Although intimate partner violence (IPV) may occur throughout a woman's life course, there has been a paucity of research on the experiences of victimization among midlife and older women. This article examines both the prevalence of IPV among a sample of women ages 50 to 64 (N = 620), who were recruited at an emergency department and primary care…
Sormanti, Mary; Shibusawa, Tazuko
Objectives Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Methods Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital, Sweden. Baseline assessments of mental health were carried out and followed up after six months. Results Thirty-nine percent of the women had developed PTSD at the six month assessment, and 47% suffered from moderate or severe depression. The major risk factors for PTSD were having been sexually assaulted by more than one person, suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD) shortly after the assault, having been exposed to several acts during the assault, having been injured, having co-morbid depression, and having a history of more than two earlier traumas. Further, ASD on its own was found to be a poor predictor of PTSD because of the substantial ceiling effect after sexual assaults. Conclusions Development of PTSD is common in the aftermath of sexual assaults. Increased risk of developing PTSD is caused by a combination of victim vulnerability and the extent of the dramatic nature of the current assault. By identifying those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD appropriate therapeutic resources can be directed. PMID:25340763
Tiihonen Moller, Anna; Backstrom, Torbjorn; Sondergaard, Hans Peter; Helstrom, Lotti
Studies have documented the construct validity of Bornstein and Languirand's (2003) Relationship Profile Test (RPT) in college students, psychotherapy patients, and nursing home residents, but no studies have examined the utility of RPT Destructive Overdependence (DO), Dysfunctional Detachment (DD), and Healthy Dependency (HD) scores in community samples. To fill this gap, we assessed links between RPT scores and theoretically related variables in low income urban women seeking medical services (N = 110), obtaining predicted links between RPT scores and scores on measures of childhood abuse and neglect, adult attachment style, conflict-resolution tactics involving a domestic partner, Axis I symptomatology, and overall quality of life. Comparison of RPT means in this sample with those in Bornstein et al.'s (2003) college student sample yielded differences that were generally in line with expectations. These results support the construct validity of RPT scores in urban women and suggest that the RPT may be a useful index of DO, DD, and HD in this heretofore unexamined population. PMID:19838903
Bornstein, Robert F; Porcerelli, John H; Huprich, Steven K; Markova, Tsveti
African American women continue to underutilize standard medical services that target women, such as prenatal care, mammography, and pap smears. Using grounded theory techniques, this study presents a critical approach to the health seeking behavior of African American women for obstetric\\/gynecologic services. ^ The primary explanatory variable used in this study for health seeking behavior is sexual socialization that women
Given the advantages of using the Web for health information-seeking and a survey result that women are more likely to use the Web as a channel to locate health information, the authors explored the health information-seeking process and behavior of women who use the Web to seek such information. Although based on previously collected data, this article represents an extension of the earlier analysis with its focus on women who, at least to some extent, seek health care information via The Web (herein, Web user), a topic not thoroughly addressed in the earlier study. A comparison of female Web users and non-Web users who seek health information revealed that Web users sought health information at a higher rate than non-Web users. Web users were more likely to communicate with medical professionals about the health information found and claimed that their decisions about health treatments were influenced by the health information. In most cases, Web users expressed a higher awareness of resources, regardless of format. Web users did not report that finding health information, from any channel, however, was noticeably easier. PMID:18030642
Warner, Dorothy; Procaccino, J Drew
Maternity services in many parts of the UK are providing care for asylum-seekers. These women are among the most vulnerable and socially excluded in our care, and in many instances they have fled from horrific circumstances to reach this country. In addition to the trauma and psychological effects of their experiences, many also have complex physical health needs. Women seeking asylum in the U.K. often begin to receive support late in their pregnancy and may have had no previous antenatal care. The problems they may face include poor general health, anaemia, high parity, closely-spaced pregnancies, HIV, hepatitis B and female genital mutilation. PMID:16734009
Harris, Madeleine; Humphries, Kate; Nabb, Judith
Ninety-seven women seeking rhytidectomy, blepharoplasty, or both completed two measurements of body image prior to their initial consultation. Results were compared with the normal scores for each of the measurements and with a sample of 32 women seeking rhinoplasty. Results indicated that women seeking rhytidectomy, blepharoplasty, or both to improve aging facial features reported a greater investment in and satisfaction
David B. Sarwer; Linton A. Whitaker; Thomas A. Wadden; Michael J. Pertschuk
In 1991, 4158 women from Ireland and 1766 from Northern Ireland traveled to England for abortions. This situation has been ignored by Irish authorities. The 1992 case of the 14-year old seeking an abortion in England finally caught legal attention. This study attempts to help define who these abortion seekers are. Questionnaires from 200 Irish abortion seeking women attending private Marie Stopes clinics in London and the British Pregnancy Advisory Services clinic in Liverpool between September 1988 and December 1990 were analyzed. Findings pertain to demographic characteristics, characteristics of first intercourse, family discussion of sexual activity, and contraceptive use. From this limited sample, it appears that Irish women are sexually reserved and without access to modern methods of birth control and abortion. Sex is associated with shame and guilt. 23% had intercourse before the age of 18 years and 42% after the age of 20. 76% were single and 16% were currently married. 95% were Catholic; 33% had been to church the preceding Sunday and 68% within the past month. Basic information about menstruation is also limited and procedures such as dilatation and curettage may be performed selectively. 28% of married women were uninformed about menstruation prior to its onset. Only 24% had been using birth control around the time of pregnancy. The reason for nonuse was frequently the unexpectedness of intercourse. 62% of adults and 66% of women believe in legalizing abortion in Ireland. British groups have tried to break through the abortion information ban by sending telephone numbers of abortion clinics to Irish firms for distribution to employees. On November 25, 1992, in the general election, there was approval of constitutional amendments guaranteeing the right to travel for abortions and to receive information on abortion access. The amendment to allow abortion to save the life of the mother was not accepted. PMID:1483530
The presence in the West of women physicians with degrees from regular medical schools spans a period of approximately 130 years. Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania graduated many of these early women physicians. The first woman medical graduate of a western school was Lucy M. Field Wanzer, who finished in 1876 at the Department of Medicine, University of California in San Francisco. Soon thereafter, schools that would become Stanford University and the Oregon Health Sciences University schools of medicine, as well as the newly founded University of Southern California, were contributing to the pool of women physicians. The University of Michigan Medical School, the first coeducational state medical school, also educated some of the western women physicians, who by 1910 numbered about 155. This regional account of the progress of women physicians as they strove to become an integral part of the profession emphasizes the familiar themes of altruism, ingenuity, and perseverance that characterized their efforts. Images PMID:3074578
Scully, A L
This article seeks to deepen understanding of the reasons that abused women in a resource-poor rural setting seek recourse so seldom and with so little success. Data from in-depth interviews and group discussions are used to explore the range of responses to domestic violence and to examine barriers to recourse seeking. Findings illustrate how the combination of poverty and gender inequality, inequities in the legal framework, and patriarchal attitudes and corruption in both formal and informal institutions at the local level discourage abused women from seeking recourse and decrease the likelihood of a favorable outcome when they do. PMID:18292373
Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Bates, Lisa M; Islam, Farzana
Despite social and governmental responses to battering, many women continue to feel entrapped in abusive relationships. Using standpoint epistemology, this article examines the various aspects of help seeking, and the social and institutional responses to such efforts, through the narratives of 19 women in a domestic violence shelter. The findings are discussed with reference to Ptacek's social entrapment perspective and Gondolf and Fisher's survivor hypothesis, illustrating the socioeconomic and political context of the control tactics utilized by abusers and the structural impediments to battered women's successful help seeking. PMID:17600305
Moe, Angela M
Little is known about the factors associated with the desire for labiaplasty. We compared 55 women seeking labiaplasty with 70 women in a comparison group who were not seeking labiaplasty. Measures administered included the Perception of Appearance and Competency Related Teasing Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Disgust Scale Revised, and the Genital Appearance Satisfaction scale with open-ended questions about their genitalia. Approximately a third of the labiaplasty group recalled specific negative comments in the past towards their labia, a proportion significantly greater than the three per cent in the comparison group. Participants reporting genital teasing also showed higher Genital Appearance Satisfaction scores than those who were not teased. However, women seeking labiaplasty were, compared to the comparison group, no more likely to have a history of neglect or abuse during childhood. There was no difference between the groups on disgust sensitivity or the perception of being teased in the past about their competence or appearance in general. PMID:24239491
Veale, David; Eshkevari, Ertimiss; Ellison, Nell; Costa, Ana; Robinson, Dudley; Kavouni, Angelica; Cardozo, Linda
Few studies of erectile dysfunction (ED) medications use among heterosexual drug using or abusing men have been conducted. The aims of this study were to provide information on ED medication use prevalence, method of acquisition, and sexual effects among men seeking substance abuse treatment. A single time point cross-sectional anonymous survey was completed by 297 men over the age of
Keith J. Horvath; Donald A. Calsyn; Christeine Terry; Ann Cotton
Background The working population is ageing, which will increase the number of workers with chronic health complaints, and, as a consequence, the number of workers seeking health care. It is very important to understand factors that influence medical care-seeking in order to control the costs. I will investigate which work characteristics independently attribute to later care-seeking in order to find possibilities to prevent unnecessary or inefficient care-seeking. Methods Data were collected in a longitudinal two-wave study (n?=?2305 workers). The outcome measures were visits (yes/no and frequency) to a general practitioner (GP), a physical therapist, a medical specialist and/or a mental health professional. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out separately for men and women for workers with health complaints. Results In the Dutch working population, personal, health, and work characteristics, but not sickness absence, were associated with later care-seeking. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the frequency of visits to the GP. Women experience more health complaints and seek health care more often than men. For women, experiencing a work handicap (health complaints that impede work performance) was the only work characteristic associated with more care-seeking (GP). For men, work characteristics that led to less care-seeking were social support by colleagues (GP frequency), high levels of decision latitude (GP frequency) and high levels of social support by the supervisor (medical specialist). Other work characteristics led to more care-seeking: high levels of engagement (GP), full time work (GP frequency) and experiencing a work handicap (physical therapist). Conclusions We can conclude that personal and health characteristics are most important when explaining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the frequency of visits to the GP. The association between work characteristics and later medical care-seeking differed between health care providers and between men and women. If we aim at reducing health care costs for workers by preventing unnecessary or inefficient care, it is important to reduce the number of workers that report that health complaints impede their work performance. The supervisor could provide more social support, closely monitor workload in combination with work pressure and decision latitude, and when possible help to adjust working conditions. Health care providers could reduce medical costs by taking the work relatedness of health complaints into account and act accordingly, by decreasing the time to referral and waiting lists, and by providing appropriate care and avoiding unnecessary or harmful care. PMID:22938384
Background. In previous studies, people's knowledge of reproductive health and infertile women's psychological states was surveyed in several countries. However, there has been limited information concerning the psychological states of infertile women seeking treatment and the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in China. Methods. Infertile women were asked to complete short questionnaires on the day that their oocytes were retrieved; these questionnaires covered the durations of their infertility, levels of education, sources of pressure, and psychological states. Data concerning IVF outcomes were provided by embryologists and clinicians. The correlations between the duration of infertility and educational level, psychological state and education level, and psychological state and outcome of IVF were analyzed in the cohort study. Results. The duration of infertility in more than half of the females was longer than 5 years. Compared with less-educated women, women with higher levels of education sought treatment earlier and their rates of depressive symptoms were lower. There is an association between negative emotions and outcome of IVF. Conclusions. The survey of the situations of infertile women seeking IVF treatment in China indicates the importance of popularizing knowledge concerning reproductive health. Improving medical conditions, reducing the costs of treatment, and developing social culture will aid in relieving the stress of infertile women and improving assisted reproductive treatment. PMID:24369006
Jin, Xuan; Wang, Gongxian; Liu, Sisun; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Fang; Qiu, Yun; Huang, Xiaojin
This study explored experiences of women with large breasts who were considering or had had breast reduction surgery. Open-ended questionnaires were returned via email from 32 women, 13 of whom were seeking breast reduction and 19 who had already undergone breast reduction surgery. Transcripts were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Themes arising from this analysis included physical symptoms, information,
Rhona Reardon; Sarah Grogan
Although previous research shows that adult women in intimate relations tend to enjoy better health than women without partners, this study finds the opposite tends to be true for late adolescent women. We followed a college entering class prospectively for 4 years and measured romantic involvement and various aspects of health and illness behavior in a questionnaire. Health service use was determined from the medical record, and disaggregated into distress and health maintenance visits, as well as visits expressly for psychological counseling. First year students who were romantically involved had more physical symptoms, more medical visits, but not more counseling visits, than non-involved women. At senior year, they continued to have more health maintenance, more counseling, but not more distress visits, and they tended to experience greater interference in social role performance due to illness when compared to non-involved women. When several mediators of the relationship between romantic involvement and health service use were controlled-number and intensity of physical symptoms, sexual activity, stress in the relationship, and social network characteristics--the differences persisted. Romance appears to motivate help-seeking among late adolescent women for reasons that are not easily explained empirically. Recent work on adolescent women's development offers theoretical leads that can guide future investigations. PMID:1807069
Riessman, C K; Whalen, M H; Frost, R O; Morgenthau, J E
A total of 289 abused women who sought assistance in several battered women's agencies were interviewed. Of these abused women, 70 percent reported a delay of more than a year in seeking help from the agency, even though many of them reported having experienced severe or life threatening abuse. There was no association between the severity of abuse and the time lapsed in seeking help from an agency, indicating that women exposed to severe, life-threatening physical abuse frequently delay help seeking. Increased attention to barrier to help seeking among battered women and approaches to increasing the accessibility of services for battered women seem warranted. PMID:1908586
Reidy, R; Von Korff, M
In total, 123 battered Korean women who used domestic violence agencies were asked where they had turned for assistance in response to intimate partner violence. This study examined the factors related to use of formal and informal resources by these women. Formal resources included police, medical, legal, and shelter; informal were family or neighbors. Findings revealed that (a) the women studied used a variety of resources and that (b) income, violence-related injuries, and partner child abuse were related to whether they contacted police. Injury and partner child abuse were related to contacting a medical doctor/medical facility. Income, relationship status, and partner child abuse were related to approaching family or neighbors. The key finding was that partner child abuse increased the likelihood of battered Korean women seeking help from formal service resources and informal networks. This suggests the need for integrative services that link women's and children's protective services in order to meet the needs of both victims and children. PMID:21156689
Kim, Jae Yop; Lee, Ji Hyeon
The review highlights traditionally important medical conditions for submariners along with the unique consequence of women's health care on the submarine. The information covered includes a review of the history of women in the military followed by a dis...
J. L. Kane, W. G. Horn
To determine the images of women in picture advertisements, a stratified random sample of 32 medical journals, representing approximately 12% of medical journals published in the United States that are directed toward physicians in clinical practice, was subjected to content analysis. The sample consists of 209 different ads. The subjects of the ads included men, women, and children representing a
Joellen W. Hawkins; Cynthia S. Aber
Gender differences among a cohort of injured patients seeking emergency medical services were examined with respect to their experiences as perpetrators and/or victims of domestic violence. Contextual issues, including violence initiation, emotional and behavioral responses to partner-initiated violence, and injury frequency and severity were analyzed. Women reported male partner-initiated violence more frequently than men reported female partner-initiated violence. Behavioral responses to partner initiated violence varied. Women were more likely to report using force back and to involve law enforcement. Women were more likely to be injured in a domestic assault over their lifetime, within the last year, and at the time of recruitment. Comparison of injury severity revealed that women reported higher rates of injuries than men in all possible severity categories. Women also reported experiencing more fear than men during partner-initiated violence, as well as being subjected to larger numbers of dominating and controlling behaviors, and greater intimidation secondary to their partner's size. Understanding contextual differences in partner violence for women and men has significant implications for policy development, identification, treatment, and referral of patients identified as living in violent relationships. PMID:16075666
Phelan, Mary Beth; Hamberger, L Kevin; Guse, Clare E; Edwards, Shauna; Walczak, Suzanne; Zosel, Amy
This study explores the perspectives of tuberculosis patients on which factors influenced their health seeking behaviour, with special reference to gender differentials in terms of delays in health seeking. In 1996, a multi-disciplinary research team carried out 16 focus group discussions. The study was done in four districts in Vietnam, both in the south and north of the country and in urban and rural areas. Qualitative analysis of data was performed following general principles of modified grounded theory technique. Participants in the focus groups described three main factors as contributing to delay in health seeking. These were fear of social isolation, economic constraints and inadequate staff attitudes and poor quality of health services. A model illustrating different factors influencing health seeking was elaborated and served as a basis for discussion of the findings. The main factor contributing to delay among women was described as fear of social isolation from the family or the community. Stigma was described as closely related to contextual factors such as gender-roles, socio-economic status and level of education and seemed to be mediated via denial and concealment of tuberculosis diagnosis and disease, thus causing delay. The main factor contributing to delay among men was described as fear of individual costs of diagnosis and treatment. Staff attitudes and quality of health service facilities were described as not always corresponding to people's expectations of appropriate health services. Women saw themselves and were seen by others as being more sensitive than men to poor service conditions and staff attitudes. A typical feature of the described health seeking behaviour of men was that they neglected symptoms until the disease reached a serious stage, by which time they tended to go directly to public health services without first visiting private health practitioners. Women, on the other hand, were described as having a tendency to seek out private services and practice self-medication before seeking care at public services. In conclusion, there is a need for better understanding of behavioural factors and for developing strategies, that take these into account. Health workers need to better understand gender and social aspects of tuberculosis control, particularly aspects that influence the likelihood for achieving equity in diagnosis and cure. PMID:10899643
Johansson, E; Long, N H; Diwan, V K; Winkvist, A
By the Banal edict of 28 June 1903, while the country was part of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy, women physicians in Croatia were granted permission to carry out medical practice. In the memory of that occasion a historical overview of the women's role in medical science and practice is presented. The evidence of women's medical skills dates back to 2500 BC in Ancient Egypt. The 11th and 12th centuries saw first women gain access to medical schools in Europe. Women doctors practiced mainly gynaecology, obstetrics, cosmetics, skin and eye diseases. It took another seven centuries for them to be treated as men's equals as far as medical training and permission to work were concerned. In the 18th and 19th centuries the number of female physicians greatly increased in Europe, USA, and Canada. In Croatia the first woman medical doctor was Milica Sviglin Cavov, who graduated from the Medical School in Zürich in 1893, but was not allowed to work in the home country. The first woman to practice medicine in Croatia was Karola Maier Milobar in 1906. The first woman to have graduated from the Medical School in Zagreb, capital of Croatia, following its opening in 1917, was Kornelija Sertic The paper concludes with a view of the present-day role of women in medical practice, education and science. PMID:16808102
Zuskin, Eugenija; Piasek, Martina; Piasek, Gustav; Sari?, Marko; Mustajbegovi?, Jadranka; Susec, Tanja
Background and Objectives : Domestic violence against women is highly prevalent but under reported issue having social, legal, health and economic implications. It needs to be identified and addressed in order to decrease the sufferings of women. Our objective was to find out prevalence, instigating factors and help seeking behavior of physical domestic violence against married women. Methods: A total of 378 married women who were attending Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Liaquat University Hospital from January 1, 2013 to March 31, 2013 for different obstetrical & gynaecological problems were randomly selected and interviewed. After informed consent, required information was collected on predesigned performa including demographic details, prevalence, instigating factors, help seeking behavior for physical domestic violence. Results: About 31% (120) of women reported lifetime physical domestic violence. Husbands and in-laws were perpetrators in 70% (84) and 30% (36) cases respectively. Wives being disobedient and making arguments were the most common instigating factors for violence followed by husband’s drug addiction, extra marital relationship and infertility. It was severe enough to require medical care in 24% (29) cases. Only 2% (2) women sought social and legal aid. Conclusion: Domestic violence was quite common among married women, however help seeking was minimal. There is need to identify and address this menace effectively. PMID:24639844
Bibi, Seema; Ashfaq, Sanober; Shaikh, Farhana; Qureshi, Pir Mohammad Ali
The current study aimed to examine formal and informal help-seeking responses to interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino women. In addition, an examination of help-seeking by victimization type was undertaken. Data came from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study that obtained help-seeking rates among a victimized…
Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schally, Jennifer L.
Urban, poor Filipino women tend to delay seeking care for tuberculosis (TB), which increases their risk for morbidity and mortality. We interviewed 13 women and conducted three focus group discussions to characterize their TB care seeking pathways and identify the barriers and facilitators that influence care seeking at multiple levels. The quality of health services, shame associated with TB, financial insecurity, and familial responsibilities hindered care seeking, while support from community health volunteers and family members encouraged it. Strategies to improve TB control should create social support systems and improve the quality of health services to promote timely care seeking. PMID:22150265
Hu, Alice; Loo, Evelyn; Winch, Peter J; Surkan, Pamela J
Most studies in the United States documenting immigrant women's experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) have not included the perspectives of abused immigrant African women. This study utilized a phenomenological approach to explore help-seeking barriers and factors impacting decisions to leave an abusive relationship among 15 immigrant African women. Results from the qualitative analysis indicated that the culture of gender
Laura Ting; Subadra Panchanadeswaran
This multimethod study explored women's information seeking behaviour and decision making regarding menopause, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) during menopause. This research was underway during the mass media release of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) estrogen–progestin trial results, allowing an examination of the impact of this news on women's decisions. There were two
C. Nadine Wathen
Objectives: The purpose of the study was to discover how women found out about uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Methods: The study retrospectively tracked women from the beginning of their illnesses and analyzed their information-seeking behaviors. Twenty-eight women who had the procedure at the Detroit Medical Center were interviewed using a standard script. Median values and frequencies were calculated to represent information needs, information sources, and perceived helpfulness. Spearman correlations were calculated to find relationships between demographics and information needs. Results: Although the women expressed a great need for almost all types of information (median = 5), those with higher levels of education indicated a greater need to know the reasons that their doctors had for suggesting treatments (r = 0.55). The gathered frequencies indicated that friends, magazines, television, and the Internet were important information sources. A preliminary model of information seeking showed that while friends, magazines, and television made several of the women aware of the new procedure, the Internet was heavily utilized for learning about treatment options. Conclusions: Health sciences librarians may inform women about their health and treatment options by guiding women to easily readable, authoritative, and reliable information sources, including Web information sites. PMID:17443249
This study aims to expand knowledge of partner abuse injury and help-seeking through a new source of data. We reviewed police reports during corresponding periods in 1996 and 1997 (n = 476). Complainants were injured in 17.4% of all incidents; 90% of those injured were women. Hispanics were more likely to be injured than non-Hispanics (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.0, 4.25). The likelihood of injury decreased with each year of increasing age (OR = 0.95; CI = 0.91, 0.99). Only 20.5% of those injured consented to medical care. Police reports provide information on partner abuse injury that supplements hospital surveillance and household surveys. PMID:10813264
Duncan, M M; Stayton, C D; Hall, C B
041 (a) 1-WH 06/2012 MEDICAL HISTORY--WOMEN'S HEALTH Page 1 of 1 MEDICAL HISTORY Â WOMEN'S HEALTH: _______________________ DOB: / / Mo. Day Year Please complete for your first Women's Health visit at University Health
We examined rates of help seeking for intimate partner violence (IPV) among recent (0–9 years in Canada) and nonrecent (10+ years in Canada) immigrant women. Data from a national, cross-sectional, telephone survey were used. Help-seeking variables included disclosure of IPV, reporting IPV to police, use of social services subsequent to IPV, and barriers to social service use. Recent immigrant women,
Ilene Hyman; Tonia Forte; Janice Du Mont; Sarah Romans; Marsha M. Cohen
This qualitative study retrospectively explored the help-seeking process in women with eating disorders. Interviews were conducted with 14 college-age women suffering from anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder NOS. Grounded theory was utilized to develop a preliminary model of the help-seeking process. Participants described a gradual shift from denial to increased awareness of self and the impact of the
Eva G. Schoen; Sharon Lee; Christine Skow; Stefanie T. Greenberg; Allison S. Bell; Joanna E. Wiese; Jessica Kelly Martens
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of health literacy, self-efficacy, and fetal health locus of control to health information-seeking in low-income pregnant women and the contribution from each factor alone or in combination to the variance in health information-seeking. This was a cross-sectional study of 143 English-speaking pregnant women who were recruited from a prenatal clinic
Carol Shieh; Marion E. Broome; Timothy E. Stump
This quasi-experimental study explored the association of perceived racism and seeking social support to vascular reactivity in a college sample of 110 Black women. Perceived racism and seeking social support were assessed via self-report, and vascular reactivity was measured before and during a standardized speaking task. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived racism was positively related to changes in systolic
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of health literacy, self-efficacy, and fetal health locus of control to health information-seeking in low-income pregnant women and the contribution from each factor alone or in combination to the variance in health information-seeking. This was a cross-sectional study of 143 English-speaking pregnant women who were recruited from a prenatal clinic and were 18 years of age or older in 2007-2008. Health literacy, self-efficacy, fetal health locus of control, and health information-seeking were measured using the Short Form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, the Health Information Competence Scale, the Fetal Health Locus of Control Scale, and the Pregnancy Health Information-Seeking Scale. Health literacy was not significantly correlated with health information-seeking. Self-efficacy (r = .33) and internal fetal health locus of control (r = .27) demonstrated significant correlations with health information-seeking, and together they accounted for 15% of the variance in health information-seeking. After controlling for covariates, self-efficacy (p = .0006) and internal fetal health locus of control (p = .03) remained significantly associated with health information-seeking. In conclusion, pregnant women's characteristics, such as self-efficacy and internal fetal health locus of control belief, are associated with their health information-seeking during pregnancy. PMID:20853218
Shieh, Carol; Broome, Marion E; Stump, Timothy E
We examined male partners' influence on the decision to seek medical help for infertility using the National Study of Fertility Barriers. Building upon an existing help-seeking framework, we incorporated characteristics of both partners from 219 heterosexual couples who had ever perceived a fertility problem. In logistic regression analyses, we…
Johnson, Katherine M.; Johnson, David R.
Ethical and legal implications arise both when seeking a second medical opinion and when providing one. There has been debate as to whether a second opinion for a patient is a right or a concession and whilst today most would consider it to be a patient’s right, there are nevertheless some disadvantages associated with seeking a second opinion. This article
Anthony Axon; Majid Hassan; Yaron Niv; Christoph Beglinger; Theodore Rokkas
Summary. — Based on a qualitative study contrasting a gender-relationally restrictive socio-cul- tural setting with a rather liberal one, we explain how social norms shape resource negotiation for women seeking modern healthcare. A system of ''protection and dependency'' covers them in principle for obviously serious illness, as far as household resources permit. In both settings, how- ever, women must have
Béatrice Nikièma; Slim Haddad; Louise Potvin
BACKGROUND: Infertility is a major reproductive health problem in Africa. This paper presents the findings of two studies which focus on the knowledge that infertile women have about fertility and the causes of infertility, their treatment-seeking behaviour and their expectations of an infertility clinic. METHODS: A total of 150 infertile women from a culturally diverse, urban community in South Africa
S. J. Dyer; N. Abrahams; M. Hoffman; Z. M. van der Spuy
The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of attachment insecurity in a clinical sample of 268 eating disordered women. Structural relationships among attachment insecurity, BMI, perceived pressure to diet, body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, and negative affect were assessed. A heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking women with a diagnosed eating disorder completed psychometric tests prior to
Giorgio A. Tasca; John Kowal; Louise Balfour; Kerri Ritchie; Barbara Virley; Hany Bissada
BETTY COFFEY AWARD The Women's and Gender Studies Committee seeks nominations for the 2013 to the elimination of persistent barriers to the success of women on campus. The award also honors the memory in which the candidate's work incorporates gender and feminist issues. Individuals who are nominated
BETTY COFFEY AWARD The Women's and Gender Studies Committee seeks nominations for the Betty Coffey of persistent barriers to the success of women on campus. The award also honors the memory of Betty Coffey incorporates gender and feminist issues. Individuals who are nominated for the award will be contacted later
Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring malignancy among women in India, however, the recorded stage distribution at presentation in India is less favorable than in Europe. Health beliefs are important in help-seeking for potential symptoms of disease, which may be particularly important among women who do not have access to breast screening programs. The purpose of this study was
Elizabeth A. Grunfeld; Neena Kohli
Objective: to identify whether women were made aware of stress incontinence around the time of childbirth, whether symptomatic women sought help from professionals caring for them at this time, to look at what help they receive in the first instance and to understand why some of those experiencing it chose not to seek help.Design: a qualitative survey was conducted using
Linda Mason; Sheila Glenn; Irene Walton; Carol Hughes
The authors explored the extent to which Asian American college women's perceived stigma about counseling mediated the relationship between their adherence to Asian cultural values and intentions to seek counseling, Participants, 201 Asian American college women (age range = 18-24 years), completed measures of Asian cultural values, perceived…
Miville, Marie L.; Constantine, Madonna G.
Delay deciding to abort and, consequently, increased risk of complication and death occurs significantly more often in black versus white women. This study is of 113 black and 179 white women aborted at Yale-New Haven Hospital and compares their decision to seek abortion, particularly differences in delay. Delay seeing a physician, deciding to abort, and suspecting pregnancy were, in rank
Michael B. Bracken; Stanislav V. Kasl
Women who seek medical care following sexual assault are usually evaluated and treated in an emergency department (ED). Therefore, EDs can be an important source of sexual assault surveillance data. The authors compared the incidence of sexual assault presenting for emergency care in a single county during July to November of 1974 and 1991.…
Magid, David J.; Houry, Debra; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Ziller, Andrew; Soules, Michael R.; Jenny, Carole
Objective: Body image dissatisfaction is common in treatment-seeking patients with obesity. We aimed to investigate the effects of obesity management on body image in patients with obesity attending Italian medical centers for weight loss programs.Research Methods and Procedures: A total of 473 obese patients seeking treatment in 13 Italian medical centers (80% females; age, 45.9 ± standard deviation 11.0 years;
Riccardo Dalle Grave; Massimo Cuzzolaro; Simona Calugi; Franco Tomasi; Flavia Temperilli; Giulio Marchesini
... the study published recently in the journal Health Psychology . "White, heterosexual women have apparently been the prime ... disparities in the U.S.," Blanchfield said. SOURCE: Health Psychology , news release, Aug. 18, 2014 HealthDay Copyright (c) ...
Objective: The authors examined the incidence of stalking victimization and subsequent help-seeking behaviors among college women. Participants and Methods: A stratified random sample of college women (N = 391) completed an anonymous Internet-based questionnaire in spring 2006. Results: One-fifth of women reported stalking victimization while enrolled at their current institution. Individuals known by victims, such as the following, were most
Eric R. Buhi; Heather Clayton; Heather Hepler Surrency
Obesity has been linked to a wide range of health problems. Evidence suggests that overweight and obese (OW/O) women avoid or delay seeking medical care and routine health screenings, a choice that may result in poorer overall health. The objective...
Late adolescent college women (N=578) were surveyed regarding eating disorders. Participants found to have eating disorders were younger and more likely to be white, in a sorority, and Christian. Additionally, they were most likely to say that they would prefer a close friend to support them when dealing with disordered eating, followed by their…
Prouty, Anne M.; Protinsky, Howard O.; Canady, Donna
This survey-based study examined the information-seeking behaviour of traditional medical practitioners using Taylor's information use model. Respondents comprised all 160 traditional medical practitioners that treat sickle cell anaemia. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. Frequency and percentage…
Olatokun, Wole Michael; Ajagbe, Enitan
The present paper describes a qualitative study of women who suffered domestic violence. The aim was to explore their experiences of seeking help from health professionals and assess their psychological health. Purposive sampling was used to select a subsample from a larger sample of women who were screened for domestic violence as part of a study undertaken at Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals in London, UK. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the subsample of women during the postpartum period (up to 14 months). Interviews were conducted in women's homes and general practitioners' (GPs) surgeries. The sample consisted of 10 women who had experienced domestic violence in the past 12 months (including the current pregnancy), and six women who had experienced domestic violence in the past 12 months but not the current pregnancy. The main outcome measures included: women's experiences of seeking help from health professionals; and assessment for postnatal depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychological distress. Women scored highly on measures of postnatal depression and PTSD. With regard to seeking help, there was a tendency for women to regard GPs, and accident and emergency staff as less helpful compared with health visitors in responding to domestic violence. Lack of privacy, continuity of care and time constraints were dominant themes which emerged from women's contacts with health professionals. Very few women voluntarily disclosed domestic violence to a health professional and even fewer were asked directly about domestic violence by one. It is important for health professionals to enquire about domestic violence in a sensitive manner and provide a response that takes into accounts the complexity of women's needs. Domestic violence training is necessary to equip health professionals with the knowledge and skills they need to respond to domestic violence more effectively. PMID:14629228
Bacchus, Loraine; Mezey, Gill; Bewley, Susan
A qualitative, pilot study employing in-depth ethno-graphic interviews was conducted to examine perceptions and attitudes towards abuse and the help-seeking behaviors of a sample of ten battered immigrant Mexican women. Findings indicated that participants' attitudes about seeking help were influenced more by cultural factors (e.g., gender-role expectations, famialism) than by psycho-social stres-sors (e.g., immigrant status, financial dependency). Children's welfare played
Martina J. Acevedo
Results from recent research point to the need to screen and assess for PTSD in medical as well as psychiatric patients, and to broaden the scope of assessment to include combat veterans of other recent wars, e.g., World War II and Korea. The present study was designed to obtain the following information: (1) the degree to which PTSD symptomatology is
Dudley David Blake; Terence M. Keane; Pamela R. Wine; Catherine Mora; Kathryn L. Taylor; Judith A. Lyons
This study explores the HIV health information-seeking behavior among Black women living in a southern urban city in the United States. Interviews were conducted with 50 Black women to explore their HIV health-seeking behavior, self-efficacy, and locus of control. Results indicate that despite the multiple HIV risk factors faced by the women a majority of them did not seek out HIV health information. Policy implications for HIV prevention education are discussed. PMID:25350895
Davis, Sarita K
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health concern with possible detrimental consequences for its victims. Studies have found prevalence rates of 15 to 71% for IPV. There is evidence that IPV exposed women perceive barriers to help-seeking and many remain undetected by care givers and authorities. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine IPV exposed women in relation to help-seeking versus non help-seeking from the social services or women’s shelters with regard to social and psychological characteristics as well as relationship with the perpetrator and type of violence exposure. Methods Two groups of Swedish IPV exposed women were included: non help-seekers (n?=?128) were recruited through ads in newspapers, while help-seekers (n?=?347) were recruited from four social service sites and twenty women’s shelters around Sweden. Participants were assessed with questionnaires regarding age, education, occupation and relation to the perpetrator as well as validated instruments measuring psychological distress, psychosocial functioning alcohol use and violence. Analyses were made using Chi2 and multivariate logistic regression. Results Help-seekers had significantly more often children together with the perpetrator than non help-seekers (64% and 29% respectively) and a high association was found in the fully adjusted model (Adj. OR?=?5.46 95% CI 2.99-9.97). Many women in both groups reported a poor social situation and high levels of psychological distress, although more psychological distress was associated with elevated odds for help-seeking (Adj. OR?=?2.83 95% CI 1.84-4.34). No differences were found between the groups regarding violence exposure and most women in both groups had experienced severe violence from an intimate partner (95% to 98%). Conclusions Results indicate a high problem load among women who had not contacted the social services or women’s shelters due to IPV, and that non help-seekers had similar experiences of severe IPV as help-seekers. This stresses a need to identify IPV exposed women outside specialized settings within the social services and women’s shelters. Asking about partner violence in various health and social care settings could be a feasible strategy to identify battered women and provide them with alternatives for help that ultimately could lead to a life without violence. PMID:24053735
Female Circumcision (FC) is "the total or partial cutting away of the female external genital organs." There are 3 types of FC: 1) Sunna where the foreskin of the clitoris is removed; 2) excision which involved removal of a part or all of the clitoris with a part or all of the labia minora; and 3) infibulation or pharaonic circumcision (the most severe type) which includes excision and removal of the labia majora only leaving a small hole to allow the exit of urine and menstrual fluid. FC carries the high risk of HIV infection because it is often practiced without anesthesia and with either a razor blade or a knife. The damages go beyond the physical--they include long-term side effects on women's physical and psychological health. The international battle against FC includes a series of legislative and political acts: 1) In 1946 the British Colonial government made one of the earliest efforts of its kind by making pharaonic circumcision in Sudan a felony and punishable by imprisonment; 2) In 1959 Egypt passed a law making circumcision illegal; 3) In 1977 the Special Committee of Non- Governmental Organizations on Human Rights of the United Nations in collaboration with WHO and UNICEF organized a sub-committee to investigate the status of women in 20 African countries and published a report; 4) In 1979 WHO held a conference in Sudan entitled "The Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children" whose outcomes were published in a report; 5) In 1980 WHO forbade the practice of FC; 6) In 1984 a Pan-African seminar was held in Dakar, Senegal that established the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Practices Affecting Women and Children (IAC); 7) In 1985 the UN Nairobi Conference on The Women's Decade passed resolutions against FC; 8) In 1988 the 39th Assembly of the WHO/Africa Region passed a resolution calling for the abolition of female sexual mutilation. Presidents of several African countries have condemned FC including Benin, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Senegal, Djibouti, Guinea Bissau and Mali. PMID:12316283
Ladjali, M; Toubia, N
Introduction and hypothesis To compare depressive symptoms in women with and without prolapse and evaluate impact on quality of life.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods This is a secondary analysis of a case–control study assessing the effect of prolapse on body image. Cases had prolapse and\\u000a sought surgery (Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification stage ?2). Controls had stage ?1. Subjects completed the Pelvic Floor\\u000a Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ),
Chiara Ghetti; Jerry L. Lowder; Rennique Ellison; M. A. Krohn; Pamela Moalli
Although many battered women seek help from their family physicians as outpatients, rates of current and lifetime victimization among outpatient female patients have not been well studied. This study tested two hypotheses regarding whether battered women presented to the clinic in a different manner than did nonbattered women. First, within the…
Hamberger, L. Kevin; Saunders, Daniel G.
A new study by Johns Hopkins researchers shows that obese white women may be less likely than normal-weight counterparts and African-Americans of any weight or gender to seek potentially lifesaving colon cancer screening tests. Results of this study follow the same Johns Hopkins group’s previous research suggesting that obese white women also are less likely to arrange for mammograms, which screen for breast cancer, and Pap smears, which search for early signs of cervical cancer.
Studies suggest that the experiences of unmarried young women seeking abortion in India differ from those of their married counterparts, but the evidence is limited. Research was undertaken among nulliparous young women aged 15–24 who had abortions at the clinics of a leading NGO in Bihar and Jharkhand. Over a 14-month period in 2007–08, 246 married and 549 unmarried young
Shireen J Jejeebhoy; Shveta Kalyanwala; AJ Francis Zavier; Rajesh Kumar; Nita Jha
The current study examined the influence of legal status and cultural variables (i.e., acculturation, gender role ideology\\u000a and religious coping) on the formal and informal help-seeking efforts of Latino women who experienced interpersonal victimization.\\u000a The sample was drawn from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) Study that surveyed 2,000 self-identified adult Latino\\u000a women. The random digit dial methodology employed in
Chiara Sabina; Carlos A. Cuevas; Jennifer L. Schally
Aims Objectives of this study are: 1) To examine the prevalence of healthcare seeking among black and white women with self-reported urinary incontinence (UI), 2) To investigate barriers to treatment for incontinence, and 3) To investigate commonly used therapeutic modalities for UI. Methods This is a planned secondary analysis of responses from 2812 black and white community-dwelling women living in southeastern Michigan, aged 35-64 years, who completed a telephone interview concerning UI, healthcare-seeking behaviors and management strategies. The study population was 571 subjects (278 black, 293 white) who self-identified as having urinary incontinence. Results Of these women with UI, 51% sought healthcare with no statistically significant difference between the two races (53% black, 50.6% white, p 0.64). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, a higher likelihood of seeking healthcare was associated with increased age, body mass index lower than 30 kg/m2, prior surgery for UI, having regular pelvic exams, having a doctor, and worsening severity of UI. There was no significant association between hypothesized barriers to care seeking and race. Almost 95% of the subjects identified lack of knowledge of available treatments as one barrier. Black and white women were similar in percentage use of medications and some self-care strategies, e.g., pad wearing and bathroom mapping, but black women were significantly more likely to restrict fluid intake than white women and marginally less likely to perform Kegels. Conclusions Black and white women seek healthcare for UI at similar, low rates. Improved patient-doctor relationships and public education may foster healthcare seeking behavior. PMID:21717504
Berger, MB; Patel, DA; Miller, JM; DeLancey, JO; Fenner, DE
The number of migrants arriving in Canada from non-European countries has grown significantly over the past three decades. How best to assist these escalating numbers of immigrant and refugee women to adapt to their new environment and to cope with postpartum depression (PPD) is a pressing issue for healthcare providers. Evidence has shown that immigrant and refugee women experience difficulties in accessing care and treatment for PPD. This qualitative study was conducted with 30 immigrant and refugee women using in-depth interviews to obtain information about the women's PPD experiences. The primary aim was to explore how cultural, social, political, historical and economic factors intersect with race, gender and class to influence the ways in which immigrant and refugee women seek help to manage PPD. Results reveal that immigrant and refugee women experience many complex gender-related challenges and facilitators in seeking equitable help for PPD treatment and prevention. We will demonstrate that (a) structural barriers and gender roles hinder women's ability to access necessary mental healthcare services and (b) insecure immigration status coupled with emotional and economic dependence may leave women vulnerable and disadvantaged in protecting themselves against PPD. PMID:22962942
O'Mahony, J M; Donnelly, T T
At an international conference in 1992 on women and health, an attempt was made to redefine health concerns for women of the English?speaking Caribbean in the 1990s. Medical practices in developing countries change as advances are made in public health; clinical issues on the islands now resemble those in the United States (e.g., hypertension, cancer, sexually transmitted diseases, domestic violence,
Objective: To investigate sexual violence and its impact on reproductive health in unmarried young women seeking abortion in China. Methods: A total of 2002 participants were surveyed by questionnaire, gynecologic examination, and laboratory tests for sexually transmitted disease (STD). Results: Overall, 14% of participants had experienced sexual violence and 43.4% were diagnosed with STD. Among victims of sexual abuse, 8.6%
Jiuling Wu; L?nhong Wang; Gengli Zhao; Xiaosong Zhang
Research with refugees and asylum seekers tends to be divided into research with adults or research with children under the age of 18. This is despite relational approaches to studying age that contest such dichotomous and fixed understandings of "life-stages". This article seeks to provide an insight into the experiences of young women who in…
This study examined associations between intimate partner aggression and physical health symptoms among a sample of help-seeking women experiencing relationship aggression (N = 388). Using a structural equation modeling framework, the authors found posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms to fully mediate the associations of both physical and psychological aggression with physical health symptoms. The influence of PTSD symptoms on physical
Casey T. Taft; Dawne S. Vogt; Mindy B. Mechanic; Patricia A. Resick
BACKGROUND: Existing questionnaires to assess barriers against consultation for urinary incontinence (UI) are not appropriate for use in the Middle East culture. The aim of this study was to explore barriers against seeking help for UI and introducing a questionnaire that assess these barriers among those women. This is important before proceeding to any educational programs or having interval clinical
Ahmed S. El-Azab; Omar M. Shaaban
Background Maternal complications are morbidities suffered during pregnancy through the postpartum period of 42 days. In Ethiopia, little is known about women's experience of complications and their care-seeking behavior. This study attempted to assess experiences related to obstetric complication and seeking assistance from a skilled provider among women who gave birth in the last 12 months preceding the study. Methods This study was a cross-sectional survey of women who gave birth within one year preceding the study regardless of their delivery place. The study was carried out in six selected districts in North Gondar Zone, Amhara Region. Data was collected house-to-house in 12 selected clusters (kebeles) using a pretested Amharic questionnaire. During the survey, 1,668 women were interviewed. Data entry was done using Epi Info version 3.5.3 and was exported to SPSS for analysis. Logistic regression was applied to control confounders. Results Out of the total sample, 476 women (28.5%, 95% CI: 26.4%, 30.7%) reported some kind of complication. The most common complications reported were; excessive bleeding and prolonged labor that occurred mostly at the time of delivery and postpartum period. Out of the total women who faced complications, 248 (52.1%, 95% CI: 47.6%, 56.6%) sought assistance from a skilled provider. Inability to judge the severity of morbidities, distance/transport problems, lack of money/cost considerations and use of traditional options at home were the major reasons for not seeking care from skilled providers. Belonging to a wealthier quintile, getting antenatal care from a skilled provider and agreement of a woman in planning for possible complications were significantly associated with seeking assistance from a skilled provider. Conclusion Nearly half of the women who faced complications did not use skilled providers at the time of obstetric complications. Cognitive, geographic, economic and cultural barriers were involved in not using skilled maternal care. PMID:23555915
Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Yalew, Alemayehu Worku; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun
Efforts to understand and support the process of help seeking by victims of intimate partner violence are of considerable urgency if we are to design systems and responses that are capable of actively and appropriately meeting the needs of victims. Using data from the New Zealand Violence Against Women Study, which drew from a representative general population sample of women
Janet L. Fanslow; Elizabeth M. Robinson
The objective of this study was to investigate the health-seeking practices of pregnant women in a periurban area in Cape Town, South Africa. This qualitative study was based on 103 minimally structured in-depth interviews of 32 pregnant women. Most women were interviewed on several occasions, and a group discussion was held with women. The interviews were taped, transcribed, analyzed ethnographically,
Naeemah Abrahams; Rachel Jewkes; Zodumo Mvo
Risky behaviors (e.g., binge drinking, drunk driving, risky sex) are increasing among U.S. college students, and the personality trait of sensation seeking provides a potential link between such norm-breaking behaviors and biological processes. We examined the relationship between sensation-seeking behaviors and two hormones, testosterone and cortisol, in male and female college students. Hormone levels were hypothesized to contribute to the variability of individual scores on Zuckerman's Sensation-Seeking Scale. As expected, males scored higher on the scale than females, but the data failed to support the generally accepted positive relationship between testosterone and sensation seeking for either sex. Instead, our results support the existence of a significant inverse relationship between cortisol and sensation seeking in men, but not in women, even after adjustment for testosterone levels and age. Our study contributes to the current literature by (a) supporting the association between risky behavior and a hormone other than testosterone, (b) being the first to examine the association between cortisol and sensation seeking in women, and (c) identifying a possible effect of gender on the association between hormones and sensation-seeking behaviors. Gendered social norms and expectations are likely to be partly responsible for this effect. Theory-guided interdisciplinary research is needed to improve understanding of the biological influences on human behavior, and special attention must be paid to social context, women's perceptions of their expected behavior, and gendered socialization regarding norm-breaking or risky behaviors, which may obscure biological links to female behavior. PMID:11673912
Rosenblitt, J C; Soler, H; Johnson, S E; Quadagno, D M
for the professional advancement (i.e. salary, rank, tenure, local and national recognition) of women facultyBylaws The Women's Faculty Council Medical College of Wisconsin Article I Name The name of this Society shall be Women's Faculty Council of the Medical College of Wisconsin. Article II Object Section 1
The Central Medical Library (CMK) at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, started to build a library Website that included a guide to library services and resources in 1997. The evaluation of Website usage plays an important role in its maintenance and development. Analyzing and exploring regularities in the visitors' behavior can be used to enhance the quality and facilitate delivery of information services, identify visitors' interests, and improve the server's performance. The analysis of the CMK Website users' navigational behavior was carried out by analyzing the Web server log files. These files contained information on all user accesses to the Website and provided a great opportunity to learn more about the behavior of visitors to the Website. The majority of the available tools for Web log file analysis provide a predefined set of reports showing the access count and the transferred bytes grouped along several dimensions. In addition to the reports mentioned above, the authors wanted to be able to perform interactive exploration and ad hoc analysis and discover trends in a user-friendly way. Because of that, we developed our own solution for exploring and analyzing the Web logs based on data warehousing and online analytical processing technologies. The analytical solution we developed proved successful, so it may find further application in the field of Web log file analysis. We will apply the findings of the analysis to restructuring the CMK Website. PMID:11999179
Rozic-Hristovsk, Anamarija; Hristovski, Dimitar; Todorovski, Ljupco
In total, 123 battered Korean women who used domestic violence agencies were asked where they had turned for assistance in response to intimate partner violence. This study examined the factors related to use of formal and informal resources by these women. Formal resources included police, medical, legal, and shelter; informal were family or…
Kim, Jae Yop; Lee, Ji Hyeon
Objectives: Quantitative review and categorization of available endocrinology related mobile apps for the iOS platform (Apple®) and outline of search strategies to identify appropriate mobile apps for this field. Methods: A total of 80 endocrinology related search terms were collected and grouped into 8 main categories covering different areas of endocrinology. These terms were then used to perform comprehensive searches in three categories of Apple’s app store, namely ‘Medicine’, ‘Health and Fitness’, and ‘Reference’. Results: Altogether, matches were found for only 33 of the 80 collected endocrinology related search terms; the majority of matches were found in the medical category, followed by matches for the health and fitness (27/33), and reference (16/33) categories. Restricting the search to these categories significantly helped in discriminating between health related apps and those having another purpose. The distribution of apps per category roughly matches what one can expect considering available data for incidence and prevalence of corresponding endocrinological conditions. Apps matching terms belonging to the spectrum of glucose homeostasis disorders are the most common. For conditions where patients do not have to constantly monitor their condition, apps tend to have a reference or educational character, while for conditions that require a high level of involvement from patients, there are proportionally more apps for self-management. With a single exception, the identified apps had not undergone regulation, and information about the data sources, professional backgrounds, and reliability of the content and integrated information sources was rare. Conclusions: While applying a good search strategy is important for finding apps for endocrinology related problems, users also need to consider whether the app they have found respects all necessary criteria regarding reliability, privacy and data protection before they place their trust in it. PMID:25152809
von Jan, Ute
This study examined the efficacy of a condensed version of the "Seeking Safety" intervention in the reduction of trauma-related symptoms and improved drug abstinence rates among women in residential chemical dependence treatment. One hundred and four women were randomly assigned to treatment including a condensed (six session) "Seeking Safety"…
Cash Ghee, Anna; Bolling, Lanny C.; Johnson, Candace S.
Maternal mortality remains one of the biggest public health challenges in Nepal. This paper explores the health seeking behavior, during pregnancy and child birth in certain ethnic group. The poverty, illiteracy, women's low status in the society, lack of access and difficult geographical terrain are major reasons for poor maternal health status in Nepal. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 Muslim women of ward # 7 of Biratnagar municipality. They were interviewed to understand their health seeking behavior during pregnancy and childbirth, factors associated with use of health services and their role in the family. Information's on usages of health services, education level, family stricture, and occupational status, information were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire. The overall institutional delivery in study population was found 24.5%. Low socio-economic status, Illiteracy and poverty in women are the major challenging features of pregnancy and child birth. PMID:23671962
Pokhrel, B R; Sharma, P; Bhatta, B; Bhandari, B; Jha, N
Over the past three decades, international covenants have been signed and countries have implemented strategies and legislation to address violence against women. Concurrently, strong evidence on the magnitude and impact of violence against women has emerged from around the world. Despite a growing understanding of factors that may influence women's vulnerability to violence and its effects, key questions about intervention options persist. Using evidence from a WHO household survey on domestic violence, our paper discusses women's help-seeking patterns and considers these findings in relation to Brazil's policies and strategies on violence against women. For the WHO survey, data from a large urban center (the city of São Paulo) and from a rural region (Zona da Mata Pernambucana [ZMP]) was collected. Findings from this survey indicate that in São Paulo, only 33.8% of women who experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) sought help from a formal service provider, including health, legal, social, or women's support services; in the Forest Zone of the State of Pernambuco, an even smaller proportion (17.1%) sought formal assistance. The majority of women were likely to contact only informal sources of support, such as family, friends, and neighbors. Women who used formal services were primarily those who experienced more severe levels of violence, were severely injured, had children who witnessed the violence, or whose work was disrupted by the violence. Although Brazil adopted progressive laws and national and local strategies to address violence against women (VAW), messages about violence and equality need to reach informal networks and the wider community in order to national anti-violence policies to be successful in supporting women before violence becomes intolerable.. To translate international standards and national policies into actions that genuinely reach women experiencing violence, states must carefully consider evidence on women's options and decision making. PMID:22773099
Kiss, Ligia; d'Oliveira, Ana Flavia Lucas; Zimmerman, Cathy; Heise, Lori; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Watts, Charlotte
Objective: To examine the factors that influenced African American men's medical help seeking. Method: Thematic analysis of 14 focus groups with 105 older, urban African American men. Results: African American men described normative expectations that they did not go to the doctor and that they were afraid to go, with little explanation. When they…
Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Gunter, Katie
This paper is based on a research on medical integration and health seeking in Mysore, South India. It explores the use of Ayurvedic services, the impact of biomedicine on Ayurvedic practices and the meaning of instruments with respect to the expectations of patients and healers. The research was done during 2002 and 2003. The empirical data are derived from interviews,
Discusses curriculum reform in medical education to ensure that women's health issues receive adequate attention. There has been remarkable progress in this area, but the reforms have not yet been translated into equitable care for women patients. (SLD)
Donoghue, Glenda D.
Marie E. Zakrzewska (1829-1902) is known among historians of women and medicine for her advocacy of the natural sciences at a time when most women physicians preferred to emphasize their nurturing qualities. This article suggests that Zakrzewska's views have been poorly understood because scholars have tried to position them along a fault line that divides femininity and sympathy from masculinity and science. It suggests instead that feminist scholarship on the "situatedness of gender" offers a more promising conceptual framework for understanding the diverse strategies women (and men) have utilized in trying to achieve their goals. Zakrzewska, unlike many of her colleagues, did not seek to empower feminine virtues as a way of justifying women's entry into the medical profession. Instead, she tried to reappropriate science for women and to use it as a weapon against the barriers designed to keep women out of the public sphere. She was fighting her own battle against the gendering of science. PMID:15301066
Tuchman, Arleen Marcia
This paper explores the magnitude of physical violence by husbands, the disclosure of it and the help-seeking behavior of abused women in urban and rural Bangladesh. The data come from a larger study on domestic violence against women conducted in Bangladesh during 2000-2004. All ever-married women covered by the population-based survey component (n=2702) conducted in 2001 were included in the current analysis. We also draw on in-depth interviews with 28 women who were physically abused by their husbands. Results show a high prevalence of lifetime physical spousal violence against women: 40% in urban and 42% in rural areas. Most of the abused women (66%) were silent about their experience. The main reasons behind this silence were high acceptance of violence, stigma and fear of greater harm. Sixty percent of urban and 51% of rural abused women never received any help from others. Only 2% ever sought help from institutional sources, from where support was not forthcoming. Women approached these sources only when they could not endure anymore or the violence became life threatening or children were at risk. The findings show that although providing appropriate services is absolutely necessary, it is also important to foster the use of such services and to help women overcome the barriers for accessing these services. PMID:16426717
Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Azim, Safia; Bhuiya, Abbas; Persson, Lars Ake
Objectives: To investigate the determinants of delay in seeking healthcare for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among Vietnamese women attending the National Institute of Dermatology and Venereology (NIDV), through assessing to what extent women’s sociodemographic backgrounds and their knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) relating to STIs\\/STI prevention influence their delay in seeking healthcare for STIs.Methods: A face-to-face semistructured interview of 60
Hien Thi Thu; Anna Ziersch; Gavin Hart
Physical injuries among battered women represent risks for both acute and long-term physical health functioning. The current study assessed the nature and extent of minor and severe injuries among a help-seeking sample of battered women. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess the unique roles of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking to the prediction of minor and severe injuries in battered women. Not unexpectedly, length of relationship abuse and severity of physical aggression were the most robust predictors of minor and severe physical injuries. Consistent with other research findings, psychological abuse and stalking, as a block, contributed uniquely to the prediction of severe injuries. Results are discussed in terms of implications for future research and intervention with battered women. PMID:18757347
Mechanic, Mindy B.; Weaver, Terri L.; Resick, Patricia A.
Purpose This qualitative study explored women’s experiences with counseling about medication-induced birth defects, as well as how and when they would like to receive information on medication-induced birth defects from their health care providers (HCPs). Methods We conducted 4 focus groups with 36 women of reproductive age (18–45 years) in Pittsburgh, PA. Twenty-one women were using medications to treat a chronic health condition, and two were pregnant. Content analysis was performed by 3 independent coders using a Grounded Theory Approach. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Results Women reported depending on their HCPs for information about the risks of teratogenic effects of medications on a pregnancy, but felt the information they had been provided was not always comprehensive. Women want HCPs to initiate discussions about potentially teratogenic medications at the time the medications are prescribed, regardless of whether the woman is sexually active or planning a pregnancy. Women want clear information about all potential outcomes for a fetus. Factors women reported as being critical to effective teratogenic risk counseling included privacy, sufficient time to discuss the topic, and a trusting relationship with their HCP. Conclusions Women of reproductive age feel provision of information about the possible teratogenic effects of medications could be improved by routine discussions of teratogenic risks at the time medications are prescribed. PMID:19637252
Santucci, Aimee K.; Gold, Melanie A.; Akers, Aletha Y.; Borrero, Sonya; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla
Legal redress can play a critical role in interrupting the pattern of domination and control inherent in intimate partner violence (IPV), yet it remains an infrequent strategy among battered women. The current study employed a contextual framework for investigating the correlates for engagement in the criminal justice system for a sample of 227 sheltered battered women. Results indicated that individual, relational, and system-level factors were all associated with two legal help-seeking behaviors: having a civil protection order and criminal prosecution. In particular, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology, social support, and prior experience with police officers were significant correlates for legal help-seeking. Results highlight the need for a coordinated community response to IPV, addressing both legal needs and psychological needs simultaneously. PMID:20055214
Wright, Caroline Vaile; Johnson, Dawn M.
Background: Medical school has historically reinforced traditional views of women. This cohort study follows implementation of a revitalized curriculum and examines students' attitudes toward women on entry into an Ontario med- ical school, and 3 years later. Methods: Of the 75 students entering first year at Queen's University medical school 70 completed the initial survey in September 1994 and 54
Susan P. Phillips; Karen E. Ferguson
Background Illicit substance use and abuse may be an important contributor to behavioral health problems of lesbian and bisexual women. This paper describes the nature and extent of self-reported illicit and licit drug use, associated severity, and substance use-related help-seeking behaviors in an urban/metropolitan community sample of sexual minority women in California. Methods Self-administered questionnaire data from 2011 lesbian and bisexual women recruited through multiple strategies were used. Multiple logistic regression was employed to describe patterns of reported drug use and to compare lifetime severity of drug use with demographic characteristics, recent drug use, indicators of current social and emotional problems, and help-seeking behaviors. Results Drug use, especially marijuana (33% used in the past year), was fairly common. Overall, 16.2% of the women in the study reported lifetime drug use that was associated with self-reported severity of substance use, and another 10.8% indicated moderate-risk use. Extent of lifetime drug use was positively correlated with self-reported recent drug use as well as current life problems. Of the respondents who evidenced more problematic drug use, 41.5% indicated that they had received professional help for a substance use problem, and 16.3% wanted but had not received such help. Conclusions The women in this study reported elevated rates of illicit drug use that was frequently associated with impairment and specific life problems. A significant proportion wanted and had not received professional treatment for their drug use problems. Future studies that examine pathways by which lesbians and bisexual women can obtain referrals and treatment for substance use problems are needed. PMID:16796483
CORLISS, HEATHER L.; GRELLA, CHRISTINE E.; MAYS, VICKIE M.; COCHRAN, SUSAN D.
Efforts to understand and support the process of help seeking by victims of intimate partner violence are of considerable urgency if we are to design systems and responses that are capable of actively and appropriately meeting the needs of victims. Using data from the New Zealand Violence Against Women Study, which drew from a representative…
Fanslow, Janet L.; Robinson, Elizabeth M.
This study was designed to examine the relationships of sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking with HIV sexual risk behavior in 257 young urban women. Interviews were conducted using Audio Computer- Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking explained 18.3% of the variance in sexual risk behavior. Although sexual imposition was
Low rates of breast and cervical cancer screening among Hmong women have been documented. Mistrust of Western medicine and the health care system, as well as experiences of discrimination in health care, may be barriers to seeking health care for this population. In this study, we explored medical mistrust among Hmong women and men, their experiences with discrimination in health care, and how these factors may influence Hmong women’s breast and cervical cancer screening behavior. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with women and men who were members of the Hmong community in Oregon. Transcripts of 83 interviews were analyzed using content analysis. Despite personally trusting Western medicine and the health care system, participants shared reasons that some Hmong people feel mistrust including lack of understanding or familiarity, culture, and tradition. Although mistrust was thought to result in delaying or avoiding breast or cervical cancer screening, more frequently trust was described as positively influencing screening. In addition, few participants reported being treated differently during breast or cervical cancer screening because they were Hmong. When discussing health care more broadly, however, some participants described differential (e.g., disrespectful or rude) treatment. Such experiences led to feelings such as anger and sadness and affected behavior, including willingness to seek care and choice of provider. Medical mistrust and perceived discrimination were not major barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening in this study. Additional studies are needed to assess whether our findings reflect the experiences of other Hmong. PMID:22116737
Thorburn, Sheryl; Kue, Jennifer; Keon, Karen Levy; Lo, Patela
High levels of stress and depression in medical students is raising concern. In this study, we sought to identify coping strategies and other factors influencing academic stress in medical students. We enrolled 157 students from the University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Korea, in November, 2010. We used the Medical Stress Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Coping Response Inventory to assess psychological parameters. We used Pearson's correlation and linear regression analyses to analyze the data. Novelty-seeking, self-directedness, cooperativeness, coping strategy, and depression scale scores all correlated significantly with stress level. Linear regression analysis indicated that students who are novelty-seeking, likely to use avoidant coping strategies, and unlikely to use active-cognitive and active-behavioral strategies tend to have higher stress levels. Reduction of stress in medical students may be achieved through evaluation of coping strategies and personality features and use of interventions to promote active coping strategies. PMID:22901439
An, Hoyoung; Chung, Seockhoon; Park, Jangho; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, Ki-Soo
Background Immigration and asylum seeking has been an important social and political phenomenon in Ireland since the mid 1990s. Inward migration to Ireland was seen in unprecedented numbers from 1995 onward, peaking in 2002 with 11,634 applications for refugee status. Asylum and immigration is an issue of national and international relevance as the numbers of displaced people worldwide continues to grow, reaching the highest level in 20 years at 45.2 million in 2012. Midwives provide the majority of care to childbearing women around the world, whether working as autonomous practitioners or under the direction of an obstetrician. Limited data currently exist on the perspectives of midwives who provide care to childbearing women while they are in the process of seeking asylum. Such data are important to midwifery leaders, educators, and policy-makers. The aims of this study were to explore midwives’ perceptions and experiences of providing care to women in the asylum process and to gain insight into how midwives can be equipped and supported to provide more effective care to this group in the future. Methods Data were collected via indepth unstructured interviews with a purposive sample of ten midwives from two sites, one a large urban inner city hospital, and the second, a smaller more rural maternity hospital. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Results Five themes emerged from the data, barriers to communication, understanding cultural difference, challenges of caring for women who were unbooked, the emotional cost of caring, and structural barriers to effective care. Conclusion Findings highlight a need to focus on support and education for midwives, improved maternity services for immigrant women, and urgent policy revision. PMID:24516340
Tobin, Carolyn L; Murphy-Lawless, Jo
The purposes of this research were to examine medical education accreditation practices around the world, with special focus on the Caribbean, and to explore the association between medical school accreditation and graduates' examination performance. In addition to other requirements, graduates of international medical schools seeking to…
van Zanten, Marta; Boulet, John R.
Objective Little is known about how older African American women define family violence (FV) and what FV survivors might expect from their healthcare providers. The purpose of this study was to understand how these women define FV, where they seek help for FV, and what barriers they face in these efforts. Methods We conducted 6 focus groups with 30 African American women over the age of 50, including some FV survivors, at a large, inner-city public hospital. Results Participants defined FV broadly, citing examples of abuse (physical, sexual, emotional and financial) and neglect. Spiritual sources were cited over physicians as being available to help FV survivors. Barriers to receiving assistance included negative encounters with physicians, lack of trust in the system and dearth of age-appropriate resources. Conclusions For older African American women, FV takes many forms of which many may not be obvious during the clinical encounter. Like younger FV survivors, they expect physicians to serve as a resource for FV. Practice implications Physicians caring for older African American women need to remember to ask them about FV, and when making referrals for abuse and neglect, consider offering referrals to pastoral care if appropriate. PMID:17644300
Paranjape, Anuradha; Tucker, Alyce; Mckenzie-Mack, LaTasha; Thompson, Nancy; Kaslow, Nadine
Growing evidence suggests intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance misuse are co-occurring problems that disproportionately affect low income urban women seeking care in emergency departments (EDs) and represent leading causes of injuries that result in ED visits. This paper examines temporal bidirectional associations between different types of drug and alcohol use and different types of IPV in a longitudinal study of a representative sample of 241 low-income urban women receiving emergency care from an ED in the Bronx, New York. After adjusting and matching for sociodemographics and potentially confounding multilevel risk and protective covariates, women who reported using heroin in the prior 6 months at Wave 1 were twice as likely as nonheroin-using women to indicate any physical, injurious, or sexual IPV at subsequent waves and were 2.7 times more likely to indicate experiencing an injury from IPV at subsequent waves. Crack or cocaine use in the past 6 months at Wave 1 was associated with an increased likelihood of injurious IPV and severe verbal abuse at subsequent waves. Findings also suggested that sexual IPV was significantly associated with subsequent use of crack or cocaine. The multiple bidirectional associations found linking these problems underscore the need for conducting routine screening for IPV and substance misuse among women in low-income urban EDs, and for improving linkages to services that will ultimately reduce the risk of morbidity, disability, and mortality related to these co-occurring problems. PMID:22023020
Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Roy, Lolita
The authors examined online support group members' reliance on their Internet community and other online and offline health resources as they prepare for a scheduled medical appointment. Adult members of an online support group (N = 505) with an upcoming medical appointment completed an online questionnaire that included measures of illness perceptions, control preference, trust in the physician, and eHealth literacy; a checklist of actions one could take to acquire health information; and demographic questions. A factor analysis identified 4 types of information seeking: reliance on the online support group, use of other online health resources, use of offline health resources, and personal network contacts. Previsit information seeking on the Internet was extensive and typically augmented with offline information. Use of online health resources was highest among those who believed they had control over their illness, who attributed many symptoms and negative emotions to it, and who were more eHealth literate. Reliance on the online support group was highest among those who believed they had personal control over their illness, expected their condition to persist, and attributed negative emotions to it. Trust in the physician and preferences for involvement in decision making were unrelated to online information seeking. Most respondents intended to ask their physician questions and request clinical resources based on online information. PMID:22574697
Hu, Xinyi; Bell, Robert A; Kravitz, Richard L; Orrange, Sharon
Objective To test the association between delays in utilization of conventional medical care and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization. Data Source The 2007 National Health Interview Survey, a cross-sectional nationally representative study of adults aged 18 years and older. Study Design Using zero-inflated regression models, delays in utilizing conventional care due to organizational inaccessibility are examined to determine whether delays are associated with both the decision to try CAM and the number of CAM types used. Principal Findings Individuals have significantly higher odds using provider-based CAM types if they delayed seeking conventional care due to organizational inaccessibility (OR = 1.63). Individuals use significantly more types of both provider-based (IRR = 1.35) and non-provider-based (IRR = 1.49) CAM if they delayed seeking conventional care due to organizational inaccessibility. Conclusion Individuals who delay seeking conventional medical care are more likely to use CAM and use more types of CAM. The current structure of the conventional health care system may have created barriers that can make conventional health care inaccessible. Individuals who face these barriers appear to be pushed not only into trying CAM but using a greater number of CAM types, a finding not in previous research. PMID:22985034
Ayers, Stephanie L; Kronenfeld, Jennie J
The study's (n = 447) purposes were to (1) describe relationships of abuser behavior to elder women's perception of barriers to help-seeking; (2) compare fit of model to participants' levels of abuse, race-ethnicity, age, and gender and relationship of identified close other; and (3) determine extent to which the model differentiated relationship of abuser to participant and level of abuse. Analyses identified six factors contributing to the overall barrier score, accounting for 84% of total variance (?2/df = 1.527, CFI = .989, RMSEA = .034), including three internal and two external factors and a single abuser behavior factor that were invariant across participant characteristic; however, covariances did differ. PMID:23627428
Newman, Frederick L; Seff, Laura R; Beaulaurier, Richard L; Palmer, Richard C
The aims of this study were to (1) assess the level of depression among women seeking cancer genetic counseling and risk assessment and to (2) identify and describe the demographic, health history, and health behavior correlates of clinically significant depression. Participants were 280 women presenting for an intake appointment at a university cancer risk clinic. During intake, participants completed questionnaires
Molly Middlecamp Kodl; Judith W. Lee; Alicia K. Matthews; Shelly A. Cummings; Olufunmilayo I. Olopade
The authors of the present study contribute to research on the role of sexist events in women's mental health by examining the sexism-distress relation (a) with a sample of women who are seeking mental health services and (b) in the context of the additional roles of perceived social support in positive self-appraisal (i.e., empowerment and…
Moradi, Bonnie; Funderburk, Jamie R.
This study explores why South Asian immigrant women with experiences of partner abuse delay seeking help from professionals. Three focus groups were conducted in Hindi language with South Asian immigrant women in Toronto. Twenty-two women participated with a mean age of 46 years (range 29-68 years). Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed data using constant comparison techniques within and across the groups. We found that three major themes emerged from the discussions: reasons for delayed help-seeking, turning points and talking to professionals. Women expressed delaying help-seeking to the point when "Pani sar se guzar jata he" (water crosses over your head). Their dominant reasons for delayed help-seeking were social stigma, rigid gender roles, marriage obligations, expected silence, loss of social support after migration and limited knowledge about available resources and myths about partner abuse. Women usually turned for help only after experiencing pronounced mental and physical health problems. The findings are interpreted in light of participants' immigration context and the socio-cultural norms of patriarchy, collectivism and familism. Prevention approaches to address partner abuse and delayed help-seeking among South Asian immigrant women should include tailored community education, social services to reduce vulnerability, and cultural competency of professionals. Further research and program evaluation is needed to advance the field. PMID:19576669
Ahmad, Farah; Driver, Natasha; McNally, Mary Jane; Stewart, Donna E
This study uses National Violence against Women Survey data to investigate the differential impact of concomitant forms of violence (sexual abuse, stalking, and psychological abuse) and ethnicity on help-seeking behaviors of women physically abused by an intimate partner (n = 1,756). Controlling for severity of the physical abuse, women who experienced concomitant sexual abuse are less likely to seek help, women who experienced concomitant stalking are more likely to seek help, whereas concomitant psychological abuse is not associated with help seeking. Ethnic differences are found in help seeking from friends, mental health professionals, police, and orders of protection. Implications for service outreach are discussed. PMID:21821618
Flicker, Sharon M; Cerulli, Catherine; Zhao, Xi; Tang, Wan; Watts, Arthur; Xia, Yinglin; Talbot, Nancy L
This study uses National Violence against Women Survey data to investigate the differential impact of concomitant forms of violence (sexual abuse, stalking, and psychological abuse) and ethnicity on help-seeking behaviors of women physically abused by an intimate partner (n=1,756). Controlling for severity of the physical abuse, women who experienced concomitant sexual abuse were less likely to seek help, women who experienced concomitant stalking were more likely to seek help, whereas concomitant psychological abuse was not associated with help-seeking. Ethnic differences were found in help-seeking from friends, mental health professionals, police and orders of protection. Implications for service outreach are discussed. PMID:21821618
Flicker, Sharon M.; Cerulli, Catherine; Zhao, Xi; Tang, Wan; Watts, Arthur; Xia, Yinglin; Talbot, Nancy L.
The study describes the loss of productive time and income related to abortion care and care-seeking among 110 women presenting at public and private sector abortion providers in Cambodia. Data were collected through women's exit interviews, and descriptive analysis was used to examine lost time and income against a number of explanatory variables, such as gestational age of pregnancy, type of abortion provider and facility, type of uterine evacuation procedure, number of health visits, and the woman's occupation. Results indicate that lost time and earnings increase with the number of visits to obtain the termination, gestational age, and selection of a private physician or non-governmental organization clinic. Lost time and earnings also vary by the woman's type of employment. The study underscores the need for safer, accessible, and more affordable abortion services in order to ensure that these services are available for all women. Even in the Cambodian context, where abortion is unrestricted during the first trimester of pregnancy, the study findings show that the process of searching for and obtaining high-quality abortion care was unnecessarily complicated and costly to women and their household members. PMID:18308261
Potdar, Rukmini; Fetters, Tamara; Phirun, Lam
Low rates of breast and cervical cancer screening among Hmong women have been documented. Mistrust of Western medicine and the health care system, as well as experiences of discrimination in health care, may be barriers to seeking health care for this population. In this study, we explored medical mistrust among Hmong women and men, their experiences with discrimination in health care, and how these factors may influence Hmong women's breast and cervical cancer screening behavior. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with women and men who were members of the Hmong community in Oregon. Transcripts of 83 interviews were analyzed using content analysis. Despite personally trusting Western medicine and the health care system, participants shared reasons that some Hmong people feel mistrust including lack of understanding or familiarity, culture, and tradition. Although mistrust was thought to result in delaying or avoiding breast or cervical cancer screening, more frequently trust was described as positively influencing screening. In addition, few participants reported being treated differently during breast or cervical cancer screening because they were Hmong. When discussing health care more broadly, however, some participants described differential (e.g., disrespectful or rude) treatment. Such experiences led to feelings such as anger and sadness and affected behavior, including willingness to seek care and choice of provider. Medical mistrust and perceived discrimination were not major barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening in this study. Additional studies are needed to assess whether our findings reflect the experiences of other Hmong. PMID:22116737
Thorburn, Sheryl; Kue, Jennifer; Keon, Karen Levy; Lo, Patela
The authors of the present study contribute to research on the role of sexist events in women’s mental health by examining the sexism–distress relation (a) with a sample of women who are seeking mental health services and (b) in the context of the additional roles of perceived social support in positive self-appraisal (i.e., empowerment and self-esteem) and psychological distress. A
Bonnie Moradi; Jamie R. Funderburk
Family health history (FHH) is a valuable health promotion tool that can be used to assess disease risk and make lifestyle\\u000a and screening recommendations. However, few FHH resources exist for medically underserved populations such as the urban Appalachian\\u000a community in Cincinnati Ohio. Women of Appalachian heritage with less than a college education who did and did not participate\\u000a in a
Robyn A. Cree; John Lynch; Margaret G. Au; Melanie F. Myers
Research on domestic violence and help-seeking behaviors of women living in rural communities has been limited. This study adds to existing knowledge by examining this type of violence along with mental health characteristics and related help-seeking behaviors of a sample of predominantly Hispanic women seeking shelter at a rural domestic violence shelter. Study participants experienced physical, verbal, emotional, and sexual abuse, harassment, stalking, and abuse with a weapon in their current intimate relationship. Twenty-four percent of study participants of Hispanic backgrounds and 10% of participants from all other racial/ethnic groups reported experiencing all types of abuse listed above. When compared with other study participants, a greater percentage of Hispanic participants indicated that they had thought of and/or attempted suicide. Participants' help-seeking behaviors from formal support systems suggest a mismatch between the types of abuse experienced and the resultant help-seeking behaviors they used. These help-seeking behaviors also indicate the relevance of mental health characteristics (e.g., suicide ideation) in these behaviors. These and findings from other studies may provide the impetus for a systematic documentation of domestic violence and help-seeking behaviors of women living in rural communities. PMID:11275569
Krishnan, S P; Hilbert, J C; VanLeeuwen, D
Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used.Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades.This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women's experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal.Women's personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support.Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and the fact that some women eventually need to seek medical care at a hospital where they might be sanctioned for having an abortion and even reported to the police. PMID:23259660
Zamberlin, Nina; Romero, Mariana; Ramos, Silvina
One opportunity to realize the diversity goals of academic health centers comes at the time of hiring new faculty. To improve the effectiveness of search committees in increasing the gender diversity of faculty hires, the authors created and implemented a training workshop for faculty search committees designed to improve the hiring process and increase the diversity of faculty hires at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. They describe the workshops, which they presented in the School of Medicine and Public Health between 2004 and 2007, and they compare the subsequent hiring of women faculty in participating and nonparticipating departments and the self-reported experience of new faculty within the hiring process. Attendance at the workshop correlates with improved hiring of women faculty and with a better hiring experience for faculty recruits, especially women. The authors articulate successful elements of workshop implementation for other medical schools seeking to increase gender diversity on their faculties. PMID:20505400
Sheridan, Jennifer T.; Fine, Eve; Pribbenow, Christine Maidl; Handelsman, Jo; Carnes, Molly
contracts an occupational disease must seek medical attention from the following list of approved medical-hour period. Non-Serious Injury, But Requiring Medical Attention: UNCG Student Health Services
Background Dealing with pregnancy, childbirth and the care of newborn babies is a challenge for female asylum seekers and their health care providers. The aim of our study was to identify reproductive health issues in a population of women seeking asylum in Switzerland, and to examine the care they received. The women were insured through a special Health Maintenance Organisation (HMO) and were attending the Women's Clinic of the University Hospital in Basel. We also investigated how the health professionals involved perceived the experience of providing health care for these patients. Methods A mixed methods approach combined the analysis of quantitative descriptive data and qualitative data obtained from semi-structured interviews with health care providers and from patients' files. We analysed the records of 80 asylum-seeking patients attending the Women's Clinic insured through an HMO. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 care providers from different professional groups. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively. Qualitative data analysis was guided by Grounded Theory. Results The principal health problems among the asylum seekers were a high rate of induced abortions (2.5 times higher than in the local population), due to inadequate contraception, and psychosocial stress due to the experience of forced migration and their current difficult life situation. The language barriers were identified as a major difficulty for health professionals in providing care. Health care providers also faced major emotional challenges when taking care of asylum seekers. Additional problems for physicians were that they were often required to act in an official capacity on behalf of the authorities in charge of the asylum process, and they also had to make decisions about controlling expenditure to fulfil the requirements of the HMO. They felt that these decisions sometimes conflicted with their duty towards the patient. Conclusion Health policies for asylum seekers need to be designed to assure access to adequate contraception, and to provide psychological care for this vulnerable group of patients. Care for asylum seekers may be emotionally very challenging for health professionals. PMID:21040588
?? This empirical study investigated bullying among adult U.S. women in the Pharmaceutical/Biotechnology/Medical Device (PBMD) Industry. A concurrent triangulation mixed method was used. An online… (more)
Liu, Sharon L.
The library facilities, resource materials, training of librarians and so on are described at first. The library collection is that of middle sized medical library. However, since the facilities are not enough to handle it, it is necessary for the library to be supplemented by information services. Then primary information services such as reading of materials, interlibrary loan and journal acquisition system of the recent issues for each laboratory is outlined. Secondary information services centered around on-line information retrieval service, contents sheet service and preparation of index cards are also described. What a medical library should be is considered in terms of its relation to information services.
Although growing research supports cancer survivor information-seeking, little is known about breast cancer prevention information-seeking among women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in breast cancer risk factor knowledge, information sources, and desired mobile messages among Hispanic and non-Hispanic rural women. Women were recruited to complete a survey at an imaging center during a mammography screening visit. A total of 156 women (mean age?=?61, SD?=?12.07) completed the survey. Breast cancer risk factor knowledge was significantly higher for non-Hispanic women compared to Hispanic women (p?=?.035). Television, magazines, and Internet were the most frequent information sources. Providers were the most frequent interpersonal information source. Nearly 87 % used cell phones and 47 % used texting. Hispanic women were more likely to desire breast cancer prevention cell voice messages (p?.001) and text messages (p?=?.001) compared to non-Hispanic women. No significant differences were found for text appointment reminders by ethnicity. Health educators and clinicians must promote mobile messages for Hispanics and non-Hispanics for mammography adherence, breast cancer prevention education, and best practices to manage screening appointments. PMID:24163017
Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan
BackgroundThe aim of this study was to examine the differences between male and female bariatric surgery candidates with respect to health-related quality of life (HRQOL), health, sociodemographic variables, and interactions among these variables in a bariatric surgery practice in the United States. Women seek bariatric surgery 5 times more often than men. Research on gender differences in HRQOL is limited,
Ronette L. Kolotkin; Ross D. Crosby; Richard E. Gress; Steven C. Hunt; Scott G. Engel; Ted D. Adams
This study examined two aspects of body checking and avoidance, and their relations to the core psychopathology of eating disorders (EDs), in severely obese men and women seeking bariatric surgery. A consecutive series of 260 (44 male and 216 female) gastric bypass candidates were administered measures to assess body checking and avoidance, binge eating, restraint, and overevaluation of weight and
Carlos M. Grilo; Deborah L. Reas; Michelle L. Brody; Carolyn H. Burke-Martindale; Bruce S. Rothschild; Robin M. Masheb
The relationship between partner violence and physical health symptoms is well-established. Although some researchers have theorized that the physical health effects of partner violence may be worse for ethnic minority women, there is little research addressing this topic. The current study examined whether African American women demonstrate a differential association in this relationship than Caucasian women. This study included 323 women (232 African American, 91 Caucasian) who participated in a larger investigation of the psychological and psychophysiological correlates of recent partner violence among women seeking help for the abuse. Race was examined as a moderator of the relationship between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms. Although mean levels of partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms did not significantly differ between African American and Caucasian women, linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant positive relationship between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms for African American women; whereas there was no association observed between these variables for Caucasian women. Post hoc analyses revealed that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms partially mediated the association between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms for the African American women. The current findings underscore the importance of considering race when studying the effect of partner violence on women’s health. PMID:23616911
Iverson, Katherine M.; Bauer, Margret R.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Pineles, Suzanne L.; Harrington, Ellen F.; Resick, Patricia A.
Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is essential to improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS; however, it still remains a challenge especially for young African women. The purpose of the study was to explore how young women with HIV/AIDS in Uganda experience the influence of their everyday life occupations on adherence to HAART after more than 1 year on the medication. Narratives of six participants were elicited using two semistructured interviews within a period of 1 month. Narrative analysis was used to develop themes reflecting the participants' stories of coping with everyday activities. The participants described their adherence to HAART in relation to everyday life occupations as a "tug of war", which describes the struggles they had taking medication because they were afraid of being discriminated by peers and the general society. They also expressed fear of not being included in many activities if people knew they have HIV/AIDS because there are many beliefs associated with the illness especially for young women in which they are branded promiscuous. However, in the Ugandan culture, women are considered to be home makers, which restricted their activities mostly around domestic work making it hard for them to prioritize their medication, and when they young women prioritized, it was all about fun activities that seemed to consume much time, hence contributing to the poor adherence. It is therefore important to assess the everyday occupations of young women before they start taking medication, so that HAART is scheduled in accordance with their everyday life occupation to reduce poor adherence. The implications of the study on practice is that it will enable occupational therapists working with persons with HIV/AIDS develop age-specific activities taking into consideration HAART as an everyday life activity rather than one that needs to be incorporated into their already existing activities, hence improving their adherence and reducing on stigma associated to the medication. PMID:22740312
Matovu, Sarah Natalia; La cour, Karen; Hemmingsson, Helena
Background & objectives: Depression remains largely undiagnosed in women residing in rural India and consequently many do not seek help. Moreover, among those who are diagnosed, many do not complete treatment due to high rates of attrition. This study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of enhanced care with usual care in improving treatment seeking and adherence to antidepressant medication in women with depression living in rural India. Methods: Six villages from rural Bangalore were randomized to either community health worker supported enhanced care or usual care. A total of 260 adult depressed women formed the final participants for the analysis. The outcome measures were number of women who sought and completed treatment, number of clinic visits, duration of treatment with antidepressant, changes in severity of depression (HDRS) and changes in quality of life [WHO-QOL (Brev) scale]. Results: A significantly greater number of women from the treatment intervention (TI) group completed the treatment and were on treatment for a longer duration compared to the treatment as usual (TAU) group. However, there were no significant differences in the severity of depression or quality of life between the TI and the TAU groups or between treatment completers and treatment dropouts at six months. Interpretation & conclusions: Enhanced care provided by the trained community health workers to rural women with major depression living in the community resulted in greater number of women seeking help and adhering to treatment with antidepressants. However, despite enhanced care a significant number of rural women diagnosed with depression either did not seek help or discontinued treatment prematurely. These findings have significant public health implications, as untreated depression is associated with considerable disability. PMID:24718398
Pradeep, Johnson; Isaacs, Anton; Shanbag, Deepthi; Selvan, Sumithra; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari
There has been relatively little qualitatively or quantitatively published research to guide the field in identifying and addressing barriers to seeking help for older women who experience domestic violence. Women over the age of 45 have seldom been participants in research on domestic violence. This paper describes results from a qualitative study that focused on reactions to and internalization of abusive behaviors of an intimate partner. Twenty-one focus groups were conducted with 134 middle- aged and older women. Analysis of the data identified six factors that describe reactions to abusive behavior that become barriers to help seeking, including self-blame, powerlessness, hopelessness, the need to protect family, and the need to keep such abuse secret from others. These. PMID:16931469
Beaulaurier, Richard L; Seff, Laura R; Newman, Frederick L; Dunlop, Burton D
The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making among women considering antidepressant medication use in pregnancy. Decisional conflict was assessed using the Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) among pregnant women considering antidepressant medication treatment (N?=?40). Overall DCS and subscale scores were compared between women who were antidepressant users and non-users. Semi-structured interviews (N?=?10) explored barriers and facilitators of decision-making. Twenty-one women (52 %) had moderate or high decisional conflict (DCS???25). Overall DCS scores did not differ between groups, but antidepressant use was associated with feeling more adequately informed (subscale mean 17.5, SD 17.9 vs. 42.1, SD 23.8, p?=?0.001) and clear about values (subscale mean 16.7, SD 15.1 vs. 29.8, SD 24.0, p?=?0.043). Barriers to decision-making were (1) difficulty weighing maternal versus infant health, (2) lack of high quality information, (3) negative external influences, and (4) emotional reactions to decision-making. Facilitators were (1) interpersonal supports, (2) accessible subspecialty care, and (3) severe depressive symptoms. Many pregnant women facing decisions regarding antidepressant medication use experience decisional conflict. Interventions that provide accurate information, assistance with weighing risks and benefits of treatment, management of problematic external influences, and emotional support may reduce decisional conflict and facilitate the decision-making process. PMID:25104244
Walton, Georgia D; Ross, Lori E; Stewart, Donna E; Grigoriadis, Sophie; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Vigod, Simone
Research on the health of trafficked men and on the health problems associated with trafficking for labor exploitation are extremely limited. This study analysed data from a case series of anonymised case records of a consecutive sample of 35 men and women who had been trafficked for labor exploitation in the UK and who were receiving support from a non-governmental service between June 2009 and July 2010. Over three-quarters of our sample was male (77 %) and two-thirds aged between 18 and 35 years (mean 32.9 years, SD 10.2). Forty percent reported experiencing physical violence while they were trafficked. Eighty-one percent (25/31) reported one or more physical health symptoms. Fifty-seven percent (17/30) reported one or more post-traumatic stress symptoms. A substantial proportion of men and women who are trafficked for labor exploitation may experience violence and abuse, and have physical and mental health symptoms. People who have been trafficked for forced labor need access to medical assessment and treatment. PMID:23649665
Turner-Moss, Eleanor; Zimmerman, Cathy; Howard, Louise M; Oram, Siân
More inquiry is needed into how Mexican immigrant survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) are seeking help, to improve interventions designed to reach this isolated and vulnerable population. This grounded theory study, using a sample of 29 Mexican immigrant survivors of IPV and 15 key informants, examines the help-seeking process. Findings indicate that informal networks, particularly family and female friends, play a critical role in providing assistance and linking women to formal services. These findings have implications for the delivery of formal domestic violence services to this community as well as the response of police and other formal service systems. PMID:25234812
Background: Critiques of the validity of the DSM diagnostic criteria for depressive disorder argue that it fails to differentiate between abnormal sadness due to internal dysfunction or depression (sadness without an identifiable cause), and normal sadness (sadness with a clear cause). Aims and Methods: A population survey was undertaken in adult education centres in Spain aiming to explore beliefs about depression and normal sadness. Two hypothetical case vignettes portrayed individuals experiencing deep sadness, both fulfilling criteria for major depressive disorder (DSM-IV), one with a clear cause, the other without an identifiable cause. Three hundred and forty-four (344) questionnaires were obtained (95% response rate). Results: Participants statistically significantly differentiated between the sadness-with-cause vignette, seen more frequently as a normal response, while the one without a cause was seen as pathological. Help-seeking behaviour recommendations followed this distinction: a medical option was statistically significantly more common when there was no cause for sadness. Socio-cultural variation in how people understand and deal with sadness was also found. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the importance of taking into account the context in which depressive symptoms occur as it seems that the absence of an appropriate context is what makes people conceptualize them as abnormal. It also raises questions about the lack of face validity of the current diagnostic classification for depressive disorder that exclusively uses descriptive criteria. PMID:22187003
Littlewood, Roland; Leavey, Gerard
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has a detrimental effect on the wellbeing of victims and their children. Situational as well\\u000a as individual factors shape victims’ responses to the experiences of IPV in many ways. This study uses a quantitative approach\\u000a to examine the factors that influence victims’ decisions on whether and where to seek help. The role of (unborn) children\\u000a has
Freedom of information, access to and ownership of medical records are current and controversial issues in Australia. Relating to pregnancy and birth the debate provokes emotional responses and raises important questions about access to information, decision-making, responsibility, power and control. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the impact on pregnant women of carrying their medical records throughout pregnancy Twenty-one women participated in face-to-face individual interviews, which were coded for thematic analysis. The study found the reaction of women toward carrying their own records to be overwhelmingly positive. Maternal record holding had the potential to improve the level of communication between the health care worker and the pregnant woman and provided a greater sense of sharing and communication within the family The study also established that maternal record holding was of benefit to the woman's partner who was better informed and more involved in the pregnancy All but one of the women who participated favoured carrying their records in subsequent pregnancies. A concern about the potential for losing or misplacing records was not seen in this study, as no women lost their records. A sense of ownership would argue against this possible drawback. PMID:11787912
Background: Although women make up nearly half of medical school classes in the United States, just over 20% of residents in surgery are women (excluding obstetrics\\/gynecology). The objective of this study was to identify whether the proportion of women surgeons on the faculty who have frequent encounters with medical students during their surgery rotation influences the student’s perceptions about women
Leigh Neumayer; Susan Kaiser; Kimberly Anderson; Linda Barney; Myriam Curet; Donald Jacobs; Thomas Lynch; Christine Gazak
Laboratory-based surveillance is a foundation for public health and is essential for determining the incidence of most foodborne diseases caused by bacterial pathogens; however, reported cases represent a subset of infections in the community. To identify the factors associated with seeking medical care and submitting a stool specimen among persons with acute diarrheal illness, we used multivariate logistic regression to analyze data from two 12- month population-based telephone surveys conducted in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) from 2000 to 2003. Of 31,082 persons interviewed, 5% reported an acute diarrheal illness in the four weeks prior to the interview; of these, 20% sought medical care. On multivariate analysis, among persons with an acute diarrheal illness, factors associated with seeking medical care included: male sex; age <5 or >or=65 years; household income <25,000 dollars; having health insurance; diarrhea duration >or=3 days; having bloody diarrhea, fever, vomiting, sore throat, or cough. Of those seeking medical care, 19% provided a stool sample. Bloody diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] 3.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-9.51) and diarrhea duration >or=3 days (OR 3.81; 95% CI: 1.50-9.69) were the most important factors associated with submission of a stool specimen. Cases of acute diarrheal illness ascertained through laboratory-based public health surveillance are likely to differ systematically from unreported cases and likely over-represent those with bloody diarrhea and longer diarrhea duration. PMID:17199525
Scallan, Elaine; Jones, Timothy F; Cronquist, Alicia; Thomas, Stepy; Frenzen, Paul; Hoefer, Dina; Medus, Carlota; Angulo, Fredrick J
Background Although uterine prolapse (UP) occurs commonly in Nepal, little is known about the physical health and care-seeking practices of women with UP. This study aimed to explore women’s experiences of UP and its effect on daily life, its perceived causes, and health care-seeking practices. Methods Using a convenience sampling method, we conducted 115 semi-structured and 16 in-depth interviews with UP-affected women during September–December 2012. All interviews occurred in outreach clinics in villages of the Dhading district. Results Study participants were 23–82 years of age. Twenty-four percent were literate, 47.2% had experienced a teenage pregnancy, and 29% had autonomy to make healthcare decisions. Most participants (>85%) described the major physical discomforts of UP as difficulty with walking, standing, working, sitting, and lifting. They also reported urinary incontinence (68%) bowel symptoms (42%), and difficulty with sexual activity (73.9%). Due to inability to perform household chores or fulfill their husband’s sexual desires, participants endured humiliation, harassment, and torture by their husbands and other family members, causing severe emotional stress. Following disclosure of UP, 24% of spouses remarried and 6% separated from the marital relationship. Women perceived the causes of UP as unsafe childbirth, heavy work during the postpartum period, and gender discrimination. Prior to visiting these camps some women (42%) hid UP for more than 10 years. Almost half (48%) of participants sought no health care; 42% ingested a herb and ate nutritious food. Perceived barriers to accessing health care included shame (48%) and feeling that care was unnecessary (12.5%). Multiple responses (29%) included shame, inability to share, male service provider, fear of stigma and discrimination, and perceiving UP as normal for childbearing women. Conclusions UP adversely affects women’s daily life and negatively influences their physical, mental, and social well-being. The results of our study are useful to generate information on UP symptoms and female health care seeking practices. Our findings can be helpful for effective development of UP awareness programs to increase service utilization at early stages of UP and thereby might contribute to both primary and secondary prevention of UP. PMID:24490616
Domestic violence is a significant public health issue. India is uniquely affected with an estimated 1 in 3 women facing abuse at the hands of a partner. The current mixed-methods study describes violence-related coping and help-seeking, and preferences for health care-based intervention, among perinatal women residing in low-income communities in Mumbai, India. In-depth interviews were conducted with women who had recently given birth and self-reported recent violence from husbands (n = 32), followed by survey data collection (n = 1,038) from mothers seeking immunization for their infants ages 6 months or younger at 3 large urban health centers in Mumbai, India. Participants described fears and other barriers to abuse disclosure, and there was a low level of awareness of formal support services related to violence. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicated that formal help-seeking is uncommon and that informal help sources are most frequently sought. Quantitative results revealed that, while few (<5%) women had been screened for violence in the health care setting, most (67%) would be willing to disclose abuse if asked. When presented with a list of possible clinic-based violence support interventions, participants endorsed crisis counseling and safety planning as most helpful (90.9%). Findings provide direction for violence-related intervention services for perinatal women. A multipronged approach that includes strengthening the informal support system, for example, neighbors and family members, as well as facilitating access to formal services building on the health care system, warrants exploration in this context. PMID:23295374
Decker, Michele R; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Sabri, Bushra; Jethva, Meghna; Raj, Anita; Donta, Balaiah; Silverman, Jay G
women also felt that an effort should be made to change attitudes and expectations,women felt that even more important than increasing awareness of birth control, however, is a need to change attitudes and expectations,
Chetkovich, Carol; Mauldon, Jane; Brindis, Claire; Guendelman, Sylvia
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common and affect quality of life. The influence of personality on the patients' decision to seek help is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify personality traits which may influence womens' decision to seek help for LUTS using the short Luscher colour test (LCT). Participants completed two validated questionnaires prior to taking part in the LCT. Symptomatic non-treatment seekers were identified as impatient. Women seeking help for LUTS were identified as impatient, restless, authoritative and determined individuals. Asymptomatic women were identified as sensitive individuals who have strong ideals and desire their own way. Further studies are required to improve knowledge about the influence of personality on treatment seeking behaviour in women with LUTS. PMID:19603319
Basra, R; Cortes, E; Khullar, V; Kelleher, C
Recommendations for women with a deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation include complex medical approaches related to cancer risk reduction and detection. Current science has not yet fully elucidated decision support needs that women face when living with medical consequences associated with known hereditary cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to describe health communication and decision support needs in healthy women with BRCA1/2 gene mutations. The original researchers completed an interpretive secondary qualitative data analysis of 23 phenomenological narratives collected between 2008 and 2010. The Ottawa Decision Support and Patient Centered Communication frameworks guided the study design and analysis. Women described a pattern wherein breast and ovarian cancer risk, health related recommendations and decisions, and personal values were prioritized over time based on life contexts. Knowing versus acting on cancer risk was not a static process but an ongoing balancing act of considering current and future personal and medical values, further compounded by the complexity of recommendations. Women shared stories of anticipatory, physical and psychosocial consequences of the decision making experience. The findings have potential to generate future research questions and guide intervention development. Importantly, findings indicate a need for ongoing, long-term, support from genetics professionals and decision support interventions, which challenges the current practice paradigm. PMID:24271037
Underhill, Meghan L; Crotser, Cheryl B
Few studies have directly focused on adherence to highly active antiretroviral medication (HAART) in HIV positive women caring for children. These women may have unique barriers and facilitators to taking medication, and a deeper understanding of their adherence patterns could enhance intervention strategies. A total of 36 HIV positive women who care for children less than 18 years of age
S. A. Wood; C. Tobias; J. Mccree
This study explores the severity and frequency of physical violence from an intimate partner experienced by 15- to 59-year-old women and their help-seeking behavior by using data from the "National Research on Domestic Violence Against Women in Turkey." Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare the relationship between severity and frequency of violence and women's characteristics. Of all ever-partnered women, 36% have been exposed to partner violence; almost half of these experienced severe types of violence. Women used informal strategies to manage the violence instead of seeking help from formal institutions. Help-seeking behavior increases with increased severity and frequency of violence. PMID:24142955
Ergöçmen, Banu Akadli; Yüksel-Kaptano?lu, ?lknur; Jansen, Henrica A F M Henriette
A questionnaire was completed by 103 symptomatic women attending a busy, walk-in genitourinary medicine clinic in London before seeing a doctor. This questionnaire asked about the patients' own diagnosis of symptoms, previous remedies and their source. The answers were compared to their past history and current diagnosis. Of symptomatic women 56% had used a self-administered remedy prior to attending the clinic. This was significantly associated with a history of a previous episode of genital infection which had produced similar symptoms to the current problem. Forty-three percent of those who used self-medication reported some improvement in symptoms and more than 50% tolerated longer than 10 days of symptoms before attending the clinic. PMID:2088538
Russell, J M; Barton, S E; Lawrence, A G
In rural Africa, deaths from childbirth are common and access to health care facilities with skilled providers is very limited. Leading causes of death for women are bleeding and infection. In this pilot study, we establish the feasibility of distributing oral medications to women in rural Tanzania to self-administer after delivery to reduce bleeding and infection. Of the 642 women provided with medications, 90% of the women took them appropriately, while the remaining 10% did not require them. We conclude that is it feasible to distribute oral medications to rural women to self-administer after delivery. PMID:24786175
Webber, Gail C.; Chirangi, Bwire
Predictors of ever having sought adoption are evaluated for Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women. Analysis of the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, a nationally representative study of reproductive health of 7,643 women aged 15 to 44 years, is employed. These include Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women aged 18 to 44 who are currently married and cohabiting (n = 3,118)
Kathleen A. Lamb
Background Several medication classes may contribute to urinary symptoms in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of use of these medications in a clinical cohort of incontinent patients. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 390 new patients aged 60 years and older seeking care for incontinence in specialized outpatient geriatric incontinence clinics in Quebec, Canada. The use of oral estrogens, alpha-blocking agents, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antipsychotics, ACE inhibitors, loop diuretics, NSAIDs, narcotics and calcium channel blockers was recorded from each patient’s medication profile. Lower urinary tract symptoms and the severity of incontinence were measured using standardized questionnaires including the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire. The type of incontinence was determined clinically by a physician specialized in incontinence. Co-morbidities were ascertained by self-report. Logistic regression analyses were used to detect factors associated with medication use, as well as relationships between specific medication classes and the type and severity of urinary symptoms. Results The prevalence of medications potentially contributing to lower urinary tract symptoms was 60.5%. Calcium channel blockers (21.8%), benzodiazepines (17.4%), other centrally active agents (16.4%), ACE inhibitors (14.4%) and estrogens (12.8%) were most frequently consumed. Only polypharmacy (OR?=?4.9, 95% CI?=?3.1-7.9), was associated with medication use contributing to incontinence in analyses adjusted for age, sex, and multimorbidity. No associations were detected between specific medication classes and the type or severity of urinary symptoms in this cohort. Conclusion The prevalence of use of medications potentially causing urinary symptoms is high among incontinent older adults. More research is needed to determine whether de-prescribing these medications results in improved urinary symptoms. PMID:23758756
Background Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) are associated with an increased risk of mental illness, but we know little about the mental health of female DVA survivors seeking support from domestic violence services. Objective To characterize the demography and mental health of women who access specialist DVA services in the United Kingdom and to investigate associations between severity of abuse and measures of mental health and health state utility, accounting for important confounders and moderators. Design Baseline data on 260 women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a psychological intervention for DVA survivors was analyzed. We report prevalence of and associations between mental health status and severity of abuse at the time of recruitment. We used logistic and normal regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. Mental health measures used were: Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment, and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) to measure posttraumatic stress disorder. The Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) measured abuse. Results Exposure to DVA was high, with a mean CAS score of 56 (SD 34). The mean CORE-OM score was 18 (SD 8) with 76% above the clinical threshold (95% confidence interval: 70–81%). Depression and anxiety levels were high, with means close to clinical thresholds, and all respondents recorded PTSD scores above the clinical threshold. Symptoms of mental illness increased stepwise with increasing severity of DVA. Conclusions Women DVA survivors who seek support from DVA services have recently experienced high levels of abuse, depression, anxiety, and especially PTSD. Clinicians need to be aware that patients presenting with mental health conditions or symptoms of depression or anxiety may be experiencing or may have experienced DVA. The high psychological morbidity in this population means that trauma-informed psychological support is needed for survivors who seek support from DVA services. PMID:25319597
Ferrari, Giulia; Agnew-Davies, Roxane; Bailey, Jayne; Howard, Louise; Howarth, Emma; Peters, Tim J.; Sardinha, Lynnmarie; Feder, Gene
A preliminary investigation of risks for adverse outcomes of relationship seeking on social network sites (SNS): a descriptive study of women over 50 seeking relationships on MySpace in Hillsborough County, Florida.
In contrast to younger populations, little attention has been paid to the increase in seniors using Internet-based venues to find relationships and the potential risk for adverse outcomes this poses. This study examined data collected via an online survey from 45 ethnically diverse women aged 50+ "seeking relationships" on MySpace. The majority of women reported a relationship with someone they met online (85%). They also reported experiencing adverse events including financial exploitation (40%), threats (55%), and physical harm (38%) by someone they met online at levels greater than traditional relationship seeking in the general population. Directions for future research are explored. PMID:24713052
Vandeweerd, Carla; Corvin, Jaime; Coulter, Martha; Perkins, Elizabeth; Telford, Robin; Yalcin, Ali; Myers, Jaime; Yegidis, Bonnie
Background In Ethiopia maternal mortality rate is very high more than one in five women die from pregnancy or pregnancy related causes. The use of contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion is an important strategy to minimize maternal mortality rate. Among various forms of contraception, emergency contraceptives are the only one that can be used after sexual intercourse offering chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital (JUSH). Methods Institution base cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive was conducted at JUSH from April to June, 2011Data was collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Results In this study 89 women were interviewed. More than half of them (48) were from urban area and 41 were from rural area.46 (51.7%) of them were single. Of all the respondents only nine women had awareness about emergency contraceptive. Seven of the women mentioned pills as emergency contraception and only two of them mentioned both pills and injectable as emergency contraception. All of them have positive attitude towards emergency contraception but none of them have ever used emergency contraceptives. Conclusion and recommendation The finding revealed pregnancy among women of 15-19 years was very common. The knowledge and practice of emergency contraception is very low. But there is high positive attitude towards emergency contraceptives. Since there is much deficit on knowledge of women on emergency contraceptives, in addition to making them accessible; programs targeted at promotion and education of emergency contraceptives is helpful to prevent unwanted pregnancy. PMID:22410271
Despite the widespread availability of free antenatal care services, most women in rural South Africa attend their first antenatal clinic late in pregnancy and fail to return for any followup care, potentially leading to avoidable perinatal and maternal complications. Using interviews with pregnant women from the rural Hlabisa district of South Africa, we documented perceptions of health and health care
Landon Myer; Abigail Harrison
Olympian Cynthia Cooper-Dyke, the head coach of North Carolina Wilmington's women's basketball program and one of the most decorated players in the history of USC women's basketball. Other speakers include advancement of the University of Southern California by engaging all alumni for life, building a culture
Estimating the causal effect of a first child on female labor supply is complicated by the endogeneity of fertility. This paper addresses this problem by focusing on a sample of women from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) who sought help to become pregnant. After a certain period, only some of these women gave birth. Results using this…
Cristia, Julian P.
Studies on infertility in the Netherlands have little information on migrant Ghanaian women, even though Ghanaians are the third largestmigrant group in Amsterdam. An exploratory study on the unmet needs, attitudes, and beliefs of migrant Ghanaian women with infertility problems living in the Netherlands, and the kinds of treatment they sought was undertaken in 1999. Qualitative data were collected from
Violet Naanyu Yebei
A robust association between sexual trauma and trading sex has been documented in civilian samples but has not been examined in veterans. Women veterans experience high rates of sexual victimization across the lifespan, including during military service (military sexual trauma [MST]). Associations between MST and trading sex were examined in 200 women enrolled in a crosssectional study of HIV risks
Jennifer L. Strauss; Christine E. Marx; Julie C. Weitlauf; Karen M. Stechuchak; Kristy Straits-Tröster; Ayaba W. Worjoloh; Christina B. Sherrod; Maren K. Olsen; Marian I. Butterfield; Patrick S. Calhoun
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study applies a sociological lens by framing the IPV and legal help-seeking experiences of rural Australian women gained from 36 in-depth face-to-face interviews as socially contextualized interactions. Findings reveal police and court responses reflect broader social inequalities and rurality exacerbates concerns such as anonymity and lack of service. Cultural differences and power imbalances between survivors and formal support providers are manifested to inform future research seeking to improve survivors' willingness to engage and satisfaction with formal services. Finally, the important role police and the criminal justice system play in de-stigmatizing IPV and legitimating its unacceptability is argued a crucial, yet unrecognized, key to social change. PMID:22929344
Ragusa, Angela T
This study analyzed the impact of a medical amnesty policy and an online alcohol poisoning video on college students' intentions to seek help when witnessing alcohol poisoning symptoms. Students were randomly assigned to receive an amnesty policy, alcohol poisoning video, or both. The group that received both treatments was most likely to seek…
Oster-Aaland, Laura; Thompson, Kevin; Eighmy, Myron
This Datagram updates previously published statistics on women medical school applicants and matriculants. Historical data are selected at five-year intervals and highlight years not presented before. A dramatic increase in women applicants since 1970 is shown. (LBH)
Dube, W. F.
Using data from Wave 1 (2004-2006) of the National Survey of Fertility Barriers (NSFB), a national probability sample of women ages 25-45, we examine online information-seeking among ever-infertile women. Of the 1352 women who met criteria for infertility, 459 (34%) neither talked to a doctor nor went online for information, 9% went online only for information, 32% talked to a doctor but did not go online, and 25% did both. Guided by Chrisman's Health-Seeking Model and previous research on Internet use to obtain health information, we employ multinomial logistic regression to compare these four groups of ever-infertile women. Findings generally support Chrisman's model. Infertile women tend to seek information online as a complement to, rather than as a substitute for, in-person health-seeking. Greater faith in the ability of medical science to treat infertility and greater perceived stigma were associated with higher odds of using the Internet to obtain information about infertility. In general, women who perceived the symptoms of infertility as more salient had higher odds of using both online and in-person or only in-person health-seeking compared to online health-seeking. Women with greater resources had higher odds of using online sources of information. Strong network encouragement to seek treatment was associated with higher odds of in-person health-seeking and combining in-person and online health-seeking compared to only going online or doing nothing. PMID:24355477
Slauson-Blevins, Kathleen S; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L
Objective: To examine changes in obesity-related attitudes in a sample of obese women who participated in either dieting or non-dieting interventions.Research Methods and Procedures: A total of 123 obese women were randomly assigned to one of three weight control programs: meal replacement diet, balanced deficit diet, or a non-dieting program. (The first two groups were combined as a single dieting
Canice E. Crerand; Thomas A. Wadden; Gary D. Foster; David B. Sarwer; Lauren M. Paster; Robert I. Berkowitz
Rates of mental illness and self-harm are very high among women prisoners. Questionnaires assessed prisoners' knowledge of and attitudes towards mental health problems, and relevant behavioural intentions before and after the intervention, to evaluate the effectiveness of a comedy show in a women's prison to reduce mental health stigma and improve coping and help-seeking for mental health problems. The intervention appeared to have been successful in improving some aspects of prisoners' knowledge about the effectiveness of psychotherapy (Z = - 2.304, p = 0.021) and likelihood of recovery from mental health problems (Z = - 2.699, p = 0.007). There were significant post-intervention increases in the proportion who stated they would discuss or disclose mental health problems with all but one of the sources of help in the questionnaire, which was consistent with the increases in the number of prisoners who rated themselves as likely to start using different sources of help or prison activities. There was no improvement in intentions to associate with people with a mental health problem. The intervention appeared effective in improving factors that might increase help-seeking and improve coping, but not those that would change behaviour towards others with a mental health problem. PMID:25137108
Wright, Steve; Twardzicki, Maya; Gomez, Fabio; Henderson, Claire
... Recommendations Medications for the Risk Reduction of Primary Breast Cancer in Women The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force ( ... shown to reduce a woman’s risk of developing breast cancer. These medications work by blocking the effects of ...
Background: Infertility is a major life event that brings about social and psychological problems. The type and rate these problems in the context of socio-cultural of different geographical areas and sex of people is different. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explain the psychological consequences of infertility in Iranian infertile women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was done using qualitative content analysis on 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children in 2012. They were purposefully selected with maximum sample variation from a large Fertility Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using 32 semi-structured interviews and analyzed by the conventional content analysis method. Results: The findings of this study include four main themes: 1. Cognitive reactions of infertility (mental engagement; psychological turmoil). 2. Cognitive reactions to therapy process (psychological turmoil; being difficult to control in some situations; reduced self-esteem; feelings of failure). 3. Emotional-affective reactions of infertility (fear, anxiety and worry; loneliness and guilt; grief and depression; regret). 4. Emotional-affective reactions to therapy process (fear, anxiety and worry; fatigue and helplessness; grief and depression; hopelessness). Conclusion: This study revealed that Iranian infertile women seeking treatment face several psychological-emotional problems with devastating effects on the mental health and well-being of the infertile individuals and couples, while the infertility is often treated as a biomedical issue in Iranian context with less attention on the mental-emotional, social and cultural aspects. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Seyede Batool Hasanpoor-Azghady) PMID:24799871
Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Seyede Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali
Although ED can impair sexual satisfaction as well as the quality of partnership and life, men affected often avoid seeking treatment. There is growing evidence that women have an influence on their partner's help-seeking behavior. This qualitative study examined men with ED and their female partners in order to detect motivational factors for men to seek treatment and motivational actions of the women to support their partners. Twelve couples took part in a semi-structured telephone interview, which was performed separately in men and women. Analysis was on the basis of the Grounded Theory. The identified motivational factors could be divided into extrinsic (for example, media, female partner) and intrinsic (for example, desire to clarify the cause of the ED, hope for improvement) factors. Women can support their partners in treatment-seeking through various motivational actions such as talking with each other, showing interest and dealing actively with the problem, appealing to the male self-esteem, supporting the doctor's visit, forcing the treatment, active cooperation and participation in the treatment or initiating sexual intercourse. On the basis of these findings, recommendations for women were developed to support their partners and increase the probability of help-seeking behavior. PMID:23051681
Gerster, S; Günzler, C; Roesler, C; Leiber, C; Berner, M M
This paper provides an analysis of the potential impact of changes in recruitment and hiring processes in Portuguese higher education institutions--under the New Public Management framework--on the representation of women in academia. Based on official data from the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education, two major…
Carvalho, Teresa; Santiago, Rui
Fertile women may be exposed to ionizing radiation as human subjects in medical research studies. If the woman is pregnant, such exposures may result in risk to an embryo/fetus. Fertile women may be screened for pregnancy before exposure to ionizing radiation by interview, general examination, or pregnancy test. Use of the sensitive serum pregnancy test has become common because it offers concrete evidence that the woman is not pregnant (more specifically, that an embryo is not implanted). Evidence suggests that risk to the embryo from radiation exposure before organogenesis is extremely low or nonexistent. Further, demonstrated effects on organogenesis are rare or inconclusive at fetal doses below 50 mSv (5 rem). Therefore, there may be some level of radiation exposure below which risk to the fetus may be considered essentially zero, and a serum pregnancy test is unnecessary. This paper reviews the fetal risks and suggests that consideration be given to establishing a limit to the fetus of 0.5 mSv (50 mrem), below which pregnancy screening need not include the use of a serum pregnancy test.
RESEARCH ASSISTANT- Judge Baker Children's Center, Harvard Medical School Currently seeking full at Judge Baker Children's Center, Harvard Medical School, under the direction of John R. Weisz, PhD, ABPP, data entry and filing, literature searches, formatting manuscripts/grants, coding for meta
Massachusetts at Amherst, University of
Little is known about the cancer information seeking experiences of Chinese immigrants despite reported disparities in cancer\\u000a burden and use of cancer screening. This research used semi-structured interviews to the explore cancer information seeking\\u000a preferences and experiences of 50 English-as-a-second-language older Chinese immigrant women to Canada with different levels\\u000a of health literacy. Directed content analysis was used to identify three
Laura Todd; Laurie Hoffman-Goetz
This study examined several potential correlates of engagement and disengagement coping, including abuse-related factors, socioeconomic and social coping resources, and childhood trauma variables among a sample of battered women (N = 388). Relationship abuse frequency, particularly psychological aggression, and peritraumatic dissociation were the strongest positive predictors of the use of disengagement coping. Social coping resources, including tangible support and appraisals of social support and belonging, were associated with higher engagement coping and lower disengagement coping. A positive association was also found between interparental domestic violence and disengagement coping, and negative associations were found between both childhood physical and sexual abuse and engagement coping. Results suggest that coping strategies used by battered women are multidetermined and deserve further exploration. PMID:17390560
Taft, Casey T; Resick, Patricia A; Panuzio, Jillian; Vogt, Dawne S; Mechanic, Mindy B
This study examined several potential correlates of engagement and disengagement coping, including abuse-related factors, socioeconomic and social coping resources, and childhood trauma variables among a sample of battered women (N = 388). Relationship abuse frequency, particularly psychological aggression, and peritraumatic dissociation were the strongest positive predictors of the use of disengagement coping. Social coping resources, including tangible support and appraisals of social support and belonging, were associated with higher engagement coping and lower disengagement coping. A positive association was also found between interparental domestic violence and disengagement coping, and negative associations were found between both childhood physical and sexual abuse and engagement coping. Results suggest that coping strategies used by battered women are multidetermined and deserve further exploration. PMID:17390560
Taft, Casey T.; Resick, Patricia A.; Panuzio, Jillian; Vogt, Dawne S.; Mechannic, Mindy B.
Responses from 2,200 physicians indicated that nearly all have Internet access and use it primarily for medical information and professional development, not for communicating with patients. Credibility of source, speed, accessibility, and searching ease were most important. Barriers included information overload and too little information…
Casebeer, Linda; Bennett, Nancy; Kristofco, Robert; Carillo, Anna; Centor, Robert
Medical Student Fellowship in Women's Health Research Perelman School of Medicine at the University in academic medicine Â· To promote research and education in women's health Dual Mission To support in women's health: 1 award may be specific to CV research Â Clinical, basic science or community Â· Open
It is not surprising that women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a greater risk of an adverse pregnancy outcome. Although it is ideal to be in remission during conception and pregnancy, women often flare during this critical time. Paradoxically, while pregnant, women often stop the medications that have worked so well to maintain remission due to the fear that
1 Women's career success and work-life `balance' in the accountancy and medical professions the 1960s and 1970s onwards, women in Britain have substantially increased their levels of qualification of women began to qualify for higher-level professions such as medicine, law and accountancy (Crompton
de Gispert, AdriÃ
This study examined two aspects of body checking and avoidance, and their relations to the core psychopathology of eating disorders (EDs), in severely obese men and women seeking bariatric surgery. A consecutive series of 260 (44 male and 216 female) gastric bypass candidates were administered measures to assess body checking and avoidance, binge eating, restraint, and overevaluation of weight and shape. The majority of patients reported regularly pinching areas of their body to check for fatness and avoided wearing clothing that made them particularly aware of their body. Significant associations were observed between checking and restraint, and between avoidance and binge eating. Both checking and avoidance behaviors were significantly associated with overevaluation of weight and shape. The positive associations between each of the two behaviors (body checking and avoidance) with overevaluation of weight/shape remained significant even after controlling for the effects of avoidance on body checking and vice versa. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that binge eating, body checking, and avoidance behaviors made significant unique contributions and jointly accounted for 22-25% of the variance in overevaluation of weight and shape, respectively. This study documents the presence of eating disorder psychopathology among severely obese patients seeking bariatric surgery. The findings support the view that body checking and avoidance behaviors are manifestations of overevaluation of weight and shape and disordered eating. PMID:15865917
Grilo, Carlos M; Reas, Deborah L; Brody, Michelle L; Burke-Martindale, Carolyn H; Rothschild, Bruce S; Masheb, Robin M
The article presents the following new data. The medical social aspects of women with stomatological pathology during post-natal period are characterized by age gender, professional, educational and organizational aspects. The issues of impact of characteristics of medical stomatological care of women in post-natal period are considered. The results of survey of women in post-natal period using questionnaire targeted to detection of stomatological diseases are presented. PMID:25219040
Kulikova, N G; Omeltchuk, N N; Zalenskiy, V A; Tkachenko, A S
The purpose of this study was to examine among college women acquired breast cancer prevention information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and information given to mothers. Using a cross-sectional study, a survey was administered to college women at a southwestern university. College women (n = 546) used the Internet (44 %) for active breast cancer prevention information-seeking and used the Internet (74 %), magazines (69 %), and television (59 %) for passive information receipt. Over half of the participants desired breast cancer prevention apps (54 %) and texts (51 %). Logistic regression analyses revealed predictors for interest to receive apps were ethnicity (Hispanic), lower self-efficacy, actively seeking online information, and older age and predictors for interest to receive texts were lower self-efficacy and higher university level. Eighteen percent of college women (n = 99) reported giving information to mothers and reported in an open-ended item the types of information given to mothers. Predictors for giving information to mothers were actively and passively seeking online information, breast self-exam practice, and higher university level. Screenings were the most frequent types of information given to mothers. Breast cancer prevention information using apps, texts, or Internet and daughter-initiated information for mothers should be considered in health promotion targeting college students or young women in communities. Future research is needed to examine the quality of apps, texts, and online information and cultural differences for breast cancer prevention sources. PMID:23979671
Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo
Background: Breast reconstruction (BR) may improve psychosocial and cosmetic outcomes after mastectomy for breast cancer but currently, few women opt for surgery. Reasons for this are unclear. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore access to care and the provision of procedure choice to women seeking reconstructive surgery. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of patients who had undergone BR and professionals providing specialist care explored participants' experiences of information provision before BR. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative technique of grounded theory. Sampling, data collection and analysis were performed concurrently and iteratively until data saturation was achieved. Results: Both patients and professionals expressed concerns about the provision of adequate procedure choice and access to care. Lack of information and/or time, involvement in decision making and issues relating to the evolution and organisation of reconstructive services, emerged as potential explanations for the inequalities seen. Interventions to improve cross-speciality collaboration were proposed to address these issues. Conclusion: Inequalities in the provision of choice in BR exist, which may be explained by a lack of integration between surgical specialities. Pathway restructuring, service reorganisation and standardisation of training may enhance cross-speciality collaboration and improve the patient experience. PMID:23928662
Potter, S; Mills, N; Cawthorn, S; Wilson, S; Blazeby, J
We investigated health literacy and its association with the use of information sources and with barriers to information seeking in clinic-based pregnant women. The Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA) was used to measure health literacy in 143 English-speaking low-income pregnant women. About 15% of the participants demonstrated low health literacy. Participants with low health literacy were
Carol Shieh; Rose Mays; Anna McDaniel; Jennifer Yu
This article reports a study of women victimized by intimate partner violence (IPV). We describe three interactional aspects\\u000a of IPV: (1) responses and conduct before, during, and after IPV episodes, (2) impact of alcohol and drug intoxication, and\\u000a (3) Predictors of risk for IPV victimization in more than one partnership. A representative sample of 157 help-seeking women,\\u000a recruited from family
Solveig Karin Bø Vatnar; Stål Bjørkly
Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are a critical segment in prehospital medical care. This study examined EMT-paramedic career success focused on minorities and women, as part of the Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS). The LEADS data come from a representative sampling of EMTs throughout the…
Russ-Eft, Darlene F.; Dickison, Philip D.; Levine, Roger
This article reports a study of the possible impact of immigration on interactional aspects of intimate partner violence (IPV) among help-seeking women. Are there differences concerning (a) IPV categories, (b) IPV severity, frequency, duration, regularity, and predictability, (c) guilt and shame, (d) partners' ethnicity, and (e) children being…
Bo Vatnar, Solveig Karin; Bjorkly, Stal
Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnancy: Prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia, anaemia and malaria care-seeking behaviour among pregnant women attending two antenatal clinics in Edo State, Nigeria
This study evaluated malaria care-seeking behaviour, as well as the prevalence of parasitaemia and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of two tertiary healthcare facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. Malaria was highly prevalent in the study group (20%) by microscopy and estimated 25%, by PCR), but parasitaemia and incidence decreased with increasing number of pregnancies. Although the level of
E. F. O. Enato; P. F. Mens; A. O. Okhamafe; E. E. Okpere; E. Pogoson; H. D. F. H. Schallig
This article reports a study of the possible impact of immigration on interactional aspects of intimate partner violence (IPV) among help-seeking women. Are there differences concerning (a) IPV categories, (b) IPV severity, frequency, duration, regularity, and predictability, (c) guilt and shame, (d) partners' ethnicity, and (e) children being exposed to interparental IPV, adjusted for sociodemographic variables? A representative sample of IPV help-seeking women (N = 157) recruited from family counseling, police, and shelters in Norway were interviewed. Multivariate analyses showed that immigrant women had lower income, were less likely to use alcohol and had increased likelihood of having an immigrant partner. No differences were found concerning IPV severity, frequency, guilt, shame, or victimization pertaining to different IPV categories. Immigrant women were better at predicting physical IPV but had an increased risk of physical injury related to sexual IPV. Children's risk of being exposed to interparental IPV increased if parents were immigrants. Psychosocial consequences of being an immigrant such as having a lower sociodemographic rank rather than IPV aspects constituted the main difference between ethnic Norwegian and immigrant help-seeking women. PMID:20040712
Bø Vatnar, Solveig Karin; Bjørkly, Stål
Domestic violence is a serious issue that adversely affects large numbers of women and children. Despite having an adverse impact upon health and welfare, women experiencing domestic violence face a number of difficulties seeking help about their situation from statutory health and welfare agencies. The present paper is based upon a study of British health visiting in relation to women experiencing domestic violence. Drawing upon interview data from 16 women who experienced domestic violence and were the mothers of small children, this paper explores their accounts of contact with the health visiting service. All of the 16 women who participated in this research described difficulties in seeking help about domestic violence. These included practical concerns such as fears for their own safety, lack of knowledge regarding appropriate sources of support and protection, and concerns about losing custody of their children. Given these concerns, some women concealed their experiences of domestic violence from their health visitors. For those who disclosed the domestic violence to their health visitors, they did not always receive appropriate support or protection. Of particular concern was the absence of information about accessing more specialist services. The research findings suggest that there is considerable scope for practice development in order to ensure that women experiencing domestic violence are able to receive safe and appropriate responses from health visitors. PMID:12823432
Treatments for depression and anxiety in multiple sclerosis (MS) are effective but evidence suggests that individuals do not always seek help for emotional difficulties. This study explored how ten women with MS (aged 30-64), recruited via a hospital based MS clinic, coped with and understood their emotions. The semi-structured interviews were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Eight participants discussed the analytic process and themes. Four overarching themes emerged: Disclosure stress, Uncomfortable dependence, Facing deterioration and One step at a time. The women struggled emotionally with many aspects of living with MS yet coping alone provided a way of defying MS and maintaining independence and control. The women needed emotional support but reported thinking others either did not notice or understand; their emotions often felt invisible. More holistic care from services was desired. Non help-seeking for distress was partially influenced by a desire to keep things "normal" and a lack of knowledge regarding service provision. PMID:25217970
Blundell Jones, Joanna; Walsh, Sue; Isaac, Claire
Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of three medications--tamoxifen citrate, raloxifene, and tibolone--to reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer in women without pre-existing cancer. This therapy is sometimes referred to as chemopreve...
The syndromic treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in women seeking primary care in clinics where resources are scarce, as recommended by WHO and implemented in many developing countries, necessitates a balance to be struck between overtreatment and undertreatment. The present paper identifies factors that are relevant to the selection of specific strategies for syndromic treatment in the above circumstances. Among them are the general aspects of decision-making and caveats concerning the rational decision-making approach. The positive and negative implications are outlined of providing or withholding treatment following a specific algorithm with a given accuracy to detect infection, i.e. sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Other decision-making considerations that are identified are related to implementation and include the stability of risk factors with regard to time, space and the implementer, acceptability by stakeholders, and environmental constraints. There is a need to consider empirically developed treatment algorithms as a basis for policy discourse, to be evaluated together with the evidence, alternatives and arguments by the stakeholders. PMID:11731816
Behets, F. M.; Miller, W. C.; Cohen, M. S.
is on the shores of Lake Michigan, the fifth largest lake in the world where Summerfest, the world's largest music College of Wisconsin is seeking an exceptional Chief to lead the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care field. Candidates must be eligible for a faculty position at the Medical College at the rank
Substance abuse increases the risks for infections and impairs medication adherence among HIV\\/AIDS patients. However, little is known about the characteristics of substance abuse and its impact on medication adherence among HIV-positive women with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). In the present study, 148 HIV-positive women with a history of CSA completed a structured interview assessing CSA severity,
Honghu Liu; Doug Longshore; John K. Williams; Inna Rivkin; Tamra Loeb; Umme S. Warda; Jennifer Carmona; Gail Wyatt
Women's health topics of interest for continuing medical education were identified by 91 primary care physicians. Most felt that more knowledge of these topics would reduce the number of referrals to specialists. A more comprehensive, rather than reproductive, perspective of women's health was called for. (SK)
Kwolek, Deborah S.; Donnelly, Michael B.; Carr, Ellen; Sloan, David A.; Haist, Steven A.
about student loans that they are fearful they may not be able to repay causes high stress. Social, ethnic, and cultural bias and norms barriers to which they struggle to overcome anger them. Results from investigation of coping strategies suggest... Figure 2: Research Model (Nicholson) URM ? Hispanic women, stress, coping strategies, mediating mechanisms and intervention for Hispanic women in medical schools in Texas............................................................................... 77...
Anita, Connelly Nicholson
Women with chronic medical conditions are at increased risk for pregnancy-related complications, yet little research has addressed\\u000a how women with diabetes, hypertension, and obesity perceive their pregnancy-associated risks or make reproductive health decisions.\\u000a Focus groups were conducted with 72 non-pregnant women stratified by chronic condition (diabetes, hypertension, obesity) and\\u000a by previous live birth. Participants discussed their intention for future pregnancy,
Cynthia H. Chuang; Diana L. Velott; Carol S. Weisman
Background Certain medications are identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as class D or X because they increase the risk for birth defects if used during pregnancy. Objective To assess pregnancy rates and the frequency of contraceptive counseling documented with prescriptions for class D or X drugs filled by women of reproductive age. Design Description of prescriptions filled in 2001. Setting A large health maintenance organization in northern California in 2001. Patients 488 175 women age 15 to 44 years who filled a total of 1 011 658 class A, B, D, or X prescriptions. Measurements Medications dispensed, contraceptive counseling, and pregnancy testing. Results A class D or X prescription was filled by 1 of every 6 women studied. Women who filled a prescription for class D or X medications were no more likely than women who filled prescriptions for safer, class A or B medications to have received contraceptive counseling, filled a contraceptive prescription, or been sterilized (48% vs. 51% of prescriptions). There was little variation by clinical indication in rates of contraceptive counseling with class D or X prescriptions, except for isotretinoin. Women who filled a class D or X prescription were only slightly less likely to have a pregnancy documented within 3 months than women filling a class A or B prescription (1.0% vs. 1.4% of prescriptions). Limitations International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes underestimate contraceptive counseling. Documentation of a positive pregnancy test after filling a prescription may overestimate medication use in early pregnancy. Women who filled several prescriptions are overrepresented in prescription analyses. Conclusion Prescriptions for potentially teratogenic medications are frequently filled by women of childbearing age without documentation of contraceptive counseling. PMID:17876020
Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Postlethwaite, Debbie A.; Hung, Yun-Yi; Armstrong, Mary Anne
Introduction There is increasing evidence that self-medications among pregnant women are common in many developing countries. Despite the adverse impact on pregnancy, there are few programs available for their control. The objective of this study was to assess the level of self-medication amongst Nigerian pregnant women in order to determine possible harmful effects on fetus. Methods Five hundred and eighteen 518 pregnant women, aged between 18 and 40 years, drawn from three General hospitals in Akwa Ibom State were assessed for self-medication and substance abuse using an instrument, adapted from a modified form of 117-item self-report questionnaire based on the WHO guidelines for students’ substance use survey. Results Of the 518 pregnant women assessed, 375 (72.4%) indulged in one form of self-medication or the other; 143 (27.6%) used only drugs prescribed from the antenatal clinic. A total of 157 (41.9%) pregnant women self-medicate fever/pain relievers; 47 (9.1%) mixture of herbs and other drugs; 15 (4.0%) sedatives; 13 (3.5%) alcohol; while 5 (1.3%) used kolanuts. Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and witchcrafts, preventing pregnancy from coming out, for blood; poor sleep, fever and vomiting and infections. There was a significant difference in the rate of using analgesics (X2=9.43, p=0.001); and antibiotic (X2=4.43, p=0.001) among pregnant women who were highly educated compared to those with little or no education. However, the level of education has no impact in the usage of native herbs. Conclusion This study shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment. There is need for adequate education of pregnant women during antenatal clinics on the potential danger of self-medication so as to prevent child and maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23308320
Abasiubong, Festus; Bassey, Emem Abasi; Udobang, John Akpan; Akinbami, Oluyinka Samuel; Udoh, Sunday Bassey; Idung, Alphonsus Udo
Obesity can have an adverse impact on health at each stage of a woman's life cycle. In young women, obesity has an impact on psychosocial health and, as they grow older and become parents, on their reproductive health. Obesity also imposes a number of serious risks during pregnancy. In older women, obesity is associated with the emergence of a number
During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout
Objective: The study objective was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a rehabilitation residence for pregnant women with substance-use disorders yielded changes in their attitudes and comfort levels in providing care to this population. Methods: This randomized educational trial involved 96 consecutive medical students during…
Albright, Brittany; Skipper, Betty; Riley, Shawne; Wilhelm, Peggy; Rayburn, William F.
Discusses discrimination in medical school settings and dominant group strategies to comply with remedial requirements while trying to maintain their dominance. Describes how minority women medical students experience double discrimination, based on stereotyped notions of their qualifications (as minorities) to study medicine and their dedication…
Kendall, Diana; Feagin, Joe R.
Objective. We surveyed American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) women in New York City to determine the prevalence of 3 types of interpersonal violence among urban AIAN women and the behavioral health and mental health factors associated with this violence. Methods. Using a survey, we questioned 112 adult AIAN women in New York City about their experiences with interpersonal violence, mental health, HIV risk behaviors, and help-seeking. The sampling plan utilized a multiple-wave approach with modified respondent-driven sampling, chain referral, and target sampling. Results. Among respondents, over 65% had experienced some form of interpersonal violence, of which 28% reported childhood physical abuse, 48% reported rape, 40% reported a history of domestic violence, and 40% reported multiple victimization experiences. Overwhelmingly, women experienced high levels of emotional trauma related to these events. A history of interpersonal violence was associated with depression, dysphoria, help-seeking behaviors, and an increase in high–HIV risk sexual behaviors. Conclusions. AIAN women experience high rates of interpersonal violence and trauma that are associated with a host of health problems and have important implications for health and mental health professionals. PMID:16809604
Evans-Campbell, Teresa; Lindhorst, Taryn; Huang, Bu; Walters, Karina L.
This study provides national prevalence estimates for complementary and alternative (CAM) use, visits to doctors for health\\u000a problems, and the effects of acculturation on health practices in Chinese women living in the United States. A national telephone\\u000a survey of 3,172 women on their use of complementary and alternative medicine was conducted in 2001. This study focuses on\\u000a a subsample of
Christine Wade; Maria T. Chao; Fredi Kronenberg
Introduction Cardiovascular disease is the largest single cause of death among women in the US. The American Heart Association guidelines\\u000a recommend aspirin use in women ?65 years of age if blood pressure is controlled and the benefits of cardiovascular risk reduction\\u000a likely outweigh the risk of bleeding. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of aspirin use in
Helen Y. Lee; Yvette P. Tong; Shan Xing; Catherine E. Cooke
Objective To describe the prevalence, trends, and patterns in use of antidiabetic medications to treat hyperglycemia and insulin resistance prior to and during pregnancy in a large U.S. cohort of insured pregnant women. Methods Pregnancies resulting in livebirths were identified (N=437,950) from 2001–2007 among 372,543 women 12–50 years of age at delivery from 10 health maintenance organizations participating in the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program. Information for these descriptive analyses, including all antidiabetic medications dispensed during this period, was extracted from electronic health records and infant birth certificates. Results Just over one percent (1.21%) of deliveries were to women dispensed antidiabetic medication(s) in the 120 days before pregnancy. Use of antidiabetic medications before pregnancy increased from 0.66% of deliveries in 2001 to 1.66% of deliveries in 2007 (p<0.001) due to a rise in metformin use. Most women using metformin before pregnancy had a diagnosis code for polycystic ovaries or female infertility (67.2%) while only 13.6% had a diagnosis code for diabetes. The use of antidiabetic medications during the second or third trimester of pregnancy increased from 2.8% of deliveries in 2001 to 3.6% in 2007 (p <0.001). Approximately two-thirds (68%) of women using metformin before pregnancy did not use any antidiabetic medications during pregnancy. Conclusions Antidiabetic medication use prior to and during pregnancy rose from 2001–2007, possibly due to increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and other conditions associated with insulin resistance. PMID:23262934
Lawrence, Jean M.; Andrade, Susan E.; Avalos, Lyndsay A.; Beaton, Sarah J.; Chiu, Vicki Y.; Davis, Robert L.; Dublin, Sascha; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Raebel, Marsha A.; Smith, David H.; Toh, Sengwee; Wang, Jean Q.; Kaplan, Sigal; Amini, Thushi; Hampp, Christian; Hammad, Tarek A.; Scott, Pamela E.; Cheetham, T. Craig
Background Twin gestation is not considered a contraindication to medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol. However, data comparing the efficacy of medical abortion for singleton gestations as compared with multiple gestations are limited. We examined medical abortion outcomes for twin gestations through 63 days. Study Design We performed a secondary analysis of treatment efficacy and side effects using pooled data from two randomized medical abortion trials. All subjects received mifepristone 200 mg orally and misoprostol 800 mcg vaginally. Outcomes in women with singleton and twin gestations were compared. Results Of 2208 subjects, 24 (1.1%) women had twins. Treatment success was not statistically different for twin and singleton gestations (91% vs. 97%, p=0.19). Perceived bleeding and pain were not significantly different between groups. Conclusions Treatment success of medical abortion for twins is not significantly different than for singletons, although small differences cannot be excluded due to the limited number of twins. PMID:22018125
Hayes, Jennifer L.; Achilles, Sharon L.; Creinin, Mitchell D.; Reeves, Matthew F.
Background Infertility affects about 15% of couples in Western-societies with most progressing to fertility clinics for treatment. Despite being common, infertility is often experienced as a lonely road for affected couples. In this paper we expand on our previously published findings of women’s experiences with infertility or difficulty of viable pregnancy who had sought Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) therapy in Australia, and focus on women’s quality of life, coping strategies, and support needs. Methods We applied mixed methods using the Tuebingen Quality of Life and the COPE questionnaires and in-depth interviews with 25 women with primary or secondary infertility, recurrent miscarriages or unexplained stillbirth, and who had consulted a TCM practitioner. We used a thematic approach to analyse the interviews, and descriptive statistics to evaluate questionnaire responses. Results Women reported through both questionnaires and interviews compromised quality of life due to the high level of distress, guilt, grief, and frustration caused by infertility. However, our women represented a highly motivated sample, actively seeking alternative support. While the TCM approach to infertility management increased women’s sense of personal agency and control through education and continuity of care, the need for greater understanding and support on a societal level remains. Conclusions In infertility, ongoing emotional and instrumental support is pivotal to the wellbeing and quality of life of the affected. Traditional Chinese Medicine addresses some support needs in infertility not routinely available in the Western model of care. More peer-led and professional-led support groups are greatly needed for women experiencing infertility to help break isolation and raise awareness of integrative approaches to fertility management. PMID:23570255
Mass media health communication has enormous potential to drastically alter how health-related information is disseminated and obtained by different populations. However, there is little evidence regarding the influence of media channels on health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behaviors among the Hispanic population. The Pew 2007 Hispanic Healthcare Survey was used to test the hypothesis that the amount of mass media
Maria De Jesus
Although maternal morbidity is increased, reported perinatal outcomes from peri- and postmenopausal pregnancy are generally good. Ethical considerations, in particular those relating to long term wellbeing of the child, constitute the primary reason to restrict the use of donated eggs in postmenopausal women.
M. Kortman; N. S. Macklon
A growing body of evidence has highlighted the sexual side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication. Whilst most of the research has focused on the prevalence and treatment of sexual difficulties, little is known about how patients cope with the SSRI-related sexual side effects. The objective of this study was to explore women's experiences of coping with the sexual side effects of SSRI medication and interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed for an in-depth exploratory study of a sample of 10 women. Four broad themes emerged which are discussed under the following headings: searching, suffering in silence, trying to resolve and accepting what is. The themes provide an insight into the different strategies used by women to cope with the sexual side effects of SSRI medication and highlight the importance of contextualising these difficulties as part of an overall approach to improve the management and treatment of SSRI-related sexual side effects. PMID:24991877
O'Mullan, Cathy; Doherty, Maryanne; Coates, Rosemary; Tilley, P J Matt
The stereotype that women are dependent on men is a commonly verbalized, potentially damaging aspect of benevolent sexism. We investigated how women may use behavioral disconfirmation of the personal applicability of the stereotype to negotiate such sexism. In an experiment (N = 86), we manipulated female college students' awareness that women may…
Wakefield, Juliet R. H.; Hopkins, Nick; Greenwood, Ronni M.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise on physical functions (activities of daily living, physical fitness) and medical examination parameters as risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases in 65- to 75-year-old women living independently at home. The women were provided instruction on aerobic exercises and resistance training for 20 weeks. This was followed by a voluntary
Toshiaki Kato; Youichi Kurosawa
Many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medicines, especially those available over-the-counter, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals such as general practitioners and pharmacists. The primary aim of this review therefore, was to investigate the literature relating to health professionals' and women's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards medication use and safety in breastfeeding. The limited literature that was uncovered identified that general practitioners and pharmacists have poor knowledge, but positive attitudes, and variable practices that are mostly guided by personal experience. They tend to make decisions about the use of a medicine whilst breastfeeding based on the potential 'risk' that it poses to the infant in terms of possible adverse reactions, rather than its 'compatibility' with breast milk. The decision-making process between health professionals and women is usually not a negotiated process, and women are often asked to stop breastfeeding whilst taking a medicine. Women, in turn, are left dissatisfied with the advice received, many choosing not to initiate therapy or not to continue breastfeeding. Some directions for future research have been suggested to address the issues identified in this critical area. This review is important from a societal perspective because many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medications, especially those available without prescription, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals, which is ultimately influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and practices. However, there is an absence of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials on the safety of medications taken during breastfeeding, which naturally would hinder health professionals from appropriately advising women. It is equally important to know about women's experiences of advice received from health professionals, and whether there is consistency between recommendations made across resources on medication safety in breastfeeding, in order to gain a full understanding of the issues prevalent in this area of practice. PMID:21867562
/guardians that accompanied their infants and children to seek health care services at MCTH. The "focused m-depth interviews" were conducted with the parents/guardians upon receiving their verbal "informed consent". Certain broad themes were developed prior to the study... lng of arrival at MCTH to seek health care to the parents/guardians of the children with illness. The research design employed a combination of survey questionnaires and "focused II,-depth interviews" (Knodel, 1997) to analyse categorically the health...
Pandey, Kishore Raj; Kafle, Phanindra Prasad; Karki, Debendra
Background African American women are more likely to seek treatment for depression in primary care settings; however, few women receive guideline-concordant depression treatment in these settings. This investigation focused on the impact of depression on overall functioning in African American women in a primary care setting. Methods Data was collected from a sample of 507 African American women in the waiting room of an urban primary care setting. The majority of women were well-educated, insured, and employed. The CESD-R was used to screen for depression, and participants completed the 36-Item Short-Form Survey to determine functional status. Results Among the participants with depression, there was greater functional impairment for role-physical (z = ?0.88, 95% CI = ?1.13, ?0.64) when compared to individuals with diabetes and hypertension. Individuals with depression also had greater role-emotional impairment (z=?1.12, 95% CI = ?1.37, ?0.87) than individuals with diabetes and hypertension. African American women with comorbid hypertension and depression had greater functional impairment in role-physical when compared to African American women with hypertension and no depression (t(124)= ?4.22, p<0.01). Conclusion African American women with depression are more likely to present with greater functional impairment in role function when compared to African American women with diabetes or hypertension. Because African American women often present to primary care settings for treatment of mental illness, primary care providers need to have a clear understanding of the population, as well as the most effective and appropriate interventions. PMID:24079219
Shim, Ruth S.; Baltrus, Peter; Bradford, L. DiAnne; Holden, Kisha B.; Fresh, Edith; Fuller, Lonnie E.
Biotechnological advances from NASA-sponsored research are reviewed with an emphasis on their effects on women's health issues. The Rotating-Wall Vessel (RWV) has allowed scientists to generate three-dimensional cellular growth. The RWV has been used to study the growth and spread of breast and ovarian tumor cells. Further applications include the study of biological and chemotherapeutic agents, gene expression, and genetic studies of cancer cells. The RWV also is used to study other cancers, cartilage cell growth, and immunotherapy for tumor cells. Other biomedical research related to women's health includes study of bone loss, immune changes, crystal structure and growth, and the effects of long-term radiation exposure on the endometrium. PMID:11540549
Becker, J L
, economic, and national divides. We seek to create new knowledge about women, gender, race, and sexuality--from the medicalization of pregnancy, to the role of visual images in conveying gender stereotypes, to the use of rapeWomen'sStudies Department the power For more than 40 years, Women's Studies at the University
Edwards, Paul N.
Cancer is the leading cause of death for Korean-Americans (KAs), while cancer screening rates among KAs have been consistently low. Seven semi-structured focus group interviews with 34 KA women aged 40 or older in the Washington, DC metropolitan area were conducted to explore the perceptions of KA women about seeking physical examinations and cancer screening services in Korea. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Informants positively perceived the use of health screening services in Korea in comparison to seeking such services in the US. Decision-making factors included cost benefits, high quality services, and more convenient screening procedures in Korea. These benefits outweighed the risks of delaying health care and travelling a vast distance with incurring additional travel costs. Motivations to seek these services in Korea included opportunities to visit their homeland and to enjoy comfortable communication with their native language. The increase of available information about Korean medical services due to the industry's aggressive marketing/PR was identified as a facilitator. Most informants did not recognize possible negative health outcomes of obtaining services in Korea such as inappropriate follow up care if having abnormal findings. Educational programs are needed to educate KAs about the benefits and risks of getting the services in Korea and proper follow up care in the US. Health care providers need to know the different cancer risks and screening needs for this population. PMID:24322599
Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary
: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and sociodemographics of urinary incontinence (UI) in women in the\\u000a United Arab Emirates (UAE). Women at risk, such as multiparous and climacteric women, were selected from the community (n= 200) and health-care centers (n= 200) and interviewed about inappropriate urine loss in the past 12 months, using a structured
D. E. E. Rizk; H. Shaheen; L. Thomas; M. Y. Hassan
Women with current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) comprise 30–59% of substance abuse treatment samples and experience a more severe course than women with either disorder alone. As yet, no effective treatment for this population has been identified. This paper reports outcome results on 17 women who completed a new manual-based 24-session cognitive behavioral group therapy protocol treatment, based on assessments
Lisa M. Najavits; Roger D. Weiss; Sarah R. Shaw; Larry R. Muenz
The loss of a baby is a traumatic event, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy. In the present study, we attempted to recognize the opinions of women after miscarriage that needed assistance and support from the medical staff during hospitalization. The study was conducted during the period from January to June 2012 and included 303 women who miscarried and used medical care in the Lublin Region (Poland). The method of a diagnostic survey was applied using a questionnaire technique. The majority of the respondents reported that information obtained from physicians after the diagnosis of miscarriage were rather understandable (44.22%) and sufficient (41.91%). According to more than a half of respondents, after miscarriage, midwives demonstrated adequate skills (57.43%) and provided necessary informative support (52.81%). The study showed that during hospital stay the women who had experienced miscarriage evaluated in relatively high terms the physicians and midwives providing them with care. The evaluations of the attitudes of doctors and midwives increased with the women's growing needs during hospitalization. The results of the study allow the presumption that the medical staff providing care of women after miscarriage possess a relatively high level of knowledge and skills in the area of diagnostics and treatment of pregnancy terminated with miscarriage. However, it should be remembered that the constant training of doctors and midwives in the provision of emotional and psychological support is necessary. PMID:24598139
Iwanowicz-Palus, Grazyna; Rzonca, Ewa; Bien, Agnieszka; Wloszczak-Szubzda, Anna; Walczuk, Elzbieta
Objective: Sexual-minority women are at heightened risk for a number of mental health problems, including hazardous alcohol consumption, depression, and anxiety. We examined self-medication and impaired-functioning models of the associations among these variables and interpreted results within a life course framework that considered the unique social stressors experienced by sexual-minority women. Method: Data were from a sample of 384 women interviewed during the first two waves of the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women (CHLEW) study. Results: Covariance structure modeling revealed that (a) consistent with a self-medication process, anxiety was prospectively associated with hazardous drinking and (b) consistent with an impaired-functioning process, hazardous drinking was prospectively associated with depression. Conclusions: Our findings support a life course perspective that interprets the mental health of adult sexual-minority women as influenced by adverse childhood experiences, age at drinking onset, first heterosexual intercourse, and first sexual identity disclosure, as well as by processes associated with self-medication and impaired functioning during adulthood. PMID:23739020
Johnson, Timothy P.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Cho, Young IK; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Aranda, Frances; Szalacha, Laura A.
In this article we provide a comparative analysis of qualitative, semistructured interviews with 24 women who had undergone different forms of cosmetic breast surgery (CBS). We argue that women must negotiate three types of risk: potential medical risks, lifestyle risks connected with choosing "frivolous" self-enhancements, and countervailing social risks affiliated with pressures to maximize one's feminine beauty. In addition, we highlight the challenges faced in negotiating these risks by examining the limits to traditional forms of medical informed consent provided to the women, who received little information on the medical risks associated with CBS, or who were given uncertain and contradictory risk information. Even respondents who felt that they were well informed expressed difficulties in making "wise" choices because the risks were distant or unlikely, and hence easily minimized. Given this, it is fairly understandable that the known social risks of "failed" beauty faced by the women often outweighed the ambiguous or understated risks outlined by medicine. We argue that traditional notions of informed consent and risk awareness might not be adequate for women choosing CBS. PMID:21908704
Boulton, Tiffany N; Malacrida, Claudia
Discusses four trends in the U.S. health care system that affect how women's health care is delivered: (1) the restructuring of primary care; (2) initiatives in quality assessment; (3) changes in patterns of health insurance coverage; and (4) threats to the health care safety net. Indicates that medical educators must link training to these…
Weisman, Carol S.
Describes a collaboration to analyze and integrate elements of women's health into the core curriculum in internal medicine for a medical school's third year clerkship. Illustrates the new curriculum by describing the new module in pulmonary medicine and discusses the use of the process to integrate curricula in other interdisciplinary fields.…
Nicolette, JoDean; Jacobs, Michael D.
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. The situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal complications. The purpose of this study was to describe women's perceptions of homebirths in the medical districts of Ouargaye and Diapaga. METHODS: A qualitative approach was used to
Télesphore D Some; Issiaka Sombie; Nicolas Meda
This investigation examined the relationship of abuse-specific coping strategies and perceived responses to abuse disclosure to symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress among 131 women seeking a protection order against an intimate partner. Disengagement, denial, and self-blame coping strategies, as well as blaming of the participant by others, were associated with greater depressive and posttraumatic symptoms. None of the strategies of coping or responses to abuse disclosure were negatively related to depressive or posttraumatic stress symptoms. Findings suggest that mental health providers may find it useful to address these negative styles of coping while public education campaigns should target victim-blaming. PMID:22735315
Flicker, Sharon M.; Cerulli, Catherine; Swogger, Marc T.; Talbot, Nancy L.
This study was undertaken in partnership with a publicly funded reproductive healthcare organization to better understand barriers to utilization of its services as perceived by low income African American women in its community and how those barriers might be managed. The study uses a place-based, ecological perspective to theorize privacy challenges across different levels of the communication ecology. Analysis of participant observation, interviews, and focus group data identified three key public-private problematics in African American women's experience of reproductive healthcare seeking in a smaller urban setting: a public-private problematic of organizational identity, of organizational regions, and of organizational members. Potential strategies are identified for managing these problematics by the organization and community members. PMID:24641878
Golden, Annis G
This paper will look at work carried out with asylum-seeking families and children within a hospital paediatric setting, exploring theories that can help us to understand how highly traumatic experiences, emotionally and cognitively unprocessed, may become expressed bodily. The case examples will show how these shattered and dislocated patients…
Medicine maintains a distinction between the medical symptom--the patient's "subjective" experience and expression, and the privileged medical sign--the "objective" findings observable by the doctor. Although the distinction is not consistently applied, it becomes clearly visible in the "undefined," medically unexplained disorders of women patients. Potential impacts of genderized interaction on the interpretation of medical signs are addressed by re-reading the diagnostic process as a matter of social construction, where diagnosis results from human interpretation within a sociopolitical context. The discussion is illustrated by a case story and empirical evidence of the gendering in the doctor-patient relationship. The theoretical analysis is supported by semiotic perspectives of bodily signs, feminist theory on experience, and Foucault's ideas about medical perception and gaze, and concludes that a medical diagnosis is seldom a biological fact, but the outcome of a process where biological, cultural and social elements are interwoven. Further deconstruction of the chain of signs from a feminist perspective, assigning validity to the voice of the woman patient, might broaden the understanding of women's health, illness and disease. PMID:10474313
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study…
Ragusa, Angela T.
Objective: This study compared the psychosocial status and weight loss expectations of women with extreme (class III) obesity who sought bariatric surgery with those of women with class I–II obesity who enrolled in a research study on behavioral weight control.Research Methods and Procedures: Before treatment, all participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the Weight and Lifestyle Inventory. This latter
Thomas A. Wadden; Meghan L. Butryn; David B. Sarwer; Anthony N. Fabricatore; Canice E. Crerand; Patti E. Lipschutz; Lucy Faulconbridge; Steven E. Raper; Noel N. Williams
Purpose: Faculty attrition, particularly among female and minority faculty, is a serious problem in academic medical settings. The reasons why faculty in academic medical settings choose to leave their employment are not well understood. Further, it is not clear if the reasons why women and minority faculty leave differ from those of other groups. Methods: One hundred sixty-six medical school
Karen L. Cropsey; Saba W. Masho; Rita Shiang; Veronica Sikka; Susan G. Kornstein; Carol L. Hampton
Hispanics of Mexican origin constitute the largest minority population in the Southwestern United States, yet little is known about their reproductive health. This study assessed ethnic differentials in fetal mortality at 20 or more weeks gestation and identified the social and behavioral predictors associated with this outcome among low-income Hispanic, black non-Hispanic and white non-Hispanic women. Records were used of 80,431 patients attending federally funded prenatal care clinics in California from 1984 through 1989. The fetal death rate per 1,000 live births and fetal deaths was 7.8 for Hispanic, 8.4 for white non-Hispanic and 20.5 for black non-Hispanic women. These rates indicated favorable reproductive outcomes for Mexican Americans despite their social risk profile. An analysis of stillbirths by gestational age showed that Hispanic women stood a significantly lower risk of short-gestational stillbirths than non-Hispanics. In contrast, Hispanic women had a higher proportion of term stillbirths. Hispanic acculturation was a significant predictor of short-term gestation fetal deaths only. The inability to pay for health care was a strong predictor of fetal deaths for all ethnic groups, underscoring the need to ensure adequate access to maternity care for low-income women. PMID:7836554
Guendelman, S; Chavez, G; Christianson, R
Background: The literature consistently reports that sexual harassment occurs with regularity in medical education, mostly in clinical settings, and most of it goes unreported. Reasons for nonreporting include the fear of retaliation, a reluctance to be viewed as a victim, a fear that one is being “too sensitive,” and the belief that nothing will be done.Purpose: We wanted to examine
Delese Wear; Julie M. Aultman; Nicole J. Borges
Background Unplanned pregnancy from casual sex, unplanned sexual activity, and sexual violence are increasing. Emergency Contraceptives (EC) are used to prevent unplanned pregnancies thereby preventing the occurrence and consequences of unplanned pregnancy. Emergency contraception is widely available in Ethiopia particularly in major cities. Yet the use of EC is very low and abortion rate in cities is high compared to the national average. Objectives To assess knowledge, attitude and practice and determinants on the use of emergency contraception among women obtaining abortion service at selected health institutions in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 390 women selected by multi-stage random sampling technique. The samples were generated from government and private for non profit health facilities. Participant’s knowledge and attitude towards emergency contraception were measured using composite index based on 7 and 9 questions, respectively and analyzed using mean score to classify them as knowledgeable or not, and have positive attitude or not. Practice was assessed if the women reported ever use of emergency contraception. Determinants of use of emergency contraception were analyzed using logistic regression. Result Out of 390 women interviewed, 162 women (41.5%) heard about EC, only 133 (34.1%) had good knowledge, and 200 (51.3%) of the respondents had positive attitudes towards to EC. Ever use of EC was reported by 38 (9.7%). Age, living arrangement, education, marital status, religion were found to be significantly associated with the use of emergency contraceptives. Women with poor knowledge were less likely to use EC compared to the knowledgeable ones [AOR?=?0.027, 95% CI (0.007, 0.105)]. Conclusion The study identified that most respondents lack adequate knowledge on the method of EC. In addition ever use of EC is very low. Recommendations Health professions should give attention in increasing knowledge and uptake of Emergency Contraception. PMID:25330229
Abate, Meskerem; Assefa, Nega; Alemayehu, Tadesse
Three hundred women presenting to a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Mumbai, India were surveyed and HIV tested. Thirty-nine percent were HIV infected; 80% were current sex workers, and HIV infection was not significantly associated with past-year sex work. Only 44% always used condoms with their noncommercial sex partners. Most believed that condom preparation is a male responsibility (58%); that condom use is a sign that partner trust is lacking (84%); and that if a woman asks her partner to use a condom, he will lose respect for her (65%). All women at STI clinics in India need HIV testing and culturally sensitive risk interventions. PMID:23659311
Cooperman, Nina A; Shastri, Jayanthi S; Shastri, Aditi; Schoenbaum, Ellie
In Bangladesh there is a dearth on information relating to complications during pregnancy. We followed up 1,019 pregnant women in rural Bangladesh sampled from all the 4 old administrative divisions of the country. Trained female interviewers visited households of the pregnant women at four-week intervals and interviewed them for their current pregnancy-related complications. Out of a total of 3,812 antepartum visits the percentage of reported symptoms of bleeding, fits and convulsions, excessive vomiting, fever >3 days, urinary problems, palpitations and symptomatic anemia were 0.3, 0.7, 1.4, 4.0, 26.8, 46.5 and 78.3 respectively. Morbidities were considered to cause a health burden if they imposed constraints in daily activities of the pregnant women and they were weighted according to intensity of the constraint. For each morbidity, the mean intensity of burden per episode and the population burden per 1,000 person months of observation of all the women were calculated. For common sustaining morbidities like symptomatic anemia and urinary problems the population burden was much heavier than that for more serious but rare morbidities like bleeding and convulsions. Among the visits in which the women had any symptoms, the percentages of care-seeking for less frequently reported morbidities such as fits and convulsions, bleeding, fever >3 days, excessive vomiting were about 74, 50, 34 and 33% respectively, whereas those for more commonly reported complications such as urinary problems, symptomatic anemia and palpitations were less than 20%. Care for these morbidities was mostly sought from untrained providers. PMID:11289029
Chowdhury, M E; Akhter, H H; Chongsuvivatwong, V
Background Stress and distress among medical students are thoroughly studied and presumed to be particularly high, but comparative studies including other student groups are rare. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to 500 medical students and 500 business students. We compared levels of study stress (HESI), burnout (OLBI), alcohol habits (AUDIT) and depression (MDI), and analysed their relationship with self-assessed mental health problems by logistic regression, with respect to gender. Results Medical students' response rate was 81.6% and that of business students 69.4%. Business students scored higher on several study stress factors and on disengagement. Depression (OR 0.61, CI95 0.37;0.98) and harmful alcohol use (OR 0.55, CI95 0.37; 0.75) were both less common among medical students. However, harmful alcohol use was highly prevalent among male students in both groups (medical students 28.0%, business students 35.4%), and among female business students (25.0%). Mental health problems in need of treatment were equally common in both groups; 22.1% and 19.3%, respectively, and was associated with female sex (OR 2.01, CI95 1.32;3.04), exhaustion (OR 2.56, CI95 1.60;4.10), lower commitment to studies (OR 1.95, CI95 1.09;3.51) and financial concerns (OR 1.81 CI95 1.18;2.80) Conclusions Medical students may not be more stressed than other high achieving student populations. The more cohesive structure of medical school and a higher awareness of a healthy lifestyle may be beneficial factors. PMID:22059598
This study was conducted in and around Cape Town, South Africa, at two primary obstetric facilities and in the antenatal clinics of two secondary hospitals. Findings show that majority of the Xhosa speaking women follow indigenous healing practices for both themselves and their babies because of the need to "strengthen" the womb against sorcery, to prevent childhood illnesses, and to treat symptoms they perceive that biomedical services would not be able to treat. Self-medication with non-prescribed drugs, herbs and Dutch remedies was common practice amongst the Afrikaans speaking women for both themselves and their babies. Herbs and Dutch remedies were mainly used to treat indigenous illness (baarwind) while non-prescribed over-the-counter drugs were used to treat minor ailments associated with pregnancy. There is, therefore, an urgent need to bridge the gap between orthodox and indigenous medical systems through reciprocal learning and by acknowledging each other's roles. PMID:12476719
Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel; Mvo, Zodumo
This study focused on revealing the cultural meanings assigned to womanhood and the health-disease process in women according to the discourse of medical residents in Obstetrics/Gynecology at the Fernandes Figueira Institute, a public reference hospital specializing in maternal-child care in Rio de Janeiro. The research had two components: participatory observation in Ob-Gyn meetings and recording of oral sources. The sign-based method was used to analyze the data. The methodology included qualitative analytical coding of interviews and subsequent semiotic analysis. According to the results: (a) women are seen essentially as mothers, and their illness focuses primarily on their childbearing function; (b) technological evolution, mainly with the increased use of imaging, has reduced the importance of semiology; and (c) within the biotechnological context medicalization is part of the material and semiotic practices. PMID:16680347
Gilbert, Ana Cristina Bohrer; Cardoso, Maria Helena Cabral de Almeida; Wuillaume, Susana Maciel
Faculty retention is of increasing importance in the current economic climate. We examined the role of an institution's environmental conditions (e.g., climate, collegiality, and administration) in faculty well-being (i.e., job satisfaction, intent to leave, emotional and physical health). Women reported significantly lower well-being and a…
McCoy, Shannon K.; Newell, Ellen E.; Gardner, Susan K.
Background. Smartphone medical applications have a major role to play in women's health with their roles being very broad, ranging from improving health behaviours to undertaking personalised tests. Objective(s). Using Medline, Web of Knowledge, and the PRISMA guidelines 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified, with mobile interventions being tested on 1603 females, in relation to key aspects of health. Using a similar systematic approach an iPhone database search identified 47 applications (apps) developed to improve women's health. Findings. Ten RCTs used text messaging or app interventions to support weight loss, with significant improvements being observed in eight studies. For other aspects of women's health RCTs are needed to determine possible health benefits. iPhone store data analysis identified that a substantial number of women's health apps did not have star ratings or feedback comments (68 and 49 per cent, resp.), raising concerns about their validity. Conclusion. Peer-review systems, supporting statements of evidence, or certification standards would be beneficial in maintaining the quality and credibility of future health-focused apps. Patient groups should also ideally be involved in the development and testing of mobile medical apps. PMID:24454354
Derbyshire, Emma; Dancey, Darren
The objective of this study was to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, and risk factors among women sexually abused in childhood (CSA) after six months in therapy. Thirty in-treatment CSA survivors reported their abuse history and filled out several questionnaires. Comparisons were made to a non-CSA in-treatment sample. Although, 50% of the CSA women still had PTSD, there was a remarkable decrease in PTSD symptoms (Cohen's d= 1.06). A considerable change in self-worth and in attachment styles was found. It was concluded that CSA survivors benefit much from 6 months of weekly treatment. However, it is recommended that treatment should continue for a still longer period. PMID:19254276
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and sociodemographic factors associated with, adult domestic violence within a Native American community. METHODS: Adult women in the community were surveyed. RESULTS: Of 371 eligible women, 341 (92%) were surveyed. Among respondents, 179 reported a history of at least 1 episode of domestic violence. Fifty-six (16.4%) reported violence within the previous 12 months. Age under 40 years and living in a household receiving governmental financial assistance were independently associated with 1-year prevalence of adult domestic violence. CONCLUSIONS: Adult domestic violence is prevalent within this Native American community. Additional research is required to characterize further the relationship between domestic violence and socioeconomic status. PMID:9772854
Fairchild, D G; Fairchild, M W; Stoner, S
Hispanics of Mexican origin constitute the largest minority population in the Southwestern United States, yet little is known about their reproductive health. This study assessed ethnic differentials in fetal mortality at 20 or more weeks gestation and identified the social and behavioral predictors associated with this outcome among low-income Hispanic, black non-Hispanic and white non-Hispanic women. Records were used of
Sylvia Guendelman; Gilberto Chavez; Roberta Christianson
Introduction Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. Materials and methods A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. Results The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59–30.41); whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42–19.24); and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.08–11.10). On the contrary, being married was protective against induced abortion, with women who reported being married having an 83% (OR 0.17, CI 0.03–0.89) lower chance of having an induced abortion, even when the pregnancy was unwanted. Conclusion This study has identified three major determinants of induced abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Improved targeted programs on family planning counseling, methods of contraception, and availability of contraceptives should be widely promoted. PMID:24920938
Ilboudo, Patrick GC; Somda, Serge MA; Sundby, Johanne
BACKGROUND Limited disease awareness among women may impact breast cancer stage-at-diagnosis in Tanzania, reducing survival. This study assessed breast cancer knowledge, screening practices, and educational preferences among outpatients at Tanzanian government-supported hospitals. METHODS A convenience sample of women was surveyed regarding (1) knowledge/beliefs of breast cancer etiology, risk factors, symptoms, treatment, (2) early detection knowledge/practice, and (3) educational preferences. RESULTS Among 225 respondents, 98.2% knew of breast cancer; 22.2% knew someone affected by breast cancer. On average, 30% of risk factors and 51% of symptoms were identified. Most accepted one or more breast cancer myths. Among 126 aware of breast self-exam, 40% did not practice it; only 0.9% underwent regular clinical breast examinations despite 68% being aware of the procedure. Among treatments, 87% recognized surgery, 70% radiation, and fewer systemic therapy. Preferred educational sources were group sessions, television/radio, and meetings with breast cancer survivors. CONCLUSIONS This work reveals incomplete breast cancer awareness among Tanzanian women and promises to inform development of user-focused educational resources. PMID:24855371
Morse, Emma Perry; Maegga, Bertha; Joseph, Gertrud; Miesfeldt, Susan
An elevation in symptoms of depression has previously been associated with greater accuracy of reported dietary intake, however this association has not been investigated among individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to investigate reporting accuracy of dietary intake among a group of women with major depressive disorder in order to determine if reporting accuracy is similarly associated with depressive symptoms among depressed women. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake was calculated based on three 24-hour phone-delivered dietary recalls from the baseline phase of a randomized trial of weight loss treatment for 161 obese women with major depressive disorder. Regression models indicated that higher severity of depressive symptoms was associated with greater reporting accuracy, even when controlling for other factors traditionally associated with reporting accuracy (coefficient ?=? 0.01 95% CI?=?0.01 – 0.02). Seventeen percent of the sample was classified as low energy reporters. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake increases along with depressive symptoms, even among individuals with major depressive disorder. These results suggest that any study investigating associations between diet quality and depression should also include an index of reporting accuracy of dietary intake as accuracy varies with the severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:24587338
Whited, Matthew C.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Ma, Yunsheng; Waring, Molly E.; DeBiasse, Michele A.; Busch, Andrew M.; Oleski, Jessica L.; Merriam, Philip A.; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Ockene, Ira S.; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.
Abstract Background Although there has been much research examining the relationship between pregnancy and abuse, this study is one of the few to investigate whether perinatal status (defined as pregnancy or early postpartum) impacts the help seeking of abused women. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 3 years of prosecutor administrative records, police incident reports, and hospital medical records for a countywide population of adult females (n?=?964) assaulted by an intimate partner in 2000. Perinatal and nonperinatal victims were compared using chi-square and a series of logistic regression models, controlling for all demographic and incident-related factors. Results Compared with women across the county, abused women were twice as likely to become pregnant (p?0.001). Perinatal status did not change the rate of help seeking from police (OR 1.1, p?=?0.67) or emergency departments (ED) (OR 1.1, p?=?0.94), but it did change the pattern of help seeking with higher ED use in the 6 months prior to the assault (p?0.01) and a trend toward seeking help with fewer injuries (p?=?0.10). Conclusions Abused women are more likely to become pregnant. Perinatal status impacts how victims seek help from criminal justice agencies and EDs. PMID:19788343
Cerulli, Catherine; Marcus, Steven; Rhodes, Karin V.
The purposes of this study are to assess selected prenatal factors that are associated with initiation of prenatal care for Mexican-origin and African American women, and to explore ethnic-specific differences in content of prenatal care at first visit, relationship with medical risk, and perceived medical risk. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1,544 lowincome African American and Mexicanorigin women in 22
Ruth E. Zambrana; Susan C. M. Scrimshaw; Christine Dunkel-Schetter
Introduction Use of antidepressant medications has been associated with increased risk of fracture but prior studies have been limited by incomplete control of confounders or a limited number of fractures. Materials and Methods Use of antidepressant medications by 8217 community-dwelling women, aged 69 and older from a population-based prospective cohort study over four U.S. clinical centers was assessed by interview at four examinations over a 10-year period, beginning in 1992-94. Use was coded as a time-dependent variable. Incident fractures occurring after the initial medication assessment until July 2007 were confirmed by radiographic reports. Potential confounders were included in multivariable models and updated at each follow-up visit. Results Compared to nonusers of antidepressant medications, women using SSRIs experienced a higher risk of non-spine fracture in age-adjusted models (HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.11, 1.67) and in multivariable models controlling for potential confounders (HR 1.30; 95% CI 1.04, 1.62). SSRI use was not associated with an increased risk of first hip fracture (HR 1.01; 95% CI 0.71, 1.44) but was associated with an increased risk of wrist fracture (HR 1.54; 95% CI 1.01, 2.36). TCA use was associated with an increased risk of non-spine fracture in age-adjusted models, but in multivariable models this risk was attenuated. Conclusion SSRI use is associated with a higher risk of any non-spine fracture, but not hip fracture, in this cohort of older women. TCA use was associated with a higher risk of non-spine fracture, but this association was in part explained by confounding factors. PMID:21455735
Diem, Susan J.; Blackwell, Terri L.; Stone, Katie L.; Cauley, Jane A.; Hillier, Teresa A.; Haney, Elizabeth M.; Ensrud, Kristine E.
Aims. To seek high risk population for diabetes and to improve their health care by investigating the characteristics and outcome of hospitalization in hospitals with predominant Arab patients in Northern Israel. Methods. Retrospective analysis of the prevalence of diabetes and the outcome of diabetic in comparison to nondiabetic patients hospitalized in the internal medicine and intensive cardiac units in two major hospitals with one-year postdischarge data between 1.1.2009 and 31.12.2009. Results. Thirty-nine percent of the patients were diagnosed with diabetes. The preponderance of women in the diabetes group was noted. Diabetic patients had an increase in the duration of hospitalization (P = 0.0008), with one hospital having a high readmission rate for the diabetic patients. The average glycemia during hospitalization exceeded the recommended threshold of 180?mg% without major changes in the therapeutic regimens in comparison to preadmission regimens. Conclusions. Arab populations, women in particular, in westernizing societies are at high risk for diabetes which exemplifies as high rate of patients with diabetes among hospitalized patients. Areas for intervention during hospitalization and at predischarge have been identified to improve health outcomes and prevent readmissions. PMID:23861680
Nseir, William; Haj, Shehadeh; Beshara, Basma; Mograbi, Julnar; Cohen, Ohad
Despite the fact that two thirds of HIV infected people in India are rural residents, risk factors associated with HIV infection in rural areas are not well known. In this study we have collected socio-demographic data of 6406 patients who were tested for HIV infection in a rural hospital of India and we have investigated risk factors associated with HIV. In women the most important risk factor was being a widow and the risk was higher in younger than in older widows. Other variables found to be associated with HIV infection were age between 25 and 45 years in men, low education level (especially those who only completed primary education) and working in a field not related to agriculture in scheduled castes and men from scheduled tribes. The results of this study express the need for HIV screening of widows who live in rural areas of Indian States with high HIV prevalence. PMID:25170450
Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Midde, Manoranjan; Naik, Praveen K
Despite the fact that two thirds of HIV infected people in India are rural residents, risk factors associated with HIV infection in rural areas are not well known. In this study we have collected socio-demographic data of 6406 patients who were tested for HIV infection in a rural hospital of India and we have investigated risk factors associated with HIV. In women the most important risk factor was being a widow and the risk was higher in younger than in older widows. Other variables found to be associated with HIV infection were age between 25 and 45 years in men, low education level (especially those who only completed primary education) and working in a field not related to agriculture in scheduled castes and men from scheduled tribes. The results of this study express the need for HIV screening of widows who live in rural areas of Indian States with high HIV prevalence.
Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Midde, Manoranjan; Naik, Praveen K.
After consideration of comments filed and the relevant issues, the Immigration and Naturalization Service (Service) has decided not to implement one of the changes previously proposed, to preclude the use of the H-1B non-immigrant classification for graduates of foreign medical schools pursuing medical residencies in the United States. However, this rule amends the Service's regulations in other respects by modifying the filing procedures for certain H nonimmigrant petitions involving multiple beneficiaries. The rule allows a petitioner to file a single petition even when the beneficiaries listed on the petition will be applying for nonimmigrant visas at different consulates or for entry into the United States at different Ports-of-Entry, provided that the aliens will be performing the same service or receiving the same training, for the same period of time, and in the same location. This rule further amends the Service's regulations by clearly differentiating between an H-3 alien trainee and an H-3 special education trainee with respect to the time limitations on admission for these types of classifications. This rule will ease the burden on the public when filing H petitions involving multiple beneficiaries and will correct a regulatory inconsistency regarding the limitations on stay for H-3 nonimmigrant aliens. PMID:10153533
Purpose Some mental illnesses have been suggested to be associated with obesity, although results are somewhat inconsistent and research has focused mainly on depression. Methods Associations between anxiety, depression, medications for these illnesses, and obesity were investigated cross-sectionally among women aged 25–74 (n?=?3004) who participated as population controls in a cancer case-control study. Participants self-reported information on anxiety, depression, height, current weight and weight at age 25. Results No association was observed between either anxiety or depression and either current overweight or obesity status. However, depressed women taking antidepressants were more likely to be obese [OR?=?1.71 (95%CI ?=? 1.16–2.52) daily antidepressant use; OR?=?1.89 (95%CI?=?1.21–2.96) ever tricyclic antidepressant use]. In the full study sample consistent positive associations between anxiety, depression and obesity among women with a history of antidepressant use, and generally negative associations among women without, were suggested. Finally, weight gain was associated with history of anxiety [5–19 kg OR?=?1.29 (95% CI?=?1.06–1.57); ?20 kg OR?=?1.43 (95% CI?=?1.08–1.88)] and depression [?20 kg OR?=?1.28 (95% CI?=?0.99–1.65)]. Conclusions These results suggest depression and anxiety may be associated with weight gain and antidepressant use may be associated with obesity. PMID:24932472
Grundy, Anne; Cotterchio, Michelle; Kirsh, Victoria A.; Kreiger, Nancy
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a treatable parasomnia involving dream-enacting behaviors that is considered to be a male-predominant disorder. However, it is speculated that underrecognition of RBD among female patients in part contributes to the male predominance, probably because women have less aggressive and violent RBD behaviors. We conducted a literature review focused primarily on women with RBD, in which the age of onset of RBD, types of nocturnal behaviors, presence of dream enactment, polysomnographic findings, clinical course, treatment response, male/female ratio, comorbid diagnoses, and medications were tabulated and discussed. RBD was found to primarily affect middle-aged and older women and those with a broad range of neurological disorders. As the link between RBD and neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, becomes increasingly apparent, including the delayed emergence of parkinsonism in patients initially diagnosed with idiopathic RBD, primary care and specialty physicians should be aware of RBD in women, its potential complications, its excellent response to clonazepam, and its association with neurological disorders and older age groups. PMID:20044857
Bodkin, Cynthia L; Schenck, Carlos H
Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) disproportionately affects women, racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. We held focus groups for women from medically underserved communities to discuss interventions to improve care. Methods From our Lupus Registry, we invited 282 women, > 18 years, residing in urban, medically underserved areas. Hospital-based clinics and support groups also recruited participants. Women were randomly assigned to 3 focus groups. 75-minute sessions were recorded, transcribed and coded thematically using interpretative phenomenologic analysis and single counting methods. We categorized interventions by benefits, limitations, target populations and implementation questions. Results 29 women with lupus participated in 3 focus groups, (n=9, 9, 11). 80% were African American and 83% were from medically underserved zip codes. Themes included the desire for lupus education, isolation at the time of diagnosis, emotional and physical barriers to care, and the need for assistance navigating the healthcare system. 20 of 29 participants (69%) favored a peer support intervention; 17 (59%) also supported a lupus health passport. Newly diagnosed women were optimal intervention targets. Improvements in quality of life and mental health were proposed outcome measures. Conclusion Women with lupus from medically underserved areas have unique needs best addressed with an intervention designed through collaboration between community members and researchers. PMID:23087258
Feldman, Candace H; Bermas, Bonnie L; Zibit, Melanie; Fraser, Patricia; Todd, Derrick J; Fortin, Paul R; Massarotti, Elena; Costenbader, Karen H
This study examined the effects of socioeconomic status, knowledge and Health Belief Model variables on ever use of hormone therapy and other osteoporosis medications among older African-American women. One-hundred and two African-American women, 60 years old or older, randomly selected from Registers of Voters and a list of participants in educational activities of a university hospital, were interviewed in their homes. Data collected concerned knowledge of osteoporosis, Health Belief Model variables, and cues to action such as history of hysterectomy, personal and family history of cancer, bone mineral density testing, and discussion with a physician about osteoporosis. Socioeconomic status indicators included years of education and household income. The average respondent age was 71.1 years; 47% were current or previous users (ever users) of hormone therapy, and 11% were ever users of other osteoporosis medications. Knowledge of osteoporosis, (odds ratio = 1.4), Hormone therapy benefits, (odds ratio = 1.63), a hysterectomy (odds ratio = 4.35), and a family history of cancer (odds ratio = 4.0) increased the odds of ever using hormone therapy. Perceptions of susceptibility (odds ratio = 3.5) and discussion with a physician about osteoporosis (odds ratio = 6.4) increased odds of ever using other osteoporosis medications. Socioeconomic status mediated the effects of knowledge of osteoporosis on ever using hormone therapy. Efforts to promote bone health to older African-American women should focus primary efforts to increasing perceptions of susceptibility to fracture and persuading physicians to initiate discussions about fracture prevention with African-American patients before a fracture occurs. PMID:15989210
Unson, Christine G; Fortinsky, Richard; Prestwood, Karen; Reisine, Susan
Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is one of the fastest growing forms of illicit drug use, with research indicating that college students represent a particularly high risk population. The current study examined demographic characteristics, health/mental health, substance misuse, and rape experiences as potential risk correlates of NMUPD among a national sample of college women (N=2000). Interviews were conducted via telephone using Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing technology. NMUPD was assessed by asking if, participants had used a prescription drug non-medically in the past year. NMUPD was endorsed by 7.8% of the sample (n=155). Although incapacitated and drug-alcohol facilitated rape were associated with NMUPD in the initial model, the final multivariable model showed that only lifetime major depression and other forms of substance use/abuse were significantly uniquely associated with an increased likelihood of NMUPD. Implications for primary and secondary prevention and subsequent research are addressed. PMID:21356576
McCauley, Jenna L; Amstadter, Ananda B; Macdonald, Alexandra; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G
The apathy encountered by battered women when they seek help from medical and other professions has been attributed to patriarchal norms and victim?blaming. Because of their place in the medical hierarchy this study hypothesized that: a) nurses would have more sympathetic attitudes toward battered women than physicians; and b) professional roles and not gender would explain the differences. The findings
Karla Rose; Daniel G. Saunders
Objective We examined four separate dimensions of functional social support (tangible, appraisal, self-esteem support, and belonging) as predictors of change in depression over a four and a half year period in a sample of women reporting intimate partner violence. Method Participants were recruited as they sought help for violence perpetrated by a current or former male partner. Three hundred eighty-eight participants completed the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL; Cohen, Mermelstein, Kamarack, & Hoberman, 1985), the Conflict Tactics Scale-2 (Straus et al. 1996), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977) at the baseline assessment. Participants were re-evaluated on 9 follow-up assessment occasions over an approximately four and a half year period during which they completed the CES-D. Results Growth curve analyses revealed that belonging, or the perceived availability of people one can do things with, was the only dimension that predicted changes in depressive symptoms when controlling for initial depressive symptom levels. Higher levels of belonging support reported at the baseline assessment were associated with larger decreases in depression. Conclusions The findings of the current study suggest that interventions should consider ways to get survivors connected to informal social networks. Neither perceived availability of material aid, nor availability of someone to talk about one’s problems, or availability of a positive comparison when comparing one’s self to others was associated with decreased depression over time. Only perceived availability of people one can do things with (i.e., belonging support) exhibited salutary effects. PMID:23398492
Suvak, Michael K.; Taft, Casey T.; Goodman, Lisa A.; Dutton, Mary Ann
Perceived medical benefit, peer/partner influence and safety and cost to access the service: client motivators for voluntary seeking of medical male circumcision in Iganga District Eastern Uganda, a qualitative study
Introduction Although voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in Iganga district was launched in 2010 as part of the Uganda national strategy to prevent new HIV infections with a target of having 129,896 eligible males circumcised by 2012, only 35,000 (27%) of the anticipated target had been circumcised by mid 2012. There was paucity of information on why uptake of VMMC was low in this setting where HIV awareness is presumably high. This study sought to understand motivators for uptake of VMMC from the perspective of the clients themselves in order to advocate for feasible approaches to expanding uptake of VMMC in Iganga district and similar settings. Methods In Iganga district, we conducted seven key informant interviews with staff who work in the VMMC clinics and twenty in-depth interviews with clients who had accepted and undergone VMMC. Ten focus-group discussions including a total of 112 participants were also conducted with clients who had undergone VMMC. Results Motivators for uptake of VMMC in the perspective of the circumcised clients and the health care staff included: perceived medical benefit to those circumcised such as protection against acquiring HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, peer/partner influence, sexual satisfaction and safety and cost to access the service. Conclusion Since perceived medical benefit was a motivator for seeking VMMC, it can be used to strengthen campaigns for increasing uptake of VMMC. Peer influence could also be used in advocacy campaigns for VMMC expansion, especially using peers who have already undergone VMMC. There is need to ensure that safety and cost to access the service is affordable especially to rural poor as it was mentioned as a motivator for seeking VMMC. PMID:24255723
Muhamadi, Lubega; Ibrahim, Musenze; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Peterson, Stefan; Reynolds, Steven J
Objectives. We sought to disentangle the relationships between race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and unmet medical care needs. Methods. Data from the 2003–2004 Community Tracking Study Household Survey were used to examine associations between unmet medical needs and SES among African American and White women. Results. No significant racial/ethnic differences in unmet medical needs (24.8% of Whites, 25.9% of African Americans; P = .59) were detected in bivariate analyses. However, among women with 12 years of education or less, African Americans were less likely than were Whites to report unmet needs (odds ratio [OR] = 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42, 0.79). Relative to African American women with 12 years of education or less, the odds of unmet needs were 1.69 (95% CI = 1.24, 2.31) and 2.18 (95% CI = 1.25, 3.82) among African American women with 13 to 15 years of education and 16 years of education or more, respectively. In contrast, the relationship between educational level and unmet needs was nonsignificant among White women. Conclusions. Among African American women, the failure to recognize unmet medical needs is related to educational attainment and may be an important driver of health disparities, representing a fruitful area for future interventions. PMID:19608942
Person, Sharina D.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Allison, Jeroan J.
National studies indicate that Mexican immigrant women tend to have more positive birth outcomes than other groups, despite receiving relatively low levels of medical prenatal care. Our study-based on in-depth interviews with immigrant women who had recently given birth in Chicago-examines women's experiences seeking prenatal care. Qualitative findings contribute to understanding why many of these women received less than optimal
Margaret Sherrard Sherraden; Rossana E. Barrera
Introduction Women veterans are a fast-growing segment of the veteran population, yet they face many barriers to medical care. The objective of this study was to examine factors that put women veterans at risk for a financial barrier to medical care. Methods We conducted repeated cross-sectional analyses of data from the 2003, 2004, 2009, and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used weighted logistic regression to examine the risk of a financial barrier to medical care as the primary outcome in a multivariate model controlling for factors in health-related domains. Results In 2010, there were an estimated 1,719,750 (11.6%) working-aged veterans who needed to see a doctor in the previous 12 months but could not because of cost. For women, 13.4% faced this financial barrier. Over the study period, facing a financial barrier was consistently associated with insurance coverage, physical and mental distress days, and having children in the home. Other associations emerged in particular years, such as binge drinking in 2010. The trends for women veterans relative to men and for younger women veterans relative to older women veterans show reduction in financial barriers to health care. Conclusion The Veteran’s Health Administration (VHA) should continue efforts to reduce financial and other barriers, especially among the higher risk groups we identified. This will help meet the VHA’s objectives of providing comprehensive care to all veterans including women. PMID:24157074
Wang, Yanning; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred
Background: Providing optimal treatment is pivotal to improved health and justice outcomes for patients with dual diagnosis. Unfortunately, the available evidence suggests that these patients may be unduly prejudiced during hospitalisation due to perceptions that their requests for pro re nata (PRN) medication is ‘drug-seeking’, reflecting persistent dependence or tendencies toward abuse of licit and illicit substances.Aims: To examine psychiatric
Sonya Kaur; Michael Daffern; Stuart Thomas
The Department of Biosystems Engineering at Auburn University is seeking candidates for the position of Assistant Professor in Biological Engineering. The expected start date is August 16, 2014. Women and minorities are
such as food or fiber processing, pharmaceutical engineering, medical engineering, and similar topicsThe Department of Biosystems Engineering at Auburn University is seeking candidates for the position of Assistant Professor in Biological Engineering. The expected start date is August 16, 2014
Few studies have assessed the agreement between subjects’ self-report and medical records among patients with breast cancer\\u000a (BC), and none has addressed this issue in low-income women with BC. We assessed the level of agreement between self-report\\u000a and medical records data for key BC treatment and prognostic characteristics using correct proportion and the Kappa statistic,\\u000a among 726 low-income BC patients.
Yihang Liu; Allison L. Diamant; Amardeep Thind; Rose C. Maly
Africa's distribution of specialized private health services is severely disproportionate. Mismatch between South Africa's excess supply and a huge demand potential in an under-serviced continent represents an entrepreneurial opportunity to attract patients to South Africa for treatment and recuperative holidays. However, effective demand for intra-African medical tourism could be constrained by sub-Saharan poverty. Results from interviewing 320 patients and five staff at the Johannesburg Breast care Centre of Excellence, however, reject this proposition, Africa's middle class women being the target market estimated to grow annually by one million while breast cancer incidence increases with middle-class lifestyles. Uncovering this potential involves an extensive marketing strategy. PMID:22392794
Ahwireng-Obeng, Frederick; van Loggerenberg, Charl
OBJECTIVES To determine the proportion of untreated women who reported receiving treatment after incident fracture and to identify factors that predict treatment across an international spectrum of individuals. DESIGN Prospective observational study. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed at baseline and 1 year. SETTING Multinational cohort of noninstitutionalized women recruited from 723 primary physician practices in 10 countries. PARTICIPANTS Sixty thousand three hundred ninety-three postmenopausal women aged 55 and older were recruited with a 2:1 oversampling of women aged 65 and older. MEASUREMENTS Data collected included participant demographics, medical history, fracture occurrence, medications, and risk factors for fracture. Anti-osteoporosis medications (AOMs) included estrogen, selective estrogen receptor modulators, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone, and strontium. RESULTS After the first year of follow-up, 1,075 women reported an incident fracture. Of these, 17% had started AOM, including 15% of those with a single fracture and 35% with multiple fractures. Predictors of treatment included baseline calcium use (P = .01), baseline diagnosis of osteoporosis (P < .001), and fracture type (P < .001). In multivariable analysis, women taking calcium supplements at baseline (odds ratio (OR) = 1.67) and with a baseline diagnosis of osteoporosis (OR = 2.55) were more likely to be taking AOM. Hip fracture (OR = 2.61), spine fracture (OR = 6.61), and multiple fractures (OR = 3.79) were associated with AOM treatment. Age, global region, and use of high-risk medications were not associated with treatment. CONCLUSION More than 80% of older women with new fractures were not treated, despite the availability of AOM. Important factors associated with treatment in this international cohort included diagnosis of osteoporosis before the incident fracture, spine fracture, and to a lesser degree, hip fracture. PMID:22316070
Greenspan, Susan L.; Wyman, Allison; Hooven, Frederick H.; Adami, Silvano; Gehlbach, Stephen; Anderson, Frederick A; Boone, Steven; Lacroix, Andrea Z.; Lindsay, Robert; Netelenbos, J. Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S.; Watts, Nelson B.
Clinical evidence supports the value of BRCA1/2 genetic counseling and testing for managing hereditary breast and ovarian cancer risk; however, BRCA1/2 genetic counseling and testing are underutilized among black women, and reasons for low use remain elusive. We examined the potential influence of sociocultural factors (medical mistrust, concerns about genetic discrimination) on genetic counseling and testing engagement in a sample of 100 black women at increased risk for carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation. Eligible participants fell into 1 of 3 groups: (1) healthy women with at least 1 first-degree relative affected by breast and/or ovarian cancer, (2) women diagnosed with breast cancer at age less than or equal to 50 years; and (3) women diagnosed with breast and/or ovarian cancer at age greater than or equal to 50 years with either 1 first-degree relative or 2 second-degree relatives with breast and/or ovarian cancer. Participants were recruited from clinical anid community settings and completed a semistructured interview. Study variable relationships were examined using bivariate tests and multivariate regression analysis. As expected, genetic counseling and testing engagement among this sample was low (28%). After accounting for;sociodemographic factors and self-efficacy (beta=0.37, p<.001), women with higher medical mistrust had lower genetic counseling and testing engagement (beta=-0.26, p<.01). Community-level and individual interventions are needed to improve utilization of genetic counseling and testing among underserved women. Along with trust building between patients and providers, strategies should enhance women's personal confidence. The impact of medical mistrust on the realization of the benefits of personalized medicine in minority populations should be further examined in future studies. PMID:23862292
Sheppard, Vanessa B; Mays, Darren; LaVeist, Thomas; Tercyak, Kenneth P
Background Self-report is commonly used as a source of information on the use of medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-reported and register-based information on the use of psychoactive medication, especially in respect to antidepressants, and reasons of non-reporting. Methods Study subjects (n?=?11,031) originated from a population-based cohort of postmenopausal women born in 1932–41 from Eastern Finland who responded to a postal enquiry in 1999. Self-reported currently used prescribed medications were compared to the National prescription register data. Diuretics served as a reference for psychoactive medications. Results Only 44% out of 1,638 women reported their use of psychoactive medication when compared to the prescription register within a 4-month time window preceding their response to enquiry. Altogether, 55% out of 777 women reported their use of antidepressants and 29% out of 861 reported their use of other psychoactive medications. In comparison 83% reported their use of diuretics. After excluding the occasional use, an increase in sensitivity by approximately 10 percentage points was seen regardless of the group of psychoactive medication. High use and history of work disability pension due to psychiatric cause were associated with a much higher likelihood of reporting psychoactive medication use (for antidepressants 70% and 81%, respectively). Conclusions For research purposes, self-reported current use of psychoactive medication seems to be a sufficient indicator for regular use of antidepressants or in respect of use of any psychoactive medication, for subjects with severe psychiatric disease. PMID:23819474
The July 1989 US Supreme Court decision in Webster v Reproductive Health Services restricts both women's access to legal abortion and physicians' latitude when performing abortions. We surveyed 197 medical students at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons regarding their general attitudes toward abortion as well as their specific opinions concerning the Webster decision and the possible restriction of minors' access to abortion represented by three then undecided cases. Of those surveyed, 85.8% were pro-choice by self-description as compared with 14.2% pro-life. The antiabortion group was predominantly male (78.6%) and of Catholic background, while there were no significant gender and/or religious correlates among the pro-choice group. The majority of the respondents (83.2%) disagreed with either one or both stipulated restrictions of Webster and 81.4% did not support limiting minors' access to abortion in any way. Moreover, only 19.8% admitted to a change in general attitude toward abortion during their medical education. PMID:1744373
Stennett, R A; Bongiovi, M E
Mammography and Pap smear tests are known to be effective early detection measures for breast and cervical cancers, respectively, but Asian Americans are reluctant to make visits for routine preventive care. Quantitative and qualitative research conducted by the Healthy Asian Americans Project (HAAP) between 1996 and 1999 indicated that Asian residents in southeastern Michigan, like the general Asian population in the US, underutilized early cancer screening programs due to cultural, psychosocial, linguistic, and economic barriers. This article reports how the HAAP's research findings guided the Michigan Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program (BCCCP) promotion (conducted from 2000 to 2001 among medically underserved Asian women residing in southeastern Michigan), and how evaluation of the HAAP's BCCCP promotion will direct future research and health promotion programs. The article presents strategies used to improve access to cancer screening programs for diverse Asian sub-groups as well as outcomes of the 2-year HAAP's BCCCP promotion among the target population. Discussion regarding lessons and experiences gained from integration of research and practice has implications on design and implementation of the cancer screening promotion for the rapidly increasing Asian American population as well as other medically underserved minority populations in the US. PMID:12643332
Yu, Mei-yu; Seetoo, Amy D; Hong, Oi Saeng; Song, Lixin; Raizade, Rekha; Weller, Adelwisa L Agas
This study evaluated and analyzed medical school executives' perceptions of the low level of advancement of women into the healthcare c-suite. As well, medical school executives' recommendations for increasing the number of women entering and experiencing sustained success in executive positions were assessed. Related to these observations were…
Mack, Yvette E.
Rachel Littler Bodley was an important contributor to the study of chemistry and the work of women in science. In 1862, she undertook the cataloging of an extensive plant collection at Cincinnati Female Seminary. Her work was praised by many eminent botanists of that time. In 1865, Bodley became a professor of chemistry at Woman’s Medical College. While at that
Cassandra T. Eagle; Jennifer Sloan
This paper extends earlier research on the effect of managed care on the receipt of four medical interventions for pregnant women: ultrasound, induction\\/stimulation of birth, electronic fetal monitor, and Caesarean delivery. Propensity score methods are used to account for sample selection issues regarding insurance choice. Managed care enrollees are more likely to receive an ultrasound, which may be indicative of
Leo Turcotte; John Robst; Solomon Polachek
Objective To determine the risks of short term adverse events in adolescent and older women undergoing medical abortion. Design Population based retrospective cohort study. Setting Finnish abortion register 2000-6. Participants All women (n=27?030) undergoing medical abortion during 2000-6, with only the first induced abortion analysed for each woman. Main outcome measures Incidence of adverse events (haemorrhage, infection, incomplete abortion, surgical evacuation, psychiatric morbidity, injury, thromboembolic disease, and death) among adolescent (<18 years) and older (?18 years) women through record linkage of Finnish registries and genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections detected concomitantly with abortion and linked with data from the abortion register for 2004-6. Results During 2000-6, 3024 adolescents and 24?006 adults underwent at least one medical abortion. The rate of chlamydia infections was higher in the adolescent cohort (5.7% v 3.7%, P<0.001). The incidence of adverse events among adolescents was similar or lower than that among the adults. The risks of haemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.77 to 0.99), incomplete abortion (0.69, 0.59 to 0.82), and surgical evacuation (0.78, 0.67 to 0.90) were lower in the adolescent cohort. In subgroup analysis of primigravid women, the risks of incomplete abortion (0.68, 0.56 to 0.81) and surgical evacuation (0.75, 0.64 to 0.88) were lower in the adolescent cohort. In logistic regression, duration of gestation was the most important risk factor for infection, incomplete abortion, and surgical evacuation. Conclusions The incidence of adverse events after medical abortion was similar or lower among adolescents than among older women. Thus, medical abortion seems to be at least as safe in adolescents as it is in adults. PMID:21508042
Objectives We examined stereotyping of chronic pain sufferers among women aged 18 – 40 years and determined whether perceived stereotyping affects seeking care for women with chronic vulvar pain. Design Cross-sectional study using a community-based survey of vulvodynia asking if “Doctors think that people with chronic pain exaggerate their pain”, and if “People believe that vulvar pain is used as an excuse to avoid having sex”. Setting and Participants 12,834 women aged 18 – 40 years in metropolitan Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota. Paul, Minnesota. Outcome Measures Women were considered to have a history of chronic vulvar pain if they reported vulvar burning lasting more than 3 months or vulvar pain on contact. Results 4,987 (38.9%) women reported a chronic pain condition; 1,651 had chronic vulvar pain. Women experiencing chronic pain were more likely than those without to perceive stereotyping from both doctors and others; a dose-response with the number of pain conditions existed. Women with chronic vulvar pain were more likely to believe that people think vulvar pain is an excuse to avoid intercourse. Half of the women with chronic vulvar pain did not seek medical care for it; of these, 40.4% perceived stereotyping from doctors. However, it was women who actually sought care (45.1%) who were more likely to feel stigmatized by doctors (adj. relative risk=1.11, 95% CI: 1.01-1.23). Conclusions Perceived negative stereotyping among chronic pain sufferers is common, particularly negative perceptions about physicians. In fact, chronic vulvar pain sufferers who felt stigmatized were more likely to have sought care than those who didn't feel stigmatized. PMID:23742116
Nguyen, Ruby H.N.; Turner, Rachael M.; Rydell, Sarah A.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Harlow, Bernard L.
The Seeking Michigan website is part of a collaboration between the Library of Michigan and Archives of Michigan, and its aim is to provide "access to unique historical information that promotes Michigan's cultural heritage." Some of the historical information visitors will find on the site includes images, documents, oral histories, maps, films, and artifacts. The "Look" section of the website is a blog where various people author articles about a story or item they have chosen from the site, for example Randy Riley of the Library of Michigan writes about Elmore Leonard, often called "The Dickens of Detroit" by his fans. Visitors who are Detroit Red Wings fans will appreciate the article about their last game at Olympia Stadium, authored by Matt Zarb of the Michigan Historical Museum. Lastly, visiting educators will find that the "Teach" link has a short video about the "History of the Photograph", which is the introduction to a lesson for young people on how to analyze the many historic photographs on the Seeking Michigan website. The link to the lesson is at the end of the video.
We present the results of a clinical trial that tested the efficacy of using motivational interviewing (MI) in a group format\\u000a to promote adherence to antiretroviral medications and risk reduction behaviors (RRB) in 203 predominately African American\\u000a HIV infected women. It was compared to a group health promotion program. Participants were followed for 9 months. Adherence\\u000a was measured by MEMS®; and
Marcia McDonnell Holstad; Colleen DiIorio; Mary E. Kelley; Kenneth Resnicow; Sanjay Sharma
After completing a full-time practicum with the Women's League of Burma (WLB) and the Shan Women's Action Network (SWAN), I accompanied their delegation to the U.N. Commission on the Status of Women's 49th Session, at the United Nations Headquarters in New York in March 2005. It was during this conference that I had the opportunity to answer my research questions:
Jennifer A. Quigley
Background: Routine testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among pregnant women is done early during antenatal care (ANC) in Tanzania, but retesting for the women found negative is rarely done at term or during delivery. Aim: This study aimed at determining the magnitude and risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion among pregnant women delivering at Bugando Medical Center (BMC). Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2013 involving 400 pregnant women who tested HIV negative during ANC. These were re-tested during delivery, and those found positive (and their babies) were given antiretroviral therapy (ART) prophylaxis. All exposed babies were tested by polymerase chain reactions (DNAPCR) at 1 month of age. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire and patients’ files. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 software. Results: Of 400 pregnant women (mean age 26.4 [5.73] years) enrolled, HIV seroconversion was found in 5.3% (21/400). Upon multivariate logistic regression analysis, polygamous marriage (P < 0.001) and history of syphilis during ANC visit (P < 0.001) were found to be independent predictors of HIV seroconversion among pregnant women delivering at BMC. One of the 21 babies (4.8%) born of HIV seroconverted women was confirmed to be HIV infected. Conclusion: The high rate of HIV seroconversion found in this study implies that HIV re-testing should be an enduring exercise. This will allow timely provision of ART prophylaxis to HIV seroconverted women and their exposed babies and thus, prevent mother to child transmission of HIV. PMID:25328784
Mbena, H; Seni, J; Kajura, A; Matovelo, D; Kihunrwa, A
This study of the differences between 23 men and 18 women who were convicted of partner homicide in Missouri found that the women were more likely to be injured and to seek medical attention as a result of the battering they received than were the men and had a higher level of fear of the batterers before they killed them.
Karen D. Stout; Patricia Brown
Descriptive data concerning type and severity of psychological symptoms of 162 art students seeking psychotherapy at an art school counseling service were obtained. These undergraduate and graduate students who presented for consecutive intakes over one year completed the Symptom Checklist-90-R. Women reported more severe symptomatology than men. Eighty-six and four-tenths percent of this sample met the criteria for probable psychological disorder. The data demonstrate the importance for mental health professionals who work with developing artists to provide skilled evaluation and treatment for a wide range of psychological disorders, to engage in crisis intervention and consultation and to develop a strong referral network for management of medication, long-term treatment, and hospitalization when necessary. PMID:9923153
Behen, J M; Anable, J
This study of 302 Israeli women sought to investigate the associations among stressful reproductive experiences (e.g. fertility problems, abortions, and traumatic births), chronic medical conditions, pain, and depression. The specific aims of the study were to examine (1) the effect of stressful reproductive experiences, chronic medical conditions, and pain on depressive symptoms and (2) the effect of stressful reproductive experiences, chronic medical conditions, and depressive symptoms on pain. Our findings corroborate with previous studies demonstrating that depression and pain are two interrelated, but different phenomena, which have both common and distinct risk factors. The findings are discussed in the light of stress and adaptation theories that point to the long-term effects of stressful life events on emotional and physiological aspects such as depression and pain. PMID:21745023
Sarid, Orly; Segal-Engelchin, Dorit; Cwikel, Julie
When alcoholic women seek medical assistance, it is more likely to be because of distress over interpersonal or family problems, and their complaints of anxiety, depression and insomnia will be treated with prescription drugs. The alcoholism, which presents differently in women than men, is often left undiagnosed and untreated. However, even when women seek help for a drinking problem, traditional and male-dominated support groups may not meet their unique needs. When it comes to alcoholism, men and women are certainly not created equal. PMID:7728702
Objectives. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of HIV-positive women who do not report highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use. Methods. We analyzed HAART use among 1165 HIV-positive participants in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Results. Between October 1, 2000, and March 31, 2001, 254 women with clinical indications for HAART reported not using it, 635 reported HAART use, and 276 had no clinical indications. In multivariate analysis, using crack/cocaine/heroin and a history of abuse decreased the likelihood of using HAART, whereas being White increased it. Conclusions. One of 4 women for whom HAART was indicated reported not using HAART. Childhood sexual abuse prevention, more intensive abuse treatment, and continuing drug treatment may enhance HIV disease treatment of women. PMID:15226135
Cohen, Mardge H.; Cook, Judith A.; Grey, Dennis; Young, Mary; Hanau, Lawrence H.; Tien, Phyllis; Levine, Alexandra M.; Wilson, Tracey E.
ObjectivesTo describe the frequency and determinants of self-medication for symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a female sex worker (FSW) population. To present a methodology exploring the best predictors as well as the interactions between determinants of self-medication.MethodsA cross-sectional survey of 4153 FSW carried out in Peru. The prevalence of self-medication was estimated from the subsample of participants who
Gabriela B Gomez; Pablo E Campos; Clara Buendia; Cesar P Carcamo; Patricia J Garcia; Patricia Segura; William L Whittington; James P Hughes; Helen Ward; Geoffrey P Garnett; King K Holmes
Haitian women are twice as likely as men to have HIV/AIDs. Factors underlying the feminization of HIV are complex. Self-esteem is an important correlate of sexual behavior. However, its meaning and impact on health behaviors may be influenced by cultural factors. This qualitative study took place in Haiti 4 months after the 2010 earthquake and examines the meaning of self-esteem among young Haitian women seeking treatment for a recurrent sexually transmitted infection (STI). The meaning of self-esteem was derived from a sense of gratitude and was rooted in their ability to provide for family. This may have led to behaviors such as not using condoms or having sex with partners in concurrent relationships. This article highlights the resilience and resourcefulness of Haitian women, provides insight into how women with apparent positive self-images were led to make choices that placed them at high risk for contracting HIV, and concludes with recommendations for future interventions. PMID:24694329
Severe, Linda; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Deschamps, Marie M; Reif, Lindsey; Post, Kendall; Johnson, Warren D; Pape, Jean W; Boutin-Foster, Carla
Study Objective: Differences between men and women in management and outcome following cerebrovascular events have been described. However, most of the differences observed have only been partially adjusted for baseline differences, or not at all. The objective of the present study was to compare acute and follow-up management between men and women after stroke and transitory ischemic attacks, adjusting for
Jacqueline Müller-Nordhorn; Christian H. Nolte; Karin Rossnagel; Gerhard J. Jungehülsing; Andreas Reich; Stephanie Roll; Arno Villringer; Stefan N. Willich
Hispanics, Blacks, and women are disproportionately burdened by intimate partner violence. Barriers to seeking medical care play an important role in victims accessing the full myriad of services they need. A secondary analysis of data collected over a 6-month period at a coordinated domestic violence social agency was completed to assess predictors of seeking medical care after experiencing intimate partner violence. A hierarchical logistic regression was conducted to assess the predictive ability of socioeconomic factors, type of abuse, and severity of abuse. Hispanic victims of intimate partner violence were less likely to seek medical attention compared to non-Hispanic Whites, even after controlling for socioeconomic factors, type of abuse, and severity of abuse, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = .40, p = .05, 95% CI [.164, .995]. Victims reporting physical abuse were over seven times more likely to seek medical attention, AOR = 8.02, p = .04, 95% CI [2.35, 27.34]. Medical care needs to be incorporated into coordinated social services offered to victims of intimate partner violence. PMID:23268315
Lawson, Sarah L.; Laughon, Kathryn; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.
In this article we present findings from 20 in-depth interviews with Indian and Pakistani men diagnosed with angina or myocardial infarction that explored their experiences of interpreting, and acting upon, their cardiac symptoms. By employing a social constructionist gender analysis, we explore the extent to which social constructions of masculinity intersected with men's help-seeking decision-making process, and how these were
Paul M. Galdas; Francine M. Cheater
background: More than 15 million women, many of reproductive age, were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at the end of 2007. As the HIV epidemic evolves, heterosexual intercourse is increasingly risky: the risk of infection in exposed young women is 4- to 7-fold higher than in young men and nearly half a million newborns annually have HIV. This review
Oskari Heikinheimo; Pekka Lahteenmaki
Objective: This study examined whether disparities in mammography use between women of differing socioeconomic status (SES; income and education) and varying access to medical care (healthcare insurance and routine medical check-up) remained over time despite overall increased breast cancer screening. Methods: Analysis of changes over time were made using data from the 1992, 1996, and 2000 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance
Mario Schootman; Donna B. Jeffe; Anat H. Reschke; Rebecca L. Aft
The importance of increasing cultural awareness and sensitivity when working with diverse clients has been expressed within the literature in the field of Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT) and incorporated into many MFT training programs. Research specifically related to the Latino culture has identified that Mexican-Americans' under use professional mental health services. Gender differences between help-seeking behaviors in Mexican-Americans have
Ashley Marie Barrera
Introduction Cancer of the cervix rank the second most common cause of cancer related deaths among women in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that 529, 409 new cases are diagnosed annually with a mortality rate approaching 274,883 per year. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) precedes almost all cervical cancers. The incidence rate of CIN among HIV infected women is five times higher as compared to the rate in HIV negative women. The screening for cervical dysplasia and an appropriate management in women with CIN are effective methods for preventing cervical cancer. This study was done to determine the prevalence and predictors of CIN among a HIV infected women attending Care and Treatment centre (CTC) at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC). Methods A cross sectional survey was undertaken among HIV infected women aged 18 years and above attending at BMC CTC clinic between February and March 2013. Visual Inspection with Acetic acid (VIA) was used as the screening method for detection of CIN. Socio-demographic, reproductive and clinical information was obtained from participants and the blood was collected for CD4 lymphocyte count. Cervical punch biopsy for histological examination was performed for those who had VIA positive test. Data were entered and analyzed using STATA Version 12.0 soft ware. Results A total number of 95 (26.8%) participants had positive VIA test among three hundred and fifty-five (355) HIV infected women. Histology results showed; 4(4.2%) were normal, 26 (27.4%) had an inflammatory lesion, 58(61.1%) had CIN and 7(7.3%) had invasive cervical cancer. CIN was found to be associated with a history of multiple sexual partners (P<0.001), a history of genital warts (P<0.001), and a history of STI (P = 0.010). Conclusion The Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia is a problem among HIV infected women. A history of multiple sexual partners, a history of genital warts, a history STI and a low baseline CD4 T lymphocyte were significant predictors for CIN. Screening for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia is recommended for all women with HIV. PMID:24228805
the power of film to explore and challenge social injustices that affect our collective humanity. Completing and medical work on nearly every continent of the globe and is an expert on international, immigrant
Background Population-based estimates of the prevalence of thyrotoxicosis (TTX), the frequency of antithyroid drug (ATD) use, and risk of adverse events in pregnant women and their infants are lacking. Therefore, our objective was to obtain epidemiologic estimates of these parameters within a large population-based sample of pregnant women with TTX. Methods A retrospective claims analysis was performed from the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters health insurance database for the period 2005–2009. Women aged 15–44 years, enrolled for at least 2 years, and who had a pregnancy during the study period were included. Diagnosis of TTX was based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes using narrow (TTX-1=ICD 242.0) and broad (TTX-2=ICD 242.0 or 242.9) definitions. ATD use was based on prescriptions filled for propylthiouracil (PTU) or methimazole (MMI). Adverse events in mothers and infants were determined from the ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes recorded on submitted claims. Results The database contained 904,497 eligible women. The average yearly prevalence per 1000 pregnant women was 2.46 for TTX-1 and 5.88 for TTX-2. Thirty-nine percent used ATD at any time during the study period. Compared to women without a TTX diagnosis, there was more than a twofold increase for liver disease among women with TTX (odds ratio [OR]=2.08, p<0.001) and a 13% increased risk for congenital anomalies (OR=1.13, p=0.014), but no association was observed with ATD use. The rates of congenital defects (per 1000 infants) associated with ATD use were 55.6 for MMI, 72.1 for PTU, and 65.8 for untreated women with TTX, compared to 58.8 among women without TTX. Conclusions There was some indication of an elevated risk of liver disease and congenital anomalies in women with TTX, but the risk did not appear to be related to the ATD use. There seems to be a higher pregnancy termination rate for women with TTX on MMI, which likely reflects elective pregnancy terminations. PMID:23194469
McNally, Diane L.; Masters, Mary N.; Li, Sue X.; Xu, Yiling; Rivkees, Scott A.
A program for withdrawal of sedative/hypnotic medication was investigated in elderly women, ages 64 to 91. The sleep cycles of 10 drug withdrawal (DW) and 10 non-drug withdrawal (N-DW) subjects were monitored for a 24-hour period for 5 successive weeks, using a nonintrusive recording procedure. The first 2 baseline weeks were followed by 1 week of half-dose, then 2 weeks of full withdrawal for the DW group. The results indicated no demonstrable effect on sleep, sleep complaints, levels of depression, or daytime sleepiness on the DW group. The conclusion is that the procedure of withdrawal from sleep medication over a 2-week period, combined with the use of a substitute pill to maintain the ritual of nightly pill-taking, is appropriate and effective for long-term elderly users. PMID:9814275
Tabloski, P A; Cooke, K M; Thoman, E B
Objective Risk of depression in women is greatest at childbearing age. We sought to examine and explain national trends in antidepressant use in pregnant women. Methods Cohort study including pregnant women aged 12–55 who were enrolled in Medicaid during 2000–2007. We examined the proportion of women taking antidepressants during pregnancy by patient characteristics (descriptive), by region (mixed-effects model), and over time (interrupted time-series). Results We identified 1,106,757 pregnancies in 47 states; mean age was 23 years and 60% were non-white. Nearly 1 in 12 used an antidepressant during pregnancy. Use was higher for older (11.2% for age ?30 vs. 7.6% for <30) and white (14.4% vs. 4.0% for non-white) women. There was a 4- to 5-fold difference in rate of antidepressant use among states. Of the 5.3% of women taking antidepressants at conception, 33% and 17% were still on treatment 90 and 180 days, respectively, into pregnancy; an additional 4% began use during pregnancy. Labeled pregnancy-related health advisories did not appear to affect antidepressant use. Conclusions Antidepressant use during pregnancy remains high in this population; treatment patterns vary substantially by patient characteristics and region. Comparative safety and effectiveness data to help inform treatment choices are needed in this setting. PMID:23374897
Huybrechts, Krista F.; Palmsten, Kristin; Mogun, Helen; Kowal, Mary; Avorn, Jerry; Setoguchi-Iwata, Soko; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia
Introduction: On-line continuing medical education (CME) provides advantages to physicians and to medical educators. Although practicing physicians increasingly use on-line CME to meet their educational needs, the overall use of on-line CME remains limited. There are few data to describe the physicians who use this new educational medium; yet,…
Harris, John M., Jr.; Novalis-Marine, Cheryl; Harris, Robin B.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important cause of women's health and socio-familial severe problems, the most extreme being the victims' homicide. This is the first nationwide Portuguese autopsy-based and judicial-proven study about female intimate partner homicide. At least 62 women over 15 years old were killed by current or former men-intimate partners, corresponding to an IPV-related female mortality rate of 0.44/100.000 women; intimate partner violence was the reason of homicide in 60.8% of all autopsied women. The typical Portuguese victim showed to be a young adult woman, employed, killed by a current husband in a long-term relationship, usually with children in common and with a history of previous IPV. The typical Portuguese perpetrator showed to be older than the victim, employed, owning a firearm and without criminal records. At the time of the fatal event 59.7% of the relationships were current. In 57.9% of the former relationships women were killed during the 1st year after its terminus. Near half of the perpetrators attempted or committed suicide afterward. Most women were killed by gunshot wounds (45.2%), especially in the thorax (48.4%), with multiple fatal injuries; 56.5% also presented non-fatal injuries. The detection of prior IPV and the risk evaluation seems to be fundamental to decrease these fatal outcomes, but also, the prevention of perpetrators' alcohol abuse and carrying weapons. This work emphasizes the need to deepen the research on this issue, aiming to contribute to prevent both fatal and non-fatal IPV-related cases. PMID:24237830
Pereira, Ana Rita; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Magalhães, Teresa
Background Cannabis (marijuana) had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of cannabis in 1996, and it was recently estimated that between 250,000 and 350,000 Californians may now possess the physician's recommendation required to use it medically. More limited medical use has also been approved in 12 additional states and new initiatives are being considered in others. Despite that evidence of increasing public acceptance of "medical" use, a definitional problem remains and all use for any purpose is still prohibited by federal law. Results California's 1996 initiative allowed cannabis to be recommended, not only for serious illnesses, but also "for any other illness for which marijuana provides relief," thus maximally broadening the range of allowable indications. In effect, the range of conditions now being treated with federally illegal cannabis, the modes in which it is being used, and the demographics of the population using it became potentially discoverable through the required screening of applicants. This report examines the demographic profiles and other selected characteristics of 4117 California marijuana users (62% from the Greater Bay Area) who applied for medical recommendations between late 2001 and mid 2007. Conclusion This study yielded a somewhat unexpected profile of a hitherto hidden population of users of America's most popular illegal drug. It also raises questions about some of the basic assumptions held by both proponents and opponents of current policy. PMID:17980043
O'Connell, Thomas J; Bou-Matar, Che B
Patients with low-trauma fractures are at risk of future fractures and so should be evaluated and treated for osteoporosis. This study was conducted to assess and compare bone medication use and calcium and vitamin D intake at the time of and after an acute fracture. One hundred and six patients, mean age 66.7±10.3 years, were administered medical history and diet
Alejandra Pro-Risquez; Susan S. Harris; Lingyi Song; Sally Rudicel; Brien Barnewolt; Bess Dawson-Hughes
Background In Australia, Medicare, the national health insurance system which includes the Medical Benefits Scheme (MBS) and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), provides partial coverage for most medical services and pharmaceuticals. For war widows, the Department of Veterans’ Affairs (DVA) covers almost the entire cost of their health care. The objective of this study was to test whether war widows have higher usage of medical services and pharmaceuticals. Methods Data were from 730 women aged 70–84?years (mostly World War II widows) participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health who consented to data linkage to Medicare Australia. The main outcome measures were PBS costs, claims, co-payments and scripts presented, and MBS total costs, claims and gap payments for medical services in 2005. Results There was no difference between the war widows and similarly aged widows in the Australian population without DVA support on use of medical services. While war widows had more pharmaceutical prescriptions filled they generated equivalent total costs, number of claims and co-payments for pharmaceuticals than widows without DVA support. Conclusions Older war widows are not using more medical services and pharmaceuticals than other older Australian women despite having financial incentives to do so. PMID:22738615
Medical procedures in outpatient settings have limited options of managing pain and anxiety pharmacologically. We therefore assessed whether this can be achieved by adjunct self-hypnotic relaxation in a common and particularly anxiety provoking procedure. 236 women referred for large core needle breast biopsy to an urban tertiary university-affiliated medical center were prospectively randomized to receive standard care (n=76), structured empathic attention (n= 82), or self-hypnotic relaxation (n=78) during their procedures. Patients’ self-ratings at 10 minute-intervals of pain and anxiety on 0–10 verbal analog scales with 0=no pain/anxiety at all, 10=worst pain/anxiety possible, were compared in an ordinal logistic regression model. Women’s anxiety increased significantly in the standard group (logit slope = 0.18, p < 0.001), did not change in the empathy group (slope = ?0.04, p = 0.45), and decreased significantly in the hypnosis group (slope = ?0.27, p < 0.001). Pain increased significantly in all three groups (logit slopes: standard care = 0.53, empathy = 0.37, hypnosis = 0.34; all p < 0.001) though less steeply with hypnosis and empathy than standard care (p = 0.024 and p = 0.018 respectively). Room time and cost were not significantly different in an univariate ANOVA despite hypnosis and empathy requiring an additional professional: 46 minutes/$161 for standard care, 43 minutes/$163 for empathy, and 39 minutes/$152 for hypnosis. We conclude that, while both structured empathy and hypnosis decrease procedural pain and anxiety, hypnosis provides more powerful anxiety relief without undue cost and thus appears attractive for outpatient pain management. PMID:16959427
Lang, Elvira V.; Berbaum, Kevin S.; Faintuch, Salomao; Hatsiopoulou, Olga; Halsey, Noami; Li, Xinyu; Berbaum, Michael L.; Laser, Eleanor; Baum, Janet
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed noncutaneous cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer among women in the United States. In 2008, an estimated 182,460 cases of invasive breast cancer and 67,770 cases of in situ b...
H. D. Nelson, J. C. Griffin, L. Humphrey, M. E. Beth Smith, P. Nygren, R. Fu
Background Medical male circumcision (MMC) reduces the risk of HIV acquisition for men in heterosexual encounters by 50–60%. However, there is no evidence that a circumcised man with HIV poses any less risk of infecting his female partner than an uncircumcised man. There may be an additional risk of HIV transmission to female partners during the 6-week healing period and if condoms are used less often after circumcision. The aim was to explore young women’s perspectives on MMC, with a view to developing clear messages about the limitations of MMC in reducing women’s HIV risk. Methods We explored women’s perspectives on MMC in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, with a sample of 30 female tertiary students via four focus groups (two for women only; two mixed gender). Results In all groups, women communicated a thorough understanding of the partial efficacy of MMC, but believed that others would not understand this concept. Participants noted that MMC affords no direct benefit to women. Most thought that MMC would increase females’ risk of contracting HIV, that circumcised men may engage in risky behaviours and that men would increase their number of sexual partners after circumcision. Participants believed that condom use would decrease after MMC and speculated that men would have sex during the healing period, which could further compromise women’s sexual health. Conclusion The concerns expressed by women regarding MMC highlight the need for including women in the dialogue about MMC and for clarifying the impact of MMC on HIV risk for women. PMID:23448912
Mantell, Joanne E.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Saffitz, Jane L.; Milford, Cecilia; Mosery, Nzwakie; Mabude, Zonke; Tesfay, Nonkululeko; Sibiya, Sibusiso; Rambally, Letitia; Masvawure, Tsitsi B.; Kelvin, Elizabeth A.; Stein, Zena A.
The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability, validity and responsiveness of a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instrument, the Medical Outcomes Short-Form 20-ltem General Health Survey (MOS SF-20), in a sample of women with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Longitudinal data were collected on 202 HIV-infected women without AIDS who were receiving care at Kings County Hospital
M. Y. Smith; J. Feldman; P. Kelly; J. A. DeHovitz; K. Chirgwin; H. Minkoff
The study explored the relationship between HIV medication adherence and alcohol, cognitive, social and affective factors in 272 persons with alcohol problems. Alcohol and cognitive factors significantly differentiated those who did and did not adhere. Specifically, adherence confidence and number of drinks emerged as subfactors driving the associations to adherence. Among those who were less than perfectly adherent (n = 154), only alcohol factors predicted levels of nonadherence. Cognitive factors play a role in understanding some of the differences between those who do and do not adhere to their HIV medications, but they do not differentiate among levels of nonadherence. PMID:17284499
PARSONS, JEFFREY T.; ROSOF, ELANA; MUSTANSKI, BRIAN
With changing demographic profile India has more older women than men as life expectancy for women is 67.57 as against 65.46 for men. Gender differences in the aging process reflect biological, economic, and social differences. Both social and health needs of the older women are unique and distinctive as they are vulnerable. The social problems revolve around widowhood, dependency, illiteracy and lack of awareness about the policies and programmes from which they can benefit. Among the medical problems, vision (cataract) and degenerative joint disease top the list, followed by neurological problems. Lifestyle diseases form another single-most important group of health problems in the elderly women. The risk of cardiovascular disease doubles with the outcome being poorer than men. The most common causes of death among women above the age of 60 years are stroke, ischemic heart disease and COPD. Hypertensive heart disease and lower respiratory tract infections contribute to mortality in these women. Common malignancies viz. Cervical, breast and uterus in women are specific to them and account for a sizeable morbidity and mortality. In a study done at Lady Hardinge medical college in Delhi, Hypertension (39.6%) and obesity (12-46.8%) were very common in postmenopausal women. Half or more women had high salt and fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake and stress. There is a need to recognize the special health needs of the women beyond the reproductive age, to be met through strengthening and reorienting the public health services at all levels starting from primary health care to secondary till tertiary care level with adequate referral linkages. All policies and programs need to have a gender perspective. At present there is lack of sensitization and appropriate training of the health personnel in dealing with the needs of elderly. Women too need to be aware to adopt healthy lifestyle and seek timely care. PMID:22298132
Laskar, Ananya Ray
Millions of women worldwide are victims of partner violence annually and their children are at-risk for psychological and physical dysfunctions. A total of 300 children (ages 18 months to 16 years), whose abused mothers sought safe shelter or a protection order for the first time, were studied. Data revealed internalizing behaviors, such as depression and externalizing behaviors, such as bullying decreased 4 months after mothers obtained help. Children's scores from the shelter group indicated more dysfunction. Although no direct program was offered to the children studied, routine child care presents opportunities for nurses in pediatric settings to assess mothers for abuse and intervene with guided referrals and safety information that may promote better child functioning. PMID:25192178
Fredland, Nina M; McFarlane, Judith; Maddoux, John; Binder, Brenda K; Montalvo-Liendo, Nora
Data were obtained from the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study, in which 491 abused women were interviewed in public health centers and a hospital. Responses of a subgroup of these women who did not seek help through the identified interventions are examined. Common themes emerge across the help-seeking interventions studied: individual thresholds for the seriousness of the violence, a perceived requirement to end the relationship, and certain specific barriers. The responses provide a glimpse into abused women's reasons for not seeking particular interventions. Implications for public health, mental health, domestic violence counseling agencies, and the police are discussed. PMID:16043551
Fugate, Michelle; Landis, Leslie; Riordan, Kim; Naureckas, Sara; Engel, Barbara
Antiosteoporosis medication (AOM) does not abolish fracture risk, and some individuals experience multiple fractures while on treatment. Therefore, criteria for treatment failure have recently been defined. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW), we analyzed risk factors for treatment failure, defined as sustaining two or more fractures while on AOM. GLOW is a prospective, observational cohort study of women aged ?55 years sampled from primary care practices in 10 countries. Self-administered questionnaires collected data on patient characteristics, fracture risk factors, previous fractures, AOM use, and health status. Data were analyzed from women who used the same class of AOM continuously over 3 survey years and had data available on fracture occurrence. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of treatment failure. Data from 26,918 women were available, of whom 5550 were on AOM. During follow-up, 73 of 5550 women in the AOM group (1.3%) and 123 of 21,368 in the non-AOM group (0.6%) reported occurrence of two or more fractures. The following variables were associated with treatment failure: lower Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) score (physical function and vitality) at baseline, higher Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) score, falls in the past 12 months, selected comorbid conditions, prior fracture, current use of glucocorticoids, need of arms to assist to standing, and unexplained weight loss ?10 lb (?4.5?kg). Three variables remained predictive of treatment failure after multivariable analysis: worse SF-36 vitality score (odds ratio [OR] per 10-point increase, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.95; p?=?0.004); two or more falls in the past year (OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.34-4.29; p?=?0.011), and prior fracture (OR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.81-4.75; p?0.0001). The C statistic for the model was 0.712. Specific strategies for fracture prevention should therefore be developed for this subgroup of patients. PMID:23794198
Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Adachi, Jonathan D; Adami, Silvano; Anderson, Frederick A; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland; Compston, Juliet E; Cooper, Cyrus; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L; Hooven, Frederick H; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Nieves, Jeri W; Netelenbos, J Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S; Wyman, Allison; Rushton-Smith, Sophie K; Watts, Nelson B
The author argues that, if women have the right of self-determination, it is immoral of society to withhold or limit women's access to abortion services in Nigeria. Morality must pertain to society as well as women. In Nigeria, the abortion argument tends to focus on the rights of the fetus or the third party's interest. The abortion issue must involve understanding the rationale that is used by abortion-seeking women. Denial of access to abortion services dehumanizes women and reduces growth in national development. Women carry the burden of responsibility associated with child bearing and rearing. Unwanted pregnancies impose severe psychological, physical, social, and medical dangers on women. Impaired psychological and physical illness creates pain and suffering and limits productivity. "Doing good" is not necessarily accomplished by either abortion or unwanted childbearing. Society both discourages the taking of a human life and supports the health of its citizens, many of whom are women. A child brought into this world who is not adequately taken care of will be a burden to society. When society pursues its own self-interest in preventing abortion as a choice for women, then society becomes immoral and selfish. A woman pursuing her own self-interest is not necessarily immoral. The decision becomes immoral if the woman acts against the wishes of the father. Morality is not necessarily the opposite of the promotion of one's self-interest. Women who seek to terminate a pregnancy for health reasons seek a virtuous option of enhancing the well-being of every individual in society. The right to life for the fetus is very different from the right to self-determination for the abortion-seeking woman. When the Yoruba define a wife as a servant to the husband, the Yoruba deny women personhood. Women know best what serves their self-interest and that of society. PMID:12292664
Summary Objectives To report the career progression of a cohort of UK medical graduates in mid-career, comparing men and women. Design Postal and questionnaire survey conducted in 2010/2011, with comparisons with earlier surveys. Setting UK. Participants In total, 2507 responding UK medical graduates of 1993. Main outcome measures Doctors’ career specialties, grade, work location and working pattern in 2010/2011 and equivalent data in earlier years. Results The respondents represented 72% of the contactable cohort; 90% were working in UK medicine and 7% in medicine outside the UK; 87% were in the UK NHS (87% of men and 86% of women). Of doctors in the NHS, 70.6% of men and 52.0% of women were in the hospital specialties and the great majority of the others were in general practice. Within hospital specialties, a higher percentage of men than women were in surgery, and a higher percentage of women than men were in paediatrics, obstetrics and gynaecology, clinical oncology, pathology and psychiatry. In the NHS, 63% of women and 8% of men were working less-than-full-time (in general practice, 19% of men and 83% of women; and in hospital specialties, 3% of men and 46% of women). Among doctors who had always worked full-time, 94% of men and 87% of women GPs were GP principals; in hospital practice, 96% of men and 93% of women had reached consultant level. Conclusions The 1993 graduates show a continuing high level of commitment to the NHS. Gender differences in seniority lessened considerably when comparing doctors who had always worked full-time.
Svirko, Elena; Goldacre, Michael J
Objective: There are various elements affecting the healthy family such as marital satisfaction. Various factors such as sexual satisfaction have an important impact on satisfaction of marital relationship. The present study aimed to determine the association of marital satisfaction with sexual satisfaction among sexually active employee women. Methods: This analytical descriptive study was carried on 140 married women employed at educational and medical centers of Golestan University of Medical Sciences. Questionnaires for data collection included Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and self-constructed questionnaire (demographic characteristic and sexual satisfaction). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ?2 and Spearman statistical test. Statistical significant level was set as 0.05. Results: The findings showed that in marital satisfaction scale, the majority of the participants (63.6%) were very satisfied and none of them were very unsatisfied. In sexual satisfaction scale, most of the participants (56.4%) expressed extremely satisfaction rate and only 0.7% were not satisfied with their sexual relationship. Marital satisfaction was significantly associated with sexual satisfaction (p ? 0.001). So with the increase of sexual satisfaction, there was an increase in marital satisfaction accordingly. The findings indicated that there was a significant association between sexual satisfaction and age (p = 0.086). Level of education was associated significantly with the marital satisfaction (p = 0.038). The effects of sexual satisfaction on marital satisfaction were moderated by number of children and the level of education. Conclusion: The findings have implications for improving of couples' marital satisfaction by highlighting the need for awareness of sexual quality. According to the findings, it seems that development of educational programs and pre-marriage counseling is necessary. Continuous education would be helpful after marriage in addressing couples' unique transitional needs in marital life. PMID:25053956
Ziaee, Tayebe; Jannati, Yadollah; Mobasheri, Elham; Taghavi, Taraneh; Abdollahi, Habib; Modanloo, Mahnaz; Behnampour, Naser
Depression is an illness increasingly constructed as a gendered mood disorder and consequently diagnosed in women more than men. The diagnostic criteria used for its assessment often perpetrate and reproduce gender stereotypes. The stigma associated with mental illness and the gendered elements of depression suggest there are likely numerous discourses that position, explain, and justify help-seeking practices. This qualitative study explored men's discourses of seeking help for depression. The methodological approach was informed by a social constructionist perspective of language, discourse and gender that drew on methods from discourse analysis. We conducted individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 38 men with depression, either formally diagnosed or self reported. The analysis revealed five discursive frames that influenced the men's talk about help-seeking and depression: manly self-reliance; treatment-seeking as responsible independent action; guarded vulnerability; desperation; and genuine connection. The findings are discussed within a broader context of social discourses of gender, the limitations of current help-seeking literature and the evidence for how men seek help in ways that extend traditional notions of medical treatment. PMID:21707661
Johnson, Joy L; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Galdas, Paul; Ogrodniczuk, John S
It has been reported that luteinizing hormone (LH) had thyropropic effect on rat and human thyroid membrane. It has been known that patients with PCOS have elevated LH levels in comparison to healthy controls. The goiter prevalence is more common in women than in men regardless of population. The higher incidence of thyroid diseases in women has been previously attributed to higher estradiol levels. Estradiol has been shown to enhance proliferative and mitogenic activities of thyroid cells. However, in recent years chronic estradiol treatment has been shown to reduce volume densities of thyroid follicles, follicular epithelium and thyroid gland volume. It is thought to be due to LH suppression. Therefore we suggested that increased LH levels might provide a stimulus for growth on thyroid and alter thyroid function. Therefore patients with PCOS who had elevated LH levels should be treated by combined estradiol pills such as estrogen-progestin contraceptives for suppression of LH secretion. Further studies are needed to evaluate the association between LH, LH suppression and thyroid volume in patients with PCOS. PMID:23194382
Based on data gathered through a household survey of 1,474 urban residents in Beijing, this study examines Chinese help-seeking behaviors in times of psychological distress and perceived barriers to seeking professional help. The results demonstrate that most respondents rely on informal means of seeking help whereas mental health and medical…
Objective: To examine whether there are latent trajectory classes in response to treatment and whether they moderate the effects of medication versus psychotherapy. Method: Data come from a 1-year randomized controlled trial of 267 low-income, young (M = 29 years), minority (44% Black, 50% Latina, 6% White) women with current major depression…
Siddique, Juned; Chung, Joyce Y.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Miranda, Jeanne
Introduction: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may be an important safer conception strategy for HIV-1–uninfected women with HIV-1–infected partners. Understanding medication adherence in this population may inform whether PrEP is a feasible safer conception strategy. Methods: We evaluated predictors of pregnancy and adherence to study medication among HIV-1–uninfected women enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of PrEP among African HIV-1–serodiscordant couples. Participants were counseled on HIV-1 risk reduction, contraception, and adherence and tested for pregnancy at monthly study visits. Pill counts of dispensed drug were performed and, at a subset of visits, plasma was collected to measure active drug concentration. Results: Among 1785 women, pregnancy incidence was 10.2 per 100 person-years. Younger age, not using contraception, having an additional sexual partner, and reporting unprotected sex were associated with increased likelihood of pregnancy. Monthly clinic pill counts estimated that women experiencing pregnancy took 97% of prescribed doses overall, with at least 80% pill adherence for 98% of study months, and no difference in adherence in the periconception period compared with previous periods (P = 0.98). Tenofovir was detected in plasma at 71% of visits where pregnancy was discovered. By multiple measures, adherence was similar for women experiencing and not experiencing pregnancy (P ? 0.1). Conclusions: In this clinical trial of PrEP, pregnancy incidence was 10% per year despite excellent access to effective contraception. Women experiencing pregnancy had high medication adherence, suggesting that PrEP may be an acceptable and feasible safer conception strategy for HIV-1–uninfected women with HIV-1–serodiscordant partners. PMID:25118795
Heffron, Renee; Mugo, Nelly R.; Cohen, Craig R.; Hendrix, Craig W.; Celum, Connie; Bangsberg, David R.; Baeten, Jared M.
Studies have documented the construct validity of Bornstein and Languirand's (2003) Relationship Profile Test (RPT) in college students, psychotherapy patients, and nursing home residents, but no studies have examined the utility of RPT Destructive Overdependence (DO), Dysfunctional Detachment (DD), and Healthy Dependency (HD) scores in community samples. To fill this gap, we assessed links between RPT scores and theoretically related
Robert F. Bornstein; John H. Porcerelli; Steven K. Huprich; Tsveti Markova
Objective To determine rate of and risk factors for birth defects in infants born to HIV-infected women receiving nucleoside and protease inhibitor antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Methods Birth defects were evaluated among infants on the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 316 trial that studied addition of peripartum nevirapine to established ARV regimen for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Maternal therapy was categorized by trimester of earliest exposure. Birth defects were coded using conventions of the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry. Results Birth defects were detected in 60/1414 (4.2%; 95% CI 3.3–5.4%) infants including 30/636 (4.7%; 95% CI 3.2–6.7%) with first trimester ARV exposure and 30/778 (3.9%; 95% CI 2.6–5.5%) with exposure only after the first trimester (P=0.51). Rates of classes of defects were similar between first trimester compared to later exposure groups except heart defects which occurred in 16 (2.5%; 95% CI 1.4–4.1%) with first trimester ARV exposure and in six (0.8%; 95% CI 0.3–1.7%) infants with later exposure (P=0.02). Exposure to ARV was not associated with specific types of heart defects. Two cases of cardiomyopathy were noted. Conclusion ARV use in early pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of birth defects overall. The possible association of ARV exposure with heart defects requires further surveillance. PMID:21142844
Watts, D. Heather; Huang, Sharon; Culnane, Mary; Kaiser, Kathleen A.; Scheuerle, Angela; Mofenson, Lynne; Stanley, Kenneth; Newell, Marie-Louise; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Delfraissy, Jean-Francois; Cunningham, Coleen K.
Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, & Morahan, 2012). Additionally, Blacks and Hispanics are the two largest minority groups that are vastly underrepresented in medicine and biomedical research in the United States (AAMC, 2012; NSF, 2011). The purpose of this study is to examine specific barriers reported by students and post-degree professionals in the field through the following questions: 1. How do women who are either currently enrolled or graduated from biomedical research or medical programs define and make meaning of gender-roles as academic barriers? 2. How do underrepresented groups in medical schools and biomedical research institutions define and make meaning of the academic barriers they face and the challenges these barriers pose to their success as individuals in the program? These questions were qualitatively analyzed using 146 interviews from Project TrEMUR applying grounded theory. Reported gender-role barriers were explained using the "Condition-Process-Outcome" theoretical framework. About one-third of the females (across all three programs; majority White or Black between 25-35 years of age) reported gender-role barriers, mostly due to poor mentoring, time constraints, set expectations and institutional barriers. Certain barriers act as conditions, causing gender-role issues, and gender-role issues influence certain barriers that act as outcomes. Strategies to overcome barriers included interventions mostly at the institutional level (mentor support, proper specialty selection, selecting academia over medicine). Barrier analysis for the two largest URM groups indicated that, while Blacks most frequently reported racism, gender barriers, mentoring, and personal barriers, Hispanics most frequently reported economic barriers, language barriers, institutional and workplace environment barriers, and gender-role barriers. Examining barriers using the "Individual-Institutional" theoretical framework indicated that barriers do not occur in isolation, but due to an interaction between the individual and its institution. Additionally, the barriers of the two groups are qualitatively different and the "one size fits all" approach may not be suitable for interventions. Implications and recommendations were stated.
The emphasis of Indonesia's experiment with village distribution of contraceptives, begun in 1974, is on maintenance rather than initiation of oral contraceptive use. As part of the experiment, it was decided to make resupplies available without charge outside the clinics on Java and Bali experimentally. The effort operated on the principles of avoiding standardization and focusing on resupply. In the province of West Java, resupply depots were established in the homes of acceptors whoowere also known village leaders. Each month the depot holders received a resupply, had their record-keeping reviewed, and were advised on how to deal with complaints. Presently, there are about 1600 village distribution centers with each of these units serving several subunits of a village. Effective village distribution efforts have also been established in Central Java and East Java. A unique feature of the East Java program is a lottery created to sustain the interest of those already in the program as well as to attract new acceptors. The Bali program is different from those of East Java in that most acceptors are IUD users. In this program emphasis is on recruiting new acceptors and maintaining those already in the program, and motivational effort is directed to the male. Village distribution effort data in Indonesia suggest that as the number of village distribution outlets increases, the proportion of married women of reproductive age who use contraception also increases. In addition to the government supported family planning program, there is now a combined effort supported by the Indonesian government and Aid to International Development to achieve acceptance of the condom and increased involvement of men in family planning. PMID:12277532
Throughout the Third World, a notable trend has been the proliferation of parallel health care systems in which cosmopolitan medical services co-exist with a variety of indigenous health care services, and client populations must make decisions regarding the preferred choice among the existing alternatives. Correspondingly, Bariba women in People's Republic of Benin, West Africa, who seek obstetrical care have an
Background Increasing diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia rates expose some young women to medications with potential adverse fetal effects, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and statins. This study examined whether quality improvement (QI) interventions promote informed consent and contraception to minimize risks with use of ACE-I/ARB/statins. Methods This longitudinal cohort study at 7 clinics abstracted medical records of 328 women aged 18 to 44 with ?1 prescription for ACE-I/ARB/statins and ?1 visit for hypertension, diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia during the previous year. We measured informed consent documentation and contraceptive methods before and after QI interventions in which providers contacted their patients to discuss medication risks and benefits. Results Of 179 women who were not surgically sterilized, only 11.7% had documented informed consent related to the risks of ACE-I/ARB/statin use. One hundred fifty-eight women were eligible for the QI intervention (not surgically sterilized, no documented informed consent); only 76 (48.1%) received the intervention. Before the intervention, 23.7% of these 76 were “at risk” of an adverse fetal effect. After the intervention, only 7.9% (P ? .001) were “at risk” because some women started contraception, discontinued ACE-I/ARB/statins, or changed drug class. Conclusions Women prescribed ACE-I/ARB/statins were not consistently using contraception or were not consistently informed of the risks. Provider-implemented QI interventions improved care but were difficult to accomplish, suggesting that new interventions are needed. PMID:22956701
Force, Rex W.; Keppel, Gina A.; Guirguis-Blake, Janelle; Gould, Debra A.; Vincent, Chris; Chunchu, Kavitha; Monger, Robert M.; Holmes, John T.; Cauffield, Jacintha; Baldwin, Laura-Mae
For a concise summary of the medical assistant profession the Medical Assistants entry in the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Occupational Outlook Handbook is must read. The site covers topics ranging from the nature of the profession, working conditions, earnings, and more. The section on training, qualifications and advancement will be of special interest to medical assistant faculty and students. The section on sources of addition information will also be a good launching point for anyone seeking additional online resources.
We present the results of a clinical trial that tested the efficacy of using motivational interviewing (MI) in a group format to promote adherence to antiretroviral medications and risk reduction behaviors (RRB) in 203 predominately African American HIV infected women. It was compared to a group health promotion program. Participants were followed for 9 months. Adherence was measured by MEMS®; and RRB by self-report. Controlling for recruitment site and years on ART, no significant group by time effects were observed. Attendance (?7/8 sessions) modified the effects. Higher MI attendees had better adherence at all follow-ups, a borderline significant group by time effect (p = 0.1) for % Doses Taken on Schedule, a significantly larger proportion who reported abstinence at 2 weeks, 6, and 9 months, and always used protection during sex at 6 and 9 months. Though not conclusive, the findings offer some support for using MI in a group format to promote adherence and some risk reduction behaviors when adequate attendance is maintained. PMID:21165692
Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; DiIorio, Colleen; Kelley, Mary E.; Resnicow, Kenneth; Sharma, Sanjay
People fearful of being stigmatized by a health-related condition often do not embrace prevention behaviors or seek medical help. They may adhere poorly to treatment regimes for disease and abruptly terminate much needed treatment. Globally, 120 million—many poor women—suffer consequences of lymphatic filariasis that include stigmatizing lymphedema or elephantiasis of the leg. We investigated how women with lymphedema from two
Bobbie Person; L. Kay Bartholomew; Margaret Gyapong; David G. Addiss; Bart van den Borne
Objective To examine whether there are latent trajectory classes in response to treatment and whether these latent classes moderate the effects of medication versus psychotherapy. Method Our data come from a one-year randomized controlled trial of 267 low-income, young (mean=29yrs), minority (44% Black, 50% Latina, 6% White) women with current major depression randomized to antidepressants, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), or referral to community mental health services. Growth mixture modeling was used to determine whether there are differential effects of medication versus CBT in this population. Depression was measured via the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results We identified two latent trajectory classes. The first class was characterized by severe depression at baseline. At 6-months, mean depression scores for the medication and CBT groups in this class were 13.9 and 14.9, respectively (difference not significant). At 12-months, mean depression scores were 16.4 and 11.0, respectively (p-value for difference=.04). The second class was characterized by moderate depression and anxiety at baseline. At 6-months, mean depression scores for the medication and CBT groups in the second class were 4.4 and 6.8, respectively (p-value for difference=.03). At 12-months, the mean depression scores were 7.1 and 7.8, respectively, and the difference was no longer significant. Conclusions Among depressed women with moderate baseline depression and anxiety, medication was superior to CBT at 6-months, but the difference was not sustained at one year. Among depressed women with severe depression, there was no significant treatment group difference at 6-months, but CBT was superior to medication at one year. PMID:23088620
Siddique, Juned; Chung, Joyce Y.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Miranda, Jeanne
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent hormonal and metabolic disorder among reproductive aged women worldwide. Women with PCOS have widely varying phenotypes and seek medical care for differing reasons. In addition to concern for menstrual cycle function, ovulation, hirsutism and acne, many PCOS women have abnormal glucose metabolism. While diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance are easily diagnosed, the diagnosis of and concern for insulin resistance as a precursor disorder is underappreciated. Insulin resistance may be the first important marker of metabolic disease in PCOS women at risk for metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease. PMID:21537458
Traub, Michael L
Study Objective: We provide new descriptive epidemiology on the demography and quality of care of women who experience sexual assault. Two limited aspects of emergency department treatment received by women who have experienced sexual assault are examined: (1) administration of emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy and (2) screening and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Methods: A nationally representative survey
Annette L. Amey; David Bishai
This pilot study constitutes the first exploration of the impact of breast cancer on Asian American women. Three hypotheses guided this study: (1) Asian American women would choose breast conserving therapy and breast reconstruction at a lower rate than the Anglo American women due to cultural differences in body image, (2) Asian American women with breast cancer would express psychological distress somatically and Anglo American women would express distress emotionally, and acculturation levels of the Asian American women would modify the expressions of distress such that women with high acculturation will express distress more emotionally and less acculturated women would express distress more somatically, and (3) Asian American women would seek assistance for psychosocial problems at a significantly lower rate than Anglo women. Ethnicity, age, and levels of acculturation were found to be significant variables that had to be considered simultaneously. The three hypotheses were only partially supported: (1) Asian American women chose breast conserving therapy and adjuvant therapy at a significantly lower rate than the Anglo American women, (2) Contrary to the hypothesis, somatization did not appear to be a dominant form of symptom presentation for Asian American women regardless of level of acculturation, and (3) Asian American women sought professional assistance for psychosocial problems at a significantly lower rate than Anglo women. Asian American women reported using different modes of help-seeking behavior for emotional concerns and receiving different sources of social support than the Anglo American women. Cultural interpretations of the findings are offered to explain the differences in the physical, emotional, and social responses to the breast cancer experience of Asian American women compared with the Anglo Americans, and notably between the Chinese- and Japanese Americans as well. The findings of this study warrant more refined exploration in order to improve the medical, psychological and social outcomes for Asian American women with breast cancer. PMID:9492974
Kagawa-Singer, M; Wellisch, D K; Durvasula, R
Examines relationships between Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) and vocational interests measured by the Kuder and Strong Vocational Interest Blank, among alcoholics and undergraduates. Results support construct validity of the SSS and provide further evidence of modes of expression of stimulus-seeking needs in personality. (Author/CJ)
Kish, George B.; Donnenwerth, Gregory V.
Birth is a spiritual experience for mother and baby. Women need information and psychological preparation before birth, and a knowledgeable companion during birth. Unless medical intervention is needed, medical personnel should step back and stay out of the way. PMID:24282856
BACKGROUND: Infertility patients are a vulnerable group that often seeks a non-medical solution for their failure to conceive. World-wide, women use CAM for productive health, but only a limited number of studies report on CAM use to enhance fertility. Little is known about traditional and religious forms of therapies that are used in relation to conventional medicine in Turkey. We
Tamer Edirne; Secil Gunher Arica; Sebahat Gucuk; Recep Yildizhan; Ali Kolusari; Ertan Adali; Muhammet Can
This paper seeks to assess the role of women in Italian terrorist groups. It is based on biographical information concerning 451 women who were active in such organizations between 1970 and 1984. The analysis suggests that there were a number of ways in which women terrorists differed from their male counterparts. These differences have to do with the time at
Leonard Weinberg; William Lee Eubank
Summary Background Management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with non-obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) remains poorly understood. Hypothesis ACS patients with non-obstructive CAD are less likely to receive effective cardiac medications upon discharge from the hospital. Methods We identified patients hospitalized with ACS that underwent coronary angiography and had 6-month follow-up. Patients were grouped by CAD severity: non-obstructive CAD (<50% blockage in all vessels) or obstructive CAD (?50% blockage in ?1 vessels). Data were collected on demographics, medications at discharge, and adverse outcomes at 6 months, for all patients. Results Of the 2,264 ACS patients included in the study: 123 patients had non-obstructive CAD and 2,141 had obstructive CAD. Cardiac risk factors including hypertension and diabetes were common among patients with non-obstructive CAD. Men and women with non-obstructive CAD were less likely to receive cardiac medications compared to patients with obstructive CAD including aspirin (87.8% vs. 95.0%, p=0.001), beta-blockers (74.0% vs. 89.2%, p<0.001), or statins (69.1% vs. 81.2%, p=0.001). No gender-related differences in discharge medications were observed for patients with nonobstructive CAD. However women with non-obstructive CAD had similar rates of cardiac-related rehospitalization as men with obstructive CAD (23.3% and 25.9%, respectively). Conclusions Patients with non-obstructive CAD are less likely to receive evidence-based medications compared to patients with obstructive CAD, despite the presence of CAD risk factors and occurrence of an ACS event. Further research is warranted to determine if receipt of effective cardiac medications among patients with non-obstructive CAD would reduce cardiac related events. PMID:20063300
Ramanath, Vijay S.; Armstrong, David F.; Grzybowski, Mary; Rahnama-Mohagdam, Sahand; Tamhane, Umesh U.; Gordon, Kelly; Froehlich, James B.; Eagle, Kim A.; Jackson, Elizabeth A.
If medical confidentiality is not observed patients may well be reluctant to disclose information to their doctors or even to seek medical advice. Therefore, argues the author, it is of the utmost importance that doctors strive to protect medical confidentiality, particularly now when it is under threat not only in this country but also overseas. The profession must cease to regard ethical issues to do with confidentiality, and indeed to do with all areas of medical practice, as abstract phenomena requiring no justification. If it does not then it will come under increasing and justified criticism from the community it serves. PMID:3981576
Introduction Despite the high prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse many women suffer in silence, lacking the language and opportunity to describe their condition. There are limited descriptions of women’s experiences with pelvic organ prolapse in the literature. This qualitative study addressed the knowledge and experience of women with pelvic organ prolapse. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 women who had been previously diagnosed with pelvic organ prolapse. Transcripts of the interviews were reviewed and coded using a process of content analysis compared against the framework of authoritative knowledge, developed by Bridgitte Jordan. Results By applying the concept of “authoritative knowledge,” we identified three themes of how women construct understanding about their pelvic organ prolapse and how they demonstrate deference to the authoritative knowledge of medical providers. First, we found through women’s narratives that authoritative knowledge was held by the health care provider and is considered consequential and legitimate by all participants. Second, women reported that the health care provider’s authoritative knowledge was valued over personal, experiential knowledge. Finally, women describe how they work with their health care providers to create a system of authoritative knowledge as they seek treatment for or discuss their condition. Throughout the narratives, women’s experiences are not well acknowledged by themselves or the medical community, perpetuating the “hidden” nature of these conditions. Discussion This analysis provides qualitative evidence of Jordan’s authoritative knowledge: women and health care providers contribute to dimensions of authoritative knowledge surrounding pelvic organ prolapse. Despite what women experience, the health care provider’s definition and understanding of pelvic organ prolapse is seen as legitimate and consequential. Because of their construction of their condition, and the power dynamic at play, women are silenced and their expertise about their body is delegitimized, limiting their active participation in seeking care for this condition. PMID:22954080
Low, Lisa Kane; Tumbarello, Julie A.
: Delay seeking medical assistance for acute ischemic stroke remains a barrier to the provision of optimal care, including the administration of tissue plasminogen activator. Although women report greater knowledge of stroke symptoms and stroke risk factors than men, earlier hospital arrival in women has not been consistently reported. The purposes of this study were to examine women's interpretation of stroke symptoms and compare cognitive and behavioral responses between women who arrived at the hospital within 3 hours of symptom onset and women who arrived after 3 hours. More than half of the participants arrived at the hospital greater than 3 hours after first noticing symptoms. Most women did not recognize the cause of symptoms. Knowledge about a treatment of stroke was limited, and a minority of the women knew they were at risk for stroke despite having known risk factors. Maladaptive responses to symptoms were reported more frequently by women with hospital arrival greater than 3 hours after symptom onset than by women with earlier arrival. Efforts are needed to reduce maladaptive responses to stroke onset that may contribute to delay seeking medical assistance for the symptoms of acute ischemic stroke. PMID:25188683
Beal, Claudia C
In this article we explore the process leading to help seeking following childhood trauma among women who were currently in treatment. We interviewed 13 participants from six treatment groups for clients exposed to human-inflicted traumas. Transcripts were analyzed using a hermeneutical-phenomenological approach. Help seeking was initiated after a prolonged period of time (13 to 58 years after first trauma exposure), during which participants relied heavily on a strategy of managing on their own. Self-management contributed to delays in help seeking, but was also an important resource. High levels of distress were reported prior to help seeking, often without help seeking being considered as an option. The participants sought help when encountering situational demands exceeding available resources, resulting in experiences of exhaustion and loss of control. We present a model of the help-seeking process, underlining the importance of respecting and exploring the individual process of seeking help when offering trauma-specific treatment. PMID:23990251
Stige, Signe Hjelen; Træen, Bente; Rosenvinge, Jan H
The number of women in medicine has increased dra- matically in the last few decades, and women now repre- sent half of all incoming medical students. Yet residency training still resembles the historical model when there were few women in medicine. This article reviews the issues facing women in residency today. Data suggest that the experience of female residents is
Background: Rape has a negative impact on physical and mental health, health-related behaviors, and health service utilization. Timely medical care is important for preventive services.Methods: Cross-sectional data were obtained from a larger 2-year longitudinal study, the National Women’s Study (NWS). A total of 3006 adult women participated in the final data collection wave of the NWS. During a structured telephone
Heidi S Resnick; Melisa M Holmes; Dean G Kilpatrick; Gretchen Clum; Ron Acierno; Connie L Best; Benjamin E Saunders
The ‘woman doctor question’ was a title given to the public debates that erupted in early twentieth-century New South Wales (Australia) over the employment of women doctors in general hospitals. Two wellqualified women, Drs Susie O'Reilly and Jessie Aspinall, were rejected from hospital residencies in Sydney, which led a wide variety of groups and individuals to mobilise in print, not
Introduction Skilled attendance is one of the major strategies to curtail maternal mortality, specifically in developing countries. Despite the low level of equipment, it is only in health facilities that skilled care are provided during pregnancy and childbirth; but there are some barriers which prevent women to use health facilities for good care. Methods This study was carried out in Ouargaye where a skilled care initiative was implemented by Family care International with the aim to increase the skilled attendance at delivery and Diapaga, the control district. Thirty (30) In-depth interviews, 8 Focus group discussions and 6 non participant observations were carried out. Participants were women from 15-49 years. All the interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed line by line. NVIVO was used to manage the interviews. Results Four types of barriers have been described by women; 1) the cultural barriers concern the low status of women in the two districts and some traditional beliefs which mean that women can not always decide to use health facility by themselves. 2) The geographical barrier is about the distance to reach health facility and the lack of transport means. 3) The financial barrier to pay care and drugs. 4) Bad organization of care and poor quality of care provided to women. Conclusion To minimize the risk of complications during pregnancy and childbirth, it is important that women use health facilities. The barriers described by women are not insurmountable but needed to be integrated in a global comprehensive health policy. PMID:25368732
Somé, Donmozoun Télesphore; Sombie, Issiaka; Meda, Nicolas
Novelty seeking can be a positive trait leading to creativity and innovation, but it is also related to increased risk of damaging addictive behaviour. We have assessed novelty seeking with a three armed bandit task, in which novel stimuli were occasionally introduced, replacing choice options from which the participants had been choosing. This allowed us to assess whether or not they would be prone to selecting novel stimuli. We tested 25 non impulsive patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 27 PD patients with impulsive compulsive behaviours (ICBs). Both patient groups were examined "on" and "off" dopaminergic medication in a counterbalanced order and their behaviour was compared with 24 healthy controls. We found that PD patients with ICBs were significantly more prone to choose novel options than either non impulsive PD patients or controls, regardless of medication status. Our findings suggest that attraction to novelty is a personality trait in all PD patients with ICBs which is independent of medication status. PMID:21565210
Djamshidian, Atbin; O'Sullivan, Sean S; Wittmann, Bianca C; Lees, Andrew J; Averbeck, Bruno B
Previous investigations have identified individuals who meet criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) substance dependence as applied to caffeine, but there is little research on treatments for caffeine dependence. This study aimed to thoroughly characterize individuals who are seeking treatment for problematic caffeine use. Ninety-four individuals who identified as being psychologically or physically dependent on caffeine, or who had tried unsuccessfully to modify caffeine consumption participated in a face-to-face diagnostic clinical interview. They also completed measures concerning caffeine use and quitting history, reasons for seeking treatment, and standardized self-report measures of psychological functioning. Caffeine treatment seekers (mean age 41 years, 55% women) consumed an average of 548 mg caffeine per day. The primary source of caffeine was coffee for 50% of the sample and soft drinks for 37%. Eighty-eight percent reported prior serious attempts to modify caffeine use (mean 2.7 prior attempts), and 43% reported being advised by a medical professional to reduce or eliminate caffeine. Ninety-three percent met criteria for caffeine dependence when generic DSM-IV-TR substance dependence criteria were applied to caffeine use. The most commonly endorsed criteria were withdrawal (96%), persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to control use (89%), and use despite knowledge of physical or psychological problems caused by caffeine (87%). The most common reasons for wanting to modify caffeine use were health-related (59%) and not wanting to be dependent on caffeine (35%). This investigation reveals that there are individuals with problematic caffeine use who are seeking treatment and suggests that there is a need for effective caffeine dependence treatments. PMID:22369218
Juliano, Laura M; Evatt, Daniel P; Richards, Brian D; Griffiths, Roland R
Previous investigations have identified individuals who meet criteria for DSM-IV-TR substance dependence as applied to caffeine, but there is little research on treatments for caffeine dependence. This study aimed to thoroughly characterize individuals who are seeking treatment for problematic caffeine use. Ninety-four individuals who identified as being psychologically or physically dependent on caffeine, or who had tried unsuccessfully to modify caffeine consumption participated in a face-to-face diagnostic clinical interview. They also completed measures concerning caffeine use and quitting history, reasons for seeking treatment, and standardized self-report measures of psychological functioning. Caffeine treatment seekers (mean age 41 yrs, 55% women) consumed an average of 548 mg caffeine per day. The primary source of caffeine was coffee for 50% of the sample and soft drinks for 37%. Eighty-eight percent reported prior serious attempts to modify caffeine use (mean 2.7 prior attempts) and 43% reported being advised by a medical professional to reduce or eliminate caffeine. Ninety-three percent met criteria for caffeine dependence when generic DSM-IV-TR substance dependence criteria were applied to caffeine use. The most commonly endorsed criteria were withdrawal (96%), persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to control use (89%), and use despite knowledge of physical or psychological problems caused by caffeine (87%). The most common reasons for wanting to modify caffeine use were health-related (59%) and not wanting to be dependent on caffeine (35%). This investigation reveals that there are individuals with problematic caffeine use who are seeking treatment, and suggests that there is a need for effective caffeine dependence treatments. PMID:22369218
Juliano, Laura M.; Evatt, Daniel P.; Richards, Brian D.; Griffiths, Roland R.
There are a variety of reasons why women are believed to be more susceptible than men to the effects of alcohol. Physical factors, such as body water content and hereditary predisposition to alcoholism, differentiate women from men. Social factors include secretive drinking, role model in the family, and a perceived increase in promiscuity. Societal stigmas make it difficult for alcoholic women to seek help, yet the mortality rates are high for those women who continue to drink. PMID:3120219
Blume, S B
A 2-year investigation was conducted of Connecticut's high school medical careers programs and the career opportunities available to students, particularly females, who have graduated from them. Research conducted in two phases in four communities involved the following activities: site visits of high school medical careers programs and student…
Silverman, Suzanne; Pritchard, Alice
Abuse is highly prevalent among HIV+ women, leading to behaviors, including lower adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) that result in poor health outcomes. Resilience (functioning competently despite adversity) may buffer the negative effects of abuse. This study investigated how resilience interacted with abuse history in relation to HAART adherence, HIV viral load (VL), and CD4+ cell count among a convenience sample of 138 HIV+ women from the Ruth M. Rothstein CORE Center/Cook County Health and Hospital Systems site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Resilience was measured by the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). HAART adherence (?95% vs. <95% self reported usage of prescribed medication) and current or prior sexual, physical, or emotional/domestic abuse, were reported during structured interviews. HIV viral load (?20?vs. <20 copies/mL) and CD4+ count (200?vs. <200 cells/mm) were measured with blood specimens. Multiple logistic regressions, controlling for age, race, income, enrollment wave, substance use, and depressive symptoms, indicated that each unit increase in resilience was significantly associated with an increase in the odds of having ?95% HAART adherence and a decrease in the odds of having a detectable viral load. Resilience-Abuse interactions showed that only among HIV+ women with sexual abuse or multiple abuses did resilience significantly relate to an increase in the odds of ?95% HAART adherence. Interventions to improve coping strategies that promote resilience among HIV+ women may be beneficial for achieving higher HAART adherence and viral suppression. PMID:24568654
Dale, Sannisha; Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen; Cruise, Ruth; Kelso, Gwendolyn; Brody, Leslie
In this study, I investigated the influence of gender and sex role orientation on help-seeking attitudes. Two hundred eighteen college students (124 female, 94 male) completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help scales. Results revealed that both gender and sex role orientation significantly influence help-seeking attitudes. Women were more tolerant of the stigma
Mark E. Johnson
Two experimental studies examined the effect of power-seeking intentions on backlash toward women in political office. It was hypothesized that a female politician's career progress may be hindered by the belief that she seeks power, as this desire may violate prescribed communal expectations for women and thereby elicit interpersonal penalties. Results suggested that voting preferences for female candidates were negatively
Tyler G. Okimoto; Victoria L. Brescoll
This paper presents emerging research on young women's participation in virtual heterosexual mate-seeking in two bustees (urban slum communities) in Kolkata. I begin the paper by reviewing the context of online friendship, dating and romance in India. I show how greater educational and social achievements in the bustees are prompting some young Muslim women to pursue online friendship and mate-seeking.
Aims The aim of this study was to compare patterns of drug use and dependence between homosexually experienced and exclusively heterosexually experienced individuals. Design We used a cross-sectional national household interview survey conducted in the United States. Setting Secondary data analysis of the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse was employed. Participants Participants were sexually active individuals, aged 18 years and older, who reported the genders of their sexual partners in the past 12 months; included 174 homosexually experienced (98 men, 96 women) and 9714 exclusively heterosexually experienced (3922 men, 5792 women) respondents. Measurements Life-time, past 30 days and daily use of nine classes of drugs. Symptoms of dysfunctional use and dependence. Findings There were consistent patterns of elevated drug use in homosexually experienced individuals for life-time drug use, but these were greatly attenuated for recent use. Homosexually experienced men were more likely to report use of marijuana, cocaine and heroin, and homosexually experienced women more likely to report use of marijuana and analgesics than individuals reporting only opposite-sex partners. Both homosexually active men and women were more likely than exclusively heterosexually active respondents to report at least one symptom indicating dysfunctional drug use across all drug classes, and to meet criteria for marijuana dependence syndrome. The only difference between homosexually experienced men and women was that men were more likely to report any daily drug use. Conclusions These data are consistent with surveys suggesting that there is a moderate elevation of drug, particularly marijuana, use and dependence in gay and bisexual men and women when compared to heterosexual men and women. PMID:15265096
Cochran, Susan D.; Ackerman, Deborah; Mays, Vickie M.; Ross, Michael W.
Discussion of information retrieval and information seeking behavior focuses on a multi-dimensional conceptual model called MISE (multiple information-seeking episodes). Identifies eight different reasons why people engage in multiple information-seeking episodes, characterizes them in terms of traits of Multiple Information Seeking Episode…
Lin, Shin-jeng; Belkin, Nicholas J.
This theme issue of "Service-Learning Network" explores the fundraising process as it applies to students and educators who want to secure financial aid for a school or community program. The article, "Seeking Funding for School and Community Programs" (Charles Degelman; Debra Ballinger; Vickie J. Burt), surveys the search for funders and the…
Degelman, Charles, Ed.
Objectives To evaluate the associations between maternal age and obstetric and neonatal outcomes in primiparous women with emphasis on teenagers and older women. Design A population-based cohort study. Setting The Swedish Medical Birth Register. Participants Primiparous women with singleton births from 1992 through 2010 (N=798?674) were divided into seven age groups: <17?years, 17–19?years and an additional five 5-year classes. The reference group consisted of the women aged 25–29?years. Primary outcome Obstetric and neonatal outcome. Results The teenager groups had significantly more vaginal births (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.04 (1.79 to 2.32) and 1.95 (1.88 to 2.02) for age <17?years and 17–19?years, respectively); fewer caesarean sections (aOR 0.57 (0.48 to 0.67) and 0.55 (0.53 to 0.58)), and instrumental vaginal births (aOR 0.43 (0.36 to 0.52) and 0.50 (0.48 to 0.53)) compared with the reference group. The opposite was found among older women reaching a fourfold increased OR for caesarean section. The teenagers showed no increased risk of adverse neonatal outcome but presented an increased risk of prematurity <32?weeks (aOR 1.66 (1.10 to 2.51) and 1.20 (1.04 to 1.38)). Women with advancing age (?30?years) revealed significantly increased risk of prematurity, perineal lacerations, preeclampsia, abruption, placenta previa, postpartum haemorrhage and unfavourable neonatal outcomes compared with the reference group. Conclusions For clinicians counselling young women it is of importance to highlight the obstetrically positive consequences that fewer maternal complications and favourable neonatal outcomes are expected. The results imply that there is a need for individualising antenatal surveillance programmes and obstetric care based on age grouping in order to attempt to improve the outcomes in the age groups with less favourable obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Such changes in surveillance programmes and obstetric interventions need to be evaluated in further studies. PMID:25387756
Blomberg, Marie; Birch Tyrberg, Rasmus; Kjølhede, Preben
The current study examined prevalence and correlates of non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), with particular emphasis on lifetime history of rape and PTSD as risk associates. Interviews conducted via telephone using Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing technology, resulting in a nationally representative sample of 3001 non-institutionalized, civilian, English or Spanish speaking women (aged 18-86 years) residing in households with a telephone. Demographic characteristics, rape history, general health/mental health, and substance abuse variables were assessed. NMUPD was assessed by asking if, in the past year, participants had misused a prescription drug. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted for each theoretically derived predictor set. Significant predictors from each set then entered into final multivariable logistic regression to determine significant predictors of past-year NMUPD. NMUPD was endorsed by 5.5% of the sample (n=164). Final multivariable model showed that Lifetime Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, other forms of substance use/abuse, and a history of drug or alcohol facilitated rape were significantly associated with increased likelihood of NMUPD. Risk reduction efforts targeting non-medical prescription drug use among women who have experienced traumatic events and/or abuse substances are warranted. Trauma-focused interventions for drug or alcohol facilitated rape victims should include treatment or prevention modules that specifically address NMUPD. PMID:19375238
McCauley, Jenna L; Amstadter, Ananda B; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S
Introduction: Drug-seeking behavior (DSB) in the emergency department (ED) is a very common problem, yet there has been little quantitative study to date of such behavior. The goal of this study was to assess the frequency with which drug seeking patients in the ED use classic drug seeking behaviors to obtain prescription medication. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review on patients in an ED case management program for DSB. We reviewed all visits by patients in the program that occurred during a 1-year period, and recorded the frequency of the following behaviors: complaining of headache, complaining of back pain, complaining of dental pain, requesting medication by name, requesting a refill of medication, reporting medications as having been lost or stolen, reporting 10/10 pain, reporting greater than 10/10 pain, reporting being out of medication, and requesting medication parenterally. These behaviors were chosen because they are described as “classic” for DSB in the existing literature. Results: We studied 178 patients from the case management program, who made 2,486 visits in 1 year. The frequency of each behavior was: headache 21.7%, back pain 20.8%, dental pain 1.8%, medication by name 15.2%, requesting refill 7.0%, lost or stolen medication 0.6%, pain 10/10 29.1%, pain greater than 10/10 1.8%, out of medication 9.5%, and requesting parenteral medication 4.3%. Patients averaged 1.1 behaviors per visit. Conclusion: Drug-seeking patients appear to exhibit “classically” described drug-seeking behaviors with only low to moderate frequency. Reliance on historical features may be inadequate when trying to assess whether or not a patient is drug-seeking. PMID:23359650
Grover, Casey A.; Elder, Joshua W.; Close, Reb JH.; Curry, Sean M.
Introduction and Hypothesis To describe the self-perceived natural history of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in women seeking care. Methods Women presenting to a university-based urogynecology clinic for POP (N=107) completed a questionnaire including questions about how and when their prolapse was discovered. A urogynecologic examination including the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) was also performed. Results Forty eight percent of these women sought medical attention “immediately” after discovering a bulge. The median time to seek care was 4 months (range 1 month to 45 years). Twenty-six percent associated their prolapse with a specific event (e.g. moving furniture, pushing a car). POP was self-discovered by 76% (81/107) of women. Self-discovered prolapses were larger than those diagnosed by physicians (Ba +1.3 cm vs. 0.1cm, p=0.03 respectively). Conclusions Women seek medical advice within months of discovering their prolapse. Self-discovery is associated with higher stage prolapse than prolapse diagnosed by health care providers. PMID:19390760
LEWICKY-GAUPP, Christina; MARGULIES, Rebecca U.; LARSON, Kindra; FENNER, Dee E.; MORGAN, Daniel M.; DeLANCEY, John O.L.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common condition, afflicting up to 40% of menstruating women. PMS is represented by physical symptoms, such as pain and water retention, as well as disturbances of affect, cognition and performance that occur in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. No standard protocols exist to clinically manage PMS symptoms. Deficiencies in nutrients have been associated
Dan Lukaczer; DeAnn J. Liska; Gary Darland; Jeffrey S. Bland; Barbara Schiltz; Matt Tripp; Robert H. Lerman
Background Many medical situations necessitate a stressful period of waiting for potentially threatening test results. The medical waiting period is often associated with negative anticipatory anxiety and rumination about the outcome of treatment. Few evidence-based self-help coping interventions are available to assist individuals manage these periods. Theory and research suggest that positive reappraisal coping strategies may be particularly useful for this type of unpredictable and uncontrollable stressful context. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of a Positive Reappraisal Coping Intervention (PRCI) on psychological well-being of women waiting for the outcome of their fertility treatment cycle. Methods/Design In a three-armed randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of the PRCI will be tested. Consecutive patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation in a Dutch university hospital and meeting selection criteria will be invited to participate. Those who agree will be randomized to one of three experimental groups (N=372). The PRCI Intervention group will receive the intervention that comprises an explanatory leaflet and the 10 statements designed to promote positive reappraisal coping, to be read at least once in the morning, once in the evening. To capture the general impact of PRCI on psychological wellbeing patients will complete questionnaires before the waiting period (pre-intervention), on day ten of the 14-day waiting period (intervention) and six weeks after the start of the waiting period (post-intervention). To capture the specific effects of the PRCI during the waiting period, patients will also be asked to monitor daily their emotions and reactions during the 14-day waiting period. The primary outcome is general anxiety, measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes are positive and negative emotions during the waiting period, depression, quality of life, coping and treatment outcome. During recruitment for the RCT it was decided to add a fourth non-randomized group, a PRCI Control group that received the PRCI and completed the questionnaires but did not complete daily monitoring. Discussion Positive reappraisal is one of the few ways of coping that has been shown to be associated with increased wellbeing during unpredictable and uncontrollable situations like medical waiting periods. A simple evidence based self-help intervention could facilitate coping during this common medical situation. This RCT study will evaluate the value of a self-help coping intervention designed for medical waiting periods in women undergoing fertility treatment. Trial registration The study is registered at the Clinical Tials.gov (NCT01701011). PMID:24004640
To estimate medication costs in individuals with diagnosed diabetes, undetected diabetes, impaired glucose regulation and normal blood glucose values in a population-based sample by age and sex.Using the KORA F4 follow-up survey, conducted in 2006-2008 (n=2611, age 40-82 years), we identified individuals' glucose tolerance status by means of an oral glucose tolerance test. We assessed all medications taken regularly, calculated age-sex specific medication costs and estimated cost ratios for total, total without antihyperglycemic drugs, and cardiovascular medication, using multiple 2-part regression models.Compared to individuals with normal glucose values, costs were increased in known diabetes, undetected diabetes and impaired glucose regulation, which was more pronounced in participants aged 40-59 years than in those aged 60-82 years (cost ratios for all medications: 40-59 years: 2.85; 95%-confidence interval: 1.78-4.54, 2.00; 1.22-3.29 and 1.53; 1.12-2.09; 60-82 years: 2.04; 1.71-2.43, 1.17; 0.90-1.51 and 1.09; 0.94-1.28). Compared to individuals with diagnosed diabetes, costs were significantly lower among individuals with impaired glucose regulation across all age and sex strata, also when antihyperglycemic medication was excluded (40-59 years: 0.60; 0.36-0.98, 60-82 years: 0.74; 0.60-0.90; men: 0.72; 0.56-0.93; women: 0.72; 0.54-0.96).We could quantify age- and sex-specific medication costs and cost ratios in individuals with diagnosed diabetes, undetected diabetes and impaired glucose regulation compared to those with normal glucose values, using data of a population-based sample, with oral glucose tolerance test-based identification of diabetes states. These results may help to validly estimate cost-effectiveness of screening and early treatment or prevention of diabetes. PMID:24122240
Claessen, H; Strassburger, K; Tepel, M; Waldeyer, R; Chernyak, N; Jülich, F; Albers, B; Bächle, C; Rathmann, W; Meisinger, C; Thorand, B; Hunger, M; Schunk, M; Stark, R; Rückert, I M; Peters, A; Huth, C; Stöckl, D; Giani, G; Holle, R; Icks, A
Female corporate leaders are becoming more common, but that does not mean it was a snap for them to get there. Much has been said about the hard road faced by women who seek top spots in corporate America. Many point out, for instance, that women executives still often are paid less than their male counterparts, and that they face stereotypes,…
Director of Clinical Virology Laboratory at Stanford University Medical Center (SUMC Diseases, or who has a Ph.D. in virology or a related field, to direct the Clinical Virology Laboratory at Stanford. Certification by the American Board of Medical Microbiology is desirable. The Clinical Virology
Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…
Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca
175 individuals recruited from urban universities (n=82) and the surrounding community (120 women, 55 men; 82 18- to 25-yr.-olds, 26 26- to 34-yr.-olds, 44 35- to 50-yr.-olds, 23 50 yr. old or over) completed a sensation seeking scale and measures of the frequency with which they used specific media and selected specific television programming, film, and music genres. Regression analyses showed Sensation Seeking to be associated positively with Movie Theatre Attendance and with the Selection of Urban Music Genres. Sensation Seeking was also associated negatively with Selection of Light Film Genres. PMID:16279330
The Flexner Report highlighted the importance of teaching medical students to reason about uncertainty. The science of medical decision making seeks to explain how medical judgments and decisions ought ideally to be made, how they are actually made in practice, and how they can be improved, given the constraints of medical practice. The field considers both clinical decisions by or
:The Flexner Report highlighted the importance of teaching medical students to reason about uncertainty. The science of medical decision making seeks to explain how medical judgments and decisions ought ideally to be made, how they are actually made in practice, and how they can be improved, given the constraints of medical practice. The field considers both clinical decisions by or
Women now constitute 43% of US medical students, 37% of residents, and 27% of full-time medical school faculty. Less than 11% of women faculty are full professors, however, compared to 31% of men, and these proportions haven't changed in more than 15 years. Since the proportion of women reaching the top ranks remains relatively low, the pool of women available for leadership positions in academic medicine is still small. This review article first summarizes recent data on women's representation in academic medicine and then discusses why they are not succeeding at the same pace as men. Reasons include a complex combination of women's choices, sexism, cultural stereotypes, constraints in combining family responsibilities with professional opportunities, and lack of effective mentoring. Multiple approaches are required to overcome these "cumulative disadvantages," among them improving the gender climate at academic medical centers; the mentoring of women faculty, residents, and students; and skill-building opportunities for women. PMID:10680399
Men score higher than women on measures of sensation-seeking, defined as a willingness to engage in novel or intense activities. This sex difference has been explained in terms of evolved psychological mechanisms or culturally transmitted social norms. We investigated whether sex differences in sensation-seeking have changed over recent years by conducting a meta-analysis of studies using Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, version V (SSS-V). We found that sex differences in total SSS-V scores have remained stable across years, as have sex differences in Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility. In contrast, the sex difference in Thrill and Adventure Seeking has declined, possibly due to changes in social norms or out-dated questions on this sub-scale. Our results support the view that men and women differ in their propensity to report sensation-seeking characteristics, while behavioural manifestations of sensation-seeking vary over time. Sex differences in sensation-seeking could reflect genetically influenced predispositions interacting with socially transmitted information. PMID:23989235
Cross, Catharine P.; Cyrenne, De-Laine M.; Brown, Gillian R.
Research presenting outcomes for women who enter substance abuse treatment during pregnancy consistently shows benefits. While treatment has nearly universal benefits, there are many barriers to seeking substance abuse treatment for pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to explore barriers for rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment. There were three eligibility criteria for study participation: (1) aged 18 and older, (2) pregnant, and (3) undergoing short-term inpatient detoxification at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Eighty-five rural women (N = 85) were included in the analysis. Substance use history and previous treatment were assessed with measures adapted from the Addiction Severity Index. Treatment barriers were measured with three qualitative questions and were coded into four overarching categories: availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability barriers. This sample had an extensive substance use history. Almost all participants had used alcohol (98%), marijuana (98%), illicit opiates (99%), and cigarettes (97%). On average, participants reported about two barriers to receiving treatment (Mean = 1.8; SD = 1.3), with over 80% of the sample reporting having experienced any barrier to treatment. The majority experienced acceptability (51%) and accessibility (49%) barriers. Twenty-six percent (26%) of the sample reported availability barriers. A smaller percentage of participants reported affordability barriers (13%). Rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment face many obstacles to receiving needed treatment. More studies on barriers to substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women are needed. Identifying these barriers can help in improving treatment access and services. PMID:22139045
Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa
Swedish men and women doctors compared. Comparison between Swedish-trained men and women doctors for background, demographic characteristics, professional activity and motives leading to choice of medical career.
The demographic characteristics, work history, motives for taking up medicine and other features were studied in a sample of now-living Swedish doctors consisting of every fifth woman by date of birth and for every woman the man nearest to her in date of birth (943 persons). The Swedish Board of Health and Welfare supplied a large amount of the data needed; the rest were obtained from a six-page questionnaire to which 81% of the doctors replied. Analysis of these data revealed several statistically significant sex differences, including the following: The women were born to older fathers and better educated mothers. They married later, and had fewer children. They were less often engaged in in-patient somatic care and more often in in-patient psychiatric care. They were less often head doctors, less often in teaching departments and less often medical teachers; female graduates of more than 10 years' standing were less often employed in hospitals than their male counterparts. Their work output equalled 85% that of the men. More woman than men said that they were inspired to take up medicine by a sense of mission, and fewer women than men were attracted by the prospective income or the prestige attached to the profession. PMID:7366504
Of 216 women under age 21 who were admitted for termination of pregnancy in the hospitals in Funen, 159 completed a questionnaire about their sexual experience and contraceptive habits (reply %=75.3%). The answers concerning sexual information were compared with the replies given in an interview investigation of a representative section of 16-20 year old women in which 281 (reply %=75.3%) answered the same question via the omnibus investigation from the Institute of Social Research. The 208 (74.0%) of these individuals who had had coitus constituted the reference group. Although the 2 groups were chosen and questioned in different ways, great agreement in replies was found. Patients seeking termination of pregnancy were thus not more dissatisfied with the sex education which they had received in school. No radical differences were found in the sources of information nor in how frequently the young people had talked to their parents about coitus. Nevertheless, the patients seeking pregnancy terminations considered their knowledge about contraception to be poorer than that of the reference group. Advice appears to be necessary in connection with pregnancy termination. In conclusion, it must be emphasized that no marked differences were found in the sex education which these young women received. Other factors must be investigated in order to explain the unwanted pregnancies. (author's modified) PMID:3354114
Wielandt, H; Jeune, B; Wermuth, L
Objective(s) (1) To describe the population of women seeking urgent medical attention for abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), in terms of symptoms, medical history, and clinical examination findings, and (2) To determine characteristics associated with anemia in this population. Study Design We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients seen in the Women and Infants Hospital Emergency Room for AUB from August 2005 to February 2006 (n=378). Data collected included demographic factors, clinical history, physical examination findings, and laboratory and radiologic findings. We calculated prevalence ratios for moderate to severe anemia (defined as hemoglobin less than 10 g/dL) and sensitivity and specificity of clinical characteristics for identifying women with anemia. Results The median age of patients was 32 years (range 12–72 years). Approximately half (49.2%) had a concurrent medical condition which could affect their treatment options and 14% had moderate to severe anemia. The only factors associated with moderate to severe anemia were (1) having both tachycardia and hypotension and (2) duration of bleeding more than 7 days (3) hemoglobin of less than 10 g/dL in the previous year. Conclusions A substantial proportion of patients seeking urgent medical attention for AUB had potential contraindications for the mainstays of treatment. Clinical symptoms and bleeding history were poorly predictive for moderate to severe anemia in this population of women. PMID:22324263
Matteson, Kristen A.; Raker, Christina A.; Pinto, Stephanie B.; Scott, Dana Marie; Frishman, Gary N.
We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma. PMID:19650070
Ward, Earlise C; Heidrich, Susan M
We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma. PMID:19650070
Heidrich, Susan M.
Background Depressive Disorders (DD) are a great financial and social burden. Females display 70% higher rate of depression than males and more than 30% of these patients do not respond to conventional medications. Thus medication-refractory female patients are a large, under-served, group where new biological targets for intervention are greatly needed. Methods We used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to evaluate mRNA gene expression from peripheral blood leukocytes for 27 genes, including immune, HPA-axis, ion channels, and growth and transcription factors. Our sample included 23 females with medication refractory DD: 13 with major depressive disorder (MDD), 10 with bipolar disorder (BPD). Our comparison group was 19 healthy, non-depressed female controls. We examined differences in mRNA expression in DD vs. controls, in MDD vs. BPD, and in patients with greater vs. lesser depression severity. Results DD patients showed increased expression for IL-10, IL-6, OXTR, P2RX7, P2RY1, and TRPV1. BPD patients showed increased APP, CREB1, NFKB1, NR3C1, and SPARC and decreased TNF expression. Depression severity was related to increased IL-10, P2RY1, P2RX1, and TRPV4 expression. Conclusions These results support prior findings of dysregulation in immune genes, and provide preliminary evidence of dysregulation in purinergic and other ion channels in females with medication-refractory depression, and in transcription and growth factors in those with BPD. If replicated in future research examining protein levels as well as mRNA, these pathways could potentially be used to explore biological mechanisms of depression and to develop new drug targets. PMID:24143878
The prevalence of domestic violence (DV) during pregnancy could be high and is associated with significant psychological and\\u000a physical impairment for mother and the fetus. The major objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of DV in expectant\\u000a mothers who have attended the Iran University of Medical Sciences’ Hospitals (IUMS). In this cross-sectional study, 1,800\\u000a subjects were interviewed
Shayesteh Jahanfar; Zahra Malekzadegan
responsible decisions and to seek medical attention in serious or life-threatening situations that result from to make responsible decisions in seeking medical attention in serious or life-threatening situations and to encourage individuals and organizations to seek needed medical attention for students in distress from
Women at risk: why increasing numbers of women are failing to get the health care they need and how the Affordable Care Act will help. Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey of 2010.
Women have greater health care needs than men, and generally play larger roles in the health care of family members. Rising health care costs combined with sluggish income growth has contributed to losses in health insurance among women and rising rates of problems gaining necessary health care and paying medical bills. Women who seek coverage in the individual insurance market face additional hurdles--few plans offer maternity coverage and, in most states, insurance carriers charge higher premium rates to young women than men of the same age. The Affordable Care Act is bringing change for women through required free coverage of preventive care services, small business tax credits, new affordable coverage options, and insurance market reforms, including bans on gender rating. When the law is fully implemented in 2014, nearly all the 27 million working-age women who went without health insurance in 2010 will gain affordable and comprehensive benefits. PMID:21638798
Robertson, Ruth; Collins, Sara R
Background College students who consume caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CaffAlc) are at increased injury risk. This study examines the extent to which a sensation-seeking personality accounts for the relationship between consumption of CaffAlc and negative outcomes. Methods A Web-based survey was administered to stratified random samples of 4907 college students from eight North Carolina universities in Fall 2009. Sensation seeking was assessed using the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) (?=0.81). Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Results 3390 students (71.2%) reported past 30-day drinking, of whom 786 (23.2%) consumed CaffAlc. CaffAlc past 30-day drinkers had higher BSSS scores (3.8 vs. 3.4; p<0.001), compared to non-CaffAlc drinkers. Consumption of CaffAlc was associated with more frequent binge drinking (p<0.001) and drunken days in a typical week (p<0.001), even after adjusting for the BSSS score. CaffAlc students were more likely to be taken advantage of sexually (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.70, p=0.012), drive under the influence of alcohol (AOR=2.00, p<0.001), and ride with a driver under the influence of alcohol (AOR=1.87, p<0.001). Injury requiring medical treatment was more prevalent among CaffAlc students with higher BSSS-8 scores (interaction p=0.024), even after adjustment for drinking levels and student characteristics. Conclusions Sensation seeking does not fully account for the increase in risky drinking among college students who consume CaffAlc, nor does it moderate the relationship between CaffAlc and drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking moderates the risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment among college students who consume CaffAlc. Those with strong sensation-seeking dispositions are at the highest risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment. PMID:24761275
McCoy, Thomas P.; Egan, Kathleen L.; Goldin, Shoshanna; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wolfson, Mark
Few studies have addressed the issue of domestic violence and health care for HIV-positive women. However, such women are at increased risk of clinical progression when domestic violence prevents access to health care or their ability to take HIV medicines on a consistent basis. To address this issue, 3 focus groups and 50 in-depth interviews were conducted at a public health clinic with HIV-positive women clients who had experienced domestic violence. The results are illustrated in 4 case studies of how domestic violence diminishes women's ability to obtain regular health care. Abused women were reluctant to keep appointments if they were afraid of their partners, if they were depressed, feeling ill or "too worn down," or if they were ashamed of being abused. Abusive partners were sometimes reported to sabotage women's efforts to seek care, keep appointments or take medications. The study concluded that domestic violence is an underrecognized barrier to women's ability to obtain regular medical care for HIV/AIDS. Effective HIV treatment is dependent on consistent HIV care, and domestic violence is a crucial barrier for some women. More research is needed to determine the most effective interventions for domestic violence in relation to HIV-positive women. PMID:16475893
Highlights from the United States Food and Drug Administration's public workshop on the development of animal models of pregnancy to address medical countermeasures in an "at-risk" population of pregnant women: Influenza as a case study.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other federal agencies partner to ensure that medical countermeasures (e.g., drug therapies and vaccines) are available for public health emergencies (FDA, 2014). Despite continuing progress, providing medical countermeasures and treatment guidelines for certain populations (e.g., pregnant women) is challenging due to the lack of clinical and/or animal data. Thus, a workshop was convened to discuss animal models of pregnancy for the evaluation of disease progression and medical countermeasures. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 100:806-810, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25296888
Williams, Denita; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Morris, Suzanne; Mattison, Donald
Medical Evaluation of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children. Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, 2d Session. Committee Print.
This paper reports a medical evaluation of a federal program providing funds for special nutritious food supplements to low income pregnant and lactating women, infants, and children up to four years of age who are nutritional risks. Growth, dietary intake, and biochemical measures were obtained for study infants at the time of enrollment in the…
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.
As the number of men and women entering treatment for substance use disorders continues to increase across the country, it becomes vitally important to understand their quality of life (QOL) or perceived health status, in order to inform treatment efforts for improving such outcomes. To date, QOL assessments among methamphetamine (MA) dependent users are limited. This paper examines QOL health status among a sample of 838 treatment seeking MA users at admission. Using regression analysis, predictors of QOL are examined among MA users. Predictors of poor QOL among MA users at treatment admission included being female, white, high school educated or more, married, experiencing psychosocial dysfunction (lifetime trauma, suicide, social conflict), reporting a high frequency of both MA and polydrugs for 15 days or more in the past month, chronicity of MA and polydrug use, injection use, and having co-morbid medical and psychiatric impairment. Employment status was the only factor related to better health status perceptions. This study expands the scope of scholarly examination of MA-dependent users entering treatment, as there has not been a development of coherent profiles of QOL among representative samples of clinical MA-abusing populations to date. PMID:21679268
Gonzales, Rachel; Ang, Alfonso; Glik, Deborah C; Rawson, Richard A; Lee, Stella; Iguchi, Martin Y
Contemporary commercial music (CCM) performers rely heavily on their voice, yet may not be aware of the importance of proactive voice care. This investigation intends to identify perceptions and barriers to seeking voice care among CCM artists. This cross-sectional observational study used a 10-item Likert-based response questionnaire to assess current perceptions regarding voice care in a population of randomly selected participants of professional CCM conference. Subjects (n=78) were queried regarding their likelihood to seek medical care for minor medical problems and specifically problems with their voice. Additional questions investigated anxiety about seeking voice care from a physician specialist, speech language pathologist, or voice coach; apprehension regarding findings of laryngeal examination, laryngeal imaging procedures; and the effect of medical insurance on the likelihood of seeking medical care. Eighty-two percent of subjects reported that their voice was a critical part of their profession; 41% stated that they were not likely to seek medical care for problems with their voice; and only 19% were reluctant to seek care for general medical problems (P<0.001). Anxiety about seeking a clinician regarding their voice was not a deterrent. Most importantly, 39% of subjects do not seek medical attention for their voice problems due to medical insurance coverage. The CCM artists are less likely to seek medical care for voice problems compared with general medical problems. Availability of medical insurance may be a factor. Availability of affordable voice care and education about the importance of voice care is needed in this population of vocal performers. PMID:18037270
Gilman, Marina; Merati, Albert L; Klein, Adam M; Hapner, Edie R; Johns, Michael M
According to many reports, time in the United States negatively affects the health of Hispanic immigrants. However, little is known about the role of traditional health beliefs and practices in immigrants' underutilization of the US health care system. This descriptive, qualitative study utilized narrative interviews with 20 foreign-born Hispanic women of childbearing age to gain a better understanding of their existing health beliefs, health promotion practices, past health care experiences, and transition into a new society and health care system. Demographic data and scores on the short acculturation scale for Hispanics were also analyzed. Results highlight the importance of female social support for Hispanic women in making health care decisions; their dual use of US medical intervention and home and herbal remedies; and perceived racial discrimination on their health-care seeking behaviors and adherence to treatment modalities. Recommendations are included for professionals who provide health care to immigrant Hispanic women and their families. PMID:20607608
Sanchez-Birkhead, Ana C; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Callister, Lynn Clark; Miyamoto, Teresa Paredes
This article provides an overview of the magnitude of and trends in racial/ethnic disparities in health for women in the United States. It emphasizes the importance of attending to diversity in the health profiles and populations of minority women. Socioeconomic status is a central determinant of racial/ethnic disparities in health, but several other factors, including medical care, geographic location, migration and acculturation, racism, and exposure to stress and resources also play a role. There is a need for renewed attention to monitoring, understanding, and actively seeking to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health. PMID:18687617
Williams, David R.
Background In the Republic of Georgia, women comprise under 2% of patients in substance use treatment and to date there has been no empirical research to investigate what factors may facilitate or hinder their help-seeking behavior or access to treatment services. Methods This study included secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with 55 substance-using women and 34 providers of health-related services. Results The roles and norms of women in Georgian society were identified as major factors influencing their help-seeking behavior. Factors that had a negative impact on use of drug treatment services included an absence of gender-specific services, judgmental attitudes of service providers, the cost of treatment and a punitive legal position in regard to substance use. Having a substance-using partner served as an additional factor inhibiting a woman’s willingness to seek assistance. Conclusions Within the context of orthodox Georgian society, low self-esteem, combined with severe family and social stigma play a critical role in creating barriers to the use of both general health and substance-use-treatment services for women. Education of the public, including policy makers and health care providers is urgently needed to focus on addiction as a treatable medical illness. The need for more women-centered services is also critical to the provision of effective treatment for substance-using women. PMID:23756037
Otiashvili, David; Kirtadze, Irma; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Zule, William; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Jones, Hendree E.
This manual is intended to encourage policy makers, administrators, and personnel officers in hospitals and other health facilities to recruit and hire the thousands of well-trained, experienced men and women who leave the military medical services each year. The document lists the advantages to the medical institution when employing medically…
Nathan (Robert R.) Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.
MEDICAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL EMERGENCY Ambulatory Patient (Students): Medical assistance can If the individual needing assistance is not ambulatory, call 911 to request assistance from Emergency Medical) with a physician is available for urgent medical concerns. Faculty and Staff can seek medical assistance
Meyers, Steven D.
to prescribe hormone therapy prior to the release of the Women's Health Initiative trial: a survey of general for Medical Research U149, Epidemiological Research Unit on Perinatal Health and Women's Health, 16, ave Paul
Despite significant incidence and physical and mental health consequences, most college-age women do not tell anyone about experiences of interpersonal violence. Limited research explores the sociocultural context of seeking help related to violence in young women. The overall purpose of this research was to understand socially and culturally relevant factors associated with violence help seeking in college women. Eight focus groups were held with 64 participants. Narrative analysis was the primary method of analysis. Four qualitative categories emerged from the data: "Learning from one's mother"; "We're strong women; we fight"; "We didn't talk about it"; and "Where I'm from." Findings suggest that help seeking is influenced by the messages from and experiences of mothers and extended family members. An understanding of familial and cultural determinants of help seeking is essential for relevant and effective prevention efforts. PMID:21175531
Amar, Angela Frederick; Bess, Renee; Stockbridge, Jennifer
Timely access to appropriate treatment is important for optimizing insomnia management. To date, little is known about insomnia patients' treatment experiences or how they access and engage with the available health care resources. This study sought to capture the help-seeking experiences and behavioral patterns of patients with insomnia who are seeking or receiving specialist care. A purposive sample of 26 insomnia patients from specialist sleep and mental health clinics located in metropolitan New South Wales, Australia was recruited. Participants completed a brief questionnaire, followed by an in-depth, semi-structured interview. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using framework analysis. Three key themes emerged from the data: patients' sleep beliefs, treatment beliefs, and accessing specialized care. The findings show that daytime symptoms arising from insomnia serve as important illness cues for patients to seek medical help. In addition, participants' treatment pathways highlight factors that prevent the widespread use of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), including limited awareness about CBT-I, tentative referral mechanisms, limited service providers, and the high cost of CBT-I. PMID:23514322
Cheung, Janet M Y; Bartlett, Delwyn J; Armour, Carol L; Glozier, Nicholas; Saini, Bandana
Differences in and relationships of Asian cultural values, cultural congruity, perception of the university environment, and help-seeking attitudes for 1st- and 2nd-generation Korean American undergraduates (N = 228) were examined. Women reported significantly higher cultural congruity and more positive help-seeking attitudes than did men. Asian…
Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Park, Yong Sue; Kim, Daniel
Pregnant asylum-seeking women and those with young babies living in initial accommodation centres are a highly vulnerable group. The care that these women receive during pregnancy, childbirth and in the postnatal period can have a lifelong impact on them and their babies. This study, conducted in June 2008, investigates the health and wellbeing needs of this group of women through holding in-depth consultations with professionals from the main organisations involved in their care and accommodation. Analysis of consultations identified areas of concern--health needs, women in transition, access to services, access to resources and information, and working environment. Several recommendations are made, which constitute small changes in practice that could make large differences to the quality of life of women in this group. PMID:20345055
Reynolds, Becky; White, Judy
SYMED, Inc., developed a unique electronic medical records and information management system. The S2000 Medical Interactive Care System (MICS) incorporates both a comprehensive and interactive medical care support capability and an extensive array of digital medical reference materials in either text or high resolution graphic form. The system was designed, in cooperation with NASA, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of physician practices. The S2000 is a MS (Microsoft) Windows based software product which combines electronic forms, medical documents, records management, and features a comprehensive medical information system for medical diagnostic support and treatment. SYMED, Inc. offers access to its medical systems to all companies seeking competitive advantages.
OBJECTIVE: To describe experiences of women seeking information about their risk of hereditary breast cancer who fail to meet strict eligibility criteria for genetic counseling and testing. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study. SETTING: Hereditary cancer program in western Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Women who had received notification of their ineligibility for referral for hereditary breast cancer risk assessment (n = 20) and some of their referring physicians (n = 10). Of 28 attempted contacts, five women had moved, one declined the invitation to participate, and two could not be interviewed because of scheduling conflicts. Ten of 20 physicians declined the invitation to participate. METHOD: In-depth, open-ended telephone interviews were conducted. Transcribed interviews were systematically analyzed to identify salient themes. MAIN FINDINGS: Three themes emerged. The first theme, "It's always on your mind," points to the profound concern about breast cancer that underlies women's experiences in seeking genetic testing. The second theme, "A test is a test," reflects women's beliefs that the test was relatively simple and similar to other medical tests in that it would provide a definitive answer. The third theme, "Falling through the cracks," captures the experience of ineligibility. Women reacted with a range of emotional responses and were left frustrated in their search for more specific information about their personal risk for breast cancer. Although women were encouraged to contact their physicians, few did. CONCLUSION: These findings point to the psychological consequences in women who seek genetic testing for risk of breast cancer when they are told they are ineligible and they are not given adequate information and support. PMID:10925759
Bottorff, J. L.; Balneaves, L. G.; Buxton, J.; Ratner, P. A.; McCullum, M.; Chalmers, K.; Hack, T.
In the recent past, physicians found answers to questions by consulting colleagues, textbooks, and professional journals. Now, the availability of medical information through electronic resources has changed physician information-seeking behaviors. Evidence-based medicine is now the accepted decision-making paradigm, and a physician's ability to…
Nearly one fourth of women diagnosed with breast cancer are aged 50 and younger. Little is known about the impact of diagnosis or treatment on younger women and their relationships with their spouse or partner. The purpose of this paper is to (a) describe the issues younger women with breast cancer face, (b) identify how these issues impact the relationship
Stephanie R. Burwell; Bowden Templeton; Kelly S. Kennedy; Lisa Zak-Hunter
Relapse to old, unhealthy eating habits is a major problem in human dietary treatments. The mechanisms underlying this relapse are unknown. Surprisingly, until recently this clinical problem has not been systematically studied in animal models. Here, we review results from recent studies in which a reinstatement model (commonly used to study relapse to abused drugs) was employed to characterize the effect of pharmacological agents on relapse to food seeking induced by either food priming (non-contingent exposure to small amounts of food), cues previously associated with food, or injections of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine. We also address methodological issues related to the use of the reinstatement model to study relapse to food seeking, similarities and differences in mechanisms underlying reinstatement of food seeking versus drug seeking, and the degree to which the reinstatement procedure provides a suitable model for studying relapse in humans. We conclude by discussing implications for medication development and future research. We offer three tentative conclusions: The neuronal mechanisms of food-priming- and cue-induced reinstatement are likely different from those of reinstatement induced by the pharmacological stressor yohimbine.The neuronal mechanisms of reinstatement of food seeking are possibly different from those of ongoing food-reinforced operant responding.The neuronal mechanisms underlying reinstatement of food seeking overlap to some degree with those of reinstatement of drug seeking. PMID:19497349
Nair, Sunila G.; Adams-Deutsch, Tristan; Epstein, David H.; Shaham, Yavin
Update to CDC's U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010: revised recommendations for the use of hormonal contraception among women at high risk for HIV infection or infected with HIV.
Prevention of unintended pregnancy among women at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or infected with HIV is critically important. One strategy for preventing unintended pregnancies in this population is improving access to a broad range of effective contraceptive methods. In 2010, CDC published U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010 (US MEC), providing evidence-based guidance for the safe use of contraceptive methods among women with certain characteristics or medical conditions, including women who are at high risk for HIV infection or are HIV infected. Recently, CDC assessed the evidence regarding hormonal contraceptive use and the risk for HIV acquisition, transmission, and disease progression. This report summarizes that assessment and the resulting updated guidance. These updated recommendations affirm the previous guidance, which stated that 1) the use of hormonal contraceptives, including combined hormonal contraceptives, progestin-only pills, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), and implants, is safe for women at high risk for HIV infection or infected with HIV (US MEC category 1), and 2) all women who use contraceptive methods other than condoms should be counseled regarding the use of condoms and the risk for sexually transmitted infections. However, a clarification is added to the recommendation for women at high risk for HIV infection who use progestin-only injectables to acknowledge the inconclusive nature of the body of evidence regarding the association between progestin-only injectable use and HIV acquisition. The clarification also notes the importance of condom use and other HIV preventive measures, expansion of the variety of contraceptive methods available (i.e., contraceptive method mix), and the need for further research on these issues. PMID:22717514
Joslyn Yudenfreund Kravitz, Ph.D., Editor Office of Research on Women's Health Office Meeting to Seek New Dimensions and Strategies for Women's Health Research and Advancing Women's Biomedical Will Hold Fifth Regional Meeting to Seek New Dimensions and Strategies for Women's Health Research
Bandettini, Peter A.
Outlines the medical and social consequences of adolescent pregnancy, including maternal and infant mortality, and low birth weight. Discusses why pregnant adolescents do not seek prenatal care and implications for health providers. (FMW)
Taborn, John M.
A special report from the United Nations Development Fund for Women's (UNIFEM) program on Women and International Trade, Trade Liberalisation and Women seeks to explain how trade liberalisation, defined as the "process of systematically reducing and eventually eliminating all tariff and non-tariff barriers between countries as trading partners," is affecting the women of the world. The site explains how, as economies compete with each other, global liberalisation will drive down the working wages and working conditions of countries, thus affecting female workers. As well as this situational analysis, the site also includes extensive databases of related links, research, and books; UNIFEM's research into the subject of women and trade; and a list of organizations users can contact if they are interested in persuing issues related to women and trade liberalisation.
Changes in the role of the physician in today's society have made their career choices risky. Career specialists have an opportunity to assist those who do not normally seek career advice outside their own profession. (JOW)
Morgan-Haker, Veronica R.
Describes how the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) has played a central role in sponsoring innovations in the medical and health sciences, including landmark medical projects to integrate women's health issues into the medical curriculum and to use lay people in the teaching and evaluating of medical students. (EV)
Levison, Sandra P.; Straumanis, Joan
PURPOSE: To understand shared meanings of help-seeking experiences in support groups of people with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and their support persons.SETTING: ICD support group at an urban medical center.Sample: Fifteen individuals with ICD and 9 support persons.RESULTS: Six related themes and 1 constitutive pattern emerged. Themes included hearing and telling stories, help seeking encouraged by triggers, seeking meaningful information,
Suzanne Steffan Dickerson; Marylou Posluszny; Mary C. Kennedy
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the challenges African-American women in abusive relationships face when they consider seeking-help from their informal networks. Data are reported from interviews with 15 African-American women who were self-identified as having survived physical intimate partner violence. A 13-item,…
Morrison, Katherine E.; Luchok, Kathryn J.; Richter, Donna L.; Parra-Medina, Deborah
This study examined the help-seeking attitudes of graduate students enrolled in an off-campus professional centre. The sample consisted of 217 participants enrolled in 10 graduate programs (130 women [60%], 37 men [17%], 50 unspecified [23%]). Analyses (descriptive statistics and t-tests) indicated that women possessed more favourable attitudes…
McCarthy, John T.; Bruno, Michelle L.; Sherman, Christine A.
some parents choose to reject medical vaccines for their children. Jillian of Lethbridge graduate student seeking why some parents choose not to immunize that public health officials are concerned about, so I want to explore why parents
Seldin, Jonathan P.
Purpose – This study seeks to examine the business and social profiles of 67 women entrepreneurs in three regions of Nigeria in order to identify patterns of entrepreneurship and social and economic challenges facing women business owners in Nigeria. The study aims to support and encourage sustainable small-scale economic development activities by Nigerian women and determine ways to integrate these
Daphne Halkias; Chinedum Nwajiuba; Nicholas Harkiolakis; Sylva M. Caracatsanis
The struggle for sex equity by U.S. academic women in higher education during the early years of the women's movement, based on the experiences of 470 academic women, is addressed in a book suitable for sociology courses. All aspects of the academic employment process are covered, including acquiring degrees, job seeking, promotion, salary,…
WOMEN'S CAMPUS SAFETY GRANT FUNDING APPLICATION The Women's Campus Safety Grant Committee is seeking applications for funding for initiatives to promote safety for women on campus. The committee and improve facilities, programs and services at the University of Windsor. The Grant has been funded
The National Survey on violence against women originates from the need to disclose the problem on violence against women in Italy in terms of its prevalence, incidence, rate and nature. This is an important topic that still needs further investigation. Women rarely disclose what has happened to them and even more rarely report to the police or seek help in
Maria Giuseppina Muratore; Linda Laura Sabbadini
Gender differences in patterns and consequences of substance use, treatment-seeking, and motivation to change were examined in two samples of people with serious mental illness (SMI) and comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs): a community sample not currently seeking substance abuse treatment (N = 175) and a treatment-seeking sample (N = 137). In both groups, women and men demonstrated more similarities in the pattern and severity of their substance use than differences. However, treatment-seeking women showed greater readiness to change their substance use. Mental health problems and traumatic experiences may prompt people with SMI and SUD to enter substance abuse treatment, regardless of gender. PMID:21174496
Drapalski, Amy; Bennett, Melanie; Bellack, Alan
My dissertation seeks to expand our knowledge of Russian and German women's history under totalitarian systems by comparing women's fashioning by the state and their self-fashioning in Germany and Russia during the Third Reich and Bolshevik and Stalinist rule respectively. I argue that processes of women's fashioning and self-fashioning were largely influenced by the nineteenth- and early twentieth-century debates on
Victoria Vygodskaia Rust
Background The medical record is used to document patient's medical history, illnesses and treatment procedures. The information inside is useful when all needed information is documented properly. Medical care providers in Iran have complained of low quality of Medical Records. This study was designed to evaluate the quality of the Medical Records at the university hospital in Tabriz, Iran. Methods In order to get a background of the quality of documentation, 300 Medical Records were randomly selected among all hospitalized patient during September 23, 2003 and September 22, 2004. Documentation of all records was evaluated using checklists. Then, in order to combine objective data with subjective, 10 physicians and 10 nurses who were involved in documentation of Medical Records were randomly selected and interviewed using two semi structured guidelines. Results Almost all 300 Medical Records had problems in terms of quality of documentation. There was no record in which all information was documented correctly and compatible with the official format in Medical Records provided by Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Interviewees believed that poor handwriting, missing of sheets and imperfect documentation are major problems of the Paper-based Medical Records, and the main reason was believed to be high workload of both physicians and nurses. Conclusion The Medical Records are expected to be complete and accurate. Our study has unveiled that the Medical Records are not documented properly in the university hospital where the Medical Records are also used for educational purposes. Such incomplete Medical Records are not reliable resources for medical care too. Some influencing factors external to the structure of the Medical Records (i.e. human factors and work conditions) are involved. PMID:18439311
Pourasghar, Faramarz; Malekafzali, Hossein; Kazemi, Alireza; Ellenius, Johan; Fors, Uno
... ACS/APDS/ASE Resident Prep Curriculum Medical Student Simulation-Based Surgical Skills Curriculum Educational Programs SESAP SESAP ... ACS/APDS/ASE Resident Prep Curriculum Medical Student Simulation-Based Surgical Skills Curriculum Cancer Education Cancer Education ...
Psychosocial and behavioral factors may be strong predictors of adherence to medications in a wide variety of diseases. Newly emerging antiretroviral medications for HIV have been shown to be effective but require near perfect adherence to offer clinically significant benefits. There is currently great interest in deriving patient factors that may predict optimal medication adherence in HIV-positive persons. In this
Dean G. Cruess; Sarah Minor; Michael H. Antoni; Theodore Millon
STUDY OBJECTIVE—To describe the responses of women in León, Nicaragua to partner abuse and identify contextual factors associated with the use of certain coping mechanisms and the likelihood of permanent separation.?DESIGN—Cross sectional population-based survey.?SETTING—León, Nicaragua.?PARTICIPANTS—188 women 15-49 years of age who had experienced physical partner abuse, out of 488 women interviewed.?MAIN RESULTS—66% of women defended themselves effectively from abuse either physically or verbally. Forty one per cent of women had left home temporarily because of violence and 20% had sought help outside the home. Women experiencing severe abuse were more likely to leave or seek help, whereas women with less severe abuse were more able to defend themselves effectively. Seventy per cent of women eventually left abusive relationships. Help seeking and temporary separations increased the likelihood of a permanent separation, whereas women who defended themselves and were able to stop the violence, at least temporarily, were more likely to remain in abusive relationships.?CONCLUSIONS—Women in Nicaragua use a variety of methods in order to overcome physical partner abuse. Temporary leaving and help seeking are critical steps in the process of leaving a violent relationship. However, many women indicated that they did not receive support for their situation. More interventions are needed to help women recognise and deal with violence, as well as strengthening the community support networks available to abused women.???Keywords: partner abuse; violence; women PMID:11449011
Ellsberg, M; Winkvist, A; Pena, R; Stenlund, H
This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demographics, gambling measures, psychological functioning,\\u000a and motivation for therapy in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Participants in this multisite\\u000a study included 103 adult outpatients (51 women and 52 men) meeting current DSM-IV-TR criteria for PG. Logistic regression\\u000a was used to examine if gender was related together to categorical
Enrique Echeburúa; Itxaso González-Ortega; Paz de Corral; Rocío Polo-López
The prevalence and burden of overactive bladder (OAB) in the population is remarkable. An estimated 20 million adult women in the United States have symptoms of OAB. Despite the negative impact on their health-related quality of life, many do not seek treatment. Antimuscarinic agents for OAB have long been available only with a prescription. However, the Food and Drug Administration approved an over-the-counter (OTC) oxybutynin transdermal patch for use in women in 2013, and the product recently came to market. The availability of an OTC antimuscarinic medication for OAB introduces the opportunity for females to self-treat the condition. Prior to the prescription-to-OTC switch, the efficacy and safety data for the prescription product were evaluated. Consumer research studies guided the development of the drug label. PMID:25275392
Molnar, Christin; Fusco, Julie
Low-income women of color who are HIV positive and living in violent relationships are at significant risk for stigma and problems with attachment security. This article explores the ways in which these women may experience internalized stigma from incorporating society's negative views of HIV and domestic violence. It also addresses the ways in which insecure attachment may develop or intensify
Katy B. Davis
Women and small cell lung cancer: social characteristics, medical history, management and survival: a retrospective study of all the male and female cases diagnosed in Bas-Rhin (Eastern France) between 1981 and 1994.
The literature make it clear that lung cancer in women differs from that in men in several specific aspects. We conducted a retrospective study of the 967 consecutive recorded patients (696 men and 91 women after exclusions) diagnosed with small cell lung cancers (SCLC) between 1981 and 1994 in the Bas-Rhin population-based cancer registry to determine if such particularities could be observed in SCLC. Data included demographic and social characteristics, medical and smoking history, management (diagnosis and treatment), hospitalisation and survival. The end point for survival was 31 December 1998. Women were more frequently single, divorced, or widowed (P=0.007) and lived more often in urban areas (places with more than 10,000 inhabitants) (P=0.017). They differed significantly from men in their tobacco exposure (P=0.0001) and non-smoking rates (P=0.0003) but not in clinical presentation, except for more frequently elevated LDH levels (P=0.02). Bone marrow biopsies were more often performed in men (P=0.004), but management was otherwise comparable. The mean number of hospitalisations (for any reason) was comparable in both sexes but women tended to remain hospitalised longer (P=0.057). Overall survival did not differ, but women older than 70 years died sooner than their male counterparts (P=0.026). Our study confirms that some of gender differences reported in the lung cancer literature exist in SCLC. Sex-related differences in LDH levels have not previously been reported, to our knowledge. North American and European data concerning survival among women and men are discordant. Whether these gender differences are related to a real difference between the sexes or simply to differential exposure to carcinogens remains to be determined. PMID:14568681
Mennecier, Bertrand; Lebitasy, Marie-Paule; Moreau, Lionel; Hedelin, Guy; Purohit, Ashok; Galichet, Cedric; Quoix, Elisabeth
Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…
Reid, Inez Smith
OBJECTIVE We previously demonstrated that short-term treatment with a standardized kudzu extract (NPI-031) reduced alcohol drinking by men and women in a natural setting. The present study was conducted in non treatment-seeking heavy drinkers to assess the safety and efficacy of four weeks of kudzu extract in an outpatient setting. METHOD This randomized between-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involved two weeks of baseline, four weeks of treatment and two weeks of follow-up. Seventeen men (21–33 years) who reported drinking 27.6 ± 6.5 drinks/week with a diagnosis of alcohol abuse/dependence took either kudzu extract (250 mg isoflavones, t.i.d.) or matched placebo on a daily basis. They reported alcohol consumption and desire to use alcohol using a wrist actigraphy device; twice weekly laboratory visits were scheduled to monitor medication adherence and adverse events. RESULTS Medication adherence was excellent and there were no adverse events, changes in vital signs, blood chemistry, renal or liver function. There was no effect on alcohol craving, but kudzu extract significantly reduced the number of drinks consumed each week by 34–57%, reduced the number of heavy drinking days and significantly increased the percent of days abstinent and the number of consecutive days of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS A standardized formulation of kudzu extract produced minimal side effects, was well-tolerated and resulted in a modest reduction in alcohol consumption in young non treatment-seeking heavy drinkers. Additional studies using treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent persons will be necessary to determine the usefulness of this herbal preparation in reducing alcohol use in other populations. PMID:23070022
Lukas, Scott E.; Penetar, David; Su, Zhaohui; Geaghan, Thomas; Maywalt, Melissa; Tracy, Michael; Rodolico, John; Palmer, Christopher; Ma, Zhongze; Lee, David Y.-W.
While partner violence and sexual assault are public health concerns affecting college women, most young women do not seek help after the experience. Limited research explores the interpersonal context of help seeking related to violence in young women. The overall purpose of this research was to understand peer factors within a campus culture associated with seeking help in response to violence within a campus environment. Eight focus groups were held with 64 participants representing a broad spectrum of diversity in race and ethnicity. Narrative analysis was the primary method of analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: victim blaming, fear of direct response, and the alcohol factor. The young women's stories demonstrate the effects of friends and campus culture on perceptions of violence and abuse and help seeking. Findings suggest that peers and the social norms of the campus environment influence help-seeking behavior. An understanding of interpersonal level determinants of help seeking is essential for clinically relevant and effective prevention efforts. Nurse practitioners in campus health settings can use this research to guide assessment, intervention, and prevention strategies. PMID:23061163
Amar, Angela Frederick; Sutherland, Melissa; Laughon, Kathryn; Bess, Renee; Stockbridge, Jennifer
Background: Epidemiologic studies indicate that women with cosmetic breast implants have a signifi- cantly increased risk of suicide. Our objectives were to examine mortality among Danish women who under- wentcosmeticbreastimplantsurgeryandtoevaluatethe baseline prevalence of psychopathological disorders as measured by admission to a psychiatric hospital among women seeking cosmetic surgery. Methods: Cohort study of 2761 women who under- went cosmetic breast implant
Poul Harboe Jacobsen; Lisbet R. Hölmich; Joseph K. McLaughlin; Christoffer Johansen; Jørgen H. Olsen; Kim Kjøller; Søren Friis
Women's cooperatives offer self?employment opportunities that can contribute to women's social inclusion and empowerment. This article seeks to broaden existing understandings of women's entrepreneurship by focusing on less studied types of ventures and contexts—namely, a social entrepreneurial venture in India. A case study analysis was used to assess two primary areas of interest: (1) elements of empowerment embedded in the
Punita Bhatt Datta; Robert Gailey
This article seeks to take partnerships seriously. Specifically, it is concerned with the nature, opportunities, and challenges facing women's nongovernmental organization (NGOs), which seek to make real contributions to sustainable development. It uses a case study of COFERENE, a successful women's NGO in Costa Rica, to explore the nature of partnerships, the contextual factors that shape them, the successes that
Claudia MarÍa Vargas
Objective: This study examined barriers to treatment in an ethnically diverse com- munity sample of women with eating disorders. Method: Participants were 61 women (22 Hispanics, 8 Asians, 12 Blacks, 19 Whites) with eating disorders. Diagnosis was determined using the Eating Disorder Examination. Treatment-seeking history, barriers to treatment seek- ing, ethnic identity, and acculturation were assessed. Results: Although 85% of
Fary M. Cachelin; Ramona Rebeck; Catherine Veisel; Ruth H. Striegel-Moore