.; Turner, Laura N.

2002-01-01

20

Seeking Medical Help for Sexual Concerns in Mid and Later Life: A Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research consistently reports that older people tend not to seek medical help for sexual concerns or difficulties. This article reviews the literature to examine help-seeking for, and doctor–patient interactions about, sexual problems in the middle and later life age groups. Twenty-five articles from 1999 to 2010 were identified and analyzed. Significant barriers to seeking medical help included psychosocial factors relating

Sharron Hinchliff; Merryn Gott

2011-01-01

21

Demographics and health care seeking behavior of Singaporean women with chronic constipation: implications for therapeutic management  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic constipation is significantly more prevalent in women than men in Singapore. We carried out a survey to study patient demographics, symptom prevalence, healthcare-seeking behavior, and patient satisfaction with available treatment options in women with chronic constipation. Methods Responses were collected predominantly via a web-based survey from a panel representative of Singapore’s women population. Eligibility was established using a nine-question screener. Results A total of 1006 invited females took part in an online screener survey, of which 911 respondents did not meet the eligibility requirements for the chronic constipation survey. Of the total panelists consenting to participate (via both online and face-to-face interviews), 100 women met eligibility requirements and took the 22-question survey. Eligible respondents were skewed to younger patients but well mixed in terms of marital status. The majority of them were not keen on doing exercise and were working women, especially white collar females. The majority complained of straining and hard stools as the most common constipation symptoms (88% and 80% respectively) and rated constipation symptoms as severe or moderate. On average, respondents experienced constipation symptoms for 6 to 7 months in the last year. In more than two-thirds of respondents, constipation symptoms were frequent (at least 1 in 3 times). Most of the patients had attempted to treat constipation themselves and 80% had tried laxatives before visiting the doctor. Satisfaction with fiber supplements and laxatives was average and many of the users were not satisfied with their effect. Ineffectiveness and prolonged time taken for the treatment to take effect were the most common reasons for dissatisfaction. Nearly all respondents (97%) were interested in considering alternative prescriptive medication that is proven more effective. Conclusion Chronic constipation symptoms in women are often severe and bothersome, and many patients are dissatisfied with available treatment options primarily because of lack of efficacy.

Gwee, Kok Ann; Setia, Sajita

2012-01-01

22

The cultural influences on help-seeking among a national sample of victimized Latino women.  

PubMed

The current study examined the influence of legal status and cultural variables (i.e., acculturation, gender role ideology and religious coping) on the formal and informal help-seeking efforts of Latino women who experienced interpersonal victimization. The sample was drawn from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) Study that surveyed 2,000 self-identified adult Latino women. The random digit dial methodology employed in high-density Latino neighborhoods resulted in a cooperation rate of 53.7%. Women who experienced lifetime victimization (n = 714) reported help-seeking efforts in response to their most distressful victimization event that occurred in the US. Approximately one-third of the women reported formal help-seeking and about 70% of women reported informal help-seeking. Help-seeking responses were generally not predicted by the cultural factors measured, with some exceptions. Anglo orientation and negative religious coping increased the likelihood of formal help-seeking. Positive religious coping, masculine gender role and Anglo acculturation increased the likelihood of specific forms of informal help-seeking. Latino orientation decreased the likelihood of talking to a sibling. Overall, these findings reinforce the importance of bilingual culturally competent services as cultural factors shape the ways in which women respond to victimization either formally or within their social networks. PMID:21842301

Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schally, Jennifer L

2012-06-01

23

Women in medical research: headaches and hurdles.  

PubMed

Very few women have professorial status in Australian medical schools. However, there are approximately equal numbers of male and female PhD students in biomedical research at Australian universities. At Flinders University of South Australia, females comprise approximately 25% of academics in the School of Medicine, with 75% of general staff (including research staff without academic status, e.g. research assistants, research officers) being female. Females comprise 29% of Fellows in the highly competitive Career Awards Scheme of the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC; 26% excluding those of the lowest rank, namely RD Wright Fellows). In both systems, a higher percentage of women are appointed to the lower levels. The statistics suggest that the main hurdle for women in medical research is the inability to progress in the postdoctoral ranks (e.g. appointment to, or promotion from, academic Level A/B positions (Tutor/Lecturer) or appointment to the NHMRC Research Fellowships Scheme). This may reflect the conflicts that women face in their debate of the priorities of family (children and partner) versus career, or research versus teaching and professional activities. All medical research is time-demanding and continuing research funds are difficult to obtain. Women and men have similar success rates for obtaining funds from the NHMRC. However, a greater percentage of women academics do not apply for grants. Why? Can women be helped to play a larger role in medical research? PMID:8889971

Hart, P

1996-09-01

24

Lung cancer stigma predicts timing of medical help-seeking behavior.  

PubMed

Purpose/Objectives: To examine relationships among demographic variables, healthcare system distrust, lung cancer stigma, smoking status, and timing of medical help-seeking behavior in individuals with symptoms suggestive of lung cancer after controlling for ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and social desirability.Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational study.Setting: Outpatient oncology clinics in Louisville, KY.Sample: 94 patients diagnosed in the past three weeks to six years with all stages of lung cancer.Methods: Self-report, written survey packets were administered in person followed by a semistructured interview to assess symptoms and timing characteristics of practice-identified patients with lung cancer.Main Research Variables: Timing of medical help-seeking behavior, healthcare system distrust, lung cancer stigma, and smoking status.Findings: Lung cancer stigma was independently associated with timing of medical help-seeking behavior in patients with lung cancer. Healthcare system distrust and smoking status were not independently associated with timing of medical help-seeking behavior.Conclusions: Findings suggest that stigma influences medical help-seeking behavior for lung cancer symptoms, serving as a barrier to prompt medical help-seeking behavior.Implications for Nursing: When designing interventions to promote early medical help-seeking behavior in individuals with symptoms suggestive of lung cancer, methods that consider lung cancer stigma as a barrier that can be addressed through public awareness and patient-targeted interventions should be included. PMID:24769603

Carter-Harris, Lisa; Hermann, Carla P; Schreiber, Judy; Weaver, Michael T; Rawl, Susan M

2014-05-01

25

Psychological Consequences of Abortion among the Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran  

PubMed Central

Objective Abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. Method 278 women of reproductive age (15-49) interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and health- related abortion consequences. Tehran hospitals were the site of study. Results The results revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced psychological side effects. Depression, worrying about not being able to conceive again and abnormal eating behaviors were reported as dominant psychological consequences of abortion among the respondents. Decreased self-esteem, nightmare, guilt, and regret with 43.7%, 39.5%, 37.5%, and 33.3% prevalence rates have been placed in the lower status, respectively. Conclusion Psychological consequences of abortion have considerably been neglected. Several barriers made findings limited. Different types of psychological side effects, however, experienced by the study population require more intensive attention because of chronic characteristic of psychological disorders, and women's health impact on family and population health.

Pourreza, Abolghasem

2011-01-01

26

A Retrospective Look at the Internal Help-Seeking Process in Young Women With Eating Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study retrospectively explored the help-seeking process in women with eating disorders. Interviews were conducted with 14 college-age women suffering from anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder NOS. Grounded theory was utilized to develop a preliminary model of the help-seeking process. Participants described a gradual shift from denial to increased awareness of self and the impact of the

Eva G. Schoen; Sharon Lee; Christine Skow; Stefanie T. Greenberg; Allison S. Bell; Joanna E. Wiese; Jessica Kelly Martens

2012-01-01

27

Resistance, agency, and liminality in women's accounts of symptom appraisal and help-seeking upon discovery of a breast irregularity.  

PubMed

In the breast cancer literature, "delayed presentation" is defined as a period of 3 months or more between the self-detection of a new breast symptom and the decision to seek help for it. Delay studies have overlooked the relevance of dominant medical discourses such as those concerning "proper" health. In this paper we use a critical discursive method to analyze interviews with 14 women about their symptom appraisal process to demonstrate how many inhabited a liminal space comprised of both "knowing and not knowing" about the symptom, and "acting and not acting" on it (interviews took place from January 2006 to April 2007). We describe three discursive themes that arose in the transcripts including "Doing the right thing", "Deliberate ignorance", and "Passive resistance." These women's narratives are juxtaposed with two commonly accepted medical discourses in relation to self-detected breast symptoms: That of the woman who was unaware of her symptom, or interpreted it as being insignificant, and therefore, not requiring medical attention; or that of the woman who noticed the symptom, interpreted it as threatening, and immediately sought medical attention. We suggest that such discourses are constricting and fail to account for the sizeable number of women who do not fit this mold (i.e., those who are both aware of the concerning change and delay presentation). We conclude that these constricting medical discourses effectively have a role to play in the contradictory reasoning or perceived irrationality of women's delay behavior when it occurs. PMID:22884943

Granek, Leeat; Fergus, Karen

2012-11-01

28

Partnered Decisions? U.S. Couples and Medical Help-seeking for Infertility  

PubMed Central

We examined male partners’ influence on the decision to seek medical help for infertility using from the National Survey of Fertility Barriers. Building upon an existing help-seeking framework, we incorporated characteristics of both partners from 219 heterosexual couples who had ever perceived a fertility problem. In logistic regression analyses, we found an association between couple-level attitudes and medical help-seeking even when other predisposing and enabling conditions existed. Overall, the findings highlight that both partners contribute to the infertility help-seeking process, and that different factors may play a role in different stages of help-seeking. Studies of infertility help-seeking need to be more inclusive of the context that these decisions are embedded within to better understand service use.

Johnson, Katherine M.; Johnson, David R.

2009-01-01

29

Medical Risks for Women Who Drink Alcohol  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To summarize for clinicians recent epidemiologic evidence regarding medical risks of alcohol use for women. METHODS MEDLINE and PsychINFO, 1990 through 1996, were searched using key words “women” or “woman,” and “alcohol.” MEDLINE was also searched for other specific topics and authors from 1980 through 1996. Data were extracted and reviewed regarding levels of alcohol consumption associated with mortality, cardiovascular disease, alcohol-related liver disease, injury, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms, psychiatric comorbidity, fetal alcohol syndrome, spontaneous abortion, infertility, menstrual symptoms, breast cancer, and gynecologic malignancies. Gender-specific data from cohort studies of general population or large clinical samples are primarily reviewed. MAIN RESULTS Women develop many alcohol-related medical problems at lower levels of consumption than men, probably reflecting women's lower total body water, gender differences in alcohol metabolism, and effects of alcohol on postmenopausal estrogen levels. Mortality and breast cancer are increased in women who report drinking more than two drinks daily. Higher levels of alcohol consumption by women are associated with increased menstrual symptoms, hypertension, and stroke. Women who drink heavily also appear to have increased infertility and spontaneous abortion. Adverse fetal effects occur after variable amounts of alcohol consumption, making any alcohol use during pregnancy potentially harmful. CONCLUSIONS In general, advising nonpregnant women who drink alcohol to have fewer than two drinks daily is strongly supported by the epidemiologic literature, although specific recommendations for a particular woman should depend on her medical history and risk factors.

Bradley, Katharine A; Badrinath, Seeta; Bush, Kristen; Boyd-Wickizer, Jodie; Anawalt, Bradley

1998-01-01

30

Partnered Decisions? U.S. Couples and Medical Help-Seeking for Infertility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined male partners' influence on the decision to seek medical help for infertility using the National Study of Fertility Barriers. Building upon an existing help-seeking framework, we incorporated characteristics of both partners from 219 heterosexual couples who had ever perceived a fertility problem. In logistic regression analyses, we…

Johnson, Katherine M.; Johnson, David R.

2009-01-01

31

Trauma, Depression, Coping, and Mental Health Service Seeking Among Impoverished Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the relationship among trauma, coping, depression, and mental health service seeking in a probability sample of sheltered homeless and low-income housed women. Results highlight the diversity of trauma. In a longitudinal analysis, women who lived in shelters or experienced major violence had a twofold increase in their risk of…

Rayburn, Nadine Recker; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Elliott, Marc N.; Hambarsoomians, Katrin; Marshall, Grant N.; Tucker, Joan S.

2005-01-01

32

Cultural Values, Counseling Stigma, and Intentions to Seek Counseling among Asian American College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explored the extent to which Asian American college women's perceived stigma about counseling mediated the relationship between their adherence to Asian cultural values and intentions to seek counseling, Participants, 201 Asian American college women (age range = 18-24 years), completed measures of Asian cultural values, perceived…

Miville, Marie L.; Constantine, Madonna G.

2007-01-01

33

PREDICTORS OF WOMEN'S INTERNET ACCESS AND INTERNET HEALTH SEEKING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A random, population-based sample of 431 women aged 18–74 in King County, Washington, USA, completed a survey module on Internet use and access. Level of mental health, level of general health perceptions, older age, and higher income predicted women's health-related Internet use. Participants without access reported various barriers to obtaining access; perceived lack of usefulness of the Internet as an

Deborah Bowen; Hendrika Meischke; Nigel Bush; Jean Wooldridge; Robert Robbins; Abi Ludwig; Gina Escamilla

2003-01-01

34

Treatment seeking, vaginal discharge and psychosocial distress among women in urban Mumbai.  

PubMed

Vaginal discharge (safed pani in Hindi, meaning "white water") is one of the leading symptoms for which women in India seek care. Treatment-seeking for safed pani is disproportionately high among poor women, representing a physical, emotional and financial burden for low-income families. Safed pani is only rarely indicative of a reproductive tract or sexually transmitted infection. The discrepancy between symptom reports and observed pathology has led some researchers to characterize safed pani as a culturally based expression of more generalized negative life situation. Data are drawn from two prevention intervention studies (2002-2006 and 2007-2012) conducted in economically marginal communities in Mumbai. Results show that husbands as problem generators and spousal abusers and women's greater perceived empowerment and reported tension are significantly associated with safed pani. These results provide the basis for identifying women at greater risk for psychosocial distress and providing supports at the locations at which they seek treatment. PMID:20533080

Kostick, Kristin M; Schensul, Stephen L; Jadhav, Kalpita; Singh, Rajendra; Bavadekar, Amruta; Saggurti, Niranjan

2010-09-01

35

Retaining women in HIV medical care.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effectiveness of an ancillary service assignment protocol to improve women's retention in HIV medical care. HIV-positive women with acknowledged difficulty in keeping regularly scheduled HIV clinic appointments were assigned to an intervention based on presenting characteristics: 6 months transportation plus nursing case management followed by 6 months transportation only for women currently using heroin and/or showing mental illness problems or transportation only for 12 months. Self-report and HIV clinic data provided measures of kept and missed appointments. Results were as hypothesized. The Transportation Only sample maintained number of kept appointments and significantly decreased number of missed appointments. The Transportation Plus sample significantly increased number of appointments kept and significantly decreased number of missed appointments. When intensive intervention was reduced to transportation only, charted HIV medical appointments significantly decreased. Positive influence on retention in HIV medical care requires level of intervention to be determined by current relevant client characteristics. PMID:17570298

Andersen, Marcia; Hockman, Elaine; Smereck, Geoffrey; Tinsley, Jannie; Milfort, Dollie; Wilcox, Robert; Smith, Teresa; Connelly, Christopher; Adams, Latonia; Thomas, Richard

2007-01-01

36

Young Adults Seeking Medical Care: Do Race and Ethnicity Matter?  

MedlinePLUS

... Hispanic black young adults aged 20–29 years. Keywords: health insurance, access to medical care, National Health ... Health Interview Statistics. References Agency for Health Care Research and Quality. National Health Disparities Report 2009 . AHRQ ...

37

The medicalization of women's sexual pain.  

PubMed

The medicalization of women's sexual problems under the overall rubric of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) has been thoroughly critiqued by feminist scholars, health practitioners, and sex therapists. However, there has been much less commentary on the medicalization of women's sexual pain-currently, a subset of an official FSD diagnosis. This article critically examines interdisciplinary understandings and ways of addressing sexual pain. It analyzes these frameworks in relation to feminist theories on medicalization, heteronormativity, and the reciprocal relationship between these two processes. We argue that many women who experience sexual pain have been eager for medicalization as a path to minimizing pain during sexual activity and reinstating normative heterosexual practices and identities. These goals have been lobbied for by patient advocacy groups and noted by professionals in the field. Although there are some clear benefits to this case for medicalization, there are also theoretical, personal, and political costs. Guided by a growing body of feminist theoretical and qualitative, empirical research on this topic, as well as the first author's personal experience of sexual pain, this article highlights some alternatives to medicalization and makes suggestions for change. PMID:22720824

Farrell, Janine; Cacchioni, Thea

2012-01-01

38

Seeking Authenticity: Women and Learning in the Catholic Worker Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral history interviews form the basis of an investigation into both the context and the everyday actions that contributed to the learning environment for women within the Catholic Worker Movement during the 1930s and 1940s. Findings reveal that narrators (a) were grounded in a variety of learning environments including family, Catholic Church,…

Parrish, Marilyn McKinley; Taylor, Edward W.

2007-01-01

39

College Women: Eating Behaviors and Help-Seeking Preferences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Late adolescent college women (N=578) were surveyed regarding eating disorders. Participants found to have eating disorders were younger and more likely to be white, in a sorority, and Christian. Additionally, they were most likely to say that they would prefer a close friend to support them when dealing with disordered eating, followed by their…

Prouty, Anne M.; Protinsky, Howard O.; Canady, Donna

2002-01-01

40

Rabies Exposure: When Should I Seek Medical Attention?  

MedlinePLUS

... with? What type of exposure occurred? Is the animal available for testing? The only well-documented cases of rabies caused ... rabies What type of exposure occurred? Is the animal available for testing? Medical care Human rabies immune globulin Rabies vaccine ...

41

Factors Influencing Help-Seeking Behavior Among Battered Korean Women in Intimate Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In total, 123 battered Korean women who used domestic violence agencies were asked where they had turned for assistance in response to intimate partner violence. This study examined the factors related to use of formal and informal resources by these women. Formal resources included police, medical, legal, and shelter; informal were family or neighbors. Findings revealed that (a) the women

Jae Yop Kim; Ji Hyeon Lee

2011-01-01

42

Intimate partner violence and help-seeking - a cross-sectional study of women in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health concern with possible detrimental consequences for its victims. Studies have found prevalence rates of 15 to 71% for IPV. There is evidence that IPV exposed women perceive barriers to help-seeking and many remain undetected by care givers and authorities. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine IPV exposed women in relation to help-seeking versus non help-seeking from the social services or women’s shelters with regard to social and psychological characteristics as well as relationship with the perpetrator and type of violence exposure. Methods Two groups of Swedish IPV exposed women were included: non help-seekers (n?=?128) were recruited through ads in newspapers, while help-seekers (n?=?347) were recruited from four social service sites and twenty women’s shelters around Sweden. Participants were assessed with questionnaires regarding age, education, occupation and relation to the perpetrator as well as validated instruments measuring psychological distress, psychosocial functioning alcohol use and violence. Analyses were made using Chi2 and multivariate logistic regression. Results Help-seekers had significantly more often children together with the perpetrator than non help-seekers (64% and 29% respectively) and a high association was found in the fully adjusted model (Adj. OR?=?5.46 95% CI 2.99-9.97). Many women in both groups reported a poor social situation and high levels of psychological distress, although more psychological distress was associated with elevated odds for help-seeking (Adj. OR?=?2.83 95% CI 1.84-4.34). No differences were found between the groups regarding violence exposure and most women in both groups had experienced severe violence from an intimate partner (95% to 98%). Conclusions Results indicate a high problem load among women who had not contacted the social services or women’s shelters due to IPV, and that non help-seekers had similar experiences of severe IPV as help-seekers. This stresses a need to identify IPV exposed women outside specialized settings within the social services and women’s shelters. Asking about partner violence in various health and social care settings could be a feasible strategy to identify battered women and provide them with alternatives for help that ultimately could lead to a life without violence.

2013-01-01

43

Johns Hopkins study finds obese white women less likely to seek colon cancer screening  

Cancer.gov

A new study by Johns Hopkins researchers shows that obese white women may be less likely than normal-weight counterparts and African-Americans of any weight or gender to seek potentially lifesaving colon cancer screening tests. Results of this study follow the same Johns Hopkins group’s previous research suggesting that obese white women also are less likely to arrange for mammograms, which screen for breast cancer, and Pap smears, which search for early signs of cervical cancer.

44

How does gender influence immigrant and refugee women's postpartum depression help-seeking experiences?  

PubMed

The number of migrants arriving in Canada from non-European countries has grown significantly over the past three decades. How best to assist these escalating numbers of immigrant and refugee women to adapt to their new environment and to cope with postpartum depression (PPD) is a pressing issue for healthcare providers. Evidence has shown that immigrant and refugee women experience difficulties in accessing care and treatment for PPD. This qualitative study was conducted with 30 immigrant and refugee women using in-depth interviews to obtain information about the women's PPD experiences. The primary aim was to explore how cultural, social, political, historical and economic factors intersect with race, gender and class to influence the ways in which immigrant and refugee women seek help to manage PPD. Results reveal that immigrant and refugee women experience many complex gender-related challenges and facilitators in seeking equitable help for PPD treatment and prevention. We will demonstrate that (a) structural barriers and gender roles hinder women's ability to access necessary mental healthcare services and (b) insecure immigration status coupled with emotional and economic dependence may leave women vulnerable and disadvantaged in protecting themselves against PPD. PMID:22962942

O'Mahony, J M; Donnelly, T T

2013-10-01

45

Home Journeys: Im/mobilities in Young Refugee and Asylum-Seeking Women's Negotiations of Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research with refugees and asylum seekers tends to be divided into research with adults or research with children under the age of 18. This is despite relational approaches to studying age that contest such dichotomous and fixed understandings of "life-stages". This article seeks to provide an insight into the experiences of young women who in…

Sirriyeh, Ala

2010-01-01

46

Health-seeking behaviour of women selling sex in Lahore, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the knowledge and health-seeking behaviour related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and abortion among women selling sex in Lahore, Pakistan. This was a cross-sectional, community-based, quantitative study. A total of 730 women selling sex were recruited by respondent-driven sampling. A pretested structured questionnaire was administered through face-to-face interviews. The median age of the participants was 30 years. Thirteen percent of the participants said it was common for them to have an abnormal vaginal discharge. Seventy-five percent of the participants recognized STIs as either leucorrhoea or AIDS. Sixty-five percent of the participants complained of having suffered from STI(s) in the six months preceding the survey, of whom 28% sought treatment. Women selling sex who reported consistent condom use were 1.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.2) more likely to seek treatment than women who did not report consistent condom use. The level of knowledge about STIs remains low among women selling sex in Lahore, Pakistan, and health-seeking behaviour for the management of STIs and abortions is influenced by ability to pay and ease of access in the private sector. PMID:21729955

Khan, M S; Unemo, M; Zaman, S; Lundborg, C Stålsby

2011-07-01

47

Health care-seeking practices of pregnant women and the role of the midwife in Cape Town, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the health-seeking practices of pregnant women in a periurban area in Cape Town, South Africa. This qualitative study was based on 103 minimally structured in-depth interviews of 32 pregnant women. Most women were interviewed on several occasions, and a group discussion was held with women. The interviews were taped, transcribed, analyzed ethnographically,

Naeemah Abrahams; Rachel Jewkes; Zodumo Mvo

2001-01-01

48

The Efficacy of a Condensed "Seeking Safety" Intervention for Women in Residential Chemical Dependence Treatment at 30 Days Posttreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the efficacy of a condensed version of the "Seeking Safety" intervention in the reduction of trauma-related symptoms and improved drug abstinence rates among women in residential chemical dependence treatment. One hundred and four women were randomly assigned to treatment including a condensed (six session) "Seeking Safety"…

Cash Ghee, Anna; Bolling, Lanny C.; Johnson, Candace S.

2009-01-01

49

Characteristics of perinatal women seeking treatment for marijuana abuse in a community-based clinic.  

PubMed

In the US, marijuana continues to be the most frequently used illicit drug among women of childbearing age, including pregnant and postpartum women. Given the critical window for treatment during the perinatal period, more information is needed about the characteristics of women who abuse marijuana and about their unique needs with the goal of improving clinical services and outcomes for both women and their infants. Objectives: To (1) identify a profile of perinatal women seeking treatment for primarily marijuana abuse and (2) report birth outcomes in a subset of pregnant women with marijuana abuse. Methods: This retrospective clinical chart review study examined 67 adult perinatal women patients (54 % ethnic minority) who attended an inner-city, hospital-affiliated outpatient program specializing in substance abuse treatment for women. Of all pregnant women, 26 % reported positive urine screens during the first trimester, 41 % during the second trimester, and 27 % during the third trimester. While the subset of pregnant women was small, exploratory results suggest that infants whose mothers continued to use marijuana during their pregnancies were born at a lower gestational age than mothers who abstained; t(29) = 2.04, p <0.05. Conclusion: Identifying potential barriers to treatment could help improve retention in community-based treatment programs during pregnancy and the postpartum period. PMID:23737012

Tzilos, Golfo; Hess, Lynn; Kao, Jennifer Chien-Wen; Zlotnick, Caron

2013-08-01

50

Attitudes and Factors Related to Seeking Mental Health Treatment Among Medical and Dental Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical and dental students (N =315) were surveyed about current psychological distress, treatment status, perfectionism, and attitudes about mental health services. Although 23.8% of the students reported clinical levels of distress, only 7.6% of the sample reported receiving mental health treatment. Many students expressed concern about the stigma of seeking professional help, and distressed students who were not in treatment

Sydney Ey; Kris R. Henning; Darlene L. Shaw

2000-01-01

51

Social and Cultural Factors Influence African American Men's Medical Help Seeking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the factors that influenced African American men's medical help seeking. Method: Thematic analysis of 14 focus groups with 105 older, urban African American men. Results: African American men described normative expectations that they did not go to the doctor and that they were afraid to go, with little explanation. When they…

Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Gunter, Katie

2011-01-01

52

Health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of Dominican women with lymphoedema of the leg: implications for lymphoedema management programs  

PubMed Central

Background In the Dominican Republic, a Latin American country with filariasis-endemic areas, more than 63,000 people have lymphatic filariasis and more than 400,000 people are at risk of future infection. In this paper, we explore the health beliefs, health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of women with lymphoedema in filariasis-endemic areas to better understand the needs of women when developing lymphoedema morbidity control programs. Methods Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews of 28 women, 3 focus group discussions with 28 women, field notes and photographs. Results Women described exhaustive and expensive attempts at seeking a cure for their lymphoedema. Family members were influential in providing women with initial care seeking referrals to indigenous healers credited with influence over physical, mental, spiritual and supernatural properties of illness. When indigenous treatments proved to be ineffectual, the women sought care from trained healthcare providers. Most healthcare providers incorrectly diagnosed the edema, failed to adequately treat and meet the needs of women and were viewed as expensive. Most women resorted to self-prescribing injectable, oral, or topical antibiotics along with oral analgesics as a standard practice of self-care. Conclusion Healthcare providers must understand a woman's cultural perspectives of illness, her natural networks of support and referral, her behavioural practices of care-seeking and self-care and the financial burden of seeking care. In the culture of the Dominican Republic family members and traditional healthcare providers are influential advisors on initial health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices. For this reason family-oriented interventions, support groups for women and their families, community education and training on simple, low cost lymphoedema management techniques for indigenous healers are viable ways to influence the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of women with lymphoedema. The extensive use of injectable, oral and topical antibiotics by indigenous healers and women without medical supervision suggests a need for health education messages related to the risks of such practices.

Person, Bobbie; Addiss, David G; Bartholomew, L Kay; Meijer, Cecilia; Pou, Victor; van den Borne, Bart

2006-01-01

53

Library use and information-seeking behavior of veterinary medical students.  

PubMed Central

Veterinary medical students at Iowa State University were assessed for general use of the veterinary library and for their information-seeking behavior. The library was most frequently used for studying and for making photocopies of materials. The typical respondent relied on course textbooks and handouts for current information on unfamiliar topics, instead of using indexes or abstracts for guidance to recent literature. Light use of library information resources raises the concern that students are developing an inadequate base of retrieval skills for finding information on new procedures, diseases and drugs. No differences were found between students with and without formal bibliographic instruction in their approaches to seeking information or in library use.

Pelzer, N L; Leysen, J M

1988-01-01

54

“Why doesn't she seek help for partner abuse?” An exploratory study with South Asian immigrant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores why South Asian immigrant women with experiences of partner abuse delay seeking help from professionals. Three focus groups were conducted in Hindi language with South Asian immigrant women in Toronto. Twenty-two women participated with a mean age of 46 years (range 29–68 years). Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed data using constant comparison techniques within and

Farah Ahmad; Natasha Driver; Mary Jane McNally; Donna E. Stewart

2009-01-01

55

Introduction: Women's Health: A Catalyst for Reform of Medical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses curriculum reform in medical education to ensure that women's health issues receive adequate attention. There has been remarkable progress in this area, but the reforms have not yet been translated into equitable care for women patients. (SLD)

Donoghue, Glenda D.

2000-01-01

56

Neuroanatomical Differences between Men and Women in Help-Seeking Coping Strategy.  

PubMed

Help seeking (HS) is a core coping strategy that is directed towards obtaining support, advice, or assistance as means of managing stress. Women have been found to use more HS than men. Neural correlates of sex differences have also been reported in prefrontal-limbic system (PLS) regions that are linked to stress and coping, yet structural differences between men and women relating to HS in the PLS are still unknown. Thus, the association between gray matter volume (GMV) and HS was investigated using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a large healthy sample (126 men and 156 women). Results indicated women reported more HS than men did. VBM results showed that the relation between HS scores and GMV differed between men and women in regions of the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex extending to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex(OFC/sgACC). Among women, higher HS scores were associated with smaller GMV in these areas while a positive correlation between GMV and HS scores was observed among men. These results remained significant after controlling for general intelligence, stress, anxiety and depression. Thus, this study suggested that structural differences between men and women are correlated to characteristic brain regions known to be involved in the PLS which is considered critical in stress regulation. PMID:25027617

Li, Hai-Jiang; Sun, Jiang-Zhou; Zhang, Qing-Lin; Wei, Dong-Tao; Li, Wen-Fu; Jackson, Todd; Hitchman, Glenn; Qiu, Jiang

2014-01-01

57

Neuroanatomical Differences between Men and Women in Help-Seeking Coping Strategy  

PubMed Central

Help seeking (HS) is a core coping strategy that is directed towards obtaining support, advice, or assistance as means of managing stress. Women have been found to use more HS than men. Neural correlates of sex differences have also been reported in prefrontal-limbic system (PLS) regions that are linked to stress and coping, yet structural differences between men and women relating to HS in the PLS are still unknown. Thus, the association between gray matter volume (GMV) and HS was investigated using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a large healthy sample (126 men and 156 women). Results indicated women reported more HS than men did. VBM results showed that the relation between HS scores and GMV differed between men and women in regions of the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex extending to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex(OFC/sgACC). Among women, higher HS scores were associated with smaller GMV in these areas while a positive correlation between GMV and HS scores was observed among men. These results remained significant after controlling for general intelligence, stress, anxiety and depression. Thus, this study suggested that structural differences between men and women are correlated to characteristic brain regions known to be involved in the PLS which is considered critical in stress regulation.

Li, Hai-Jiang; Sun, Jiang-Zhou; Zhang, Qing-Lin; Wei, Dong-Tao; Li, Wen-Fu; Jackson, Todd; Hitchman, Glenn; Qiu, Jiang

2014-01-01

58

Help-Seeking Behaviors and Reasons for Help Seeking Reported by a Representative Sample of Women Victims of Intimate Partner Violence in New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts to understand and support the process of help seeking by victims of intimate partner violence are of considerable urgency if we are to design systems and responses that are capable of actively and appropriately meeting the needs of victims. Using data from the New Zealand Violence Against Women Study, which drew from a representative…

Fanslow, Janet L.; Robinson, Elizabeth M.

2010-01-01

59

Unmet needs, beliefs and treatment-seeking for infertility among migrant Ghanaian women in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Studies on infertility in the Netherlands have little information on migrant Ghanaian women, even though Ghanaians are the third largest migrant group in Amsterdam. An exploratory study on the unmet needs, attitudes, and beliefs of migrant Ghanaian women with infertility problems living in the Netherlands, and the kinds of treatment they sought was undertaken in 1999. Qualitative data were collected from 12 women with primary or secondary infertility through narratives and 20 key informant interviews. The women described seeking treatment for infertility in Ghana, the Netherlands and other European countries, included use of infertility drugs, surgery, donor insemination and in vitro fertilisation. Illegal migrant women are not entitled to treatment paid by the national health system, and being of low income they cannot afford to pay directly for this or to obtain private health insurance. Herbalists and spiritual healers in both Amsterdam and Ghana were regularly consulted, especially for their willingness to address the social and spiritual aspects of infertility. To produce a pregnancy where male infertility was suspected, transfer of sexual rights to another man in the husband/partner's family, or a healer or priest, was a practical remedy that kept male infertility hidden. This study revealed difficulties experienced in clinical settings due to language barriers and cultural differences. Ghanaian women living in the Netherlands need much more information on the causes of infertility and their options. PMID:11424241

Yebei, V N

2000-11-01

60

The limits of medicine: Women's perception of medical technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops an analysis of women's perceptions of medical technology and the elements which shape them, and then draws out the implications for medicine and the medicalization thesis. In the first part of the paper we outline the macro-theoretical debates about medicalization and the role of medical technology in this process, and the consequences for those who use health

Jonathan Gabe; Michael Calnan

1989-01-01

61

Relationships of sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking with sexual risk behavior in young Urban women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the relationships of sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking with HIV sexual risk behavior in 257 young urban women. Interviews were conducted using Audio Computer- Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking explained 18.3% of the variance in sexual risk behavior. Although sexual imposition was

Rachel Jones

2004-01-01

62

Novelty-seeking and avoidant coping strategies are associated with academic stress in Korean medical students.  

PubMed

High levels of stress and depression in medical students is raising concern. In this study, we sought to identify coping strategies and other factors influencing academic stress in medical students. We enrolled 157 students from the University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Korea, in November, 2010. We used the Medical Stress Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Coping Response Inventory to assess psychological parameters. We used Pearson's correlation and linear regression analyses to analyze the data. Novelty-seeking, self-directedness, cooperativeness, coping strategy, and depression scale scores all correlated significantly with stress level. Linear regression analysis indicated that students who are novelty-seeking, likely to use avoidant coping strategies, and unlikely to use active-cognitive and active-behavioral strategies tend to have higher stress levels. Reduction of stress in medical students may be achieved through evaluation of coping strategies and personality features and use of interventions to promote active coping strategies. PMID:22901439

An, Hoyoung; Chung, Seockhoon; Park, Jangho; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, Ki-Soo

2012-12-30

63

Using verbal and social autopsies to explore health-seeking behaviour among HIV-positive women in Kenya: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited understanding of the factors that influence decisions to seek HIV care and treatment services in community settings. The aim of this study was to explore the socio-cultural and health system factors affecting health-seeking behaviour among deceased women in Kenya who were living with HIV at the time of death. Methods Out of a total of 796 deaths for which a caregiver was available to provide information, retrospective data were drawn from verbal and social autopsies administered to caregivers of 218 women who had died of AIDS-related illnesses aged 15 to 49 years. Information was collected on essential elements of the care-seeking process from the onset of severe illness episodes and analysed using qualitative and quantitative techniques. Results Results from the quantitative data showed that poor women were less likely to access formal health services (OR?=?0.2; p?women. The qualitative data showed that socioeconomic status, poor knowledge and understanding of AIDS-related illness, distance to facility and transportation costs, medical pluralism, stigma, low HIV risk perception, lack of family support and health care system barriers contributed to delays/constraints in seeking care. Conclusions The findings highlight important issues that have implications for addressing challenges faced by women living with HIV, including non-adherence to treatment regimen and late diagnosis of HIV. Provision of transportation subsidies as part of the national social safety-net strategy can help in addressing financial constraints associated with transportation costs among poor women living with HIV.

2014-01-01

64

Irish midwives' experiences of providing maternity care to non-Irish women seeking asylum  

PubMed Central

Background Immigration and asylum seeking has been an important social and political phenomenon in Ireland since the mid 1990s. Inward migration to Ireland was seen in unprecedented numbers from 1995 onward, peaking in 2002 with 11,634 applications for refugee status. Asylum and immigration is an issue of national and international relevance as the numbers of displaced people worldwide continues to grow, reaching the highest level in 20 years at 45.2 million in 2012. Midwives provide the majority of care to childbearing women around the world, whether working as autonomous practitioners or under the direction of an obstetrician. Limited data currently exist on the perspectives of midwives who provide care to childbearing women while they are in the process of seeking asylum. Such data are important to midwifery leaders, educators, and policy-makers. The aims of this study were to explore midwives’ perceptions and experiences of providing care to women in the asylum process and to gain insight into how midwives can be equipped and supported to provide more effective care to this group in the future. Methods Data were collected via indepth unstructured interviews with a purposive sample of ten midwives from two sites, one a large urban inner city hospital, and the second, a smaller more rural maternity hospital. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Results Five themes emerged from the data, barriers to communication, understanding cultural difference, challenges of caring for women who were unbooked, the emotional cost of caring, and structural barriers to effective care. Conclusion Findings highlight a need to focus on support and education for midwives, improved maternity services for immigrant women, and urgent policy revision.

Tobin, Carolyn L; Murphy-Lawless, Jo

2014-01-01

65

Prevalence and degree of sexual dysfunction in a sample of women seeking bariatric surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual functioning is shown to be impaired in women who are obese, particularly those seeking bariatric surgery. However, most prior studies evaluating sexual function in these populations have not used validated measures. We used the validated Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) to assess prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in a sample of over 100 women evaluated for bariatric surgery. Methods The FSFI was administered to reportedly sexually active women during their preoperative evaluation. Scores for individual FSFI domains (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain) ranging from 0(or 1.2) to 6 were summed to produce a FSFI-total score (range = 2-36). A FSFI-total cut-off score of ? 26.55 was used to identify participants with FSD. Participants' FSFI- total and domain scores were compared to previously published norms available for women diagnosed with female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) and healthy controls. Results Sixty-one of the 102 participants (59.8%) had FSFI-total scores ? 26.55, indicative of FSD. Older age and menopause were associated with FSD. Compared to published norms, bariatric surgery candidates had FSFI domain scores that were lower than the control group (ps <0.0001) but higher than the FSAD group (ps <0.0001), except for desire where scores were similar. Conclusion Women seeking bariatric surgery are clearly a population with substantial sexual function impairment, with 60% of participants reporting FSD. These findings highlight the need to initiate routine assessment of sexual functioning in this population and examine whether weight loss following bariatric surgery contributes to reversal of FSD.

Bond, Dale S.; Vithiananthan, Siva; Leahey, Tricia M.; Thomas, J. Graham; Sax, Harry C.; Pohl, Dieter; Ryder, Beth A.; Roye, G. Dean; Giovanni, Jeannine; Wing, Rena R.

2009-01-01

66

Family Violence and Associated Help-Seeking Behavior among Older African American Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Little is known about how older African American women define family violence (FV) and what FV survivors might expect from their healthcare providers. The purpose of this study was to understand how these women define FV, where they seek help for FV, and what barriers they face in these efforts. Methods We conducted 6 focus groups with 30 African American women over the age of 50, including some FV survivors, at a large, inner-city public hospital. Results Participants defined FV broadly, citing examples of abuse (physical, sexual, emotional and financial) and neglect. Spiritual sources were cited over physicians as being available to help FV survivors. Barriers to receiving assistance included negative encounters with physicians, lack of trust in the system and dearth of age-appropriate resources. Conclusions For older African American women, FV takes many forms of which many may not be obvious during the clinical encounter. Like younger FV survivors, they expect physicians to serve as a resource for FV. Practice implications Physicians caring for older African American women need to remember to ask them about FV, and when making referrals for abuse and neglect, consider offering referrals to pastoral care if appropriate.

Paranjape, Anuradha; Tucker, Alyce; Mckenzie-Mack, LaTasha; Thompson, Nancy; Kaslow, Nadine

2007-01-01

67

The Association between Medical Education Accreditation and Examination Performance of Internationally Educated Physicians Seeking Certification in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this research were to examine medical education accreditation practices around the world, with special focus on the Caribbean, and to explore the association between medical school accreditation and graduates' examination performance. In addition to other requirements, graduates of international medical schools seeking to…

van Zanten, Marta; Boulet, John R.

2013-01-01

68

Library use and information-seeking behavior of veterinary medical students.  

PubMed

Veterinary medical students at Iowa State University were assessed for general use of the veterinary library and for their information-seeking behavior. The library was most frequently used for studying and for making photocopies of materials. The typical respondent relied on course textbooks and handouts for current information on unfamiliar topics, instead of using indexes or abstracts for guidance to recent literature. Light use of library information resources raises the concern that students are developing an inadequate base of retrieval skills for finding information on new procedures, diseases and drugs. No differences were found between students with and without formal bibliographic instruction in their approaches to seeking information or in library use. PMID:3224224

Pelzer, N L; Leysen, J M

1988-10-01

69

Descriptive cross sectional study on prevalence, perceptions, predisposing factors and health seeking behaviour of women with stress urinary incontinence  

PubMed Central

Background Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) leads to considerable physical and psychological morbidity. The highest prevalence reported was found in Caucasian Americans (range 23% -67%) and the lowest in Singaporean females (4.8%). The study assessed the prevalence, perceptions, predisposing factors and health seeking behaviour of women with SUI in an Asian setting which may have different sociocultural implications. Methods 400 consecutive women >20 years of age attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka, for non-urinary conditions were studied over a 3 week period using an interviewer administered questionnaire. SUI was diagnosed on clinical history alone when leakage of urine occurred either with coughing, sneezing, walking or lifting heavy objects. The severity was graded using the Finnish Gynaecological Society’s Urinary Incontinence Severity Score (UISS). Data were analysed using SPSS version 20. Odds ratios were calculated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Ninety three (23.33%) had SUI and only 12 (12.9%) had sought treatment. The prevalence among women >50 years of age was 34.71% ( n = 121) compared to 18.28% (n = 279) in those ?50 years. 25 (26.88%) had mild SUI, 66 (70.97%) moderate and 2 (2.15%) severe as per UISS. SUI was perceived as an illness by 210 (52.5%). SUI was significantly associated with pregnancy, parity, vaginal delivery, complicated labour, diabetes mellitus, chronic cough, constipation and faecal incontinence (p < 0.05). Among those affected main reasons for not seeking medical advice included; being embarrassed (n?=?27, 33.33%), not knowing that it is remediable (n?=?23, 28.40%), perceiving SUI to be a normal consequence of childbirth (n?=?19, 23.46%) and having to attend to needs of the family (n?=?12, 14.81%). None who had been pregnant (n?=?313) had received advice on postnatal pelvic floor exercises. SUI interfered with social activities (71;76.34%), sexual function (21; 22.58%) and resulted in despair (67; 72.09%). It was associated with clinically diagnosed candidiasis (50; 53.76%) and soreness in the perineal region (49; 52.69%). Conclusions SUI is a common and neglected gynaecological problem with poor healthcare seeking behaviour. Community based education may help to minimize the occurrence and improve the quality of life of those affected.

2014-01-01

70

"Why doesn't she seek help for partner abuse?" An exploratory study with South Asian immigrant women.  

PubMed

This study explores why South Asian immigrant women with experiences of partner abuse delay seeking help from professionals. Three focus groups were conducted in Hindi language with South Asian immigrant women in Toronto. Twenty-two women participated with a mean age of 46 years (range 29-68 years). Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed data using constant comparison techniques within and across the groups. We found that three major themes emerged from the discussions: reasons for delayed help-seeking, turning points and talking to professionals. Women expressed delaying help-seeking to the point when "Pani sar se guzar jata he" (water crosses over your head). Their dominant reasons for delayed help-seeking were social stigma, rigid gender roles, marriage obligations, expected silence, loss of social support after migration and limited knowledge about available resources and myths about partner abuse. Women usually turned for help only after experiencing pronounced mental and physical health problems. The findings are interpreted in light of participants' immigration context and the socio-cultural norms of patriarchy, collectivism and familism. Prevention approaches to address partner abuse and delayed help-seeking among South Asian immigrant women should include tailored community education, social services to reduce vulnerability, and cultural competency of professionals. Further research and program evaluation is needed to advance the field. PMID:19576669

Ahmad, Farah; Driver, Natasha; McNally, Mary Jane; Stewart, Donna E

2009-08-01

71

Seeking evidence to support usability principles for medication-related clinical decision support (CDS) functions.  

PubMed

There is a need for evidence-based usability principles to support the design of usable medication-related computerized CDS functions and systems. Such evidence requires establishing scientific relationships between usability principles, their violation in terms of usability flaws, issuing usage problems and their consequences or outcomes in the clinical work and patient care. This kind of evidence is not currently directly available in scientific evaluation studies of medication CDS functions. A possible proxy to seek evidence is systematic review of existing scientific evaluation reports. We rely on a four-stage framework describing the chain of consequences and inferences linking usability principles to clinical outcomes to design the systematic review methodology and interpretation principles. This paper describes the four-stage framework and the resulting consequences for the systematic review design. PMID:23920590

Marcilly, Romaric; Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Ammenwerth, Elske; Pelayo, Sylvia

2013-01-01

72

Library use and information-seeking behavior of veterinary medical students revisited in the electronic environment.  

PubMed

Veterinary medical students at Iowa State University were surveyed in January of 1997 to determine their general use of the Veterinary Medical Library and how they sought information in an electronic environment. Comparisons were made between this study and one conducted a decade ago to determine the effect of the growth in electronic resources on student library use and information-seeking behavior. The basic patterns of student activities in the library, resources used to find current information, and resources anticipated for future education needs remained unchanged. The 1997 students used the library most frequently for photocopying, office supplies, and studying coursework; they preferred textbooks and handouts as sources of current information. However, when these students went beyond textbooks and handouts to seek current information, a major shift was seen from the use of print indexes and abstracts in 1987 towards the use of computerized indexes and other electronic resources in 1997. Almost 60% of the students reported using the Internet for locating current information. Overall use of electronic materials was highest among a group of students receiving the problem-based learning method of instruction. Most of the students surveyed in 1997 indicated that electronic resources would have some degree of importance to them for future education needs. The electronic environment has provided new opportunities for information professionals to help prepare future veterinarians, some of whom will be practicing in remote geographical locations, to access the wealth of information and services available on the Internet and Web. PMID:9681170

Pelzer, N L; Wiese, W H; Leysen, J M

1998-07-01

73

Medical mistrust and discrimination in health care: a qualitative study of Hmong women and men.  

PubMed

Low rates of breast and cervical cancer screening among Hmong women have been documented. Mistrust of Western medicine and the health care system, as well as experiences of discrimination in health care, may be barriers to seeking health care for this population. In this study, we explored medical mistrust among Hmong women and men, their experiences with discrimination in health care, and how these factors may influence Hmong women's breast and cervical cancer screening behavior. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with women and men who were members of the Hmong community in Oregon. Transcripts of 83 interviews were analyzed using content analysis. Despite personally trusting Western medicine and the health care system, participants shared reasons that some Hmong people feel mistrust including lack of understanding or familiarity, culture, and tradition. Although mistrust was thought to result in delaying or avoiding breast or cervical cancer screening, more frequently trust was described as positively influencing screening. In addition, few participants reported being treated differently during breast or cervical cancer screening because they were Hmong. When discussing health care more broadly, however, some participants described differential (e.g., disrespectful or rude) treatment. Such experiences led to feelings such as anger and sadness and affected behavior, including willingness to seek care and choice of provider. Medical mistrust and perceived discrimination were not major barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening in this study. Additional studies are needed to assess whether our findings reflect the experiences of other Hmong. PMID:22116737

Thorburn, Sheryl; Kue, Jennifer; Keon, Karen Levy; Lo, Patela

2012-08-01

74

Sexual activity and attitudes toward contraception among women seeking termination of pregnancy in Zaria, northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

One hundred and eight (108) women seeking termination of pregnancy in Zaria were studied during a period of 3 months (October to December 1985). The mean age was 21.8 years (range 15-38); 35.6% were below the age of 20 years and 57% were students. The three major tribes engage in illegal termination of pregnancy and Yorubas were in the majority; 53.3% had history of previous induced abortion. Sixty-three percent had had sexual experience by the age of 18 years. The major reasons for seeking termination of pregnancy were "still in school" and "not married." Although 88.8% had knowledge of contraception, less than half actually used any method. Of the 60 patients who volunteered information on their views on legalization of abortion, 21 (35%) were against legalization of abortion for various reasons. Family health education in schools and contraceptive counseling among the adolescents will reduce the prevalence of illegal abortions and its disastrous consequences. PMID:1680080

Ujah, I A

1991-05-01

75

Gram-negative bacteria from patients seeking medical advice in Stockholm after the tsunami catastrophe.  

PubMed

Microbiological cultures from 229 patients seeking medical advice in Stockholm after the tsunami catastrophe of December 2004 were analysed at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Gram-negative bacilli were the most common findings from wound cultures. Common human pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. More rare species of Gram-negative bacilli, e.g. Myroides odoratus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Bergeyella zoohelcum were also isolated. Resistance towards ordinary antibiotics was more extensive compared to our Swedish reference material for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Acinetobacter spp., but not for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, probably reflecting that the resistant isolates were nosocomially acquired in Asia. PMID:16798691

Källman, Owe; Lundberg, Christina; Wretlind, Bengt; Ortqvist, Ake

2006-01-01

76

Reasons for not seeking general medical care among individuals with serious mental illness.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE The study compared delays in seeking general medical care among adults with serious mental illness and a general population sample. Associations of delays with health status and use of emergency department services among individuals with serious mental illness were also assessed. METHODS Data for 271 persons with serious mental illness (clinic sample) and 40,016 participants in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS sample) were compared. RESULTS Fifty-three percent of the clinic sample and 13% of the NHIS sample reported delays, most because of difficulties accessing services. In the clinic sample, delays were associated with receipt of routine care at a public clinic, rather than a physician's office; more severe depressive symptoms; and functional difficulties. Delays were also associated with poorer health status and use of emergency department services. CONCLUSIONS Integration of services as envisioned in the Affordable Care Act and targeted case management may reduce delays among individuals with serious mental illness. PMID:24733659

Mojtabai, Ramin; Cullen, Bernadette; Everett, Anita; Nugent, Katie L; Sawa, Akira; Sharifi, Vandad; Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Toroney, Jaimie S; Eaton, William W

2014-06-01

77

To Seek or Not to Seek the Superintendency: Minority Women and the Factors That Inhibit or Motivate Their Decision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose. A purpose of this study was to describe the career (extrinsic) and personal (intrinsic) factors perceived by K-12 minority women central office administrators (Directors, Assistant Superintendents, Associate Superintendents, Deputy Superintendents in California) who facilitated or inhibited their promotion for (or desire to pursue) the…

Escobedo, Ana D.

2011-01-01

78

Do men with prostate or colorectal cancer seek different information and support from women with cancer?  

PubMed Central

Male cancer patients' use of a national cancer information service, their requests and key predictors of these over the period April 1996 to March 1998 are presented, in comparison with women. The most frequent requests of 411 prostate, 162 male and 217 female colorectal cancer patients were similar: site-specific information, emotional support, publications, specific therapies. Research or clinical trials (P< 0.05), diet and nutrition (P< 0.001) requests differed between men with prostate and colorectal cancers; complementary therapies (P< 0.05), prognosis (P< 0.05) requests differed between male and female colorectal cancer patients. Among prostate cancer patients, employed men aged 60+ were more likely to need emotional support than retired men aged 70?+; men seeking behaviour is demonstrated; no pattern was found among men or in comparison with women. Further research is needed to enable development of services that are appropriate to individual needs and concerns. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

Boudioni, M; McPherson, K; Moynihan, C; Melia, J; Boulton, M; Leydon, G; Mossman, J

2001-01-01

79

Psychotropic medication and sexual function in women: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Sexual side effects of antidepressants and other psychotropic medications are a growing concern for women and those who treat\\u000a them. Understanding the biochemical actions of medications has helped elucidate how sexual function may be compromised or\\u000a enhanced.

B. R. Saks; M. A. Gillespie

2002-01-01

80

Barriers to Help-Seeking in Young Women With Eating Disorders: A Qualitative Exploration in a Longitudinal Community Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few with eating disorders (EDs) access evidence-based treatments. We conducted a prospective exploration of help-seeking by 57 community women with bulimic-type EDs using the Framework approach of familiarization, identifying themes, indexing, charting and mapping and interpretation. The mean age of the sample was 33 years. Results found women sought help for concerns regarding perceived (over) weight rather than for eating,

Elizabeth J. Evans; Phillipa J. Hay; Jonathan Mond; Susan J. Paxton; Frances Quirk; Bryan Rodgers; Atiranjan K. Jhajj; Marta A. Sawoniewska

2011-01-01

81

Barriers faced by Ugandan university students in seeking medical care and sexual health counselling: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Meeting the medical and sexual health care needs of young people is crucial for sustainable development. In Uganda, youth are faced with a number of challenges related to accessing medical care and sexual health counselling services. This study sought to investigate the barriers faced by Ugandan university students in seeking medical care and sexual health counselling. Methods This study is part of a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 among 980 students at Mbarara University of Science and Technology. Data was collected by means of a self-administered 11-page questionnaire. The barriers encountered by respondents in seeking medical care and sexual health counselling were classified into three categories reflecting the acceptability, accessibility, or availability of services. Results Two out of five students reported unmet medical care needs, and one out of five reported unmet sexual health counselling needs. Acceptability of services was the main barrier faced by students for seeking medical care (70.4%) as well as for student in need of sexual health counselling (72.2%), regardless of age, gender, self-rated health, and rural/peri-urban or urban residence status. However, barriers differed within the various strata. There was a significant difference (p-value 0.01) in barriers faced by students originally from rural versus peri-urban/urban areas in seeking medical care (acceptability: 64.8%/74.5%, accessibility: 22.0% /12.6%, availability 13.2%/12.9%, respectively). Students who reported poor self-rated health encountered barriers in seeking both medical care and sexual health counselling that were significantly different from their other counterparts (p-value 0.001 and 0.007 respectively). Conclusions Barriers faced by students in seeking medical and sexual health care should be reduced by interventions aimed at boosting confidence in health care services, encouraging young people to seek early treatment, and increasing awareness of where they can turn for services. The availability of medical services should be increased and waiting times and cost reduced for vulnerable groups.

2012-01-01

82

Eating pattern disturbances among women medical and graduate students.  

PubMed

In this study, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) was used to determine the incidence of disturbed eating patterns and other characteristics of anorexia nervosa and bulimia among women graduate and medical students. The EDI was given to 219 female graduate students and 132 female medical students by mail questionnaire (61% return rate). Excessive dieting concerns, as measured by the Drive for Thinness subscale, were significantly more common in medical students compared to graduate students (18.7% versus 12.9%; p less than 0.05). The incidence of bulimic eating patterns was also insignificantly higher in the medical students. The prevalence of bulimia estimated from this survey is similar to that reported in undergraduate women, but the estimated prevalence of anorexia nervosa in both medical and graduate students is lower than reported for younger students. Our data suggest that a competitive environment alone does not appear to lead to greater expression of anorexia nervosa and bulimia. PMID:3170303

Futch, L S; Wingard, D L; Felice, M E

1988-09-01

83

Medication use during pregnancy in Omani women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate medication use pattern in a university tertiary hospital in the Sultanate of Oman.\\u000a Setting The study was conducted at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) and the SQUH Family and Community Medicine clinic\\u000a (FAMCO), Muscat, Sultanate of Oman during 7th to 25th June 2008. Method The medication use pattern was evaluated

Intisar M. Al-RiyamiIntisar; Intisar Q. Al-Busaidy; Ibrahim S. Al-Zakwani

2011-01-01

84

Do students' attitudes toward women change during medical school?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Medical school has historically reinforced traditional views of women. This cohort study follows implementation of a revitalized curriculum and examines students' attitudes toward women on entry into an Ontario medical school, and 3 years later. METHODS: Of the 75 students entering first year at Queen's University medical school 70 completed the initial survey in September 1994 and 54 were resurveyed in May 1997. First-year students at 2 other Ontario medical schools were also surveyed in 1994, and these 166 respondents formed a comparison group. Changes in responses to statements about sex-role stereotypes, willingness to control decision-making of female patients, and conceptualization of women as "other" or "abnormal" because they are women were examined. Responses from the comparison group were used to indicate whether the Queen's group was representative. RESULTS: Attitudinal differences between the primary group and the comparison group were not significant. After 3 years of medical education students were somewhat less accepting of sex-role stereotypes and less controlling in the doctor-patient encounter. They continued, however, to equate adults with men and to see women as "not adult" or "other." Female students began and remained somewhat more open-minded in all areas studied. INTERPRETATION: A predicted trend toward conservatism was not seen as students became older, more aware and closer to completion of medical training, although they continued to equate adults with male and to see women as "other." Findings may validate new curricular approaches and increased attention to gender issues in the academic environment.

Phillips, S P; Ferguson, K E

1999-01-01

85

Depression and the medicalization of sadness: Conceptualization and recommended help-seeking  

PubMed Central

Background: Critiques of the validity of the DSM diagnostic criteria for depressive disorder argue that it fails to differentiate between abnormal sadness due to internal dysfunction or depression (sadness without an identifiable cause), and normal sadness (sadness with a clear cause). Aims and Methods: A population survey was undertaken in adult education centres in Spain aiming to explore beliefs about depression and normal sadness. Two hypothetical case vignettes portrayed individuals experiencing deep sadness, both fulfilling criteria for major depressive disorder (DSM-IV), one with a clear cause, the other without an identifiable cause. Three hundred and forty-four (344) questionnaires were obtained (95% response rate). Results: Participants statistically significantly differentiated between the sadness-with-cause vignette, seen more frequently as a normal response, while the one without a cause was seen as pathological. Help-seeking behaviour recommendations followed this distinction: a medical option was statistically significantly more common when there was no cause for sadness. Socio-cultural variation in how people understand and deal with sadness was also found. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the importance of taking into account the context in which depressive symptoms occur as it seems that the absence of an appropriate context is what makes people conceptualize them as abnormal. It also raises questions about the lack of face validity of the current diagnostic classification for depressive disorder that exclusively uses descriptive criteria.

Littlewood, Roland; Leavey, Gerard

2013-01-01

86

HIV Medication Adherence and Substance Use: The Smartest Women's Project  

PubMed Central

Antiretroviral (ARV) medication for substance users has been a controversial issue with respect to whether current substance users can successfully maintain their medication regimens. This study compared ARV adherence across current substance users, former substance users and those with no history or current use and the relative impact of a medication adherence intervention on all three groups. Of the 481 predominantly African American and Latina women from Miami, New York and New Jersey enrolled in the SMARTEST Women’s Program, 338 participants were prescribed antiretroviral medication at study entry. All three groups, current users (n=60), former users (n=107) and never users (n=171), reported relatively high levels of adherence at baseline. Of those participants with less than 80% adherence at baseline, former users showed the most significant decrease in viral load post-intervention and at long term (two year) follow-up. These findings suggest former users to be the most reliable source of self-reported adherence and to profit most from the study intervention. They also suggest that additional research on targeted interventions for current substance users may be necessary to improve medication adherence for this group of women living with HIV.

Lopez, Eliot; Jones, Deborah L; Ishii, Mary; Tobin, Jonathan N; Weiss, Stephen M

2008-01-01

87

Labour exploitation and health: a case series of men and women seeking post-trafficking services.  

PubMed

Research on the health of trafficked men and on the health problems associated with trafficking for labor exploitation are extremely limited. This study analysed data from a case series of anonymised case records of a consecutive sample of 35 men and women who had been trafficked for labor exploitation in the UK and who were receiving support from a non-governmental service between June 2009 and July 2010. Over three-quarters of our sample was male (77 %) and two-thirds aged between 18 and 35 years (mean 32.9 years, SD 10.2). Forty percent reported experiencing physical violence while they were trafficked. Eighty-one percent (25/31) reported one or more physical health symptoms. Fifty-seven percent (17/30) reported one or more post-traumatic stress symptoms. A substantial proportion of men and women who are trafficked for labor exploitation may experience violence and abuse, and have physical and mental health symptoms. People who have been trafficked for forced labor need access to medical assessment and treatment. PMID:23649665

Turner-Moss, Eleanor; Zimmerman, Cathy; Howard, Louise M; Oram, Siân

2014-06-01

88

Narratives of Ugandan women adhering to HIV/AIDS medication.  

PubMed

Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is essential to improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS; however, it still remains a challenge especially for young African women. The purpose of the study was to explore how young women with HIV/AIDS in Uganda experience the influence of their everyday life occupations on adherence to HAART after more than 1 year on the medication. Narratives of six participants were elicited using two semistructured interviews within a period of 1 month. Narrative analysis was used to develop themes reflecting the participants' stories of coping with everyday activities. The participants described their adherence to HAART in relation to everyday life occupations as a "tug of war", which describes the struggles they had taking medication because they were afraid of being discriminated by peers and the general society. They also expressed fear of not being included in many activities if people knew they have HIV/AIDS because there are many beliefs associated with the illness especially for young women in which they are branded promiscuous. However, in the Ugandan culture, women are considered to be home makers, which restricted their activities mostly around domestic work making it hard for them to prioritize their medication, and when they young women prioritized, it was all about fun activities that seemed to consume much time, hence contributing to the poor adherence. It is therefore important to assess the everyday occupations of young women before they start taking medication, so that HAART is scheduled in accordance with their everyday life occupation to reduce poor adherence. The implications of the study on practice is that it will enable occupational therapists working with persons with HIV/AIDS develop age-specific activities taking into consideration HAART as an everyday life activity rather than one that needs to be incorporated into their already existing activities, hence improving their adherence and reducing on stigma associated to the medication. PMID:22740312

Matovu, Sarah Natalia; La cour, Karen; Hemmingsson, Helena

2012-12-01

89

Enhanced care by community health workers in improving treatment adherence to antidepressant medication in rural women with major depression  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Depression remains largely undiagnosed in women residing in rural India and consequently many do not seek help. Moreover, among those who are diagnosed, many do not complete treatment due to high rates of attrition. This study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of enhanced care with usual care in improving treatment seeking and adherence to antidepressant medication in women with depression living in rural India. Methods: Six villages from rural Bangalore were randomized to either community health worker supported enhanced care or usual care. A total of 260 adult depressed women formed the final participants for the analysis. The outcome measures were number of women who sought and completed treatment, number of clinic visits, duration of treatment with antidepressant, changes in severity of depression (HDRS) and changes in quality of life [WHO-QOL (Brev) scale]. Results: A significantly greater number of women from the treatment intervention (TI) group completed the treatment and were on treatment for a longer duration compared to the treatment as usual (TAU) group. However, there were no significant differences in the severity of depression or quality of life between the TI and the TAU groups or between treatment completers and treatment dropouts at six months. Interpretation & conclusions: Enhanced care provided by the trained community health workers to rural women with major depression living in the community resulted in greater number of women seeking help and adhering to treatment with antidepressants. However, despite enhanced care a significant number of rural women diagnosed with depression either did not seek help or discontinued treatment prematurely. These findings have significant public health implications, as untreated depression is associated with considerable disability.

Pradeep, Johnson; Isaacs, Anton; Shanbag, Deepthi; Selvan, Sumithra; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

2014-01-01

90

HIV Medication Adherence and Substance Use: The Smartest Women's Project.  

PubMed

Antiretroviral (ARV) medication for substance users has been a controversial issue with respect to whether current substance users can successfully maintain their medication regimens. This study compared ARV adherence across current substance users, former substance users and those with no history or current use and the relative impact of a medication adherence intervention on all three groups. Of the 481 predominantly African American and Latina women from Miami, New York and New Jersey enrolled in the SMARTEST Women's Program, 338 participants were prescribed antiretroviral medication at study entry. All three groups, current users (n=60), former users (n=107) and never users (n=171), reported relatively high levels of adherence at baseline. Of those participants with less than 80% adherence at baseline, former users showed the most significant decrease in viral load post-intervention and at long term (two year) follow-up. These findings suggest former users to be the most reliable source of self-reported adherence and to profit most from the study intervention. They also suggest that additional research on targeted interventions for current substance users may be necessary to improve medication adherence for this group of women living with HIV. PMID:18668183

Lopez, Eliot; Jones, Deborah L; Ishii, Mary; Tobin, Jonathan N; Weiss, Stephen M

2007-01-01

91

Demographic and clinical profile of substance abusing women seeking treatment at a de-addiction center in north India  

PubMed Central

Background: In the recent decades increasing number of women have been seeking deaddiction services. Despite that the report data is very limited from India. Objectives: The present research aimed to study the demographic and clinical profile of women seeking deaddiction treatment at a tertiary care center in North India. Materials and Methods: Retrospective structured chart review of 100 women substance abusers seeking treatment at a deaddiction center between September 1978 and December 2011. Results: A typical case was of 36.3 years age, married (65%), urban (61%), nuclear family (59%) based housewife (56%), with good to fair social support (69%). The commonest substance of abuse was tobacco (60%), followed by opioids (27%), alcohol (15%), and benzodiazepines (13%). The common reasons for initiation of substance use were to alleviate frustration or stress (49%) and curiosity (37%). Family history of drug dependence (43%), comorbidity (25%), and impairments in health (74%), family (57%), and social domains (56%) were common. Only a third of the sample paid one or more follow visit, and of those 58% were abstinent at the last follow-up. Significant predictors identified were being non-Hindu and higher educational years for abstinent status at follow-up. Conclusion: The common substances of abuse were tobacco, opioids, and alcohol and benzodiazepines; and family history of drug abuse and comorbidity were common. The follow-up and outcome were generally poor. This profile gives us some clues to address a hidden health problem of the community.

Nebhinani, Naresh; Sarkar, Siddharth; Gupta, Sunil; Mattoo, Surendra Kumar; Basu, Debasish

2013-01-01

92

Patterns of seeking medical care among Egyptian breast cancer patients: relationship to late-stage presentation.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Egyptian women, accounting for 37.6% of female tumors, and is often diagnosed at later stages. The objective of this study was to investigate breast cancer patient navigation through the health care system in the Nile Delta. Interviews were conducted with 163 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients at the Tanta Cancer Center (TCC), the major cancer center of the region. Patients described their medical care pathway from the initial symptom experienced until their arrival at TCC. Patients whose initial contact was with a general surgeon (OR: 7.6, 95% CI: 2.1, 27.6), primary care provider (OR: 12.2, 95% CI: 2.9, 51.0), or gynecologist (OR: 8.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 53.4) were significantly more likely to experience a delay in reaching the TCC as compared to those visiting a surgical oncologist. Overcoming health care system and patient navigation barriers in developing countries may reduce the time for breast cancer patients to reach a cancer center for early management. PMID:21807518

Mousa, Shimaa M; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A; Hablas, Ahmed; Elbana, Eman S; Soliman, Amr S

2011-12-01

93

Electronic resources at the University of Sharjah medical library: an investigation of students' information-seeking behavior.  

PubMed

Electronic information is becoming prevalent worldwide, and its use is growing exponentially as more and more users are recognizing the potential that it offers in terms of access and delivery. However, with the introduction of new tools for e-information searching and retrieval, users have to readjust their information-seeking behavior to cope with the corresponding changes. The University of Sharjah library is steadily increasing its investment in e-resources to offer ubiquitous access to the growing body of literature in areas that interest the community it serves. This study reports the findings of a survey conducted to investigate the information-seeking behavior of medical students at the medical library. Results showed evidence of use of e-resources, but they did not explicitly establish that some of the major problems mentioned by participants did hinder the information searches of the respondents. An extensive literature review sets the background for the study. PMID:21058178

Boumarafi, Behdja

2010-10-01

94

Medical and surgical therapies for alopecias in black women.  

PubMed

Hair loss is a common problem that challenges the patient and clinician with a host of cosmetic, psychological and medical issues. Alopecia occurs in both men and women, and in all racial and ethnic populations, but the etiology varies considerably from group to group. In black women, many forms of alopecia are associated with hair-care practices (e.g., traction alopecia, trichorrhexis nodosa, and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia). The use of thermal or chemical hair straightening, and hair braiding or weaving are examples of styling techniques that place African American women at high risk for various "traumatic" alopecias. Although the exact cause of these alopecias is unknown, a multifactorial etiology including both genetic and environmental factors is suspected. A careful history and physical examination, together with an acute sensitivity to the patient's perceptions (e.g., self-esteem and social problems), are critical in determining the best therapy course. Therapeutic options for these patients range from alteration of current hair grooming practices or products, to use of specific medical treatments, to hair replacement surgery. Since early intervention is often a key to preventing irreversible alopecia, the purpose of the present article is to educate the dermatologist on all aspects of therapy for hair loss in black women--including not only a discussion of the main medical and surgical therapies but also an overview of ethnic hair cosmetics, specific suggestions for alterations of hair-care practices, and recommendations for patient education and compliance. PMID:15113284

Callender, Valerie D; McMichael, Amy J; Cohen, George F

2004-01-01

95

Seeking medical advice if HIV symptoms are suspected. Qualitative study of beliefs among HIV-negative gay men.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify beliefs associated with seeking medical advice promptly when symptoms of HIV infection are suspected among HIV-negative gay men. DESIGN: Qualitative study of beliefs among focus group participants. SETTING: Quebec city, Que, metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Referred sample of 20 HIV-negative gay men 18 to 45 years old who attended bars, university, or gay associations in Quebec city. METHOD: Three focus groups of five to seven subjects were formed and each 2-hour session was tape-recorded. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: Participants thought that seeking medical advice promptly when symptoms of HIV are suspected would help them be informed about their health status and would eliminate unnecessary anxiety and fear, but would force them to face reality and make major changes. Barriers were the quality of the relationship with their physicians and concern about discussing their sexual lives. Normative beliefs were sought from members of community groups, circles of close friends, health providers, and the media. CONCLUSIONS: Several beliefs could influence the motivation of seronegative gay men to seek medical advice promptly when symptoms of HIV infection are suspected. These beliefs should be integrated into programs promoting early consultation with physicians and into clinical counseling, as integration could facilitate early treatment and care. Physicians should give special attention to establishing relationships of trust with these patients.

Godin, G.; Naccache, H.; Pelletier, R.

2000-01-01

96

Seeking the Holy Grail or the Status of Women in Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews some of the progress in the last 15 years in counseling women. It notes that at this stage of the status of counseling women, there is a need to treat women as individuals who are as different from each other as they are from men. (NG)

Brodsky, Annette M.

1976-01-01

97

Do colour and personality influence treatment seeking behaviour in women with lower urinary tract symptoms? A prospective study using the short Luscher colour test.  

PubMed

Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common and affect quality of life. The influence of personality on the patients' decision to seek help is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify personality traits which may influence womens' decision to seek help for LUTS using the short Luscher colour test (LCT). Participants completed two validated questionnaires prior to taking part in the LCT. Symptomatic non-treatment seekers were identified as impatient. Women seeking help for LUTS were identified as impatient, restless, authoritative and determined individuals. Asymptomatic women were identified as sensitive individuals who have strong ideals and desire their own way. Further studies are required to improve knowledge about the influence of personality on treatment seeking behaviour in women with LUTS. PMID:19603319

Basra, R; Cortes, E; Khullar, V; Kelleher, C

2009-07-01

98

The Effects of Discrimination and Acculturation to Service Seeking Satisfaction for Latina and Asian American Women: Implications for Mental Health Professions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is ample research showing that there are health disparities for minorities with respect to seeking mental health services in the United States. Although there are general barriers for minorities in seeking service health, minority women are more vulnerable due to their negative experiences and lower satisfaction in receiving health care, compared to men. This study utilized the National Latino

Bu Huang; Hoa Appel; Amy L. Ai

2010-01-01

99

Seeking Balance: Decision Support Needs of Women Without Cancer and a Deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutation.  

PubMed

Recommendations for women with a deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation include complex medical approaches related to cancer risk reduction and detection. Current science has not yet fully elucidated decision support needs that women face when living with medical consequences associated with known hereditary cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to describe health communication and decision support needs in healthy women with BRCA1/2 gene mutations. The original researchers completed an interpretive secondary qualitative data analysis of 23 phenomenological narratives collected between 2008 and 2010. The Ottawa Decision Support and Patient Centered Communication frameworks guided the study design and analysis. Women described a pattern wherein breast and ovarian cancer risk, health related recommendations and decisions, and personal values were prioritized over time based on life contexts. Knowing versus acting on cancer risk was not a static process but an ongoing balancing act of considering current and future personal and medical values, further compounded by the complexity of recommendations. Women shared stories of anticipatory, physical and psychosocial consequences of the decision making experience. The findings have potential to generate future research questions and guide intervention development. Importantly, findings indicate a need for ongoing, long-term, support from genetics professionals and decision support interventions, which challenges the current practice paradigm. PMID:24271037

Underhill, Meghan L; Crotser, Cheryl B

2014-06-01

100

Prior Medical Conditions and Medication use and Risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Connecticut United States Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To further investigate the role of prior medical conditions and medication use in the etiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), we analyzed the data from a population-based case–control study of NHL in Connecticut women.

Yawei Zhang; Theodore R. Holford; Brian Leaderer; Shelia Hoar Zahm; Peter Boyle; Lindsay McOmber Morton; Bing Zhang; Kaiyong Zou; Stuart Flynn; Giovanni Tallini; Patricia H. Owens; Tongzhang Zheng

2004-01-01

101

A qualitative study of women's views on medical confidentiality  

PubMed Central

Context: The need to reinvigorate medical confidentiality protections is recognised as an important objective in building patient trust necessary for successful health outcomes. Little is known about patient understanding and expectations from medical confidentiality. Objective: To identify and describe patient views of medical confidentiality and to assess provisionally the range of these views. Design: Qualitative study using indepth, open ended face-to-face interviews. Setting: Southeastern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey, USA. Participants: A total of 85 women interviewed at two clinical sites and three community/research centres. Main outcome measures: Subjects' understanding of medical confidentiality, beliefs about the handling of confidential information and concerns influencing disclosure of information to doctors. Results: The subjects defined medical confidentiality as the expectation that something done or said would be kept "private" but differed on what information was confidential and the basis and methods for protecting information. Some considered all medical information as confidential and thought confidentiality protections functioned to limit its circulation to medical uses and reimbursement needs. Others defined only sensitive or potentially stigmatising information as confidential. Many of these also defined medical confidentiality as a strict limit prohibiting information release, although some noted that specific permission or urgent need could override this limit. Conclusions: Patients share a basic understanding of confidentiality as protection of information, but some might have expectations that are likely not met by current practice nor anticipated by doctors. Doctors should recognise that patients might have their own medical confidentiality models. They should address divergences from current practice and provide support to those who face emotional or practical obstacles to self-revelation.

Jenkins, G; Merz, J; Sankar, P

2005-01-01

102

The Effect of a First Child on Female Labor Supply: Evidence from Women Seeking Fertility Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Estimating the causal effect of a first child on female labor supply is complicated by the endogeneity of fertility. This paper addresses this problem by focusing on a sample of women from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) who sought help to become pregnant. After a certain period, only some of these women gave birth. Results using this…

Cristia, Julian P.

2008-01-01

103

Is Military Sexual Trauma Associated with Trading Sex Among Women Veterans Seeking Outpatient Mental Health Care?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust association between sexual trauma and trading sex has been documented in civilian samples but has not been examined in veterans. Women veterans experience high rates of sexual victimization across the lifespan, including during military service (military sexual trauma [MST]). Associations between MST and trading sex were examined in 200 women enrolled in a crosssectional study of HIV risks

Jennifer L. Strauss; Christine E. Marx; Julie C. Weitlauf; Karen M. Stechuchak; Kristy Straits-Tröster; Ayaba W. Worjoloh; Christina B. Sherrod; Maren K. Olsen; Marian I. Butterfield; Patrick S. Calhoun

2011-01-01

104

The effects of discrimination and acculturation to service seeking satisfaction for Latina and Asian American women: implications for mental health professions.  

PubMed

There is ample research showing that there are health disparities for minorities with respect to seeking mental health services in the United States. Although there are general barriers for minorities in seeking service health, minority women are more vulnerable due to their negative experiences and lower satisfaction in receiving health care, compared to men. This study utilized the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) data set, which is the first population-based mental health study on Latino and Asian Americans, to give a full description of Latina and Asian American women's experience in mental health service seeking and identifies the opportunities in increasing their satisfaction levels. The results showed that perceived discrimination attributed to gender or race/ethnicity is negatively predicting levels of satisfaction of mental health service seeking. Older age, higher education levels, longer duration in the United States, and better mental health, are positively related to satisfaction levels for Latina and Asian American women. PMID:21213187

Huang, Bu; Appel, Hoa; Ai, Amy L

2011-01-01

105

Trends in the contraceptive practices of women seeking abortions in the 1980s.  

PubMed

The demographic features and contraceptive practices of 1000 women attending Parkview clinic of Wellington Hospital for termination of pregnancy were studied over an eight month period in 1988-9. Comparisons were made with a previous study at the same clinic in 1980-1. The overall abortion rate has increased from 6.8/1000 women in the Wellington statistical area in 1981 to 9.8 in 1989. The proportion of Pacific Island and Asian women presenting for abortions is high and has increased disproportionately between 1981 and 1989. The abortion rate has also increased in lower socioeconomic groups in 1989. The proportion of women using contraception at the time of conception increased from 50% in 1981 to 68.5% in 1989. The methods used by women presenting for abortion have changed significantly. There has been an increase in the proportion of women using condoms (from 13.3% to 36.2%) and the oral contraceptive pill from (14% to 21.4%). PMID:2020459

North, D A; Sparrow, M J

1991-04-24

106

Stress Urinary Incontinence in Women: Diagnosis and Medical Management  

PubMed Central

Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is the most common form of urinary incontinence in women and is associated with high financial, social, and emotional costs. The history and physical examination can identify most patients with a significant stress incontinence component without the need for urodynamic testing. A variety of pharmacologic agents have been used off-label, but an evidence-based pharmacologic treatment has not been readily available. The development of a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor will add a potentially useful drug to the primary care physician's practice for treating female patients with SUI. In August 2004, a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, duloxetine, became the first medication approved for the treatment of women with moderate to severe SUI throughout the European Union. As of November 2005, however, duloxetine has not been approved for the treatment of SUI in the United States.

Deutchman, Mark; Wulster-Radcliffe, Meghan

2005-01-01

107

Online and in-person health-seeking for infertility.  

PubMed

Using data from Wave 1 (2004-2006) of the National Survey of Fertility Barriers (NSFB), a national probability sample of women ages 25-45, we examine online information-seeking among ever-infertile women. Of the 1352 women who met criteria for infertility, 459 (34%) neither talked to a doctor nor went online for information, 9% went online only for information, 32% talked to a doctor but did not go online, and 25% did both. Guided by Chrisman's Health-Seeking Model and previous research on Internet use to obtain health information, we employ multinomial logistic regression to compare these four groups of ever-infertile women. Findings generally support Chrisman's model. Infertile women tend to seek information online as a complement to, rather than as a substitute for, in-person health-seeking. Greater faith in the ability of medical science to treat infertility and greater perceived stigma were associated with higher odds of using the Internet to obtain information about infertility. In general, women who perceived the symptoms of infertility as more salient had higher odds of using both online and in-person or only in-person health-seeking compared to online health-seeking. Women with greater resources had higher odds of using online sources of information. Strong network encouragement to seek treatment was associated with higher odds of in-person health-seeking and combining in-person and online health-seeking compared to only going online or doing nothing. PMID:24355477

Slauson-Blevins, Kathleen S; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L

2013-12-01

108

The emotional-psychological consequences of infertility among infertile women seeking treatment: Results of a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background: Infertility is a major life event that brings about social and psychological problems. The type and rate these problems in the context of socio-cultural of different geographical areas and sex of people is different. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explain the psychological consequences of infertility in Iranian infertile women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was done using qualitative content analysis on 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children in 2012. They were purposefully selected with maximum sample variation from a large Fertility Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using 32 semi-structured interviews and analyzed by the conventional content analysis method. Results: The findings of this study include four main themes: 1. Cognitive reactions of infertility (mental engagement; psychological turmoil). 2. Cognitive reactions to therapy process (psychological turmoil; being difficult to control in some situations; reduced self-esteem; feelings of failure). 3. Emotional-affective reactions of infertility (fear, anxiety and worry; loneliness and guilt; grief and depression; regret). 4. Emotional-affective reactions to therapy process (fear, anxiety and worry; fatigue and helplessness; grief and depression; hopelessness). Conclusion: This study revealed that Iranian infertile women seeking treatment face several psychological-emotional problems with devastating effects on the mental health and well-being of the infertile individuals and couples, while the infertility is often treated as a biomedical issue in Iranian context with less attention on the mental-emotional, social and cultural aspects. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Seyede Batool Hasanpoor-Azghady)

Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Seyede Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali

2014-01-01

109

Young women and their reproductive health needs in a family practice setting: factors influencing care seeking in Vitoria, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background. Young women often have diverse options for addressing their reproductive health and other health needs in urban settings. In Brazil, they may access care through the government-run Family Health Program (FHP). Understanding factors associated with service utilization can enhance access to and delivery of appropriate services. Objectives. To describe demographic, behavioural and clinical characteristics of young women accessing services through FHP in Vitória, Brazil. Methods. From March to December 2006, women aged 18–29 years were recruited into a population-based, household survey. Responses were analysed to assess previous 6 months utilization of FHP services in this population and characteristics associated with accessing care through this public family practice model. Results. Of 1200 eligible women identified, 1029 enrolled (85.7%). Median age was 23 (interquartile range 20–26) years, 42.7% were married or cohabitating with a male partner. A majority (72%) accessed FHP services in the preceding 6 months, principally for routine and gynaecological visits. Factors independently associated with seeking FHP included: ever tested for human immunodeficiency virus, using anal sex as contraceptive method and reporting a current vaginal discharge. Prior commercial sex work, previous diagnosis with an sexually transmitted infection or using oral sex as a contraceptive method were associated with less use of FHP services. Conclusions. A public option for delivery of FHP has attracted wide utilization across a cross-section of young women in Vitoria, Brazil. Greater sensitization to specific practices and needs of this population, especially around reproductive health, could further enhance the services provided by family practitioners.

E St Louis, Michael; C Figueiredo, Ninive; Milbratz, Ildes; Page-Shafer, Kimberly

2009-01-01

110

The Resume Characteristics Determining Job Interviews for Middle-Aged Women Seeking Entry-Level Employment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obtaining an entry-level job can be critically important for women with little education, particularly those who have taken time out of the labor force. This article uses archival data from a field experiment, called a resume audit study, to examine the characteristics of entry-level resumes that are important to potential employers. In accordance…

Johnson, Emily; Lahey, Joanna

2011-01-01

111

Time in Bed Is Associated with Decreased Physical Activity and Higher BMI in Women Seeking Weight Loss Treatment  

PubMed Central

Short sleep duration is associated with obesity risk. Despite calls to incorporate strategies to enhance sleep within the context of behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment, little is known regarding the association between sleep and body mass index (BMI) among individuals presenting for BWL. Moreover, most research has focused on eating pathways linking sleep and BMI and has not explored how sleep may impact engagement in physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether, in a sample of women seeking treatment for weight loss, there was an association between reported time in bed (TIB), higher BMI, lower physical activity, and less favorable dietary composition. Prior to randomization, 318 women completed measures of TIB, eating, and activity; weight and height were measured. Findings demonstrated that report of “6 hours or less” TIB/night was associated with higher BMI and lower reported physical activity compared to that of the referent (>7 to ?8 hours/night). It was not associated with the number of reported calories consumed each day or with the percent of calories consumed from fat, carbohydrates, or protein. Better understanding of the role of sleep within the context of BWL treatment in women seems warranted.

Hart, Chantelle N.; Fava, Joseph L.; Subak, Leslee L.; Stone, Katie; Vittinghoff, Eric; Demos, Kathryn E.; O'Brien, Erin; Cairns, Alyssa; Wing, Rena R.

2012-01-01

112

Delivering at home or in a health facility? health-seeking behaviour of women and the role of traditional birth attendants in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional birth attendants retain an important role in reproductive and maternal health in Tanzania. The Tanzanian Government promotes TBAs in order to provide maternal and neonatal health counselling and initiating timely referral, however, their role officially does not include delivery attendance. Yet, experience illustrates that most TBAs still often handle complicated deliveries. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to describe (1) women’s health-seeking behaviour and experiences regarding their use of antenatal (ANC) and postnatal care (PNC); (2) their rationale behind the choice of place and delivery; and to learn (3) about the use of traditional practices and resources applied by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and how they can be linked to the bio-medical health system. Methods Qualitative and quantitative interviews were conducted with over 270 individuals in Masasi District, Mtwara Region and Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results The results from the urban site show that significant achievements have been made in terms of promoting pregnancy- and delivery-related services through skilled health workers. Pregnant women have a high level of awareness and clearly prefer to deliver at a health facility. The scenario is different in the rural site (Masasi District), where an adequately trained health workforce and well-equipped health facilities are not yet a reality, resulting in home deliveries with the assistance of either a TBA or a relative. Conclusions Instead of focusing on the traditional sector, it is argued that more attention should be paid towards (1) improving access to as well as strengthening the health system to guarantee delivery by skilled health personnel; and (2) bridging the gaps between communities and the formal health sector through community-based counselling and health education, which is provided by well-trained and supervised village health workers who inform villagers about promotive and preventive health services, including maternal and neonatal health.

2013-01-01

113

Physician Internet Medical Information Seeking and On-line Continuing Education Use Patterns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses from 2,200 physicians indicated that nearly all have Internet access and use it primarily for medical information and professional development, not for communicating with patients. Credibility of source, speed, accessibility, and searching ease were most important. Barriers included information overload and too little information…

Casebeer, Linda; Bennett, Nancy; Kristofco, Robert; Carillo, Anna; Centor, Robert

2002-01-01

114

Medical and social problems among women headed families in Baghdad  

PubMed Central

Background: Women-headed families tend to be the most marginalized and poverty prone in any given community. One in 10 Iraqi households is headed by woman according to International Organization for Migration, though their assessments suggest that this ratio rises to 1 in 8 in displaced families. Objective: To draw attention to the exposure and vulnerability of women headed families to key medical and social problems. Methods: This cross – sectional study was conducted from March through February 2011. Eleven non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were chosen to be the pool of data collection, in addition to 50 primary, intermediate, and secondary schools for girls. The actual participants were 720 with a response rate of (97%). Women headed families participated in the study were distributed in different areas of Baghdad and the districts around. Results: Hypertension is the leading disease (20%) followed by arthritis (9.6%), heart disease (7.6%), and diabetes mellitus (5.2%), the least was tuberculosis (0.1%). On the other hand, the number of sons and daughters with chronic disease was 159 (6.4%). Respiratory system disease is at the top of the list at a rate of (20.6 per 1000) while the gastrointestinal disease is at the bottom at a rate of (1.6 per 1000). 7.8% of the studied household-heading women were exposed to violence that was either verbal (75%) or physical (25%), the source was the woman's parents (42.9%), husband's family (34%), neighbors (8.9%), and others (14.3%). The percentage of problematic sons (17.9%) who show different types of behavior, (30.2%) of them not obeying their mothers, (21%) hit their brothers, (9.3%) insulting the mother, (2.3%) have problems with neighbors.

Lafta, Riyadh K; Hayawi, Ali H; Khudhairi, Jamal M

2012-01-01

115

Medical and social problems among women headed families in Baghdad.  

PubMed

Background: Women-headed families tend to be the most marginalized and poverty prone in any given community. One in 10 Iraqi households is headed by woman according to International Organization for Migration, though their assessments suggest that this ratio rises to 1 in 8 in displaced families. Objective: To draw attention to the exposure and vulnerability of women headed families to key medical and social problems. Methods: This cross - sectional study was conducted from March through February 2011. Eleven non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were chosen to be the pool of data collection, in addition to 50 primary, intermediate, and secondary schools for girls. The actual participants were 720 with a response rate of (97%). Women headed families participated in the study were distributed in different areas of Baghdad and the districts around. Results: Hypertension is the leading disease (20%) followed by arthritis (9.6%), heart disease (7.6%), and diabetes mellitus (5.2%), the least was tuberculosis (0.1%). On the other hand, the number of sons and daughters with chronic disease was 159 (6.4%). Respiratory system disease is at the top of the list at a rate of (20.6 per 1000) while the gastrointestinal disease is at the bottom at a rate of (1.6 per 1000). 7.8% of the studied household-heading women were exposed to violence that was either verbal (75%) or physical (25%), the source was the woman's parents (42.9%), husband's family (34%), neighbors (8.9%), and others (14.3%). The percentage of problematic sons (17.9%) who show different types of behavior, (30.2%) of them not obeying their mothers, (21%) hit their brothers, (9.3%) insulting the mother, (2.3%) have problems with neighbors. PMID:25003041

Lafta, Riyadh K; Hayawi, Ali H; Khudhairi, Jamal M

2012-01-01

116

Peri-Abortion Contraceptive Choices of Migrant Chinese Women: A Retrospective Review of Medical Records  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMigrant Asian women reportedly have low levels of contraceptive use and high rates of abortion in New Zealand. Chinese make up the largest proportion of migrant Asian in New Zealand. This study aimed to describe the contraceptive choices of Chinese women seeking abortion; to examine method choice in relation to demographic characteristics (including length of stay) and to determine whether

Sally B. Rose; Zhang Wei; Annette J. Cooper; Beverley A. Lawton

2012-01-01

117

"Keeping the Boogie Man Away": Medication Self-Management among Women Receiving Anastrozole Therapy  

PubMed Central

The oral hormonal agent anastrozole improves clinical outcomes for women with breast cancer, but women have difficulty taking it for the five-year course. The unique medication-taking experiences related to self-management of anastrozole therapy for women with early stage breast cancer are not known. Our purpose was to describe the medication-taking experiences for postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer who were prescribed a course of anastrozole therapy. Twelve women aged 58 to 67 years, midway through therapy, participated in audio-recorded interviews. Women's medication-taking experiences involved a belief in their importance and an imperative to take anastrozole. We found that women's side effect experiences, particularly menopausal symptoms, were significant, but only one woman stopped anastrozole due to side effects. Medication-taking included routinization interconnected with remembering/forgetting and a storage strategy. Some women noted a mutual medication-taking experience with their spouse, but most felt taking anastrozole was something they had to do alone. Our results provide insight into the way some women with early stage breast cancer manage their hormonal therapy at approximately the midpoint of treatment. Next steps should include examinations of patient-provider communication, potential medication-taking differences between pre- and postmenopausal women, and the effects of medication-taking on clinical outcomes.

Wickersham, Karen; Happ, Mary Beth; Bender, Catherine M.

2012-01-01

118

Medical and Obstetric Complications among Pregnant Women Aged 45 and Older  

PubMed Central

Objective The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older. Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM) codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35–44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes. Results Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35. Conclusion Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may contribute to these findings.

Grotegut, Chad A.; Chisholm, Christian A.; Johnson, Lauren N. C.; Brown, Haywood L.; Heine, R. Phillips; James, Andra H.

2014-01-01

119

Health Literacy and Its Association With the Use of Information Sources and With Barriers to Information Seeking in Clinic-Based Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated health literacy and its association with the use of information sources and with barriers to information seeking in clinic-based pregnant women. The Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA) was used to measure health literacy in 143 English-speaking low-income pregnant women. About 15% of the participants demonstrated low health literacy. Participants with low health literacy were

Carol Shieh; Rose Mays; Anna McDaniel; Jennifer Yu

2009-01-01

120

Transition from in library use of resources to outside library use: the impact of the Internet on information seeking behavior of medical students and faculty.  

PubMed

Advances in information technology have introduced both new capabilities and interesting challenges in accessing medical literature. More and more information resources exist in electronic format, such as online databases, journals, books, etc. instead of the traditional print format. In late 1998, there were thirty-five journal titles available online; in 2001, the number rose to over 4,000.1 Desk-top access to online resources is changing library use patterns, which challenges libraries to adjust to this transformed information access environment. Studies of the impact of the internet on information seeking behavior of users in medical environments could provide very valuable information for medical libraries seeking to adapt to this rapid and great evolution. This study aims to explore the impact of the Internet on information seeking behavior of medical students and faculty and their medical library use, to address the possible reasons for this change of information seeking behavior, and to identify the measures essential to the transition from traditional in-library use of resources to remote access. This study is conducted in two phases. PMID:14728530

Tao, Donghua; Demiris, George; Graves, Rebecca S; Sievert, MaryEllen

2003-01-01

121

Reducing the time-lag between onset of chest pain and seeking professional medical help: a theory-based review  

PubMed Central

Background Research suggests that there are a number of factors which can be associated with delay in a patient seeking professional help following chest pain, including demographic and social factors. These factors may have an adverse impact on the efficacy of interventions which to date have had limited success in improving patient action times. Theory-based methods of review are becoming increasingly recognised as important additions to conventional systematic review methods. They can be useful to gain additional insights into the characteristics of effective interventions by uncovering complex underlying mechanisms. Methods This paper describes the further analysis of research papers identified in a conventional systematic review of published evidence. The aim of this work was to investigate the theoretical frameworks underpinning studies exploring the issue of why people having a heart attack delay seeking professional medical help. The study used standard review methods to identify papers meeting the inclusion criterion, and carried out a synthesis of data relating to theoretical underpinnings. Results Thirty six papers from the 53 in the original systematic review referred to a particular theoretical perspective, or contained data which related to theoretical assumptions. The most frequently mentioned theory was the self-regulatory model of illness behaviour. Papers reported the potential significance of aspects of this model including different coping mechanisms, strategies of denial and varying models of treatment seeking. Studies also drew attention to the potential role of belief systems, applied elements of attachment theory, and referred to models of maintaining integrity, ways of knowing, and the influence of gender. Conclusions The review highlights the need to examine an individual’s subjective experience of and response to health threats, and confirms the gap between knowledge and changed behaviour. Interventions face key challenges if they are to influence patient perceptions regarding seriousness of symptoms; varying processes of coping; and obstacles created by patient perceptions of their role and responsibilities. A theoretical approach to review of these papers provides additional insight into the assumptions underpinning interventions, and illuminates factors which may impact on their efficacy. The method thus offers a useful supplement to conventional systematic review methods.

2013-01-01

122

Identification of psychological dysfunctions and eating disorders in obese women seeking weight loss: cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Objective. The aim of this study is to analyse associations between eating behaviour and psychological dysfunctions in treatment-seeking obese patients and identify parameters for the development of diagnostic tools with regard to eating and psychological disorders. Design and Methods. Cross-sectional data were analysed from 138 obese women. Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 assessed eating behaviours. Beck Depression Inventory II, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, form Y, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, and Marks and Mathews Fear Questionnaire assessed psychological profile. Results. 61% of patients showed moderate or major depressive symptoms and 77% showed symptoms of anxiety. Half of the participants presented with a low degree of assertiveness. No correlation was found between psychological profile and age or anthropometric measurements. The prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, and assertiveness increased with the degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness explained a large degree of score variance. It explained 30 to 50% of the variability of assertiveness, phobias, anxiety, and depression. Conclusion. Psychological dysfunctions had a high prevalence and their severity is correlated with degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness constitutes the major predictor of the psychological profile and could open new ways to develop screening tools. PMID:24737999

Panchaud Cornut, Maude; Szymanski, Jennifer; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Giusti, Vittorio

2014-01-01

123

First-trimester abortion in women with medical conditions: release date October 2012 SFP guideline #20122.  

PubMed

Most women undergoing first-trimester abortion are healthy. However, abortion providers also encounter women with a wide variety of medical conditions, some of which are serious and complex. When such a condition exists, consultation with the woman's physician or a specialist can facilitate decision making regarding hospital referral and additional preparations that may be required. Medical conditions may determine the approach to abortion. Surgical abortion is preferred when mifepristone or methotrexate is contraindicated. Medication abortion may be preferred when lithotomy position is not possible or in patients with extreme obesity. Limited data suggest that women treated with anticoagulation therapy bleed more than other women during surgical abortion, although this additional bleeding may be clinically unimportant. The decision to temporarily discontinue anticoagulation therapy will depend on the agent used and the underlying risk of thrombosis. According to the American Heart Association, additional antibiotics are not recommended to prevent endocarditis in women with cardiac lesions during surgical abortion. We review specific recommendations for women with common medical conditions. In some women, highly effective postabortion contraception is essential to prevent pregnancy-related morbidity. The U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010, provides guidance for method selection for women with medical problems. PMID:23039921

Guiahi, M; Davis, A

2012-12-01

124

Adaptation of health care seeking behavior during childbirth: focus group discussions with women living in the suburban areas of Luanda, Angola.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore how various factors influenced women's decisions regarding place of confinement in Luanda, Angola. Ten focus group discussions were conducted with pregnant and nonpregnant women residing in suburban areas of Luanda and the data were analyzed using the grounded theory technique. Four patterns of action of the main theme, "the molding of women's care-seeking behavior during childbirth," were identified: (I) the "labor process 'on-course' avoiding pattern"; (II) the "labor process 'off-course' avoiding pattern"; (III) the "labor process 'on-course' approaching pattern"; and (IV) the "labor process 'off-course' approaching pattern." Our findings indicate that personal "courage" and social support empowered women and impacted on their preference for home birth, whereas demand for informal user fees and perceived low quality of care influenced women to avoid institutional care during childbirth, sometimes even in spite of complications. Ability to meet demands for informal user fees and knowledge of childbirth influenced women to seek institutional care. The study highlights the need to improve the quality of available maternal health care addressing the implicit educational, attitudinal, and ethical issues. PMID:15195770

Pettersson, Karen Odberg; Christensson, Kyllike; de Freitas, Engracia da Gloria Gomes; Johansson, Eva

2004-03-01

125

Sexual Minorities Seeking Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the mental health needs of lesbian and bisexual (sexual minority) women is an integral part of designing and providing appropriate mental health services and treatment for them. In an effort to understand the mental health needs of sexual minority women who seek community treatment, a chart review was conducted of the 223 lesbian and bisexual women who presented for

Tracey L. Rogers; Kristen Emanuel; Judith Bradford

2002-01-01

126

Lower body osteoarticular pain and dose of analgesic medications in older disabled women: the Women's Health and Aging Study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed use and dosage of analgesic medications in relation to severity of osteoarticular pain. METHODS: The type and dose of analgesic medication and the severity of pain in the lower back, hips, knees, or feet of 1002 older disabled women were assessed. RESULTS: Severe pain and the use of analgesic medications were reported by 48.5% and 78.8% of women, respectively. Among those who had severe pain, 41.2% were using less than 20% of the maximum analgesic dose. Overall, 6.6% of women were using more than 100% of the maximum dose. CONCLUSIONS: Severe pain is common. Additional, more effective, and safe analgesic treatments are needed for controlling pain in older persons.

Pahor, M; Guralnik, J M; Wan, J Y; Ferrucci, L; Penninx, B W; Lyles, A; Ling, S; Fried, L P

1999-01-01

127

Efficacy of a Group Medication Adherence Intervention Among HIV Positive Women: The SMART/EST Women's Project  

PubMed Central

This intervention sought to improve overall quality of life and health behavior in women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We contrasted the effect of a group cognitive behavioral stress management expressive supportive therapy (CBSM+) intervention plus a healthier lifestyles (HL) component with an individual educational/informational format plus HL on HIV-medication adherence. Women, n = 237, predominantly African-American and Latina, living with HIV were recruited from Miami, New York and New Jersey and randomized to group or individual conditions (ten weekly sessions) plus group or individual HL, i.e., four conditions. Women reported relatively high levels of adherence at baseline. Participants in any of the group conditions increased self-reported adherence and emotion-focused coping skills in comparison with individual participation. This study suggests that group interventions may be an important adjunct in increasing medication adherence for HIV positive women.

McPherson-Baker, Shvawn; Lydston, David; Camille, Joanne; Brondolo, Elizabeth; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Weiss, Stephen M.

2008-01-01

128

Variables Associated With Seeking Information From Doctors and the Internet After Exposure to Direct-to-Consumer Advertisements for Prescription Medications.  

PubMed

This study examines variables associated with seeking information from doctors, the Internet, and a combination of both doctors and Internet after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertisements. Data were analyzed from 462 college students. Younger age, women, and health insurance were associated with greater odds for doctor; women, subjective norms, intentions, and greater time since seen doctor were associated with greater odds for Internet; and African American, Hispanic, subjective norms, intentions, and health insurance were associated with greater odds for both doctor and Internet. Marketers of direct-to-consumer advertisements can use these findings for tailoring and targeting direct-to-consumer advertisements. PMID:24878404

Fogel, Joshua; Teichman, Chaim

2014-01-01

129

Business Plan for a Varicose Vein Center, Columbia Hospital for Women Medical Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses the feasibility of instituting a Varicose Vein Treatment Center at Columbia Hospital for Women Medical Center (CHWMC). It includes a brief description of the workload and financial trends experienced by CHWMC from Fiscal Years 1991 to...

S. Winkler-Peiser

1996-01-01

130

Comparative Effectiveness of Medications To Reduce Risk of Primary Breast Cancer in Women. Appendixes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of three medications--tamoxifen citrate, raloxifene, and tibolone--to reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer in women without pre-existing cancer. This therapy is sometimes referred to as chemopreve...

2009-01-01

131

Postpartum Matters: Women's Experiences of Medical Surveillance, Time and Support after Birth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study explores the historical development of postpartum medical surveillance and women's contemporary experiences of postpartum care during the first month after vaginal childbirth in Canada and in the United States. An analysis of clinical publicati...

C. M. Kelleher

2003-01-01

132

Women's experiences and views about costs of seeking malaria chemoprevention and other antenatal services: a qualitative study from two districts in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The Tanzanian government recommends women who attend antenatal care (ANC) clinics to accept receiving intermittent preventive treatment against malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) and vouchers for insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) at subsidized prices. Little emphasis has been paid to investigate the ability of pregnant women to access and effectively utilize these services. Objectives To describe the experience and perceptions of pregnant women about costs and cost barriers for accessing ANC services with emphasis on IPTp in rural Tanzania. Methods Qualitative data were collected in the districts of Mufindi in Iringa Region and Mkuranga in Coast Region through 1) focus group discussions (FGDs) with pregnant women and mothers to infants and 2) exit-interviews with pregnant women identified at ANC clinics. Data were analyzed manually using qualitative content analysis methodology. Findings FGD participants and interview respondents identified the following key limiting factors for women's use of ANC services: 1) costs in terms of money and time associated with accessing ANC clinics, 2) the presence of more or less official user-fees for some services within the ANC package, and 3) service providers' application of fines, penalties and blame when failing to adhere to service schedules. Interestingly, the time associated with travelling long distances to ANC clinics and ITN retailers and with waiting for services at clinic-level was a major factor of discouragement in the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women because it seriously affected their domestic responsibilities. Conclusion A variety of resource-related factors were shown to affect the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women in rural Tanzania. Thus, accessibility to ANC services was hampered by direct and indirect costs, travel distances and waiting time. Strengthening of user-fee exemption practices and bringing services closer to the users, for example by promoting community-directed control of selected public health services, including IPTp, are urgently needed measures for increasing equity in health services in Tanzania.

2010-01-01

133

Comparative performance of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire9 in pregnant and postpartum women seeking psychiatric services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adoption of a standard depression measures across clinics and populations is advantageous for continuity of care and facilitation of research. This study provides information on the comparative utility of a commonly used perinatal-specific depression instrument (the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale—EPDS) with a general depression screener (Patient Health Questionnaire-9—PHQ-9) in a sample of perinatal women seeking psychiatry services within a large

Heather A. Flynn; Minden Sexton; Scott Ratliff; Katherine Porter; Kara Zivin

2011-01-01

134

Concomitant use of prescription medications and dietary supplements in menopausal women; an approach to provider preparedness  

PubMed Central

Dietary supplements are becoming increasingly popular as therapies for symptom relief among menopause-age women in the United States. However, a large gap exists between research in the concomitant use of prescription medications and dietary supplements and provider preparedness to guide patient decision making. Many menopausal women take prescription medications, over the counter medications, and herbs and dietary supplements for climactic symptoms or other health conditions. With any drug, there is the potential for interactions. Women taking medications with a narrow therapeutic index, such as anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, and drugs for the treatment of chronic diseases, are at particular risk. Patients should be queried regarding their use of dietary supplements when starting or stopping a prescription drug, or if unexpected reactions occur. When counseling patients, one must carefully consider the risks and benefits of each supplement and medication being taken by each individual.

Gardiner, Paula; Stargrove, Mitchell Bebel; Dog, Tieraona Low

2010-01-01

135

Need for Comprehensive Women's Health Continuing Medical Education among Primary Care Physicians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women's health topics of interest for continuing medical education were identified by 91 primary care physicians. Most felt that more knowledge of these topics would reduce the number of referrals to specialists. A more comprehensive, rather than reproductive, perspective of women's health was called for. (SK)

Kwolek, Deborah S.; Donnelly, Michael B.; Carr, Ellen; Sloan, David A.; Haist, Steven A.

2000-01-01

136

Quality of life, coping strategies and support needs of women seeking Traditional Chinese Medicine for infertility and viable pregnancy in Australia: a mixed methods approach  

PubMed Central

Background Infertility affects about 15% of couples in Western-societies with most progressing to fertility clinics for treatment. Despite being common, infertility is often experienced as a lonely road for affected couples. In this paper we expand on our previously published findings of women’s experiences with infertility or difficulty of viable pregnancy who had sought Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) therapy in Australia, and focus on women’s quality of life, coping strategies, and support needs. Methods We applied mixed methods using the Tuebingen Quality of Life and the COPE questionnaires and in-depth interviews with 25 women with primary or secondary infertility, recurrent miscarriages or unexplained stillbirth, and who had consulted a TCM practitioner. We used a thematic approach to analyse the interviews, and descriptive statistics to evaluate questionnaire responses. Results Women reported through both questionnaires and interviews compromised quality of life due to the high level of distress, guilt, grief, and frustration caused by infertility. However, our women represented a highly motivated sample, actively seeking alternative support. While the TCM approach to infertility management increased women’s sense of personal agency and control through education and continuity of care, the need for greater understanding and support on a societal level remains. Conclusions In infertility, ongoing emotional and instrumental support is pivotal to the wellbeing and quality of life of the affected. Traditional Chinese Medicine addresses some support needs in infertility not routinely available in the Western model of care. More peer-led and professional-led support groups are greatly needed for women experiencing infertility to help break isolation and raise awareness of integrative approaches to fertility management.

2013-01-01

137

Asian/Pacific Islander Women in Medical Education: Personal and Professional Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study sought to identify the complex issues facing Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women students at one Midwestern medical school as they subjectively experience their medical training. Students reported parental and Asian community influences on their decision to enter medicine; most thought faculty perceive them as "quiet," often…

Wear, Delese

2000-01-01

138

Vaginal hysterectomy as primary treatment of endometrial cancer in medically compromised women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the survival, rates and patterns of recurrence, and perioperative morbidity in medically compromised women with endometrial cancer treated by primary vaginal hysterectomy.Methods: Fifty-one patients with endometrial cancer treated initially by vaginal hysterectomy between 1977 and 1999 were identified at the University of California, Irvine Medical Center and affiliated hospitals. Data were retrieved from hospital and office records.

John K Chan; Yvonne G Lin; Bradley J Monk; Krishnansu Tewari; Jeffrey D Bloss; Michael L Berman

2001-01-01

139

Women's Perspectives on Medical Abortion in Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Latin America, where abortion is almost universally legally restricted, medical abortion, especially with misoprostol alone, is increasingly being used, often with the tablets obtained from a pharmacy. We carried out in-depth interviews with 49 women who had had a medical abortion under clinical supervision in rural and urban settings in Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, who were recruited through

María Mercedes Lafaurie; Daniel Grossman; Erika Troncoso; Deborah L Billings; Susana Chávez

2005-01-01

140

Women's Perspectives on Medical Abortion in Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Latin America, where abortion is almost universally legally restricted, medical abortion, especially with misoprostol alone, is increasingly being used, often with the tablets obtained from a pharmacy. We carried out in-depth interviews with 49 women who had had a medical abortion under clinical supervision in rural and urban settings in Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, who were recruited through

Maria Mercedes Lafaurie; Daniel Grossman; Erika Troncoso; Deborah L Billings; Susana Chaveze

141

Medical Students' Comfort with Pregnant Women with Substance-Use Disorders: A Randomized Educational Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The study objective was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a rehabilitation residence for pregnant women with substance-use disorders yielded changes in their attitudes and comfort levels in providing care to this population. Methods: This randomized educational trial involved 96 consecutive medical students during…

Albright, Brittany; Skipper, Betty; Riley, Shawne; Wilhelm, Peggy; Rayburn, William F.

2012-01-01

142

Could American women use mifepristone-misoprostol pills safely with less medical supervision?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical methods of early abortion differ from surgical methods in that women themselves can potentially administer the regimens. As currently researched and offered, however, the main regimen used for medical abortion, mifepristone-misoprostol, is highly medicalized, involving several clinic visits and extensive physician involvement.We re-examined the role of clinical supervision in each step of the abortion process, using data collected during

Cynthia Harper; Charlotte Ellertson; Beverly Winikoff

2002-01-01

143

Three-dimensional Doppler sonography in asymptomatic and symptomatic women after medical termination of pregnancy.  

PubMed

Objectives- To characterize the 3D Doppler sonographic appearance of the uterine cavity in asymptomatic and symptomatic women after administration of mifepristone and misoprostol for medical termination of pregnancy. Methods- A prospective observational study was performed. Women admitted for medical termination of pregnancy underwent transvaginal sonography 15 days after the procedure. Volumes were acquired, and offline analyses of the 3D vascularization indices were performed. Outcomes were collected at the follow-up scan and by telephone after the termination. Women were subclassified as asymptomatic or symptomatic according to the presence/absence of fever, vaginal bleeding, abdominal/pelvic pain, and infections. Spotting was defined as any episodic vaginal bleeding that was less than an expected menstruation and not regarded as a symptom. Results- A total of 104 women who underwent medical termination of pregnancy between 6 and 9 weeks' gestation were enrolled in the study. The termination procedure was successful in 98% of cases; among them, 9 women (8.6%) were symptomatic due to bleeding. Two asymptomatic women required surgery; 1 had sonographic evidence of suspected retained products of conception (endometrial thickness ?15 mm or power Doppler vascularization presence). Fifty-seven women (55%) presented with retained products of conception. All the women with suspected retained products regained normal menses; of these, 3 symptomatic women with retained products (2.9%) underwent a 1-month sonographic follow-up. The symptomatic status was not associated with endometrial thickness, 3D intrauterine mass volume, or 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D power Doppler appearances. Conclusions- The necessity of surgery after medical termination of pregnancy cannot be predicted by sonography. In cases with sonographic evidence of suspected retained products of conception, endometrial thickness, 2D Doppler findings, and the 3D vascularization indices correlated poorly with bleeding symptoms. Long-term follow-up should be considered in symptomatic women, and it can avoid any unnecessary surgical intervention. PMID:24764340

Napolitano, Raffaele; Ghosh, Madhu; Gillott, David J; Ojha, Kamal

2014-05-01

144

Women's postnatal experience following a medically complicated pregnancy.  

PubMed

Within the social science literature on reproduction, relatively little attention has been paid to the areas of major illness during pregnancy and postnatal physical health. In this paper I present the results of a qualitative study of the postnatal health experiences of 15 women who had suffered a serious illness during pregnancy, the onset of which either predated or developed during pregnancy. Recently delivered women with continuing health problems face additional difficulties at a time when they are recovering from the physical and psychological processes of birth and are adjusting to the care of the new baby or grieving a loss. A few women in this study had experienced health problems that were resolved at or soon after the birth. Those with continuing or chronic illness described attempts to regain normality that involved both restoring bodily health and reestablishing their control over symptoms of the illness. Professional help with this process was often reported to be limited. PMID:14742111

Thomas, Hilary

2004-01-01

145

Identification of Risk Drinking Women: T-ACE Screening Tool or the Medical Record  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Risk drinking for women is defined by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) as >7 drinks per week or >3 drinks per occasion. This study compares the T-ACE screening tool and the medical record for identification of risk drinking by 611 women receiving outpatient treatment for diabetes, hypertension, infertility, or osteoporosis in Boston, Massachusetts, between February 2005 and May 2009. Methods All subjects completed a diagnostic interview about their health habits, and medical records were abstracted. Calculations were weighted to reflect the oversampling of risk drinking women. Results T-ACE-positive women (n?=?419) had significantly more drinks per drinking day (2.1 vs. 1.6, p?medical records available, 46% acknowledged alcohol use, 25% denied use, and 29% were silent. The rates of abstinence among women were 2%, 17%, and 4%, respectively. Significantly more women were risk drinkers (63%) and had current alcohol use disorders (12%) when their medical records acknowledged alcohol use. Conclusions The main findings of this study are that neither the T-ACE nor the medical record was especially effective in identifying risk drinking by the women enrolled in the study. The identification of risky or heavy alcohol use in women, particularly if they have health problems exacerbated by alcohol, is desirable and represents an area of improvement for patients and providers alike.

Fisher, Naomi D.L.; Hornstein, Mark D.; Jones, Jennifer A.; Orav, E. John

2010-01-01

146

Women's Hysterectomy Experiences and Decision-Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the study was to examine women's experiences with gynaecologic symptoms and how they decided to undergo hysterectomy. For this purpose, twenty-nine women were interviewed in hospital within three days of undergoing hysterectomy. The interviews elicited information about the nature of the problem that caused the women to seek medical help, actions taken to solve their problem, their

Ayse K. Uskul; Farah Ahmad; Nicholas A. Leyland; Donna E. Stewart

2003-01-01

147

Medical Comorbidity in Women and Men with Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Persons with persistent mental illness are at risk for failure to receive medical services. In order to deliver appropriate preventive and primary care for this population, it is important to determine which chronic medical conditions are most common. OBJECTIVE We examined chronic medical comorbidity in persons with schizophrenia using validated methodologies. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of longitudinal administrative claims data from Wellmark Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Iowa. PARTICIPANTS Subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 1,074), and controls (N = 726,262) who filed at least 1 claim for medical services, 1996 to 2001. MEASUREMENTS Case subjects had schizophrenia as the most clinically predominant psychotic disorder, based on psychiatric hospitalization, psychiatrist diagnoses, and outpatient care. Controls had no claims for any psychiatric comorbidity. Using a modified version of the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index, inpatient and outpatient claims were used to determine the prevalence of 46 common medical conditions. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, gender, residence, and nonmental health care utilization using logistic regression. RESULTS Subjects with schizophrenia were significantly more likely to have 1 or more chronic conditions compared with controls. Adjusted OR (95% confidence interval [CI]) were 2.62 (2.09 to 3.28) for hypothyroidism, 1.88 (1.51 to 2.32) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 2.11 (1.36 to 3.28) for diabetes with complications, 7.54 (3.55 to 15.99) for hepatitis C, 4.21 (3.25 to 5.44) for fluid/electrolyte disorders, and 2.77 (2.23 to 3.44) for nicotine abuse/dependence. CONCLUSIONS Schizophrenia is associated with substantial chronic medical burden. Familiarity with conditions affecting persons with schizophrenia may assist programs aimed at providing medical care for the mentally ill.

Carney, Caroline P; Jones, Laura; Woolson, Robert F

2006-01-01

148

Tough times, tough choices: the impact of the rising medical costs on the U.S. Latino electorate's health care-seeking behaviors.  

PubMed

Utilizing a survey of Latino registered voters conducted in Spring 2009, we focus our attention on the impact of the rapidly rising costs of health care on the health-seeking behavior of Latino registered voters, and the impact of high medical costs on their economic status. We find that a third of Latinos used up all or most of their savings and a quarter of Latinos skipped a recommended test or treatment due to high medical costs, rates that are particularly high given that our sample is of Latino registered voters. Furthermore having health insurance is not statistically related to preventing economic hardship due to medical costs for Latinos. Our results suggest that the expansion of insurance coverage alone will not insulate the Latino community from being faced with economic difficulties unless the reform policy directly addresses individual costs of care. PMID:23698656

Medeiros, Jillian A; Sanchez, Gabriel R; Valdez, R Burciaga

2012-11-01

149

Medical genetics, public understanding and patient experiences: An exploratory qualitative study of recently pregnant women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study was to document how individuals' experiences and understanding of genetics concepts affects their medical experiences. Recently pregnant women were interviewed because they represent a population that needs to comprehend biological and genetic information to understand their health. Three women were designated as science experts (SE) defined as having extensive university level science education and three women were designated as science non-experts (SNE). In general, SEs described a more positive pregnancy experience. Both SEs and SNEs demonstrated a basic understanding of genetic concepts but varied in the application of concepts to personal medical issues. Participants' views and experiences of pre and postnatal tests were linked to their understanding of nature of science components such as recognition that tests have limitations. Results from this study indicate an incomplete understanding of the nature of science among participants may have led to unsatisfactory medical experiences.

Garman, Jamie L.

150

"Grief that Has No Vent in Tears, Makes Other Organs Weep." Seeking Refuge from Trauma in the Medical Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper will look at work carried out with asylum-seeking families and children within a hospital paediatric setting, exploring theories that can help us to understand how highly traumatic experiences, emotionally and cognitively unprocessed, may become expressed bodily. The case examples will show how these shattered and dislocated patients…

Martin, Paddy

2012-01-01

151

Variations in Help-Seeking, Battered Women's Relationship Course, Emotional Well-Being, and Experiences of Abuse over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite assumptions that leaving the batterer offers the best chance for improvement in battered women's lives, few studies provide conclusive data on this issue. Although many women eventually reunite with partners, also unexamined is the influence of relationship course over time. Five waves of data from 206 low-income, largely Black,…

Bell, Margret E.; Goodman, Lisa A.; Dutton, Mary Ann

2009-01-01

152

Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

1990-01-01

153

Overcoming the Odds: Challenges and Successes of Sub-Saharan African Women Seeking Higher Education in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the challenges Sub-Saharan African women, including the author, have experienced in their pursuit of graduate studies in the United States and successful strategies that have been adopted. The author begins with a brief overview of the education of girls and women in Sub-Saharan African countries. She then explores the…

Gatua, Mary Wairimu

2009-01-01

154

Anxiety, depression and saliva cortisol in women with a medical disorder during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Anxiety and depression during pregnancy increase the risk for an adverse pregnancy outcome and neurodevelopmental problems in the child. The aim of this study was to investigate anxiety and depression in women with a medical disorder of pregnancy compared with control antenatal women, and any association with saliva cortisol. One hundred and twenty pregnant women (60 with a known medical disorder and 60 without, mean gestation 32 weeks) completed five self-rating questionnaires (Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Adult Wellbeing Scale and a Life Events Questionnaire). Diurnal saliva samples were obtained from 39 women with a medical disorder and 50 controls for cortisol analysis. The medical disorders group were significantly more anxious and depressed than the controls (mean (SD)) state anxiety 40.0 (11.5) vs. 31.6 (8.8), p = 0.00; trait anxiety 39.4 (9.5) vs. 35.2 (9.2), p = 0.02; adult wellbeing 15.9 (7.5) vs. 12.3 (7.5) p = 0.01; and EPDS 9.6 (5.4) vs. 5.9 (4.8), p = 0.00). There was no difference in the life events scores between the groups. The subgroup of women suffering from hyperemesis gravidarum had particularly high EPDS scores, (16.2 (3), n = 5, p = 0.00) compared with controls. There were no significant differences in the cortisol levels between the groups. Some women with a medical disorder during pregnancy showed considerably elevated levels of anxiety and depression. Health professionals need to be aware that these women need extra psychological support. PMID:20101421

King, Nicole M A; Chambers, Jennifer; O'Donnell, Kieran; Jayaweera, Samantha R; Williamson, Catherine; Glover, Vivette A

2010-08-01

155

Performance of Women Medical Graduates from Medical College, Baroda, 1949-74  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women account for 15 percent of the total admissions in medicine and present overall better examinations than men. Obstetrics and gynecology is the most common speciality selected by women, and job satisfaction is found in 87 percent. Sixty-six percent are married to other doctors, and 39 percent emigrate. (Author/LBH)

Bhatt, R. V.; And Others

1976-01-01

156

Drug interactions associated with methadone, buprenorphine, cocaine, and HIV medications: Implications for pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnancy in substance-abusing women with HIV\\/AIDS presents a complex clinical challenge. Opioid-dependent women need treatment with opioid therapy during pregnancy to protect the health of mother and developing fetus. However, opioid therapies, methadone and buprenorphine, may have drug interactions with some HIV medications that can have adverse effects leading to suboptimal clinical outcomes. Further, many opioid-dependent individuals have problems with

Elinore F. McCance-Katz

2011-01-01

157

Widowhood in Elderly Women: Exploring Its Relationship to Community Integration, Hassles, Stress, Social Support, and Social Support Seeking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined degree to which 80 elderly widows and 80 elderly nonwidows were integrated in their community, daily hassles and stress they may have experienced, and their social networks and support-seeking behavior. Widowhood in and of itself did not appear to be predictor of community integration or experience of stress and hassles. Age and education…

Pellman, Julie

1992-01-01

158

Psychiatric Comorbidity in Women With Binge Eating Disorder Prevalence Rates From a Non-Treatment-Seeking Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides estimates of comorbid psychiatric disorders in women with binge eating disorder (BED). Sixty-one BED and 60 control participants, who were recruited from the community, completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM—III—R Axis I and Axis II disorders and self-report measures of eating and general psychiatric symptomatology. Regarding psychiatric diagnoses, women with BED had higher lifetime prevalence rates

Christy F. Telch

2000-01-01

159

Rural Australian Women's Legal Help Seeking for Intimate Partner Violence: Women Intimate Partner Violence Victim Survivors' Perceptions of Criminal Justice Support Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study…

Ragusa, Angela T.

2013-01-01

160

Hazardous Drinking, Depression, and Anxiety Among Sexual-Minority Women: Self-Medication or Impaired Functioning?  

PubMed Central

Objective: Sexual-minority women are at heightened risk for a number of mental health problems, including hazardous alcohol consumption, depression, and anxiety. We examined self-medication and impaired-functioning models of the associations among these variables and interpreted results within a life course framework that considered the unique social stressors experienced by sexual-minority women. Method: Data were from a sample of 384 women interviewed during the first two waves of the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women (CHLEW) study. Results: Covariance structure modeling revealed that (a) consistent with a self-medication process, anxiety was prospectively associated with hazardous drinking and (b) consistent with an impaired-functioning process, hazardous drinking was prospectively associated with depression. Conclusions: Our findings support a life course perspective that interprets the mental health of adult sexual-minority women as influenced by adverse childhood experiences, age at drinking onset, first heterosexual intercourse, and first sexual identity disclosure, as well as by processes associated with self-medication and impaired functioning during adulthood.

Johnson, Timothy P.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Cho, Young IK; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Aranda, Frances; Szalacha, Laura A.

2013-01-01

161

Women and cosmetic breast surgery: weighing the medical, social, and lifestyle risks.  

PubMed

In this article we provide a comparative analysis of qualitative, semistructured interviews with 24 women who had undergone different forms of cosmetic breast surgery (CBS). We argue that women must negotiate three types of risk: potential medical risks, lifestyle risks connected with choosing "frivolous" self-enhancements, and countervailing social risks affiliated with pressures to maximize one's feminine beauty. In addition, we highlight the challenges faced in negotiating these risks by examining the limits to traditional forms of medical informed consent provided to the women, who received little information on the medical risks associated with CBS, or who were given uncertain and contradictory risk information. Even respondents who felt that they were well informed expressed difficulties in making "wise" choices because the risks were distant or unlikely, and hence easily minimized. Given this, it is fairly understandable that the known social risks of "failed" beauty faced by the women often outweighed the ambiguous or understated risks outlined by medicine. We argue that traditional notions of informed consent and risk awareness might not be adequate for women choosing CBS. PMID:21908704

Boulton, Tiffany N; Malacrida, Claudia

2012-04-01

162

Medical Findings in Women with Anorexia Nervosa in a Korean Population  

PubMed Central

Objective Eating disorders are a common clinical problem among young women in Asian countries. The aim of this study is to determine the medical effects of anorexia nervosa (AN) in the Korean population. Methods We comprehensively investigated medical complications including haemodynamic, haematologic, endocrine, and bone density abnormalities in 67 Korean women with AN, together with 194 healthy Korean women of comparable age with a cross-sectional design. Results In AN, 36.9% were anaemic, 50.8% were leukopenic, 35.5% were hypoproteinemic, 7.9% were hypokalemic, 9.5% had increased alanine aminotransferase, 6.3% were hyperbilirubinemia, 14.5% were hypercholesterolemia, 14.8% had decreased triiodothyronine. Osteopenia at any one site was identified in 43.3% and an additional 13.4% had osteoporosis. The lowest-ever body mass index was the main determinant of bone mineral density. Conclusion Our data in Korean patients with AN show high frequencies of laboratory abnormalities for medical complications. This study emphasizes the importance of recognizing AN as a medical risk in young Korean women.

Son, Myung Ha; Nah, Jong Chun; Park, Hyun Ah

2013-01-01

163

Integration of Women's Health into an Internal Medicine Core Curriculum for Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a collaboration to analyze and integrate elements of women's health into the core curriculum in internal medicine for a medical school's third year clerkship. Illustrates the new curriculum by describing the new module in pulmonary medicine and discusses the use of the process to integrate curricula in other interdisciplinary fields.…

Nicolette, JoDean; Jacobs, Michael D.

2000-01-01

164

Medication as a risk factor for falls in older women in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To assess the prevalence of falls and their association with the use of medications among elderly women in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Falls among the elderly are likely to gain additional public health importance in Brazil and many other developing countries given the rapid growth of the elderly populations in those nations. Methods. A cross-sectional study

Suely Rozenfeld; Luiz Antonio Bastos Camacho; Renato Peixoto Veras

2003-01-01

165

The Trends in Health Care Delivery for Women: Challenges for Medical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses four trends in the U.S. health care system that affect how women's health care is delivered: (1) the restructuring of primary care; (2) initiatives in quality assessment; (3) changes in patterns of health insurance coverage; and (4) threats to the health care safety net. Indicates that medical educators must link training to these…

Weisman, Carol S.

2000-01-01

166

Measuring Alcohol Consumption Using Timeline Followback in Non-Treatment-Seeking Medical Clinic Patients With and Without HIV Infection: 7-, 14-, or 30-day Recall  

PubMed Central

Objective: The measurement of alcohol consumption is an essential component of research in patients at risk for or infected with HIV. Daily estimation measures such as the Timeline Followback (TLFB) have been validated, yet the optimal time window and its performance in non-treatment-seeking medical clinic subjects and among those with HIV are not known. Method: In 1,519 HIV-infected and 1,612 uninfected men receiving medical care in general medical or infectious disease clinics, we compared the association between 7-, 14-, and 30-day TLFB reports, obtained via telephone, of alcohol consumption using Spearman’s correlation coefficients. To evaluate agreement between 7-, 14-, and 30-day reports of heavy episodic drinking, we evaluated percent agreement, sensitivity, and kappa statistics, considering 30-day report as the gold standard. Results: The estimated prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was progressively higher for longer TLFB intervals (7 days: 6.3%; 14 days: 8.0%; 30 days: 9.5%). Correlation coefficients with 30- day TLFB were higher for 14 days (.94) than for 7 days (.86) overall (p < .001) and among HIV-infected (.94 vs. .86, p < .001) and uninfected (.95 vs. .87, p < 001). Correlations were similar by HIV status. When considered overall and by HIV status, the sensitivity, percent agreement, and kappa statistics are better for heavy episodic drinking based on 14 days compared with 7 days. Conclusions: A TLFB for alcohol consumption of 14 days is preferable to 7 days for non-treatment-seeking patients in medical clinics with and without HIV infection when compared with 30 days.

Fiellin, David A.; Mcginnis, Kathleen A.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Justice, Amy C.; Bryant, Kendall

2013-01-01

167

Mental distress, alcohol use and help-seeking among medical and business students: a cross-sectional comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background Stress and distress among medical students are thoroughly studied and presumed to be particularly high, but comparative studies including other student groups are rare. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to 500 medical students and 500 business students. We compared levels of study stress (HESI), burnout (OLBI), alcohol habits (AUDIT) and depression (MDI), and analysed their relationship with self-assessed mental health problems by logistic regression, with respect to gender. Results Medical students' response rate was 81.6% and that of business students 69.4%. Business students scored higher on several study stress factors and on disengagement. Depression (OR 0.61, CI95 0.37;0.98) and harmful alcohol use (OR 0.55, CI95 0.37; 0.75) were both less common among medical students. However, harmful alcohol use was highly prevalent among male students in both groups (medical students 28.0%, business students 35.4%), and among female business students (25.0%). Mental health problems in need of treatment were equally common in both groups; 22.1% and 19.3%, respectively, and was associated with female sex (OR 2.01, CI95 1.32;3.04), exhaustion (OR 2.56, CI95 1.60;4.10), lower commitment to studies (OR 1.95, CI95 1.09;3.51) and financial concerns (OR 1.81 CI95 1.18;2.80) Conclusions Medical students may not be more stressed than other high achieving student populations. The more cohesive structure of medical school and a higher awareness of a healthy lifestyle may be beneficial factors.

2011-01-01

168

A Question of Quality: The Effect of Source Quality on Information Seeking by Women in IT Professions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents preliminary results from a survey of how women in information technology professions use information sources. Investigates the effects of perceived source accessibility and perceived source quality on the selection and use of information sources. Discusses results of correlation analysis and regression analysis that also examined…

Marton, Christine; Choo, Chun Wei

2002-01-01

169

The (gendered) construction of diagnosis interpretation of medical signs in women patients.  

PubMed

Medicine maintains a distinction between the medical symptom--the patient's "subjective" experience and expression, and the privileged medical sign--the "objective" findings observable by the doctor. Although the distinction is not consistently applied, it becomes clearly visible in the "undefined," medically unexplained disorders of women patients. Potential impacts of genderized interaction on the interpretation of medical signs are addressed by re-reading the diagnostic process as a matter of social construction, where diagnosis results from human interpretation within a sociopolitical context. The discussion is illustrated by a case story and empirical evidence of the gendering in the doctor-patient relationship. The theoretical analysis is supported by semiotic perspectives of bodily signs, feminist theory on experience, and Foucault's ideas about medical perception and gaze, and concludes that a medical diagnosis is seldom a biological fact, but the outcome of a process where biological, cultural and social elements are interwoven. Further deconstruction of the chain of signs from a feminist perspective, assigning validity to the voice of the woman patient, might broaden the understanding of women's health, illness and disease. PMID:10474313

Malterud, K

1999-06-01

170

Control with anorexiant medications.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To show why women are still seeking anorexiant medications despite current concerns over their use. DESIGN: In-depth interviews using grounded theory methodology. SETTING: Participants chose where they were to be interviewed. PARTICIPANTS: Women older than 18 years who had previously taken or were currently taking anorexiant medications for the purpose of losing weight. METHOD: Nine women completed two semistructured in-depth interviews during which they described their experiences from the time they began pharmacologic therapy for obesity until they discontinued the medications. Interview data were compiled and analyzed until saturation was reached. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: Control was an important factor for the women. Their previous lack of control was due to frustration with failed dieting attempts and feeling pressure from others to lose weight. Prescription medications controlled physiologic hunger while the women sought to lose weight. Increased control over hunger and a decrease in weight gave participants confidence to continue their weight-loss efforts without the medications. Once the medications were discontinued, the women were able to maintain weight control through various lifestyle modifications. CONCLUSIONS: Anorexiant medications provide some women with a perception of control that helps them lose weight and not regain it. Health care professionals should be aware of their patients' struggles with weight loss and understand the importance of these medications for some patients.

Volume, C. I.; Farris, K. B.

1998-01-01

171

Key determinants of induced abortion in women seeking postabortion care in hospital facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Introduction Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. Materials and methods A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. Results The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59–30.41); whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42–19.24); and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.08–11.10). On the contrary, being married was protective against induced abortion, with women who reported being married having an 83% (OR 0.17, CI 0.03–0.89) lower chance of having an induced abortion, even when the pregnancy was unwanted. Conclusion This study has identified three major determinants of induced abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Improved targeted programs on family planning counseling, methods of contraception, and availability of contraceptives should be widely promoted.

Ilboudo, Patrick GC; Somda, Serge MA; Sundby, Johanne

2014-01-01

172

Breast Cancer Knowledge, Beliefs, and Screening Practices among Women Seeking Care at District Hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Limited disease awareness among women may impact breast cancer stage-at-diagnosis in Tanzania, reducing survival. This study assessed breast cancer knowledge, screening practices, and educational preferences among outpatients at Tanzanian government-supported hospitals. METHODS A convenience sample of women was surveyed regarding (1) knowledge/beliefs of breast cancer etiology, risk factors, symptoms, treatment, (2) early detection knowledge/practice, and (3) educational preferences. RESULTS Among 225 respondents, 98.2% knew of breast cancer; 22.2% knew someone affected by breast cancer. On average, 30% of risk factors and 51% of symptoms were identified. Most accepted one or more breast cancer myths. Among 126 aware of breast self-exam, 40% did not practice it; only 0.9% underwent regular clinical breast examinations despite 68% being aware of the procedure. Among treatments, 87% recognized surgery, 70% radiation, and fewer systemic therapy. Preferred educational sources were group sessions, television/radio, and meetings with breast cancer survivors. CONCLUSIONS This work reveals incomplete breast cancer awareness among Tanzanian women and promises to inform development of user-focused educational resources.

Morse, Emma Perry; Maegga, Bertha; Joseph, Gertrud; Miesfeldt, Susan

2014-01-01

173

Another Treatment Gap: Restarting Secondary Prevention Medications The Women's Health Initiative  

PubMed Central

Background Women’s long-term patterns of evidence-based preventive medication utilization following a coronary heart disease (CHD) diagnosis have not been sufficiently studied. Methods Postmenopausal women 50–79 years were eligible for randomization in the Women’s Health Initiative’s (WHI) hormone trials if they met inclusion and exclusion criteria and were >80% adherent during a placebo-lead-in period and in the dietary modification trial if they were willing to follow a 20% fat diet. Those with adjudicated myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization after the baseline visit were included in the analysis (n=2627). Baseline visits occurred between 1993 and 1998, then annually until the trials ended in 2002 through 2005; medication inventories were obtained at baseline and years 1, 3, 6 and 9. Results Utilization at the first WHI visit following a CHD diagnosis increased over time for statins (49% to 72%; p<0.0001), beta-blockers (49% to 62%; p=0.003), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ACEI/ARBs ) [26 to 43%; p<0.0001]. Aspirin use remained stable at 76% (p=0.09). Once women reported using a statin, aspirin, or beta-blocker, 84–89% reported use at 1 or more subsequent visits, with slightly lower rates for ACEI/ARBS (76%). Statin, aspirin, beta-blocker, or ACEI/ARB use was reported at 2 or more consecutive visits by 57%, 66%, 48%, and 28% respectively. These drugs were initiated or resumed at a later visit by 24%, 17%, 15%, and 17%, respectively, and were never used during the period of follow-up by 19%, 10%, 33%, and 49% respectively. Conclusions Efforts to improve secondary prevention medication utilization should target both drug initiation and restarting drugs in patients who have discontinued them.

Robinson, Jennifer G; Wallace, Robert; Safford, Monika M.; Pettinger, Mary; Cochrane, Barbara; Ko, Marcia G.; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Masaki, Kamal; Petrovich, Helen

2010-01-01

174

The Impact of Medication Use on Urinary Incontinence in Community Dwelling Elderly Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate whether use of certain medications with potential urologic effects is associated with development of incident urinary incontinence in community-resident older women. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Pittsburgh, PA and Memphis, TN. Participants 959 healthy black and white women (aged 65 and older) enrolled in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study without baseline (year 1) self-reported urinary incontinence. Measurements Use of alpha blockers, anticholinergics, central nervous system medications (opioids, benzodiazepines, antidepressants and antipsychotics), diuretics (thiazide, loop, potassium sparing) and estrogen (all dosage forms) was determined during year 3 interviews. Self-reported incident (at least weekly) incontinence in during the previous 12 months was assessed at year 4 interviews. Results Overall, 20.5% of these women reported incident incontinence at year 4 (3 years from baseline). The most common medication used with potential urologic activity was a thiazide diuretic (24.3%) followed by estrogen (22.2%); alpha blockers were the least commonly used (2.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that, compared to non users, current users of alpha blockers (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.96 – 12.64) and estrogen (AOR 1.60, 95%CI 1.08 – 2.36) had an increased risk of urinary incontinence. There was no increased risk (p>0.05) of urinary incontinence with the current use of anticholinergics, CNS medications or diuretics. No statistically significant race by medication use interactions were found (all p>0.05). Conclusion These results corroborate earlier reports that, in elderly women, use of alpha blockers or estrogens is associated with an increased risk of self-reported incident urinary incontinence.

Ruby, Christine M.; Hanlon, Joseph T.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Newman, Anne B.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Shorr, Ronald I.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Resnick, Neil M.

2010-01-01

175

Developing learning outcomes for medical students and foundation doctors in palliative care: A national consensus-seeking initiative in Scotland.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Undergraduate education in palliative care is essential if doctors are to be competent to care for dying patients and their families in a range of specialties and healthcare settings. However, creating space for this within existing undergraduate and foundation year curricula poses significant challenges. We aimed to develop consensus learning outcomes for palliative care teaching in the university medical schools in Scotland. Methods: The General Medical Council (GMC) outlines a number of learning outcomes with clear relevance to palliative care. Leaders from the five Scottish medical schools identified and agreed a small number of outcomes, which we judged most relevant to teaching palliative care and collated teaching resources to support these. Results: Consensus learning outcomes for undergraduate palliative care were agreed by our mixed group of clinician educators over a number of months. There were many secondary gains from this process, including the pooling of educational resources and best practice, and the provision of peer support for those struggling to establish curriculum time for palliative care. Discussion: The process and outcomes were presented to the Scottish Teaching Deans, with a view to their inclusion in undergraduate and foundation year curricula. It is through a strong commitment to achieving these learning outcomes that we will prepare all doctors for providing palliative care to the increasing numbers of patients and families that require it. PMID:24593771

Linklater, Gordon T; Bowden, Joanna; Pope, Lyndsey; McFatter, Fiona; Hutchison, Stephen M W; Carragher, Pat J; Walley, John; Fallon, Marie; Murray, Scott A

2014-05-01

176

Perinatal Status and Help-Seeking for Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Although there has been much research examining the relationship between pregnancy and abuse, this study is one of the few to investigate whether perinatal status (defined as pregnancy or early postpartum) impacts the help seeking of abused women. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 3 years of prosecutor administrative records, police incident reports, and hospital medical records for a countywide population of adult females (n?=?964) assaulted by an intimate partner in 2000. Perinatal and nonperinatal victims were compared using chi-square and a series of logistic regression models, controlling for all demographic and incident-related factors. Results Compared with women across the county, abused women were twice as likely to become pregnant (p?seeking from police (OR 1.1, p?=?0.67) or emergency departments (ED) (OR 1.1, p?=?0.94), but it did change the pattern of help seeking with higher ED use in the 6 months prior to the assault (p?seeking help with fewer injuries (p?=?0.10). Conclusions Abused women are more likely to become pregnant. Perinatal status impacts how victims seek help from criminal justice agencies and EDs.

Cerulli, Catherine; Marcus, Steven; Rhodes, Karin V.

2009-01-01

177

Perspective for Female Medical Physicists  

SciTech Connect

Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

Naqvi, Syed Mansoor [Department of Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi (Pakistan); Hasnain, Aziz Fatima [Center for Physics Education, Karachi (Pakistan)

2009-04-19

178

[Women, Medicine, and technology in the discourse of medical residents in Obstetrics/Gynecology].  

PubMed

This study focused on revealing the cultural meanings assigned to womanhood and the health-disease process in women according to the discourse of medical residents in Obstetrics/Gynecology at the Fernandes Figueira Institute, a public reference hospital specializing in maternal-child care in Rio de Janeiro. The research had two components: participatory observation in Ob-Gyn meetings and recording of oral sources. The sign-based method was used to analyze the data. The methodology included qualitative analytical coding of interviews and subsequent semiotic analysis. According to the results: (a) women are seen essentially as mothers, and their illness focuses primarily on their childbearing function; (b) technological evolution, mainly with the increased use of imaging, has reduced the importance of semiology; and (c) within the biotechnological context medicalization is part of the material and semiotic practices. PMID:16680347

Gilbert, Ana Cristina Bohrer; Cardoso, Maria Helena Cabral de Almeida; Wuillaume, Susana Maciel

2006-05-01

179

Potential Risk Factors for Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease among Women: Implanted Medical Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case-control study was conducted among 205 women in Michigan and Ohio who were diagnosed with undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) to investigate the significance of self-reported past exposures to implanted silicone-containing or non-silicone-containing medical devices. The 205 UCTD cases were compared with 2,095 controls who were sampled by random digit dialing. When silicone-containing devices, including shunts and catheters, were

Timothy J. Laing; David Schottenfeld; James V. Lacey; Brenda W. Gillespie; David H. Garabrant; Brenda C. Cooper; Steven G. Heeringa; Kirsten H. Alcser; Maureen D. Mayes

180

Protocol study: sexual and reproductive health knowledge, information-seeking behaviour and attitudes among Saudi women: a questionnaire survey of university students  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual and reproductive health (SRH), a basic right for women worldwide, is infrequently researched in countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). No empirical studies of SRH among Saudi women exist. This protocol describes a study to explore the SRH knowledge, information-seeking behaviour and attitudes of Saudi female university students. Methods/Design This study will administer a questionnaire survey to female students at 13 universities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was developed following a literature search to identify relevant content, with psychometrically tested tools used when available. The content layout and the wording and order of the questions were designed to minimize the risk of bias. The questionnaire has been translated into Arabic and piloted in preparation for administration to the study sample. Ethical approval for the study has been granted (reference no. QMREC2012/54). After questionnaire administration, the data will be collated, analysed and reported anonymously. The findings will be published in compliance with reporting guidelines for survey research. Discussion This study will be the first to provide fundamental information concerning Saudi females university students SRH knowledge and information needs.

2014-01-01

181

Health related lifestyle and preventive medical care of rural spanish women compared to their urban counterparts.  

PubMed

The objective of this work is to study the differences in health related behavior, habits and preventive health care attendance between women living in rural areas and their metropolitan counterparts in Spain. We analyzed health related behavior (such as leisure time physical activity, smoking, alcohol use and other health related dietary patterns) and preventive medical attendance (gynecological attendance, mammography frequency, flu vaccinations, cholesterol and blood pressure checks) in a total of 17,833 women older than 16 from the Spanish National Health Survey 2006. A multinomial logistic regression model was employed to compare groups (adjusted for age and social class). The main findings of this study is that the likelihood of receiving and attending to preventive public health care services was significantly lower for women in medium-sized urban or rural and remote locations than those living in metropolitan areas, as well as differences in health-related lifestyle behaviours. PMID:24057806

De la Cruz-Sánchez, Ernesto; Aguirre-Gómez, Loli

2014-08-01

182

Smartphone Medical Applications for Women's Health: What Is the Evidence-Base and Feedback?  

PubMed Central

Background. Smartphone medical applications have a major role to play in women's health with their roles being very broad, ranging from improving health behaviours to undertaking personalised tests. Objective(s). Using Medline, Web of Knowledge, and the PRISMA guidelines 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified, with mobile interventions being tested on 1603 females, in relation to key aspects of health. Using a similar systematic approach an iPhone database search identified 47 applications (apps) developed to improve women's health. Findings. Ten RCTs used text messaging or app interventions to support weight loss, with significant improvements being observed in eight studies. For other aspects of women's health RCTs are needed to determine possible health benefits. iPhone store data analysis identified that a substantial number of women's health apps did not have star ratings or feedback comments (68 and 49 per cent, resp.), raising concerns about their validity. Conclusion. Peer-review systems, supporting statements of evidence, or certification standards would be beneficial in maintaining the quality and credibility of future health-focused apps. Patient groups should also ideally be involved in the development and testing of mobile medical apps.

Derbyshire, Emma; Dancey, Darren

2013-01-01

183

Psychotropic Medication Use and Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Women with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease: Outcomes from the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated the relationship between psychotropic medication use and adverse cardiovascular (CV) events in women with symptoms of myocardial ischemia undergoing coronary angiography. Method Women enrolled in the Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE), were classified into one of 4 groups according to their reported antidepressant and anxiolytic medication usage at study intake: (1) No medication (n=352); (2) Anxiolytics only (n=67); (3) Antidepressants only (n=58); and (4) Combined antidepressant and anxiolytics (n=39). Participants were followed prospectively for the development of adverse CV events (e.g., hospitalizations for nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure, and unstable angina) or all cause mortality over a median of 5.9 years. Results Use of antidepressant medication was associated with subsequent CV events (HR= 2.16, 95% CI 1.21 to 3.93) and death (HR= 2.15, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.98) but baseline anxiolytic use alone did not predict subsequent CV events and death. In a final regression model that included demographics, depression and anxiety symptoms, and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, women in the combined medication group (i.e. antidepressants and anxiolytics) had higher risk for CV events (HR= 3.98, CI 1.74-9.10, p = .001 and all-cause mortality (HR=4.70, CI 1.7-12.97, p = .003) compared to those using neither medication. Kaplan Meier survival curves indicated that there was a significant difference in mortality among the four medication groups (p = .001). Conclusions These data suggest that factors related to psychotropic medication such as depression refractory to treatment, or medication use itself, are associated with adverse CV events in women with suspected myocardial ischemia.

Krantz, David S.; Whittaker, Kerry S.; Francis, Jennifer L.; Rutledge, Thomas; Johnson, B. Delia; Barrow, Genevieve; McClure, Candace; Sheps, David S.; York, Kaki; Cornell, Carol; Bittner, Vera; Vaccarino, Viola; Eteiba, Wafia; Parashar, Susmita; Vido, Diane A.; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

2009-01-01

184

The role of medical problems and behavioral risks in explaining patterns of prenatal care use among high-risk women.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between maternal medical conditions and behavioral risks and the patterns of prenatal care use among high-risk women. DATA SOURCE/STUDY DESIGN: Data on over 25,000 high-risk deliveries to African American and white women using multinomial logistic regression to predict the odds of adequate-plus care relative to three other categories of care. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Data were extracted from records maintained by the University of Florida/Shands Hospital maternity clinic on all deliveries between 1987 and 1994; records for white and for African American women were subset to examine racial differences in medical conditions, health behaviors, and patterns of prenatal care use. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Net of sociodemographic and fertility-related characteristics, African American and white women with late antepartum conditions and hypertension problems had significantly higher odds of receiving adequate-plus care, as well as no care or inadequate care, relative to adequate care. White women with gynecological disease and medical/surgical problems were significantly less likely to receive no care or inadequate care, as were African American women with gynecological disease. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal medical conditions explain much but not all of the adequate-plus prenatal care use. More than 13 percent of African American women and 20 percent of white women with no reported medical problems or behavioral risks used adequate-plus care. Additional research is needed to understand this excess use and its possibilities in mediating birth outcomes.

Clarke, L L; Miller, M K; Albrecht, S L; Frentzen, B; Cruz, A

1999-01-01

185

The Efficacy of Structural Ecosystems Therapy for HIV Medication Adherence with African American Women  

PubMed Central

A systemic family therapy intervention, Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), has been shown to promote adaptation to living with HIV by reducing psychological distress and family hassles. This investigation examines the effect of SET on HIV medication adherence relative to a person-centered condition and a community control condition. Medication adherence was assessed on 156 trial participants. Results of a two-part model showed that SET was significantly more likely to move women to high levels of adherence (defined as at least 95% adherence) than a person-centered therapy. Family hassles was also significantly reduced by SET, though the effect of SET on medication adherence did not appear related to this change in family hassles.

Feaster, Daniel J.; Brincks, Ahnalee M.; Mitrani, Victoria B.; Prado, Guillermo; Schwartz, Seth J.; Szapocznik, Jose

2010-01-01

186

Expanding Women's Rural Medical Work in Early Modern Brittany: The Daughters of the Holy Spirit  

PubMed Central

During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of early modern Brittany.

McHugh, Tim

2012-01-01

187

Prenatal Care and Medical Risk in Low-Income, Primiparous, Mexican-Origin and African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study are to assess selected prenatal factors that are associated with initiation of prenatal care for Mexican-origin and African American women, and to explore ethnic-specific differences in content of prenatal care at first visit, relationship with medical risk, and perceived medical risk. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1,544 lowincome African American and Mexicanorigin women in 22

Ruth E. Zambrana; Susan C. M. Scrimshaw; Christine Dunkel-Schetter

1996-01-01

188

Medical, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors do not explain the increased risk for low birth weight among black women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether various demographic, behavioral, housing, psychosocial, or medical characteristics explain the difference in pregnancy outcome between black and white women. STUDY DESIGN: A sample of 1491 multiparous women with singleton pregnancies, 69% of whom were black and 31% of whom were white and who enrolled for care between Oct. 1, 1985, and March 30,

Robert L. Goldenberg; Suzanne P. Cliver; Francis X. Mulvihill; Carol A. Hickey; Howard J. Hoffman; Lorraine V. Klerman; Marilyn J. Johnson

1996-01-01

189

Hydrocephalus and the reproductive health of women: the medical implications of maternal shunt dependency in 70 women and 138 pregnancies.  

PubMed

An increasing number of women with cerebrospinal fluid shunts are surviving to child-bearing age, and are making independent decisions in regard to planning their families. As a result, a broad range of interdisciplinary health care professionals will require information about the management of these patients, especially during pregnancy and delivery. The purpose of this ongoing study is to gather comprehensive data from shunted women regarding their clinical history during pregnancy and within the six-month post-partum period. As part of this study, the following questions were addressed: 1. How does maternal shunt dependency influence the course of pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes? 2. What neurosurgical complications characterize this population of patients? 3. What complications of shunt dependency influence obstetrical management including pre-natal testing and delivery? 4. What are the implications of shunt dependency with respect to general reproductive health concerns within this population? A total of 70 respondents, 18-41 years old and accounting for 138 pregnancies, completed a questionnaire providing information on maternal background, medical history, shunt performance during pregnancy, management of delivery, pregnancy outcomes, and unusual complications. One hundred three (103) pregnancies resulted in 105 live births including two surviving sets of twins; of these, 84 occurred in women with ventriculoperitoneal shunts (including both mothers who gave birth to live twins). Four women underwent therapeutic abortions, five delivered pre-term, one mother delivered a stillborn infant, and 16 experienced 32 miscarriages (including two ectopic pregnancies, and 33 fetal losses). Three women had seizures during pregnancy. Nine mothers reported an increase in headache activity during pregnancy. Twelve described abdominal pains during the course of pregnancy with anecdotal reports of increased frequency of painful episodes during the first and third trimesters. Twelve babies were diagnosed with congenital defects, including one pair of fraternal twins individually diagnosed with symmetric parietal foramina. Seven additional children were diagnosed with developmental disabilities including attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), pervasive developmental delay (PDD), and autism. Shunt malfunctions and revisions occurred seven times (four women) during pregnancy, and in 24 pregnancies (13 women) within six months of delivery. One malfunction and revision followed the miscarriage of twins at 12 gestational weeks. No acute malfunctions requiring immediate revision occurred during delivery, although two women reported severe headaches during labor. Transient signs of raised intracranial pressure occurred in 15 mothers over the course of 19 pregnancies which did not require surgical revision of the shunt following delivery or termination of pregnancy. No signs of shunt malfunction were identified in 100 of the pregnancies described in this series; 31 of these resulting in miscarriage and 69 resulting in live births. This study extends observations made previously to a larger population of shunt dependent mothers, and nearly doubles the amount of data available in our last publication. The results suggest that maternal shunt dependency carries a relatively high incidence of complications for some patients, but that proper management of these patients can lead to normal pregnancy and delivery. PMID:10672583

Liakos, A M; Bradley, N K; Magram, G; Muszynski, C

2000-01-01

190

Drug interactions associated with methadone, buprenorphine, cocaine, and HIV medications: implications for pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy in substance-abusing women with HIV/AIDS presents a complex clinical challenge. Opioid-dependent women need treatment with opioid therapy during pregnancy to protect the health of mother and developing fetus. However, opioid therapies, methadone and buprenorphine, may have drug interactions with some HIV medications that can have adverse effects leading to suboptimal clinical outcomes. Further, many opioid-dependent individuals have problems with other forms of substance abuse, for example, cocaine abuse, that could also contribute to poor clinical outcomes in a pregnant woman. Physiological changes, including increased plasma volume and increased hepatic and renal blood flow, occur in the pregnant woman as the pregnancy progresses and may alter medication needs with the potential to exacerbate drug interactions, although there is sparse literature on this issue. Knowledge of possible drug interactions between opioids, other abused substances such as cocaine, HIV therapeutics, and other frequently required medications such as antibiotics and anticonvulsants is important to assuring the best possible outcomes in the pregnant woman with opioid dependence and HIV/AIDS.

McCance-Katz, Elinore F.

2010-01-01

191

Drug interactions associated with methadone, buprenorphine, cocaine, and HIV medications: implications for pregnant women.  

PubMed

Pregnancy in substance-abusing women with HIV/AIDS presents a complex clinical challenge. Opioid-dependent women need treatment with opioid therapy during pregnancy to protect the health of mother and developing fetus. However, opioid therapies, methadone and buprenorphine, may have drug interactions with some HIV medications that can have adverse effects leading to suboptimal clinical outcomes. Further, many opioid-dependent individuals have problems with other forms of substance abuse, for example, cocaine abuse, that could also contribute to poor clinical outcomes in a pregnant woman. Physiological changes, including increased plasma volume and increased hepatic and renal blood flow, occur in the pregnant woman as the pregnancy progresses and may alter medication needs with the potential to exacerbate drug interactions, although there is sparse literature on this issue. Knowledge of possible drug interactions between opioids, other abused substances such as cocaine, HIV therapeutics, and other frequently required medications such as antibiotics and anticonvulsants is important to assuring the best possible outcomes in the pregnant woman with opioid dependence and HIV/AIDS. PMID:20965297

McCance-Katz, Elinore F

2011-05-23

192

Hair loss in women: medical and cosmetic approaches to increase scalp hair fullness.  

PubMed

Androgenetic alopecia affects both men and women. In men it produces male pattern hair loss with bitemporal recession and vertex baldness. In women it produces female pattern hair loss (FPHL) with diffuse alopecia over the mid-frontal scalp. FPHL occurs as a result of nonuniform hair follicle miniaturization within follicular units. Diffuse alopecia is produced by a reduction in the number of terminal fibres per follicular unit. Baldness occurs only when all hairs within the follicular units are miniaturized and is a relatively late event in women. The concepts of follicular units and primary and secondary hair follicles within follicular units are well established in comparative mammalian studies, particularly in sheep. However, discovery of these structures in the human scalp hair and investigation of the changes in follicular unit anatomy during the development of androgenetic alopecia have provided a clearer understanding of the early stages of androgenetic alopecia and how the male and female patterns of hair loss are related. FPHL is the most common cause of alopecia in women and approximately one-third of adult caucasian women experience hair loss. The impact of FPHL is predominantly psychological. While men anticipate age-related hair loss, hair loss in women is usually unexpected and unwelcome at any age. Treatment options to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate partial hair regrowth for FPHL include the androgen receptor antagonists spironolactone and cyproterone acetate, the 5?-reductase inhibitor finasteride and the androgen-independent hair growth stimulator minoxidil. These treatments appear to work best when initiated early. Hair transplantation should be considered in advanced FPHL that is resistant to medical treatments. Hair transplantation requires well-preserved hair growth over the occipital donor area. The psychological impact of FPHL may also be reduced by cosmetic products that improve the appearance of the hair. These agents work to minimize hair fibre breakage, improve hair volume or conceal visible bald scalp. PMID:22171680

Sinclair, R; Patel, M; Dawson, T L; Yazdabadi, A; Yip, L; Perez, A; Rufaut, N W

2011-12-01

193

Effects of health insurance on non-working married women's medical care use and bed days at home  

PubMed Central

Background This study examines whether bed days are alternative methods to medical care use for treating a particular illness. If bed days at home are considered as an alternative to medical treatment, then medical care use and bed days at home should be influenced by an individual’s health insurance status. Method This study uses data from the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) on medical care use and bed days at home for each contracted illness of non-working married women. Results The results suggest that the health insurance status of non-working married women has considerable influence on their choice between medical care use and bed days at home. In addition, those with health insurance are more likely to use medical care and less likely to use bed days at home, but they tend to avoid the simultaneous use of medical care and bed days at home. Conclusions In contrast to previous studies’ findings indicating that absences from work and medical care use among working males may be complements, this study’s results for non-working married women without health insurance suggest that they use rest and medical treatment as substitutes, not complements.

2013-01-01

194

Testing a Model of Domestic Abuse Against Elder Women and Perceived Barriers to Help-Seeking: Comparing Victim and Non-Victim Responses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Practitioners and researchers who seek to improve prevention and intervention effectiveness for family violence victims across the life span are challenged to explain this enigma. Most research regarding barriers to help-seeking has focused on service del...

F. L. Newman L. Seff R. Beaulaurier

2010-01-01

195

[Medical care provided to pregnant women with HIV/AIDS in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil].  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to analyze the perinatal results of the prophylactic measures adopted in the prevention of the vertical transmission of HIV. The study was carried out using the medical records of 168 women with HIV and their newborns in a public maternity unit of Fortaleza, in the state of Ceará, from 2005 to 2009. The data was obtained between the months of March and September 2010 and was analyzed using the program SPSS 10.0. The women diagnosed before pregnancy received timely care that permitted them an effective antiretroviral therapy and a greater number of check-ups (p<0,05). Antiretroviral therapy was administered to 97.6% of the pregnant women, and triple therapy in 88.7%. AZT was administered intrapartum in 95.2% of the women and oral AZT in syrup to 100% of the newborns. Birth by cesarean section was predominant (92.8%) and was associated to the intrapartum use of AZT when compared to vaginal birth (p<0.001). Cesarean section favored intrapartum administration of AZT. PMID:24500549

Damasceno, Karla Santana Azevedo; Alves dos Prazeres, José Carlos; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Valdanha Netto, Américo

2013-12-01

196

Associations between Anxiety, Depression, Antidepressant Medication, Obesity and Weight Gain among Canadian Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose Some mental illnesses have been suggested to be associated with obesity, although results are somewhat inconsistent and research has focused mainly on depression. Methods Associations between anxiety, depression, medications for these illnesses, and obesity were investigated cross-sectionally among women aged 25–74 (n?=?3004) who participated as population controls in a cancer case-control study. Participants self-reported information on anxiety, depression, height, current weight and weight at age 25. Results No association was observed between either anxiety or depression and either current overweight or obesity status. However, depressed women taking antidepressants were more likely to be obese [OR?=?1.71 (95%CI ?=? 1.16–2.52) daily antidepressant use; OR?=?1.89 (95%CI?=?1.21–2.96) ever tricyclic antidepressant use]. In the full study sample consistent positive associations between anxiety, depression and obesity among women with a history of antidepressant use, and generally negative associations among women without, were suggested. Finally, weight gain was associated with history of anxiety [5–19 kg OR?=?1.29 (95% CI?=?1.06–1.57); ?20 kg OR?=?1.43 (95% CI?=?1.08–1.88)] and depression [?20 kg OR?=?1.28 (95% CI?=?0.99–1.65)]. Conclusions These results suggest depression and anxiety may be associated with weight gain and antidepressant use may be associated with obesity.

Grundy, Anne; Cotterchio, Michelle; Kirsh, Victoria A.; Kreiger, Nancy

2014-01-01

197

Comparison of Employment Status of Women Medical Graduates and Women Science Graduates, University of Sheffield, 1960-65  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey suggests that the employment prospects of women in medicine are more optimistic than suspected, but women may be employed in posts underusing their talents. An advisory service for women science students is recommended. (Author/LBH)

Eskin, Frada

1976-01-01

198

The experience of seeking help for postnatal depression.  

PubMed

This qualitative study sought to explore women's experiences of support and treatment for postnatal depression. In-depth interviews from seven women were analysed using the phenomenological method described by Creswell (1998). Findings indicate that partners provided women the most support. The women did not know where to seek professional help, often being identified and helped by the maternal health nurse who monitors and guides the progress of their babies' development. Hospital programs were criticised for not informing and involving family. The women were dissatisfied with hospital doctors and their GPs claiming they had limited time for counselling, preferring to prescribe medication that alleviated symptoms but reinforced feelings of inadequacy. Recommendations are made to involve families and to use the unique position of the maternal health nurse in assessing new mothers. PMID:12002628

Holopainen, Debbi

2002-01-01

199

FIFA Women's World Cup 2011: Pre-Competition Medical Assessment of female referees and assistant referees  

PubMed Central

Background Precompetition screening was implemented for male referees during the 2010 Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) Word Cup. In contrast, female football referees have been neglected in this respect although they experience similar physical work loads compared to male referees. Methods The standardised football-specific Pre-Competition Medical Assessment (PCMA) was performed in 51 referees and assistant referees selected for the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup. Results Family history for sudden cardiac death (SCD) was positive in four referees (7.8%), but cardiac examinations did not reveal any pathological findings. Training-unrelated ECG changes were identified in three referees (5.9%), all without correlates in echocardiography or clinical examination. Most common echocardiography findings (66.6%, n=34) were asymptomatic tricuspid and mitral regurgitations. Conclusions During the present screening, no elite female referee was identified being at risk for SCD, and no referee had to be excluded from participating in the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup.

Keller, Dagmar I; Bizzini, Mario; Feddermann, Nina; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

2013-01-01

200

Women's perceptions of homebirths in two rural medical districts in Burkina Faso: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. The situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal complications. The purpose of this study was to describe women's perceptions of homebirths in the medical districts of Ouargaye and Diapaga. Methods A qualitative approach was used to gather information. This information was collected by using focus group discussions and individual interviews with 30 women. All the interviews were tape recorded and managed by using QSR NVIVO 2.0, qualitative data management software. Results The findings show that homebirths are frequent because of prohibitive distance to health facilities, fast labour and easy labour, financial constraints, lack of decision making power to reach health facilities. Conclusion The study echoes the need for policy makers to make health facilities easily available to rural inhabitants to forestall maternal and child deaths in the two districts.

2011-01-01

201

Implementation of a multidisciplinary program for active duty personnel seeking care for low back pain in a U.S. Navy Medical Center: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

The aim of the pilot study was to evaluate a multidisciplinary program for nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) at a major U.S. Navy base. In this single blinded randomized clinical trial, subjects were drawn from a larger, prospective cohort of active duty service members seeking care for NSLBP pain at a U.S. Navy Branch Medical Clinic. Outcome measures included return to work, self-reported pain, function, and psychological distress. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of two study arms: a multidisciplinary reconditioning program or the current standard of care for low back pain. The intervention lasted 4 weeks with a 12-week follow-up. Thirty-three subjects were enrolled. Subjects allocated to multidisciplinary care reported significantly lower perceived disability (p = 0.014) and less pain than those allocated to usual care at the end of the intervention period. All subjects returned to their usual duty following the conclusion of the intervention. The implementation of the intervention program was successful. Subjects in the multidisciplinary program showed a clinically significant improvement in the perception of disability compared to the usual care group. This is an important finding since perception of disability is associated with long-term functional outcome. PMID:23025138

Campello, Marco; Ziemke, Gregg; Hiebert, Rudi; Weiser, Sherri; Brinkmeyer, Mary; Fox, Bryan; Dail, Jessica; Kerr, Stewart; Hinnant, Ivan; Nordin, Margareta

2012-09-01

202

Medications as a potential source of exposure to phthalates among women of childbearing age  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association between the use of medications potentially containing phthalates and urinary concentrations of specific phthalate metabolites around conception. Methods Women enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health project from 2006 to 2009 completed questionnaires about the use of medications and provided multiple urine samples before and after conception. We compared the mean urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites between users of phthalate containing medications and a matched unexposed control group. Results One woman used Asacol® (mesalamine), which utilizes dibutyl phthalate (DBP) as a delayed release coating material, and had a mean urinary concentration of the main DBP metabolite 200 times higher than the controls (8176 ?g/L vs. 37.5 ?g/L). The three users of stool softeners had a higher concentration of the main diethyl phthalate (DEP) metabolite (8636 ?g/L vs. 714.2 ?g/L). Neither the three additional Prilosec® (omeprazole) users nor one cyclobenzaprine user had higher urinary concentration than controls. Conclusion Selected medications may be important sources of DBP and DEP exposures around conception.

Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Su, Yung-Cheng; Mitchell, Allen A.; Kelley, Katherine E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

2013-01-01

203

Prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy and these infections. Untreated UTI can be associated with serious obstetric complications. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of UTI among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women attending Bugando Medical centre (BMC) in Mwanza, Tanzania. A total of 247 pregnant women were enrolled, of these 78 (31.5%) were symptomatic and 169 (68.4%) asymptomatic. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine (MSU) culture on standard culture media and urinalysis was done using rapid dip stick. The prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were 17.9% and 13.0% respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.307). Using univariate analysis there was no association of parity (p = 0.825), gestational age (p = 0.173), education (p = 0.615), age (p = 0.211) and marital status (p = 0.949) with bacteriuria. The sensitivity and specificity of urine dipstick was 38.9% and 86.7% respectively. Escherichia coli (47.2%) and Enterococcus spp (22.2%) were the most commonly recovered pathogens. The rate of resistance of Escherichia coli to ampicillin, tetracycline, sulfamethaxazole/trimethoprim, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, ceftriaxone, and imipenem were 53%, 58.8%, 64.7%, 5.9%, 11.8%, 5.9%, 29.4% and 0%, respectively. In conclusion, asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women is prevalent in our setting and majority of Escherichia coli are resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, SXT and ceftriaxone. Due to low sensitivity of rapid dip stick, routine urine culture and susceptibility testing is recommended to all pregnant women at booking. PMID:20734713

Masinde, A; Gumodoka, B; Kilonzo, A; Mshana, S E

2009-07-01

204

Patterns of Anti-Osteoporosis Medication Use among Women at High Risk of Fracture: Findings from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW)  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess patterns of anti-osteoporosis medication (AOM) use over 3 years among women at high risk of major fracture. Methods The GLOW registry follows a cohort of more than 40,000 women aged ?55 from 615 primary care practices in 10 countries. Self-administered surveys (baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months) collected data on patient characteristics, perception of fracture risk, and AOM use. FRAX scores were calculated from the baseline surveys and women classified as high risk if their FRAX 10-year probability of major fracture was ?20%. Results A total of 5774 women were classified as at high risk and had complete data over 3 years. At baseline, 2271 (39%) reported receiving AOM, 739 (13%) reported prior but not current use, and 2764 (48%) said they had never used AOM. Over 3 years, 85% of baseline non-users continued as non-users and 15% initiated AOM; among baseline users, 49% continued the same medication class, 29% stopped AOM, and 12% switched. Women who stopped AOM were less likely to self-report osteoporosis (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.42–0.75) than women who continued AOM. Compared with non-users who did not begin treatment, women initiating AOM were more likely to report a diagnosis of osteoporosis (HR 11.3, 95% CI 8.2–15.5) or osteopenia (HR 4.1, 95% CI 2.9–5.7) and be very concerned about osteoporosis (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.8). Conclusions Less than 40% of women at high risk of fracture reported taking AOM. Women who stopped AOM were less likely to believe they have osteoporosis. Women who initiated treatment appeared motivated primarily by a diagnosis of osteoporosis or osteopenia and concern about the condition.

Gehlbach, Stephen; Hooven, Frederick H.; Wyman, Allison; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Luo, Xuemei; Bushmakin, Andrew G.; Anderson, Frederick A.

2013-01-01

205

Trends in Financial Barriers to Medical Care for Women Veterans, 2003-2004 and 2009-2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction Women veterans are a fast-growing segment of the veteran population, yet they face many barriers to medical care. The objective of this study was to examine factors that put women veterans at risk for a financial barrier to medical care. Methods We conducted repeated cross-sectional analyses of data from the 2003, 2004, 2009, and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used weighted logistic regression to examine the risk of a financial barrier to medical care as the primary outcome in a multivariate model controlling for factors in health-related domains. Results In 2010, there were an estimated 1,719,750 (11.6%) working-aged veterans who needed to see a doctor in the previous 12 months but could not because of cost. For women, 13.4% faced this financial barrier. Over the study period, facing a financial barrier was consistently associated with insurance coverage, physical and mental distress days, and having children in the home. Other associations emerged in particular years, such as binge drinking in 2010. The trends for women veterans relative to men and for younger women veterans relative to older women veterans show reduction in financial barriers to health care. Conclusion The Veteran’s Health Administration (VHA) should continue efforts to reduce financial and other barriers, especially among the higher risk groups we identified. This will help meet the VHA’s objectives of providing comprehensive care to all veterans including women.

Wang, Yanning; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred

2013-01-01

206

The clinical content of preconception care: the use of medications and supplements among women of reproductive age.  

PubMed

The use of prescription and over-the-counter medications and dietary supplements are common among women of reproductive age. For medications, little information about the teratogenic risks or safety is available, as pregnant women are traditionally excluded from clinical trials, and premarketing animal studies do not necessarily predict the effects of treatment in human pregnancy. Even less is typically known about the effects of dietary supplements on pregnancy outcomes, as they are not held to the same rigorous safety and efficacy standards as prescription medications. Congenital anomalies associated with medication use are potentially preventable, because they are linked with modifiable maternal exposures during the period of organogenesis. However, as women of reproductive age experience acute and chronic conditions that can result in adverse outcomes for the woman and her offspring, the benefits of use of a particular medication before or early in pregnancy may outweigh the risks. Resources and principles outlined in this article will aid healthcare providers in selecting appropriate medication regimens for women of reproductive age, particularly those with chronic health conditions, those who are planning a pregnancy, and those who may become pregnant. PMID:19081432

Dunlop, Anne L; Gardiner, Paula M; Shellhaas, Cynthia S; Menard, M Kathryn; McDiarmid, Melissa A

2008-12-01

207

Perspective for Female Medical Physicists (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

2009-04-01

208

Angina in Women Can Be Different Than Men  

MedlinePLUS

... three in the United States. Nearly half of African-American women have heart disease . Recognize the Signs, Seek Medical ... more about heart disease: Heart Attack Symptoms in Women Menopause and Heart Disease African-Americans and Heart Disease Hispanics and Heart Disease ...

209

Stigma is Associated with Delays in Seeking Care Among HIV-Infected People in India  

PubMed Central

Background Stigma shapes the lives of people living with HIV and may affect their willingness to seek medical care. But treatment delays can compromise health and increase the risk of transmission to others. Purpose To examine whether four stigma manifestations—enacted (discrimination), vicarious (hearing stories of discrimination), felt normative (perceptions of stigma’s prevalence) and internalized (personal endorsement of stigma beliefs)—were linked with delays in seeking care among HIV-infected people in India. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 961 HIV-positive men and women in Mumbai and Bengaluru. Results Enacted and internalized stigmas were correlated with delays in seeking care after testing HIV-positive. Depression symptoms mediated the associations of enacted and internalized stigmas with care seeking delays, whereas efforts to avoiding disclosing HIV status mediated only the association between internalized stigma and care seeking delays. Conclusions It is vital to develop stigma reduction interventions to ensure timely receipt of care.

Steward, Wayne T.; Bharat, Shalini; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Heylen, Elsa; Ekstrand, Maria L.

2012-01-01

210

Seeking Michigan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Seeking Michigan website is part of a collaboration between the Library of Michigan and Archives of Michigan, and its aim is to provide "access to unique historical information that promotes Michigan's cultural heritage." Some of the historical information visitors will find on the site includes images, documents, oral histories, maps, films, and artifacts. The "Look" section of the website is a blog where various people author articles about a story or item they have chosen from the site, for example Randy Riley of the Library of Michigan writes about Elmore Leonard, often called "The Dickens of Detroit" by his fans. Visitors who are Detroit Red Wings fans will appreciate the article about their last game at Olympia Stadium, authored by Matt Zarb of the Michigan Historical Museum. Lastly, visiting educators will find that the "Teach" link has a short video about the "History of the Photograph", which is the introduction to a lesson for young people on how to analyze the many historic photographs on the Seeking Michigan website. The link to the lesson is at the end of the video.

211

Care Seeking after Stroke Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess risk factors associated with seeking care for stroke symptoms. Methods Using data from the population-based national cohort study (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) conducted January 25, 2003–February 28, 2007 (N = 23,664), we assessed care-seeking behavior among 3,668 participants who reported a physician diagnosis of stroke/transient ischemic attack (n = 647) or stroke symptoms (n = 3,021) during follow-up. Care seeking was defined as seeking medical attention after stroke symptoms or a physician diagnosis. Results Overall, 58.5% of participants (2,146/3,668) sought medical care. In multivariable models, higher income was associated with greater likelihood of seeking care ( p = 0.02): participants with income of ?$75,000 had odds 1.43 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–2.02) greater than those with income of less than $20,000. Diabetes and previous heart disease were associated with increased care seeking: odds ratio (OR) of 1.23 (95% CI, 1.04 –1.47) and OR of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.06– 1.49), respectively. Participants with previous stroke symptoms but no stroke history were less likely to seek care than those with stroke history or without previous symptoms (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67– 0.96). Past smoking was associated with lower likelihood (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59–0.85; p = 0.0003) of seeking care relative to nonsmokers. Interpretation Only approximately half of participants with stroke symptoms sought care. This is despite the encouragement of advocacy groups to seek prompt attention for stroke symptoms. Our results highlight the importance of identifying characteristics associated with care-seeking behavior. Recognizing factors that contribute to delays provides opportunities to enhance education on the importance of seeking care for stroke symptoms.

Howard, Virginia J.; Lackland, Daniel T.; Lichtman, Judith H.; McClure, Leslie A.; Howard, George; Wagner, Libby; Pulley, LeaVonne; Gomez, Camilo R.

2013-01-01

212

The relationship between self-reported and registry-based data on use of psychoactive medications in postmenopausal women  

PubMed Central

Background Self-report is commonly used as a source of information on the use of medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-reported and register-based information on the use of psychoactive medication, especially in respect to antidepressants, and reasons of non-reporting. Methods Study subjects (n?=?11,031) originated from a population-based cohort of postmenopausal women born in 1932–41 from Eastern Finland who responded to a postal enquiry in 1999. Self-reported currently used prescribed medications were compared to the National prescription register data. Diuretics served as a reference for psychoactive medications. Results Only 44% out of 1,638 women reported their use of psychoactive medication when compared to the prescription register within a 4-month time window preceding their response to enquiry. Altogether, 55% out of 777 women reported their use of antidepressants and 29% out of 861 reported their use of other psychoactive medications. In comparison 83% reported their use of diuretics. After excluding the occasional use, an increase in sensitivity by approximately 10 percentage points was seen regardless of the group of psychoactive medication. High use and history of work disability pension due to psychiatric cause were associated with a much higher likelihood of reporting psychoactive medication use (for antidepressants 70% and 81%, respectively). Conclusions For research purposes, self-reported current use of psychoactive medication seems to be a sufficient indicator for regular use of antidepressants or in respect of use of any psychoactive medication, for subjects with severe psychiatric disease.

2013-01-01

213

ADAPTATION OF HEALTH CARE SEEKING BEHAVIOR DURING CHILDBIRTH: FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS WITH WOMEN LIVING IN THE SUBURBAN AREAS OF LUANDA, ANGOLA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to explore how various factors influenced women's decisions regarding place of confinement in Luanda, Angola. Ten focus group discussions were conducted with pregnant and nonpregnant women residing in suburban areas of Luanda and the data were analyzed using the grounded theory technique. Four patterns of action of the main theme, “the molding of women's

Karen Odberg Pettersson; Kyllike Christensson; Engracia da Gloria Gomes de Freitas; Eva Johansson

2004-01-01

214

Women in the C-Suite: A Study of How Succession Planning May Best Be Utilized for Career Advancement of Medical College Executives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated and analyzed medical school executives' perceptions of the low level of advancement of women into the healthcare c-suite. As well, medical school executives' recommendations for increasing the number of women entering and experiencing sustained success in executive positions were assessed. Related to these observations were…

Mack, Yvette E.

2010-01-01

215

Symptom interpretation and health care seeking in ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among women suffering from gynaecological malignancies in the Western world. Worldwide, approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with the disease each year. This article deals with the health care seeking and symptom interpretation process among Danish women, who have a very high mortality rate. Methods The health seeking and symptom interpretation process was analysed via combining study methods. The material consisted of registry data dealing with the use of public health care and hospital services of Danish women, newly diagnosed with ovarian cancer. These results were combined with findings from semi-structured qualitative research interviews on women's bodily experiences with symptom development. Results A number of 663 Danish women with ovarian cancer attended 27 different kinds of primary health care providers in a total of 14,009 visits during 2007. The women also had 6,214 contacts with various hospitals, and obtained 562 different diagnoses. From the main theme "Women's experiences with the onset of symptoms" three sub-themes were identified: "Bodily sensations", "From bodily sensation to symptom", and "Health seeking and treatment start". In all cases the General Practitioner represented the first contact to public health care, acting as gate-keeper to specialist and hospital referral. The women were major users of public health care throughout the diagnostic process and subsequent treatment. All women held personal knowledge concerning the onset of their symptoms. The early symptoms of ovarian cancer might be uncharacteristic and non-disease-specific when interpreted as personal experiences, but they had similarities when analysed together. Conclusions Diagnostic delay in ovarian cancer seems far from being exclusively a medical problem, as the delay proved to be influenced by organisational, cultural, and social factors, too. Initiatives facilitating the diagnostic process and research concerning the selection of individuals for further investigation are indicated. The way in which the women interpreted their symptoms was influenced by their personal experiences, their cultural, and their social background. This became crucial to the diagnostic process. These issues need to be explored through further research on women's experiences during the diagnostic process.

2011-01-01

216

Clinical Characteristics and Medication Use among Premenopausal Women with Osteoporosis and Low BMD: The Experience of an Osteoporosis Referral Center  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims Osteoporosis is uncommon in premenopausal women, and most cases have a secondary cause. Women with osteoporosis and no known secondary cause are said to have idiopathic osteoporosis (IOP). We aimed to estimate the proportion of premenopausal women seen in our referral center with IOP as opposed to secondary osteoporosis, to describe their clinical characteristics, to compare women with a low-trauma fracture history with those with low bone mineral density (BMD) alone, and to estimate the frequency of bisphosphonate use. Methods We reviewed medical records from all premenopausal women evaluated for osteoporosis or low BMD in our center during 2005. We included premenopausal women diagnosed on the basis of low-trauma fracture, low BMD or both (Z score????2.0 or T score????2.5), or both. Results Among these patients (n?=?61; mean age 37?±?8), 57 (93%) were Caucasian, 34 (57%) had a family history of osteoporosis, and 26 (43%) had used bisphosphonates. The most common secondary causes were amenorrhea (34%, n?=?21), anorexia nervosa (16%, n?=?10), and glucocorticoid exposure (13%, n?=?8). After exclusion of secondary causes, 39% (24 of 61) of the entire group and 48% (14 of 29) of the fracture group were thought to have IOP. Women with a known secondary cause had lower BMD Z scores at the spine and hip than those with IOP. Women with low BMD and no fractures had shorter stature and weighed less than those with fractures, but overall differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Bisphosphonates had been prescribed for 38% (11 of 29) of women with a fracture history and 47% (15 of 32) of women with low BMD and no fractures. Conclusions Our findings suggest that IOP is common among premenopausal women with osteoporosis or low BMD evaluated at a referral center. The smaller stature of women diagnosed only on the basis of BMD criteria raises the question of whether their areal BMD measurements are spuriously low because of smaller bone size. The high proportion of premenopausal women who had been prescribed oral bisphosphonates for low BMD measurements is of concern, as such women are likely to be at low short-term risk of fracture, and a more conservative approach to therapy is preferable in this group.

Fleischer, Jessica; Freeby, Matthew J.; McMahon, Donald J.; Irani, Dinaz; Shane, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

217

Psychosocial Determinants of Mammography Follow-up after Receipt of Abnormal Mammography Results in Medically Underserved Women  

PubMed Central

This article targets the relationship between psychosocial determinants and abnormal screening mammography follow-up in a medically underserved population. Health belief scales were modified to refer to diagnostic follow-up versus annual screening. A retrospective cohort study design was used. Statistical analyses were performed examining relationships among sociodemographic factors, psychosocial determinants, and abnormal mammography follow-up. Women with lower mean internal health locus of control scores (3.14) were two times more likely than women with higher mean internal health locus of control scores (3.98) to have inadequate follow-up (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.12–5.36). Women with less than a high school education had lower cancer fatalism scores than women who had completed high school (47.5 vs. 55.2, p-value = .02) and lower mean external health locus of control scores (3.0 vs. 5.3) (p-value<.01). These constructs have implications for understanding mammography follow-up among minority and medically underserved women. Further comprehensive study of these concepts is warranted.

Fair, Alecia Malin; Wujcik, Debra; Lin, Jin-Mann Sally; Zheng, Wei; Egan, Kathleen M.; Grau, Ana M.; Champion, Victoria L.; Wallston, Kenneth A.

2010-01-01

218

A Case Analysis of a Model Program for the Leadership Development of Women Faculty and Staff Seeking to Advance Their Careers in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this case study was to explore a model of leadership development for women faculty and staff in higher education. This study is significant because it explored the only identified campus-based program open to both faculty and staff. The campus-based Women's Institute for Leadership Development (WILD) program at the University of…

Calizo, Lee Scherer Hawthorne

2011-01-01

219

Women's experiences and views about costs of seeking malaria chemoprevention and other antenatal services: a qualitative study from two districts in rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Tanzanian government recommends women who attend antenatal care (ANC) clinics to accept receiving intermittent preventive treatment against malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) and vouchers for insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) at subsidized prices. Little emphasis has been paid to investigate the ability of pregnant women to access and effectively utilize these services. OBJECTIVES: To describe the experience and perceptions of pregnant

Godfrey M Mubyazi; Paul Bloch; Pascal Magnussen; Øystein E Olsen; Jens Byskov; Kristian S Hansen; Ib C Bygbjerg

2010-01-01

220

The Association of Understanding of Medical Statistics with Health Information Seeking and Health Provider Interaction in a National Sample of Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numeracy, or, “the ability to use and understand numbers in daily life” is a critical component of health literacy. However, little research has focused on numeracy in young adults (ages 18–29). We used a national sample to examine how health-information seeking, trust in sources, and interactions with health care providers differ for young adults with lower and higher numeracy. We

Jennifer A. Manganello; Marla L. Clayman

2011-01-01

221

Effects of Socio-Demographic, Personality and Medical Factors on Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman’s organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. Conclusions: (1) Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2) Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT)). (3) Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life.

Wieder-Huszla, Sylwia; Szkup, Malgorzata; Jurczak, Anna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Stanislawska, Marzanna; Rotter, Iwona; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, Elzbieta

2014-01-01

222

Effects of socio-demographic, personality and medical factors on quality of life of postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman's organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. Conclusions: (1) Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2) Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT)). (3) Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life. PMID:24972032

Wieder-Huszla, Sylwia; Szkup, Ma?gorzata; Jurczak, Anna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Stanis?awska, Marzanna; Rotter, Iwona; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, El?bieta

2014-01-01

223

"I am proud of myself, just the way I am" (Mwen fyé de tét mwen, jan mwen ye ya): a qualitative study among young Haitian women seeking care for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Haiti.  

PubMed

Haitian women are twice as likely as men to have HIV/AIDs. Factors underlying the feminization of HIV are complex. Self-esteem is an important correlate of sexual behavior. However, its meaning and impact on health behaviors may be influenced by cultural factors. This qualitative study took place in Haiti 4 months after the 2010 earthquake and examines the meaning of self-esteem among young Haitian women seeking treatment for a recurrent sexually transmitted infection (STI). The meaning of self-esteem was derived from a sense of gratitude and was rooted in their ability to provide for family. This may have led to behaviors such as not using condoms or having sex with partners in concurrent relationships. This article highlights the resilience and resourcefulness of Haitian women, provides insight into how women with apparent positive self-images were led to make choices that placed them at high risk for contracting HIV, and concludes with recommendations for future interventions. PMID:24694329

Severe, Linda; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Deschamps, Marie M; Reif, Lindsey; Post, Kendall; Johnson, Warren D; Pape, Jean W; Boutin-Foster, Carla

2014-04-01

224

Sexual Dysfunction in Women: An Overview of Psychological\\/Psychosocial, Pathophysiological, Etiological Aspects and Treatment Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex response in women is expressed by different phases (desire, arousal, lubrication, plateau, orgasm and resolution). Any divergence would lead to female sexual dysfunction (FSD), which cause distress and agony. The psychological factors incorporate inhibitions from personality, depression, angedonia, anxiety and coital pain. Such inhibitions would isolate women to seek pleasures in unnatural means of satisfaction. While the medical problems

PHCOG REV; Shoeb Qureshi; Zaman Ara; Viquar Fatima Qureshi; S. S. Al-Rejaie; A. M. Aleisa; S. A. Bakheet; O. A. Al-Shabanah; Mohammad Rehan Qureshi; Roohi Fatima; Mohammad Farhan Qureshi; Abdullah M. Al-Bekairi

2007-01-01

225

Education and the professionals. Some aspects of innovation in medical education adopted by Ahfad University for Women.  

PubMed

This article describes the establishment in 1990 of a School of Medicine at Ahfad University for Women in Sudan. The school was premised on the view that women doctors would have a better opportunity to affect and improve women's health than men doctors. The curriculum is innovative and relies on a community orientation and a problem-solving approach. Medicine and health are taught in a holistic way. The new approach is rooted in the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978 of Health for All by the year 2000. The new method of delivery of medical care in the School of Medicine is based on the promotion of health through health education, prevention of disease, proper nutrition, provision of a safe water supply, attention to maternal/child health and family planning, and attention to the treatment of endemic diseases. In order to teach primary health care, medical schools must change their practices. Delivery of health care will have to be changed. New curriculum approaches emphasize learning objectives in each of the teaching modules and small group teaching. Integrated learning means the separate disciplines of medicine are taught as a whole multidisciplinary unit. Case management learning has the potential for increasing motivation and the ability to discover the knowledge needed to solve the problem. McMaster University relies on a problem-oriented approach to medical education that prepares the student for coping with changes in medical knowledge in the future. The challenge for educators is to create an efficient and comprehensive curriculum that will prepare a doctor for lifelong learning. Health settings have also changed to deemphasize sophisticated hospital settings in favor of community-based health centers. Ahfad University is the only one of its kind in Sudan. Medical education includes 6 years of schooling divided into 3 phases. PMID:12292667

Abdel Aziz, F

1994-12-01

226

Predictors of Health Care Use Among a Predominantly Hispanic, Urban Sample of Individuals Seeking IPV Services  

PubMed Central

Hispanics, Blacks, and women are disproportionately burdened by intimate partner violence. Barriers to seeking medical care play an important role in victims accessing the full myriad of services they need. A secondary analysis of data collected over a 6-month period at a coordinated domestic violence social agency was completed to assess predictors of seeking medical care after experiencing intimate partner violence. A hierarchical logistic regression was conducted to assess the predictive ability of socioeconomic factors, type of abuse, and severity of abuse. Hispanic victims of intimate partner violence were less likely to seek medical attention compared to non-Hispanic Whites, even after controlling for socioeconomic factors, type of abuse, and severity of abuse, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = .40, p = .05, 95% CI [.164, .995]. Victims reporting physical abuse were over seven times more likely to seek medical attention, AOR = 8.02, p = .04, 95% CI [2.35, 27.34]. Medical care needs to be incorporated into coordinated social services offered to victims of intimate partner violence.

Lawson, Sarah L.; Laughon, Kathryn; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.

2012-01-01

227

Family physicians can play important role helping women overcome drinking problems.  

PubMed

When alcoholic women seek medical assistance, it is more likely to be because of distress over interpersonal or family problems, and their complaints of anxiety, depression and insomnia will be treated with prescription drugs. The alcoholism, which presents differently in women than men, is often left undiagnosed and untreated. However, even when women seek help for a drinking problem, traditional and male-dominated support groups may not meet their unique needs. When it comes to alcoholism, men and women are certainly not created equal. PMID:7728702

Lechky, O

1995-05-01

228

Antipsychotic medication, prolactin elevation, and ovarian function in women with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some, but not all, antipsychotics elevate serum prolactin. Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia is thought to account for high rates of menstrual dysfunction and diminished estrogen levels in women with schizophrenia. However, few studies have directly assessed the relationships between prolactin, menstrual function, and ovarian hormone levels in this population. Sixteen premenopausal women with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, eight treated with an antipsychotic

Carla M. Canuso; Jill M. Goldstein; Joanne Wojcik; Ree Dawson; Danielle Brandman; Anne Klibanski; Joseph J. Schildkraut; Alan I. Green

2002-01-01

229

Reproductive endocrine function in women with epilepsy: The role of epilepsy type and medication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the analysis described here was to assess reproductive endocrine disorders in 148 women with epilepsy (WWE) by epilepsy type and antiepileptic drug use. Women with idiopathic generalized epilepsy had a higher prevalence of reproductive endocrine disorders than control subjects. In addition, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and polycystic ovary syndrome were more prevalent in WWE on valproate than in

Eeva Löfgren; Kirsi Mikkonen; Uolevi Tolonen; Arto Pakarinen; Riitta Koivunen; Vilho V. Myllyla; Juha S. Tapanainen; Jouko I. T. Isojärvi

2007-01-01

230

U.S. Navy Women's Satisfaction With Obstetric and Gynecologic Medical Care.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are more than 55,000 women on active duty in the U.S. Navy. Previous research has shown that women utilize health care services at higher rates than men, and that obstetric and gynecologic (OB/GYN) health care are among the most frequent reasons for...

R. G. Burr L. L. Merrill K. Emens-Hesslink

1997-01-01

231

"For someone who's rich, it's not a problem". Insights from Tanzania on diabetes health-seeking and medical pluralism among Dar es Salaam's urban poor  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of chronic non-communicable disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is rising worldwide. In Africa, T2DM is primarily affecting those living in urban areas and increasingly affecting the poor. Diabetes management among urban poor is an area of research that has received little attention. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in Dar es Salam, the causes and conditions for diabetes management in Tanzania have been examined. In this paper, we focus on the structural context of diabetes services in Tanzania; the current status of biomedical and ethnomedical health care; and health-seeking among people with T2DM. We demonstrate that although Tanzania is actively developing its diabetes services, many people with diabetes and low socioeconomic status are unable to engage continuously in treatment. There are many challenges to be addressed to support people accessing diabetes health care services and improve diabetes management.

2010-01-01

232

Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001–2007): demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of 4117 applicants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cannabis (marijuana) had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of

Thomas J O'Connell; Ché B Bou-Matar

2007-01-01

233

Adherence to Medication Treatment: A Qualitative Study of Facilitators and Barriers Among a Diverse Sample of HIV+ Men and Women in Four U.S. Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies examining HIV antiretroviral medication treatment adherence involve quantitative surveys. Although these studies have identified factors associated with medical adherence, no single variable or combination of variables is sufficiently consistent to apply to any individual or group of people. Using qualitative methods, an ethnically diverse sample (N = 110) of HIV+ women, men who have sex with men, and

Robert H. Remien; A. Elizabeth Hirky; Mallory O. Johnson; Lance S. Weinhardt; David Whittier; Giang Minh Le

2003-01-01

234

Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001-2007): demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of 4117 applicants  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis (marijuana) had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of cannabis in 1996, and it was recently estimated that between 250,000 and 350,000 Californians may now possess the physician's recommendation required to use it medically. More limited medical use has also been approved in 12 additional states and new initiatives are being considered in others. Despite that evidence of increasing public acceptance of "medical" use, a definitional problem remains and all use for any purpose is still prohibited by federal law. Results California's 1996 initiative allowed cannabis to be recommended, not only for serious illnesses, but also "for any other illness for which marijuana provides relief," thus maximally broadening the range of allowable indications. In effect, the range of conditions now being treated with federally illegal cannabis, the modes in which it is being used, and the demographics of the population using it became potentially discoverable through the required screening of applicants. This report examines the demographic profiles and other selected characteristics of 4117 California marijuana users (62% from the Greater Bay Area) who applied for medical recommendations between late 2001 and mid 2007. Conclusion This study yielded a somewhat unexpected profile of a hitherto hidden population of users of America's most popular illegal drug. It also raises questions about some of the basic assumptions held by both proponents and opponents of current policy.

O'Connell, Thomas J; Bou-Matar, Che B

2007-01-01

235

An Exploration of Rural and Urban Kenyan Women's Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Early Detection Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many women in Kenya with breast cancer symptoms do not seek medical attention until their cancer is very advanced, leading to high mortality rates and a heavy cancer burden on the nation. In this study we employed eight focus groups with low- and middle-income rural and urban Kenyan women to explore their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors concerning breast cancer and

Ann Muthoni; Ann Neville Miller

2010-01-01

236

Maternal and child health services for medically indigent children and pregnant women.  

PubMed

Millions of low-income children and women of childbearing age are completely uninsured. Medicaid, the nation's largest public health financing program for the poor, is an inadequate resource for uninsured families with children. By 1984, the program served only 46% of the poor and near-poor, down from 65% in 1976. To assess the availability of maternity and pediatric services for low income uninsured women and children, a survey of 51 Title V Maternal and Child Health agency officials was conducted in 1986. While nearly all states (48) offer some prenatal care programs for indigent women, restrictive eligibility requirements and limited distribution meant that these programs reached only a small proportion of those in need. Only one state, Massachusetts, offered a truly statewide program to all uninsured pregnant women with incomes under 185% of the poverty level. Twenty-three states reported the existence of inpatient maternity programs for indigent women. Yet these, too, were extremely limited. Sixteen programs restricted funds either to women who participated in certain designated maternity programs or else only to those who were identified as high risk prior to the labor and delivery period. Fifteen state agencies reported that hospitals were denying admission to women about to deliver. Another 13 reported that hospitals were denying admission to women not yet in "active" labor. Six additional states were aware of patient dumping but did not identify the specific populations that were affected. Forty-six states reported the existence of pediatric outpatient programs. However, the majority (30) offered only "well-child" care. Seven states maintained pediatric programs limited to only certain ages of children; three of these imposed an age requirement as low as 2 years or younger. Only two states reported the availability of any pediatric inpatient programs financed or administered by Title V agencies other than those for children with special health care needs. PMID:3280887

Rosenbaum, S; Hughes, D C; Johnson, K

1988-04-01

237

National trends in antidepressant medication treatment among publicly-insured pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Objective Risk of depression in women is greatest at childbearing age. We sought to examine and explain national trends in antidepressant use in pregnant women. Methods Cohort study including pregnant women aged 12–55 who were enrolled in Medicaid during 2000–2007. We examined the proportion of women taking antidepressants during pregnancy by patient characteristics (descriptive), by region (mixed-effects model), and over time (interrupted time-series). Results We identified 1,106,757 pregnancies in 47 states; mean age was 23 years and 60% were non-white. Nearly 1 in 12 used an antidepressant during pregnancy. Use was higher for older (11.2% for age ?30 vs. 7.6% for <30) and white (14.4% vs. 4.0% for non-white) women. There was a 4- to 5-fold difference in rate of antidepressant use among states. Of the 5.3% of women taking antidepressants at conception, 33% and 17% were still on treatment 90 and 180 days, respectively, into pregnancy; an additional 4% began use during pregnancy. Labeled pregnancy-related health advisories did not appear to affect antidepressant use. Conclusions Antidepressant use during pregnancy remains high in this population; treatment patterns vary substantially by patient characteristics and region. Comparative safety and effectiveness data to help inform treatment choices are needed in this setting.

Huybrechts, Krista F.; Palmsten, Kristin; Mogun, Helen; Kowal, Mary; Avorn, Jerry; Setoguchi-Iwata, Soko; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia

2014-01-01

238

Women in surgery: little change in gender equality in Japanese medical societies over the past 3 years.  

PubMed

Japan lags behind other industrialized nations in terms of gender equality. To improve the work environment for surgeons, the opinions of female surgeons must be respected. The Committee on Women Surgeons of the Japan Surgical Society (JSS) conducted two surveys 3 years apart of the numbers of female councilors and directors in the member societies of the Japanese Association of Medical Sciences. In the nonsurgical medical societies, although there was an increase in the number of female councilors, only one female director was named over the past 3 years. On the other hand, there were no female directors in any of the 12 surgical societies in 2011. The JSS was founded in 1899. No female surgeon has ever been elected as director and there are currently no female councilors due to the new election system. The Gender Equality Bureau of the Cabinet Office should therefore provide greater support to improve gender equality in Japan. PMID:23224261

Tomizawa, Yasuko

2013-10-01

239

Women Physicians Are Early Adopters of On-Line Continuing Medical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: On-line continuing medical education (CME) provides advantages to physicians and to medical educators. Although practicing physicians increasingly use on-line CME to meet their educational needs, the overall use of on-line CME remains limited. There are few data to describe the physicians who use this new educational medium; yet,…

Harris, John M., Jr.; Novalis-Marine, Cheryl; Harris, Robin B.

2003-01-01

240

Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Fighting for Equality on All Fronts" (Fromont); "Three Questions for Mrs. Lucille Caron"; "Women Shoulder the Burden of Cambodia's Economy" (Roess); and "Renewing Their Relationship with the Land" (Mehra-Kerpelman). (SK)

Fromont, Michel; And Others

1994-01-01

241

Physiological employment standards IV: integration of women in combat units physiological and medical considerations.  

PubMed

Anthropometric and physiological factors place the average female soldier at a disadvantage relative to male soldiers in most aspects of physical performance. Aerobic and anaerobic fitness levels are lower in women than in men. Thus, women have a lower overall work capacity and must therefore exert themselves more than men to achieve the same output. The lower weight and fat-free mass and the higher body fat of women are associated with lower muscle strength and endurance, placing them at disadvantage compared with men in carrying out military tasks such as lifting and carrying weights or marching with a load. Working at a higher percentage of their maximal capacity to achieve the same performance levels as men, women tire earlier and are at increased risk of overuse injuries. Their smaller size, different bone geometry and lower bone strength also predispose women to a higher incidence of stress fractures. Although training in gender-integrated groups narrows the gaps in fitness, significant differences between the genders after basic training still remain. Nevertheless, integration of women into military combat professions is feasible in many cases. Some 'close combat roles' will still be an exception, mainly because of the extreme physical demands that are required in those units that are beyond the physiological adaptability capacities of an average female. There is no direct evidence that women have a negative impact on combat effectiveness. Once the gender differences are acknowledged and operational doctrines adjusted accordingly, female soldiers in mixed-gender units can meet the physical standards for the assigned missions. PMID:23238928

Epstein, Yoram; Yanovich, Ran; Moran, Daniel S; Heled, Yuval

2013-11-01

242

Effects of a GABA-ergic medication combination and initial alcohol withdrawal severity on cue-elicited brain activation among treatment-seeking alcoholics  

PubMed Central

Rationale Many studies have reported medication effects on alcohol cue-elicited brain activation or associations between such activation and subsequent drinking. However, few have combined the methodological rigor of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) with follow-up assessments to determine whether cue-elicited activation predicts relapse during treatment, the crux of alcoholism. Objectives This study analyzed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 48 alcohol-dependent subjects enrolled in a six-week RCT of an investigational pharmacotherapy. Methods Subjects were randomized, based on their level of alcohol withdrawal (AW) at study entry, to receive either a combination of gabapentin (up to 1200 mg for 39 days) and flumazenil infusions (two days) or two placebos. Midway through the RCT, subjects were administered an fMRI alcohol cue reactivity task. Results There were no main effects of medication or initial AW status on cue-elicited activation, but these factors interacted, such that the gabapentin-flumazenil/higher AW and placebo/lower AW groups, which had previously been shown to have relatively reduced drinking, demonstrated greater dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activation to alcohol cues. Further analysis suggested that this finding represented differences in task-related deactivation and was associated with greater control over alcohol-related thoughts. Among study completers, regardless of medication or AW status, greater left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation predicted more post-scan heavy drinking. Conclusions These data suggest that alterations in task-related deactivation of dACC, a component of the default mode network, may predict better alcohol treatment response, while activation of DLPFC, an area associated with selective attention, may predict relapse drinking.

Schacht, Joseph P.; Anton, Raymond F.; Randall, Patrick K.; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Myrick, Hugh

2013-01-01

243

Race-ethnicity and medical services for infertility: stratified reproduction in a population-based sample of U.S. women.  

PubMed

Evidence of group differences in reproductive control and access to reproductive health care suggests the continued existence of "stratified reproduction" in the United States. Women of color are overrepresented among people with infertility but are underrepresented among those who receive medical services. The authors employ path analysis to uncover mechanisms accounting for these differences among black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white women using a probability-based sample of 2,162 U.S. women. Black and Hispanic women are less likely to receive services than other women. The enabling conditions of income, education, and private insurance partially mediate the relationship between race-ethnicity and receipt of services but do not fully account for the association at all levels of service. For black and Hispanic women, social cues, enabling conditions, and predisposing conditions contribute to disparities in receipt of services. Most of the association between race-ethnicity and service receipt is indirect rather than direct. PMID:22031500

Greil, Arthur L; McQuillan, Julia; Shreffler, Karina M; Johnson, Katherine M; Slauson-Blevins, Kathleen S

2011-12-01

244

Does Government subsidy for costs of medical and pharmaceutical services result in higher service utilization by older widowed women in Australia?  

PubMed Central

Background In Australia, Medicare, the national health insurance system which includes the Medical Benefits Scheme (MBS) and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), provides partial coverage for most medical services and pharmaceuticals. For war widows, the Department of Veterans’ Affairs (DVA) covers almost the entire cost of their health care. The objective of this study was to test whether war widows have higher usage of medical services and pharmaceuticals. Methods Data were from 730 women aged 70–84?years (mostly World War II widows) participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health who consented to data linkage to Medicare Australia. The main outcome measures were PBS costs, claims, co-payments and scripts presented, and MBS total costs, claims and gap payments for medical services in 2005. Results There was no difference between the war widows and similarly aged widows in the Australian population without DVA support on use of medical services. While war widows had more pharmaceutical prescriptions filled they generated equivalent total costs, number of claims and co-payments for pharmaceuticals than widows without DVA support. Conclusions Older war widows are not using more medical services and pharmaceuticals than other older Australian women despite having financial incentives to do so.

2012-01-01

245

Comparative Effectiveness of Medications to Reduce Risk of Primary Breast Cancer in Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed noncutaneous cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer among women in the United States. In 2008, an estimated 182,460 cases of invasive breast cancer and 67,770 cases of in situ b...

H. D. Nelson J. C. Griffin L. Humphrey M. E. Beth Smith P. Nygren R. Fu

2009-01-01

246

Posttraumatic stress disorder and extent of trauma exposure as correlates of medical problems and perceived health among women with childhood abuse.  

PubMed

This study examined the relative contributions of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and the extent of trauma exposure as factors contributing to the current health status of childhood abuse survivors. Sixty-seven women with a history of familial childhood abuse (sexual and/or physical) and twenty-nine women with no abuse history were assessed on two distinct aspects of health status: reported number of medical problems and perceptions of overall health. Women with abuse were found to have a greater number of medical problems and poorer perceived physical well-being than the no abuse comparison group. Regression analyses of the women with abuse histories revealed that trauma exposure was a stronger predictor than PTSD symptoms of medical problems. PTSD symptoms, however, were better predictors of the experience of physical well-being than trauma exposure. These results suggest that the nature of a traumatic exposure, especially when there is repeated, cumulative trauma may be more significant to medical problems than the psychological symptoms of PTSD. Perceived health, however, appears to be predominantly influenced by psychological factors, suggesting the importance of these variables in the quality of life of multiply traumatized women. PMID:11708684

Cloitre, M; Cohen, L R; Edelman, R E; Han, H

2001-01-01

247

Self-reported adherence to medical treatment, breastfeeding behaviour, and disease activity during the postpartum period in women with Crohn's disease.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives. Adherence to medical treatment among women with Crohn's disease (CD) in the postpartum period has never been examined. The impact of breast-feeding on disease activity remains controversial. We aimed to assess rates of non-adherence to medical treatment among women with CD in the postpartum period. Further, to assess breast-feeding rates and the impact of breast-feeding on the risk of relapse. Methods. Within a population of 1.6 million, we identified 154 women with CD who had given birth within a 6-year period. We combined questionnaire data, data from medical records and public register data. We used logistic regression to estimate prevalence odds ratios (POR) for non-adherence, relapse and breast-feeding according to different predictors. Results. Among 105 (80%) respondents, 59 (56%) reported taking medication. Of these, 66.1% reported to be adherent to medical treatment. Fear of medication transmission to the breast milk was stated as the reason for non-adherence in 60%. Those who received counselling regarding medical treatment were less likely to be non-adherent (POR 0.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1-2.5). In total, 87.6% were breast-feeding. Breast-feeding rates did not vary by medical treatment. Predictors for relapse in CD were smoking (POR 1.85, 95% CI 0.62-5.54) and non-adherence among medical treated (POR 1.25, 95% CI 0.26-6.00). Breast-feeding seemed protective against relapse (POR 0.33, 95% CI 0.10-1.26). Conclusions. Adherence to medical treatment in the postpartum period was high, and counselling seemed to increase adherence. Relapse may be explained by non-adherence or smoking while breast-feeding seemed protective. PMID:24897523

Julsgaard, Mette; Nørgaard, Mette; Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Grosen, Anne; Hasseriis, Sara; Christensen, Lisbet Ambrosius

2014-08-01

248

Abortion, women and national development: the Nigeria experience.  

PubMed

The author argues that, if women have the right of self-determination, it is immoral of society to withhold or limit women's access to abortion services in Nigeria. Morality must pertain to society as well as women. In Nigeria, the abortion argument tends to focus on the rights of the fetus or the third party's interest. The abortion issue must involve understanding the rationale that is used by abortion-seeking women. Denial of access to abortion services dehumanizes women and reduces growth in national development. Women carry the burden of responsibility associated with child bearing and rearing. Unwanted pregnancies impose severe psychological, physical, social, and medical dangers on women. Impaired psychological and physical illness creates pain and suffering and limits productivity. "Doing good" is not necessarily accomplished by either abortion or unwanted childbearing. Society both discourages the taking of a human life and supports the health of its citizens, many of whom are women. A child brought into this world who is not adequately taken care of will be a burden to society. When society pursues its own self-interest in preventing abortion as a choice for women, then society becomes immoral and selfish. A woman pursuing her own self-interest is not necessarily immoral. The decision becomes immoral if the woman acts against the wishes of the father. Morality is not necessarily the opposite of the promotion of one's self-interest. Women who seek to terminate a pregnancy for health reasons seek a virtuous option of enhancing the well-being of every individual in society. The right to life for the fetus is very different from the right to self-determination for the abortion-seeking woman. When the Yoruba define a wife as a servant to the husband, the Yoruba deny women personhood. Women know best what serves their self-interest and that of society. PMID:12292664

Ebijuwa, T

1993-06-01

249

The Relationship between Marital and Sexual Satisfaction among Married Women Employees at Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective: There are various elements affecting the healthy family such as marital satisfaction. Various factors such as sexual satisfaction have an important impact on satisfaction of marital relationship. The present study aimed to determine the association of marital satisfaction with sexual satisfaction among sexually active employee women. Methods: This analytical descriptive study was carried on 140 married women employed at educational and medical centers of Golestan University of Medical Sciences. Questionnaires for data collection included Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and self-constructed questionnaire (demographic characteristic and sexual satisfaction). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ?2 and Spearman statistical test. Statistical significant level was set as 0.05. Results: The findings showed that in marital satisfaction scale, the majority of the participants (63.6%) were very satisfied and none of them were very unsatisfied. In sexual satisfaction scale, most of the participants (56.4%) expressed extremely satisfaction rate and only 0.7% were not satisfied with their sexual relationship. Marital satisfaction was significantly associated with sexual satisfaction (p ? 0.001). So with the increase of sexual satisfaction, there was an increase in marital satisfaction accordingly. The findings indicated that there was a significant association between sexual satisfaction and age (p = 0.086). Level of education was associated significantly with the marital satisfaction (p = 0.038). The effects of sexual satisfaction on marital satisfaction were moderated by number of children and the level of education. Conclusion: The findings have implications for improving of couples' marital satisfaction by highlighting the need for awareness of sexual quality. According to the findings, it seems that development of educational programs and pre-marriage counseling is necessary. Continuous education would be helpful after marriage in addressing couples' unique transitional needs in marital life.

Ziaee, Tayebe; Jannati, Yadollah; Mobasheri, Elham; Taghavi, Taraneh; Abdollahi, Habib; Modanloo, Mahnaz; Behnampour, Naser

2014-01-01

250

Adenomyosis in Pakistani women: four year experience at the Aga Khan University Medical Centre, Karachi  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a quality assurance programme at the Aga Khan University Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan, all hysterectomy specimens were reviewed from January 1986 to December 1989. Adenomyosis was found in 237 of the 419 (56.5%) specimens studied. Of these 237 patients, 232 (97.9%) were parous and 196 (82.8%) were in the fourth and fifth decades of life. This high

H Shaikh; K S Khan

1990-01-01

251

Consumption of ayahuasca by children and pregnant women: medical controversies and religious perspectives.  

PubMed

In 2010, the Brazilian Government agency responsible for drug-related issues formulated official Resolutions that categorized the consumption of ayahuasca by pregnant women and children in the Santo Daime and União do Vegetal ayahuasca-based religions as an "exercise of parental rights." Although ayahuasca groups do enjoy a relative degree of social legitimacy and formal legal recognition in Brazil, the participation of pregnant women and children nevertheless continues to provoke heated discussion. This article raises the main issues involved in the public debate over this subject. In the first part, a diverse group of biomedical and health specialists was consulted, and their opinions were briefly analyzed. In the second, a full interview with a follower of one branch of Santo Daime, mother of four children who took ayahuasca during all her pregnancies, and whose children all drink ayahuasca, is presented. Her interview reveals important cultural parameters of ayahuasca consumption. The article explores common themes and contradictions found between the biomedical, anthropological, and ayahuasca-users' discourses. It raises central issues regarding the limits of freedom of religion and the state's right to interfere in family matters. The following analysis also has implications regarding the role of science in influencing policy decisions on drug use. PMID:21615005

Labate, Beatriz Caiuby

2011-01-01

252

Brief intervention for women with risky drinking and medical diagnoses: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

This is a randomized controlled trial of 511 eligible women treated for diabetes, hypertension, infertility, or osteoporosis on an outpatient basis to test the hypothesis that those randomized to a brief intervention (BI) will drink less than those in the control condition 12 months later. A secondary goal was to identify the characteristics associated with changes in drinking outcome. All 511 completed the initial alcohol assessment, and 96% completed the 12-month follow-up interview. Those receiving the BI also had 3- and 6-month interviews. Four outcomes were assessed: (a) mean drinks per drinking day, (b) percent drinking days, (c) binge episodes defined as four or more drinks per occasion, and (d) weeks of drinking exceeding the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism sensible drinking limits. Overall, there were no differences in drinking outcome by treatment group. Characteristics associated with changes in drinking, however, were identified to provide possible direction for future investigation. PMID:21489738

Chang, Grace; Fisher, Naomi D L; Hornstein, Mark D; Jones, Jennifer A; Hauke, Sarah H; Niamkey, Nina; Briegleb, Christina; Orav, Endel John

2011-09-01

253

Brief Intervention for Women with Risky Drinking and Medical Diagnoses: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Randomized controlled trial of 511 eligible women treated for diabetes, hypertension, infertility, or osteoporosis on an out-patient basis to test the hypothesis that those randomized to a brief intervention (BI) will drink less than those in the control condition 12 months later. A secondary goal was to identify the characteristics associated with changes in drinking outcome. All 511 completed the initial Alcohol Assessment and 96% completed the 12-month follow up interview. Those receiving the BI also had 3 and 6 month interviews. Four outcomes were assessed: 1) mean drinks per drinking day, 2) percent drinking days, 3) binge episodes defined as 4 or more drinks per occasion, and 4) weeks of drinking exceeding NIAAA sensible drinking limits. Overall, there were no differences in drinking outcome by treatment group. Characteristics associated with changes in drinking, however, were identified to provide possible direction for future investigation.

Chang, Grace; Fisher, Naomi D. L.; Hornstein, Mark D.; Jones, Jennifer A.; Hauke, Sarah H.; Niamkey, Nina; Briegleb, Christina; Orav, Endel John

2011-01-01

254

Comparative Effectiveness of Medication versus Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Low-Income Young Minority Women with Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine whether there are latent trajectory classes in response to treatment and whether they moderate the effects of medication versus psychotherapy. Method: Data come from a 1-year randomized controlled trial of 267 low-income, young (M = 29 years), minority (44% Black, 50% Latina, 6% White) women with current major depression…

Siddique, Juned; Chung, Joyce Y.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Miranda, Jeanne

2012-01-01

255

Medical potential of plants used by the Q’eqchi Maya of Livingston, Guatemala for the treatment of women's health complaints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation on the medical ethnobotany of the Q’eqchi Maya of Livingston, Izabal, Guatemala, was undertaken in order to explore Q’eqchi perceptions, attitudes, and treatment choices related to women's health. Through participant observation and interviews a total of 48 medicinal plants used to treat conditions related to pregnancy, childbirth, menstruation, and menopause were collected and identified followed by the evaluation of

Joanna Michel; Reinel Eduardo Duarte; Judy L. Bolton; Yue Huang; Armando Caceres; Mario Veliz; Djaja Doel Soejarto; Gail B. Mahady

2007-01-01

256

Survey of the Attitude to, the Knowledge and the Practice of Contraception and Medical Abortion in Women Who Attended a Family Planning Clinic  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the attitude to, the knowledge and practice of contraception and medical abortion in women attending the family planning clinic at the mvj medical college , hosakote , Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods: Between 1st of August, 2011 and 31st of July, 2012 200 women attending family planning clinic of the mvj medical college, hosakote, Bangalore India of which 105 requested for medical termination of pregnancy (mtp), 95 for family planning advice, were interrogated on a structured questionnaire. The age of women ranged in between 20-45 years, 71 (35.5%) were illiterate, 30 (15%) had primary school education and 99 (49.5%) had diplomas from high school and above. Patients were grouped into low and high socio-economic status according to modified kuppuswamy socio-economic status scale: (i). upper class, (ii). Upper middle class, (iii). Middle class, (iv). Lower middle class, (v). lower class.consent of both husband and wife was taken. They were counseled about the various contraceptives available and allowed to choose whichever suited them best. Results: Among the 200 women 85 (42%) did not use contraception; 51 (25.5 %) were on the barrier method; 49 (18.31%) used intrauterine devices (iud); 12 (6%) used oral pills and and 3 (1.5%) used other methods. the request for mtp was on grounds of unplanned pregnancy in 55.25% cases or failure of contraception in 44.7%. there was no eugenic indication of the women, 3 (1.5%) had heard about emergency contraceptives, however none had used them; 20 (10%) had heard of medical abortion and 12 (6%) had previously undergone mtp with satisfaction. the various methods of contraception accepted by the women post abortion were ocps by 11 (10.47%), iuds by 54 (51.5%) and female sterilization by 26 (24.71%). in the other group, 23 (24.2%) had iuds removed and reinserted; 37.8% had iuds inserted; 26 (27.36%) women underwent sterilization operation; and 6 (6.31%) had iuds removed opting for pregnancy. statistical analysis was done using spss software (Chicago) with ?2 test taking p value of 0.05 as significant. Conclusion: There is lack of awareness of emergency contraception and medical abortion in the women community under study.

K.M., Umashankar; M.N., Dharmavijaya; Kumar D.E., Jayanta; K., Kala; Nagure, Abed Gulab; Ramadevi

2013-01-01

257

Meeting Chamorro women's health care needs: examining the cultural impact of mamahlao on gynaecological screening.  

PubMed

Peoples of Micronesia customarily seek western medical care only when needed and not typically as a preventive care. There is a subtle reluctance to resorting to available modern biomedical practices. This article discusses cultural aspects of Chamorro women's preventive health-seeking behavior. It specifically examines the effect that the Chamorro cultural value of mamahlao, or a sense of shame, has on women getting Papanicolaou (Pap) tests and other ways mamahlao dissuades modern-day Chamorro women from seeking preventive gynecological care. A purposive sample of fifteen Chamorro women living on Guam participated in this exploratory study. A semi-structured interview was administered and included questions on what mamahlao means to them, appropriate versus inappropriate reasons why women should get annual Pap tests, and the relationship between mamahlao and modesty in women. The interviews revealed women's concerns with shame, religion, and morality in their health-seeking behavior. The study suggests that for a Chamorro woman, seeking gynecological care can have negative symbolic connotations thereby for creating a sense of shame or mamahlao, in the woman. PMID:20968239

Rosario, Adelaida M

2010-04-01

258

Birth defects among a cohort of infants born to HIV-infected women on antiretroviral medication  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine rate of and risk factors for birth defects in infants born to HIV-infected women receiving nucleoside and protease inhibitor antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Methods Birth defects were evaluated among infants on the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 316 trial that studied addition of peripartum nevirapine to established ARV regimen for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Maternal therapy was categorized by trimester of earliest exposure. Birth defects were coded using conventions of the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry. Results Birth defects were detected in 60/1414 (4.2%; 95% CI 3.3–5.4%) infants including 30/636 (4.7%; 95% CI 3.2–6.7%) with first trimester ARV exposure and 30/778 (3.9%; 95% CI 2.6–5.5%) with exposure only after the first trimester (P=0.51). Rates of classes of defects were similar between first trimester compared to later exposure groups except heart defects which occurred in 16 (2.5%; 95% CI 1.4–4.1%) with first trimester ARV exposure and in six (0.8%; 95% CI 0.3–1.7%) infants with later exposure (P=0.02). Exposure to ARV was not associated with specific types of heart defects. Two cases of cardiomyopathy were noted. Conclusion ARV use in early pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of birth defects overall. The possible association of ARV exposure with heart defects requires further surveillance.

Watts, D. Heather; Huang, Sharon; Culnane, Mary; Kaiser, Kathleen A.; Scheuerle, Angela; Mofenson, Lynne; Stanley, Kenneth; Newell, Marie-Louise; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Delfraissy, Jean-Francois; Cunningham, Coleen K.

2011-01-01

259

Rates and Correlates of Seeking Mental Health Services Among Cambodian Refugees  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed the rates and correlates of seeking mental health services among a probability sample of Cambodian refugees who needed such services. Methods. Interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews with a representative sample drawn from the largest US community of Cambodian refugees. The analytic sample included 339 persons who met past 12-month criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder, major depression disorder, or alcohol use disorder. Respondents described contact with service providers for psychological problems during the preceding 12 months. We examined bivariate and multivariate predictors of seeking services. Results. Respondents reported high rates of contact with both medical care providers (70%) and mental health care providers (46%). Seeking services from both types of providers was associated with lack of English-speaking proficiency, unemployment, 3 or fewer years of preimmigration education, and being retired or disabled. Women, individuals with health insurance, and persons receiving government assistance also were more likely to seek services. Conclusions. Cambodian refugees with mental health problems had high rates of seeking service for psychological problems during the preceding 12 months. Research is needed to examine the effectiveness of services received by Cambodian refugees.

Marshall, Grant N.; Berthold, S. Megan; Schell, Terry L.; Elliott, Marc N.; Chun, Chi-Ah; Hambarsoomians, Katrin

2006-01-01

260

An examination of how women and underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities experience barriers in biomedical research and medical programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, & Morahan, 2012). Additionally, Blacks and Hispanics are the two largest minority groups that are vastly underrepresented in medicine and biomedical research in the United States (AAMC, 2012; NSF, 2011). The purpose of this study is to examine specific barriers reported by students and post-degree professionals in the field through the following questions: 1. How do women who are either currently enrolled or graduated from biomedical research or medical programs define and make meaning of gender-roles as academic barriers? 2. How do underrepresented groups in medical schools and biomedical research institutions define and make meaning of the academic barriers they face and the challenges these barriers pose to their success as individuals in the program? These questions were qualitatively analyzed using 146 interviews from Project TrEMUR applying grounded theory. Reported gender-role barriers were explained using the "Condition-Process-Outcome" theoretical framework. About one-third of the females (across all three programs; majority White or Black between 25-35 years of age) reported gender-role barriers, mostly due to poor mentoring, time constraints, set expectations and institutional barriers. Certain barriers act as conditions, causing gender-role issues, and gender-role issues influence certain barriers that act as outcomes. Strategies to overcome barriers included interventions mostly at the institutional level (mentor support, proper specialty selection, selecting academia over medicine). Barrier analysis for the two largest URM groups indicated that, while Blacks most frequently reported racism, gender barriers, mentoring, and personal barriers, Hispanics most frequently reported economic barriers, language barriers, institutional and workplace environment barriers, and gender-role barriers. Examining barriers using the "Individual-Institutional" theoretical framework indicated that barriers do not occur in isolation, but due to an interaction between the individual and its institution. Additionally, the barriers of the two groups are qualitatively different and the "one size fits all" approach may not be suitable for interventions. Implications and recommendations were stated.

Chakraverty, Devasmita

261

GPs' decision-making when prescribing medicines for breastfeeding women: Content analysis of a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many breastfeeding women seek medical care from general practitioners (GPs) for various health problems and GPs may consider prescribing medicines in these consultations. Prescribing medicines to a breastfeeding mother may lead to untimely cessation of breastfeeding or a breastfeeding mother may be denied medicines due to the possible risk to her infant, both of which may lead to unwanted

Hiranya S. Jayawickrama; Lisa H. Amir; Marie V. Pirotta

2010-01-01

262

Medical Assistants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For a concise summary of the medical assistant profession the Medical Assistants entry in the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Occupational Outlook Handbook is must read. The site covers topics ranging from the nature of the profession, working conditions, earnings, and more. The section on training, qualifications and advancement will be of special interest to medical assistant faculty and students. The section on sources of addition information will also be a good launching point for anyone seeking additional online resources.

2006-11-01

263

[Role of medical treatment for symptomatic leiomyoma management in premenopausal women].  

PubMed

The most frequent symptom with leiomyoma is menometrorrhagia. However, it can be responsible of pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea or urinary and digestive compression when it is particularly voluminous. These recommandations were made in order to review medical management of fibroids. If no therapy is able to have them disappear, various drugs may reduce their related symptoms. Tranexamic acid, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and high dose of oestrogen may be useful in the management of acute hemorrhagic disorders. Progestin, such as lynestrenol induces small reduction in leiomyoma volume and moderate increase in hemoglobin level before surgery. Pregnane and nor-pregnane may improve menstrual bleeding in short or mild delays. The use of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) agonists can reduce menstrual bleeding with hemoglobin recovery. Add-back therapy using tibolone seems interesting since secondary effects encountered with GnRH agonists may be reduced. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system is proven to reduce increased menstrual bleeding and restore hemoglobin level. Aminoglutethimide and fadrozole have been underevaluated to conclude when letrozole seems as efficient as GnRH agonists to reduce leiomyoma volume and provide less hot flushes. Anastrozol is associated with reduction in leiomyomata volume, pain and menstrual bleeding. Mifepristone reduces the size of uterine leiomyomata, improves symptomatology, but could be associated with development of endometrial hyperplasia. SPRM evaluated in females have shown to improve leiomyoma related symptomatology. Danazol could be useful to reduce leiomyoma related symptoms in short terms. Tamoxifen and raloxifen show modest overall benefit. Because of insufficient data concerning fulvestrant, pirfenidone or interferon, their prescription cannot be recommended in patients with leiomyomata. PMID:22071015

Koskas, M; Chabbert-Buffet, N; Douvier, S; Huchon, C; Paganelli, E; Derrien, J

2011-12-01

264

Contraceptive Methods and Informed Consent among Women Receiving Medications with Potential for Adverse Fetal Effects: A Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, Idaho (WWAMI) Region Study  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia rates expose some young women to medications with potential adverse fetal effects, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and statins. This study examined whether quality improvement (QI) interventions promote informed consent and contraception to minimize risks with use of ACE-I/ARB/statins. Methods This longitudinal cohort study at 7 clinics abstracted medical records of 328 women aged 18 to 44 with ?1 prescription for ACE-I/ARB/statins and ?1 visit for hypertension, diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia during the previous year. We measured informed consent documentation and contraceptive methods before and after QI interventions in which providers contacted their patients to discuss medication risks and benefits. Results Of 179 women who were not surgically sterilized, only 11.7% had documented informed consent related to the risks of ACE-I/ARB/statin use. One hundred fifty-eight women were eligible for the QI intervention (not surgically sterilized, no documented informed consent); only 76 (48.1%) received the intervention. Before the intervention, 23.7% of these 76 were “at risk” of an adverse fetal effect. After the intervention, only 7.9% (P ? .001) were “at risk” because some women started contraception, discontinued ACE-I/ARB/statins, or changed drug class. Conclusions Women prescribed ACE-I/ARB/statins were not consistently using contraception or were not consistently informed of the risks. Provider-implemented QI interventions improved care but were difficult to accomplish, suggesting that new interventions are needed.

Force, Rex W.; Keppel, Gina A.; Guirguis-Blake, Janelle; Gould, Debra A.; Vincent, Chris; Chunchu, Kavitha; Monger, Robert M.; Holmes, John T.; Cauffield, Jacintha; Baldwin, Laura-Mae

2013-01-01

265

Racial and ethnic differences in primary, unscheduled cesarean deliveries among low-risk primiparous women at an academic medical center: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Cesarean sections are the most common surgical procedure for women in the United States. Of the over 4 million births a year, one in three are now delivered in this manner and the risk adjusted prevalence rates appear to vary by race and ethnicity. However, data from individual studies provides limited or contradictory information on race and ethnicity as an independent predictor of delivery mode, precluding accurate generalizations. This study sought to assess the extent to which primary, unscheduled cesarean deliveries and their indications vary by race/ethnicity in one academic medical center. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional cohort study was conducted of 4,483 nulliparous women with term, singleton, and vertex presentation deliveries at a major academic medical center between 2006–2011. Cases with medical conditions, risk factors, or pregnancy complications that can contribute to increased cesarean risk or contraindicate vaginal birth were excluded. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate differences in delivery mode and caesarean indications among racial and ethnic groups. Results The overall rate of cesarean delivery in our cohort was 16.7%. Compared to White women, Black and Asian women had higher rates of cesarean delivery than spontaneous vaginal delivery, (adjusted odds ratio {AOR}: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.91, and AOR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.17, respectively). Black women were also more likely, compared to White women, to undergo cesarean for fetal distress and indications diagnosed in the first stage as compared to the second stage of labor. Conclusions Racial and ethnic differences in delivery mode and indications for cesareans exist among low-risk nulliparas at our institution. These differences may be best explained by examining the variation in clinical decisions that indicate fetal distress and failure to progress at the hospital-level.

2013-01-01

266

Clubfoot in Malawi: treatment-seeking behaviour.  

PubMed

We explore the treatment-seeking behaviour of guardians of patients undergoing treatment for clubfoot at clinics run by the Malawi National Clubfoot Programme (MNCP). Core data was collected and analysed using qualitative methodologies of critical medical anthropology. Sixty detailed case studies were completed, each based on an extended open-ended interview with patient guardians. Two positive drivers in seeking treatment for clubfoot were identified: a desire to correct the impairment; and a direct instruction to do so, usually from a health-care professional. Four main barriers prevented treatment seeking: lack of knowledge about the condition and its treatment; familial resistance; logistical obstacles; and socio-economic pressures. In delivering effective health care, organizations should seek to minimize barriers and their impact, whilst maximizing drivers that lead to positive action. PMID:21878442

Bedford, K Juliet A; Chidothi, Paul; Sakala, Harris; Cashman, John; Lavy, Chris

2011-10-01

267

Medically unexplained illness and the diagnosis of hysterical conversion reaction (HCR) in women's medicine wards of Bangladeshi hospitals: a record review and qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Frequent reporting of cases of hysterical conversion reaction (HCR) among hospitalized female medical patients in Bangladesh’s public hospital system led us to explore the prevalence of “HCR” diagnoses within hospitals and the manner in which physicians identify, manage, and perceive patients whom they diagnose with HCR. Methods We reviewed admission records from women’s general medicine wards in two public hospitals to determine how often and at what point during hospitalization patients received diagnoses of HCR. We also interviewed 13 physicians about their practices and perceptions related to HCR. Results Of 2520 women admitted to the selected wards in 2008, 6% received diagnoses of HCR. HCR patients had wide-ranging symptoms including respiratory distress, headaches, chest pain, convulsions, and abdominal complaints. Most doctors diagnosed HCR in patients who had any medically-unexplained physical symptom. According to physician reports, women admitted to medical wards for HCR received brief diagnostic evaluations and initial treatment with short-acting tranquilizers or placebo agents. Some were referred to outpatient psychiatric treatment. Physicians reported that repeated admissions for HCR were common. Physicians noted various social factors associated with HCR, and they described failures of the current system to meet psychosocial needs of HCR patients. Conclusions In these hospital settings, physicians assign HCR diagnoses frequently and based on vague criteria. We recommend providing education to increase general physicians’ awareness, skill, and comfort level when encountering somatization and other common psychiatric issues. Given limited diagnostic capacity for all patients, we raise concern that when HCR is used as a "wastebasket" diagnosis for unexplained symptoms, patients with treatable medical conditions may go unrecognized. We also advocate introducing non-physician hospital personnel to address psychosocial needs of HCR patients, assist with triage in a system where both medical inpatient beds and psychiatric services are scarce commodities, and help ensure appropriate follow up.

2012-01-01

268

Analyzing the Relationship of Geographic Mobility and Institutional Prestige to Career Advancement of Women in Academic Medicine Pursuing Midcareer-, Senior-, or Executive-Level Administrative Positions: Implications for Career Advancement Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of geographic mobility and institutional prestige to career advancement defined as administrative promotions of women seeking midcareer-, senior-, or executive-level positions at academic health centers (AHCs) and their medical schools or in non-AHC related medical schools in the United…

McLean, Marsha Renee

2010-01-01

269

Anthropometric, medical history and lifestyle risk factors for myeloproliferative neoplasms in the Iowa Women's Health Study cohort.  

PubMed

Classical myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are composed of essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and myelofibrosis (MF), the etiology of which is largely unknown. We investigated the role of anthropometric, medical and lifestyle factors with risk of MPN in a prospective cohort of 27,370 women aged 55-69 years at enrollment. After >250,000 person-years of follow-up, 257 cases of MPN were identified (172 ET, 64 PV, 21 MF). Risk factor profiles were mostly unique for the two most common types, ET and PV. ET was associated with energy balance factors including body mass index (RR = 1.52 for >29.3 vs. <23.4 kg/m(2) ; p-trend = 0.042), physical activity (RR = 0.66 for high vs. low; p-trend = 0.04) and adult onset diabetes (RR = 1.82; p = 0.009), while PV was not. PV was associated with current smoking (RR = 2.83; p-trend = 0.016), while ET was not. Regular use of aspirin was associated with lower risk of ET (RR = 0.68; p = 0.017). These results broadly held in multivariate models. Our results suggest distinct etiologies for these MPN subtypes and raise mechanistic hypotheses related to obesity-related inflammatory pathways for ET and smoking-related carcinogenic pathways for PV. Regular aspirin use may lower risk for ET. PMID:24114627

Leal, Alexis D; Thompson, Carrie A; Wang, Alice H; Vierkant, Robert A; Habermann, Thomas M; Ross, Julie A; Mesa, Ruben A; Virnig, Beth A; Cerhan, James R

2014-04-01

270

Physicians' Internet Information-Seeking Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Our understanding about the role of the Internet as a resource for physicians has improved in the past several years with reports of patterns for use and measures of impact on medical practice. The purpose of this study was to begin to shape a theory base for more fully describing physicians' information-seeking behaviors as they…

Bennett, Nancy L.; Casebeer, Linda L.; Kristofco, Robert E.; Strasser, Sheryl M.

2004-01-01

271

Comparative Effectiveness of Medication versus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Low-income Young Minority Women with Depression  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine whether there are latent trajectory classes in response to treatment and whether these latent classes moderate the effects of medication versus psychotherapy. Method Our data come from a one-year randomized controlled trial of 267 low-income, young (mean=29yrs), minority (44% Black, 50% Latina, 6% White) women with current major depression randomized to antidepressants, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), or referral to community mental health services. Growth mixture modeling was used to determine whether there are differential effects of medication versus CBT in this population. Depression was measured via the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results We identified two latent trajectory classes. The first class was characterized by severe depression at baseline. At 6-months, mean depression scores for the medication and CBT groups in this class were 13.9 and 14.9, respectively (difference not significant). At 12-months, mean depression scores were 16.4 and 11.0, respectively (p-value for difference=.04). The second class was characterized by moderate depression and anxiety at baseline. At 6-months, mean depression scores for the medication and CBT groups in the second class were 4.4 and 6.8, respectively (p-value for difference=.03). At 12-months, the mean depression scores were 7.1 and 7.8, respectively, and the difference was no longer significant. Conclusions Among depressed women with moderate baseline depression and anxiety, medication was superior to CBT at 6-months, but the difference was not sustained at one year. Among depressed women with severe depression, there was no significant treatment group difference at 6-months, but CBT was superior to medication at one year.

Siddique, Juned; Chung, Joyce Y.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Miranda, Jeanne

2013-01-01

272

Assessing and treating insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent hormonal and metabolic disorder among reproductive aged women worldwide. Women with PCOS have widely varying phenotypes and seek medical care for differing reasons. In addition to concern for menstrual cycle function, ovulation, hirsutism and acne, many PCOS women have abnormal glucose metabolism. While diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance are easily diagnosed, the diagnosis of and concern for insulin resistance as a precursor disorder is underappreciated. Insulin resistance may be the first important marker of metabolic disease in PCOS women at risk for metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease. PMID:21537458

Traub, Michael L

2011-03-15

273

Novelty seeking behaviour in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Novelty seeking can be a positive trait leading to creativity and innovation, but it is also related to increased risk of damaging addictive behaviour. We have assessed novelty seeking with a three armed bandit task, in which novel stimuli were occasionally introduced, replacing choice options from which the participants had been choosing. This allowed us to assess whether or not they would be prone to selecting novel stimuli. We tested 25 non impulsive patients with Parkinson s disease (PD) and 27 PD patients with impulsive compulsive behaviours (ICB). Both patient groups were examined “on” and “off” dopaminergic medication in a counterbalanced order and their behaviour was compared with 24 healthy controls. We found that PD patients with ICBs were significantly more prone to choose novel options than either non impulsive PD patients or controls, regardless of medication status. Our findings suggest that attraction to novelty is a personality trait in all PD patients with ICBs which is independent of medication status.

Djamshidian, Atbin; O'Sullivan, Sean S.; Wittmann, Bianca C.; Lees, Andrew J.; Averbeck, Bruno B.

2011-01-01

274

Novelty seeking behaviour in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Novelty seeking can be a positive trait leading to creativity and innovation, but it is also related to increased risk of damaging addictive behaviour. We have assessed novelty seeking with a three armed bandit task, in which novel stimuli were occasionally introduced, replacing choice options from which the participants had been choosing. This allowed us to assess whether or not they would be prone to selecting novel stimuli. We tested 25 non impulsive patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 27 PD patients with impulsive compulsive behaviours (ICBs). Both patient groups were examined "on" and "off" dopaminergic medication in a counterbalanced order and their behaviour was compared with 24 healthy controls. We found that PD patients with ICBs were significantly more prone to choose novel options than either non impulsive PD patients or controls, regardless of medication status. Our findings suggest that attraction to novelty is a personality trait in all PD patients with ICBs which is independent of medication status. PMID:21565210

Djamshidian, Atbin; O'Sullivan, Sean S; Wittmann, Bianca C; Lees, Andrew J; Averbeck, Bruno B

2011-07-01

275

Caffeinated Alcohol, Sensation Seeking, and Injury Risk  

PubMed Central

Background College students who consume caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CaffAlc) are at increased injury risk. This study examines the extent to which a sensation-seeking personality accounts for the relationship between consumption of CaffAlc and negative outcomes. Methods A Web-based survey was administered to stratified random samples of 4907 college students from eight North Carolina universities in Fall 2009. Sensation seeking was assessed using the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) (?=0.81). Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Results 3390 students (71.2%) reported past 30-day drinking, of whom 786 (23.2%) consumed CaffAlc. CaffAlc past 30-day drinkers had higher BSSS scores (3.8 vs. 3.4; p<0.001), compared to non-CaffAlc drinkers. Consumption of CaffAlc was associated with more frequent binge drinking (p<0.001) and drunken days in a typical week (p<0.001), even after adjusting for the BSSS score. CaffAlc students were more likely to be taken advantage of sexually (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.70, p=0.012), drive under the influence of alcohol (AOR=2.00, p<0.001), and ride with a driver under the influence of alcohol (AOR=1.87, p<0.001). Injury requiring medical treatment was more prevalent among CaffAlc students with higher BSSS-8 scores (interaction p=0.024), even after adjustment for drinking levels and student characteristics. Conclusions Sensation seeking does not fully account for the increase in risky drinking among college students who consume CaffAlc, nor does it moderate the relationship between CaffAlc and drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking moderates the risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment among college students who consume CaffAlc. Those with strong sensation-seeking dispositions are at the highest risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment.

McCoy, Thomas P.; Egan, Kathleen L.; Goldin, Shoshanna; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wolfson, Mark

2013-01-01

276

Seeking Help for Erectile Dysfunction After Treatment for Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostate cancer survivors appear to have higher rates of seeking medical help for erectile dysfunction (ED) than other cohorts of sexually dysfunctional men; however, factors associated with help-seeking for ED after prostate cancer have not been investigated. A group of 1,188 men with ED after prostate cancer responded to a postal survey about their sexuality, including a new questionnaire developed

Leslie R. Schover; Rachel T. Fouladi; Carla L. Warneke; Leah Neese; Eric A. Klein; Craig Zippe; Patrick A. Kupelian

2004-01-01

277

Causes of delay in seeking treatment for heart attack symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of thrombolytic therapy and other coronary reperfusion strategies, rapid identification and treatment of acute myocardial infarction greatly reduces mortality. Unfortunately, many patients delay seeking medical care and miss the benefits afforded by recent advances in treatment. Studies have shown that the median time from onset of symptoms to seeking care ranges from 2 to 61\\/2 hours, while

Kathleen Dracup; Debra K. Moser; Mickey Eisenberg; Hendrika Meischke; Angelo A. Alonzo; Allan Braslow

1995-01-01

278

Characterization of Individuals Seeking Treatment for Caffeine Dependence  

PubMed Central

Previous investigations have identified individuals who meet criteria for DSM-IV-TR substance dependence as applied to caffeine, but there is little research on treatments for caffeine dependence. This study aimed to thoroughly characterize individuals who are seeking treatment for problematic caffeine use. Ninety-four individuals who identified as being psychologically or physically dependent on caffeine, or who had tried unsuccessfully to modify caffeine consumption participated in a face-to-face diagnostic clinical interview. They also completed measures concerning caffeine use and quitting history, reasons for seeking treatment, and standardized self-report measures of psychological functioning. Caffeine treatment seekers (mean age 41 yrs, 55% women) consumed an average of 548 mg caffeine per day. The primary source of caffeine was coffee for 50% of the sample and soft drinks for 37%. Eighty-eight percent reported prior serious attempts to modify caffeine use (mean 2.7 prior attempts) and 43% reported being advised by a medical professional to reduce or eliminate caffeine. Ninety-three percent met criteria for caffeine dependence when generic DSM-IV-TR substance dependence criteria were applied to caffeine use. The most commonly endorsed criteria were withdrawal (96%), persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to control use (89%), and use despite knowledge of physical or psychological problems caused by caffeine (87%). The most common reasons for wanting to modify caffeine use were health-related (59%) and not wanting to be dependent on caffeine (35%). This investigation reveals that there are individuals with problematic caffeine use who are seeking treatment, and suggests that there is a need for effective caffeine dependence treatments.

Juliano, Laura M.; Evatt, Daniel P.; Richards, Brian D.; Griffiths, Roland R.

2013-01-01

279

National Eldercare Institute on Older Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Institute's goal was to advocate for the diversity of experience and broad spectrum of needs, issues and concerns of older women. The Institute seeks to build coalitions and encourage national women's organizations and others to adopt an older women's...

D. Idleburg

1994-01-01

280

Medical confidence.  

PubMed Central

If medical confidentiality is not observed patients may well be reluctant to disclose information to their doctors or even to seek medical advice. Therefore, argues the author, it is of the utmost importance that doctors strive to protect medical confidentiality, particularly now when it is under threat not only in this country but also overseas. The profession must cease to regard ethical issues to do with confidentiality, and indeed to do with all areas of medical practice, as abstract phenomena requiring no justification. If it does not then it will come under increasing and justified criticism from the community it serves.

Havard, J

1985-01-01

281

Receipt of Post-Rape Medical Care in a National Sample of Female Victims  

PubMed Central

Background It is important for rape victims to receive medical care to prevent and treat rape-related diseases and injuries, access forensic exams, and connect to needed resources. Few victims seek care, and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking are poorly understood. Purpose The current study examined prevalence and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking in a national sample of women who reported a most-recent or only incident of forcible rape, and drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape when they were aged ?14 years. Methods A national sample of U.S. adult women (N=3001) completed structured telephone interviews in 2006, and data for this study were analyzed in 2011. Logistic regression analyses examined demographic variables, health, rape characteristics, and post-rape concerns in relation to post-rape medical care–seeking among 445 female rape victims. Results A minority of rape victims (21%) sought post-rape medical attention following the incident. In the final multivariate model, correlates of medical care included black race, rape-related injury, concerns about sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy concerns, and reporting the incident to police. Conclusions Women who experience rapes consistent with stereotypic scenarios, acknowledge the rape, report the rape, and harbor health concerns appear to be more likely to seek post-rape medical services. Education is needed to increase rape acknowledgment, awareness of post-rape services that do not require formal reporting, and recognition of the need to treat rape-related health problems.

Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Barr, Simone C.; Danielson, Carla K.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

2014-01-01

282

Pregnancy-related Deaths in Rural Rajasthan, India: Exploring Causes, Context, and Care-seeking Through Verbal Autopsy  

PubMed Central

In 2002-2003, all deaths (n=156) of women aged 15-49 years in a block of southern Rajasthan were investigated to determine the cause of death and care-seeking behaviour. Family members of 156 (98%) of 160 deceased women were interviewed following the comprehensive listing of all deaths among women of reproductive age. Of the 156 deaths, 31 (20%) were pregnancy-related; 77% of these women died during the postpartum period, and 74% of the deaths occurred in the home. Direct and indirect obstetric causes were responsible for 58% and 29% of the deaths respectively; 12% were injury-related deaths. Medical care was sought for 65% of the women, and 29% were hospitalized. Family perception of not being able to afford treatment at distant hospitals was a major barrier to seeking care, and 60% of those who sought care had to borrow money for treatment. Lack of skilled attendance and immediate postpartum care were major factors contributing to deaths. Improved access to emergency obstetric care facilities in rural areas and steps to eliminate costs at public hospitals would be crucial to prevent pregnancy-related deaths.

Iyengar, Sharad D.; Suhalka, Virendra; Dashora, Kalpana

2009-01-01

283

Evaluation of existence and transmission of extended spectrum beta lactamase producing bacteria from post-delivery women to neonates at Bugando Medical Center, Mwanza-Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing bacteria (ESBL) are common causes of neonatal sepsis worldwide. Neonatal sepsis due to ESBL is associated with increased morbidity and mortality at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC). Due to limited information on the sources of these ESBL strains at BMC, this study was conducted to evaluate the existence, magnitude and transmission of ESBL from post-delivery women to neonates at BMC, Mwanza-Tanzania. Results A cross-sectional study was conducted at obstetrics and neonatal wards from May to July 2013, involving post-delivery women and their neonates. Rectal swabs were collected and processed to identify the ESBL strains and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Patients’ data were obtained using a standardized data collection tool. We enrolled 113 women and 126 neonates with mean age of 26.5?±?5.5 years and median gestation age [IQR] of 39 [35–40] weeks respectively. The prevalence of ESBL carriage among women and neonates were 15% (17/113) and 25.4% (32/126) respectively. The acquisition of ESBL isolates among neonates on day 1, day 3 and day 7 were 60.0% (21/35), 25.7% (9/35) and 14.3% (5/35) respectively. There was no phenotypic similarity between ESBL strains from women and their respective neonates, suggesting other sources of transmission. Neonates given antibiotics were more likely to carry ESBL than those not given [100% (32/32) versus 86% (81/94), p?=?0.018]. Conclusion The carriage rate of ESBL strains among post-delivery women and neonates at BMC is high. Our findings suggest that neonates acquire these strains from sources other than post-delivery women and more than half acquire them on the first day of life. More studies are recommended to further explore the sources of ESBL strains among neonates.

2014-01-01

284

Information Seeking Behaviour.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that examined the information seeking behavior of undergraduate students in Nigeria. The factors examined include the main sources of references to the literature used by students, and the effects of class standing and intellectual disciplines on choices of reference sources. (8 references) (CLB)

Osiobe, Stephen A.

1988-01-01

285

The Role of Medicaid and Other Government Programs in Providing Medical Care for Children and Pregnant Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the major federal and state health care programs serving children and pregnant women, including (1) Medicaid; (2) the Maternal and Child Health Block Grant Program; (3) the Community and Migrant Health Center Program; and (4) the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children. (SLD)

Hill, Ian T.

1992-01-01

286

The Role of Medicaid and Other Government Programs in Providing Medical Care for Children and Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of the major federal and state health care programs serving children and pregnant women, including Medicaid, the Maternal and Child Health Block Grant Program, the Community and Migrant Health Center Program, and the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children. A detailed description of key amendments to the federal Medicaid statute which substantially

Ian T. Hill

287

The Relationship between Intake of Dairy Products and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Women Who Referred to Isfahan University of Medical Science Clinics in 2013  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive women. Nearly 10% of young women in this period involved. Although factors such as Insulin Resistance, hyper insulinemia, obesity and dietary are suggested to be associated with PCOS, cause of PCOS is not completely understood. Dairy products (a key component of the usual diet) of participants can also affect the factors of this disease and may have beneficial effects on treatment of PCOS. However, research in this area is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dairy products consumption and PCOS. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study of 400 women was conducted in Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Science, Iran. Dietary intake was evaluated by validated food frequency questionnaire. Other variables such as ovarian disease, inherited predisposition, age at menarche, physical activity and history of other diseases were evaluated using questionnaire. Data analysis was performed by a logistic regression test using SPSS software version 15 Predictive analytics software and solutions. Results: There were a significant association between PCOS and ovarian disease (P < 0.001), age (P < 0.001) and using medication (P = 0.001). Body mass index (BMI) was inversely associated with PCOS, but it was not significant (P = 0.068). There was a significant direct relationship between milk consumption and risk of PCOS after adjusting for confounding factors (P = 0.028). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicated that ovarian disease and medication use is directly linked to PCOS. Dairy consumption was not significantly correlated with PCOS. However, after adjustment for confounders, there was an direct relationship between milk consumption and risk of PCOS.

Rajaeieh, Golnaz; Marasi, Mohamadreza; Shahshahan, Zahra; Hassanbeigi, Fatemmeh; Safavi, Seied Morteza

2014-01-01

288

How Frequently are "Classic" Drug-Seeking Behaviors Used by Drug-Seeking Patients in the Emergency Department?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Drug-seeking behavior (DSB) in the emergency department (ED) is a very common problem, yet there has been little quantitative study to date of such behavior. The goal of this study was to assess the frequency with which drug seeking patients in the ED use classic drug seeking behaviors to obtain prescription medication. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review on patients in an ED case management program for DSB. We reviewed all visits by patients in the program that occurred during a 1-year period, and recorded the frequency of the following behaviors: complaining of headache, complaining of back pain, complaining of dental pain, requesting medication by name, requesting a refill of medication, reporting medications as having been lost or stolen, reporting 10/10 pain, reporting greater than 10/10 pain, reporting being out of medication, and requesting medication parenterally. These behaviors were chosen because they are described as “classic” for DSB in the existing literature. Results: We studied 178 patients from the case management program, who made 2,486 visits in 1 year. The frequency of each behavior was: headache 21.7%, back pain 20.8%, dental pain 1.8%, medication by name 15.2%, requesting refill 7.0%, lost or stolen medication 0.6%, pain 10/10 29.1%, pain greater than 10/10 1.8%, out of medication 9.5%, and requesting parenteral medication 4.3%. Patients averaged 1.1 behaviors per visit. Conclusion: Drug-seeking patients appear to exhibit “classically” described drug-seeking behaviors with only low to moderate frequency. Reliance on historical features may be inadequate when trying to assess whether or not a patient is drug-seeking.

Grover, Casey A.; Elder, Joshua W.; Close, Reb JH.; Curry, Sean M.

2012-01-01

289

The Clinical Ethnographic Interview: A user-friendly guide to the cultural formulation of distress and help seeking  

PubMed Central

Transcultural nursing, psychiatry, and medical anthropology have theorized that practitioners and researchers need more flexible instruments to gather culturally relevant illness experience, meaning, and help seeking. The state of the science is sufficiently developed to allow standardized yet ethnographically sound protocols for assessment. However, vigorous calls for culturally adapted assessment models have yielded little real change in routine practice. This paper describes the conversion of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV, Appendix I Outline for Cultural Formulation into a user-friendly Clinical Ethnographic Interview (CEI), and provides clinical examples of its use in a sample of highly distressed Japanese women.

Arnault, Denise Saint; Shimabukuro, Shizuka

2013-01-01

290

Psychometric Evaluation of the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey Among Malay Postpartum Women in Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

The Malay version of the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey was validated among a sample of postpartum Malay women attending selected health centers in Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia. 215 women between 4 to 12 weeks postpartum were recruited for the validation study. They were given questionnaires on socio-demography, the Malay-versions of the MOS Social Support Survey, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the 21-items Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). 30 of the women, who were bilingual, were also given the original English version of the instrument. A week later, these women were again given the Malay version of the MOS Social Support Survey. The scale displayed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.93), parallel form reliability (0.98) and test-retest reliability (0.97) (Spearman's rho; p<0.01). The negative correlations of the overall support index (total social support measure) with the Malay versions of EPDS and BDI-II confirmed its validity. Extraction method of the 19 items (item 2 to item 20) from the MOS Social Support Survey using principle axis factoring with direct oblimin rotation converged into 3 dimensions of functional social support (informational, affectionate / positive social interaction and instrumental support) with reliability coefficients of 0.91, 0.83 and 0.75 respectively. The overall support index also displayed low but significant correlations with item 1 which represents a single measure of structural social support in the instrument (p <0.01). The Malay version of the MOS Social Support Survey demonstrated good psychometric properties in measuring social support among a sample of Malay postpartum Malay women attending selected health centers in Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia and it could be used as a simple instrument in primary care settings. PMID:22973124

Mahmud, Wan Mohd Rushidi Wan; Awang, Amir; Mohamed, Mahmood Nazar

2004-07-01

291

Abuse and resilience in relation to HAART medication adherence and HIV viral load among women with HIV in the United States.  

PubMed

Abuse is highly prevalent among HIV+ women, leading to behaviors, including lower adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) that result in poor health outcomes. Resilience (functioning competently despite adversity) may buffer the negative effects of abuse. This study investigated how resilience interacted with abuse history in relation to HAART adherence, HIV viral load (VL), and CD4+ cell count among a convenience sample of 138 HIV+ women from the Ruth M. Rothstein CORE Center/Cook County Health and Hospital Systems site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Resilience was measured by the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). HAART adherence (?95% vs. <95% self reported usage of prescribed medication) and current or prior sexual, physical, or emotional/domestic abuse, were reported during structured interviews. HIV viral load (?20?vs. <20 copies/mL) and CD4+ count (200?vs. <200 cells/mm) were measured with blood specimens. Multiple logistic regressions, controlling for age, race, income, enrollment wave, substance use, and depressive symptoms, indicated that each unit increase in resilience was significantly associated with an increase in the odds of having ?95% HAART adherence and a decrease in the odds of having a detectable viral load. Resilience-Abuse interactions showed that only among HIV+ women with sexual abuse or multiple abuses did resilience significantly relate to an increase in the odds of ?95% HAART adherence. Interventions to improve coping strategies that promote resilience among HIV+ women may be beneficial for achieving higher HAART adherence and viral suppression. PMID:24568654

Dale, Sannisha; Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen; Cruise, Ruth; Kelso, Gwendolyn; Brody, Leslie

2014-03-01

292

Rent Seeking: A Textbook Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)

Pecorino, Paul

2007-01-01

293

Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

2009-01-01

294

Relationship Between Aerobic Activity Health Conditions and Medical Visits Among Men and Women Serving Aboard Navy Ships.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

No recent studies on Navy personnel have examined the relationship between aerobic activity and adverse health conditions or medical care visits. This study examined these relationships to determine if aerobic activity was inversely related to self- repor...

L. M. Hughes C. F. Garland F. C. Garland E. D. Gorham

2002-01-01

295

Social differentiation and embodied dispositions: a qualitative study of maternal care-seeking behaviour for near-miss morbidity in Bolivia  

PubMed Central

Background Use of maternal health care in low-income countries has been associated with several socioeconomic and demographic factors, although contextual analyses of the latter have been few. A previous study showed that 75% of women with severe obstetric morbidity (near-miss) identified at hospitals in La Paz, Bolivia were in critical conditions upon arrival, underscoring the significance of pre-hospital barriers also in this setting with free and accessible maternal health care. The present study explores how health care-seeking behaviour for near-miss morbidity is conditioned in La Paz, Bolivia. Methods Thematic interviews with 30 women with a near-miss event upon arrival at hospital. Near-miss was defined based on clinical and management criteria. Modified analytic induction was applied in the analysis that was further influenced by theoretical views that care-seeking behaviour is formed by predisposing characteristics, enabling factors, and perceived need, as well as by socially shaped habitual behaviours. Results The self-perception of being fundamentally separated from "others", meaning those who utilise health care, was typical for women who customarily delivered at home and who delayed seeking medical assistance for obstetric emergencies. Other explanations given by these women were distrust of authority, mistreatment by staff, such as not being kept informed about their condition or the course of their treatment, all of which reinforced their dissociation from the health-care system. Conclusion The findings illustrate health care-seeking behaviour as a practise that is substantially conditioned by social differentiation. Social marginalization and the role health institutions play in shaping care-seeking behaviour have been de-emphasised by focusing solely on endogenous cultural factors in Bolivia.

Roost, Mattias; Jonsson, Cecilia; Liljestrand, Jerker; Essen, Birgitta

2009-01-01

296

Are statin medications associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in men and women? Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Statins may ameliorate lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) through anti-inflammatory or other pathways. We investigated the association between statin use and storage, voiding, and overall LUTS symptoms. METHODS The Boston Area Community Health Survey is an epidemiologic study of Boston, MA residents (2301 men; 3202 women) aged 30–79. LUTS, voiding and storage symptoms were ascertained through an interviewer-administered questionnaire and defined as scores of ?8, ?5, and ?4, respectively, on relevant components of the American Urologic Association Symptom Index. Participants were included if they had a history of provider-diagnosed high cholesterol or recently used statin medications (N=1,346). Associations were estimated using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals from multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS In multivariate models, statin use had no association with LUTS (OR=1.03, 95% CI: 0.70, 1.51) among women. No associations were observed for any LUTS among younger (<60) men, but among older (60+) men, we observed significant inverse associations for voiding (OR=0.23, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.66), storage (OR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.56) and overall LUTS (OR=0.15, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.44). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that use of statins is associated with a lower prevalence of urologic symptoms among older men but not among women or younger men.

Hall, Susan A.; Chiu, Gretchen R.; Link, Carol L.; Steers, William D.; Kupelian, Varant; McKinlay, John B.

2011-01-01

297

Australian women's use of complementary and alternative medicines to enhance fertility: exploring the experiences of women and practitioners  

PubMed Central

Background Studies exploring the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to enhance fertility are limited. While Australian trends indicate that women are using CAM during pregnancy, little is known about women's use of CAM for fertility enhancement. With the rising age of women at first birth, couples are increasingly seeking assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to achieve parenthood. It is likely that CAM use for fertility enhancement will also increase, however this is not known. This paper reports on an exploratory study of women's use of CAM for fertility enhancement. Methods Three focus groups were conducted in Melbourne, Australia in 2007; two with women who used CAM to enhance their fertility and one with CAM practitioners. Participants were recruited from five metropolitan Melbourne CAM practices that specialise in women's health. Women were asked to discuss their views and experiences of both CAM and ART, and practitioners were asked about their perceptions of why women consult them for fertility enhancement. Groups were digitally recorded (audio) and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed thematically. Results Focus groups included eight CAM practitioners and seven women. Practitioners reported increasing numbers of women consulting them for fertility enhancement whilst also using ART. Women combined CAM with ART to maintain wellbeing and assist with fertility enhancement. Global themes emerging from the women's focus groups were: women being willing to 'try anything' to achieve a pregnancy; women's negative experiences of ART and a reluctance to inform their medical specialist of their CAM use; and conversely, women's experiences with CAM being affirming and empowering. Conclusions The women in our study used CAM to optimise their chances of achieving a pregnancy. Emerging themes suggest the positive relationships achieved with CAM practitioners are not always attained with orthodox medical providers. Women's views and experiences need to be considered in the provision of fertility services, and strategies developed to enhance communication between women, medical practitioners and CAM practitioners. Further research is needed to investigate the extent of CAM use for fertility enhancement in Australia, and to explore the efficacy and safety of CAM use to enhance fertility, in isolation or with ART.

2009-01-01

298

45 CFR 675.2 - Medical examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MEDICAL CLEARANCE PROCESS FOR DEPLOYMENT TO ANTARCTICA § 675.2 Medical examinations. (a) Any individual seeking to travel to Antarctica under sponsorship of the United...physically qualified for deployment to Antarctica. (b) The medical and...

2013-10-01

299

45 CFR 675.2 - Medical examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MEDICAL CLEARANCE PROCESS FOR DEPLOYMENT TO ANTARCTICA § 675.2 Medical examinations. (a) Any individual seeking to travel to Antarctica under sponsorship of the United...physically qualified for deployment to Antarctica. (b) The medical and...

2010-10-01

300

45 CFR 675.2 - Medical examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MEDICAL CLEARANCE PROCESS FOR DEPLOYMENT TO ANTARCTICA § 675.2 Medical examinations. (a) Any individual seeking to travel to Antarctica under sponsorship of the United...physically qualified for deployment to Antarctica. (b) The medical and...

2009-10-01

301

45 CFR 675.2 - Medical examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MEDICAL CLEARANCE PROCESS FOR DEPLOYMENT TO ANTARCTICA § 675.2 Medical examinations. (a) Any individual seeking to travel to Antarctica under sponsorship of the United...physically qualified for deployment to Antarctica. (b) The medical and...

2011-10-01

302

45 CFR 675.2 - Medical examinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MEDICAL CLEARANCE PROCESS FOR DEPLOYMENT TO ANTARCTICA § 675.2 Medical examinations. (a) Any individual seeking to travel to Antarctica under sponsorship of the United...physically qualified for deployment to Antarctica. (b) The medical and...

2012-10-01

303

Health seeking and access to care for children with suspected dengue in Cambodia: An ethnographic study  

PubMed Central

Background The continuing contribution of dengue fever to the hospitalization and deaths in hospital of infants and small children in Cambodia is associated with delays in presentation for medical attention, diagnosis and appropriate care. It is important to identify the reasons that influence these delays, in order to develop appropriate interventions to redress the impact of dengue. Methods Data on health seeking were collected during an ethnographic study conducted in two villages in the eastern province of Kampong Cham, Cambodia in 2004. Interviews were conducted with mothers whose children had been infected with suspected dengue fever, or who had been sick for other reasons, in 2003 and 2004. Results Women selected a therapeutic option based on perceptions of the severity of the child's condition, confidence in the particular modality, service or practitioner, and affordability of the therapy. While they knew what type of health care was required, poverty in combination with limited availability and perceptions of the poor quality of care at village health centers and public referral hospitals deterred them from doing so. Women initially used home remedies, then sought advice from public and private providers, shifting from one sector to another in a pragmatic response to the child's illness. Conclusion The lack of availability of financial resources for poor people and their continuing lack of confidence in the care provided by government centres combine to delay help seeking and inappropriate treatment of children sick with dengue.

Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore

2007-01-01

304

Violent injuries among women in an urban area.  

PubMed

The national statistics are familiar by now: each year, more than 2 million women are raped and/or physically assaulted; more than one-third of them are injured during their most recent assault. Annually, more than 500,000 women seek medical services as a result of violence-related injuries, often from hospital emergency departments. But national statistics cannot fully capture the extent of violence experienced by women in inner-city areas, nor do they point to modifiable risk factors at a community level. This Issue Brief highlights a new study that investigates the circumstances and correlates of violent injuries among women in one urban, low-income community. PMID:12523342

Grisso, J A; Schwarz, D F; Hirschinger, N; Sammel, M; Brensinger, C; Santanna, J; Lowe, R A; Anderson, E; Shaw, L M; Bethel, C A; Teeple, L

2000-01-01

305

Adverse Events in a Cohort of HIV Infected Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women Treated with Nevirapine versus Non-Nevirapine Antiretroviral Medication  

PubMed Central

Background Predictors of adverse events (AE) associated with nevirapine use are needed to better understand reports of severe rash or liver enzyme elevation (LEE) in HIV+ women. Methodology AE rates following ART initiation were retrospectively assessed in a multi-site cohort of 612 women. Predictors of onset of rash or LEE were determined using univariate and multivariate analyses. Principal Findings Of 612 subjects, 152 (24.8%) initiated NVP-based regimens with 86 (56.6%) pregnant; 460 (75.2%) initiated non-NVP regimens with 67 (14.6%) pregnant. LEE No significant difference was found between regimens in the development of new grade ?2 LEE (p?=?0.885). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated an increased likelihood of LEE with HCV co-infection (OR 2.502, 95% CI: 1.04 to 6, p?=?0.040); pregnancy, NVP-based regimen, and baseline CD4 >250 cells/mm3 were not associated with this toxicity. Rash NVP initiation was associated with rash after controlling for CD4 and pregnancy (OR 2.78; 95%CI: 1.14–6.76), as was baseline CD4 >250 cells/mm3 when controlling for pregnancy and type of regimen (OR 2.68; 95% CI: 1.19–6.02 p?=?0.017). Conclusions CD4 at initiation of therapy was a predictor of rash but not LEE with NVP use in HIV+ women. Pregnancy was not an independent risk factor for the development of AEs assessed. The findings from this study have significant implications for women of child-bearing age initiating NVP-based ART particularly in resource limited settings. This study sheds more confidence on the lack of LEE risk and the need to monitor rash with the use of this medication.

Aaron, Erika; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Criniti, Shannon; Tedaldi, Ellen; Gracely, Ed; Warriner, Amy; Kumar, Ritu; Bachmann, Laura H.

2010-01-01

306

The PRCI study: design of a randomized clinical trial to evaluate a coping intervention for medical waiting periods used by women undergoing a fertility treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Many medical situations necessitate a stressful period of waiting for potentially threatening test results. The medical waiting period is often associated with negative anticipatory anxiety and rumination about the outcome of treatment. Few evidence-based self-help coping interventions are available to assist individuals manage these periods. Theory and research suggest that positive reappraisal coping strategies may be particularly useful for this type of unpredictable and uncontrollable stressful context. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of a Positive Reappraisal Coping Intervention (PRCI) on psychological well-being of women waiting for the outcome of their fertility treatment cycle. Methods/Design In a three-armed randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of the PRCI will be tested. Consecutive patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation in a Dutch university hospital and meeting selection criteria will be invited to participate. Those who agree will be randomized to one of three experimental groups (N=372). The PRCI Intervention group will receive the intervention that comprises an explanatory leaflet and the 10 statements designed to promote positive reappraisal coping, to be read at least once in the morning, once in the evening. To capture the general impact of PRCI on psychological wellbeing patients will complete questionnaires before the waiting period (pre-intervention), on day ten of the 14-day waiting period (intervention) and six weeks after the start of the waiting period (post-intervention). To capture the specific effects of the PRCI during the waiting period, patients will also be asked to monitor daily their emotions and reactions during the 14-day waiting period. The primary outcome is general anxiety, measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes are positive and negative emotions during the waiting period, depression, quality of life, coping and treatment outcome. During recruitment for the RCT it was decided to add a fourth non-randomized group, a PRCI Control group that received the PRCI and completed the questionnaires but did not complete daily monitoring. Discussion Positive reappraisal is one of the few ways of coping that has been shown to be associated with increased wellbeing during unpredictable and uncontrollable situations like medical waiting periods. A simple evidence based self-help intervention could facilitate coping during this common medical situation. This RCT study will evaluate the value of a self-help coping intervention designed for medical waiting periods in women undergoing fertility treatment. Trial registration The study is registered at the Clinical Tials.gov (NCT01701011).

2013-01-01

307

Stigma and help seeking for mental health among college students.  

PubMed

Mental illness stigma has been identified by national policy makers as an important barrier to help seeking for mental health. Using a random sample of 5,555 students from a diverse set of 13 universities, we conducted one of the first empirical studies of the association of help-seeking behavior with both perceived public stigma and people's own stigmatizing attitudes (personal stigma). There were three main findings: (a) Perceived public stigma was considerably higher than personal stigma; (b) personal stigma was higher among students with any of the following characteristics: male, younger, Asian, international, more religious, or from a poor family; and (c) personal stigma was significantly and negatively associated with measures of help seeking (perceived need and use of psychotropic medication, therapy, and nonclinical sources of support), whereas perceived stigma was not significantly associated with help seeking. These findings can help inform efforts to reduce the role of stigma as a barrier to help seeking. PMID:19454625

Eisenberg, Daniel; Downs, Marilyn F; Golberstein, Ezra; Zivin, Kara

2009-10-01

308

Women Lead the Way  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Female corporate leaders are becoming more common, but that does not mean it was a snap for them to get there. Much has been said about the hard road faced by women who seek top spots in corporate America. Many point out, for instance, that women executives still often are paid less than their male counterparts, and that they face stereotypes,…

Weinstein, Margery

2010-01-01

309

Help-seeking for mental health problems among young physicians: is it the most ill that seeks help?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported mental health problems and help-seeking among young physicians, and identify predictors of seeking help. Methods A prospective cohort sample of Norwegian medical students (N=631) were assessed in their final semester (T1), and in the first (T2) and fourth (T3) postgraduate year. The average observation period was 3.6

Reidar Tyssen; Jan Ole Røvik; Per Vaglum; Nina T. Grønvold; Øivind Ekeberg

2004-01-01

310

Work-family conflict, health services and medication use among dual-income couples in Europe.  

PubMed

Combination pressure or work-life imbalance is linked to adverse health. However, it remains unclear how work-family conflict is related to healthcare utilisation. Does work-family conflict function as a barrier or as a facilitator in relation to the use of health services and prescription medication? Lack of time may prevent people from visiting a doctor when they feel unwell. However, combination pressure can also be expected to intensify the use of health services, as the need for a quick fix is prioritised. Further, do women and men differ in their susceptibility to medicalisation and time pressure resulting from work-life imbalance? This article investigates the use of health services and prescription medication of dual-income couples with children, based on data from 23 countries in the European Social Survey round 2 (N(women) = 3755; N(men) = 3142). It was found that medical services and prescription medications are used more frequently in dual-income couples experiencing work-to-family spillover, but for women only this is irrespective of their self-reported health. Family-to-work spillover does not result in increased health service or medication use for either men or women. While women opt for a medical response to work-life imbalance, men's reluctance to seek formal health support is confirmed. PMID:24111523

Christiaens, Wendy; Bracke, Piet

2014-03-01

311

A hard pill to swallow: a qualitative study of women's experiences of adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore women's experiences of taking adjuvant endocrine therapy as a treatment for breast cancer and how their beliefs about the purpose of the medication, side effects experienced and interactions with health professionals might influence adherence. Design Qualitative study using semistructured, one-to-one interviews. Setting 2 hospitals from a single health board in Scotland. Participants 30 women who had been prescribed tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole or letrozole) and had been taking this medication for 1–5?years. Results Women clearly wished to take their adjuvant endocrine therapy medication as prescribed, believing that it offered them protection against breast cancer recurrence. However, some women missed tablets and did not recognise that this could reduce the efficacy of the treatment. Women did not perceive that healthcare professionals were routinely or systematically monitoring their adherence. Side effects were common and impacted greatly on the women’s quality of life but did not always cause women to stop taking their medication, or to seek advice about reducing the side effects they experienced. Few were offered the opportunity to discuss the impact of side effects or the potential options available. Conclusions Although most women in this study took adjuvant endocrine therapy as prescribed, many endured a range of side effects, often without seeking help. Advice, support and monitoring for adherence are not routinely offered in conventional follow-up settings. Women deserve more opportunity to discuss the pros, cons and impact of long-term adjuvant endocrine therapy. New service models are needed to support adherence, enhance quality of life and ultimately improve survival. These should ideally be community based, in order to promote self-management in the longer term.

Harrow, Alison; Dryden, Ruth; McCowan, Colin; Radley, Andrew; Parsons, Mark; Thompson, Alastair M; Wells, Mary

2014-01-01

312

Paediatrics and medical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical education has been closely linked with the necessity of medical relief and the quality of services required. The aim has been to turn out medical men and women fundamentally equipped to be practising doctors. The object of medical education has been to provide the students with a foundation for training to be a general practitioner, or a specialist, or

Shantilal C. Sheth

1958-01-01

313

Pleasure seeking and birdsong  

PubMed Central

Songbirds sing at high rates within multiple contexts, suggesting that they are highly motivated to communicate and that the act of singing itself may be rewarding. Little is known about the neural regulation of the motivation to communicate. Dopamine and opioid neuropeptides play a primary role in reward seeking and sensory pleasure. In songbirds, these neurochemicals are found within brain regions implicated in both motivation and reward, including the medial preoptic nucleus (mPOA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Several lines of research indicate that dopamine and opioids in these regions play a role in birdsong that differs depending upon whether song is used to attract females (female-directed song) or is not directed towards other individuals (undirected song). Evidence is reviewed supporting the hypotheses 1) that distinct patterns of dopamine activity influence the motivation to produce undirected and female-directed song, 2) that undirected communication is intrinsically reinforced by immediate release of opioids induced by the act of singing, and 3) that directed communication is socially reinforced by opioids released as part of social interactions.

Riters, Lauren V.

2011-01-01

314

Barriers to receiving substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women in Kentucky.  

PubMed

Research presenting outcomes for women who enter substance abuse treatment during pregnancy consistently shows benefits. While treatment has nearly universal benefits, there are many barriers to seeking substance abuse treatment for pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to explore barriers for rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment. There were three eligibility criteria for study participation: (1) aged 18 and older, (2) pregnant, and (3) undergoing short-term inpatient detoxification at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Eighty-five rural women (N = 85) were included in the analysis. Substance use history and previous treatment were assessed with measures adapted from the Addiction Severity Index. Treatment barriers were measured with three qualitative questions and were coded into four overarching categories: availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability barriers. This sample had an extensive substance use history. Almost all participants had used alcohol (98%), marijuana (98%), illicit opiates (99%), and cigarettes (97%). On average, participants reported about two barriers to receiving treatment (Mean = 1.8; SD = 1.3), with over 80% of the sample reporting having experienced any barrier to treatment. The majority experienced acceptability (51%) and accessibility (49%) barriers. Twenty-six percent (26%) of the sample reported availability barriers. A smaller percentage of participants reported affordability barriers (13%). Rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment face many obstacles to receiving needed treatment. More studies on barriers to substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women are needed. Identifying these barriers can help in improving treatment access and services. PMID:22139045

Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

2012-12-01

315

African American women's beliefs about mental illness, stigma, and preferred coping behaviors.  

PubMed

We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma. PMID:19650070

Ward, Earlise C; Heidrich, Susan M

2009-10-01

316

African American Women's Beliefs About Mental Illness, Stigma, and Preferred Coping Behaviors  

PubMed Central

We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma.

Heidrich, Susan M.

2010-01-01

317

Dysregulation of leukocyte gene expression in women with medication-refractory depression versus healthy non-depressed controls  

PubMed Central

Background Depressive Disorders (DD) are a great financial and social burden. Females display 70% higher rate of depression than males and more than 30% of these patients do not respond to conventional medications. Thus medication-refractory female patients are a large, under-served, group where new biological targets for intervention are greatly needed. Methods We used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to evaluate mRNA gene expression from peripheral blood leukocytes for 27 genes, including immune, HPA-axis, ion channels, and growth and transcription factors. Our sample included 23 females with medication refractory DD: 13 with major depressive disorder (MDD), 10 with bipolar disorder (BPD). Our comparison group was 19 healthy, non-depressed female controls. We examined differences in mRNA expression in DD vs. controls, in MDD vs. BPD, and in patients with greater vs. lesser depression severity. Results DD patients showed increased expression for IL-10, IL-6, OXTR, P2RX7, P2RY1, and TRPV1. BPD patients showed increased APP, CREB1, NFKB1, NR3C1, and SPARC and decreased TNF expression. Depression severity was related to increased IL-10, P2RY1, P2RX1, and TRPV4 expression. Conclusions These results support prior findings of dysregulation in immune genes, and provide preliminary evidence of dysregulation in purinergic and other ion channels in females with medication-refractory depression, and in transcription and growth factors in those with BPD. If replicated in future research examining protein levels as well as mRNA, these pathways could potentially be used to explore biological mechanisms of depression and to develop new drug targets.

2013-01-01

318

Medical Evaluation of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children. Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, 2d Session. Committee Print.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a medical evaluation of a federal program providing funds for special nutritious food supplements to low income pregnant and lactating women, infants, and children up to four years of age who are nutritional risks. Growth, dietary intake, and biochemical measures were obtained for study infants at the time of enrollment in the…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

319

Use of Family Planning and Related Medical Services Among Women Aged 15-44 in the United States: National Survey of Family Growth, 2006-2010. National Health Statistics Reports, Number 68, September 5, 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents national estimates of the use of family planning services and related medical services among women aged 15-44 in the United States in 2006-2010. Selected indicators are compared with similar measures for 2002 and 1995 to examine chang...

A. Chandra G. Marintez I. Febo-Vazquez W. Mosher

2013-01-01

320

Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Blood pressure is typically lower in premenopausal women than in men. However, after menopause, the prevalence of hypertension in women is higher than it is in men. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women and men. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. Furthermore, there is evidence that blood pressure may not be as well-controlled in women as in men, despite the fact that most women adhere better to their therapeutic regimens and medications than do men, and have their blood pressures measured more frequently than do men. This review describes possible mechanisms by which blood pressure may be increased in postmenopausal women.

Lima, Roberta; Wofford, Marion; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

2012-01-01

321

Physical, Behavioral, and Mental Health Issues in Asian American Women: Results from the National Latino Asian American Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims Asian American women's health has been understudied while the Asian American population is increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine the physical, behavioral, and mental health of Asian American women. Methods Using a nationally representative sample (n=1097) from the National Latino Asian American Study (NLAAS), the first comprehensive epidemiologic survey in the United States, we examined the annual rates of behavioral, physical, and mental healthcare service use, including general medical, specialty mental health, and any medical services, in three major subgroups of Asian American women. Results Health problems varied with three major subgroups of Asian American women. In physical health, Chinese American women reported the highest rates of headache, other pain, hypertension, heart diseases, heart attacks, chronic lung diseases, and asthma. Vietnamese American women reported the highest rates of ulcer, stroke, and diabetes. Filipino American women had the highest rates of cancers and epilepsy. In behavioral health, Filipino women ranked highest on all types of drug use and cigarette smoking, compared with their counterparts. In mental health, Filipino American women reported significantly better mental health self-rating compared with their Chinese and Vietnamese American counterparts. Asian American women from each ethnic group sought health services at distinct rates. However, the help-seeking patterns of health services are similar. Conclusions Asian American women encountered various physical, behavioral, and mental health problems, yet they had low rates of seeking healthcare services. Hence, it is critical to further examine factors associated with the underestimation of physical and mental health problems and underuse of health services by Asian American women.

Huang, Bu; Ai, Amy L.; Lin, Chyongchiou Jeng

2011-01-01

322

Orientations to seeking professional help: Development and research utility of an attitude scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developed and standardized a measure of attitudes toward seeking professional help for psychological disturbances. The scale reliably distinguished persons who had experienced psychotherapeutic help from those without such professional contact (p < .0001). Women's help-seeking attitudes were consistently more positive than men's (p < .0001). Factor analyses were conducted on 3 independent samples and revealed 4 dimensions of the attitude:

Edward H. Fischer; John I. Turner

1970-01-01

323

Relatives' Advice and Health Care-Seeking Behaviour in Oman  

PubMed Central

Objectives: It has been well established that pathways to care are considerably modified by local, social and psychological characteristics as well as the doctor-patient relationship. Scant attention has been paid to the role of family advice in care-seeking. In Omani society, traditional family values and a collective mindset are the norm rather than the exception. This paper examines how family advice affects the trajectory of care seeking. Methodology: During 2006–2007, data was collected through face-to-face interviews among a randomised sample of patients seeking medical consultation in various primary health care centres in the northern region of Oman. This study enrolled a total of 493 patients. The association between the advice of family members as a reason to seek health care and other predictors was analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that the advice of family members in care-seeking is strongly associated with gender, education, history of chronic illness, previous exposure to traditional medicine, and health education, as well as the history of immunisation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the advice of family members remains a strong catalyst for care-seeking in Oman. The psychosocial factors affecting care-seeking leading to underutilisation of services or otherwise are discussed.

Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Eloul, Liyam

2009-01-01

324

Women in U.S. Academic Medicine: 1994 Status Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines historical and recent trends in the proportions of women accepted into medical school, women residents and specialists, women who are medical school faculty, and women who are medical school department chairs and deans. Compares the progress of men and women faculty. (LZ)

Bickel, Janet

1995-01-01

325

The neuropharmacology of relapse to food seeking: methodology, main findings, and comparison with relapse to drug seeking  

PubMed Central

Relapse to old, unhealthy eating habits is a major problem in human dietary treatments. The mechanisms underlying this relapse are unknown. Surprisingly, until recently this clinical problem has not been systematically studied in animal models. Here, we review results from recent studies in which a reinstatement model (commonly used to study relapse to abused drugs) was employed to characterize the effect of pharmacological agents on relapse to food seeking induced by either food priming (non-contingent exposure to small amounts of food), cues previously associated with food, or injections of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine. We also address methodological issues related to the use of the reinstatement model to study relapse to food seeking, similarities and differences in mechanisms underlying reinstatement of food seeking versus drug seeking, and the degree to which the reinstatement procedure provides a suitable model for studying relapse in humans. We conclude by discussing implications for medication development and future research. We offer three tentative conclusions: The neuronal mechanisms of food-priming- and cue-induced reinstatement are likely different from those of reinstatement induced by the pharmacological stressor yohimbine.The neuronal mechanisms of reinstatement of food seeking are possibly different from those of ongoing food-reinforced operant responding.The neuronal mechanisms underlying reinstatement of food seeking overlap to some degree with those of reinstatement of drug seeking.

Nair, Sunila G.; Adams-Deutsch, Tristan; Epstein, David H.; Shaham, Yavin

2009-01-01

326

A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Peer Support Intervention Targeting Antiretroviral Medication Adherence and Depressive Symptomatology in HIV-Positive Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the efficacy of a peer-led social support intervention involving support groups and telephone contacts compared with standard clinical care to enhance antiretroviral medication adherence. Design Randomized controlled trial with follow-up. Participants were 136 HIV-positive indigent mainly African American and Puerto Rican men and women recruited from an outpatient clinic in the Bronx, New York. The 3-month intervention was delivered by other HIV-positive clinic patients trained in addressing barriers to adherence and sensitively providing appraisal, spiritual, emotional, and informational adherence-related social support. Main outcome measures Medical chart-abstracted HIV–1 RNA viral load, antiretroviral adherence according to electronic drug monitoring and participant self-report, and social support and depressive symptomatology. All assessments conducted at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Results Intent-to-treat and as-treated analyses indicated no between-conditions intervention effects on the primary outcome of HIV–1 RNA viral load or any of the secondary outcomes at immediate postintervention or follow-up. Post hoc analyses within the intervention condition indicated greater intervention exposure was associated with higher self-reported adherence, higher social support, and lower depressive symptomatology at follow-up, even after controlling for baseline adherence. Conclusion Null findings, consistent with the limited literature on efficacious highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence interventions, may be due to insufficient exposure to the intervention, its low intensity, or the nature of the sample—a heterogeneous HAART-experienced group of patients with high levels of substance use and multiple other competing stressors. Overall, findings highlight the need for more comprehensive and intensive efforts to battle nonadherence.

Simoni, Jane M.; Pantalone, David W.; Plummer, Mary D.; Huang, Bu

2014-01-01

327

The influence of health-seeking behavior on the incidence and perinatal outcome of umbilical cord prolapse in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the influence of health-seeking behavior of urban women in South-West Nigeria on the incidence and perinatal outcome of umbilical cord prolapse (UCP). Methods: A retrospective study comparing two groups of urban women using information extracted from medical records of patients who had UCP, and were managed at the University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria from January1st 1995 to December 31st 2005. The data was analyzed using SPSS software (version 15). Analysis included simple tabulation, proportion and comparison of incidence, perinatal morbidity, and mortality of UCP between the two groups of women using Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated whenever necessary. P-value of 0.05 or less was statistically significant. Results: Women without prenatal care were more likely to have fetuses with UCP (54, 75%), than in women who had prenatal care (18, 25%). The risk of perinatal death from UCP was higher in women without prenatal care, as compared with those who received prenatal care (OR 3.02, 95% CI: 0.879 to 10.356; P-value = 0.061). The risk of perinatal morbidity and neonatal intensive care admission was also higher among women without prenatal care as compared with women who received prenatal care (OR 4.09, 95% CI: 1.03 to 16.30; P-value = 0.041). The overall perinatal mortality rate in the study population was 403 per 1000 total births, and this was five times more than that of the hospital perinatal mortality rate of 80 per 1000 total births during the study period. The perinatal mortality rate was higher among women without prenatal care, 463 per 1000 total births, as compared with 222 per 1000 total births in women who received prenatal care. Perinatal death before arrival at the hospital is less likely to occur in women with prenatal care when compared with women without prenatal care (OR 0.0635; 95% CI: 0.0052 to 0.776; P-value = 0.03). Conclusion: A high index of suspicion and an identification of risk factors, with early diagnosis, prompt intervention, and provision of health care facilities can reduce the incidence and poor outcome of UCP in developing countries.

Enakpene, Christopher A; Odukogbe, Akin-Tunde O; Morhason-Bello, Imran O; Omigbodun, Akinyinka O; Arowojolu, Ayo O

2010-01-01

328

Phenotypic expression of polycystic ovary syndrome in South Asian women.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in 6% to 10% of women and, as the most common worldwide endocrinopathy of reproductive-aged women, is linked to a constellation of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities, including anovulatory infertility, hirsutism, acne, and insulin resistance in association with metabolic syndrome. Despite a genetic component to PCOS, ethnicity plays an important role in the phenotypic expression of PCOS, with South Asian PCOS women having more severe reproductive and metabolic symptoms than other ethnic groups. South Asians with PCOS seek medical care at an earlier age for reproductive abnormalities; have a higher degree of hirsutism, infertility, and acne; and experience lower live birth rates following in vitro fertilization than do whites with PCOS. Similarly, South Asians with PCOS have a higher prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome than do other PCOS-related ethnic groups of a similar body mass index. Inheritance of PCOS appears to have a complex genetic basis, including genetic differences based on ethnicity, which interact with lifestyle and other environmental factors to affect PCOS phenotypic expression. Target Audience: Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Family Physicians Learning Objectives: After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to state an ethnic difference in reproductive dysfunction between South Asian and white women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), state an ethnic difference in metabolic dysfunction between South Asian and white women with PCOS, identify a genetic abnormality found in South Asian women with PCOS, and list 2 environmental factors that predispose South Asian women to metabolic dysfunction. PMID:23945839

Mehta, Jaya; Kamdar, Vikram; Dumesic, Daniel

2013-03-01

329

Demographic and psychosocial characteristics of substance-abusing pregnant women.  

PubMed

Women who abuse drugs and alcohol during pregnancy are an elusive population who often remain unidentified to practitioners and researchers and hence have not been well studied. In trying to understand better the characteristics of women who use drugs during pregnancy, the present article relies extensively on information gathered in studies of women in substance abuse treatment who, as epidemiologic studies show, may be more severely impaired than other substance-abusing women and, therefore, may not be typical of substance-abusing women identified in the course of obstetric practice. Yet, those pregnant women who are actually identified by medical providers as substance users are often those whose behavior raises concerns with health providers (such as presenting for labor having had no prenatal care) and thus also may represent only a relatively impaired group of substance-abusing women. The most objective picture available of the universe of women who use drugs during pregnancy comes from blinded urine toxicology screens conducted at samples of representative hospitals across states and across the country. The startling finding to emerge from these studies is that common perceptions of substance abuse as a problem of poor, ethnic minority, and young individuals is inaccurate and that this perception may all too often be acted on by medical providers in a prejudicial manner. These studies show similar rates of substance use during pregnancy by women of different racial, social class, and age categories. Demographic features are only related to type of substance used, with black women and poorer women more likely to use illicit substances, particularly cocaine, and white women and better educated women more likely to use alcohol, the substance whose teratogenic effects have been most clearly documented. Despite the even distribution of substance use across demographic categories, poor women and women of color are far more likely to be reported to health and child welfare authorities for use of substances during pregnancy than are other women, even when their base rates for use of illicit drugs are considered. Data from both epidemiologic studies and samples of women seeking treatment for substance abuse problems indicate that the lives of substance-abusing women are fraught with difficulties past and present. Substance-abusing women are likely to have been raised by parents who were substance abusers, particularly alcoholics. Although the intergenerational patterns of substance abuse may have some genetic basis, there is also ample evidence suggesting problematic relationships in families with a substance-abusing parent that raises concerns about intergenerational transmission of problematic parenting behavior. Perhaps the most startling research finding reported in studies reviewed in this article is the high proportion of substance-abusing women who have experienced early sexual abuse. Although most studies have not had adequate comparison groups of non-substance-abusing women, the fact remains that most studies suggest a third to a half of substance abusing women experienced some kind of sexual abuse during childhood. Substance-abusing women's lives remain complicated as adults. They are commonly involved with men who are also users of drugs, they are often the victims of domestic violence, and they suffer from a variety of psychiatric disorders. Studies of epidemiologic and treatment populations indicate that the majority of substance-abusing women have one or more types of comorbid mental disorders, with depression being the most common and the most elevated compared with substance-abusing men, but antisocial personality being extremely high compared with samples of non-substance-abusing women. These findings are of great concern given a growing body of research with non-substance-abusing women, suggesting that family violence and maternal psychopathology can have a profound effect on women's parenting and development o PMID:10214543

Hans, S L

1999-03-01

330

A Qualitative Study of Providers' Perception of Adherence of Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

This study examines healthcare providers’ perceptions regarding experiences and factors that contribute to adherent and non-adherent behaviors to HIV treatment among women living with HIV infection in Puerto Rico and describes strategies implemented to improve adherence. Providers’ accounts revealed that women with HIV infection are living “beyond their strengths” attempting to reconcile the burden of the illness and keep adherent. Factors putting women beyond their strengths and influencing non-adherence behavior were: gender-related demands, fear of disclosure, and treatment complexity. Strategies to improve adherence included: ongoing assessment, education, collaborative work, support groups, networking, disguising pills, readiness, and seeking medications outside their towns. Provider-patient interactions are critical for women’s success and must assess all these factors in developing and providing health services.

Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Dawson-Rose, Carol S.; Solis-Baez, Solymar S.

2010-01-01

331

Women and Computers: An Introduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses women's central role in the development of the computer and their present day peripheral position, a progression paralleled in the fields of botany, medical care, and obstetrics. Affirms the importance of computer education to women. (DM)

Perry, Ruth; Greber, Lisa

1990-01-01

332

Exploring the Help-Seeking Attitudes of Graduate Students at an Off-Campus Site  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the help-seeking attitudes of graduate students enrolled in an off-campus professional centre. The sample consisted of 217 participants enrolled in 10 graduate programs (130 women [60%], 37 men [17%], 50 unspecified [23%]). Analyses (descriptive statistics and t-tests) indicated that women possessed more favourable attitudes…

McCarthy, John T.; Bruno, Michelle L.; Sherman, Christine A.

2010-01-01

333

Gender Differences in Substance Use, Consequences, Motivation to Change, and Treatment Seeking in People With Serious Mental Illness  

PubMed Central

Gender differences in patterns and consequences of substance use, treatment-seeking, and motivation to change were examined in two samples of people with serious mental illness (SMI) and comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs): a community sample not currently seeking substance abuse treatment (N = 175) and a treatment-seeking sample (N = 137). In both groups, women and men demonstrated more similarities in the pattern and severity of their substance use than differences. However, treatment-seeking women showed greater readiness to change their substance use. Mental health problems and traumatic experiences may prompt people with SMI and SUD to enter substance abuse treatment, regardless of gender.

Drapalski, Amy; Bennett, Melanie; Bellack, Alan

2013-01-01

334

Delays in seeking an abortion until the second trimester: a qualitative study in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Despite changes to the South African abortion legislation in 1996, barriers to women accessing abortions still exist. Second trimester abortions, an inherently more risky procedure, continue to be 20% of all abortions. Understanding the reasons why women delay seeking an abortion until the second trimester is important for informing interventions to reduce the proportion of second trimester abortions in South Africa. Methods Qualitative research methods were used to collect data. Twenty-seven in-depth interviews were conducted in 2006 with women seeking a second trimester abortion at one public sector tertiary hospital and two NGO health care facilities in the greater Cape Town area, South Africa. Data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Results Almost all women described multiple and interrelated factors that influenced the timing of seeking an abortion. Reasons why women delayed seeking an abortion were complex and were linked to changes in personal circumstances often leading to indecision, delays in detecting a pregnancy and health service related barriers that hindered access to abortion services. Conclusion Understanding the complex reasons why women delay seeking an abortion until the second trimester can inform health care interventions aimed at reducing the proportion of second trimester abortions in South Africa.

Harries, Jane; Orner, Phyllis; Gabriel, Mosotho; Mitchell, Ellen

2007-01-01

335

Bowel habits in young adults not seeking health care  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine bowel patterns and perceptions of diarrhea and constipation in young adults not seeking health care, we surveyed 1128 young adults about their bowel habits. The mean number of stools varied by race and sex. Whites reported more frequent stools than nonwhites (7.8 vs 6.0 stools per week, P<0.0001) and men reported more frequent stools than women

Robert S. Sandler; Douglas A. Drossman

1987-01-01

336

Medical Dictionary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For nurses and other health care professionals who seek to distinguish the habitus from the humerus, this online medical dictionary provided by MedicineNet will be a place to bookmark for repeat visits. The dictionary contains well-written explanations for over 16,000 medical terms, and users can go ahead and browse around, or enter keywords or phrases into the search engine that resides on the page. The site also features a âÂÂWord of the DayâÂÂ, and visitors can also look through recent news items that address different health issues and also look over the latest entries to the dictionary. The site is rounded out by a list of the âÂÂTop 10 MedtermsâÂÂ, which is also a good way to start exploring the materials here.

2007-03-31

337

Stage 2--Information Seeking Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief overview of one Big6 stage by Mike Eisenberg, followed by articles by two exemplary Big6 teachers, Barbara Jansen and Rob Darrow, offering practical uses of the Big6 in elementary and secondary situations is presented. The two-part nature of information seeking strategies that includes brainstorming and choosing is emphasized.

Elsenberg, Michael B.

2005-01-01

338

FIPSE: Changing Medical Education Forever.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) has played a central role in sponsoring innovations in the medical and health sciences, including landmark medical projects to integrate women's health issues into the medical curriculum and to use lay people in the teaching and evaluating of medical students. (EV)

Levison, Sandra P.; Straumanis, Joan

2002-01-01

339

The Campus Troublemakers: Academic Women in Protest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The struggle for sex equity by U.S. academic women in higher education during the early years of the women's movement, based on the experiences of 470 academic women, is addressed in a book suitable for sociology courses. All aspects of the academic employment process are covered, including acquiring degrees, job seeking, promotion, salary,…

Theodore, Athena

340

A Standardized Kudzu Extract (NPI-031) Reduces Alcohol Consumption in Non Treatment-Seeking Male Heavy Drinkers  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE We previously demonstrated that short-term treatment with a standardized kudzu extract (NPI-031) reduced alcohol drinking by men and women in a natural setting. The present study was conducted in non treatment-seeking heavy drinkers to assess the safety and efficacy of four weeks of kudzu extract in an outpatient setting. METHOD This randomized between-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involved two weeks of baseline, four weeks of treatment and two weeks of follow-up. Seventeen men (21–33 years) who reported drinking 27.6 ± 6.5 drinks/week with a diagnosis of alcohol abuse/dependence took either kudzu extract (250 mg isoflavones, t.i.d.) or matched placebo on a daily basis. They reported alcohol consumption and desire to use alcohol using a wrist actigraphy device; twice weekly laboratory visits were scheduled to monitor medication adherence and adverse events. RESULTS Medication adherence was excellent and there were no adverse events, changes in vital signs, blood chemistry, renal or liver function. There was no effect on alcohol craving, but kudzu extract significantly reduced the number of drinks consumed each week by 34–57%, reduced the number of heavy drinking days and significantly increased the percent of days abstinent and the number of consecutive days of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS A standardized formulation of kudzu extract produced minimal side effects, was well-tolerated and resulted in a modest reduction in alcohol consumption in young non treatment-seeking heavy drinkers. Additional studies using treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent persons will be necessary to determine the usefulness of this herbal preparation in reducing alcohol use in other populations.

Lukas, Scott E.; Penetar, David; Su, Zhaohui; Geaghan, Thomas; Maywalt, Melissa; Tracy, Michael; Rodolico, John; Palmer, Christopher; Ma, Zhongze; Lee, David Y.-W.

2012-01-01

341

Clearinghouse: women and drugs.  

PubMed

Thirteen references to treatment centers for HIV-positive, drug-dependent women are provided. Contact numbers for medical professionals and additional information for various states, including Illinois, California, Maryland, and New York, are listed. PMID:11363032

1995-09-01

342

The use of complementary and alternative medicine by women experiencing menopausal symptoms in Bologna  

PubMed Central

Background The present study describes Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use amongst Italian women transitioning through menopause. Popularity and perceived effectiveness of CAM treatments, use of pharmaceutical medications, characteristics of CAM users, the extent of communication between medical practitioners and women about their use of CAM, and variables associated with CAM use were also investigated. Methods Women, aged 45-65 years attending Family Planning and Women's Health clinics or Menopause Centres in Bologna were invited to complete a voluntary, anonymous, self administered questionnaire, which was used in a previous study in Sydney. The questionnaire was translated and adapted for use amongst Italian women. Data on general demographic and health characteristics, menopause related symptoms and the use of CAM and pharmaceutical treatments during the previous 12 months were collected. Results In total, 1,203 women completed the survey, of which 1,106 were included in the final sample. Of women who had symptoms linked with menopause and/or used remedies to alleviate symptoms, 33.5% reported to have used CAM. Among these, 23.5% had consulted one or more practitioners and 24% had used at least one CAM product. Approximately nine out of ten respondents reported medical practitioners did not seek information about their use of CAM; while one third of CAM users did not disclose the use of CAM to their physician. Nevertheless, medical practitioners were the most popular source of information. From the multivariate analysis, variables associated with CAM use were: professional employment, time since the last natural menses, use of CAM for conditions other than menopause, and presence of some severe symptoms. Conclusions The relatively high prevalence of CAM use by women transitioning through menopause should encourage research initiatives into determining which CAM treatments are the safest and effective. The increasing and likely concomitant use of CAM with HRT and other pharmaceuticals underlines the need for the implementation of a surveillance system to report and monitor possible drug-herb adverse events. The discrepancy between women preferring to seek information about CAM from their medical doctor and the difficulties noted in communication between doctor and patient should encourage educational initiatives on CAM by health-care agencies and institutions.

2010-01-01

343

Why patients seek bariatric surgery: does insurance coverage matter?  

PubMed

Despite increasing prevalence of bariatric surgery, little is known about why patients seek out this treatment option. Heads Up is an observational study sponsored by a large benefits management group that examines surgical and nonsurgical approaches to weight management in obese adults. This study examined patients' reasons for choosing surgery. The sample included 360 adult obese patients seeking bariatric surgery who were invited to volunteer for a surgical or a medical weight loss program by their insurer. Participants rank ordered their top three reasons as a deciding factor for choosing to consider surgery. The top three reasons were concerns regarding health (52%), current obesity-related medical conditions (28%), and improved physical fitness (5%). Overall, 13% endorsed insurance coverage as one of their top three choices. When insurance coverage is assured, health and functionality issues were the major reasons reported for obese adults choosing to undergo bariatric surgery. PMID:24671622

Brantley, Phillip J; Waldo, Krystal; Matthews-Ewald, Molly R; Brock, Ricky; Champagne, Catherine M; Church, Tim; Harris, Melissa N; McKnight, Tipton; McKnight, Melanie; Myers, Valerie H; Ryan, Donna H

2014-06-01

344

Women and War  

PubMed Central

Most of today's 1.7 million women veterans obtain all or most of their medical care outside the VA health care system, where their veteran status is rarely recognized or acknowledged. Several aspects of women's military service have been associated with adverse psychologic and physical outcomes, and failure to assess women's veteran status, their deployment status, and military trauma history could delay identifying or treating such conditions. Yet few clinicians know of women's military history—or of military service's impact on women's subsequent health and well being. Because an individual's military service may be best understood within the historical context in which it occurred, we provide a focused historical overview of women's military contributions and their steady integration into the Armed Forces since the War for Independence. We then describe some of the medical and psychiatric conditions associated with military service.

Murdoch, Maureen; Bradley, Arlene; Mather, Susan H; Klein, Robert E; Turner, Carole L; Yano, Elizabeth M

2006-01-01

345

Smoking cessation programs targeted to women: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The authors of this systematic review aimed to examine tobacco interventions developed to meet the needs of women, to identify sex- and gender-specific components, and to evaluate their effects on smoking cessation in women. The authors searched electronic databases in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PubMed, EBSCO, PsychINFO, CINHAL, and EMBASE; the search was not restricted by publication date. Data was extracted from published peer-reviewed articles on participants, setting, treatment models, interventions, length of follow-up, and outcomes. The main outcome variable was abstinence from smoking. A total of 39 studies were identified. In efficacy studies, therapists addressed weight concerns and non-pharmacological aspects of smoking, taught mood/stress management strategies, and scheduled the quit date to be timed to the menstrual cycle. In effectiveness studies, therapists were peer counselors, provided telephone counseling, and/or distributed gendered booklets, videos, and posters. Among efficacy studies, interventions addressing weight gain/concerns showed the most promising results. If medication can support smoking cessation in women and how it interacts with non-pharmacological treatment also warrant further research. For effectiveness studies, the available evidence suggests that smoking should be addressed in low-income women accessing public health clinics. Further attention should be devoted to identifying new settings for providing smoking cessation interventions to women from disadvantaged groups. Women-specific tobacco programs help women stop smoking, although they appear to produce similar abstinence rates as non-sex/gender specific programs. Offering interventions for women specifically may reduce barriers to treatment entry and better meet individual preferences of smokers. Developing approaches that fully account for the multiple challenges treatment-seeking women face is still an area of research. PMID:22324357

Torchalla, Iris; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Bottorff, Joan L; Qu, Annie; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine

2012-01-01

346

Evaluation of Ridge Seeking Operators for Multimodality Medical Image Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ridge-like structures in digital images may be extracted by convolving the images with deriva- tives of Gaussians. The choice of the convolution operator and of the parameters involved defines a specific ridge image. In this paper, various ridge measures related to isophote curvature are con- structed, reviewed, and evaluated with respect to their usability in CT\\/MRI matching of human brain

J. B. Antoine Maintz; Petra A. Van Den Elsen; Max A. Viergever

1996-01-01

347

Medical management of first trimester miscarriage (blighted ovum and missed abortion): is it effective?  

PubMed

This prospective study of 104 women investigated the dose-related efficacy of mifepristone combined with oral misoprostol in the management of first trimester miscarriage (missed abortion and blighted ovum). Forty-four women (group A) received 600 mg of oral mifepristone and 60 women (group B) received 200 mg of mifepristone, followed after 48 hours by oral misoprostol. Successful treatment was an empty uterus on scan and no bleeding after 10 days. This was achieved in 70.5% of group A and 66.7% of group B. Also studied were amount and time to cessation of bleeding, pain scores, analgesic requirements, adverse effects and infections. Of group A, 54.5% had heavy bleeding and bleeding stopped on average by 8 days. Median pain scores were 5.5 on a linear scale and 18% of women received intramuscular opiate analgesia. Adverse effects were nausea in 25% of women and diarrhoea in 16%. Of group B, 38.3% had heavy bleeding and bleeding stopped on average by 7 days. Median pain scores were 4.5 with 25% of women receiving intramuscular opiates. Nausea occurred in 7% of women and diarrhoea in 7%. We concluded that 200 mg of mifepristone and oral misoprostol is as effective and better tolerated than 600 mg mifepristone with oral misoprostol. Medical management of miscarriage is a valid option for those women seeking an alternative to traditional surgical management. PMID:14675986

Coughlin, L B; Roberts, D; Haddad, N G; Long, A

2004-01-01

348

The Work of Disabled Women Seeking Reproductive Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the needs of disabled people have been under the specialty known as physical medicine and rehabilitation. The compartmentalization of disabled people to this specialty rather than primary care is topic of a criticism by disability activists who claim this as evidence that doctors avoid those whom they cannot cure and reject disability as everyday part of life (Gillet al.

Alice Wong

2000-01-01

349

Sex in America Online: An Exploration of Sex, Marital Status, and Sexual Identity in Internet Sex Seeking and Its Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was an exploratory study of sex and relationship seeking on the Internet, based on a survey of 15,246 respondents in the United States Seventy-five percent of men and 41% of women had intentionally viewed or downloaded porn. Men and gays\\/lesbians were more likely to access porn or engage in other sex-seeking behaviors online compared with straights or women. A

Julie M. Albright

2008-01-01

350

Seeking Contact: Issues to Consider  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seeking contact with extraterrestrial intelligence is a species enterprise that should be conducted with our shared interests in mind. We must reflect on the full range of possible outcomes; we cannot opt out of the potential consequences of actions taken by small numbers of our fellow humans. Until we have empirical evidence about alien technological civilizations, we can reason about them only by analogy with our own history and behaviour. Given that record, some degree of prudence is in order. To conduct this debate more rationally, we must free our thinking of excessively binary stereotypes.

Michaud, M.

351

“I Need to Talk About It”: A Qualitative Analysis of Trauma-Exposed Women’s Reasons for Treatment Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant proportion of individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder do not seek or receive effective treatment. Understanding the reasons why an individual chooses to seek treatment or prefers one treatment to another is a critical step to improve treatment seeking. To begin to understand these reasons, we conducted a qualitative analysis of the reasons women gave for choosing a

Frank N. Angelo; Helen E. Miller; Lori A. Zoellner; Norah C. Feeny

2008-01-01

352

Empowering Women Through Social Entrepreneurship: Case Study of a Women's Cooperative in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's cooperatives offer self?employment opportunities that can contribute to women's social inclusion and empowerment. This article seeks to broaden existing understandings of women's entrepreneurship by focusing on less studied types of ventures and contexts—namely, a social entrepreneurial venture in India. A case study analysis was used to assess two primary areas of interest: (1) elements of empowerment embedded in the

Punita Bhatt Datta; Robert Gailey

2012-01-01

353

Barriers to treatment for eating disorders among ethnically diverse women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined barriers to treatment in an ethnically diverse com- munity sample of women with eating disorders. Method: Participants were 61 women (22 Hispanics, 8 Asians, 12 Blacks, 19 Whites) with eating disorders. Diagnosis was determined using the Eating Disorder Examination. Treatment-seeking history, barriers to treatment seek- ing, ethnic identity, and acculturation were assessed. Results: Although 85% of

Fary M. Cachelin; Ramona Rebeck; Catherine Veisel; Ruth H. Striegel-Moore

2001-01-01

354

Health Issues Facing Black Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women

Reid, Inez Smith

355

Perceived Experiences of Discrimination in Health Care: A Barrier for Cancer Screening Among American Indian Women with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Purpose Breast and cervical cancer-mortality disparities are prominent among American Indian women. These disparities, in part, may result from patients perceived experiences of discrimination in health care. This report evaluates the impact of perceived discrimination on screening for breast and cervical cancer in a sample of 200 American Indian women with type 2 diabetes. Methods Data were collected from patient report and medical records. Prevalence of breast and cervical cancer screening were assessed. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between perceived discrimination, cancer screening status, and patients' health care-seeking behaviors. Findings Substantial proportions of AI women in our sample were behind the recommended schedules of screening for breast and cervical cancer. Adjusted estimates revealed that perceived discrimination was significantly associated with not being current for clinical breast examination and Pap test, and was close to statistical significance with not being current for mammography. The number of suboptimal health care-seeking behaviors increased with higher mean levels of perceived discrimination. Conclusions Among AI women, perceived discrimination in health care may negatively influence use of breast and cancer screening services, and health care-seeking behaviors. More research is needed among AIs to examine features of health care systems related to the phenomenon patients perceived experience of discrimination.

Gonzales, Kelly L.; Harding, Anna K.; Lambert, William E.; Fu, Rongwei; Henderson, William G.

2013-01-01

356

Comparative Profiles of Men and Women with Opioid Dependence: Results from a National Multisite Effectiveness Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Accumulating evidence indicates important gender differences in substance use disorders. Little is known, however, about gender differences and opioid use disorders. Objectives To compare demographic characteristics, substance use severity, and other associated areas of functioning (as measured by the Addiction Severity Index–Lite; ASI) among opioid-dependent men and women participating in a multisite effectiveness trial. Methods Participants were 892 adults screened for the National Institute on Drug Abuse’s (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN) investigation of the effectiveness of two buprenorphine tapering schedules. Results The majority of men and women tested positive for oxycodone (68% and 65%, respectively) and morphine (89% each). More women than men tested positive for amphetamines (4% vs. 1%, p<0.01), methamphetamine (11% vs. 4%, p<0.01) and phencyclidine (8% vs. 4%, p=0.02). More men than women tested positive for methadone (11% vs. 6%, p=0.05) and marijuana (22% vs. 15%, p=0.03). Craving for opioids was significantly higher among women (p<0.01). Men evidenced higher alcohol (p<0.01) and legal (p=0.04) ASI composite scores, whereas women had higher drug (p<0.01), employment (p<0.01), family (p<0.01), medical (p<0.01), and psychiatric (p<0.01) ASI composite scores. Women endorsed significantly more current and past medical problems. Conclusions Important gender differences in the clinical profiles of opioid-dependent individuals were observed with regard to substance use severity, craving, medical conditions, and impairment in associated areas of functioning. The findings enhance understanding of the characteristics of treatment-seeking men and women with opioid dependence, and may be useful in improving identification, prevention, and treatment efforts for this challenging and growing population.

Back, Sudie E.; Payne, Rebecca L.; Wahlquist, Amy Herrin; Carter, Rickey E.; Stroud, Zachary; Haynes, Louise; Hillhouse, Maureen; Brady, Kathleen T.; Ling, Walter

2011-01-01

357

Collaborative Research and Support of Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center DWH Research Program Projects. Gastrointestinal Lesions in Iron Deficient Premenopausal Women. Protocol 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Iron deficiency anemia is a very common occurrence in premenopausal women and is usually attributed to blood loss from menses, and not further evaluated. However, in the postmenopausal female, gastrointestinal lesions that account for the iron deficiency ...

R. L. Hayes S. Bennion J. E. Cremins T. Kepczyk

1995-01-01

358

[Coping behavior in women with miscarriage or spontaneous abortion and recurrent spontaneous abortion].  

PubMed

In a pilot study about medical, psychological and psychosocial factors in spontaneous and recurrent spontaneous abortions, coping strategies of 83 women were investigated and compared with a control group (n = 69). Two further subgroups were selected (31 women with recurrent spontaneous abortions and 30 without pregnancy complications). A modified form of a stress-investigation-scale (SVF from Janke et al.) was used. The results indicated that women with spontaneous abortions had increased depressive and lowered positive and cognitive coping modes. According to the hypothesis most psychological disturbances and depressive coping strategies were found in recurrent spontaneous abortions. In pregnancy depressive withdrawal, need of social support and information seeking was further increased, but emotional self-control lowered. A connection between psychological disturbances and negative coping strategies was shown. After pregnancy loss psychological support and building up positive and efficient coping strategies are therefore indicated. PMID:2678214

Läpple, M

1989-01-01

359

Acute Stress Increases Sex Differences in Risk Seeking in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task  

PubMed Central

Background Decisions involving risk often must be made under stressful circumstances. Research on behavioral and brain differences in stress responses suggest that stress might have different effects on risk taking in males and females. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, participants played a computer game designed to measure risk taking (the Balloon Analogue Risk Task) fifteen minutes after completing a stress challenge or control task. Stress increased risk taking among men but decreased it among women. Conclusions/Significance Acute stress amplifies sex differences in risk seeking; making women more risk avoidant and men more risk seeking. Evolutionary principles may explain these stress-induced sex differences in risk taking behavior.

Lighthall, Nichole R.; Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa A.

2009-01-01

360

Medical Tourism Abroad  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aimed to understand why people seek medical advice abroad given the trouble and expense this entails. The types of medical problems for which treatment abroad was sought, preferred destinations and satisfaction with the treatment were explored. A secondary aim was to give feedback to stakeholders in the health care system on how to handle this issue and meet the needs of the community. Methods: 45 patients who had recently travelled abroad for treatment were asked to complete a questionnaire or were interviewed by telephone. Results: 40 questionnaires were received. 68% of the respondents were male. Orthopaedic diseases were the most common conditions leading patients to seek treatment abroad. Thailand was the most popular destination followed by India (50% and 30% respectively). 85% of respondents went abroad for treatment only, 10% for treatment and tourism and 2.5% were healthy, but travelled abroad for a checkup. Interestingly, 15% of the participants went abroad without first seeking medical care locally. Out of those initially treated in Oman, 38.2% had no specific diagnosis and 38.2% had received treatment, but it was not effective. 73% of respondents obtained information on treatment abroad from a friend. The Internet and medical tourism offices were the least used sources of information. 15% of the patients experienced complications after their treatment abroad. Conclusion: Various facts about medical treatment abroad need to be disseminated to the public. This will necessitate greater effort in public health promotion and education.

Al-Hinai, Saleh S.; Al-Busaidi, Ahmed S.; Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim H.

2011-01-01

361

Comparison of outpatient health care utilization among returning women and men Veterans from Afghanistan and Iraq  

PubMed Central

Background The number of women serving in the United States military increased during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), leading to a subsequent surge in new women Veterans seeking health care services from the Veterans Administration (VA). The objective of this study was to examine gender differences among OEF/OIF Veterans in utilization of VA outpatient health care services. Methods Our retrospective cohort consisted of 1,620 OEF/OIF Veterans (240 women and 1380 men) who enrolled for outpatient healthcare at a single VA facility. We collected demographic data and information on military service and VA utilization from VA electronic medical records. To assess gender differences we used two models: use versus nonuse of services (logistic regression) and intensity of use among users (negative binomial regression). Results In our sample, women were more likely to be younger, single, and non-white than men. Women were more likely to utilize outpatient care services (odds ratio [OR] = 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.09, 1.98), but once care was initiated, frequency of visits over time (intensity) did not differ by gender (incident rate ratio [IRR] = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.27). Conclusion Recently discharged OEF/OIF women Veterans were more likely to seek VA health care than men Veterans. But the intensity of use was similar between women and men VA care users. As more women use VA health care, prospective studies exploring gender differences in types of services utilized, health outcomes, and factors associated with satisfaction will be required.

2010-01-01

362

Stigma and demographic correlates of help-seeking intentions in returning service members.  

PubMed

Many U.S. Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans return from deployment with posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, but few veterans seek psychological help. Research on barriers to care is growing, but the link between stigma and help-seeking is understudied. The present study examined anticipated enacted stigma from military and nonmilitary sources, self-stigma, PTS, perceived likelihood of deploying again, marital status, and history of mental health care engagement as correlates of help-seeking intentions from a mental health professional or medical doctor/advance practice registered nurse (MD/APRN) in a sample of 165 combat veterans. Using structural equation modeling, results demonstrated that self-stigma was negatively associated with help-seeking intentions from a mental health professional and MD/APRN with small-to-medium effect sizes. Being married was positively associated with help-seeking intentions from a mental health professional and MD/APRN with small effect sizes. History of previous mental health care engagement was positively associated with help-seeking intentions from a mental health professional with a medium effect size, but unrelated to help-seeking intentions from a MD/APRN. Anticipated enacted stigma from any source, PTS, and greater perceived likelihood of deploying again were unrelated to help-seeking intentions from a mental health professional and MD/APRN. Implications for interventions aimed at decreasing self-stigma and increasing intention to seek help are discussed. PMID:23335155

Blais, Rebecca K; Renshaw, Keith D

2013-02-01

363

Women Helping Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes effort of mental health center staff to implement non-traditional programming for women in situational life crises. Successes in the work have helped overcome some objections to special approaches to women. Projects have community interest and support, have answered many unmet needs of women, and have enhanced service delivery.…

Habib, Miriam; Landgraf, Barbara Joslin

1977-01-01

364

Medical student attitudes toward video games and related new media technologies in medical education  

PubMed Central

Background Studies in K-12 and college students show that their learning preferences have been strongly shaped by new media technologies like video games, virtual reality environments, the Internet, and social networks. However, there is no known research on medical students' game experiences or attitudes towards new media technologies in medical education. This investigation seeks to elucidate medical student experiences and attitudes, to see whether they warrant the development of new media teaching methods in medicine. Methods Medical students from two American universities participated. An anonymous, 30-item, cross-sectional survey addressed demographics, game play experience and attitudes on using new media technologies in medical education. Statistical analysis identified: 1) demographic characteristics; 2) differences between the two universities; 3) how video game play differs across gender, age, degree program and familiarity with computers; and 4) characteristics of students who play most frequently. Results 217 medical students participated. About half were female (53%). Respondents liked the idea of using technology to enhance healthcare education (98%), felt that education should make better use of new media technologies (96%), and believed that video games can have educational value (80%). A majority (77%) would use a multiplayer online healthcare simulation on their own time, provided that it helped them to accomplish an important goal. Men and women agreed that they were most inclined to use multiplayer simulations if they were fun (97%), and if they helped to develop skill in patient interactions (90%). However, there was significant gender dissonance over types of favorite games, the educational value of video games, and the desire to participate in games that realistically replicated the experience of clinical practice. Conclusions Overall, medical student respondents, including many who do not play video games, held highly favorable views about the use of video games and related new media technology in medical education. Significant gender differences in game play experience and attitudes may represent male video game design bias that stresses male cognitive aptitudes; medical educators hoping to create serious games that will appeal to both men and women must avoid this.

2010-01-01

365

Spoilt for choice? Cross-sectional study of care-seeking for health problems during pregnancy in Mumbai slums  

PubMed Central

This study considers care-seeking patterns for maternal morbidity in Mumbai's slums. Our objectives were to document women's self-reported symptoms and care-seeking, and to quantify their choice of health provider, care-seeking delays and referrals between providers. The hypothesis that care-seeking sites for maternal morbidity mirror those used for antenatal care was also tested. We analysed data for 10,754 births in 48 slum areas and interviewed mothers about their illnesses and care-seeking during pregnancy. Institutional care-seeking was high across the board (> 80%), and higher for ‘trigger’ symptoms suggestive of complications (>88%). Private-sector care was preferred, and increased with socio-economic status, although public providers also played an important role. Most women sought treatment at the same site they received their antenatal care, most were treated within 2 days, and less than 2% were referred to other providers. Our findings suggest that poor women in Mumbai recognise symptoms of obstetric complications and the need for health care. However, that more than 80% also sought care for minor conditions implies that the tendency to seek institutional care for serious conditions reflects a broader picture of care-seeking for all illnesses. The role of private health-care providers needs greater recognition, and further research is required on provider motivations and behaviour.

More, Neena Shah; Alcock, Glyn; Das, Sushmita; Bapat, Ujwala; Joshi, Wasundhara; Osrin, David

2010-01-01

366

Women's Law Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This information Web site, established and maintained by the Women's Law Initiative (WLI), is an online resource that provides legal information to women and girls living with or escaping domestic violence. Seeking to "empower women and girls to lead independent and productive lives, free from abuse," this site offers step-by-step instructions on filing for and obtaining restraining orders in all 50 US states and Washington, DC. Also, the site contains "plain language translations" of domestic violence statutes, as well as online links to counseling services, shelters, legal assistance, downloadable court documents, locations of courthouses and sheriffs' offices for filing forms and serving court papers, and legislation news regarding domestic violence. The site is not only a valuable resource for women who experience domestic abuse, but also a handy guide for the people who help them.

367

Using Women's Health Research to Develop Women Leaders in Academic Health Sciences: The National Centers of Excellence in Women's Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the number of women entering U.S. medical schools has risen substantially in the past 25 years, the number of women in leadership positions in academic medicine is dispropor- tionately small. The traditional pathway to academic leadership is through research. Women's health research is an ideal venue to fill the pipeline with talented women physicians and sci- entists who may

Molly Carnes; Gayla VandenBosche; Patricia K. Agatisa; Anne Hirshfield; Alice Dan; Joan L. F. Shaver; Donna Murasko; Margaret McLaughlin

2001-01-01

368

Predictors of health care seeking for irritable bowel syndrome: a population based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—It has been suggested that psychological factors rather than symptoms drive subjects with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) to seek medical care, but this issue has not been tackled in a population based study.Aim—To identify whether psychological factors or abuse explain health care seeking for IBS.Methods—A sample of residents of Penrith (a Sydney suburb representative of the Australian population) selected randomly

N J Talley; P M Boyce; M Jones

1997-01-01

369

What motivates senior clinicians to teach medical students?  

PubMed Central

Background This study was designed to assess the motivations of senior medical clinicians to teach medical students. This understanding could improve the recruitment and retention of important clinical teachers. Methods The study group was 101 senior medical clinicians registered on a teaching list for a medical school teaching hospital (The Canberra Hospital, ACT, Australia). Their motivations to teach medical students were assessed applying Q methodology. Results Of the 75 participants, 18 (24%) were female and 57 (76%) were male. The age distribution was as follows: 30–40 years = 16 participants (21.3%), 41–55 years = 46 participants (61.3%) and >55 years = 13 participants (17.3%). Most participants (n = 48, 64%) were staff specialists and 27 (36%) were visiting medical officers. Half of the participants were internists (n = 39, 52%), 12 (16%) were surgeons, and 24 (32%) were other sub-specialists. Of the 26 senior clinicians that did not participate, two were women; 15 were visiting medical officers and 11 were staff specialists; 16 were internists, 9 were surgeons and there was one other sub-specialist. The majority of these non-participating clinicians fell in the 41–55 year age group. The participating clinicians were moderately homogenous in their responses. Factor analysis produced 4 factors: one summarising positive motivations for teaching and three capturing impediments for teaching. The main factors influencing motivation to teach medical students were intrinsic issues such as altruism, intellectual satisfaction, personal skills and truth seeking. The reasons for not teaching included no strong involvement in course design, a heavy clinical load or feeling it was a waste of time. Conclusion This study provides some insights into factors that may be utilised in the design of teaching programs that meet teacher motivations and ultimately enhance the effectiveness of the medical teaching workforce.

Dahlstrom, Jane; Dorai-Raj, Anna; McGill, Darryl; Owen, Cathy; Tymms, Kathleen; Watson, D Ashley R

2005-01-01

370

Investigating Violence and Control Dyadically in a Help-Seeking Sample from Mozambique  

PubMed Central

A sample of 1442 women attending a Forensic Healthcare Service provided information on their own and their partners' use of controlling behaviors, partner violence, and sexual abuse, as well as their own experiences of childhood abuse. Using Johnson's typology, the relationships were categorized as Nonviolent, Intimate Terrorism, or Situational Couple Violence. Findings suggest that help-seeking women's experiences of intimate violence may be diverse, with their roles ranging from victim to perpetrator.

Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Zacarias, Antonio Eugenio; Soares, Joaquim J. F.

2012-01-01

371

Seeking Protection: Addressing Sexual and Domestic Violence in Tanzania's Refugee Camps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In September, Human Rights Watch posted five new reports on their Website. The first, Seeking Protection: Addressing Sexual and Domestic Violence in Tanzania's Refugee Camps, is a 151-page indictment of the United Nation's High Commission for Refugees and the Tanzanian host government's failure to address violence against Burundi women refugees in Tanzanian camps in a "timely and effective manner, despite ample evidence that women's lives were in danger in their homes and in the general camp community."

372

"I am nothing": experiences of loss among women suffering from severe birth injuries in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the increased attention on maternal mortality during recent decades, which has resulted in maternal health being defined as a Millennium Development Goal (MDG), the disability and suffering from obstetric fistula remains a neglected issue in global health. Continuous leaking of urine and the physical, emotional and social suffering associated with it, has a profound impact on women's quality of life. This study seeks to explore the physical, cultural and psychological dimensions of living with obstetric fistula, and demonstrate how these experiences shape the identities of women affected by the condition. Methods A cross-sectional study with qualitative and quantitative components was used to explore the experiences of Tanzanian women living with obstetric fistula and those of their husbands. The study was conducted at the Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania hospital in Dar es Salaam, Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, and Mpwapwa district, in Dodoma region. Conveniently selected samples of 16 women were interviewed, and 151 additional women responded to a questionnaire. In addition, 12 women affected by obstetric fistula and six husbands of these affected women participated in a focus group discussions. Data were analysed using content data analysis framework and statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 15 for Microsoft windows. Results The study revealed a deep sense of loss. Loss of body control, loss of the social roles as women and wives, loss of integration in social life, and loss of dignity and self-worth were located at the core of these experiences. Conclusion The women living with obstetric fistula experience a deep sense of loss that had negative impact on their identity and quality of life. Acknowledging affected women's real-life experiences is important in order to understand the occurrence and management of obstetric fistula, as well as prospects after treatment. This knowledge will help to improve women's sense of self-worth and maintain their identity as women, wives, friends and community members. Educational programmes to empower women socially and economically and counselling of families of women living with obstetric fistula may help these women receive medical and social support that is necessary.

2011-01-01

373

Chronic illness and health-seeking information on the Internet.  

PubMed

By using the theories of help-seeking behavior and health-information seeking, this article demonstrates the relationship between chronic illness, retrieving health information from the Internet and changing health behavior. Research on the impact of health information on the Internet and changing health behavior is fairly new, given the growth of the Internet in recent years. Using US data on Internet use within the US population, multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the relationships between chronic medical conditions and frequency of Internet use, as well as changes in health behavior due to frequency of Internet use. The findings suggest that it is not merely the presence of a particular chronic illness, but rather the total number of chronic conditions that determine Internet use. Also, the more frequently a person uses the Internet as a source of health information, the more likely they are to change their health behavior. PMID:17606698

Ayers, Stephanie L; Kronenfeld, Jennie Jacobs

2007-07-01

374

Women and medicine.  

PubMed

It is now clear that women doctors will soon make up the majority of the medical workforce. Research shows that women often prefer part time and flexible working, and are inclined to favour some specialist fields over others. Although these facts are widely known, as yet it appears that little account has been taken of their economic and organisational consequences. All doctors require sound careers advice, but women doctors reported that this is often poor or inconsistent. Women's preference for flexible working at certain stages of their careers could be a major advantage in health service planning; models need to be developed that recognise women's willingness to work in new ways. Although women are under-represented in positions of national leadership, there is no evidence to suggest that they are disadvantaged in their endeavours, or unwilling to deliver the commitment necessary. However, they may need timely advice and encouragement to reach their full potential. PMID:21413474

Dacre, Jane; Shepherd, Susan

2010-12-01

375

Attitudes of Oncologists, Oncology Nurses, and Patients from a Women's Clinic Regarding Medical Decision Making for Older and Younger Breast Cancer Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered Beisecker Locus of Authority in Decision Making: Breast Cancer survey to 67 oncologists, 94 oncology nurses, and 288 patients from women's clinic. All groups believed that physicians should have dominant role in decision making. Nurses felt that patients should have more input than patients or physicians felt they should. Physicians…

Beisecker, Analee E.; And Others

1994-01-01

376

Sperm morphological defects related to environment, lifestyle and medical history of 1001 male partners of pregnant women from four European cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recently, differences in semen quality have been found among the partners of pregnant women from four European cities: Turku, Copenhagen, Edinburgh and Paris. METHODS: During this study, slides from the four centres were subjected to a centralized assessment of sperm morphology. The percentages of sperm defects were recorded using a multiple-entry classification enabling the calculation of the multiple anomalies

J. Auger; F. Eustache; A. G. Andersen; D. S. Irvine; N. Jørgensen; N. E. Skakkebæk; J. Suominen; J. Toppari; M. Vierula; P. Jouannet

2001-01-01

377

Coping with uncertainty during healthcare-seeking in Lao PDR  

PubMed Central

Background Uncertainty is regarded as a central dimension in the experience of illness and in the processes of alleviating it. Few studies from resource-poor settings have investigated this and how it interacts with other factors. This study aims to shed light on how healthcare-seeking develops in the context of multiple medical alternatives and to understand what bearing uncertainty has on this process. Methods The study was conducted in six purposively selected rural communities in Lao PDR. In each community, two focus group discussions were held: first with mothers and then with fathers of children younger than five years old. Eleven in-depth interviews with caregivers of severely sick children were conducted. Subsequently, traditional healers, drug vendors, community health workers, nurses and medical doctors were recruited for interviews or group discussions. The data were transcribed and key themes and similarities were identified. Additional readings were conducted to better understand the interactions of factors during which uncertainty was identified as one of several factors mentioned during interviews and focus group discussions. Results Care-seekers expressed a strong preference for initially seeking local providers. Subsequently, multiple providers were consulted to increase the chances of recovery. This resulted in patients leaving the health facilities before recovery and in ending the recommended treatment regime prematurely. These healthcare-seeking decisions reflect the social significance of being a responsible caregiver and of showing respect for household norms. In general, healthcare-seeking was shrouded in uncertainty when it came to selecting the right provider, the likelihood of finding the real cause of the illness, spending savings on treatments and ultimately the likelihood of recovery. Conclusions Care-seekers’ initial strong preference for local providers irrespective of the providers’ legitimacy indicates the need for a robust primary healthcare system. Care-seekers’ subsequent consultations must be understood in the light of their uncertainty regarding the skills of the available providers. The social connotations of seeking healthcare including the vulnerability of poor households in public health facilities were taken into account to only a limited extent by health workers. Health workers should have greater awareness of the social and cultural aspects of seeking care.

2013-01-01

378

Latino parental help seeking for childhood ADHD.  

PubMed

To better understand the help seeking process that occurs within Latino families when a child is exhibiting behaviors consistent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), qualitative and quantitative data from 73 Latino parents were examined. Findings suggest that most Latino parents in the current sample recognized ADHD symptoms as concerning and in need of professional help and reported being motivated to seek help. Unfortunately, they also appeared to lack knowledge about the etiology of and effective treatment for ADHD, and many identified barriers to seeking help. Future research must involve community collaborations aimed at increasing awareness and knowledge of ADHD and decreasing barriers to seeking help in targeted Latino communities. PMID:23539223

Gerdes, Alyson C; Lawton, Kathryn E; Haack, Lauren M; Schneider, Brian W

2014-07-01

379

Performance seeking control program overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Performance Seeking Control (PSC) program evolved from a series of integrated propulsion-flight control research programs flown at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) on an F-15. The first of these was the Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) program and provided digital engine controls suitable for integration. The DEEC and digital electronic flight control system of the NASA F-15 were ideally suited for integrated controls research. The Advanced Engine Control System (ADECS) program proved that integrated engine and aircraft control could improve overall system performance. The objective of the PSC program was to advance the technology for a fully integrated propulsion flight control system. Whereas ADECS provided single variable control for an average engine, PSC controlled multiple propulsion system variables while adapting to the measured engine performance. PSC was developed as a model-based, adaptive control algorithm and included four optimization modes: minimum fuel flow at constant thrust, minimum turbine temperature at constant thrust, maximum thrust, and minimum thrust. Subsonic and supersonic flight testing were conducted at NASA Dryden covering the four PSC optimization modes and over the full throttle range. Flight testing of the PSC algorithm, conducted in a series of five flight test phases, has been concluded at NASA Dryden covering all four of the PSC optimization modes. Over a three year period and five flight test phases 72 research flights were conducted. The primary objective of flight testing was to exercise each PSC optimization mode and quantify the resulting performance improvements.

Orme, John S.

1995-01-01

380

Legal Implications Related to the Use of Noncognitive Measures in Medical School Admissions Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The number of qualified applicants seeking admission to medical school has increased substantially in recent years, with the result that medical schools have become increasingly selective. In choosing among such applicants, medical school admissions perso...

M. J. Gaffney D. M. Schember

1980-01-01

381

Attitudes and approaches to vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a focus group qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective The impact of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy and women's coping strategies were evaluated through international focus groups. Methods Three-hour focus groups of three to five postmenopausal women who had symptoms of vaginal atrophy but had not sought treatment were conducted in Canada, Sweden, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Participants were asked about their experience with menopause and vaginal atrophy, including use of non-prescription treatments and their interactions with health-care providers. Women were classified as one of five personality types, based on their interaction with the world (individualism or belonging) and strategies for coping with stress (control or liberation). Results Vaginal atrophy was not recognized as a medical condition by focus group participants, and women had not used treatments for vaginal atrophy apart from non-prescription lubricants. Women who had discussed vaginal atrophy symptoms with their doctor felt their concerns were dismissed as a normal part of aging, and they did not receive counseling about treatment options such as low-dose estrogen therapy. Those whose coping strategy involved dominance, combatting, or individualism were more likely to seek treatment than those whose strategy involved submission, acceptance, or belonging. Women who used control to cope with menopausal changes were more likely to respond to information validated by perceived experts than were those who used a strategy of release. Conclusions Women's reactions to their vaginal atrophy varied according to personality. Use of a personality-based approach to patient counseling may encourage patients to discuss vaginal atrophy with their health-care provider and seek treatment.

2014-01-01

382

The Association between Emotion Work Balance and Relationship Satisfaction of Couples Seeking Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotion work refers to efforts made to enhance emotional well being and provide emotional support in a relationship. Data were collected from 63 couples seeking therapy to determine the relation between emotion work balance and relationship satisfaction. Results indicate both men and women are most satisfied with their relationship when levels of…

Holm, Kristen E.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald J.; Cook, Alicia S.; Berger, Peggy S.

2001-01-01

383

Psychological Correlates of Help Seeking for Eating-Disorder Symptoms in Female College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the psychological correlates of treatment seeking for eating disorders in female college students. Results indicated that 56% of the 106 participants with eating-disorder symptomatology did not believe their behaviors warranted therapy. Women with eating-disorder symptoms who did not believe their behaviors warranted…

Meyer, Dinah F.

2005-01-01

384

An Evaluation of the SEEK Prefreshman Summer Program at Baruch College, 1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report evaluates the 1984 Search for Elevation, Education & Knowledge (SEEK) prefreshman summer program at Baruch College, City University of New York (CUNY), and describes its curriculum, staffing, recruitment of students, and objectives. Ninety-four students were enrolled: 73.4% were 18 or 19 years old; 73.0% were women; 90.4% were single;…

Tan, Norma

385

Help Seeking and Satisfaction among Latinas: The Roles of Setting, Ethnic Identity, and Therapeutic Alliance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored help seeking among primary Spanish speaking women of Hispanic origin who had behavioral health needs. We evaluated relational and cultural aspects of care and service utilization by using qualitative and quantitative measures of perceived behavioral health needs, therapeutic relationships, ethnic identity and degree of…

Paris, Manuel, Jr.; Anez, Luis M.; Bedregal, Luis E.; Andres-Hyman, Raquel C.; Davidson, Larry

2005-01-01

386

Seeking, delaying, and avoiding routine health care services: patient perspectives.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . To explore/identify patient perspectives regarding seeking, delaying, and avoiding health care services, particularly barriers and facilitators. Design . Face-to-face interviews with health plan survey respondents. Setting . An integrated health plan providing comprehensive care to 480,000 people in Oregon and Washington. Participants . Willing respondents randomly selected to maximize heterogeneity within the following strata: gender, health care utilization, and self-reported alcohol consumption (indicator of health practices). Participants were 75 men and 75 women (150 total), 21 to 64 years old, with ?12 months of health plan membership. Method . Participants were recruited by letter (52.5% agreed). Data collection stopped when planned interviews were completed; saturation (the point at which additional interviews were not producing novel information) was achieved for key study questions. Semi-structured interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded. Reviews of codes related to care seeking and feelings/attitudes about providers produced common themes. Results . Facilitators of care seeking included welcoming staff, collaborative relationships with providers, and education about the value of preventive care. Barriers included costs, time needed for appointments, and cumbersome processes. Some participants delayed procedures, some avoided care until absolutely necessary, others framed care as routinely necessary. Conclusion . Increasing comfort, improving appointment and visit-related processes, having positive patient-physician relationships, and enhancing communication and clinician-provided education may facilitate appropriate use of preventive services. Further research is needed with larger, representative samples to evaluate findings. PMID:23971522

Green, Carla A; Johnson, Kim M; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H

2014-01-01

387

A Cross-Sectional Study of Individuals Seeking Information on Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke Symptoms Online: A Target for Intervention?  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with TIA/stroke symptoms often do not seek urgent medical attention. We assessed the feasibility of identifying individuals searching for information on TIA/stroke symptoms online as a target for future interventions to encourage urgent evaluation and we evaluated the performance of a self-reported risk score to identify subjects with true TIA or stroke. Methodology/Principal Findings We placed online advertisements to target English-speaking adults in the United States searching for TIA/stroke-related keywords. After completing an online questionnaire, participants were telephoned by a vascular neurologist to assess the likelihood of TIA/stroke. We used logistic regression and the c-statistic to assess associations and model discrimination respectively. Over 122 days, 251 (1%) of 25,292 website visitors completed the online questionnaire and 175 were reached by telephone (mean age 58.5 years; 63% women) for follow-up. Of these participants, 37 (21%) had symptoms within 24 hours, 60 (34%) had not had a medical evaluation yet, and 68 (39%) had TIA/stroke. Applying a modified ABCD2 score yielded a c-statistic of 0.66, but 2 of 12 with a zero score had a TIA/stroke. Those with new symptoms were more likely to have TIA/stroke (OR 4.90, 95% CI 2.56?9.09). Conclusions/Significance Individuals with TIA/stroke that are seeking real-time information on symptoms online can be readily identified, in some cases before they have sought formal medical evaluation. Although a simple self-reported risk score was unable to identify a low-risk population in this selected group, this population may still present an attractive target for future interventions designed to encourage urgent medical evaluation.

Kim, Anthony S.; Poisson, Sharon N.; Easton, J. Donald; Johnston, S. Claiborne

2012-01-01

388

Rural African women and development.  

PubMed

70-90% of Africans still live in rural areas, and 25-30% of rural households are headed by women. Standards of living in rural areas are lower than in urban areas. Rural African women's involvement in development is in its initial stages, and social development for women is likely to be slow. Increasing women's opportunities for education is a means of promoting social justice and fairness. Schools should offer courses of practical value for those not planning on higher education and special programs and career counseling for gifted girls. Women's organizations, African leaders, and other influential parties should aggressively create awareness about the oppressive aspects of traditional attitudes, beliefs, and views about women. Laws on ownership of property, inheritance, access to credit, and employment must be equitable and enforced. Consciousness-raising among rural women is an effective means of encouraging rural women to seek and assume new roles and for questioning unreasonable expectations and norms. Women's professional associations serve important functions and fulfill the need for role models. The quality of rural women's life is effectively improved through formulation of policies relevant to women's needs and problems and improve rural conditions. Women should have fair representation at local and national levels of government. Women's role in agriculture is likely to be enhanced through improved transportation systems, electricity supply, and introduction of intermediate technology. This assessment of rural African women's contributions to economic growth emphasizes women's involvement in farming and the informal sector and their lack of equal remuneration or low wages. Illiteracy places women in a disadvantaged position when competing for employment in the formal sector. Lack of access to credit and limits on credit are other obstacles in the informal sector. The reduced participation of rural women in the formal and informal sector is due to lack of economic power, limited educational opportunities, and policies that place industry in urban areas. Social development that reduces illiteracy and poverty should be encouraged. PMID:12346826

Kabadaki, K

1994-01-01

389

Woman's work: Seeking identity through occupations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most adult women now hold full-time jobs outside the home, and the proportion is growing. While women's labor market experiences and successes have come closer to men's experiences and successes, their attachment to a labor market career, at least for married women, is not the compulsion that it is and has been for men. While many women have won the

A. R. Gini; Terry Sullivan

1988-01-01

390

Women's Health  

MedlinePLUS

Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

391

The Women Who Drive Library Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No matter their generation or library setting, the women who find technology and libraries a compelling combination share certain qualities. The women interviewed here are confident, skilled communicators and risktakers, people who seek challenges and prefer working in teams. They revel in new gadgetry, but they never forget it is all about a…

Miller, Eva

2007-01-01

392

Thoughts of Modern Women in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, the Women in Physics Group of the Institute of Physics initiated the Very Early Career Woman Physicist of the Year Award. The award seeks to recognise the outstanding achievements of women physicists who are embarking on a career in physics and to promote the career opportunities open to people with physics qualifications. The prize is…

Ainsbury, Liz; Heaney, Libby; Hodges, Vicki; Harkness, Laura; Russell, Laura

2011-01-01

393

Evaluation of women undergoing sterilisation reversal and subsequent pregnancy outcome.  

PubMed

A total of 114 women underwent sterilisation reversal operation by microsurgical technique at Regional Centre of Excellence (RCOE), RG Kar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata from August, 1998 to July, 2000, and follow-up was done for next two years. The commonest reason for seeking sterilisation reversal was death of male child which was 53.51%. Majority of women (50.88%) were between 25 and 30 years of age and 86.84% of women were of para 2 or less. Most of the women (59.65%) of reversal seeker had undergone prior laparoscopic sterilisation in comparison to sterilisation by minilaparotomy (40.35%). It is also seen that 50% of them had underwent sterilisation less than 3 years back. Commonest type of tubotubal anastomosis performed in this present study was isthmo-isthmic type which was 49.12%. Thirty-one patients were lost in follow-up and out of rest 83 cases, intra-uterine pregnancy was noted in 66.27%. Live birth was 45.78% delivered in the same institution, 8.43% of cases had spontaneous abortion and 3.61% of cases had ectopic pregnancy PMID:16910324

Biswas, Arati; Mondal, Asok

2006-04-01

394

Psychiatric­Medical Comorbidity The Psychiatric-Medical Comorbidity section will focus on the prevalence and impact of psychiatric disorders in patients with chronic medical illness as well as the prevalence and impact of medical disorders in patients with chronic psychiatric illness. Association between obesity and depression in middle-aged women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Evaluate the association between obesity and depression among middle-aged women. Methods: A total of 4641 female health plan enrollees aged 40-65 years completed a structured telephone interview including self-reported height and weight, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) assessment of depression; a brief measure of rate was 62%. Results: Prevalence of moderate or severe depression increased from 6.5% among those

Gregory E. Simon; Evette J. Ludman; Jennifer A. Linde; Belinda H. Operskalski; Laura Ichikawa; Paul Rohde; Emily A. Finch; Robert W. Jeffery

395

Delay in seeking help and onset of crisis among Al-Anon wives.  

PubMed

A survey of 123 Al-Anon wives in the Washington, D.C. area revealed that these women delayed an average of more than 7 years after the first occurrence of problem drinking before finally seeking help. The various drinking-related problems antecedent to the wives' seeking help clustered into four time periods composed of similar types of problems; (1) nonthreatening events, such as arrest, occurred 7 years prior to help seeking; (2) acts of physical violence, 5 years; (3) intervention by outside authorities, 3 years; and (4) recognition by significant others that the drinking was out of control, 2 years. The phenomenon of extended delay before recognition of the problem and help seeking is consistent with the paradigm developed from studies of mental patients and their families: pathological behavior becomes defined as a problem only after a long accumulation of bizarre episodes. PMID:517494

Gorman, J M; Rooney, J F

1979-01-01

396

Information Seeking and Avoiding in Health Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a research agenda that would provide a basis for proposing normative recommendations for information management in health contexts. Overviews information seeking and avoiding processes. Describes challenges and dilemmas faced by those who seek, avoid, and provide information. Offers research questions derived from a normative agenda for…

Brashers, Dale E.; Goldsmith, Daena J.; Hsieh, Elaine

2002-01-01

397

Students' Help Seeking during Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeking help with academic tasks has been regarded as an important strategy to enhance student learning (Newman, 1994; Ryan, Gheen, & Midgley, 1998; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1986). Seeking help is conceptualized as student-initiated efforts to secure task information or solicit advice when a deficiency in their understanding of the content…

Nye, Susan B.

2008-01-01

398

Information Seeking Behavior: An Introductory Examination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation of information seeking behavior focuses on three behaviors: (1) how people gather information in academic or work environments; (2) the sources they use; and (3) how their behavior relates to the library and its resources. This paper provides a review of the literature on information seeking from 1981 to 1986, a report on a…

Park, Betsy

399

Novelty Seeking in Adulthood: Increases Accompany Decline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using stereotypes, researchers have predicted that novelty seeking declines in adulthood. Through this cross-sectional study, the authors revealed that only the external sensational type of novelty seeking declined, whereas the internal sensational and internal and external cognitive types remained stable or increased. A population of 233 adults…

Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Choi, Namok

2004-01-01

400

Job-Seeking Behavior and Vocational Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that job-seeking behavior, as contrasted with the processes of vocational choice and work adjustment, has been neglected in theories of vocational development, the author identifies three job seeking behavior patterns: (1) individuals exhibiting specific goals and self actualized behavior obtain desired jobs most successfully; (2) those…

Stevens, Nancy D.

401

Seeking Ultimates. An Intuitive Guide to Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physics has the reputation of being a difficult and dry subject. Many books have been written in attempts to show that the difficulties are not insurmountable, even for the layman, and to convey some of the fascination it provides for those within it. In Seeking Ultimates Peter Landsberg avoids mathematics, the source of so many difficulties, entirely, and seeks to

Neil Brown

2000-01-01

402

Cambodian Women's Health Project  

Cancer.gov

Increasing the regular use of Pap testing by underserved populations has been identified as a national research priority. Southeast Asian immigrants to the United States have high rates of invasive cervical cancer and demonstrate low use of Pap testing compared to other groups. However, there is little information concerning the control of cancer in Southeast Asian populations. Harborview Medical Center and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center are working together on the Cambodian Women’s Health Project.

403

Young breast cancer patients with poorer financial status may experience delays in seeking care  

Cancer.gov

Researchers who sought to determine why breast cancers are more deadly in young women found that only a minority of young women experience long delays between the time they detect a breast abnormality and the time they receive a diagnosis, but delays in seeking care are more common in women with fewer financial resources. Findings of the study, conducted at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, are published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society.

404

Social Workers as Patient Navigators for Breast Cancer Survivors: What Do African-American Medically Underserved Women Think of This Idea?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patient navigation (PN) is a new initiative in health care aimed at reducing disparities by assisting patients in overcoming barriers within the health care system. As PN programs grow around the country, it is important to consult the key stakeholders in the development of these programs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to discuss the needs of medically underserved

Cindy Davis; Kathleen Darby; Wendy Likes; John Bell

<