Lois C. Friedman; Mamta Kalidas; Richard Elledge; Mario F. Dulay; Catherine Romero; Jenny Chang; Kathleen R. Liscum
We examined demographic, medical and psychosocial factors related to delay in seeking medical consultation for breast symptoms. In this cross-sectional survey, 124 women with breast symptoms attending an outpatient breast surgery clinic in a county general hospital completed questionnaires measuring demographic, medical and psychosocial variables. Our outcome variable was delay in seeking medical consultation. Younger age (p ? 0.05), less
Pakseresht, Sedigheh; Ingle, Gopal Krishna; Garg, Suneela; Sarafraz, Nahid
Background: Patients with cancer often delay seeking medical advice in developing countries. It can adversely influence the outcome of disease. Objectives: The present study was performed to determine the stage at diagnosis and delay in seeking medical care among women with breast cancer in Delhi, India. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on a census (case series) approach to reach all women (172) diagnosed with primary breast cancer “detected in surgery Out Patient Department (OPD) from January 2007 to December 2009” at Lok Nayak Hospital, Delhi, India. Patients were interviewed using a self-structure questionnaire. Seeking behavior variables were awareness of problem, first consultation, followed physician's advice, detection of problem, system of medicine and gap between knowing the problem and consultation (patient delay). Statistical Analysis was performed using the Microsoft SPSS-pc version 14.0 statistical program. The analytic methods were used (mean, standard deviation, X2, Fisher's Exact Test, K-S, Kruskal-Wallis) for variables. All statistical tests were performed at a significance level of 5% (P < 0.05). Results: the mean age of women was 46.99 years. 38.4% of women were ? 40 years. 61% of women were in stage IV of cancer at the time of diagnosis. The mean duration of gap between knowing the problem and consulting a physician (patients delay) was 10.90 months. There was no significant association between stage of cancer and consultation gap. A significant association was found between the stage of breast cancer and income; women with lower income had a higher stage of breast cancer (P < 005). Conclusions: A significant association was found between ages of women with their delays in consultation. Delay is still prevalent amongst women with breast cancer. It seems necessary to design educating programs for women in both clinical and community settings, about breast cancer and early detection practices. PMID:25763229
Coyle, B S; Wolan, D L; Van Horn, A S
Physical and sexual abuse are increasingly recognized as common harmful experiences for women. We surveyed 828 women veterans seeking care at the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center to determine the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse experiences, both during and outside of military service. Data were collected through an anonymous, mailed questionnaire, with a response rate of 52%. Sixty-eight percent of respondents reported at least one form of abuse, and 27% reported all three. Sexual abuse was most common (55%), followed by physical abuse (48%), and rape (41%). Enlisted women, women younger than 50, and single, separated, or divorced women were significantly more likely to report abusive experiences. Over 40% of the women reporting abuse were never victimized while on active duty, and these women were less likely to receive counseling. Physical and sexual abuse experiences are disturbingly common among women veterans and demonstrate the need for additional services to assist these women. PMID:8918119
Sormanti, Mary; Shibusawa, Tazuko
Although intimate partner violence (IPV) may occur throughout a woman's life course, there has been a paucity of research on the experiences of victimization among midlife and older women. This article examines both the prevalence of IPV among a sample of women ages 50 to 64 (N = 620), who were recruited at an emergency department and primary care…
Belsky, J E
If the efforts now underway to limit access to abortion services in the United States are successful, their greatest impact will be on women who lack the funds to obtain abortions elsewhere. There is little published information, however, about the experience of medically indigent women who sought abortions under the old, restrictive state laws. This article details the psychiatric evaluation of 199 women requesting a therapeutic abortion at a large municipal hospital in New York City under a restrictive abortion law. Thirty-nine percent had tried to abort the pregnancy. Fifty-seven percent had concrete evidence of serious psychiatric disorder. Forty-eight percent had been traumatized by severe family disruption, gross emotional deprivation or abuse during childhood. Seventy-nine percent lacked emotional support from the man responsible for the pregnancy, and the majority were experiencing overwhelming stress from the interplay of multiple problems exacerbated by their unwanted pregnancy. PMID:1628716
Tiihonen Möller, Anna; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti
Objectives Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Methods Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital, Sweden. Baseline assessments of mental health were carried out and followed up after six months. Results Thirty-nine percent of the women had developed PTSD at the six month assessment, and 47% suffered from moderate or severe depression. The major risk factors for PTSD were having been sexually assaulted by more than one person, suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD) shortly after the assault, having been exposed to several acts during the assault, having been injured, having co-morbid depression, and having a history of more than two earlier traumas. Further, ASD on its own was found to be a poor predictor of PTSD because of the substantial ceiling effect after sexual assaults. Conclusions Development of PTSD is common in the aftermath of sexual assaults. Increased risk of developing PTSD is caused by a combination of victim vulnerability and the extent of the dramatic nature of the current assault. By identifying those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD appropriate therapeutic resources can be directed. PMID:25340763
Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Sabzevari, Sakineh; Negahban Bonabi, Tayebeh
Background Today, women empowering is an important issue. Several methods have been introduced to empower women. Health information seeking is one of the most important activities in this regard. A wide range of capabilities have been reported as outcomes of health information seeking in several studies. As health information seeking is developed within personal-social interactions and also the health system context, it seems that the qualitative paradigm is appropriate to use in studies in this regard. This study aimed to explore how women’s empowerment through health information seeking is done. Methods In this qualitative content analysis study, data collection was done with regard to inclusion criteria, through purposive sampling by semi-structured interviews with 17 women and using documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneous with data collection. Results Four central themes were emerged to explain women’s empowerment through health information seeking that included: a) Health concerns management with three subcategories of Better coping, Stress management, Control of situation, b) Collaborative care with two subcategories of Effective interaction with health professions and Participation in health decision making c) Individual development d) Self-protection with four sub- categories of Life style modification, Preventive behaviors promoting, Self-care promoting, and medication adherence. Conclusion The results of this study indicate the importance of women empowerment through foraging their health information seeking rights and comprehensive health information management. PMID:26005690
Bean, Glynis; Kidder, Louise H.
Research on the characteristics of women in non-traditional fields, e.g., medicine, has yielded complex information in terms of adherence to sex-role stereotypes. To determine whether students' attitudes toward helping and achieving followed sex-role typing and were different at various stages in medical school, 384 male and female oncology…
Berin, Emilia; Sundell, Micaela; Karki, Chanda; Brynhildsen, Jan; Hammar, Mats
Objective To map the knowledge about and attitudes toward birth control methods among women in Kathmandu, Nepal, and to compare the results between women seeking an induced abortion and a control group. Method This was a cross-sectional cohort study with matched controls. Women aged 15–49 years seeking medical care at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Kathmandu Medical College were included and interviewed. A case was defined as a woman who sought an elective medical or surgical abortion. A control was defined as a woman who sought medical care at the outpatient department or had already been admitted to the ward for reasons other than elective abortion. A questionnaire developed for the study – dealing with different demographic characteristics as well as knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives – was filled out based on the interview. Results A total of 153 women were included: 64 women seeking an abortion and 89 controls. Women seeking an abortion had been pregnant more times than the control group and were more likely to have been informed about contraceptives. Women with higher education were less likely to seek an abortion than women with lower education. There was no significant difference in knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives between cases and controls. The women considered highest possible effectiveness to be the most important feature when deciding on a birth control method. Conclusion Women seeking abortion in Kathmandu had shorter education and a history of more pregnancies and deliveries than women in the control group. Education and counseling on sex and reproduction as well as on contraceptive methods probably need to be improved in Nepal to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Attitudes about contraceptives need to be further investigated to develop better and more effective methods to educate women about family planning in order to increase reproductive health. PMID:24672261
Choo, Chun Wei; Marton, Christine
Presents findings of a research study on how women in information technology (IT) professions seek information on the Web as part of their daily work. Develops a behavioral model of Web information seeking that identifies four complementary modes of information seeking: undirected viewing, conditioned viewing, informal search, and formal search.…
Brown-Bowers, Amy; McShane, Kelly; Wilson-Mitchell, Karline; Gurevich, Maria
Canada has one of the world's largest refugee resettlement programs in the world. Just over 48 percent of Canadian refugees are women, with many of them of childbearing age and pregnant. Refugee and asylum-seeking women in Canada face a five times greater risk of developing postpartum depression than Canadian-born women. Mainstream psychological approaches to postpartum depression emphasize individual-level risk factors (e.g. hormones, thoughts, emotions) and individualized treatments (e.g. psychotherapy, medication). This conceptualization is problematic when applied to refugee and asylum-seeking women because it fails to acknowledge the migrant experience and the unique set of circumstances from which these women have come. The present theoretical article explores some of the consequences of applying this psychiatric label to the distress experienced by refugee and asylum-seeking women and presents an alternative way of conceptualizing and alleviating this distress. PMID:25389234
SusanS Glander; MaryLou Moore; Robert Michielutte; LinnH Parsons
Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported abuse in a population of women aged 18 years or older seeking elective pregnancy termination, and to compare abused and nonabused women with respect to the primary reasons for pregnancy termination.Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was returned by 486 women seeking outpatient abortion. The survey included demographic information, abuse screening, and items regarding partner
... 152329.html Few Military Women Seek Care After Sexual Assault: Study Career concerns cited as deterrent To use ... found. "There are numerous health consequences associated with sexual assault," said lead author Dr. Michelle Mengeling, an affiliate ...
Hoagland, K. Elaine
Women scientists met to make policy recommendations on issues related to the participation of women in scientific research. The group suggested programs that would reduce sex-role stereo-typing at the lower educational levels as a way to prevent the wastage of talent that they feel now occurs in the sciences. (Author/MA)
Veale, David; Eshkevari, Ertimiss; Ellison, Nell; Costa, Ana; Robinson, Dudley; Kavouni, Angelica; Cardozo, Linda
Little is known about the factors associated with the desire for labiaplasty. We compared 55 women seeking labiaplasty with 70 women in a comparison group who were not seeking labiaplasty. Measures administered included the Perception of Appearance and Competency Related Teasing Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Disgust Scale Revised, and the Genital Appearance Satisfaction scale with open-ended questions about their genitalia. Approximately a third of the labiaplasty group recalled specific negative comments in the past towards their labia, a proportion significantly greater than the three per cent in the comparison group. Participants reporting genital teasing also showed higher Genital Appearance Satisfaction scores than those who were not teased. However, women seeking labiaplasty were, compared to the comparison group, no more likely to have a history of neglect or abuse during childhood. There was no difference between the groups on disgust sensitivity or the perception of being teased in the past about their competence or appearance in general. PMID:24239491
Angela A. N. Rios; Jefferson R. Cardoso; Marco Aurélio Freitas Rodrigues; Silvio Henrique Maia de Almeida
Introduction and hypothesis Lower tract urinary symptoms are underestimated by women as well as health professionals. The objective of this study was\\u000a to evaluate the behavior of adult women with urinary incontinence and overactive bladder symptoms in seeking medical treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Two hundred ninety-two women between 20 and 82 years old were interviewed. Urinary symptoms, epidemiologic, and quality of\\u000a life (ICQ-SF) were related
Rosa Carney; Donna Fitzsimons; Martin Dempster
Background: Delay time from onset of symptoms of myocardial infarction to seeking medical assistance can have life-threatening consequences. A number of factors have been associated with delay, but there is little evidence regarding the predictive value of these indices. Aim: To explore potential predictors of patient delay from onset of symptoms to time medical assistance was sought in a consecutive
Ward, Earlise C.; Clark, Le Ondra; Heidrich, Susan
Little is known about African American women's beliefs about mental illness. In this qualitative study we employed the Common Sense Model (CSM) to examine African American women's beliefs about mental illness, coping behaviors, barriers to treatment seeking, and variations in beliefs, coping, and barriers associated with aging. Fifteen community-dwelling African American women participated in individual interviews. Dimensional analysis, guided by the CSM, showed that participants believed general, culturally specific, and age-related factors can cause mental illness. They believed mental illness is chronic, with negative health outcomes. Participants endorsed the use of prayer and counseling as coping strategies, but were ambivalent about the use of medications. Treatment-seeking barriers included poor access to care, stigma, and lack of awareness of mental illness. Few age differences were found in beliefs, coping behaviors, and barriers. Practice and research implications are discussed. PMID:19843967
Jin, Xuan; Wang, Gongxian; Liu, Sisun; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Fang; Qiu, Yun; Huang, Xiaojin
Background. In previous studies, people's knowledge of reproductive health and infertile women's psychological states was surveyed in several countries. However, there has been limited information concerning the psychological states of infertile women seeking treatment and the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in China. Methods. Infertile women were asked to complete short questionnaires on the day that their oocytes were retrieved; these questionnaires covered the durations of their infertility, levels of education, sources of pressure, and psychological states. Data concerning IVF outcomes were provided by embryologists and clinicians. The correlations between the duration of infertility and educational level, psychological state and education level, and psychological state and outcome of IVF were analyzed in the cohort study. Results. The duration of infertility in more than half of the females was longer than 5 years. Compared with less-educated women, women with higher levels of education sought treatment earlier and their rates of depressive symptoms were lower. There is an association between negative emotions and outcome of IVF. Conclusions. The survey of the situations of infertile women seeking IVF treatment in China indicates the importance of popularizing knowledge concerning reproductive health. Improving medical conditions, reducing the costs of treatment, and developing social culture will aid in relieving the stress of infertile women and improving assisted reproductive treatment. PMID:24369006
Burton-Jeangros, C; Hammer, R
In the literature, uses of the internet by patients are interpreted either as a resource supporting their autonomy, or as a source of perturbation in the doctor-patient relationship. Analysing 50 interviews with pregnant women, this article aims at describing the different uses made during pregnancy. Some women mostly aim at sharing their experience in their use of internet. Others are looking for specialised information, by curiosity, to complement the information received in medical visits or, more rarely, as a result of a lack of information in their exchanges with professionals. Uses of internet by patients will develop in the future and it is important that professionals take into account these different forms of internet use in their practices. PMID:23697085
Payne, Jennifer; Neutel, Ineke; Cho, Robert; DesMeules, Marie
Health Issue Research has consistently shown that while women generally live longer than men, they report more illness and use of health care services (including medication). In the literature, the reasons for women's elevated medication use are not clear. This paper investigates the associations between over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription (Rx) medication use and selected social and demographic variables in men and women. Key findings While a larger proportion of women than men used medication throughout the study, the proportion of people using medication did not increase. The use of OTC and Rx medication increased by number of physician visits for women and men. Medication use increased with age, chronic disease and number of physician visits, and decreased with the perception of good to excellent health. The relationship with other factors varied for women and men depending on their education level, income and social roles. For women, the social roles of being married or previously married, being employed or being a parent did not increase their likelihood of medication use. Reported income adequacy is not associated with the chances of mediation use among highly educated women, but for women with low levels, medication use increases as income adequacy decreases. Data Gaps and Recommendations More complete data are needed about social roles and their relation to mediation use. Data that would allow an assessment of the appropriateness of OTC and Rx drug use or the reasons for such use need to be collected. More research is needed to better understand the distribution and determinants of specific medication use. PMID:15345092
Phelan, Mary Beth; Hamberger, L Kevin; Guse, Clare E; Edwards, Shauna; Walczak, Suzanne; Zosel, Amy
Gender differences among a cohort of injured patients seeking emergency medical services were examined with respect to their experiences as perpetrators and/or victims of domestic violence. Contextual issues, including violence initiation, emotional and behavioral responses to partner-initiated violence, and injury frequency and severity were analyzed. Women reported male partner-initiated violence more frequently than men reported female partner-initiated violence. Behavioral responses to partner initiated violence varied. Women were more likely to report using force back and to involve law enforcement. Women were more likely to be injured in a domestic assault over their lifetime, within the last year, and at the time of recruitment. Comparison of injury severity revealed that women reported higher rates of injuries than men in all possible severity categories. Women also reported experiencing more fear than men during partner-initiated violence, as well as being subjected to larger numbers of dominating and controlling behaviors, and greater intimidation secondary to their partner's size. Understanding contextual differences in partner violence for women and men has significant implications for policy development, identification, treatment, and referral of patients identified as living in violent relationships. PMID:16075666
Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Sabzevari, Sakineh; Negahban Bonabi, Tayebeh
Background: Women as active health information seekers play a key role in determining lifestyle and possible implementation of preventive measures, thereby improving the health of individuals, families and society. Although studies indicate that equipping people with adequate health information leads to optimal health outcomes, sometimes the complexity of human behavior and presence of barriers and limitations expose them to challenges. Objectives: This study was designed to explore women's experiences of health information seeking barriers. Patients and Methods: In this qualitative content analysis study, data collection was conducted regarding inclusion criteria, through purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews with 17 women and using documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was performed constantly and simultaneously with data collection. Results: Five central themes were emerged to explain women's experiences of barriers to health information seeking as inadequate support from health care system, shame and embarrassment, costs, wrong ideas and beliefs and inadequate health literacy. Conclusions: It seems the accurate and evidence-based review of the current health system is crucial to support the health informative requirements in a community-based approach, respecting the community cultural-religious beliefs and client participation in health care and according to local resources. PMID:25834743
This article examines online women-seeking-women (WSW) personal ads that engage with tomboy identities and ideologies. This research demonstrates the importance of body and physicality among lesbian personal ads and the diversity of women using online personal ads. The meaning of "tomboy" in the language of WSW personal ads suggests major themes of use including: as an intermediate identity distinct within a butch/femme dichotomy, as a tempering agent for traditional femininity, as a fluid construct of personality, physicality, and body, as an understood descriptor of a particular aesthetic or physicality, and as synonymous with butch. To be a tomboy is to be simultaneously understood as a social stereotype, but also as complex, fluid, and of multiple meanings. PMID:21973069
Prata, Ndola; Holston, Martine; Fraser, Ashley; Melkamu, Yilma
Limited access to modern contraceptives in populations that desire smaller families can lead to repeat unintended pregnancy and repeat abortions. We conducted an analysis of the medical records of 1,200 women seeking abortion-related services in public and private facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from October 2008 to February 2009. We examined the characteristics of initial and repeat abortion clients including prior contraceptive use and subsequent method selection. The incidence of repeat abortion was 30%. Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used contraceptives and they were nearly twice as likely to leave the facility with a method. However, repeat abortion clients were significantly more likely to have ever used short-term reversible methods and to choose short-term methods post-abortion. Contraceptive counseling services for repeat abortion clients' should address reasons for previous contraceptive failure, discontinuation, or non-use. Post-abortion family planning services should be strengthened to help decrease repeat abortion. PMID:24558782
041 (a) 1-WH 06/2012 MEDICAL HISTORY--WOMEN'S HEALTH Page 1 of 1 MEDICAL HISTORY WOMEN'S HEALTH: _______________________ DOB: / / Mo. Day Year Please complete for your first Women's Health visit at University Health
Nicole Dedobbeleer; Pauline Morissette; Célia Rojas-Viger
This paper examines the relative influence of social network norms on sexual risk-taking among women seeking a new partner in Quebec (Canada). A survey was conducted among 430 women, 30 to 54 years of age, and living without a partner. Condom use is significantly influenced by the norms of women's different social networks: confidants, social circles through which they meet
BETTY COFFEY AWARD The Women's and Gender Studies Committee seeks nominations for the Betty Coffey in incorporating women's perspectives in the curriculum or developing programs that contribute to the elimination of persistent barriers to the success of women on campus. The award also honors the memory of Betty Coffey
BETTY COFFEY AWARD The Women's and Gender Studies Committee seeks nominations for the 2013 achievement in incorporating women's perspectives in the curriculum or developing programs that contribute to the elimination of persistent barriers to the success of women on campus. The award also honors the memory
Mainuddin, AKM; Ara Begum, Housne; Rawal, Lal B.; Islam, Anwar; Shariful Islam, SM
Objective: Over the last few decades, Bangladesh has made significant progress towards achieving targets for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and women empowerment. This study is aimed at identifying the levels and patterns of women empowerment in relation to health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 200 rural married women in Cox’s Bazar district in Bangladesh using multi stage sampling technique and face-to-face interview. Data was collected on socio-economic characteristics, proxy indicators for women empowerment in mobility and health seeking behavior related decision making. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify associations between women empowerment in relation to health seeking behavior on mobility and decision making, controlling the effect of other independent variables. Results: The results showed that only 12% women were empowered to decide on their own about seeking healthcare and 8.5% in healthcare seeking for their children. In multivariate analysis women empowerment in health seeking behavior was higher among age group 25-34 years (OR 1.76, [CI = 0.82-3.21]), women’s education, husband’s education, age at marriage > 18 years (OR 6.38, [CI = 0.98-4.21]) and women’s working status (OR 16.44, [CI = 0.79-2.71]). Conclusion: Women empowerment enhances their decision-making authority regarding health seeking behavior. Acknowledging and adopting the implications of these findings are essential for an integrated health and development strategy for Bangladesh and achieving the MDGs. PMID:26175761
Objectives: The purpose of the study was to discover how women found out about uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Methods: The study retrospectively tracked women from the beginning of their illnesses and analyzed their information-seeking behaviors. Twenty-eight women who had the procedure at the Detroit Medical Center were interviewed using a standard script. Median values and frequencies were calculated to represent information needs, information sources, and perceived helpfulness. Spearman correlations were calculated to find relationships between demographics and information needs. Results: Although the women expressed a great need for almost all types of information (median = 5), those with higher levels of education indicated a greater need to know the reasons that their doctors had for suggesting treatments (r = 0.55). The gathered frequencies indicated that friends, magazines, television, and the Internet were important information sources. A preliminary model of information seeking showed that while friends, magazines, and television made several of the women aware of the new procedure, the Internet was heavily utilized for learning about treatment options. Conclusions: Health sciences librarians may inform women about their health and treatment options by guiding women to easily readable, authoritative, and reliable information sources, including Web information sites. PMID:17443249
Schoen, Eva G; Lee, Sharon; Skow, Christine; Greenberg, Stefanie T; Bell, Allison S; Wiese, Joanna E; Martens, Jessica Kelly
This qualitative study retrospectively explored the help-seeking process in women with eating disorders. Interviews were conducted with 14 college-age women suffering from anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder NOS. Grounded theory was utilized to develop a preliminary model of the help-seeking process. Participants described a gradual shift from denial to increased awareness of self and the impact of the illness. This core process was transient in nature and influenced by interpersonal feedback, critical incidents, the women's general attitude toward help- seeking, and prior treatment experiences. Implications for clinicians include an increased focus on the transient awareness of self and the illness. PMID:22188057
Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schally, Jennifer L
The current study examined the influence of legal status and cultural variables (i.e., acculturation, gender role ideology and religious coping) on the formal and informal help-seeking efforts of Latino women who experienced interpersonal victimization. The sample was drawn from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) Study that surveyed 2,000 self-identified adult Latino women. The random digit dial methodology employed in high-density Latino neighborhoods resulted in a cooperation rate of 53.7%. Women who experienced lifetime victimization (n = 714) reported help-seeking efforts in response to their most distressful victimization event that occurred in the US. Approximately one-third of the women reported formal help-seeking and about 70% of women reported informal help-seeking. Help-seeking responses were generally not predicted by the cultural factors measured, with some exceptions. Anglo orientation and negative religious coping increased the likelihood of formal help-seeking. Positive religious coping, masculine gender role and Anglo acculturation increased the likelihood of specific forms of informal help-seeking. Latino orientation decreased the likelihood of talking to a sibling. Overall, these findings reinforce the importance of bilingual culturally competent services as cultural factors shape the ways in which women respond to victimization either formally or within their social networks. PMID:21842301
Eva G. Schoen; Sharon Lee; Christine Skow; Stefanie T. Greenberg; Allison S. Bell; Joanna E. Wiese; Jessica Kelly Martens
This qualitative study retrospectively explored the help-seeking process in women with eating disorders. Interviews were conducted with 14 college-age women suffering from anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder NOS. Grounded theory was utilized to develop a preliminary model of the help-seeking process. Participants described a gradual shift from denial to increased awareness of self and the impact of the
Carol Shieh; Marion E. Broome; Timothy E. Stump
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of health literacy, self-efficacy, and fetal health locus of control to health information-seeking in low-income pregnant women and the contribution from each factor alone or in combination to the variance in health information-seeking. This was a cross-sectional study of 143 English-speaking pregnant women who were recruited from a prenatal clinic
Miville, Marie L.; Constantine, Madonna G.
The authors explored the extent to which Asian American college women's perceived stigma about counseling mediated the relationship between their adherence to Asian cultural values and intentions to seek counseling, Participants, 201 Asian American college women (age range = 18-24 years), completed measures of Asian cultural values, perceived…
S. J. Dyer; N. Abrahams; M. Hoffman; Z. M. van der Spuy
BACKGROUND: Infertility is a major reproductive health problem in Africa. This paper presents the findings of two studies which focus on the knowledge that infertile women have about fertility and the causes of infertility, their treatment-seeking behaviour and their expectations of an infertility clinic. METHODS: A total of 150 infertile women from a culturally diverse, urban community in South Africa
Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja
Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. Conclusion. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high.
Gil-Llario, María Dolores; Morell-Mengual, Vicente; Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Giménez-García, Cristina; Castro-Calvo, Jesus
This study analyzes the relation of sexual orientation and gender to sexual sensation seeking. Participants were 382 individuals (200 men, 182 women) between 17 and 29 years old who completed the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale. Of the 382 participants, 52.46% self-reported heterosexual orientation, and 47.64% self-reported homosexual orientation. The results showed differences with Sexual Sensation Seeking being more frequent among heterosexuals and men. There were no differences between heterosexual and homosexual men. Heterosexual women had higher sexual sensation seeking scores than did homosexual women. These results and their possible implications for the effective development of prevention and intervention programs in affective-sexual education are discussed. PMID:24918266
Anna Cash Ghee; Lanny C. Bolling; Candace S. Johnson
This study examined the efficacy of a condensed version of the Seeking Safety intervention in the reduction of trauma-related symptoms and improved drug abstinence rates among women in residential chemical dependence treatment. One hundred and four women were randomly assigned to treatment including a condensed (six session) Seeking Safety intervention or the standard chemical dependence intervention. The Seeking Safety participants
Kostick, Kristin M; Schensul, Stephen L; Jadhav, Kalpita; Singh, Rajendra; Bavadekar, Amruta; Saggurti, Niranjan
Vaginal discharge (safed pani in Hindi, meaning "white water") is one of the leading symptoms for which women in India seek care. Treatment-seeking for safed pani is disproportionately high among poor women, representing a physical, emotional and financial burden for low-income families. Safed pani is only rarely indicative of a reproductive tract or sexually transmitted infection. The discrepancy between symptom reports and observed pathology has led some researchers to characterize safed pani as a culturally based expression of more generalized negative life situation. Data are drawn from two prevention intervention studies (2002-2006 and 2007-2012) conducted in economically marginal communities in Mumbai. Results show that husbands as problem generators and spousal abusers and women's greater perceived empowerment and reported tension are significantly associated with safed pani. These results provide the basis for identifying women at greater risk for psychosocial distress and providing supports at the locations at which they seek treatment. PMID:20533080
Johnson, Katherine M.; Johnson, David R.
We examined male partners’ influence on the decision to seek medical help for infertility using from the National Survey of Fertility Barriers. Building upon an existing help-seeking framework, we incorporated characteristics of both partners from 219 heterosexual couples who had ever perceived a fertility problem. In logistic regression analyses, we found an association between couple-level attitudes and medical help-seeking even when other predisposing and enabling conditions existed. Overall, the findings highlight that both partners contribute to the infertility help-seeking process, and that different factors may play a role in different stages of help-seeking. Studies of infertility help-seeking need to be more inclusive of the context that these decisions are embedded within to better understand service use. PMID:20160961
Norsa'adah, Bachok; Rahmah, Mohd Amin; Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Knight, Aishah
Delay in help-seeking behaviour which is potentially preventable has a major effect on the prognosis and survival of patients with breast cancer. The objective of this study was to explore reasons for delay in seeking help among patients with breast cancer from the East Coast of peninsular Malaysia. A qualitative study using face- to-face in-depth interview was carried out involving 12 breast cancer patients who had been histo-pathologically confirmed and were symptomatic on presentation. Respondents were selected purposely based on their history of delayed consultation, diagnosis or treatment. All were of Malay ethnicity and the age range was 26-67 years. Three were in stage ll, seven in stage lll and two in stage lV. At the time of interview, all except one respondent had accepted treatment. The range of consultation time was 0.2-72.2 months with a median of 1.7 months, diagnosis time was 1.4-95.8 months( median 5.4 months )and treatment time was 0-33.3 months (median 1.2 months). The themes derived from the study were poor knowledge or awareness of breast cancer, fear of cancer consequences, beliefs in complementary alternative medicine, sanction by others, other priorities, denial of disease, attitude of wait and see and health care system weakness. Help-seeking behaviour was influenced by a complex interaction of cognitive, environmental, beliefs, culture and psycho-social factors. Breast cancer awareness and psychological counselling are recommended for all patients with breast symptoms to prevent delay in seeking clinical help. PMID:23098462
This grounded theory study in California, United States was an inquiry into the perceptions of health of Cambodian women in resettlement. The sequelae of significant life trauma on the health of women who escaped political conflict have received little attention in the nursing literature. Thirty-nine Cambodian women were recruited through a social service organization and verbal referrals. Open-ended questions and a conversational approach to dialogue and data gathering facilitated the interview process. Women were interviewed at home or the local temple. Seeking life balance emerged as the core perspective of this study. The relationships between thematic categories of seeking life balance, patterns of knowing, and caring for self were salient. Outcomes of these interrelationships further moved women's health toward disharmony or harmony. The findings of this study are limited by sampling participants in a tightly networked community and may serve as a pilot for future research. PMID:23545697
Johnson, Katherine M.; Johnson, David R.
We examined male partners' influence on the decision to seek medical help for infertility using the National Study of Fertility Barriers. Building upon an existing help-seeking framework, we incorporated characteristics of both partners from 219 heterosexual couples who had ever perceived a fertility problem. In logistic regression analyses, we…
The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit invalidated a Louisiana law which restricted Medicaid reimbursement for abortion to instances where the pregnancy threatened the life of the mother. Although the revised 1994 Hyde Amendment permitted federal Medicaid funding for the abortion of pregnancies resulting from rape or incest, the Fifth Circuit held that the Hyde Amendment did not require states to fund these procedures. Instead, the court relied on the purposes of Medicaid to provide health-sustaining medical care and held that Louisiana's statute impermissibly restricted a women's right to abortion where medically necessary. Louisiana was enjoined from enforcing the law to the extent it restricted Medicaid reimbursement for the medically necessary abortion of pregnancies resulting from rape or incest. The court held that the state's interest in normal childbirth is not sufficient to sustain the abortion funding restriction. PMID:11648424
... to medical care, National Health Interview Survey Does health insurance coverage differ by race and ethnicity for young ... having health insurance coverage. Definitions Terms related to health insurance Health insurance coverage: Health insurance is broadly defined ...
Olatokun, Wole Michael; Ajagbe, Enitan
This survey-based study examined the information-seeking behaviour of traditional medical practitioners using Taylor's information use model. Respondents comprised all 160 traditional medical practitioners that treat sickle cell anaemia. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. Frequency and percentage…
Research with refugees and asylum seekers tends to be divided into research with adults or research with children under the age of 18. This is despite relational approaches to studying age that contest such dichotomous and fixed understandings of "life-stages". This article seeks to provide an insight into the experiences of young women who in…
Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Saavedra, Lissette M.; Hien, Denise A.; Campbell, Aimee N.; Wu, Elwin; Ruglass, Lesia
Objective The Recovery Management paradigm provides a conceptual framework for the examination of joint impact of a focal treatment and post-treatment service utilization on substance abuse treatment outcomes. We test this framework by examining the interactive effects of a treatment for comorbid PTSD and substance use, Seeking Safety, and post-treatment Twelve-Step Affiliation (TSA) on alcohol and cocaine use. Method Data from 353 women in a six-site, randomized controlled effectiveness trial within the NIDA Clinical Trials Network were analyzed under latent class pattern mixture modeling. LCPMM was used to model variation in Seeking Safety by TSA interaction effects on alcohol and cocaine use. Results Significant reductions in alcohol use among women in Seeking Safety (compared to Health Education) were observed; women in the Seeking Safety condition who followed up with TSA had the greatest reductions over time in alcohol use. Reductions in cocaine use over time were also observed but did not differ between treatment conditions nor were there interactions with post-treatment TSA. Conclusions Findings advance understanding of the complexities for treatment and continuing recovery processes for women with PTSD and SUDs, and further support the chronic disease model of addiction. PMID:23558158
Donoghue, Glenda D.
Discusses curriculum reform in medical education to ensure that women's health issues receive adequate attention. There has been remarkable progress in this area, but the reforms have not yet been translated into equitable care for women patients. (SLD)
Kim, Jae Yop; Lee, Ji Hyeon
In total, 123 battered Korean women who used domestic violence agencies were asked where they had turned for assistance in response to intimate partner violence. This study examined the factors related to use of formal and informal resources by these women. Formal resources included police, medical, legal, and shelter; informal were family or…
Ishikawa, Rachel Zack; Cardemil, Esteban V; Falmagne, Rachel Joffe
In this study, we examined help-seeking pathways and help-receiving experiences among Latinos, a population that has been shown to under-utilize mental health services. We used the qualitative approach of dual mode of analysis to explore the experiences of 13 Latino men and women who utilized formal as well as informal treatment and support resources. We explored three specific themes: (a) individual and family help-seeking perspectives intersecting with Latino cultural norms; (b) referral source and style, needs identification, and prior help-seeking experiences as key motivational factors for help seeking; and (c) client-therapist match and client-therapist relational style as integral to mental health treatment satisfaction. We discuss clinical implications for efforts to improve the cultural sensitivity and accessibility of mental health services. PMID:20448272
Ogletree, R J
In a study of 656 college women enrolled in elective health education classes at three midwestern universities, results showed that 42% of the women had been victims of sexual coercion in dating situations while in college. Seventy percent of those who had experienced sexual coercion had intercourse when they did not want to as a result of overwhelming arguments and pressure. Only 28% of the sexual coercion victims sought any type of help. Of those who sought help, 75% sought help from a friend. Because the experience of victimization can disrupt various aspects of women's lives, it is important that victims seek help in their attempts to cope successfully after the sexually coercive event. If campus help providers--administrators, educators, residence hall staff, and health center personnel--are more aware of the incidence and dynamics of sexual coercion, they can be more effective in encouraging college student victims to seek the help they need. PMID:8436727
Person, Bobbie; Addiss, David G; Bartholomew, L Kay; Meijer, Cecilia; Pou, Victor; van den Borne, Bart
Background In the Dominican Republic, a Latin American country with filariasis-endemic areas, more than 63,000 people have lymphatic filariasis and more than 400,000 people are at risk of future infection. In this paper, we explore the health beliefs, health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of women with lymphoedema in filariasis-endemic areas to better understand the needs of women when developing lymphoedema morbidity control programs. Methods Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews of 28 women, 3 focus group discussions with 28 women, field notes and photographs. Results Women described exhaustive and expensive attempts at seeking a cure for their lymphoedema. Family members were influential in providing women with initial care seeking referrals to indigenous healers credited with influence over physical, mental, spiritual and supernatural properties of illness. When indigenous treatments proved to be ineffectual, the women sought care from trained healthcare providers. Most healthcare providers incorrectly diagnosed the edema, failed to adequately treat and meet the needs of women and were viewed as expensive. Most women resorted to self-prescribing injectable, oral, or topical antibiotics along with oral analgesics as a standard practice of self-care. Conclusion Healthcare providers must understand a woman's cultural perspectives of illness, her natural networks of support and referral, her behavioural practices of care-seeking and self-care and the financial burden of seeking care. In the culture of the Dominican Republic family members and traditional healthcare providers are influential advisors on initial health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices. For this reason family-oriented interventions, support groups for women and their families, community education and training on simple, low cost lymphoedema management techniques for indigenous healers are viable ways to influence the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of women with lymphoedema. The extensive use of injectable, oral and topical antibiotics by indigenous healers and women without medical supervision suggests a need for health education messages related to the risks of such practices. PMID:17187660
Das, Ashavaree; Sarkar, Madhurima
Objectives: Understanding health information-seeking behaviors and barriers to care and access among pregnant women can potentially moderate the consistent negative associations between poverty, low levels of literacy, and negative maternal and child health outcomes in India. Our seminal study explores health information needs, health information-seeking behaviors, and perceived information support of low-income pregnant women in rural India. Methods: Using the Wilson Model of health information-seeking framework, we designed a culturally tailored guided interview to assess information-seeking behaviors and barriers to information seeking among pregnant women. We used a local informant and health care worker to recruit 14 expectant women for two focus group interviews lasting 45 minutes to an hour each. Thirteen other related individuals including husbands, mothers, mothers-in-law, and health care providers were also recruited by hospital counselors for in-depth interviews regarding their pregnant wives/daughters and daughters-in-law. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by coding the data into thematic categories. Results: The data were coded manually and emerging themes included pregnancy-related knowledge and misconceptions and personal, societal, and structural barriers, as well as risk perceptions and self-efficacy. Lack of access to health care and pregnancy-related health information led participants to rely heavily on information and misconceptions about pregnancy gleaned from elder women, friends, and mothers-in-law and husbands. Doctors and para-medical staff were only consulted during complications. All women faced personal, societal, and structural level barriers, including feelings of shame and embarrassment, fear of repercussion for discussing their pregnancies with their doctors, and inadequate time with their doctors. Conclusion: Lack of access and adequate health care information were of primary concern to pregnant women and their families. Policy Implications: Our study can help inform policies and multi-sectoral approaches that are being taken by the Indian government to reduce maternal and child morbidity and burdens. PMID:25191141
This article draws on legal arguments made by civil society organisations to challenge the legal reasoning that apparently produced the decision in the Ms Y case in Ireland in August 2014. I show how legal standards of reasonableness and practicality ought to be interpreted in ways that are respectful of the patient's wishes and rights. The case concerned a decision by the Health Service Executive, the Irish public health authority, to refuse an abortion to a pregnant asylum seeker and rape survivor on the grounds that a caesarean section and early live delivery were practicable and reasonable alternatives justified by the need to protect fetal life. I argue that the abortion refusal may not have been a reasonable decision, as required by the terms of relevant legislation, for four different reasons. First, the alternative of a caesarean section and early live delivery was not likely to avert the risk of suicide, and in fact did not do so. Second, the consent to the caesarean section alternative may not have been a real consent in the legal sense if it was not voluntary. Third, an abortion refusal and forcible treatment fall below the norms of good medical practice as interpreted through a patient-centred perspective. Fourth, an abortion refusal that entails forms of cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment ought not to be a reasonable action under the legislation. PMID:25555759
Malik, Imtiaz A; Gopalan, Sethuraman
Cancer patients in developing countries often delay seeking medical advice. It can adversely influence the clinicopathological behavior and out-come of the disease process. This study was undertaken to obtain information about initial perceptions of patients presenting with breast lump, subsequent efforts to seek medical advice, frequency and reasons for delay in seeking medical advice and its possible impact on clinicopathological characteristics. We prospectively gathered data from 138 recently diagnosed (< or = 3 months) breast cancer patients who had initially presented with a breast lump and were referred to the medical oncology service for further treatment. Delay in seeking medical advice was defined as time period of > or = 1 month between initial perception of lump and first physician visit. The study was conducted at the National Cancer Institute, Karachi, Pakistan. Most (85%) patients discovered the lump accidentally. In other cases, lump was discovered by the family physician or by the patient as part of regular self-examination. Etiologic perceptions included malignancy (17%), benign growth (26%), milk clot (19%), trauma (23%) and infection (10%). On average, patients took 8.7 weeks to inform the family and 17.2 weeks to first physician visit. Fifty three percent delayed seeking medical advice. Common reasons were; antecedent use of complimentary/alternative therapies (34%), lack of significance attached to the lump (23%), fear of surgery (22%), conflicting personal commitments (7%), fear of cancer (5%), and others (8%). Twenty nine percent practiced CAM before visiting any physician. Common methods used were homeopathy (70%), spiritual therapy (15%) and Ayurvedic medicine (13%). CAM use was associated with delay in seeking medical advice (OR: 5.6; 95% CI: 2.3, 13.3) and presentation at an advanced stage of disease (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.01, 4.6). Patients who delayed seeking medical advice more often had positive axillary nodes and stage III/IV disease. Breast cancer patients in Pakistan frequently (53%) delay seeking medical advice. Antecedent practice of CAM is widespread and a common underlying reason. The delay results in significant worsening of the disease process. PMID:12974558
Wenzel, S L; Andersen, R M; Gifford, D S; Gelberg, L
Information is lacking on homeless women's gynecological symptoms and use of medical care for symptoms. This paper documents and explains gynecological symptoms and conditions and use of medical care in a probability sample of 974 reproductive-age (15-44) homeless women. Two-thirds of women reported symptoms during the previous year; 71 percent of those received medical care for their gynecological symptoms. Pregnancy, drug dependence, more episodes of homelessness, and general physical health symptoms were positively associated with a number of gynecological symptoms. Gynecological symptoms, younger age, better perceived health, and insurance coverage were positively associated with medical care; women reporting recent drug use and rape received less care. These findings support the importance of medical care and other treatment and support services for homeless women, including expanded care during pregnancy and substance abuse treatment. Health insurance coverage and an interruption in the cycle of homelessness also appear vital to women's health. PMID:11475550
Jonathan Gabe; Michael Calnan
This paper develops an analysis of women's perceptions of medical technology and the elements which shape them, and then draws out the implications for medicine and the medicalization thesis. In the first part of the paper we outline the macro-theoretical debates about medicalization and the role of medical technology in this process, and the consequences for those who use health
FOCUS Medical Student Fellowship in Women's Health Research Website: www and 5 awards annually Range of study in women's health, defined broadly; 1 award may be specific to CV completing 3rd year- some flexibility · Funding for 6 months of mentored, intensive women's health research
Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Gunter, Katie
Objective: To examine the factors that influenced African American men's medical help seeking. Method: Thematic analysis of 14 focus groups with 105 older, urban African American men. Results: African American men described normative expectations that they did not go to the doctor and that they were afraid to go, with little explanation. When they…
Shenghui Wu; Linwei Tian; Fei Xu
Aims: This study aimed to determine the sociological characteristics of abortion seekers according to marital status and previous induced abortions in a major regional hospital in Nanjing, China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire in women seeking abortion at Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital in China in 2003. Results: The average
Li, Hai-Jiang; Sun, Jiang-Zhou; Zhang, Qing-Lin; Wei, Dong-Tao; Li, Wen-Fu; Jackson, Todd; Hitchman, Glenn; Qiu, Jiang
Help seeking (HS) is a core coping strategy that is directed towards obtaining support, advice, or assistance as means of managing stress. Women have been found to use more HS than men. Neural correlates of sex differences have also been reported in prefrontal-limbic system (PLS) regions that are linked to stress and coping, yet structural differences between men and women relating to HS in the PLS are still unknown. Thus, the association between gray matter volume (GMV) and HS was investigated using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a large healthy sample (126 men and 156 women). Results indicated women reported more HS than men did. VBM results showed that the relation between HS scores and GMV differed between men and women in regions of the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex extending to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex(OFC/sgACC). Among women, higher HS scores were associated with smaller GMV in these areas while a positive correlation between GMV and HS scores was observed among men. These results remained significant after controlling for general intelligence, stress, anxiety and depression. Thus, this study suggested that structural differences between men and women are correlated to characteristic brain regions known to be involved in the PLS which is considered critical in stress regulation. PMID:25027617
Lee, Jane Yeonjae; Kearns, Robin A; Friesen, Wardlow
This paper explores the phenomenon of migrants returning to their country of origin for health care. Specifically, it examines the case of Korean immigrants to New Zealand making trips to their homeland to obtain medical operations. We situate our inquiry at the intersection of literatures on home, therapeutic spaces and health care consumption. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews we focus on the question of why and how first-generation Koreans in Auckland, New Zealand, seek medical services in their country of birth. Narratives suggest that the immigrants' decisions are shaped by interactions between agency (self) and structure (society) that occur across transnational social fields. Strong preferences for decisive and comprehensive treatment in culturally comfortable settings are revealed. The study highlights a particular link between health and place: that if financially able, immigrant patients will seek not only effective, but also affective medical care. PMID:19840903
Court Decision: 353 Federal Reporter, 3d Series 436; 2003 Dec 17 (date of decision). The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit reversed a lower court decision and held that Ohio's partial-birth abortion law was constitutional because the law permitted the procedure in the event of significant maternal health risk and did not prohibit dilation and evacuation (a lawful abortion procedure). Women's Medical Professional Corporation challenged the constitutionality of Ohio's ban on partial-birth abortion, claiming that the law did not contain an adequate exception for maternal health and that it unduly burdened a woman's right to abort a nonviable fetus by dilation and evacuation (D&E). The Sixth Circuit held that the law's maternal health exception was valid under the Fourteenth Amendment because it allowed partial-birth abortion when there is significant maternal health risk. The court rejected the plaintiff's assertion that partial-birth abortion should be allowed at any physician's discretion and noted that precedent allows states to "restrict an abortion procedure except when the procedure is necessary to prevent a significant health risk." The court also held that the law did not ban D&E, the most common second-trimester abortion procedure, because the law explicitly tracked the medical differences between D&E and partial-birth abortion, it provided an exception for D&E, and it focused on other distinctions between D&E and partial-birth abortion. For these reasons, Ohio's partial-birth abortion ban did not unduly burden a woman's right to terminate a pregnancy and was therefore constitutional. PMID:16477714
Ohashi, Ayumi; Higuchi, Michiyo; Labeeb, Shokria Adly; Mohamed, Asmaa Ghareds; Chiang, Chifa; Aoyama, Atsuko
This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women's health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women's health-seeking behavior in areas including maternal health and common illnesses of women and children. Our results showed that maternal health issues were often discussed by husbands and wives, while mothers-in-law had little apparent influence. We also found that women could access support resources more easily than expected through their extended families. Our study showed that husbands had an important role in encouraging women's health in the family, while the effect of mothers-in-law on women's health-seeking behavior was not substantial. The study indicated that women received considerable support from co-resident family members, their natal family, and their neighbors, which helped women in seeking health services. PMID:25129988
Background There is limited understanding of the factors that influence decisions to seek HIV care and treatment services in community settings. The aim of this study was to explore the socio-cultural and health system factors affecting health-seeking behaviour among deceased women in Kenya who were living with HIV at the time of death. Methods Out of a total of 796 deaths for which a caregiver was available to provide information, retrospective data were drawn from verbal and social autopsies administered to caregivers of 218 women who had died of AIDS-related illnesses aged 15 to 49 years. Information was collected on essential elements of the care-seeking process from the onset of severe illness episodes and analysed using qualitative and quantitative techniques. Results Results from the quantitative data showed that poor women were less likely to access formal health services (OR?=?0.2; p?0.001) compared to non-poor women. The qualitative data showed that socioeconomic status, poor knowledge and understanding of AIDS-related illness, distance to facility and transportation costs, medical pluralism, stigma, low HIV risk perception, lack of family support and health care system barriers contributed to delays/constraints in seeking care. Conclusions The findings highlight important issues that have implications for addressing challenges faced by women living with HIV, including non-adherence to treatment regimen and late diagnosis of HIV. Provision of transportation subsidies as part of the national social safety-net strategy can help in addressing financial constraints associated with transportation costs among poor women living with HIV. PMID:24968717
Loxton, Deborah; Dobson, Annette; Mishra, Gita Devi
Background Relatively little is known about the extent to which young adults use the Internet as a health information resource and whether there are factors that distinguish between those who do and do not go online for health information. Objective The aim was to identify the sociodemographic, physical, mental, and reproductive health factors associated with young women’s use of the Internet for health information. Methods We used data from 17,069 young women aged 18-23 years who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between sociodemographic, physical, mental, and reproductive health factors associated with searching the Internet for health information. Results Overall, 43.54% (7433/17,069) of women used the Internet for health information. Women who used the Internet had higher odds of regular urinary or bowel symptoms (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.36-1.54), psychological distress (very high distress: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13-1.37), self-reported mental health diagnoses (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.09-1.23), and menstrual symptoms (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.36) than women who did not use the Internet for health information. Internet users were less likely to have had blood pressure checks (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.93) and skin cancer checks (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.97) and to have had a live birth (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.86) or pregnancy loss (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.98) than non-Internet users. Conclusions Women experiencing “stigmatized” conditions or symptoms were more likely to search the Internet for health information. The Internet may be an acceptable resource that offers “anonymized” information or support to young women and this has important implications for health service providers and public health policy. PMID:25986630
Tobin, Carolyn L; Murphy-Lawless, Jo
Background Immigration and asylum seeking has been an important social and political phenomenon in Ireland since the mid 1990s. Inward migration to Ireland was seen in unprecedented numbers from 1995 onward, peaking in 2002 with 11,634 applications for refugee status. Asylum and immigration is an issue of national and international relevance as the numbers of displaced people worldwide continues to grow, reaching the highest level in 20 years at 45.2 million in 2012. Midwives provide the majority of care to childbearing women around the world, whether working as autonomous practitioners or under the direction of an obstetrician. Limited data currently exist on the perspectives of midwives who provide care to childbearing women while they are in the process of seeking asylum. Such data are important to midwifery leaders, educators, and policy-makers. The aims of this study were to explore midwives’ perceptions and experiences of providing care to women in the asylum process and to gain insight into how midwives can be equipped and supported to provide more effective care to this group in the future. Methods Data were collected via indepth unstructured interviews with a purposive sample of ten midwives from two sites, one a large urban inner city hospital, and the second, a smaller more rural maternity hospital. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Results Five themes emerged from the data, barriers to communication, understanding cultural difference, challenges of caring for women who were unbooked, the emotional cost of caring, and structural barriers to effective care. Conclusion Findings highlight a need to focus on support and education for midwives, improved maternity services for immigrant women, and urgent policy revision. PMID:24516340
Thompson, Caroline; Luft, Harold
Background/Aims Research in a fragmented healthcare system can be challenging when one seeks to follow patients within a care episode. Breast cancer treatment can continue for months or years and a care trajectory may reflect many decisions. Women may seek evaluations or specialty care at more than one medical center, either through physician referrals or “shopping” behavior. Claims data can track where patients are seen, but lack clinical detail. This study aims to better understand treatment location decisions among women seen at more than one healthcare facility. Methods The OncoShare database combines EHR data from two large healthcare facilities in the same catchment area–a multisite community practice and an academic medical center–for all women treated at either site for breast cancer from 2000–2011. We use descriptive statistics and longitudinal modeling strategies to characterize treatment trajectories and define predictors of treatment facility decisions. Results In a previous cross-sectional analysis of these data, the 16% of women who received treatment at both institutions had comparable prognostic factors, but far more diagnostic and treatment interventions than those treated at only one facility. We use a longitudinal analysis to characterize the care trajectories of these women, and test predictors of their treatment decisions such as geographic location, previous diagnostic tests performed, and timing of interventions. Conclusions Preliminary results from this data revealed a marked difference in treatment intensity among women who sought care at both institutions, despite comparable prognoses. The richness of the EHR now allows the extraction of predictors such as patterns of medical care use before the breast cancer diagnosis.
Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Roy, Lolita
Growing evidence suggests intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance misuse are co-occurring problems that disproportionately affect low income urban women seeking care in emergency departments (EDs) and represent leading causes of injuries that result in ED visits. This paper examines temporal bi-directional associations between different types of drug and alcohol use and different types of IPV in a longitudinal study of a representative sample of 241 low income, urban women receiving emergency care from an ED in the Bronx, New York. After adjusting and matching for socio-demographics and potentially confounding multi-level risk and protective covariates, women who reported using heroin in the prior six months at Wave 1 were twice as likely as non-heroin using women to indicate any physical, injurious or sexual IPV at subsequent waves and were 2.7 times more likely to indicate experiencing an injury from IPV at subsequent waves. Crack or cocaine use in the past 6 months at Wave 1 was associated with an increased likelihood of injurious IPV and severe verbal abuse at subsequent waves. Findings also suggested that sexual IPV was significantly associated with subsequent use of crack or cocaine. The multiple bidirectional associations found linking these problems underscore the need for conducting routine screening for IPV and substance misuse among women in low income, urban EDs, and for improving linkages to services that will ultimately reduce the risk of morbidity, disability, and mortality related to these co-occurring problems. PMID:22023020
Ahmad, Farah; Driver, Natasha; McNally, Mary Jane; Stewart, Donna E
This study explores why South Asian immigrant women with experiences of partner abuse delay seeking help from professionals. Three focus groups were conducted in Hindi language with South Asian immigrant women in Toronto. Twenty-two women participated with a mean age of 46 years (range 29-68 years). Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed data using constant comparison techniques within and across the groups. We found that three major themes emerged from the discussions: reasons for delayed help-seeking, turning points and talking to professionals. Women expressed delaying help-seeking to the point when "Pani sar se guzar jata he" (water crosses over your head). Their dominant reasons for delayed help-seeking were social stigma, rigid gender roles, marriage obligations, expected silence, loss of social support after migration and limited knowledge about available resources and myths about partner abuse. Women usually turned for help only after experiencing pronounced mental and physical health problems. The findings are interpreted in light of participants' immigration context and the socio-cultural norms of patriarchy, collectivism and familism. Prevention approaches to address partner abuse and delayed help-seeking among South Asian immigrant women should include tailored community education, social services to reduce vulnerability, and cultural competency of professionals. Further research and program evaluation is needed to advance the field. PMID:19576669
Sheridan, Jennifer T.; Fine, Eve; Pribbenow, Christine Maidl; Handelsman, Jo; Carnes, Molly
One opportunity to realize the diversity goals of academic health centers comes at the time of hiring new faculty. To improve the effectiveness of search committees in increasing the gender diversity of faculty hires, the authors created and implemented a training workshop for faculty search committees designed to improve the hiring process and increase the diversity of faculty hires at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. They describe the workshops, which they presented in the School of Medicine and Public Health between 2004 and 2007, and they compare the subsequent hiring of women faculty in participating and nonparticipating departments and the self-reported experience of new faculty within the hiring process. Attendance at the workshop correlates with improved hiring of women faculty and with a better hiring experience for faculty recruits, especially women. The authors articulate successful elements of workshop implementation for other medical schools seeking to increase gender diversity on their faculties. PMID:20505400
Sheridan, Jennifer T; Fine, Eve; Pribbenow, Christine Maidl; Handelsman, Jo; Carnes, Molly
One opportunity to realize the diversity goals of academic health centers comes at the time of hiring new faculty. To improve the effectiveness of search committees in increasing the gender diversity of faculty hires, the authors created and implemented a training workshop for faculty search committees designed to improve the hiring process and increase the diversity of faculty hires at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. They describe the workshops, which they presented in the School of Medicine and Public Health between 2004 and 2007, and they compare the subsequent hiring of women faculty in participating and nonparticipating departments and the self-reported experience of new faculty within the hiring process. Attendance at the workshop correlates with improved hiring of women faculty and with a better hiring experience for faculty recruits, especially women. The authors articulate successful elements of workshop implementation for other medical schools seeking to increase gender diversity on their faculties. PMID:20505400
Davis, Kevin C; Uhrig, Jennifer; Rupert, Douglas; Fraze, Jami; Goetz, Joshua; Slater, Michael
"Take Charge. Take the Test." (TCTT), a media campaign promoting HIV testing among African American women, was piloted in Cleveland and Philadelphia from October 2006 to October 2007. This study assesses TCTT's effectiveness in promoting HIV testing information seeking among target audiences in each pilot city. The authors analyzed data on telephone hotlines promoted by the campaign and the www.hivtest.org Web site to examine trends in hotline calls and testing location searches before, during, and after the campaign. Cleveland hotline data were available from October 1, 2005, through February 28, 2008, for a total of 29 months (N = 126 weeks). Philadelphia hotline data were available from May 1, 2006, through February 28, 2008, for a total of 22 months (N = 96 weeks). The authors assessed the relation between market-level measures of the campaign's advertising activities and trends in hotline call volume and testing location searches. They found a significant relation between measures of TCTT advertising and hotline calls. Specifically, they found that increases in advertising gross ratings points were associated with increases in call volume, controlling for caller demographics and geographic location. The campaign had similar effects on HIV testing location searches. Overall, it appears the campaign generated significant increases in HIV information seeking. Results are consistent with other studies that have evaluated the effects of media campaigns on similar forms of information seeking. This study illustrates useful methods for evaluating campaign effects on information seeking with data on media implementation, hotline calls, and zip code-based searches for testing locations. PMID:21707409
Objective The objective of the study was to describe our early experience with a comprehensive uterine fibroid center and report our results in women seeking a second opinion for management of symptomatic uterine leiomyoma. Methods We performed a HIPAA-complaint, IRB-approved retrospective study of women seeking second opinion for management of uterine fibroids at our multidisciplinary fibroid treatment center in a tertiary care facility from July 2008 to August 2011. After a review of patients’ history, physical examination, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, treatment options were discussed which included conservative management, uterine-preserving options, and hysterectomy. We performed Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables between the cohort that did or did not undergo a uterine-preserving treatment. Differences were considered significant at p?0.05. Results The mean age of the 205 patient study cohort was 43.8 years (SD 7.5). One hundred sixty-two (79.0%) patients had no prior therapy. Based on MRI, one or more fibroids were detected in 178/205 (86.8%), adenomyosis in 8/205 (3.9%), and a combination of fibroid and nonfibroid condition (i.e., adenomyosis, endometrial polyp) in 18/205 (8.8%). In those who desired to transition their care to our institution (n?=?109), 85 patients underwent 90 interventions: 39 MRgFUS (magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound surgery), 14 UAE (uterine artery embolization), 25 myomectomies, 8 hysterectomies, 3 polypectomies, and 1 endometrial ablation. Five patients had two procedures. Intramural and subserosal fibroids were most commonly treated with MRgFUS followed by myomectomy and then UAE; in contrast, pedunculated fibroids were frequently managed with myomectomy. Conclusions Multidisciplinary fibroid evaluation may facilitate the increase use of less invasive options over hysterectomy for symptomatic fibroid treatment. PMID:25512867
The library facilities, resource materials, training of librarians and so on are described at first. The library collection is that of middle sized medical library. However, since the facilities are not enough to handle it, it is necessary for the library to be supplemented by information services. Then primary information services such as reading of materials, interlibrary loan and journal acquisition system of the recent issues for each laboratory is outlined. Secondary information services centered around on-line information retrieval service, contents sheet service and preparation of index cards are also described. What a medical library should be is considered in terms of its relation to information services.
van Zanten, Marta
The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of graduates of international medical schools who seek Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates certification based on accreditation of their medical education programmes. For the self-selected population who took United States Medical Licensing Examinations during the study period (2006-2010), accreditation was associated with higher first-attempt pass rates on some examinations, especially for international medical graduates from schools located in the Caribbean region. In addition, certain essential accreditation standards were associated with better performance on all examinations. This study lends support to the value of medical education accreditation. PMID:25947650
Jadva, V.; Freeman, T.; Tranfield, E.; Golombok, S.
%) and lesbian and bisexual women (11, 55%) had a partner compared to heterosexual men (4, 20%) and heterosexual women (2, 12%) respectively. Overall, the most important motivation for seeking co-parenting arrangements was in order for both biological parents...
Pradeep, Johnson; Isaacs, Anton; Shanbag, Deepthi; Selvan, Sumithra; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari
Background & objectives: Depression remains largely undiagnosed in women residing in rural India and consequently many do not seek help. Moreover, among those who are diagnosed, many do not complete treatment due to high rates of attrition. This study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of enhanced care with usual care in improving treatment seeking and adherence to antidepressant medication in women with depression living in rural India. Methods: Six villages from rural Bangalore were randomized to either community health worker supported enhanced care or usual care. A total of 260 adult depressed women formed the final participants for the analysis. The outcome measures were number of women who sought and completed treatment, number of clinic visits, duration of treatment with antidepressant, changes in severity of depression (HDRS) and changes in quality of life [WHO-QOL (Brev) scale]. Results: A significantly greater number of women from the treatment intervention (TI) group completed the treatment and were on treatment for a longer duration compared to the treatment as usual (TAU) group. However, there were no significant differences in the severity of depression or quality of life between the TI and the TAU groups or between treatment completers and treatment dropouts at six months. Interpretation & conclusions: Enhanced care provided by the trained community health workers to rural women with major depression living in the community resulted in greater number of women seeking help and adhering to treatment with antidepressants. However, despite enhanced care a significant number of rural women diagnosed with depression either did not seek help or discontinued treatment prematurely. These findings have significant public health implications, as untreated depression is associated with considerable disability. PMID:24718398
Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Polonec, Lindsey; Stewart, Sherri L; Gelb, Cynthia A
Background With limited screening options, early detection of gynaecologic cancers can depend on women recognizing the potential significance of symptoms and seeking care. Objective We investigated women’s concern about symptoms that might be related to gynaecologic cancers, the underlying conditions they associated with symptoms and their actual and hypothetical response to symptoms. Methods Fifteen focus groups with women aged 40–60 years were conducted in Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami and New York City. Participants were given an untitled list of symptoms that could indicate various gynaecologic cancers and asked if any would concern them, what could cause each and what they would do if they experienced any of them. Results Overall, participants expressed greater concern about symptoms clearly gynaecologic in nature than other symptoms. Participants generally did not associate symptoms with any form of cancer. Some women who had experienced symptoms reported waiting an extended period before seeking care or not seeking care at all. The belief that a symptom indicated a benign condition was the most common reason given for delaying or foregoing care seeking. Strategies participants reported using to supplement or replace consultations with health care providers included Internet research and self-care. Conclusion Raising awareness of symptoms that can indicate gynaecologic cancers may lead to earlier detection and improved survival. In particular, women should be informed that gynaecologic cancers can cause symptoms that may not seem related to the reproductive organs (e.g. back pain) and that unusual vaginal bleeding should prompt them to seek care immediately. PMID:22948336
Escobedo, Ana D.
Purpose. A purpose of this study was to describe the career (extrinsic) and personal (intrinsic) factors perceived by K-12 minority women central office administrators (Directors, Assistant Superintendents, Associate Superintendents, Deputy Superintendents in California) who facilitated or inhibited their promotion for (or desire to pursue) the…
Anita, Connelly Nicholson
Little uniquely identifiable information about Hispanic women who gain entrance into medical school is known. A few studies that focus just on stress in Hispanic women in medical school have found ?unique? stressors. This research examines stress...
Feinstein, Lydia; Mupenda, Bavon; Duvall, Sandra; Chalachala, Jean Lambert; Edmonds, Andrew; Behets, Frieda
Objectives Increasing coverage of quality reproductive health services, including prevention of mother-to-child transmission services, requires understanding where and how these services are provided. To inform scale-up, we conducted a population-based survey in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods Stratified two-stage cluster sampling was used to select women ?18 years old who had been pregnant within the prior three years. Participants were interviewed about their reproductive healthcare utilization and impressions of services received. Results We interviewed 1221 women, 98% of whom sought antenatal care (ANC). 78% of women began ANC after the first trimester and 22% reported <4 visits. Reasons for choosing an ANC facility included reputation (51%), friendly/accessible staff (39%), availability of comprehensive services (29%), medication access (26%), location (26%), and cost (21%). Most women reported satisfactory treatment by staff, but 47% reported that the ANC provider ignored their complaints, 23% had difficulty understanding responses to their questions, 22% wanted more time with the provider, 21% wanted more privacy, and 12% felt uncomfortable asking questions. Only 56% reported someone talked to them about HIV/AIDS. Strongest predictors of seeking inadequate ANC included low participant and partner education and lack of certain assets. Only 32% of women sought postnatal care. Some results varied by health zone. Conclusions Scaling-up interventions to improve reproductive health services should include broad-based health systems strengthening and promote equitable access to quality ANC, delivery, and postnatal services. Personal and structural-level barriers to seeking ANC need to be addressed, with consideration given to local contexts. PMID:23964667
Devore, Elizabeth E; Kim, Sung; Ramin, Cody A; Wegrzyn, Lani R; Massa, Jennifer; Holmes, Michelle D; Michels, Karin B; Tamimi, Rulla M; Forman, John P; Schernhammer, Eva S
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether antihypertensive medication use, including long-term use, is associated with increased breast cancer incidence in women. We studied 210,641 U.S. registered nurses participating in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II). Information on antihypertensive medication use was collected on biennial questionnaires in both cohorts, and breast cancer cases were ascertained during this period. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks of invasive breast cancer over follow-up (1988-2012 in NHS, 1989-2011 in NHS II) across categories of overall antihypertensive medication use and use of specific classes (diuretics, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors). During follow-up, 10,012 cases of invasive breast cancer developed (6718 cases in NHS and 3294 in the NHS II). Overall, current use of any antihypertensive medication was not associated with breast cancer risk compared with past/never use in NHS (multivariable-adjusted relative risk = 1.00, 95 % CI = 0.95-1.06) or NHS II (multivariable-adjusted relative risk = 0.94, 95 % CI = 0.86-1.03). Furthermore, no specific class of antihypertensive medication was consistently associated with breast cancer risk. Results were similar when we considered hypertensive women only, and when we evaluated consistency and duration of medication use over time. Overall, antihypertensive medication use was largely unrelated to the risk of invasive breast cancer among women in the NHS cohorts. PMID:25701121
Callender, Valerie D; McMichael, Amy J; Cohen, George F
Hair loss is a common problem that challenges the patient and clinician with a host of cosmetic, psychological and medical issues. Alopecia occurs in both men and women, and in all racial and ethnic populations, but the etiology varies considerably from group to group. In black women, many forms of alopecia are associated with hair-care practices (e.g., traction alopecia, trichorrhexis nodosa, and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia). The use of thermal or chemical hair straightening, and hair braiding or weaving are examples of styling techniques that place African American women at high risk for various "traumatic" alopecias. Although the exact cause of these alopecias is unknown, a multifactorial etiology including both genetic and environmental factors is suspected. A careful history and physical examination, together with an acute sensitivity to the patient's perceptions (e.g., self-esteem and social problems), are critical in determining the best therapy course. Therapeutic options for these patients range from alteration of current hair grooming practices or products, to use of specific medical treatments, to hair replacement surgery. Since early intervention is often a key to preventing irreversible alopecia, the purpose of the present article is to educate the dermatologist on all aspects of therapy for hair loss in black women--including not only a discussion of the main medical and surgical therapies but also an overview of ethnic hair cosmetics, specific suggestions for alterations of hair-care practices, and recommendations for patient education and compliance. PMID:15113284
Waisbren, S E; Hamilton, B D; St James, P J; Shiloh, S; Levy, H L
OBJECTIVES. This study identified factors predicting adherence to medical recommendations in maternal phenylketonuria, which can result in severe fetal damage. METHODS. Sixty-nine women with phenylketonuria, 68 of their acquaintances, and 69 women with diabetes mellitus were interviewed annually for 5 years. A model in which each stage in the maternal phenylketonuria life cycle represented a treatment-related goal provided a means to assess adherence. RESULTS. At the stages of prevention of unplanned pregnancy, treatment initiation, and diet continuation throughout pregnancy, attitudes and social support were associated with adherence to medical recommendations. No specific variables were associated with outcome at reproductive decision making, but women with phenylketonuria were more likely to delay making a decision, resulting in unplanned and, hence, untreated or late-treated pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS. Women with phenylketonuria differed from their acquaintances and diabetic women in many respects, suggesting that special programs are needed. Greater emphasis on reproductive decision making is especially needed. Interventions that focus on improving social support networks and attitudes about treatment may increase adherence to recommendations. PMID:7503337
Ramos, Silvina; Romero, Mariana; Aizenberg, Lila
This article presents the findings of a qualitative study exploring the experiences of women living in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, Argentina, with the use of misoprostol for inducing an abortion. We asked women about the range of decisions they had to make, their emotions, the physical experience, strategies they needed to use, including seeking health care advice and in dealing with a clandestine medical abortion, and their overall evaluation of the experience. An in-depth interview schedule was used. The women had either used misoprostol and sought counselling or care at a public hospital (n=24) or had used misoprostol based on the advice of a local hotline, information from the internet or from other women (n=21). Four stages in the women's experiences were identified: how the decision to terminate the pregnancy was taken, how the medication was obtained, how the tablets were used, and reflections on the outcome whether or not they sought medical advice. Safety and privacy were key in deciding to use medical abortion. Access to the medication was the main obstacle, requiring a prescription or a friendly drugstore. Correct information about the number of pills to use and dosage intervals was the least easy to obtain and caused concerns. The possibility of choosing a time of privacy and having the company of a close one was highlighted as a unique advantage of medical abortion. Efforts to improve abortion law, policy and service provision in Argentina in order to ensure the best possible conditions for use of medical abortion by women should be redoubled. PMID:25702064
More inquiry is needed into how Mexican immigrant survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) are seeking help, to improve interventions designed to reach this isolated and vulnerable population. This grounded theory study, using a sample of 29 Mexican immigrant survivors of IPV and 15 key informants, examines the help-seeking process. Findings indicate that informal networks, particularly family and female friends, play a critical role in providing assistance and linking women to formal services. These findings have implications for the delivery of formal domestic violence services to this community as well as the response of police and other formal service systems. PMID:25234812
Timbury, Morag C.; Timbury, G. C.
A questionaire was sent to 343 women medical undergraduates at the University of Glasgow, and 317 replied. Of the respondents, 36% had a member of their family in medicine and 15% had either one or both parents a doctor: 45% had a working mother. Half of all the students had doubts about medicine as a career, and the proportion of these rose with seniority. Doubts were mainly due to the length of the medical course but the girls also recognized the difficulty of combining a medical career with family life. There was a significant correlation between having doubts about a medical career and having a mother who worked. Half the girls said they would prefer to work in hospital after qualification—the favourite specialties being paediatrics and obstetrics; only a quarter said they would like to do general practice. The need for careers advice which links actual career openings and the wish of most women to combine medical work with marriage and child-rearing is emphasized. The majority of the students saw a doctor's primary role as the giving of advice and reassurance. PMID:5575958
Mc Sharry, Jennifer; Baxter, Alison; Wallace, Louise M.; Kenton, Anthony; Turner, Andrew; French, David P.
Background Prompt treatment following Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) can reduce the risk of subsequent stroke and disability. However, many patients delay in making contact with medical services. This study aimed to explore TIA patients' accounts of delay between symptom onset and contacting medical services including how decisions to contact services were made and the factors discussed in relation to delay. Methods Twenty interviews were conducted with TIA patients in England. Using a previous systematic review as an initial framework, interview data were organised into categories of symptom recognition, presence of others and type of care sought. A thematic analysis was then conducted to explore descriptions of care-seeking relevant to each category. Results Delay in contacting medical services varied from less than an hour to eight days. Awareness of typical stroke symptoms could lead to urgent action when more severe TIA symptoms were present but could lead to delay when experienced symptoms were less severe. The role of friends and family varied widely from deciding on and enacting care-seeking decisions to simply providing transport to the GP practice. When family or friends played a greater role, and both made and enacted care-seeking decisions, delays were often shorter, even when patients themselves failed to identify symptoms. Healthcare professionals also impacted on patients' care-seeking with greater delays in seeking further care for the same episode described when patients perceived a lack of urgency during initial healthcare interactions. Conclusions This study provides new information on patients' decisions to contact medical services following TIA and identifies overlapping factors that can lead to delay in receiving appropriate treatment. While recognition of symptoms may contribute to delay in contacting medical services, additional factors, including full responsibility being taken by others and initial healthcare interactions, can over-ride or undermine the importance of patients' own identification of TIA. PMID:25137185
Decker, Michele R; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Sabri, Bushra; Jethva, Meghna; Raj, Anita; Donta, Balaiah; Silverman, Jay G
Domestic violence is a significant public health issue. India is uniquely affected with an estimated 1 in 3 women facing abuse at the hands of a partner. The current mixed-methods study describes violence-related coping and help-seeking, and preferences for health care-based intervention, among perinatal women residing in low-income communities in Mumbai, India. In-depth interviews were conducted with women who had recently given birth and self-reported recent violence from husbands (n = 32), followed by survey data collection (n = 1,038) from mothers seeking immunization for their infants ages 6 months or younger at 3 large urban health centers in Mumbai, India. Participants described fears and other barriers to abuse disclosure, and there was a low level of awareness of formal support services related to violence. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicated that formal help-seeking is uncommon and that informal help sources are most frequently sought. Quantitative results revealed that, while few (<5%) women had been screened for violence in the health care setting, most (67%) would be willing to disclose abuse if asked. When presented with a list of possible clinic-based violence support interventions, participants endorsed crisis counseling and safety planning as most helpful (90.9%). Findings provide direction for violence-related intervention services for perinatal women. A multipronged approach that includes strengthening the informal support system, for example, neighbors and family members, as well as facilitating access to formal services building on the health care system, warrants exploration in this context. PMID:23295374
Littlewood, Roland; Leavey, Gerard
Background: Critiques of the validity of the DSM diagnostic criteria for depressive disorder argue that it fails to differentiate between abnormal sadness due to internal dysfunction or depression (sadness without an identifiable cause), and normal sadness (sadness with a clear cause). Aims and Methods: A population survey was undertaken in adult education centres in Spain aiming to explore beliefs about depression and normal sadness. Two hypothetical case vignettes portrayed individuals experiencing deep sadness, both fulfilling criteria for major depressive disorder (DSM-IV), one with a clear cause, the other without an identifiable cause. Three hundred and forty-four (344) questionnaires were obtained (95% response rate). Results: Participants statistically significantly differentiated between the sadness-with-cause vignette, seen more frequently as a normal response, while the one without a cause was seen as pathological. Help-seeking behaviour recommendations followed this distinction: a medical option was statistically significantly more common when there was no cause for sadness. Socio-cultural variation in how people understand and deal with sadness was also found. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the importance of taking into account the context in which depressive symptoms occur as it seems that the absence of an appropriate context is what makes people conceptualize them as abnormal. It also raises questions about the lack of face validity of the current diagnostic classification for depressive disorder that exclusively uses descriptive criteria. PMID:22187003
Ralph DiClemente; Robin R. Milhausen; Laura F. Salazar; Joshua Spitalnick; Jessica McDermott Sales; Richard A. Crosby; Sinead N. Younge; Gina M. Wingood
We used data derived from two independent studies to examine the psychometric properties of a new scale to measure adolescents’ willingness to engage in sexual sensation-seeking behavior. In Study 1, the Sexual Sensation-Seeking Scale for Adolescents (SSSA) was administered to a sample of 715 African American adolescents ranging in age from 15 to 21 years. The SSSA demonstrated strong internal
Underhill, Meghan L; Crotser, Cheryl B
Recommendations for women with a deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation include complex medical approaches related to cancer risk reduction and detection. Current science has not yet fully elucidated decision support needs that women face when living with medical consequences associated with known hereditary cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to describe health communication and decision support needs in healthy women with BRCA1/2 gene mutations. The original researchers completed an interpretive secondary qualitative data analysis of 23 phenomenological narratives collected between 2008 and 2010. The Ottawa Decision Support and Patient Centered Communication frameworks guided the study design and analysis. Women described a pattern wherein breast and ovarian cancer risk, health related recommendations and decisions, and personal values were prioritized over time based on life contexts. Knowing versus acting on cancer risk was not a static process but an ongoing balancing act of considering current and future personal and medical values, further compounded by the complexity of recommendations. Women shared stories of anticipatory, physical and psychosocial consequences of the decision making experience. The findings have potential to generate future research questions and guide intervention development. Importantly, findings indicate a need for ongoing, long-term, support from genetics professionals and decision support interventions, which challenges the current practice paradigm. PMID:24271037
Granot, Michal; Dagul, Pnina; Darawsha, Wisam; Aronson, Doron
Rapid reperfusion is crucial to reduce mortality in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction. Prehospital patient delay, defined as time from symptoms onset to the decision to seek medical attention, accounts for a large proportion of cases with delayed reperfusion. However, whether pain modulation processes are involved in this phenomenon is not known. We hypothesized that prehospital patient delay may be affected by a reduction of perceived pain perception and pain modulation pattern. Pain threshold, magnitude estimation of suprathreshold stimulation, mechanical temporal summation and conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and recalls of pain magnitude at the onset of chest pain were obtained in 67 patients with first ST elevation myocardial infarction. The study's primary outcome was prehospital patient delay. The median patient delay was 24 (interquartile range, 0.5-72) hours. Of all psychophysical pain measures including pain threshold, magnitude estimation of suprathreshold stimulation, mechanical temporal summation, as well as CPM, only warm sensation threshold was independently associated with lower clinical chest pain intensity (P = 0.01). Multivariable regression analysis (R = 0.449; P < 0.0001) revealed an inverse independent association between chest pain intensity (P < 0.001) and patient delay, whereas efficient CPM was positively associated with prolonged patient delay (P = 0.034). The electrocardiography-derived myocardial ischemic area was not associated with chest pain intensity or patient delay, indicating that the affected ischemic tissue is not a dominant component that determines pain response. In conclusion, beyond the perceived chest pain intensity, the activation pattern of descending inhibition pathways during coronary occlusion affects pain interpretation and behavior during acute coronary occlusion. PMID:25599315
There is a strong international push to secure broader rights for women. In the 20 years since the first global conference on women's issues was held in Mexico City, governments have adopted legislation which promotes equal opportunity, treatment, and rights, and women are entering the labor market in unprecedented numbers. There is evidence that investments in women have had an enormous impact upon society overall, but millions of individual women continue to face discrimination in social, economic, political, and cultural spheres. They are disproportionately denied access to positions of leadership, undereducated, underpaid, die from complications related to childbirth and unsafe abortions, and are battered and killed by men. The Fourth World Conference on Women will be held September 4-15, 1995, in Beijing, to allow participants to assess the progress and shortfalls of the past two decades and identify action to be taken into the next century. The UN-sponsored global meeting will offer governments, nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, and individuals the opportunity to review their efforts and renew their commitment to improve the equality and conditions of women and defend their human rights. The main objectives are to adopt a plan of action against obstacles to the advancement of women worldwide, to determine priority actions to be taken by the international community over the period 1996-2001, and to mobilize men and women at the grassroots level to achieve those objectives. A parallel nongovernmental organization forum on women will be held August 30 - September 8, also in Beijing. PMID:12289951
Appel, Toby A
Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead (1867–1941), a leader among second-generation women physicians in America, became a pioneer historian of women in medicine in the 1930s. The coalescence of events in her personal life, the declining status of women in medicine, and the growing significance of the new and relatively open field of history of medicine all contributed to this transformation in her career. While she endeavored to become part of the community of male physicians who wrote medical history, her primary identity remained that of a “medical woman.” For Hurd-Mead, the history of women in the past not only filled a vital gap in scholarship but served practical ends that she had earlier pursued by other means—those of inspiring and advancing the careers of women physicians of the present day, promoting organizations of women physicians, and advocating for equality of opportunity in the medical profession. PMID:25345770
Boxell, Emily M; Smith, Samuel G; Morris, Melanie; Kummer, Sonja; Rowlands, Gill; Waller, Jo; Wardle, Jane; Simon, Alice E
Health literacy may influence the efficacy of print-based public health interventions. A key part of the U.K. cancer control strategy is to provide information to the public on earlier diagnoses with a view to improving the United Kingdom's relatively poor 1-year cancer survival statistics. This study examined the effect of health literacy on the efficacy of a gynecological cancer information leaflet. Participants (n = 451) were recruited from 17 Cancer Research UK events. Health literacy was assessed with the Newest Vital Sign test. Gynecological cancer symptom awareness and barriers to medical help seeking were assessed before and after participants read the leaflet. Symptom awareness improved, and barriers to medical help seeking were reduced (ps < .001). Symptom awareness was lower in individuals in lower health literacy groups, both at baseline and at follow-up (p < .05, p < .001, respectively), but there were no significant differences in barriers to medical help seeking at either time point (p > .05). As predicted, individuals with lower health literacy benefited less after exposure to the leaflet (ps < .01 for interactions). Despite careful consideration of information design principles in the development of the leaflet, more intensive efforts may be required to ensure that inequalities are not exacerbated by reliance on print-based public health interventions. PMID:23030575
Young, L K; Farquhar, C M; McCowan, L M; Roberts, H E; Taylor, J
The aim was to assess the contraceptive knowledge and practices of women obtaining abortions at Epsom day unit, Green Lane Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand, in December 1992 and January 1993. A questionnaire was administered to consenting women. Of the 553 women asked to participate, 198 (35.89%) declined to enroll, thus leaving 355 participants with a mean age of 23 years. 60% were of European ethnicity. 43% had a yearly income of less than $22,000. Approximately half of those of Maori and Pacific Island descent were in the lowest income bracket. 36% had employment as their primary source of income, while 37% were supported by government benefits. 54.5% of the women were single, and 45% (299) were nulliparous. 63% had received enough contraceptive education to use a method effectively. Pacific Island and Asian women were less likely to have received adequate contraceptive education. 61% (217) of women were using a method in the month of conception. The condom was used by 48% of women, while oral contraception was used by 42%. Of the 9 women who used a diaphragm, 8 did not use it every time. Four women had used an IUD. Two women had used Depo Provera. Some women used a combination of condoms and natural family planning. Eight percent (28/355) had never used contraception, and 31% (111/355) were not using a method at the time of conception. 16 women (4.5%) used the emergency contraception pill within 72 hours of intercourse. Of those women who had not used contraception, only 13 (11.5%) used the emergency contraceptive pill. Of all the women in the study, 34% had used the emergency contraceptive pill previously and 78% had heard of it. Higher income level was associated with greater numbers of women using contraception. A logistic regression model showed an increased use of contraception with increased education (p=0.02). Maori and Pacific Islanders were less likely to use contraceptives (p= 0.002, p=0.0001). PMID:8196861
... Recommendations Medications for the Risk Reduction of Primary Breast Cancer in Women The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force ( ... shown to reduce a woman’s risk of developing breast cancer. These medications work by blocking the effects of ...
S Peacock; C Apicella; L Andrews; K Tucker; A Bankier; M B Daly; J L Hopper
To determine which aspects of breast cancer genetic counselling are important to Ashkenazi Jewish women, a discrete choice experiment was conducted. Participants consisted of 339 Australian Ashkenazi Jewish women who provided a blood sample for research used to test for Ashkenazi Jewish ancestral mutations in the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, and were offered their genetic test result through a cancer
Jennifer L. Strauss; Christine E. Marx; Julie C. Weitlauf; Karen M. Stechuchak; Kristy Straits-Tröster; Ayaba W. Worjoloh; Christina B. Sherrod; Maren K. Olsen; Marian I. Butterfield; Patrick S. Calhoun
A robust association between sexual trauma and trading sex has been documented in civilian samples but has not been examined in veterans. Women veterans experience high rates of sexual victimization across the lifespan, including during military service (military sexual trauma [MST]). Associations between MST and trading sex were examined in 200 women enrolled in a crosssectional study of HIV risks
Sally B. Rose; Zhang Wei; Annette J. Cooper; Beverley A. Lawton
BackgroundMigrant Asian women reportedly have low levels of contraceptive use and high rates of abortion in New Zealand. Chinese make up the largest proportion of migrant Asian in New Zealand. This study aimed to describe the contraceptive choices of Chinese women seeking abortion; to examine method choice in relation to demographic characteristics (including length of stay) and to determine whether
Ansara, Donna L; Hindin, Michelle J
While numerous studies have documented the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV); most of this research has used a criminal justice framework that has focused on acts of physical violence. However, critics argue that this narrow conceptualization of IPV belies the heterogeneity in this experience with respect to the nature of coercive control in the relationship. Moreover, they contend that the different types of abusive and controlling relationships not only have a different etiology, health consequences, and help-seeking characteristics, they also have a different relationship by gender. This study examined the extent to which different patterns of violence, abuse, and control were differentially associated with formal and informal help-seeking in a national Canadian sample. Data from the 2004 General Social Survey were analyzed, which included 696 women and 471 men who reported physical or sexual violence by a current or ex-spouse or common-law partner. The most commonly reported formal sources for women and men were health professionals (i.e., doctors, nurses, counselors, psychologists) and the police. For women, informal sources (i.e., family, friends, neighbors) were commonly reported across all IPV subgroups. However, the importance of almost all of the formal sources (e.g., health professionals, police, lawyers, shelters, crisis centers) increased as the severity of the violence and control increased. Shelters and crisis centers were also reported by a notable proportion of women who experienced the most severe pattern of violence and control. For men, both formal and informal sources were more commonly reported by those who experienced moderate violence and control compared with those who experienced relatively less severe acts of physical aggression. The results suggest that research that more sensitively examines people's experiences of violence and control can help identify their health, social, and safety needs; and ultimately better inform the development of programs and services aimed at addressing these needs. PMID:20122774
Dalhousie Medical School Cancer Researcher Seeks Biomarkers of Treatment Success HALIFAX-NEWS! CONTACT US Related Site: Dellaire Lab Medicine on the Move New Dalhousie Medical School Cancer Researcher Medical School cancer researcher is studying nuclear structures that may be important biomarkers
Haddad, Lisa B.; Feldacker, Caryl; Jamieson, Denise J.; Tweya, Hannock; Cwiak, Carrie; Chaweza, Thomas; Mlundira, Linly; Chiwoko, Jane; Samala, Bernadette; Kachale, Fanny; Bryant, Amy G.; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Stuart, Gretchen S.; Hoffman, Irving; Phiri, Sam
Background Programs for integration of family planning into HIV care must recognize current practices and desires among clients to appropriately target and tailor interventions. We sought to evaluate fertility intentions, unintended pregnancy, contraceptive and condom use among a cohort of HIV-infected women seeking family planning services within an antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic. Methods 200 women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire during enrollment into a prospective contraceptive study at the Lighthouse Clinic, an HIV/ART clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, between August and December 2010. Results Most women (95%) did not desire future pregnancy. Prior reported unintended pregnancy rates were high (69% unplanned and 61% unhappy with timing of last pregnancy). Condom use was inconsistent, even among couples with discordant HIV status, with lack of use often attributed to partner’s refusal. Higher education, older age, lower parity and having an HIV negative partner were factors associated with consistent condom usage. Discussion High rates of unintended pregnancy among these women underscore the need for integ rating family planning, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and HIV services. Contraceptive access and use, including condoms, must be improved with specific efforts to enlist partner support. Messages regarding the importance of condom usage in conjunction with more effective modern contraceptive methods for both infection and pregnancy prevention must continue to be reinforced over the course of ongoing ART treatment. PMID:25811849
Kristen N. Jozkowski; Vanessa Schick; Debby Herbenick; Michael Reece
ABSTRACT. Outside traditional risk-oriented public health campaigns, few sexuality education opportunities exist for adult women, particularly those in partnered relationships, that address issues related to sexual desire and pleasure. Data were collected from 677 women attending in-home sex toy parties to assess whether they sought sexuality-related information at a recent party they attended. Participants reported asking 765 questions at parties.
Oster-Aaland, Laura; Thompson, Kevin; Eighmy, Myron
This study analyzed the impact of a medical amnesty policy and an online alcohol poisoning video on college students' intentions to seek help when witnessing alcohol poisoning symptoms. Students were randomly assigned to receive an amnesty policy, alcohol poisoning video, or both. The group that received both treatments was most likely to seek…
Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Seyede Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali
Background: Infertility is a major life event that brings about social and psychological problems. The type and rate these problems in the context of socio-cultural of different geographical areas and sex of people is different. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explain the psychological consequences of infertility in Iranian infertile women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was done using qualitative content analysis on 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children in 2012. They were purposefully selected with maximum sample variation from a large Fertility Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using 32 semi-structured interviews and analyzed by the conventional content analysis method. Results: The findings of this study include four main themes: 1. Cognitive reactions of infertility (mental engagement; psychological turmoil). 2. Cognitive reactions to therapy process (psychological turmoil; being difficult to control in some situations; reduced self-esteem; feelings of failure). 3. Emotional-affective reactions of infertility (fear, anxiety and worry; loneliness and guilt; grief and depression; regret). 4. Emotional-affective reactions to therapy process (fear, anxiety and worry; fatigue and helplessness; grief and depression; hopelessness). Conclusion: This study revealed that Iranian infertile women seeking treatment face several psychological-emotional problems with devastating effects on the mental health and well-being of the infertile individuals and couples, while the infertility is often treated as a biomedical issue in Iranian context with less attention on the mental-emotional, social and cultural aspects. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Seyede Batool Hasanpoor-Azghady) PMID:24799871
Medical Student Fellowship in Women's Health Research Perelman School of Medicine at the University in academic medicine · To promote research and education in women's health Dual Mission To support in women's health: 1 award may be specific to CV research Clinical, basic science or community · Open
Background Traditional birth attendants retain an important role in reproductive and maternal health in Tanzania. The Tanzanian Government promotes TBAs in order to provide maternal and neonatal health counselling and initiating timely referral, however, their role officially does not include delivery attendance. Yet, experience illustrates that most TBAs still often handle complicated deliveries. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to describe (1) women’s health-seeking behaviour and experiences regarding their use of antenatal (ANC) and postnatal care (PNC); (2) their rationale behind the choice of place and delivery; and to learn (3) about the use of traditional practices and resources applied by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and how they can be linked to the bio-medical health system. Methods Qualitative and quantitative interviews were conducted with over 270 individuals in Masasi District, Mtwara Region and Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results The results from the urban site show that significant achievements have been made in terms of promoting pregnancy- and delivery-related services through skilled health workers. Pregnant women have a high level of awareness and clearly prefer to deliver at a health facility. The scenario is different in the rural site (Masasi District), where an adequately trained health workforce and well-equipped health facilities are not yet a reality, resulting in home deliveries with the assistance of either a TBA or a relative. Conclusions Instead of focusing on the traditional sector, it is argued that more attention should be paid towards (1) improving access to as well as strengthening the health system to guarantee delivery by skilled health personnel; and (2) bridging the gaps between communities and the formal health sector through community-based counselling and health education, which is provided by well-trained and supervised village health workers who inform villagers about promotive and preventive health services, including maternal and neonatal health. PMID:23448583
Behets, Frieda; Edmonds, Andrew; Kitenge, François; Crabbé, François; Laga, Marie
Background We examined HIV prevalence trends over 4.5 years among women receiving antenatal care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, by geographic location, clinic management and urbanicity. Methods Quarterly proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of pregnant women with HIV positive results were determined using aggregate service provision and uptake data from 22 maternity units that provided vertical HIV prevention services from October 2004 to March 2009. Assuming linearity, proportions were assessed for trend via the Cochran–Armitage test. Multivariable binomial regression was used to describe detailed prevalence trends. Results HIV testing was offered to 220 006 pregnant women; 210 348 (95.6%) agreed to be tested and 191 216 (90.9%) received their results. A total of 3999 women were found to be HIV positive, a prevalence of 1.90% (95% CI: 1.84–1.96%). The median quarterly proportion of women testing positive for HIV was 1.94% (range: 1.44–2.44%). Prevalence was heterogeneous in terms of maternity management, urbanicity and geographic location. Modeling suggested that the overall prevalence dropped from 2.04% (95% CI: 1.92–2.16%) to 1.77% (95% CI: 1.66–1.88%) over 4.5 years, a relative decrease of 13.2% (95% CI: 3.53–22.9%). Trend testing corroborated this decline (P < 0.01). Conclusions The decreasing HIV prevalence among Kinshasa antenatal care seekers is robust and encouraging. The relatively low prevalence and the weak existing healthcare system require prevention of mother-to-child transmission interventions that strengthen maternal and child healthcare service delivery. Complacency would be unwarranted: assuming a uniform national crude birth rate of 50/1000 and 1.8% antenatal HIV prevalence, approximately 7000 pregnant HIV infected women in Kinshasa, and 60 000 nationwide, are in need of care and prevention services yearly. PMID:20453017
Henshaw, R C; Naji, S A; Russell, I T; Templeton, A A
In Scotland, physicians compared women's preferences for and acceptability of medical abortion and vacuum aspiration in the early 1st trimester of pregnancy among 363 patients at the Maternity Hospital in Aberdeen. They measured acceptability 2 weeks after the abortion. The 4 groups included 73 women who chose a medical abortion (600 mg RU-486 followed 48 hours later by a vaginal pessary of 1 mg gemeprost), 95 women who chose vacuum aspiration, 99 women randomly allocated to medical abortion, and 96 women randomly allocated to vacuum aspiration. 23% had had a previous legal abortion. Almost all the women who had a preference for an abortion method accepted their chosen method (95% for medical abortion and 90% for vacuum aspiration). Just 4% from either group would choose another method if the need would arise in the future. Women randomized to medical abortion were significantly more likely to choose vacuum aspiration in the future than were those randomized to vacuum aspiration who would choose medical abortion in the future (22% vs. 2%; p .001). The only predictor of acceptability before the abortion among women randomly allocated to medical abortion was gestational age. Specifically, 95% of the women who considered medical abortion to be unacceptable underwent medical abortion at 50 or more days gestation. At gestations under 50 days, acceptability between the 2 randomly allocated groups was the same. The 2 groups did not differ in pain rating scores, indicating that preferences were likely to be more significant than pain. All 4 groups rated the quality of nursing care to be positive in 11 of the 12 bipolar adjectives. Women who preferred medical abortion rated treatment considerably higher on 4 scores (p .05). These 4 bipolar adjectives were relaxed-stressed, soft-hard, sympathetic-unsympathetic, and gentle-harsh. PMID:8401094
Johnson, Emily; Lahey, Joanna
Obtaining an entry-level job can be critically important for women with little education, particularly those who have taken time out of the labor force. This article uses archival data from a field experiment, called a resume audit study, to examine the characteristics of entry-level resumes that are important to potential employers. In accordance…
Teresa Carvalho; Rui Santiago
This paper provides an analysis of the potential impact of changes in recruitment and hiring processes in Portuguese higher education institutions – under the New Public Management framework – on the representation of women in academia. Based on official data from the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education, two major conclusions emerge. First, Portuguese higher education institutions reproduce
Xinyi Hu; Robert A. Bell; Richard L. Kravitz; Sharon Orrange
The authors examined online support group members’ reliance on their Internet community and other online and offline health resources as they prepare for a scheduled medical appointment. Adult members of an online support group (N = 505) with an upcoming medical appointment completed an online questionnaire that included measures of illness perceptions, control preference, trust in the physician, and eHealth literacy; a
Ziurys, Lucy M.
Where do guys go for testing? A. To a doctor or Nurse Practitioner in a medical clinic. Women often seek for sale. You can buy condoms by the 3, 6, or 12 pack, or cost- saving 100 pack. Also for sale: water based in women may lead to tubal scarring, and/or pelvic inflammatory disease, which increase the risk of tubal
Yilu Zhou; Jialun Qin; Hsinchun Chen
As the number of non-English resources available on the Web is increasing rapidly, developing information retrieval techniques for non-English languages is becoming an urgent and challenging issue. In this research to facilitate information seeking in a multilingual world, we focused on discovering how search-engine techniques developed for English could be generalized for use with other languages. We proposed a general
Cerulli, Catherine; Kothari, Catherine; Dichter, Melissa; Marcus, Steve; Kim, Tae Kuen; Wiley, Jim; Rhodes, Karin V
Following a criminal case disposition, an intimate partner violence (IPV) victim's willingness to seek future police and prosecutorial assistance may depend on her prior experiences within the system. This longitudinal study examines the relationship between IPV victims' future help-seeking based on past experiences. We hypothesized women would return to the criminal justice system if their adjudication wishes corresponded with prosecutors' actions. Contrary to the hypothesis, results suggest women return to the criminal system and other venues even if prosecutors' actions do not correspond to their earlier stated wishes. This has important policy implications given pro-prosecution protocols that encourage adjudication regardless of a woman's participation. PMID:25774412
Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo
The purpose of this study was to examine among college women acquired breast cancer prevention information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and information given to mothers. Using a cross-sectional study, a survey was administered to college women at a southwestern university. College women (n = 546) used the Internet (44 %) for active breast cancer prevention information-seeking and used the Internet (74 %), magazines (69 %), and television (59 %) for passive information receipt. Over half of the participants desired breast cancer prevention apps (54 %) and texts (51 %). Logistic regression analyses revealed predictors for interest to receive apps were ethnicity (Hispanic), lower self-efficacy, actively seeking online information, and older age and predictors for interest to receive texts were lower self-efficacy and higher university level. Eighteen percent of college women (n = 99) reported giving information to mothers and reported in an open-ended item the types of information given to mothers. Predictors for giving information to mothers were actively and passively seeking online information, breast self-exam practice, and higher university level. Screenings were the most frequent types of information given to mothers. Breast cancer prevention information using apps, texts, or Internet and daughter-initiated information for mothers should be considered in health promotion targeting college students or young women in communities. Future research is needed to examine the quality of apps, texts, and online information and cultural differences for breast cancer prevention sources. PMID:23979671
Levandowski, Brooke A; Pearson, Erin; Lunguzi, Juliana; Katengeza, Hans R
Abortion is illegal in Malawi except when the pregnancy endangers the mother's life, yet complications of abortion account for the majority of admissions to gynecological wards. This study collected data on all post-abortion care (PAC) cases reporting to all PAC-providing health facilities in Malawi over a 30-day period. Of a total of 2,028 PAC clients, 20.9% were adolescents (age 10-19) and 29.6% were young adults (age 20-24). More than half of adolescents and almost 80% of young adults were married. Less than 5% of adolescents and 22.5% of young adults reported using contraception when they became pregnant. Being unmarried was associated with previous abortion and contraceptive use among young adults. These statistics indicate a high proportion of unwanted pregnancy and lack of access to modern contraception among young women. Programs to increase access to pregnancy prevention services and protect young women from unsafe abortions are greatly needed. PMID:22916557
Tinker, Sarah C; Broussard, Cheryl S; Frey, Meghan T; Gilboa, Suzanne M
Many prescription medications have limited information regarding safety for use during pregnancy. In order to inform research on safer medication use during pregnancy, we examined prescription medication use among women in the United States. We analyzed data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the prevalence of prescription medication use in the past 30 days among pregnant women and non-pregnant women of childbearing age (15-44 years) and to ascertain the most commonly reported prescription medications by women in these groups. We assessed how the most commonly reported medications differed among groups defined by selected demographic characteristics, including age, race/ethnicity, and markers of socioeconomic status. Prescription medication use in the past 30 days was reported by 22 % of pregnant women and 47 % of non-pregnant women of childbearing age. The most commonly reported prescription medications by NHANES participants differed somewhat by pregnancy status; allergy and anti-infective medications were more common among pregnant women, while oral contraceptives were more common among non-pregnant women. Use of prescription medication for asthma and thyroid disorders was reported by both groups. Although prescription medication use in the previous 30 days was less common among pregnant women than non-pregnant women, its use was reported among almost 1 in 4 pregnant women. Many of the most common medications reported were for the treatment of chronic medical conditions. Given the potential impact of medications on the developing fetus, our data underscore the importance of understanding the safety of these medications during pregnancy. PMID:25287251
Casebeer, Linda; Bennett, Nancy; Kristofco, Robert; Carillo, Anna; Centor, Robert
Responses from 2,200 physicians indicated that nearly all have Internet access and use it primarily for medical information and professional development, not for communicating with patients. Credibility of source, speed, accessibility, and searching ease were most important. Barriers included information overload and too little information…
R C Henshaw; S A Naji; I T Russell; A A Templeton
OBJECTIVES--To assess women's preferences for, and the acceptability of, medical abortion and vacuum aspiration in the early first trimester. DESIGN--Patient centred, partially randomised trial. Medical abortion was performed with mifepristone 600 mg followed 48 hours later by gemeprost 1 mg vaginal pessary. Vacuum aspiration was performed under general anaesthesia. SETTING--Teaching hospital in Scotland. PATIENTS--363 women undergoing legal induced abortion at
Investigating the effects of medical density on health-seeking behaviours using a multiscale approach to residential and activity spaces: Results from a prospective cohort study in the Paris metropolitan area, France
Background When measuring neighbourhood effects on health, it is both incorrect to treat individuals as if they were static and tied to their residential neighbourhood and to consider neighbourhoods rigid places whose geographical scales can be delineated a priori. We propose here to investigate the effects of residential medical density on health-seeking behaviours, taking into account the mono/polycentric structure of individual activity space (i.e., the space within which people move in the course of their daily activities) and exploring various neighbourhood units based on administrative delineations and regular grids. Methods We used data collected in the SIRS cohort study, which was carried out over a 5-year period (2005–2010) among a representative population living in 50 census blocks in the Paris metropolitan area. In the 662 women who lived in the same census blocks during the follow-up period and who had reported a recent cervical screening at baseline, we studied the association between residential medical density and individual activity space and the incidence of delayed cervical screening (> 3 years) in multilevel logistic regression models after adjustment for potential confounders. Results Among the 662 women studied, there were 94 instances of delayed cervical screening in 2010 (14%). The women who indicated that their activity space was concentrated within their neighbourhood of residence were significantly more at risk for an incident delayed cervical screening. No significant association was found between residential medical density and the incidence of delayed cervical screening. However, we observed a significant interaction between individual activity space and residential medical density. Indeed, women living in neighbourhoods with a low medical density had a significantly higher risk of delayed screening, but only if they reported that their daily activities were centred within their neighbourhood of residence. Lastly, a sensitivity analysis exploring various neighbourhood spatial units revealed that the incidence of delayed screening was better modelled when residential medical densities were calculated from a 1400 × 1400 metre grid or from adjacent census blocks. Conclusion This analysis underscores the view that people and neighbourhoods should be considered interacting entities. Using unsuitable neighbourhood units or neglecting the mono/polycentric structure of activity space would result in downplaying the importance of access to local health resources when addressing inequalities in health-seeking behaviours. PMID:23268832
Stanley, I M; al-Shehri, A M
With the aim of stimulating learning which is more self directed, fourth year medical students in Liverpool are encouraged to set personal learning objectives for the general practice attachment. On average, a student defines seven objectives for the three week attachment. A classification of objectives derived from the 1989 cohort of students is presented and the objectives could be seen as focusing on the practice population and its health problems, the role of the general practitioner, the work of general practice, the management of general practice, general practice as a career, and general learning. The validity and reliability of the classification are considered. Along with the advantages of this approach in motivating students to learn, the findings are considered in relation to impending changes in undergraduate medical education and the future role of general practice teaching by departments and by practice based colleagues. PMID:1297372
Doukas, Ashley; D'Andrea, Wendy; Doran, Jennifer; Pole, Nnamdi
Research has established that trauma-related symptoms may impede the formation of a strong working alliance (i.e., interpersonal connection, trust, and shared goals between therapist and client). As the alliance is critical in trauma-focused therapy, we studied how clients' pretherapy factors, including symptoms and psychophysiological arousal, predict treatment alliance. We examined symptoms and physiological responses in 27 women who had exposure to extreme interpersonal violence; all of whom were enrolled in therapy. All had symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder. Clients completed measures of working alliance and were assessed before and after treatment on measures of symptoms and autonomic arousal. Autonomic assessment included measures of skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), taken during baseline, while viewing positive and then trauma-related slides, and during recovery. Higher alliance ratings were predicted by lower pretherapy skin conductance during trauma slides (r = -.41, p = .049) and recovery (r = -.44, p = .047) and higher RSA during baseline (r = .47, p = .027) and positive slides (r = .43, p = .044). Findings remained significant even after partialling pretherapy symptoms. These data on a high-need but understudied population suggest that sympathetic and parasympathetic arousal may help traumatized clients effectively engage in therapy, further supporting the role of parasympathetic activity in social engagement. PMID:25522730
Kwolek, Deborah S.; Donnelly, Michael B.; Carr, Ellen; Sloan, David A.; Haist, Steven A.
Women's health topics of interest for continuing medical education were identified by 91 primary care physicians. Most felt that more knowledge of these topics would reduce the number of referrals to specialists. A more comprehensive, rather than reproductive, perspective of women's health was called for. (SK)
Ni, Chunping; Ma, Lihua; Wang, Bo; Yan, Yongping; Huang, Yueqin; Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Li, Lu; Lang, Hongjuan; Hua, Qianzhen
Objective This study assessed knowledge of neurotic disorders, and attitudes and preferences toward professional help and treatment for them, among general medical outpatients in general hospitals in Xi’an, China. Methods General medical outpatients (N=372) from general hospitals in China were recruited by using a stratified cluster sampling method between June and September 2010. In face-to-face interviews, participants age 16 years or older were assessed for their knowledge, attitudes, and help-seeking preferences in regard to neurotic disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and panic disorder). Demographic data were also collected. Results Lack of insight into neurotic disorders was common among medical outpatients in general hospitals of Xi’an, China. Twenty-four percent to 58% of the outpatients had some knowledge of the symptoms and treatment of neurotic disorders. Only 11% of the outpatients would reveal to others that they or a family member suffered from neurotic disorders. When faced with the problem of neurotic disorders, the preference of the respondents was to visit a psychiatrist in a general hospital (44%), and only 17% would visit a physician in a psychiatric hospital. Major ways for the outpatients to obtain knowledge regarding neurotic disorders were via radio and television (36%), and only 18%223% of outpatients obtained knowledge about neurotic disorders through printed public health materials and by attending lectures. Conclusions Study results underscore the need for information campaigns aimed at improving the mental health literacy of general medical outpatients. Such campaigns must consider culturally relevant beliefs to facilitate the development of specific educational programs. PMID:24733481
Sharma, Anu; Bahadursingh, Sarasvati; Ramsewak, Samuel; Teelucksingh, Surujpal
Obesity is a known risk factor for infertility in women. The exact mechanism through which obesity is linked to infertility is still not fully understood. Hyperleptinaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and resultant hyperandrogenism are all thought to play a role. Various medical and surgical interventions have been attempted to improve fertility rates in obese women. Encouraging evidence for pharmacotherapy, bariatric surgery and assisted reproduction are yet to be seen. In this chapter, we review the hormonal changes in obesity and the evidence behind medical and surgical interventions to improve fertility in obese women. PMID:25648680
Albright, Brittany; Skipper, Betty; Riley, Shawne; Wilhelm, Peggy; Rayburn, William F.
Objective: The study objective was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a rehabilitation residence for pregnant women with substance-use disorders yielded changes in their attitudes and comfort levels in providing care to this population. Methods: This randomized educational trial involved 96 consecutive medical students during…
Behets, F. M.; Miller, W. C.; Cohen, M. S.
The syndromic treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in women seeking primary care in clinics where resources are scarce, as recommended by WHO and implemented in many developing countries, necessitates a balance to be struck between overtreatment and undertreatment. The present paper identifies factors that are relevant to the selection of specific strategies for syndromic treatment in the above circumstances. Among them are the general aspects of decision-making and caveats concerning the rational decision-making approach. The positive and negative implications are outlined of providing or withholding treatment following a specific algorithm with a given accuracy to detect infection, i.e. sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Other decision-making considerations that are identified are related to implementation and include the stability of risk factors with regard to time, space and the implementer, acceptability by stakeholders, and environmental constraints. There is a need to consider empirically developed treatment algorithms as a basis for policy discourse, to be evaluated together with the evidence, alternatives and arguments by the stakeholders. PMID:11731816
Panchaud Cornut, Maude; Szymanski, Jennifer; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Giusti, Vittorio
Objective. The aim of this study is to analyse associations between eating behaviour and psychological dysfunctions in treatment-seeking obese patients and identify parameters for the development of diagnostic tools with regard to eating and psychological disorders. Design and Methods. Cross-sectional data were analysed from 138 obese women. Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 assessed eating behaviours. Beck Depression Inventory II, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, form Y, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, and Marks and Mathews Fear Questionnaire assessed psychological profile. Results. 61% of patients showed moderate or major depressive symptoms and 77% showed symptoms of anxiety. Half of the participants presented with a low degree of assertiveness. No correlation was found between psychological profile and age or anthropometric measurements. The prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, and assertiveness increased with the degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness explained a large degree of score variance. It explained 30 to 50% of the variability of assertiveness, phobias, anxiety, and depression. Conclusion. Psychological dysfunctions had a high prevalence and their severity is correlated with degree of eating disorders. The feeling of ineffectiveness constitutes the major predictor of the psychological profile and could open new ways to develop screening tools. PMID:24737999
Chapman, Paula L; Elnitsky, Christine; Pitts, Barbara; Figley, Charles; Thurman, Ryan M; Unwin, Brian
U.S. Army Combat Medic serves as both Soldier and provider of combat casualty care, often in the heat of battle and with limited resources. Yet little is known about their help-seeking behavior and perceived stigma and barriers to care. Participants were three groups of U.S. Army Combat Medics surveyed at 3- and 12-months postdeployment from assignment with line units vs. those Medics who had never deployed to combat. The primary data source was surveys of mental health service utilization, perceived stigma and barriers to care, and depression and post-traumatic stress disorder screens. Medics who received help in the past year from a mental health professional ranged from 18% to 30%, with 18% to 30% seeking mental health assistance from other sources. Previously deployed Medics were more likely to obtain assistance than those who never deployed. Those meeting a mental health screening criteria were more likely to report associated stigma and barriers to care. Findings indicate that Medics in need of assistance report greater perceived barriers to mental health care, as well as stigma from seeking treatment, and that depression may be a salient issue for Medics. The longitudinal nature of the ongoing study will help determine the actual trajectory and onset of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:25102550
Hawkins, J W; Aber, C S
This study was designed to examine the content of advertisements in medical journals to determine if the images of women are different than those of men. The method for this investigation was content analysis of a stratified random sample of issues of selected medical journals that regularly include picture advertisements. Advertisements were analyzed according to criteria and characteristics derived from a review of the literature. Interrater reliability was computed as a function of agreements. The results indicate that readers of medical journals are still being exposed to images of women that are negative and outdated. Until portrayals of women are consistently positive and timely, the images can have a negative effect on the health care women receive. PMID:3245210
Background Research suggests that there are a number of factors which can be associated with delay in a patient seeking professional help following chest pain, including demographic and social factors. These factors may have an adverse impact on the efficacy of interventions which to date have had limited success in improving patient action times. Theory-based methods of review are becoming increasingly recognised as important additions to conventional systematic review methods. They can be useful to gain additional insights into the characteristics of effective interventions by uncovering complex underlying mechanisms. Methods This paper describes the further analysis of research papers identified in a conventional systematic review of published evidence. The aim of this work was to investigate the theoretical frameworks underpinning studies exploring the issue of why people having a heart attack delay seeking professional medical help. The study used standard review methods to identify papers meeting the inclusion criterion, and carried out a synthesis of data relating to theoretical underpinnings. Results Thirty six papers from the 53 in the original systematic review referred to a particular theoretical perspective, or contained data which related to theoretical assumptions. The most frequently mentioned theory was the self-regulatory model of illness behaviour. Papers reported the potential significance of aspects of this model including different coping mechanisms, strategies of denial and varying models of treatment seeking. Studies also drew attention to the potential role of belief systems, applied elements of attachment theory, and referred to models of maintaining integrity, ways of knowing, and the influence of gender. Conclusions The review highlights the need to examine an individual’s subjective experience of and response to health threats, and confirms the gap between knowledge and changed behaviour. Interventions face key challenges if they are to influence patient perceptions regarding seriousness of symptoms; varying processes of coping; and obstacles created by patient perceptions of their role and responsibilities. A theoretical approach to review of these papers provides additional insight into the assumptions underpinning interventions, and illuminates factors which may impact on their efficacy. The method thus offers a useful supplement to conventional systematic review methods. PMID:23388093
Tyer-Viola, LA; Corless, IB; Webel, A; Reid, P; Sullivan, KM; Nichols, P
Objective Women infected with HIV live with many factors that affect antiretroviral (ARV) medication adherence. Social Action Theory (SAT) explains how context, environment, and psychological factors influence behavior. How these factors are related to HIV adherence in women is unique. The purpose of this analysis was to explore the relationships among contextual, environmental, and regulatory factors with ARV medication adherence in order to assist care providers in improving care for women living with HIV. Design Convenience descriptive multicenter Setting Sixteen HIV clinics and service organizations in North America Participants This sample was drawn from a larger study of 2,182 persons living with HIV recruited from clinics and service from September 2009 to January, 2011. Our study included 383 North American women living with HIV who were taking ARV medications. Methods We assessed the relationship of contextual, environmental, and psychological factors specific to women living with HIV with adherence to ARV medication. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to examine the effects of these factors on self-reported ARV adherence. Results Age, depression symptoms, stigma, and engagement with health care provider, and four psychological factors were correlated with self-reported ARV medication adherence (p = .01). Regression analysis indicated that adherence self-efficacy and depression symptoms accounted for 19% for 3-day and 22% for 30-day self-reported medication adherence. Conclusions Adherence self-efficacy and depression symptoms predict ARV medication adherence in women and should be evaluated by nurses. Future research is needed to identify antecedents to and interventions that support adherence self-efficacy and decrease depression symptoms. PMID:24502460
Wray, Sharon; Deery, Ruth
In this article we explore the issue of what it means to be "fat" for women in Western (British/North American) society. Contemporary gendered biomedical discourse currently dominates attitudes toward body shapes and sizes (Bordo, 1995). Further, under the rhetoric of "health," a large body size has come to be symbolic of self-indulgence and moral failure. In this article we argue this may lead women to question both their sense of self and their rights to adequate health care. Our aims are threefold: first, to challenge rigid hegemonic biomedical perspectives on "fatness" and the oppressive unequal power relations they may create; second, to examine the process by which such perspectives come to be the only legitimate discourse; third, to consider the impact of pathological medicalised definitions of "obesity" on women's perceptions of their bodies and experiences of health services. PMID:18350426
Tracey L. Rogers; Kristen Emanuel; Judith Bradford
Understanding the mental health needs of lesbian and bisexual (sexual minority) women is an integral part of designing and providing appropriate mental health services and treatment for them. In an effort to understand the mental health needs of sexual minority women who seek community treatment, a chart review was conducted of the 223 lesbian and bisexual women who presented for
Yasseen, A S; Fell, D B; Sprague, A E; Xie, R; Smith, G; Walker, M C; Wen, S W
Preventing influenza-like illness (ILI) during pregnancy with antiviral medication use (AVMU) can mitigate serious health risks to mother and foetus. We report on AVMU in pregnant women in Ontario, Canada, and describe characteristics of AVMU during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic. Rates and risk estimates of AVMU were compared across multiple categories and stratified across ILI infection status. Increased AVMU was observed in women with influenza infections, active smokers, those vaccinated against influenza, and those with pre-existing co-morbidities. Decreased AVMU was observed in women with multiple gestations, and those in neighbourhoods of high immigrant concentrations. Our stratified analysis indicated that the observed patterns differed by ILI infection status. We demonstrated that once infected, women across multiple groups were equally likely to use antiviral medications. In this report we also propose possible clinical explanations for the observed differences in AVMU, which will be useful in planning prevention initiatives for future pandemics. PMID:25409120
Ruth E. Patterson; Shirley W. Flatt; Nazmus Saquib; Cheryl L. Rock; Bette J. Caan; Barbara A. Parker; Gail A. Laughlin; Kirsten Erickson; Cynthia A. Thomson; Wayne A. Bardwell; Richard A. Hajek; John P. Pierce
This analysis was conducted to determine whether comorbid medical conditions predict additional breast cancer events and all-cause\\u000a mortality in women with a history of early stage breast cancer. Women (n = 2,542) participating in a randomized diet trial completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding whether they were\\u000a currently being treated for a wide variety of diseases (cardiovascular, diabetes, gallbladder, gastrointestinal, arthritis,\\u000a and osteoporosis)
Many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medicines, especially those available over-the-counter, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals such as general practitioners and pharmacists. The primary aim of this review therefore, was to investigate the literature relating to health professionals' and women's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards medication use and safety in breastfeeding. The limited literature that was uncovered identified that general practitioners and pharmacists have poor knowledge, but positive attitudes, and variable practices that are mostly guided by personal experience. They tend to make decisions about the use of a medicine whilst breastfeeding based on the potential 'risk' that it poses to the infant in terms of possible adverse reactions, rather than its 'compatibility' with breast milk. The decision-making process between health professionals and women is usually not a negotiated process, and women are often asked to stop breastfeeding whilst taking a medicine. Women, in turn, are left dissatisfied with the advice received, many choosing not to initiate therapy or not to continue breastfeeding. Some directions for future research have been suggested to address the issues identified in this critical area. This review is important from a societal perspective because many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medications, especially those available without prescription, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals, which is ultimately influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and practices. However, there is an absence of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials on the safety of medications taken during breastfeeding, which naturally would hinder health professionals from appropriately advising women. It is equally important to know about women's experiences of advice received from health professionals, and whether there is consistency between recommendations made across resources on medication safety in breastfeeding, in order to gain a full understanding of the issues prevalent in this area of practice. PMID:21867562
Fogel, Joshua; Teichman, Chaim
This study examines variables associated with seeking information from doctors, the Internet, and a combination of both doctors and Internet after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertisements. Data were analyzed from 462 college students. Younger age, women, and health insurance were associated with greater odds for doctor; women, subjective norms, intentions, and greater time since seen doctor were associated with greater odds for Internet; and African American, Hispanic, subjective norms, intentions, and health insurance were associated with greater odds for both doctor and Internet. Marketers of direct-to-consumer advertisements can use these findings for tailoring and targeting direct-to-consumer advertisements. PMID:24878404
Becker, J L
Biotechnological advances from NASA-sponsored research are reviewed with an emphasis on their effects on women's health issues. The Rotating-Wall Vessel (RWV) has allowed scientists to generate three-dimensional cellular growth. The RWV has been used to study the growth and spread of breast and ovarian tumor cells. Further applications include the study of biological and chemotherapeutic agents, gene expression, and genetic studies of cancer cells. The RWV also is used to study other cancers, cartilage cell growth, and immunotherapy for tumor cells. Other biomedical research related to women's health includes study of bone loss, immune changes, crystal structure and growth, and the effects of long-term radiation exposure on the endometrium. PMID:11540549
Udovika, N O; Romanenko, I Iu; Lieonov, O O
Efficacy Erbisol in combination with Lymphomyosot and Echinacea compositum C in medical rehabilitation of women of reproductive age with fatigue syndrome and chronic gynecological pathology was studied. It was found that this complex of medications promotes faster and more effective reduction of the level of circulating immune complexes in the serum, achievement of persistent clinical remission of disease and liquidation of fatigue syndrome manifestations, what improves the quality of life of patients. PMID:25286603
Donkor, Ernestina S; Sandall, Jane
This research aimed to investigate the extent to which women in Southern Ghana seeking infertility treatment perceived themselves as stigmatised in order to investigate the relationship between perceived stigma and infertility-related stress. A survey was conducted using face-to-face interviews in three languages with 615 women receiving infertility treatment on three health sites in Southern Ghana. The majority (64%) of women in this sample felt stigmatised. Sequential multiple regression analyses indicated that higher levels of perceived stigma were associated with increased infertility-related stress. Also women with higher levels of education felt less infertility-related stress. The presence of an existing child/children, the number of years spent in infertility treatment and the type of marriage (monogamous/polygamous union) were less important in predicting stress. The findings suggest that the social status of infertile women derived from other factors can be of importance in minimising the impact of stigmatisation and stress related to infertility. These findings highlight the wider beneficial effects of improved educational opportunities for girls and women. PMID:17673344
Danielle Bessett; Katey Gorski; Deepani Jinadasa; Marcy Ostrow; Megan J. Peterson
BackgroundMassachusetts has implemented reforms aimed at providing universal health care coverage and covers abortion through subsidized state insurance programs. Three Massachusetts abortion funds evaluated their referral processes for low-income women from April to October 2010 to learn about women’s experiences applying for subsidized insurance and to identify barriers to obtaining insurance or its use for abortion services.
Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary
Cancer is the leading cause of death for Korean-Americans (KAs), while cancer screening rates among KAs have been consistently low. Seven semi-structured focus group interviews with 34 KA women aged 40 or older in the Washington, DC metropolitan area were conducted to explore the perceptions of KA women about seeking physical examinations and cancer screening services in Korea. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Informants positively perceived the use of health screening services in Korea in comparison to seeking such services in the US. Decision-making factors included cost benefits, high quality services, and more convenient screening procedures in Korea. These benefits outweighed the risks of delaying health care and travelling a vast distance with incurring additional travel costs. Motivations to seek these services in Korea included opportunities to visit their homeland and to enjoy comfortable communication with their native language. The increase of available information about Korean medical services due to the industry's aggressive marketing/PR was identified as a facilitator. Most informants did not recognize possible negative health outcomes of obtaining services in Korea such as inappropriate follow up care if having abnormal findings. Educational programs are needed to educate KAs about the benefits and risks of getting the services in Korea and proper follow up care in the US. Health care providers need to know the different cancer risks and screening needs for this population. PMID:24322599
Liao, Pei-Ju; Lin, Zu-Yu; Huang, Jui-Chu; Hsu, Kuang-Hung
The literature has demonstrated that the continuity of diabetes care can lower medical service utilization and expenses. However, few studies have examined the effects of patients' medical care-seeking behaviors in the early stage after the diagnosis of diabetes on their long-term prognoses. This study aimed to examine the association of medical care-seeking behavior in the first year following diabetes diagnosis on the occurrence of diabetes-related complications among patients in Taiwan. This is a retrospective data collection with follow-up analysis and a nationwide population-based dataset in Taiwan. A total of 89,428 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients during the period from 2000 to 2006 were followed up until 2010. The patients' medical care-seeking behaviors were classified as follows: high consistency to a physician, high consistency to a medical setting, medium consistency to providers, and low consistency to providers. The occurrence of diabetes-related complications and all-cause mortality were the primary outcomes of this study. Chi-square tests, ANOVAs, and Cox proportional hazard models were applied to examine the relationships between the predictors and medical outcomes. Compared to the patients with high medical care-seeking consistency to a physician, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of diabetes-related complications occurrence among patients in the high consistency to a medical setting, medium consistency, and low consistency categories were 1.112 (95% CI 1.089-1.136, P < 0.001), 1.226 (95% CI 1.205-1.248, P < 0.001), and 1.536 (95% CI 1.504-1.567, P < 0.001) in outpatient visits and 1.032 (95% CI 0.992-1.074, P = 0.121), 1.056 (95% CI 1.022-1.092, P = 0.001), and 1.208 (95% CI 1.164-1.254, P < 0.001) in complication-incurred hospitalizations, respectively. The monotonic trend was sustained across different strata of age, gender, and disease complexity. The findings of this study suggest that the incentives of continuity of care and physician-patient relationship management should be reinforced during the early stage of diabetes care in future medical care systems. PMID:25700326
Dunatov, Linda J.
The purpose of this narrative inquiry study was to gain a richer understanding from the perspective of gender about how third and fourth year women osteopathic medical students at the University of Pikeville-Kentucky College of Osteopathic Medicine (KYCOM) constructed their developing professional identities as future osteopathic physicians. This…
Anderson, Carolyn A.; Hammen, Constance L.
Studied behavior problems, social competence, internalizing/externalizing behaviors, academic performance, and school behavior of 96 children (ages 8-16) of unipolar depressed, bipolar, medically ill, and psychiatrically normal women over 2 years. Children of unipolar mothers showed significantly poorer functioning on all measures; greater…
Women in Science series honors two researchers at annual luncheon Oct. 30, 2012 College News - Two in the sixth annual Women in Science series, and was presented by Quarles & Brady and Dr. Lucille Rosenberg Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) female faculty researchers were honored at MCW's annual Women
Lisa M. Najavits; Roger D. Weiss; Sarah R. Shaw; Larry R. Muenz
Women with current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) comprise 30–59% of substance abuse treatment samples and experience a more severe course than women with either disorder alone. As yet, no effective treatment for this population has been identified. This paper reports outcome results on 17 women who completed a new manual-based 24-session cognitive behavioral group therapy protocol treatment, based on assessments
Individuals with eating disorders often exhibit profound ambivalence towards taking prescribed medications. They may actively restrict their intake of medications, take them and then purge them, or hoard them and 'binge' on them. Such behaviors are often labeled clinically as 'treatment resistance,' and power struggles over medication adherence between clinicians and clients often ensue. This paper advances an alternative perspective. Based on extensive ethnographic and clinical engagements with women with eating disorders who restrict their medication intake, the analytical focus is pivoted to consider medication refusal not only as communicative in the interpersonal realm, but also as a powerful means of self-communication within the context of a larger ethical and moral project. This larger project makes visible the underside of what Lakoff (2008) calls the logic of pharmaceutical reason, which presumes that people naturally strive for optimal health. For these clients, by contrast, the optimal state is not health, but deprivation, which is experienced as a moral imperative extending well beyond issues related to body weight and shape. Within a broader cultural context where medication use is increasingly viewed as a legitimate and even superior means of self-management, medication restriction among people with eating disorders signals layers of meaning far beyond 'treatment resistance.' Refusing needed or useful medication can become a private and personally meaningful practice, largely independent of the material or interpersonal effects of the drugs. This suggests that the symbolic significance of medications must in some cases be discerned by their selective absence. PMID:25082373
Medicine maintains a distinction between the medical symptom--the patient's "subjective" experience and expression, and the privileged medical sign--the "objective" findings observable by the doctor. Although the distinction is not consistently applied, it becomes clearly visible in the "undefined," medically unexplained disorders of women patients. Potential impacts of genderized interaction on the interpretation of medical signs are addressed by re-reading the diagnostic process as a matter of social construction, where diagnosis results from human interpretation within a sociopolitical context. The discussion is illustrated by a case story and empirical evidence of the gendering in the doctor-patient relationship. The theoretical analysis is supported by semiotic perspectives of bodily signs, feminist theory on experience, and Foucault's ideas about medical perception and gaze, and concludes that a medical diagnosis is seldom a biological fact, but the outcome of a process where biological, cultural and social elements are interwoven. Further deconstruction of the chain of signs from a feminist perspective, assigning validity to the voice of the woman patient, might broaden the understanding of women's health, illness and disease. PMID:10474313
Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others
A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)
Kristen N. Jozkowski; Vanessa Schick; Debby Herbenick; Michael Reece
Outside traditional risk-oriented public health campaigns, few sexuality education opportunities exist for adult women, particularly those in partnered relationships, that address issues related to sexual desire and pleasure. Data were collected from 677 women attending in-home sex toy parties to assess whether they sought sexuality-related information at a recent party they attended. Participants reported asking 765 questions at parties. The
DeNoble, Anna E.; Hall, Kelli S.; Xu, Xiao; Zochowski, Melissa K.; Piehl, Kenneth; Dalton, Vanessa K.
Objective To assess differences in receipt of prescription contraception among women with and without chronic medical conditions. Methods This observational study used 3 years of administrative claims records for insured women aged 21–45 years who were enrolled in a commercial insurance company in Michigan between 2004 and 2009. Women were considered to have a chronic medical condition if they had at least two claims for one of the following conditions, in order of prevalence in our study population: hypertension, asthma, hypothyroidism, diabetes, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, or systemic lupus erythematosus. Our primary outcome was receipt of prescription contraception, defined by a pharmacy claim or diagnostic or procedural code. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the association of chronic condition status with the odds of receiving prescription contraception within 3 years, adjusting for age, community-level socioeconomic status, total outpatient visits, and cervical cancer screening. Results Of 11,649 women studied, 16.0% (n=1,862) had at least one of the chronic conditions we considered. Of those with a chronic condition, 33.5% (n=623) received prescription contraception during the 3-year study period compared to 41.1% (n=4,018) of those without a chronic condition (p<0.001). After adjusting for covariates, women with a chronic condition remained less likely than women without a chronic condition to have received prescription contraception (adjusted odds ratio=0.85; 95% CI 0.76, 0.96; p=0.010). Conclusion Despite a greater risk for adverse outcomes with an unplanned pregnancy, women with these chronic conditions were less likely to receive prescription contraception. PMID:24807345
Christy F. Telch; Eric Stice
This study provides estimates of comorbid psychiatric disorders in women with binge eating disorder (BED). Sixty-one BED and 60 control participants, who were recruited from the community, completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–III–R Axis I and Axis II disorders and self-report measures of eating and general psychiatric symptomatology. Regarding psychiatric diagnoses, women with BED had higher lifetime prevalence rates
Christy F. Telch
This study provides estimates of comorbid psychiatric disorders in women with binge eating disorder (BED). Sixty-one BED and 60 control participants, who were recruited from the community, completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM—III—R Axis I and Axis II disorders and self-report measures of eating and general psychiatric symptomatology. Regarding psychiatric diagnoses, women with BED had higher lifetime prevalence rates
Delese Wear; Julie M. Aultman; Nicole J. Borges
Background: The literature consistently reports that sexual harassment occurs with regularity in medical education, mostly in clinical settings, and most of it goes unreported. Reasons for nonreporting include the fear of retaliation, a reluctance to be viewed as a victim, a fear that one is being “too sensitive,” and the belief that nothing will be done.Purpose: We wanted to examine
Background Preventive health care services, such as cancer screening can be particularly vulnerable to a lack of paid leave from work since care is not being sought for illness or symptoms. We first describe the prevalence of paid sick leave by broad occupational categories and then examine the association between access to paid sick leave and cancer testing and medical care-seeking in the U.S. workforce. Methods Data from the 2008 National Health Interview survey were analyzed by using paid sick leave status and other health-related factors to describe the proportion of U.S. workers undergoing mammography, Pap testing, endoscopy, fecal occult blood test (FOBT), and medical-care seeking. Results More than 48 million individuals (38%) in an estimated U.S. working population of 127 million did not have paid sick leave in 2008. The percentage of workers who underwent mammography, Pap test, endoscopy at recommended intervals, had seen a doctor during the previous 12?months or had at least one visit to a health care provider during the previous 12?months was significantly higher among those with paid sick leave compared with those without sick leave after controlling for sociodemographic and health-care-related factors. Conclusions Lack of paid sick leave appears to be a potential barrier to obtaining preventive medical care and is a societal benefit that is potentially amenable to change. PMID:22788387
Golden, Annis G; Pomerantz, Anita
In the context of reproductive and sexual health, African American women have higher incidence of disease and poorer outcomes on key indicators when compared with White women. In this study, we used discourse analysis to identify and examine the workings of two clusters of interpretive resources ("interpretative repertoires") associated with reproductive/sexual health care seeking among low-income African American women who participated in semistructured interviews as part of a health promotion initiative. Interpretative repertoires are ways of accounting for engaging in or refraining from engaging in actions, which are shared by people in a community. We labeled the two interpretative repertoires "Don't Want to Know," and "Take Charge of Your Health." Within the "Don't Want to Know" repertoire, that testing would lead to threatening findings was assumed, a chain of devastating consequences was imagined, and a preference for uncertainty over certain knowledge was expressed. Conversely, the "Take Charge of Your Health" repertoire valued certainty over uncertainty, though in both interpretive frameworks, knowledge-based and emotion-based decision-making were intertwined. We conclude that health promotion initiatives-if they are to succeed in encouraging women to obtain valuable preventive health care services-must respond, in their choices of language and outreach strategies, to the expressed dilemma of wishing for reassurance but fearing bad news, to the intertwining of emotional reasoning and technorationality in health decision making, and to the particular relational experiences of African American women. Failure to do so will contribute to the continuation of reproductive and sexual health disparities. PMID:25144501
This paper will look at work carried out with asylum-seeking families and children within a hospital paediatric setting, exploring theories that can help us to understand how highly traumatic experiences, emotionally and cognitively unprocessed, may become expressed bodily. The case examples will show how these shattered and dislocated patients…
Abate, Meskerem; Assefa, Nega; Alemayehu, Tadesse
Background Unplanned pregnancy from casual sex, unplanned sexual activity, and sexual violence are increasing. Emergency Contraceptives (EC) are used to prevent unplanned pregnancies thereby preventing the occurrence and consequences of unplanned pregnancy. Emergency contraception is widely available in Ethiopia particularly in major cities. Yet the use of EC is very low and abortion rate in cities is high compared to the national average. Objectives To assess knowledge, attitude and practice and determinants on the use of emergency contraception among women obtaining abortion service at selected health institutions in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 390 women selected by multi-stage random sampling technique. The samples were generated from government and private for non profit health facilities. Participant’s knowledge and attitude towards emergency contraception were measured using composite index based on 7 and 9 questions, respectively and analyzed using mean score to classify them as knowledgeable or not, and have positive attitude or not. Practice was assessed if the women reported ever use of emergency contraception. Determinants of use of emergency contraception were analyzed using logistic regression. Result Out of 390 women interviewed, 162 women (41.5%) heard about EC, only 133 (34.1%) had good knowledge, and 200 (51.3%) of the respondents had positive attitudes towards to EC. Ever use of EC was reported by 38 (9.7%). Age, living arrangement, education, marital status, religion were found to be significantly associated with the use of emergency contraceptives. Women with poor knowledge were less likely to use EC compared to the knowledgeable ones [AOR?=?0.027, 95% CI (0.007, 0.105)]. Conclusion The study identified that most respondents lack adequate knowledge on the method of EC. In addition ever use of EC is very low. Recommendations Health professions should give attention in increasing knowledge and uptake of Emergency Contraception. PMID:25330229
Ruth E. Zambrana; Susan C. M. Scrimshaw; Christine Dunkel-Schetter
The purposes of this study are to assess selected prenatal factors that are associated with initiation of prenatal care for Mexican-origin and African American women, and to explore ethnic-specific differences in content of prenatal care at first visit, relationship with medical risk, and perceived medical risk. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1,544 lowincome African American and Mexicanorigin women in 22
During the eighteenth century, orders of nursing sisters took on an expanded role in the rural areas of Brittany. This article explores the impact of religious change on the medical activities of these women. While limits were placed on the medical practice of unlicensed individuals, areas of new opportunity for nuns as charitable practitioners were created by devout nobles throughout the eighteenth century. These nuns provided comprehensive care for the sick poor on their patrons' estates, acting not only as nurses, but also in lieu of physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries. This article argues that the medical knowledge and expertise of these sisters from the nursing orders were highly valued by the elites of early modern Brittany. PMID:21724643
McCoy, Shannon K.; Newell, Ellen E.; Gardner, Susan K.
Faculty retention is of increasing importance in the current economic climate. We examined the role of an institution's environmental conditions (e.g., climate, collegiality, and administration) in faculty well-being (i.e., job satisfaction, intent to leave, emotional and physical health). Women reported significantly lower well-being and a…
Suvak, Michael K.; Taft, Casey T.; Goodman, Lisa A.; Dutton, Mary Ann
Objective: We examined 4 separate dimensions of functional social support (tangible, appraisal, self-esteem, and belonging) as predictors of change in depression over 4.5 years in a sample of women reporting intimate partner violence. Method: Participants were recruited as they sought help for violence perpetrated by a current or former male…
Marton, Christine; Choo, Chun Wei
Presents preliminary results from a survey of how women in information technology professions use information sources. Investigates the effects of perceived source accessibility and perceived source quality on the selection and use of information sources. Discusses results of correlation analysis and regression analysis that also examined…
Fairchild, D G; Fairchild, M W; Stoner, S
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and sociodemographic factors associated with, adult domestic violence within a Native American community. METHODS: Adult women in the community were surveyed. RESULTS: Of 371 eligible women, 341 (92%) were surveyed. Among respondents, 179 reported a history of at least 1 episode of domestic violence. Fifty-six (16.4%) reported violence within the previous 12 months. Age under 40 years and living in a household receiving governmental financial assistance were independently associated with 1-year prevalence of adult domestic violence. CONCLUSIONS: Adult domestic violence is prevalent within this Native American community. Additional research is required to characterize further the relationship between domestic violence and socioeconomic status. PMID:9772854
Ilboudo, Patrick GC; Somda, Serge MA; Sundby, Johanne
Introduction Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. Materials and methods A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. Results The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59–30.41); whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42–19.24); and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.08–11.10). On the contrary, being married was protective against induced abortion, with women who reported being married having an 83% (OR 0.17, CI 0.03–0.89) lower chance of having an induced abortion, even when the pregnancy was unwanted. Conclusion This study has identified three major determinants of induced abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Improved targeted programs on family planning counseling, methods of contraception, and availability of contraceptives should be widely promoted. PMID:24920938
Baum, F; Kalucy, E; Lawless, A; Barton, S; Steven, I
This paper describes the health promotion role of doctors in two medical practice settings: women's and community health centres, and fee-for-service practice. It proposes the establishment of divisions of primary health care in Australia which would be multi-disciplinary and focus on community-wide health issues. The paper is based on data from an interview survey of medical practitioners who had worked in metropolitan Adelaide women's and community health centres and from a questionnaire survey of GPs in private practice. The types of health promotion activity by the doctors in the different settings are discussed. It is concluded that private practice GPs are involved primarily in providing health education advice to individual patients. Doctors within women's and community health centres are more likely to report involvement in group health promotion activity and broader community development initiatives. The study concludes that health promotion which focuses on the health of the local community is best conducted within multidisciplinary health centres. GPs in private practice are limited by the structure of their setting (particularly the fee-for-service basis and reliance on a single discipline) to health promotion which focuses on the needs of individual patients. PMID:9744176
Ruppert, Kristine; Cauley, Jane A.; Lian, YinJuan; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Finkelstein, Joel S.; Greendale, Gail A.; Solomon, Daniel H.
Context: Concern has been raised that medications that block serotonin reuptake may affect bone metabolism, resulting in bone loss. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare annual bone mineral density (BMD) changes among new users of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), new users of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and nonusers of antidepressant medications. Design and Setting: We conducted a prospective cohort study at five clinical centers in the United States. Participants: The study included 1972 community-dwelling women, aged 42 years and older, enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Exposure: The use of antidepressant medications was assessed by interview and verified from medication containers at annual visits. Subjects were categorized as nonusers (no SSRI or TCA use at any examination), SSRI users (initiated SSRI use after the baseline SWAN visit), or TCA users (initiated TCA use after the baseline visit), using a computerized dictionary to categorize type of medication. Main Outcome Measures: BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at annual visits. Results: BMD was compared among 311 new users of SSRIs, 71 new users of TCAs, and 1590 nonusers. After adjustment for potential confounders, including age, race, body mass index, menopausal status, and hormone therapy use, mean lumbar spine BMD decreased on average 0.68% per year in nonusers, 0.63% per year in SSRI users (P = .37 for comparison to nonusers), and 0.40% per year in TCA users (P = .16 for comparison to nonusers). At the total hip and femoral neck, there was also no evidence that SSRI or TCA users had an increased rate of bone loss compared with nonusers. Results were similar in subgroups of women stratified by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (<16 vs ?16). Conclusions: In this cohort of middle-aged women, use of SSRIs and TCAs was not associated with an increased rate of bone loss at the spine, total hip, or femoral neck. PMID:24001746
Feldman, Candace H; Bermas, Bonnie L; Zibit, Melanie; Fraser, Patricia; Todd, Derrick J; Fortin, Paul R; Massarotti, Elena; Costenbader, Karen H
Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) disproportionately affects women, racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. We held focus groups for women from medically underserved communities to discuss interventions to improve care. Methods From our Lupus Registry, we invited 282 women, > 18 years, residing in urban, medically underserved areas. Hospital-based clinics and support groups also recruited participants. Women were randomly assigned to 3 focus groups. 75-minute sessions were recorded, transcribed and coded thematically using interpretative phenomenologic analysis and single counting methods. We categorized interventions by benefits, limitations, target populations and implementation questions. Results 29 women with lupus participated in 3 focus groups, (n=9, 9, 11). 80% were African American and 83% were from medically underserved zip codes. Themes included the desire for lupus education, isolation at the time of diagnosis, emotional and physical barriers to care, and the need for assistance navigating the healthcare system. 20 of 29 participants (69%) favored a peer support intervention; 17 (59%) also supported a lupus health passport. Newly diagnosed women were optimal intervention targets. Improvements in quality of life and mental health were proposed outcome measures. Conclusion Women with lupus from medically underserved areas have unique needs best addressed with an intervention designed through collaboration between community members and researchers. PMID:23087258
McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is one of the fastest growing forms of illicit drug use, with research indicating that college students represent a particularly high risk population. The current study examined demographic characteristics, health/mental health, substance misuse, and rape experiences as potential risk correlates of NMUPD among a national sample of college women (N=2000). Interviews were conducted via telephone using Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing technology. NMUPD was assessed by asking if, participants had used a prescription drug non-medically in the past year. NMUPD was endorsed by 7.8% of the sample (n=155). Although incapacitated and drug–alcohol facilitated rape were associated with NMUPD in the initial model, the final multivariable model showed that only lifetime major depression and other forms of substance use/abuse were significantly uniquely associated with an increased likelihood of NMUPD. Implications for primary and secondary prevention and subsequent research are addressed. PMID:21356576
Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima
Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.
Yihang Liu; Allison L. Diamant; Amardeep Thind; Rose C. Maly
Few studies have assessed the agreement between subjects’ self-report and medical records among patients with breast cancer\\u000a (BC), and none has addressed this issue in low-income women with BC. We assessed the level of agreement between self-report\\u000a and medical records data for key BC treatment and prognostic characteristics using correct proportion and the Kappa statistic,\\u000a among 726 low-income BC patients.
Background Frequent reporting of cases of hysterical conversion reaction (HCR) among hospitalized female medical patients in Bangladesh’s public hospital system led us to explore the prevalence of “HCR” diagnoses within hospitals and the manner in which physicians identify, manage, and perceive patients whom they diagnose with HCR. Methods We reviewed admission records from women’s general medicine wards in two public hospitals to determine how often and at what point during hospitalization patients received diagnoses of HCR. We also interviewed 13 physicians about their practices and perceptions related to HCR. Results Of 2520 women admitted to the selected wards in 2008, 6% received diagnoses of HCR. HCR patients had wide-ranging symptoms including respiratory distress, headaches, chest pain, convulsions, and abdominal complaints. Most doctors diagnosed HCR in patients who had any medically-unexplained physical symptom. According to physician reports, women admitted to medical wards for HCR received brief diagnostic evaluations and initial treatment with short-acting tranquilizers or placebo agents. Some were referred to outpatient psychiatric treatment. Physicians reported that repeated admissions for HCR were common. Physicians noted various social factors associated with HCR, and they described failures of the current system to meet psychosocial needs of HCR patients. Conclusions In these hospital settings, physicians assign HCR diagnoses frequently and based on vague criteria. We recommend providing education to increase general physicians’ awareness, skill, and comfort level when encountering somatization and other common psychiatric issues. Given limited diagnostic capacity for all patients, we raise concern that when HCR is used as a "wastebasket" diagnosis for unexplained symptoms, patients with treatable medical conditions may go unrecognized. We also advocate introducing non-physician hospital personnel to address psychosocial needs of HCR patients, assist with triage in a system where both medical inpatient beds and psychiatric services are scarce commodities, and help ensure appropriate follow up. PMID:23088583
Perceived medical benefit, peer/partner influence and safety and cost to access the service: client motivators for voluntary seeking of medical male circumcision in Iganga District Eastern Uganda, a qualitative study
Muhamadi, Lubega; Ibrahim, Musenze; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Peterson, Stefan; Reynolds, Steven J
Introduction Although voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in Iganga district was launched in 2010 as part of the Uganda national strategy to prevent new HIV infections with a target of having 129,896 eligible males circumcised by 2012, only 35,000 (27%) of the anticipated target had been circumcised by mid 2012. There was paucity of information on why uptake of VMMC was low in this setting where HIV awareness is presumably high. This study sought to understand motivators for uptake of VMMC from the perspective of the clients themselves in order to advocate for feasible approaches to expanding uptake of VMMC in Iganga district and similar settings. Methods In Iganga district, we conducted seven key informant interviews with staff who work in the VMMC clinics and twenty in-depth interviews with clients who had accepted and undergone VMMC. Ten focus-group discussions including a total of 112 participants were also conducted with clients who had undergone VMMC. Results Motivators for uptake of VMMC in the perspective of the circumcised clients and the health care staff included: perceived medical benefit to those circumcised such as protection against acquiring HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, peer/partner influence, sexual satisfaction and safety and cost to access the service. Conclusion Since perceived medical benefit was a motivator for seeking VMMC, it can be used to strengthen campaigns for increasing uptake of VMMC. Peer influence could also be used in advocacy campaigns for VMMC expansion, especially using peers who have already undergone VMMC. There is need to ensure that safety and cost to access the service is affordable especially to rural poor as it was mentioned as a motivator for seeking VMMC. PMID:24255723
SEED GRANTS for Biological/Medical Research on Sex Differences and/or Women's Health The Stanford, and population health research on sex differences and women's health at Stanford University School of Medicine/or in women's health. This year, we are particularly eager for School of Medicine faculty to collaborate
Tadiar, F M
In the Philippines, the Women's Health Care Foundation (WHCF) provides comprehensive health care, information, and training services to women throughout their life cycle. It targets young women, especially students and prostitutes. It operates 3 clinics in Metro Manila. Each clinic is staffed by women, including a physician, nurses, or midwives, and a medical technologist. They serve patients during hours when government health facilities are closed. Key services include prenatal care, family planning, delivery services, counseling, and diagnosis and management of reproductive tract infection and sexually transmitted diseases. The clinics provide quality care to all clients regardless of ability to pay, motive, profession, social and marital status, age, and health condition. Clients make their own decisions about health and reproductive care. Staff treat clients with respect and accord them privacy. Its outreach program conducts focus group discussions in poor communities to determine seminar topics and provides free clinics in these communities. It plans on doing information, education, and communication activities revolving around family planning for businesses that employ fewer than 50 workers, particularly women. It also hopes to conduct an AIDS information campaign. The Foundation has established the Institute for Social Studies and Action to address training, research, and evaluation needs. It plans on publishing research results to serve as a basis for decision makers to design policies, legislation, and programs. WHCF has established a good working relationship with other women's health nongovernmental organizations, government agencies, and with international organizations, e.g., Johns Hopkins University's Center for Communication Programs. PMID:12286369
Andrew J. Sussman; Jeffrey R. Otten; Robert C. Goldszer; Margaret Hanson; David J. Trull; Kenneth Paulus; Monte Brown; Victor Dzau; Troyen A. Brennan
Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), a major academic tertiary medical center, and Faulkner Hospital (Faulkner), a nearby community teaching hospital, both in the Boston, Massachusetts area, have established a close affiliation relationship under a common corporate parent that achieves a variety of synergistic benefits. Formed under the pressures of limited capacity at BWH and excess capacity at Faulkner, and the
Maria L Jibaja-Weiss; Robert J Volk; Paul Kingery; Quentin W Smith; J. David Holcomb
Barriers to screening and early detection often result in cancers in low-income and minority women diagnosed at stages too advanced for optimal treatment. This randomized controlled trial examined whether a personalized form (PF) letter containing generic cancer information and a personalized tailored (PT) letter containing minimally tailored individualized risk factor information based on medical records data affected breast and cervical
.e. allergy to food or medicine, etc.) Medications: Parent/Guardian Information/ Emergency Contact Information: Date of Birth: High School: Medical Insurance Information Medical Insurance Company: Policy Number
Park, Jeongok; Hong, Gwi-Ryung Son; Yang, Wonhee
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) in community-dwelling Korean women 60 years or older, and to identify factors associated with self-reported and medically diagnosed UI. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of data from the 2008 Actual Living Condition of the Elderly and Welfare Need Survey, which used a stratified two-stage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample of 8,961 elderly Korean women. Results: Of the 8,961 women in this study, 579 (6.5%) had self-reported UI, and 209 (2.3%) were medically diagnosed with UI. As patient age and exercise ability of the upper extremities increased, risk for self-reported UI decreased (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96–0.99; OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98–0.99, respectively). In contrast, as the number of limited instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) increased, the risk for self-reported UI increased (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.24–1.35). Overweight women were 1.94 times more likely to have self-reported UI compared to underweight women. Women with a history of stroke or asthma were more likely to have self-reported UI compared to women with no history. Also, women who reported being in good health were less likely to have UI, compared to women who reported being in poor health (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.31–0.70). Medically diagnosed UI was negatively associated with the number of limited IADL and exercise ability scores for the lower extremities (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80–0.92; OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97–0.99, respectively). In contrast, as the exercise ability score for the upper extremities increased, so did the risk for medically diagnosed UI (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01–1.03). Conclusions: An interventional program for home visit health services is needed for incontinent women who are highly dependent on others for IADL. PMID:26126439
Correia, Katharine F.; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S.
Objective Compare the efficacy of surrogate or gestational carrier (GC) cycles to that of autologous in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSI) in patients with gynecologic or medical co-morbidities contraindicative to pregnancy. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Infertility patients from a single university hospital-based program from 1998-2009. Intervention(s) 128 GC cycles from 80 intended parents were identified and compared with 15,311 IVF or ICSI cycles. Main Outcome Measure(s) The peak estradiol (E2), number of oocytes retrieved, cycle cancellation, ongoing pregnancy, and live-birth were compared between GCs and autologous IVF carriers. Indications for GC use were also identified. Multiple cycles contributed by the same patient were accounted for using multivariable generalized estimating equations and two-sided Wald p-values. Results Uterine factors (67%) was the most common indication for using a GC, followed by non-gynecologic medical conditions including coagulopathies (13%), end stage renal disease (10%), cardiovascular disease (5%) and cancer (5%). Adjusting for age, ovulation induction in GC cycles had similar peak E2 levels and number of oocytes retrieved relative to IVF cycles (p = 0.23 and 0.43, respectively). Clinical pregnancy (49% vs. 42%, p = 0.28) and live-birth rates (31% vs. 32%, p = 0.74) were also comparable. A sub-analysis of GC cycles in those women with uterine factor indications, demonstrated significantly higher clinical pregnancy rates (OR = 2.0; CI = 1.2 - 3.5) with 60% greater odds of live-birth relative to IVF/ICSI cycles, however this odds was not statistically significant for differences in live-birth (CI = 0.9 - 2.9). Conclusions: GCs are a viable alternative to start families for patients with medical co-morbidities precluding pregnancy. PMID:25664218
The pioneer systems for rule refinement are SEEK and SEEK2. Unlike TEIRESIAS, which also has been designed for the ac- quisition of new inference rules, the systems SEEK and SEEK2 are devoted to the refinement of rules for a rheumatology rule-base (a medical diagnosis application). This article investigates the general refinement completeness of SEEK\\/SEEK2. A rule refinement system is complete
Wieder-Huszla, Sylwia; Szkup, Ma?gorzata; Jurczak, Anna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Stanis?awska, Marzanna; Rotter, Iwona; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, El?bieta
Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman’s organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. Conclusions: (1) Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2) Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT)). (3) Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life. PMID:24972032
PHCOG REV; Shoeb Qureshi; Zaman Ara; Viquar Fatima Qureshi; S. S. Al-Rejaie; A. M. Aleisa; S. A. Bakheet; O. A. Al-Shabanah; Mohammad Rehan Qureshi; Roohi Fatima; Mohammad Farhan Qureshi; Abdullah M. Al-Bekairi
Sex response in women is expressed by different phases (desire, arousal, lubrication, plateau, orgasm and resolution). Any divergence would lead to female sexual dysfunction (FSD), which cause distress and agony. The psychological factors incorporate inhibitions from personality, depression, angedonia, anxiety and coital pain. Such inhibitions would isolate women to seek pleasures in unnatural means of satisfaction. While the medical problems
Kathy Berra; Linda Klieman; Anna Hinohara
The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in American women is staggering. In 2008, the American Heart Association reported\\u000a that one in three women had some form of CVD. An estimated 7.3 million women alive today have had a heart attack or are living\\u000a with angina pectoris. This year, almost 500,000 new and recurrent myocardial infarctions are expected in women. Education
international agencies. "TransNational Women's Health Stories: Beyond the Hippocratic Oath" Carol Ritter, MD without means. Dr. Ritter's focus on humanitarian work was sharpened by her training in women's health as the president of the Continental Gynecological Society and the Society for Humanism in Medicine. "Women's Health
Kim, Sojung Claire; Shah, Dhavan V; Namkoong, Kang; McTavish, Fiona M; Gustafson, David H
This study attempts to examine the role of social support perception and emotional well-being on online information seeking among cancer patients within the context of CHESS, a well-established Interactive Cancer Communication System (ICCS). Factor and regression analyses conducted among 231 breast cancer patients revealed that social support perception and emotional well-being interacted with each other to influence online health information seeking. Patients with low social support perception and high emotional well-being were most likely to seek health information, whereas patients with high social support perception and high emotional well-being sought out the same information least. Practical implications of the study findings were further discussed. PMID:24634575
Quinlivan, E Byrd; Fletcher, Jason; Eastwood, Elizabeth A; Blank, Arthur E; Verdecias, Niko; Roytburd, Katya
The WOC Initiative is a prospective study of 921 women of color (WOC) entering HIV care at nine (three rural, six urban) sites across the US. A baseline interview was performed that included self-reported limitation(s) in activity, health conditions, and the CDC's health-related quality of life measures (Healthy Days). One-third of the WOC reported limiting an activity because of illness or a health condition and those with an activity limitation reported 13 physically and 14 mentally unhealthy days/month, compared with 5 physically and 9 mentally unhealthy days/month in the absence of an activity limitation. Age was associated with a three- to fourfold increased risk of an activity limitation but only for WOC in the urban sites. Diabetes was associated with a threefold increased risk of a limitation among women at rural sites. Cardiac disease was associated with a six- to sevenfold increased risk of an activity limitation for both urban and rural WOC. HIV+ WOC reported more physically and mentally unhealthy days than the general US female population even without an activity limitation. Prevention and treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular disease will need to be a standard part of HIV care to promote the long-term health and HRQOL for HIV-infected WOC. PMID:25561306
Severe, Linda; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Deschamps, Marie M.; Reif, Lindsey; Post, Kendall; Johnson, Warren D.; Pape, Jean W.; Boutin-Foster, Carla
Haitian women are twice as likely as men to have HIV/AIDs. Factors underlying the feminization of HIV are complex. Self-esteem is an important correlate of sexual behavior. However, its meaning and impact on health behaviors may be influenced by cultural factors. This qualitative study took place in Haiti 4 months after the 2010 earthquake and examines the meaning of self-esteem among young Haitian women seeking treatment for a recurrent sexually transmitted infection (STI). The meaning of self-esteem was derived from a sense of gratitude and was rooted in their ability to provide for family. This may have led to behaviors such as not using condoms or having sex with partners in concurrent relationships. This article highlights the resilience and resourcefulness of Haitian women, provides insight into how women with apparent positive self-images were led to make choices that placed them at high risk for contracting HIV, and concludes with recommendations for future interventions. PMID:24694329
Advertisement for Associate Professor or Professor, Division of General Medical Disciplines in the Medical Center Line (MCL) in the Department of Medicine to bring intellectual leadership and rigorous-reviewed research funding relevant to Hospital Medicine. The predominant criterion for appointment in the Medical
Yu, Foo Qing; Murugiah, Muthu Kumar; Khan, Amer Hayat; Mehmood, Tahir
Barriers to health seeking constitute a challenging issue in the treatment of breast cancer. The current meta- synthesis aimed to explore common barriers to health seeking among Malaysian breast cancer patients. From the systematic search, nine studies were found meeting the inclusion criteria. Data extraction revealed that health behavior towards breast cancer among Malaysia women was influenced by knowledge, psychological, sociocultural and medical system factors. In terms of knowledge, most of the Malaysian patients were observed to have cursory information and the reliance on the information provided by media was limiting. Among psychological factors, stress and sense of denial were some of the common factors leading to delay in treatment seeking. Family member's advice, cultural beliefs towards traditional care were some of the common sociocultural factors hindering immediate access to advanced medical diagnosis and care. Lastly, the delay in referral was one of the most common health system-related problems highlighted in most of the studies. In conclusion, there is an immediate need to improve the knowledge and understanding of Malaysian women towards breast cancer. Mass media should liaise with the cancer specialists to disseminate accurate and up-to-date information for the readers and audience, helping in modification of cultural beliefs that hinder timing health seeking. However, such intervention will not improve or rectify the health system related barriers to treatment seeking. Therefore, there is an immediate need for resource adjustment and training programs among health professional to improve their competency and professionalism required to develop an efficient health system. PMID:25640342
Fagbami, Oluwakemi; Oluwasanjo, Adetokunbo; Fitzpatrick, Carrie; Fairchild, Rebecca; Shin, Ann; Donato, Anthony
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy reduces morbidity and mortality; however rates of non-adherence are variable among women for unclear reasons. This study was a single-center qualitative analysis of interviews with 18 female HIV-positive non-adherent patients (defined by virologic failure) to explore psychosocial factors impacting adherence. Factors identified were categorized as promoting, inhibiting or having no effect on adherence. Three themes, characterized as social factors, illness factors and other societal pressures, were identified. Medical systems support, family support and compliance for children were most commonly identified as promoting adherence, while psychiatric comorbidities, lack of medical systems support and side effects were identified most often as inhibitors of adherence. While stigma was frequently identified, it was not seen as a barrier to adherence. Enhancing relationships between patients and their providers as well as their community support systems are critical avenues to pursue in improving compliance. Interventions to promote compliance are important avenues of future research.
Epstein, Yoram; Yanovich, Ran; Moran, Daniel S; Heled, Yuval
Anthropometric and physiological factors place the average female soldier at a disadvantage relative to male soldiers in most aspects of physical performance. Aerobic and anaerobic fitness levels are lower in women than in men. Thus, women have a lower overall work capacity and must therefore exert themselves more than men to achieve the same output. The lower weight and fat-free mass and the higher body fat of women are associated with lower muscle strength and endurance, placing them at disadvantage compared with men in carrying out military tasks such as lifting and carrying weights or marching with a load. Working at a higher percentage of their maximal capacity to achieve the same performance levels as men, women tire earlier and are at increased risk of overuse injuries. Their smaller size, different bone geometry and lower bone strength also predispose women to a higher incidence of stress fractures. Although training in gender-integrated groups narrows the gaps in fitness, significant differences between the genders after basic training still remain. Nevertheless, integration of women into military combat professions is feasible in many cases. Some 'close combat roles' will still be an exception, mainly because of the extreme physical demands that are required in those units that are beyond the physiological adaptability capacities of an average female. There is no direct evidence that women have a negative impact on combat effectiveness. Once the gender differences are acknowledged and operational doctrines adjusted accordingly, female soldiers in mixed-gender units can meet the physical standards for the assigned missions. PMID:23238928
Comparison on information-seeking behavior of postgraduated students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and University of Isfahan in writing dissertation based on Kuhlthau model of information search process
Abedi, Mahnaz; Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan; Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Nouri, Rasoul; Hassanzadeh, Akbar
Introduction: Information-seeking behaviors have been one of the main focuses of researchers in order to identify and solve the problems users face in information recovery. The aim of this research is Comparative on Information-Seeking Behavior of the Postgraduate Students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Isfahan University in Writing Dissertation based on Kuhlthau Model of Information Search Process in 2012. Materials and Methods: The research method followed is survey and the data collection tool is Narmenji questionnaire. Statistical population was all postgraduate students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Isfahan University. The sample size was 196 people and sampling was stratified randomly. The type of statistical analyses were descriptive (mean and frequency) and inferential (independent t test and Pearson's correlation) and the software used was SPSS20. Results: The findings showed that Isfahan Medical Sciences University followed 20% of the order steps of this model and Isfahan University did not follow this model. In the first stage (Initiation) and sixth (Presentation) of feelings aspects and in actions (total stages) significant difference was found between students from the two universities. Between gender and fourth stage (Formulation) and the total score of feelings the Kuhlthau model there has a significant relationship. Also there was a significant and inverse relationship between the third stage (Exploration) of feelings and age of the students. Conclusion: The results showed that in writing dissertation there were some major differences in following up the Kuhlthau model between students of the two Universities. There are significant differences between some of the stages of feelings and actions of students’ information-seeking behavior from the two universities. There is a significant relationship between the fourth stage (Formulation) of feelings in the Kuhlthau Model with gender and third stage of the Feelings (Exploration) with age. PMID:25250354
Pereira, Ana Rita; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Magalhăes, Teresa
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important cause of women's health and socio-familial severe problems, the most extreme being the victims' homicide. This is the first nationwide Portuguese autopsy-based and judicial-proven study about female intimate partner homicide. At least 62 women over 15 years old were killed by current or former men-intimate partners, corresponding to an IPV-related female mortality rate of 0.44/100.000 women; intimate partner violence was the reason of homicide in 60.8% of all autopsied women. The typical Portuguese victim showed to be a young adult woman, employed, killed by a current husband in a long-term relationship, usually with children in common and with a history of previous IPV. The typical Portuguese perpetrator showed to be older than the victim, employed, owning a firearm and without criminal records. At the time of the fatal event 59.7% of the relationships were current. In 57.9% of the former relationships women were killed during the 1st year after its terminus. Near half of the perpetrators attempted or committed suicide afterward. Most women were killed by gunshot wounds (45.2%), especially in the thorax (48.4%), with multiple fatal injuries; 56.5% also presented non-fatal injuries. The detection of prior IPV and the risk evaluation seems to be fundamental to decrease these fatal outcomes, but also, the prevention of perpetrators' alcohol abuse and carrying weapons. This work emphasizes the need to deepen the research on this issue, aiming to contribute to prevent both fatal and non-fatal IPV-related cases. PMID:24237830
Flanagan, Julianne C
Implications for practice and research: The benefits of integrating regular intimate partner violence (IPV) screening procedures for pregnant women in clinical settings outweigh the cost of minimal time spent conducting assessments. Healthcare providers must be trained to conduct IPV assessments and provide treatment referrals. Future studies should use larger samples and compare shelter populations with general prenatal care. PMID:25056870
in the Middle East" Marcia Inhorn, PhD, MPH, is a professor of anthropology and international affairs at Yale: gender theories, religion and bioethics, globalization and global health, cultures of biomedicine Association. Dr. Inhorn is a founding editor of the Journal of Middle East Women's Studies. Prof. Marcia
Sussman, Andrew J; Otten, Jeffrey R; Goldszer, Robert C; Hanson, Margaret; Trull, David J; Paulus, Kenneth; Brown, Monte; Dzau, Victor; Brennan, Troyen A
Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), a major academic tertiary medical center, and Faulkner Hospital (Faulkner), a nearby community teaching hospital, both in the Boston, Massachusetts area, have established a close affiliation relationship under a common corporate parent that achieves a variety of synergistic benefits. Formed under the pressures of limited capacity at BWH and excess capacity at Faulkner, and the need for lower-cost clinical space in an era of provider risk-sharing, BWH and Faulkner entered into a comprehensive affiliation agreement. Over the past seven years, the relationship has enhanced overall volume, broadened training programs, lowered the cost of resources for secondary care, and improved financial performance for both institutions. The lessons of this relationship, both in terms of success factors and ongoing challenges for the hospitals, medical staffs, and a large multispecialty referring physician group, are reviewed. The key factors for success of the relationship have been integration of training programs and some clinical services, provision of complementary clinical capabilities, geographic proximity, clear role definition of each institution, commitment and flexibility of leadership and medical staff, active and responsive communication, and the support of a large referring physician group that embraced the affiliation concept. Principal challenges have been maintaining the community hospital's cost structure, addressing cultural differences, avoiding competition among professional staff, anticipating the pace of patient migration, choosing a name for the new affiliation, and adapting to a changing payer environment. PMID:15734807
Amy S. Leiner; Michael T. Compton; Debra Houry; Nadine J. Kaslow
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and suicidal behavior are major public health problems in the African American community.\\u000a This study investigated whether or not IPV and suicidal ideation are correlated in urban African American women, and if the\\u000a IPV–suicidal ideation link is explained by symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). With 323 abused\\u000a African American females, path analysis revealed
This paper explores evolving treatments for hysteria in the eighteenth century by examining a selection of works by both physician-writers and educated literary women. The treatments I identify--which range from aggressive bloodlettings, diets, and beatings, to exercise, fresh air, and writing cures--reveal a unique culture of therapy in which female sufferers and doctors exert an influence on one another's notions of what constitutes appropriate management of women's mental illness. A scrutiny of this exchange of ideas suggests that female patients were not simply oppressed and silenced by male practitioners; rather, their collective voice, intellect, and expertise helped to form progressive treatments for eighteenth-century hysteria. PMID:23192402
Dayoung Song; Roberta G. Sands; Yin-Ling Irene Wong
This paper examines mental health service use among publicly insured white and African-American pregnant and postpartum women who live in a metropolitan area. The study examines the extent to which ethnicity, physical health problems, and behavioral health risk factors are associated with the probability of service use during the pre-natal-postpartum period. It also analyzes the patterns of service utilization for
Manganello, Jennifer A; Clayman, Marla L
Numeracy, or, "the ability to use and understand numbers in daily life" is a critical component of health literacy. However, little research has focused on numeracy in young adults (ages 18-29). We used a national sample to examine how health-information seeking, trust in sources, and interactions with health care providers differ for young adults with lower and higher numeracy. We included respondents ages 18 to 29 (n = 661) from the latest administration (2008) of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). There were no significant differences between those with lower and higher numeracy for most sociodemographic variables, nor did numeracy predict trust in health information sources. However, there were several differences for health-information seeking and health-provider interactions. Those with lower numeracy were significantly more likely to say their most recent search took a lot of effort (46% vs. 24%, p = .0008) and was frustrating (45% vs. 22%, p = .0038). Those in the lower numeracy group also reported more negative interactions with health providers, including feeling less able to rely on their provider (62% vs. 86%, p < .0001), and less likely to say their provider made sure they understood information (70% vs. 88%, p = .0001) and helped with any uncertainty (51% vs. 75%, p < .0001), even when adjusting for other variables. Our data suggest that limited comfort with numbers and statistics can influence a variety of health-related factors for young adults. More research is needed to understand how health literacy skills--including numeracy--influence health-information seeking, patient-provider relationships, and health outcomes, for young adults. PMID:21951250
Svirko, Elena; Goldacre, Michael J
Summary Objectives To report the career progression of a cohort of UK medical graduates in mid-career, comparing men and women. Design Postal and questionnaire survey conducted in 2010/2011, with comparisons with earlier surveys. Setting UK. Participants In total, 2507 responding UK medical graduates of 1993. Main outcome measures Doctors’ career specialties, grade, work location and working pattern in 2010/2011 and equivalent data in earlier years. Results The respondents represented 72% of the contactable cohort; 90% were working in UK medicine and 7% in medicine outside the UK; 87% were in the UK NHS (87% of men and 86% of women). Of doctors in the NHS, 70.6% of men and 52.0% of women were in the hospital specialties and the great majority of the others were in general practice. Within hospital specialties, a higher percentage of men than women were in surgery, and a higher percentage of women than men were in paediatrics, obstetrics and gynaecology, clinical oncology, pathology and psychiatry. In the NHS, 63% of women and 8% of men were working less-than-full-time (in general practice, 19% of men and 83% of women; and in hospital specialties, 3% of men and 46% of women). Among doctors who had always worked full-time, 94% of men and 87% of women GPs were GP principals; in hospital practice, 96% of men and 93% of women had reached consultant level. Conclusions The 1993 graduates show a continuing high level of commitment to the NHS. Gender differences in seniority lessened considerably when comparing doctors who had always worked full-time. PMID:25408921
Yu, Yon Sil
Ye Feng composed what was to become one of the most famous and widely-circulating medical works of the late imperial period, the Treatise on Easy Childbirth. Ye Feng proposed the idea of natural childbirth, When the correct moment for birth had arrived, the child would leave its mother's body as easily as "a ripe melon drops from the stem". He argued attempts to facilitate birth were therefore not only unnecessary, and female midwives artificial intervention was not required. However, this view is to overlook the pangs of childbirth, and women bear responsibility for the failure of delivery. So his views reflect the gender order in male-dominated. Also he constructed the negative image of the midwife and belittle her childbirth techniques. As a result, midwife are excluded from the childbirth field, male doctors grasp guardianship rights of the female body. Ye Feng declared that the key to safe and successful delivery could be summed up in just a few words: "sleep, endure the pain, delay approaching the birthing tub". This view must be consistent with the Confucian norms, women to export to equip the 'patience' and 'self-control'. These norms were exposed desire men want to monitor and control the female body, effect on consolidation of patriarchal family order. In sum, the discourse of "a ripe melon drops from the stem"and "sleep, endure the pain, delay approaching the birthing tub" comprised an important intellectual resource that male doctors drew on to legitimate themselves as superior overseers of women's gestational bodies. PMID:25985779
Thomas J O'Connell; Ché B Bou-Matar
BACKGROUND: Cannabis (marijuana) had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of
O'Connell, Thomas J; Bou-Matar, Ché B
Background Cannabis (marijuana) had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of cannabis in 1996, and it was recently estimated that between 250,000 and 350,000 Californians may now possess the physician's recommendation required to use it medically. More limited medical use has also been approved in 12 additional states and new initiatives are being considered in others. Despite that evidence of increasing public acceptance of "medical" use, a definitional problem remains and all use for any purpose is still prohibited by federal law. Results California's 1996 initiative allowed cannabis to be recommended, not only for serious illnesses, but also "for any other illness for which marijuana provides relief," thus maximally broadening the range of allowable indications. In effect, the range of conditions now being treated with federally illegal cannabis, the modes in which it is being used, and the demographics of the population using it became potentially discoverable through the required screening of applicants. This report examines the demographic profiles and other selected characteristics of 4117 California marijuana users (62% from the Greater Bay Area) who applied for medical recommendations between late 2001 and mid 2007. Conclusion This study yielded a somewhat unexpected profile of a hitherto hidden population of users of America's most popular illegal drug. It also raises questions about some of the basic assumptions held by both proponents and opponents of current policy. PMID:17980043
As women approach midlife they become potential candidates for a range of health technologies. The study examined areas such as women's own assessments of the risks and benefits involved; the medical and informal knowledge women draw upon; and how...
R. J. Trent; E. L. Rose; J. N. Adams; K. P. Jennings; J. M. Rawles
OBJECTIVE--To determine whether the interval between the onset of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction and the patient's call for medical assistance (patient delay) is related to left ventricular function at the time of presentation. DESIGN--Prospective observational study. SETTING--Coronary care unit of Aberdeen Royal Infirmary. PATIENTS--93 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Left ventricular stroke distance, expressed as a
Morrison, Elizabeth Wolfe
Reviews literature on employee feedback-seeking behavior and the literature on information seeking by organizational newcomers. Highlights the various motives that affect the decision of whether or not to seek information. Offers an integrated model of antecedents, dynamics, forms, and outcomes of employee information seeking. Concludes with…
Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Mendoza, Willis Simancas; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Tolosa, Jorge E
The majority of abortions in Colombia continue to take place outside the formal health system under a range of conditions, with the majority of women obtaining misoprostol from a thriving black market for the drug and self-administering the medication. We conducted a cost analysis to compare the costs to the health system of three approaches to the provision of abortion care in Colombia: post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortions, and for legal abortions in a health facility, misoprostol-only medical abortion and vacuum aspiration abortion. Hospital billing records from three institutions, two large maternity hospitals and one specialist reproductive health clinic, were analysed for procedure and complication rates, and costs by diagnosis. The majority of visits (94%) were to the two hospitals for post-abortion care; the other 6% were for legal abortions. Only one minor complication was found among the women having legal abortions, a complication rate of less than 1%. Among the women presenting for post-abortion care, 5% had complications during their treatment, mainly from infection or haemorrhage. Legal abortions were associated not only with far fewer complications for women, but also lower costs for the health system than for post-abortion care. We calculated based on our findings that for every 1,000 women receiving post-abortion care instead of a legal abortion within the health system, 16 women experienced avoidable complications, and the health system spent US $48,000 managing them. Increasing women's access to safe abortion care would not only reduce complications for women, but would also be a cost-saving strategy for the health system. PMID:25702076
Johnson, Joy L; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Galdas, Paul; Ogrodniczuk, John S
Depression is an illness increasingly constructed as a gendered mood disorder and consequently diagnosed in women more than men. The diagnostic criteria used for its assessment often perpetrate and reproduce gender stereotypes. The stigma associated with mental illness and the gendered elements of depression suggest there are likely numerous discourses that position, explain, and justify help-seeking practices. This qualitative study explored men's discourses of seeking help for depression. The methodological approach was informed by a social constructionist perspective of language, discourse and gender that drew on methods from discourse analysis. We conducted individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 38 men with depression, either formally diagnosed or self reported. The analysis revealed five discursive frames that influenced the men's talk about help-seeking and depression: manly self-reliance; treatment-seeking as responsible independent action; guarded vulnerability; desperation; and genuine connection. The findings are discussed within a broader context of social discourses of gender, the limitations of current help-seeking literature and the evidence for how men seek help in ways that extend traditional notions of medical treatment. PMID:21707661
Herz, Naomi; Loyo-Berrios, Nilsa; Tarver, Michelle
Abstract Background: Disease presentation, prevalence, and treatment effects vary by sex, thus it is important to ensure adequate participation of both sexes in medical device post-approval studies (PAS). Methods: The goals of this study were to determine the participation rate of women in PAS mandated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and if participation varied by clinical area. The study also evaluated the frequency in which enrollment by sex is reported by applicant reports and FDA reviews, as well as the frequency in which final study reports analyze whether outcomes differ by sex. Results: Of 89 studies with enrollment completed, data on sex of participants were available in 93% of submitted reports, while data on enrollment by sex was evaluated and noted in 43% of FDA review memos. Study participation varied by clinical area, with female participation ranging from 32% in cardiovascular PAS to 90% in PAS for reconstructive devices. Of 53 completed studies, data on enrollment by sex was provided in 49 of the final reports. Of these 14% included a multivariate analysis that included sex as a covariate and 4% included a subgroup analysis for female participants. Conclusions: Data on sex was not routinely assessed in FDA reviews. Based on these findings, FDA implemented new procedures to ensure participation by sex is evaluated in PAS reviews. FDA will continue working with applicants to develop PAS that enroll and retain proportions of women consistent with the sex-specific prevalence for the disease or condition the device is used to treat. PMID:24405314
Kim, Yoon Hee
In May 2011, the Ministry of Unification of the Republic of Korea (Korea) announced that 21,165 defectors from Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) had settled in Korea. Since healthcare workers are counted among these defectors, it is necessary to provide them with a pathway to certification to work in Korea. This report summarizes the vetting and approval process defectors from North Korea must pass through to be eligible to take the national medical licensing examination. Defectors must pass an oral test conducted by the National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board to be eligible to sit for the exam. From 2002 to August 2011, 41 North Korean defectors applied for the approval process to take the exam. Twenty-nine were approved (70.7%): 23 physicians, 1 dentist, 2 oriental medical doctor, 1 nurse, and 2 pharmacists. Out of 29 approved, 11 passed the licensing examination (39.3%). This report also highlights the difficulty in assessing North Korean defectors' eligibility by oral test, and suggests that adequate competency should be emphasized to recognize their unique abilities as healthcare personnel. PMID:23330055
Kim, Yoon Hee
In May 2011, the Ministry of Unification of the Republic of Korea (Korea) announced that 21,165 defectors from Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) had settled in Korea. Since healthcare workers are counted among these defectors, it is necessary to provide them with a pathway to certification to work in Korea. This report summarizes the vetting and approval process defectors from North Korea must pass through to be eligible to take the national medical licensing examination. Defectors must pass an oral test conducted by the National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board to be eligible to sit for the exam. From 2002 to August 2011, 41 North Korean defectors applied for the approval process to take the exam. Twenty-nine were approved (70.7%): 23 physicians, 1 dentist, 2 oriental medical doctor, 1 nurse, and 2 pharmacists. Out of 29 approved, 11 passed the licensing examination (39.3%). This report also highlights the difficulty in assessing North Korean defectors’ eligibility by oral test, and suggests that adequate competency should be emphasized to recognize their unique abilities as healthcare personnel. PMID:23330055
Traub, Michael L
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent hormonal and metabolic disorder among reproductive aged women worldwide. Women with PCOS have widely varying phenotypes and seek medical care for differing reasons. In addition to concern for menstrual cycle function, ovulation, hirsutism and acne, many PCOS women have abnormal glucose metabolism. While diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance are easily diagnosed, the diagnosis of and concern for insulin resistance as a precursor disorder is underappreciated. Insulin resistance may be the first important marker of metabolic disease in PCOS women at risk for metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease. PMID:21537458
Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, & Morahan, 2012). Additionally, Blacks and Hispanics are the two largest minority groups that are vastly underrepresented in medicine and biomedical research in the United States (AAMC, 2012; NSF, 2011). The purpose of this study is to examine specific barriers reported by students and post-degree professionals in the field through the following questions: 1. How do women who are either currently enrolled or graduated from biomedical research or medical programs define and make meaning of gender-roles as academic barriers? 2. How do underrepresented groups in medical schools and biomedical research institutions define and make meaning of the academic barriers they face and the challenges these barriers pose to their success as individuals in the program? These questions were qualitatively analyzed using 146 interviews from Project TrEMUR applying grounded theory. Reported gender-role barriers were explained using the "Condition-Process-Outcome" theoretical framework. About one-third of the females (across all three programs; majority White or Black between 25-35 years of age) reported gender-role barriers, mostly due to poor mentoring, time constraints, set expectations and institutional barriers. Certain barriers act as conditions, causing gender-role issues, and gender-role issues influence certain barriers that act as outcomes. Strategies to overcome barriers included interventions mostly at the institutional level (mentor support, proper specialty selection, selecting academia over medicine). Barrier analysis for the two largest URM groups indicated that, while Blacks most frequently reported racism, gender barriers, mentoring, and personal barriers, Hispanics most frequently reported economic barriers, language barriers, institutional and workplace environment barriers, and gender-role barriers. Examining barriers using the "Individual-Institutional" theoretical framework indicated that barriers do not occur in isolation, but due to an interaction between the individual and its institution. Additionally, the barriers of the two groups are qualitatively different and the "one size fits all" approach may not be suitable for interventions. Implications and recommendations were stated.
Analyzing the Relationship of Geographic Mobility and Institutional Prestige to Career Advancement of Women in Academic Medicine Pursuing Midcareer-, Senior-, or Executive-Level Administrative Positions: Implications for Career Advancement Strategies
McLean, Marsha Renee
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of geographic mobility and institutional prestige to career advancement defined as administrative promotions of women seeking midcareer-, senior-, or executive-level positions at academic health centers (AHCs) and their medical schools or in non-AHC related medical schools in the United…
Force, Rex W.; Keppel, Gina A.; Guirguis-Blake, Janelle; Gould, Debra A.; Vincent, Chris; Chunchu, Kavitha; Monger, Robert M.; Holmes, John T.; Cauffield, Jacintha; Baldwin, Laura-Mae
Background Increasing diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia rates expose some young women to medications with potential adverse fetal effects, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and statins. This study examined whether quality improvement (QI) interventions promote informed consent and contraception to minimize risks with use of ACE-I/ARB/statins. Methods This longitudinal cohort study at 7 clinics abstracted medical records of 328 women aged 18 to 44 with ?1 prescription for ACE-I/ARB/statins and ?1 visit for hypertension, diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia during the previous year. We measured informed consent documentation and contraceptive methods before and after QI interventions in which providers contacted their patients to discuss medication risks and benefits. Results Of 179 women who were not surgically sterilized, only 11.7% had documented informed consent related to the risks of ACE-I/ARB/statin use. One hundred fifty-eight women were eligible for the QI intervention (not surgically sterilized, no documented informed consent); only 76 (48.1%) received the intervention. Before the intervention, 23.7% of these 76 were “at risk” of an adverse fetal effect. After the intervention, only 7.9% (P ? .001) were “at risk” because some women started contraception, discontinued ACE-I/ARB/statins, or changed drug class. Conclusions Women prescribed ACE-I/ARB/statins were not consistently using contraception or were not consistently informed of the risks. Provider-implemented QI interventions improved care but were difficult to accomplish, suggesting that new interventions are needed. PMID:22956701
Based on data gathered through a household survey of 1,474 urban residents in Beijing, this study examines Chinese help-seeking behaviors in times of psychological distress and perceived barriers to seeking professional help. The results demonstrate that most respondents rely on informal means of seeking help whereas mental health and medical…
Williams, David R.
This article provides an overview of the magnitude of and trends in racial/ethnic disparities in health for women in the United States. It emphasizes the importance of attending to diversity in the health profiles and populations of minority women. Socioeconomic status is a central determinant of racial/ethnic disparities in health, but several other factors, including medical care, geographic location, migration and acculturation, racism, and exposure to stress and resources also play a role. There is a need for renewed attention to monitoring, understanding, and actively seeking to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health. PMID:18687617
Siddique, Juned; Chung, Joyce Y.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Miranda, Jeanne
Objective To examine whether there are latent trajectory classes in response to treatment and whether these latent classes moderate the effects of medication versus psychotherapy. Method Our data come from a one-year randomized controlled trial of 267 low-income, young (mean=29yrs), minority (44% Black, 50% Latina, 6% White) women with current major depression randomized to antidepressants, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), or referral to community mental health services. Growth mixture modeling was used to determine whether there are differential effects of medication versus CBT in this population. Depression was measured via the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results We identified two latent trajectory classes. The first class was characterized by severe depression at baseline. At 6-months, mean depression scores for the medication and CBT groups in this class were 13.9 and 14.9, respectively (difference not significant). At 12-months, mean depression scores were 16.4 and 11.0, respectively (p-value for difference=.04). The second class was characterized by moderate depression and anxiety at baseline. At 6-months, mean depression scores for the medication and CBT groups in the second class were 4.4 and 6.8, respectively (p-value for difference=.03). At 12-months, the mean depression scores were 7.1 and 7.8, respectively, and the difference was no longer significant. Conclusions Among depressed women with moderate baseline depression and anxiety, medication was superior to CBT at 6-months, but the difference was not sustained at one year. Among depressed women with severe depression, there was no significant treatment group difference at 6-months, but CBT was superior to medication at one year. PMID:23088620
Robert F. Bornstein; John H. Porcerelli; Steven K. Huprich; Tsveti Markova
Studies have documented the construct validity of Bornstein and Languirand's (2003) Relationship Profile Test (RPT) in college students, psychotherapy patients, and nursing home residents, but no studies have examined the utility of RPT Destructive Overdependence (DO), Dysfunctional Detachment (DD), and Healthy Dependency (HD) scores in community samples. To fill this gap, we assessed links between RPT scores and theoretically related
Jenny Koertge; Gerdi Weidner; Melanie Elliott-Eller; Larry Scherwitz; Terri A. Merritt-Worden; Ruth Marlin; Lee Lipsenthal; Mimi Guarneri; Robert Finkel; Donald E. Saunders; Patty McCormac; Judith M. Scheer; Richard E. Collins; Dean Ornish
This study examined medical and psychosocial character- istics of 440 patients (mean age 58 years, 21% women) with coronary artery disease at baseline and at 3-month and 12-month follow-ups. All patients were participants in the Multicenter Lifestyle Demonstration Project, aimed at improving diet (low fat, whole foods, plant-based), exer- cise, stress management, and social support. Spousal par- ticipation was encouraged.
Annette L. Amey; David Bishai
Study Objective: We provide new descriptive epidemiology on the demography and quality of care of women who experience sexual assault. Two limited aspects of emergency department treatment received by women who have experienced sexual assault are examined: (1) administration of emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy and (2) screening and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Methods: A nationally representative survey
Ronald Burke; Susan Vinnicombe
Purpose – This collection seeks to examine the various challenges women face in advancing their careers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In the mid-1980s, the phrase “glass ceiling” was coined and has since become an established part of our vocabulary. The glass ceiling refers to an invisible but impermeable barrier that limits the career advancement of women. During the last two decades, women
Tuladhar, H; Marahatta, R
A cross sectional descriptive study of awareness and practice of family planning methods among 200 women of reproductive age attending gynecology out patient department (GOPD) of Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from 14th May 2008 to 14th July, 2008 was carried out. Most of the respondents (93.0%) were aware of at least one of family planning methods out often methods, but only 65.0% had ever used it and contraceptive prevalence rate was 33.5% which was slightly higher than the national data as 28.5%. The best known method of temporary contraception was depo provera (78.0%) followed by oral contraceptive pills (74.0%) and condom (71.0%) and least known methods were vaginal foam tablets/jelly (34.0%) and natural methods (16.0%). Among permanent family planning methods, awareness about female sterilization (81.0%) was more than male sterilization (77.0%) which was in accordance with studies done in other countries. Knowledge about emergency coritraception was quite low (12.0%) as it was newly introduced in the country. Regarding current use of contraception depo provera (11.0%) was the most widely used followed by oral contraceptive pills (4.5%) and condom (4.5%). 5.5% had undergone female sterilization while only 2.5% of male partner had sterilization Knowledge of non contraceptive benefits of family planning methods was claimed by only 35.0% of the respondents, 27.0% reported awareness that condoms protect from HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) while knowledge about various adverse effects was widespread (52.5%). The most common source of information on contraception was media (55.5%), both printed and electronic. This study also observed that with increase in level of education, awareness also increased. Although most of the women were aware about the methods, they were ignorant about the details like duration of protection, return of fertility on discontinuation and non contraceptive benefits. The most common reason for discontinuation of FP methods was stated as side effects. A wide knowledge practice gap was evident in this study, which was similar to the findings of studies done in other developing countries. Improved female education strategies and better access to services are needed to solve these problems. The use of communication media suitable for the audience and adequate message is important in conducting effective family planning awareness activities. Efforts should be made to educate the public about the safety and convenience of modern, long-term, reversible methods of contraception among both healthcare professionals and the public. PMID:19253864
For a concise summary of the medical assistant profession the Medical Assistants entry in the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Occupational Outlook Handbook is must read. The site covers topics ranging from the nature of the profession, working conditions, earnings, and more. The section on training, qualifications and advancement will be of special interest to medical assistant faculty and students. The section on sources of addition information will also be a good launching point for anyone seeking additional online resources.
Amarillo Coll., TX.
This package contains student materials for a workshop on life skills and job seeking techniques conducted for adults by Amarillo College Adult Students and Women's Services. Materials include information sheets, quizzes, exercises, lists, surveys, sample forms, and inspirational messages. Following a short introductory section, the materials are…
Garcia, Iliana A; Blank, Arthur E; Eastwood, Elizabeth A; Karasz, Alison
The use of evidence-based strategies to increase access to medical care and improve health outcomes for people living with HIV is a major public health priority in the United States. As part of a multi-site evaluation funded under the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), a process evaluation was conducted with the goal of understanding barriers and facilitators to the implementation of eleven heterogeneous interventions designed to engage and retain HIV positive women of color (WoC) in medical care. Findings identified barriers and facilitators to program implementation at five levels: (1) program; (2) team; (3) agency; (4) partner network; and (5) the larger socio-ecological context. We conclude with a series of recommendations that may be useful for the implementation of similar interventions focused on recruitment and retention of WoC in HIV medical care. PMID:25107362
Holliday, Vance T.
THE MEDICAL PROFESSIONS Anthropology Professors Linda Green Mark Nichter Mimi Nichter Ivy Pike, and Household Economics ANTH 438A Women's Health in Global Perspective ANTH 444 Introduction to Medical medical and alternative medical professions Forensics Disaster Help #12;
Lupattelli, Angela; Spigset, Olav; Torgersen, Leila; Zerwas, Stephanie; Hatle, Marianne; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Nordeng, Hedvig
Introduction Little is known about medication use among women with eating disorders in relation to pregnancy. Aims To explore patterns of and associations between use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal and analgesic medications and eating disorders in the period before, during and after pregnancy. Method This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). A total of 62,019 women, enrolled at approximately 17 weeks' gestation, had valid data from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry and completed three MoBa questionnaires. The questionnaires provided diagnostic information on broadly defined anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED) and recurrent self-induced purging in the absence of binge eating (EDNOS-P), along with self-reported use of medication six months before, during, and 0–6 months after pregnancy. Results The prevalence of eating disorder subtypes before and/or during pregnancy was: 0.09% AN (n = 54), 0.94% BN (n = 585), 0.10% EDNOS-P (n = 61) and 5.00% BED (n = 3104). The highest over-time prevalence of psychotropic use was within the AN (3.7–22.2%) and EDNOS-P (3.3–9.8%) groups. Compared to controls, BN was directly associated with incident use of psychotropics in pregnancy (adjusted RR: 2.25, 99% CI: 1.17–4.32). Having AN (adjusted RR: 5.11, 99% CI: 1.53–17.01) or EDNOS-P (adjusted RR: 6.77, 99% CI: 1.41–32.53) was directly associated with use of anxiolytics/sedatives postpartum. The estimates of use of analgesics (BED) and laxatives (all eating disorders subtypes) were high at all time periods investigated. Conclusions Use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal, and analgesic medications is extensive among women with eating disorders in the period around pregnancy. Female patients with eating disorders should receive evidence-based counseling about the risk of medication exposure versus the risk of untreated psychiatric illness during pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:26200658
Rajaeieh, Golnaz; Marasi, Mohamadreza; Shahshahan, Zahra; Hassanbeigi, Fatemmeh; Safavi, Seied Morteza
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive women. Nearly 10% of young women in this period involved. Although factors such as Insulin Resistance, hyper insulinemia, obesity and dietary are suggested to be associated with PCOS, cause of PCOS is not completely understood. Dairy products (a key component of the usual diet) of participants can also affect the factors of this disease and may have beneficial effects on treatment of PCOS. However, research in this area is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dairy products consumption and PCOS. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study of 400 women was conducted in Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Science, Iran. Dietary intake was evaluated by validated food frequency questionnaire. Other variables such as ovarian disease, inherited predisposition, age at menarche, physical activity and history of other diseases were evaluated using questionnaire. Data analysis was performed by a logistic regression test using SPSS software version 15 Predictive analytics software and solutions. Results: There were a significant association between PCOS and ovarian disease (P < 0.001), age (P < 0.001) and using medication (P = 0.001). Body mass index (BMI) was inversely associated with PCOS, but it was not significant (P = 0.068). There was a significant direct relationship between milk consumption and risk of PCOS after adjusting for confounding factors (P = 0.028). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicated that ovarian disease and medication use is directly linked to PCOS. Dairy consumption was not significantly correlated with PCOS. However, after adjustment for confounders, there was an direct relationship between milk consumption and risk of PCOS. PMID:25013687
Kish, George B.; Donnenwerth, Gregory V.
Examines relationships between Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) and vocational interests measured by the Kuder and Strong Vocational Interest Blank, among alcoholics and undergraduates. Results support construct validity of the SSS and provide further evidence of modes of expression of stimulus-seeking needs in personality. (Author/CJ)
Gary, Barbara Stewart
Institutions seeking supplementary funding should not be afraid of approaching foundations for grants but should be sure that they understand the grant-seeking process so they do not waste time and effort sending inadequate proposals to uninterested foundations. This booklet, a guide to grantsmanship intended primarily for Catholic educators,…
Frequency of Human Papillumavirus among Women with High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions and Invasive Cervical Cancer Attending Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Clinics, Tehran, Iran
KHODAKARAMI, Nahid; MORADI, Afshin; MIRZAEI, Hamidreza; FARZANEH, Farah; YAVARI, Parvin; AKBARI, Mohamad Esmaeil
Abstract Background The previous studies reported some information about prevalence release of high-risk HPV types in HSIL or cervical cancer globally and in Iran, however, this information is not enough for final judgment about vaccination against HPV or any screening program. The aim of the present study was to assess the HPV type distribution in HSIL and ICC specimens of women attending Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences teaching hospitals, Tehran, Iran for treatment during 10 years. Methods This retrospective- descriptive study evaluated the HPV type distribution of pathologic specimens of Iranian women with invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Formalin-fixed tumor biopsies that were retrieved from women presenting with histological confirmation for ICC and 17 pathologic confirmation for HSIL specimens. Results The most frequently identified HPV type 16 among both groups, women with invasive cervical cancer (4-2.18%) and women with High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (29.41%), followed by HPV18, HPV31 and 26. HPV16 and / or 18 accounted for 82.2% of all infected samples. Conclusion The dominance of HPV16 over other high-risk types might be even higher than in a region with low HPV exposure. However, there was no strong evidence for any judgment that show to the policy makers; which one is cost-effectiveness and feasibility for cervical cancer prevention in Iran, vaccination, screening or both? More population based study and national meta-analysis needed for better understanding of HPV prevalence and HPV DNA patterns in Iran.
Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen; Cruise, Ruth; Kelso, Gwendolyn
Abstract Abuse is highly prevalent among HIV+ women, leading to behaviors, including lower adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) that result in poor health outcomes. Resilience (functioning competently despite adversity) may buffer the negative effects of abuse. This study investigated how resilience interacted with abuse history in relation to HAART adherence, HIV viral load (VL), and CD4+ cell count among a convenience sample of 138 HIV+ women from the Ruth M. Rothstein CORE Center/Cook County Health and Hospital Systems site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Resilience was measured by the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). HAART adherence (?95% vs. <95% self reported usage of prescribed medication) and current or prior sexual, physical, or emotional/domestic abuse, were reported during structured interviews. HIV viral load (?20?vs. <20 copies/mL) and CD4+ count (200?vs. <200 cells/mm) were measured with blood specimens. Multiple logistic regressions, controlling for age, race, income, enrollment wave, substance use, and depressive symptoms, indicated that each unit increase in resilience was significantly associated with an increase in the odds of having ?95% HAART adherence and a decrease in the odds of having a detectable viral load. Resilience-Abuse interactions showed that only among HIV+ women with sexual abuse or multiple abuses did resilience significantly relate to an increase in the odds of ?95% HAART adherence. Interventions to improve coping strategies that promote resilience among HIV+ women may be beneficial for achieving higher HAART adherence and viral suppression. PMID:24568654
Gould, Heather; Ellertson, Charlotte; Corona, Georgina
Two reproductive technologies--emergency contraception and medical abortion--have the potential to reduce unintended pregnancy significantly in Latin America. Lack of knowledge and negative attitudes about the methods may limit their impact, however. Results from focus group discussions with middle-class men and women of reproductive age residing in Mexico City indicate that knowledge about emergency contraception and medical abortion is low. After being informed about both methods, participants supported emergency contraception but tied their support for medical abortion to its legal status. Participants remained concerned about the methods' efficacy, mechanism of action, and potential to encourage sexual risk-taking. While almost all desired greater dissemination of information about and access to both methods in Mexico, participants cited religious and cultural concerns, as well as barriers in communication with providers and within families, as significant challenges. Participants hoped, however, that both emergency contraception and medical abortion might play important roles in preventing unwanted pregnancy and abortion-related morbidity and mortality in Mexico in the future. PMID:12499034
Chisholm, Rex L.
Medical Women's Association (AMWA) student chap- ter supports the advancement of women in medicineThe Student National Medical Association (SNMA) supports current and future underrepresented goals, community involvement, performing arts, and diversity. From the Student National Medical
Blomberg, Marie; Birch Tyrberg, Rasmus; Kjřlhede, Preben
Objectives To evaluate the associations between maternal age and obstetric and neonatal outcomes in primiparous women with emphasis on teenagers and older women. Design A population-based cohort study. Setting The Swedish Medical Birth Register. Participants Primiparous women with singleton births from 1992 through 2010 (N=798?674) were divided into seven age groups: <17?years, 17–19?years and an additional five 5-year classes. The reference group consisted of the women aged 25–29?years. Primary outcome Obstetric and neonatal outcome. Results The teenager groups had significantly more vaginal births (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.04 (1.79 to 2.32) and 1.95 (1.88 to 2.02) for age <17?years and 17–19?years, respectively); fewer caesarean sections (aOR 0.57 (0.48 to 0.67) and 0.55 (0.53 to 0.58)), and instrumental vaginal births (aOR 0.43 (0.36 to 0.52) and 0.50 (0.48 to 0.53)) compared with the reference group. The opposite was found among older women reaching a fourfold increased OR for caesarean section. The teenagers showed no increased risk of adverse neonatal outcome but presented an increased risk of prematurity <32?weeks (aOR 1.66 (1.10 to 2.51) and 1.20 (1.04 to 1.38)). Women with advancing age (?30?years) revealed significantly increased risk of prematurity, perineal lacerations, preeclampsia, abruption, placenta previa, postpartum haemorrhage and unfavourable neonatal outcomes compared with the reference group. Conclusions For clinicians counselling young women it is of importance to highlight the obstetrically positive consequences that fewer maternal complications and favourable neonatal outcomes are expected. The results imply that there is a need for individualising antenatal surveillance programmes and obstetric care based on age grouping in order to attempt to improve the outcomes in the age groups with less favourable obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Such changes in surveillance programmes and obstetric interventions need to be evaluated in further studies. PMID:25387756
Miller, Stephania T.; Oates, Veronica J.; Brooks, Malinda A.; Shintani, Ayumi; Jenkins, Darlene M.
Objective. To assess the efficacy and acceptability of a group medical nutritional therapy (MNT) intervention, using motivational interviewing (MI). Research Design & Method. African American (AA) women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) participated in five, certified diabetes educator/dietitian-facilitated intervention sessions targeting carbohydrate, fat, and fruit/vegetable intake and management. Motivation-based activities centered on exploration of dietary ambivalence and the relationships between diet and personal strengths. Repeated pre- and post-intervention, psychosocial, dietary self-care, and clinical outcomes were collected and analyzed using generalized least squares regression. An acceptability assessment was administered after intervention. Results. Participants (n = 24) were mostly of middle age (mean age 50.8 ± 6.3) with an average BMI of 39 ± 6.5. Compared to a gradual pre-intervention loss of HbA1c control and confidence in choosing restaurant foods, a significant post-intervention improvement in HbA1c (P = 0.03) and a near significant (P = 0.06) increase in confidence in choosing restaurant foods were observed with both returning to pre-intervention levels. 100% reported that they would recommend the study to other AA women with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion. The results support the potential efficacy of a group MNT/MI intervention in improving glycemic control and dietary self-care-related confidence in overweight/obese AA women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25243082
Kathleen Dracup; Debra K. Moser; Mickey Eisenberg; Hendrika Meischke; Angelo A. Alonzo; Allan Braslow
With the advent of thrombolytic therapy and other coronary reperfusion strategies, rapid identification and treatment of acute myocardial infarction greatly reduces mortality. Unfortunately, many patients delay seeking medical care and miss the benefits afforded by recent advances in treatment. Studies have shown that the median time from onset of symptoms to seeking care ranges from 2 to 61\\/2 hours, while
Razali, S M
This study investigates the reasons for entry to medicine and the career perspectives of phase III medical students of the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The majority of the students were Malays from low socio-economic backgrounds who entered medical school after completing a 2-year matriculation course. An interest in medicine and helping people were the two main stated reasons for entry to medical school. A group of students wishing to work in private practice was identified. In comparison to the rest of the study body, students in the group were: not well prepared to enter medical school; dissatisfied with the course; and subject to family influences. A desire for monetary gain motivated their choice of medicine as a career. Overall, 13% of the students wished to change career because they were dissatisfied with their experience of medicine as undergraduates. The study did not find a significant difference in career intentions between female and male medical students. However, women were less likely to seek entrance into private practice or pursue formal postgraduate education. The choice of surgery as a career was confined to men. About 90% of the students had already decided on their future specialty. Four well-established specialties were their most popular choices. The gender of the students had no significant influences of the decision to continue into postgraduate education. The proportion of female students who wished to marry doctors was significantly higher than for male students. PMID:9217903
Aaron, Erika; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Criniti, Shannon; Tedaldi, Ellen; Gracely, Ed; Warriner, Amy; Kumar, Ritu; Bachmann, Laura H.
Background Predictors of adverse events (AE) associated with nevirapine use are needed to better understand reports of severe rash or liver enzyme elevation (LEE) in HIV+ women. Methodology AE rates following ART initiation were retrospectively assessed in a multi-site cohort of 612 women. Predictors of onset of rash or LEE were determined using univariate and multivariate analyses. Principal Findings Of 612 subjects, 152 (24.8%) initiated NVP-based regimens with 86 (56.6%) pregnant; 460 (75.2%) initiated non-NVP regimens with 67 (14.6%) pregnant. LEE No significant difference was found between regimens in the development of new grade ?2 LEE (p?=?0.885). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated an increased likelihood of LEE with HCV co-infection (OR 2.502, 95% CI: 1.04 to 6, p?=?0.040); pregnancy, NVP-based regimen, and baseline CD4 >250 cells/mm3 were not associated with this toxicity. Rash NVP initiation was associated with rash after controlling for CD4 and pregnancy (OR 2.78; 95%CI: 1.14–6.76), as was baseline CD4 >250 cells/mm3 when controlling for pregnancy and type of regimen (OR 2.68; 95% CI: 1.19–6.02 p?=?0.017). Conclusions CD4 at initiation of therapy was a predictor of rash but not LEE with NVP use in HIV+ women. Pregnancy was not an independent risk factor for the development of AEs assessed. The findings from this study have significant implications for women of child-bearing age initiating NVP-based ART particularly in resource limited settings. This study sheds more confidence on the lack of LEE risk and the need to monitor rash with the use of this medication. PMID:20838641
Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, &…
Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa
Research presenting outcomes for women who enter substance abuse treatment during pregnancy consistently shows benefits. While treatment has nearly universal benefits, there are many barriers to seeking substance abuse treatment for pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to explore barriers for rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment. There were three eligibility criteria for study participation: (1) aged 18 and older, (2) pregnant, and (3) undergoing short-term inpatient detoxification at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Eighty-five rural women (N = 85) were included in the analysis. Substance use history and previous treatment were assessed with measures adapted from the Addiction Severity Index. Treatment barriers were measured with three qualitative questions and were coded into four overarching categories: availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability barriers. This sample had an extensive substance use history. Almost all participants had used alcohol (98%), marijuana (98%), illicit opiates (99%), and cigarettes (97%). On average, participants reported about two barriers to receiving treatment (Mean = 1.8; SD = 1.3), with over 80% of the sample reporting having experienced any barrier to treatment. The majority experienced acceptability (51%) and accessibility (49%) barriers. Twenty-six percent (26%) of the sample reported availability barriers. A smaller percentage of participants reported affordability barriers (13%). Rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment face many obstacles to receiving needed treatment. More studies on barriers to substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women are needed. Identifying these barriers can help in improving treatment access and services. PMID:22139045
Women at risk: why increasing numbers of women are failing to get the health care they need and how the Affordable Care Act will help. Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey of 2010.
Robertson, Ruth; Collins, Sara R
Women have greater health care needs than men, and generally play larger roles in the health care of family members. Rising health care costs combined with sluggish income growth has contributed to losses in health insurance among women and rising rates of problems gaining necessary health care and paying medical bills. Women who seek coverage in the individual insurance market face additional hurdles--few plans offer maternity coverage and, in most states, insurance carriers charge higher premium rates to young women than men of the same age. The Affordable Care Act is bringing change for women through required free coverage of preventive care services, small business tax credits, new affordable coverage options, and insurance market reforms, including bans on gender rating. When the law is fully implemented in 2014, nearly all the 27 million working-age women who went without health insurance in 2010 will gain affordable and comprehensive benefits. PMID:21638798
Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.
This statistical report, one of a series published every 3 years since 1975, consists of distribution data regarding medical college faculty by sex, ethnicity, degree, department, academic rank, age, tenure status, and year of first faculty appointment. It is organized into three sections, of which the second two constitute the bulk of the…
Low, E L; Whitaker, K L; Simon, A E; Sekhon, M; Waller, J
Objective To explore women's experiences of symptoms potentially indicative of gynaecological cancer in a community-based sample without imposing a cancer perspective. Design A qualitative interview study with thematic analysis of transcripts. Participants 26 women aged ?30?years, who had experienced a symptom that might indicate gynaecological cancer in the past 3?months, were recruited using a screening questionnaire distributed online and in community settings. Setting London, UK. Results Women attributed gynaecological symptoms to existing illnesses/conditions or considered themselves to be predisposed to them, either through their ‘genes’ or previous personal experience. Normalising symptoms by attributing them to demographic characteristics (eg, age, sex) was common, as was considering them a side effect of hormonal contraception. When women raised cancer as a possible cause, they often dismissed it as unlikely. Responses to symptoms included self-management (eg, self-medicating, making lifestyle changes), adopting a ‘lay system of care’, or consulting a healthcare professional. Triggers to help-seeking included persistent, painful or debilitating symptoms, concern about symptom seriousness, and feeling that help-seeking was legitimised. Barriers to help-seeking included lack of concern, vague symptoms, unusual symptom location, competing time demands, previous negative experiences with the healthcare system, and not wanting to be perceived as a time-waster. Conclusions Attributions of symptoms potentially indicative of a gynaecological cancer were varied, but most often involved women fitting symptoms into their expectations of what was ‘normal’. Normalising acted as a barrier to seeking help from a healthcare professional, alongside competing time demands and negative attitudes towards help-seeking. These barriers may lead to later diagnosis and poorer cancer survival. Our findings could be used to inform the development of interventions to encourage appropriate help-seeking. PMID:26150145
Rööst, Mattias; Jonsson, Cecilia; Liljestrand, Jerker; Essén, Birgitta
Background Use of maternal health care in low-income countries has been associated with several socioeconomic and demographic factors, although contextual analyses of the latter have been few. A previous study showed that 75% of women with severe obstetric morbidity (near-miss) identified at hospitals in La Paz, Bolivia were in critical conditions upon arrival, underscoring the significance of pre-hospital barriers also in this setting with free and accessible maternal health care. The present study explores how health care-seeking behaviour for near-miss morbidity is conditioned in La Paz, Bolivia. Methods Thematic interviews with 30 women with a near-miss event upon arrival at hospital. Near-miss was defined based on clinical and management criteria. Modified analytic induction was applied in the analysis that was further influenced by theoretical views that care-seeking behaviour is formed by predisposing characteristics, enabling factors, and perceived need, as well as by socially shaped habitual behaviours. Results The self-perception of being fundamentally separated from "others", meaning those who utilise health care, was typical for women who customarily delivered at home and who delayed seeking medical assistance for obstetric emergencies. Other explanations given by these women were distrust of authority, mistreatment by staff, such as not being kept informed about their condition or the course of their treatment, all of which reinforced their dissociation from the health-care system. Conclusion The findings illustrate health care-seeking behaviour as a practise that is substantially conditioned by social differentiation. Social marginalization and the role health institutions play in shaping care-seeking behaviour have been de-emphasised by focusing solely on endogenous cultural factors in Bolivia. PMID:19640286
Grover, Casey A.; Elder, Joshua W.; Close, Reb JH.; Curry, Sean M.
Introduction: Drug-seeking behavior (DSB) in the emergency department (ED) is a very common problem, yet there has been little quantitative study to date of such behavior. The goal of this study was to assess the frequency with which drug seeking patients in the ED use classic drug seeking behaviors to obtain prescription medication. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review on patients in an ED case management program for DSB. We reviewed all visits by patients in the program that occurred during a 1-year period, and recorded the frequency of the following behaviors: complaining of headache, complaining of back pain, complaining of dental pain, requesting medication by name, requesting a refill of medication, reporting medications as having been lost or stolen, reporting 10/10 pain, reporting greater than 10/10 pain, reporting being out of medication, and requesting medication parenterally. These behaviors were chosen because they are described as “classic” for DSB in the existing literature. Results: We studied 178 patients from the case management program, who made 2,486 visits in 1 year. The frequency of each behavior was: headache 21.7%, back pain 20.8%, dental pain 1.8%, medication by name 15.2%, requesting refill 7.0%, lost or stolen medication 0.6%, pain 10/10 29.1%, pain greater than 10/10 1.8%, out of medication 9.5%, and requesting parenteral medication 4.3%. Patients averaged 1.1 behaviors per visit. Conclusion: Drug-seeking patients appear to exhibit “classically” described drug-seeking behaviors with only low to moderate frequency. Reliance on historical features may be inadequate when trying to assess whether or not a patient is drug-seeking. PMID:23359650
Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Acharya, Rajib; Filippi, Veronique; Ronsmans, Carine
Background Medical abortion (mifepristone and misoprostol) has the potential to contribute to reduced maternal mortality but little is known about the provision or quality of advice for medical abortion through the private retail sector. We examined the availability of medical abortion and the practices of pharmacists in India, where abortion has been legal since 1972. Methods We interviewed 591 pharmacists in 60 local markets in city, town and rural areas of Madhya Pradesh. One month later, we returned to 359 pharmacists with undercover patients who presented themselves unannounced as genuine customers seeking a medical abortion. Results Medical abortion was offered to undercover patients by 256 (71.3%) pharmacists and 24 different brands were identified. Two thirds (68.5%) of pharmacists stated that abortion was illegal in India. Only 106 (38.5%) pharmacists asked clients the timing of the last menstrual period and 38 (13.8%) requested to see a doctor’s prescription – a legal requirement in India. Only 59 (21.5%) pharmacists correctly advised patients on the gestational limit for medical abortion, 97 (35.3%) provided correct information on how many and when to take the tablets in a combination pack, and 78 (28.4%) gave accurate advice on where to seek care in case of complications. Advice on post-abortion family planning was almost nonexistent. Conclusions The retail market for medical abortion is extensive, but the quality of advice given to patients is poor. Although the contribution of medical abortion to women’s health in India is poorly understood, there is an urgent need to improve the practices of pharmacists selling medical abortion. PMID:25822656
Background Depressive Disorders (DD) are a great financial and social burden. Females display 70% higher rate of depression than males and more than 30% of these patients do not respond to conventional medications. Thus medication-refractory female patients are a large, under-served, group where new biological targets for intervention are greatly needed. Methods We used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to evaluate mRNA gene expression from peripheral blood leukocytes for 27 genes, including immune, HPA-axis, ion channels, and growth and transcription factors. Our sample included 23 females with medication refractory DD: 13 with major depressive disorder (MDD), 10 with bipolar disorder (BPD). Our comparison group was 19 healthy, non-depressed female controls. We examined differences in mRNA expression in DD vs. controls, in MDD vs. BPD, and in patients with greater vs. lesser depression severity. Results DD patients showed increased expression for IL-10, IL-6, OXTR, P2RX7, P2RY1, and TRPV1. BPD patients showed increased APP, CREB1, NFKB1, NR3C1, and SPARC and decreased TNF expression. Depression severity was related to increased IL-10, P2RY1, P2RX1, and TRPV4 expression. Conclusions These results support prior findings of dysregulation in immune genes, and provide preliminary evidence of dysregulation in purinergic and other ion channels in females with medication-refractory depression, and in transcription and growth factors in those with BPD. If replicated in future research examining protein levels as well as mRNA, these pathways could potentially be used to explore biological mechanisms of depression and to develop new drug targets. PMID:24143878
Medical Evaluation of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children. Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, United States Senate, Ninety-Fourth Congress, 2d Session. Committee Print.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.
This paper reports a medical evaluation of a federal program providing funds for special nutritious food supplements to low income pregnant and lactating women, infants, and children up to four years of age who are nutritional risks. Growth, dietary intake, and biochemical measures were obtained for study infants at the time of enrollment in the…
Professor Keiji Sano described the history of neurosurgery in Japan until 1975. After World War II, not only neurosurgery but all fields of medicine were devastated in Japan. Professor Sano contributed greatly to the reform and modernization of neurosurgery during that very difficult era in Japan. He performed much research by himself and also as a leader of research groups on stereotactic and functional neurosurgery, cerebrovascular diseases, head injuries, and brain tumors. He organized the Fifth International Congress of Neurological Surgery in Tokyo in 1973. I succeeded in the chairmanship of the Department of Neurosurgery of the University of Tokyo in 1981. We have performed research on the treatment of brain tumors and cerebrovascular diseases. To obtain the best results for brain tumor treatment, we have introduced several new radiotherapeutic methods, such as the gamma knife, heavy-particle irradiation, and the photon radiosurgery system. To improve surgical treatment, we have energetically engaged in medical engineering research on computer-assisted surgical systems (intraoperative monitoring and navigation systems). We have also performed much research on chemotherapy and immunotherapy. In the field of cerebrovascular diseases, the main research projects have been focused on the mechanism and treatment of vasospasm and brain edema after subarachnoid hemorrhage. I summarize the results of our research performed in the Department of Neurosurgery of the University of Tokyo until 1992 and at Tokyo Women's Medical University after 1992, in the last quarter of the 20th century. PMID:12535374
Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca
Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…
Williams, David R.
This article provides an overview of the magnitude of and trends in racial/ethnic disparities in health for women in the United States. It emphasizes the importance of attending to diversity in the health profiles and populations of minority women. Socioeconomic status is a central determinant of racial/ethnic disparities in health, but several other factors, including medical care, geographic location, migration and acculturation, racism, and exposure to stress and resources also play a role. There is a need for renewed attention to monitoring, understanding, and actively seeking to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health. PMID:11919058
to prescribe hormone therapy prior to the release of the Women's Health Initiative trial: a survey of general for Medical Research U149, Epidemiological Research Unit on Perinatal Health and Women's Health, 16, ave Paul
Background In the absence of head-to-head trials, indirect comparisons of randomized placebo-controlled trials may provide a viable option to assess relative efficacy. The purpose was to estimate the relative efficacy of reduction of fractures in post-menopausal women, and to assess robustness of the results. Methods A systematic literature review of multiple databases identified randomized placebo-controlled trials with nine drugs for post-menopausal women. Odds ratio and 95% credibility intervals for the rates of hip, non-vertebral, vertebral, and wrist fractures for each drug and between drugs were derived using a Bayesian approach. A drug was ranked as the most efficacious if it had the highest posterior odds ratio, or had the highest effect size. Results 30 studies including 59,209 patients reported fracture rates for nine drugs: alendronate (6 studies), denosumab (1 study), etidronate (8 studies), ibandronate (4 studies), raloxifene (1 study), risedronate (7 studies), strontium (2 study), teriparatide (1 study), and zoledronic acid (1 study). The drugs with the highest probability of reducing non-vertebral fractures was etidronate and teriparatide while the drugs with the highest probability of reducing vertebral, hip or wrist fractures were teriparatide, zoledronic acid and denosumab. The drugs with the largest effect size for vertebral fractures were zoledronic acid, teriparatide and denosumab, while the drugs with the highest effect size for non-vertebral, hip or wrist fractures were alendronate or risedronate. Estimates were consistent between Bayesian and classical approaches. Conclusion Teriparatide, zoledronic acid and denosumab have the highest probabilities of being most efficacious for non-vertebral and vertebral fractures, and having the greatest effect sizes. The estimates from indirect comparisons were robust to differences in methodology. PMID:21943363
Colleen E. Carney; Jack D. Edinger
\\u000a Despite the general efficacy of CBT for insomnia, this form of therapy is generally not the first intervention chosen for\\u000a the majority of treatment seeking insomnia sufferers. Most are seen in primary care settings where they usually are treated\\u000a with some form of hypnotic medication. Many of those who eventually present for a trial of CBT do so while continuing
Cross, Catharine P; Cyrenne, De-Laine M; Brown, Gillian R
Men score higher than women on measures of sensation-seeking, defined as a willingness to engage in novel or intense activities. This sex difference has been explained in terms of evolved psychological mechanisms or culturally transmitted social norms. We investigated whether sex differences in sensation-seeking have changed over recent years by conducting a meta-analysis of studies using Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, version V (SSS-V). We found that sex differences in total SSS-V scores have remained stable across years, as have sex differences in Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility. In contrast, the sex difference in Thrill and Adventure Seeking has declined, possibly due to changes in social norms or out-dated questions on this sub-scale. Our results support the view that men and women differ in their propensity to report sensation-seeking characteristics, while behavioural manifestations of sensation-seeking vary over time. Sex differences in sensation-seeking could reflect genetically influenced predispositions interacting with socially transmitted information. PMID:23989235
Director of Clinical Virology Laboratory at Stanford University Medical Center (SUMC Diseases, or who has a Ph.D. in virology or a related field, to direct the Clinical Virology Laboratory at Stanford. Certification by the American Board of Medical Microbiology is desirable. The Clinical Virology
Otiashvili, David; Kirtadze, Irma; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Zule, William; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Jones, Hendrée E.
Background In the Republic of Georgia, women comprise under 2% of patients in substance use treatment and to date there has been no empirical research to investigate what factors may facilitate or hinder their help-seeking behavior or access to treatment services. Methods This study included secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with 55 substance-using women and 34 providers of health-related services. Results The roles and norms of women in Georgian society were identified as major factors influencing their help-seeking behavior. Factors that had a negative impact on use of drug treatment services included an absence of gender-specific services, judgmental attitudes of service providers, the cost of treatment and a punitive legal position in regard to substance use. Having a substance-using partner served as an additional factor inhibiting a woman’s willingness to seek assistance. Conclusions Within the context of orthodox Georgian society, low self-esteem, combined with severe family and social stigma play a critical role in creating barriers to the use of both general health and substance-use-treatment services for women. Education of the public, including policy makers and health care providers is urgently needed to focus on addiction as a treatable medical illness. The need for more women-centered services is also critical to the provision of effective treatment for substance-using women. PMID:23756037
Rim, Sun Hee; Polonec, Lindsey; Stewart, Sherri L.; Gelb, Cynthia A.
The Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign raises awareness of the five main types of gynecologic cancer: cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar. It encourages women to pay attention to their bodies and know what is normal for them so they can recognize the warning signs of gynecologic cancers and seek medical care. This report provides an overview of the development of this national campaign. PMID:21933006
Puustinen, Minna; Kokkonen, Marja; Tolvanen, Asko; Pulkkinen, Lea
The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between students' (100 children aged 8 to 12) help-seeking behavior and impulsivity. Help-seeking behavior was evaluated using a naturalistic experimental paradigm in which children were placed in a problem-solving situation and had the opportunity to seek help from the experimenter, if…
McCoy, Thomas P.; Egan, Kathleen L.; Goldin, Shoshanna; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wolfson, Mark
Background College students who consume caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CaffAlc) are at increased injury risk. This study examines the extent to which a sensation-seeking personality accounts for the relationship between consumption of CaffAlc and negative outcomes. Methods A Web-based survey was administered to stratified random samples of 4907 college students from eight North Carolina universities in Fall 2009. Sensation seeking was assessed using the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) (?=0.81). Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Results 3390 students (71.2%) reported past 30-day drinking, of whom 786 (23.2%) consumed CaffAlc. CaffAlc past 30-day drinkers had higher BSSS scores (3.8 vs. 3.4; p<0.001), compared to non-CaffAlc drinkers. Consumption of CaffAlc was associated with more frequent binge drinking (p<0.001) and drunken days in a typical week (p<0.001), even after adjusting for the BSSS score. CaffAlc students were more likely to be taken advantage of sexually (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.70, p=0.012), drive under the influence of alcohol (AOR=2.00, p<0.001), and ride with a driver under the influence of alcohol (AOR=1.87, p<0.001). Injury requiring medical treatment was more prevalent among CaffAlc students with higher BSSS-8 scores (interaction p=0.024), even after adjustment for drinking levels and student characteristics. Conclusions Sensation seeking does not fully account for the increase in risky drinking among college students who consume CaffAlc, nor does it moderate the relationship between CaffAlc and drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking moderates the risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment among college students who consume CaffAlc. Those with strong sensation-seeking dispositions are at the highest risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment. PMID:24761275
Lunsford, Tisha N; Harris, Lucinda A
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic disorder that affects primarily female patients and is thought also to afflict approximately 7%–10% of the population of the Western World. Although bowel habits may change over the course of years, patients with IBS are characterized according to their predominant bowel habit, constipation (IBS-C), diarrhea (IBS-D), or mixed type (IBS-M), and treatments are focused toward the predominant symptom. Current treatments for IBS-C have included fiber, antispasmodics, osmotic and stimulant laxatives, and the now severely limited 5-HT4 agonist tegaserod. No one agent has been universally successful in the treatment of this bothersome syndrome and the search for new agents continues. Lubiprostone (Amitiza®), a novel compound, is a member of a new class of agents called prostones and was approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in 2006 at a dose of 24 ?g twice daily and then in 2008 for the treatment of IBS-C in women only at a dose of 8 ?g twice daily. Its purported mechanism is as a type 2 chloride channel activator, but recent evidence suggests that it may also work at the cystic fibrosis transport receptor. This article will compare the newly proposed mechanism of action of this compound to the purported mechanism and review the structure, pharmacology, safety, efficacy, and tolerability of this new therapeutic option. Clinical trial data leading to the approval of this agent for the treatment of IBS-C and the gender-based understanding of IBS, as well as this agent’s place among existing and emerging therapies, will be examined. PMID:21151683
Tajuddin, Wan Ahmad
Ease in finding the configuration at the global energy minimum in a symmetric neural network is important for combinatorial optimization problems. We carry out a comprehensive survey of available strategies for seeking global minima by comparing their performances in the binary representation problem. We recall our previous comparison of steepest descent with analog dynamics, genetic hill-climbing, simulated diffusion, simulated annealing, threshold accepting and simulated tunneling. To this, we add comparisons to other strategies including taboo search and one with field-ordered updating.
Is Earth unique in the universe? What is a habitable planet? How abundant are habitable planets? NASA's Kepler Mission team seeks answers to these questions. Launching in 2009, Kepler is NASA's first mission capable of finding Earth-sized and smaller planets in the habitable zone of other stars in our galaxy. This space mission offers an intriguing context for teaching and learning science concepts that support the National Science Education Standards in "Earth and Space Sciences" and "Science as Inquiry." These activities include building models, positing explanations, understanding our solar system and extending that knowledge to other planetary systems, interpreting graphical data, and applying mathematics to analyze science data.
A special report from the United Nations Development Fund for Women's (UNIFEM) program on Women and International Trade, Trade Liberalisation and Women seeks to explain how trade liberalisation, defined as the "process of systematically reducing and eventually eliminating all tariff and non-tariff barriers between countries as trading partners," is affecting the women of the world. The site explains how, as economies compete with each other, global liberalisation will drive down the working wages and working conditions of countries, thus affecting female workers. As well as this situational analysis, the site also includes extensive databases of related links, research, and books; UNIFEM's research into the subject of women and trade; and a list of organizations users can contact if they are interested in persuing issues related to women and trade liberalisation.
E. M. Szwajcer; G. J. Hiddink; M. A. Koelen; C M J van Woerkum
Background:Research has shown that especially pregnant women, and also women with a wish for a child, have increased nutrition awareness. Seeking nutrition information seemed to be an important determinant for nutrition awareness. However, little research has been carried out about nutrition-related information-seeking behaviours before and during pregnancy.Objective:This study aimed to explore nutrition-related information sources, nutrition information-seeking behaviours and motives for
Bandettini, Peter A.
Joslyn Yudenfreund Kravitz, Ph.D., Editor Office of Research on Women's Health Office Meeting to Seek New Dimensions and Strategies for Women's Health Research and Advancing Women's Biomedical Will Hold Fifth Regional Meeting to Seek New Dimensions and Strategies for Women's Health Research
Meyers, Steven D.
MEDICAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL EMERGENCY Ambulatory Patient (Students): Medical assistance can) with a physician is available for urgent medical concerns. Faculty and Staff can seek medical assistance If the individual needing assistance is not ambulatory, call 911 to request assistance from Emergency Medical
The Departments of Population Health Sciences (PHS) and of Biostatistics & Medical Informatics (BMI) at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health seek applicants for a joint faculty
Wisconsin at Madison, University of
The Departments of Population Health Sciences (PHS) and of Biostatistics & Medical Informatics (BMI completing their PhD or currently working as post-docs are encouraged to apply. Appointments at the rank faculty member will teach one to two biostatistics courses per year in the biostatistics sequence shared
Murdoch, Maureen; Bradley, Arlene; Mather, Susan H; Klein, Robert E; Turner, Carole L; Yano, Elizabeth M
Most of today's 1.7 million women veterans obtain all or most of their medical care outside the VA health care system, where their veteran status is rarely recognized or acknowledged. Several aspects of women's military service have been associated with adverse psychologic and physical outcomes, and failure to assess women's veteran status, their deployment status, and military trauma history could delay identifying or treating such conditions. Yet few clinicians know of women's military history—or of military service's impact on women's subsequent health and well being. Because an individual's military service may be best understood within the historical context in which it occurred, we provide a focused historical overview of women's military contributions and their steady integration into the Armed Forces since the War for Independence. We then describe some of the medical and psychiatric conditions associated with military service. PMID:16637946
Sanders, Jessica; Simonsen, Sara; Porucznik, Christina A; Baksh, Laurie; Stanford, Joseph B
The purpose of this study was to compare the utilization of medical help for fertility among women who reported up to a year versus more than a year of trying to become pregnant and to describe the characteristics of those women seeking early treatment. Data from the 2004-2008 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey were used to assess attempt duration and use of fertility treatments in a sample of 9,517 women who had a recent live birth in Utah. PRAMS respondents who were trying to become pregnant at the time of conception were asked questions about fertility treatments (sampling n = 5,238; representative n = 153,036). Univariate and bivariate analyses were used to describe and compare characteristics of women who sought treatment after attempting pregnancy for a year or less and women who waited at least a year to seek treatment. Among women who were trying to become pregnant, 9.5 % reported using some medical assistance to conceive. Among the women trying to become pregnant, 89.3 % had been trying for ?12 months and 10.7 % reported having tried >12 months. 5.2 % of those trying to become pregnant for up to a year reported use of fertility treatment, compared with 45.8 % of those trying for a year or more. Women who had previous live births were significantly more likely to use early treatment than nulliparous women (aOR = 2.4, 95 % CI = 1.5, 3.9). The use of fertility drugs and other treatments were more common than ART among recipients of early treatment (aOR = 3.7, 95 % CI = 1.7, 7.9). Some women may be receiving fertility treatment before it is clinically indicated. Instead of invasive treatment, these women may benefit from preconception counseling on folic acid, healthy prepregnancy weight and use of ovulation monitoring to time intercourse. PMID:23584927
The Women's Veterinary Leadership Development Initiative (WVLDI) began in the USA and aims 'to support women in seeking and achieving leadership, policy and decision-making positions within all areas of professional veterinary activity'. On May 30, the WVLDI chapter at the Royal Veterinary College held its inaugural conference to raise awareness of some of the barriers to women taking up leadership roles and how these might be overcome. Sabrina Marie Castro, who organised the meeting together with Rachel Lampe and Christina Kleespies, give a flavour of the proceedings. PMID:26113335
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
seeking between men, women, the general population and people who work in the health sector. Health status health management and health-care utilization for health-care professionals and patients. The proportionOriginal paper Determinants of the frequency of online health information seeking: results of a Web
Edward H. Fischer; John I. Turner
Developed and standardized a measure of attitudes toward seeking professional help for psychological disturbances. The scale reliably distinguished persons who had experienced psychotherapeutic help from those without such professional contact (p < .0001). Women's help-seeking attitudes were consistently more positive than men's (p < .0001). Factor analyses were conducted on 3 independent samples and revealed 4 dimensions of the attitude:
SYMED, Inc., developed a unique electronic medical records and information management system. The S2000 Medical Interactive Care System (MICS) incorporates both a comprehensive and interactive medical care support capability and an extensive array of digital medical reference materials in either text or high resolution graphic form. The system was designed, in cooperation with NASA, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of physician practices. The S2000 is a MS (Microsoft) Windows based software product which combines electronic forms, medical documents, records management, and features a comprehensive medical information system for medical diagnostic support and treatment. SYMED, Inc. offers access to its medical systems to all companies seeking competitive advantages.
form with you. This will assist the staff in your care and in processing your medical bills correctlyAUTHORIZATION FORM FOR MEDICAL TREATMENT* Injured Employee's Name Department Date of Injury. If you need medical treatment due to a work related injury or illness, seek treatment at either: HENRY
Ellsberg, M; Winkvist, A; Pena, R; Stenlund, H
STUDY OBJECTIVE—To describe the responses of women in León, Nicaragua to partner abuse and identify contextual factors associated with the use of certain coping mechanisms and the likelihood of permanent separation.?DESIGN—Cross sectional population-based survey.?SETTING—León, Nicaragua.?PARTICIPANTS—188 women 15-49 years of age who had experienced physical partner abuse, out of 488 women interviewed.?MAIN RESULTS—66% of women defended themselves effectively from abuse either physically or verbally. Forty one per cent of women had left home temporarily because of violence and 20% had sought help outside the home. Women experiencing severe abuse were more likely to leave or seek help, whereas women with less severe abuse were more able to defend themselves effectively. Seventy per cent of women eventually left abusive relationships. Help seeking and temporary separations increased the likelihood of a permanent separation, whereas women who defended themselves and were able to stop the violence, at least temporarily, were more likely to remain in abusive relationships.?CONCLUSIONS—Women in Nicaragua use a variety of methods in order to overcome physical partner abuse. Temporary leaving and help seeking are critical steps in the process of leaving a violent relationship. However, many women indicated that they did not receive support for their situation. More interventions are needed to help women recognise and deal with violence, as well as strengthening the community support networks available to abused women.???Keywords: partner abuse; violence; women PMID:11449011
Rangarajan, U; Kochar, M S
More women than men eventually develop hypertension in the United States due to their higher numbers and longer longevity. The white coat hypertension is also more common in women. Alcohol, obesity and oral contraceptives are important causes of rise in blood pressure among women. On the other hand, hormone replacement therapy may decrease cardiovascular mortality in the postmenopausal woman. Women with left ventricular hypertrophy are at a greater risk of death than men. Fibromuscular hyperplasia and primary aldosteronism are more common as causes of secondary hypertension in women. Nonpharmacologic therapy, such as weight reduction, exercise, salt and alcohol reduction, should always be tried prior to medical treatment of hypertension and are very useful adjunctive measures in controlling hypertension. ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are contraindicated in pregnancy and should be avoided in women with childbearing potential. Hypertension remains a major public health problem among black women. Although the antihypertensive drug therapy seems to benefit white women the least, proportionately more of them comply with their antihypertensive therapy. Hypertension is the most common chronic medical condition requiring visits to the physicians, as well as prescription medications, in the United States. The epidemiology, clinical course, response to treatment and ultimate outcome of essential hypertension may vary with gender. More women than men eventually develop hypertension in the US due to their higher numbers and longer longevity. PMID:10927986
Huong, Nguyen My; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke
This paper presents selected findings from a larger study on reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among women seeking abortion in Northern Vietnam. In particular it focuses on women's experience of RTIs within the context of their perceptions of female physiology and what women do to prevent and treat RTIs. The approach used was a combination of the quantitative and the qualitative: 748 structured interviews were undertaken before, and 701 after, abortion; and in-depth interviews were carried out with 20 women and 20 healthcare providers. Both healthcare providers and women believed that RTIs are an essential and normal part of womanhood. Reproductive tract infections were associated with laziness, being unclean and hesitance in using health facilities for help with gynecological problems. Women used various forms of self-treatment, including some that may be medically harmful. Women's preventive and treatment strategies were often supported and sometimes even promoted by healthcare providers. We assess women's strategies for RTI prevention and treatment in the context of the current Vietnamese health system and from a gender perspective. These strategies highlight inadequacies in the public healthcare system, while also pointing to important cultural paradoxes in the understanding of womanhood in contemporary Vietnam. PMID:18446557
Levison, Sandra P.; Straumanis, Joan
Describes how the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) has played a central role in sponsoring innovations in the medical and health sciences, including landmark medical projects to integrate women's health issues into the medical curriculum and to use lay people in the teaching and evaluating of medical students. (EV)
PARKER, EDWIN B.; AND OTHERS
INSTRUMENTAL INFORMATION-SEEKING BEHAVIOR AMONG ADULTS WAS STUDIED TO DETERMINE "WHAT KINDS OF PEOPLE SEEK WHAT KINDS OF INFORMATION THROUGH WHAT CHANNELS." INTERVIEWS WERE CONDUCTED WITH 1,869 ADULTS WHO WERE ASKED ABOUT (1) THEIR USE OF ADULT EDUCATION, MASS MEDIA, AND INTERPERSONAL INFORMATION SOURCES, AND (2) THEIR METHODS OF OBTAINING…
Fu, Wai-Tat; Gray, Wayne D.
Explicit information-seeking actions are needed to evaluate alternative actions in problem-solving tasks. Information-seeking costs are often traded off against the utility of information. We present three experiments that show how subjects adapt to the cost and information structures of environments in a map-navigation task. We found that…
Molnar, Christin; Fusco, Julie
The prevalence and burden of overactive bladder (OAB) in the population is remarkable. An estimated 20 million adult women in the United States have symptoms of OAB. Despite the negative impact on their health-related quality of life, many do not seek treatment. Antimuscarinic agents for OAB have long been available only with a prescription. However, the Food and Drug Administration approved an over-the-counter (OTC) oxybutynin transdermal patch for use in women in 2013, and the product recently came to market. The availability of an OTC antimuscarinic medication for OAB introduces the opportunity for females to self-treat the condition. Prior to the prescription-to-OTC switch, the efficacy and safety data for the prescription product were evaluated. Consumer research studies guided the development of the drug label. PMID:25275392
Muthoni, Ann; Miller, Ann Neville
Many women in Kenya with breast cancer symptoms do not seek medical attention until their cancer is very advanced, leading to high mortality rates and a heavy cancer burden on the nation. In this study we employed eight focus groups with low- and middle-income rural and urban Kenyan women to explore their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors concerning breast cancer and its early detection measures. Topics for discussion were derived from the components of the Health Belief Model (HBM). Findings revealed a huge divide between urban middle-income women and all other groups with respect to knowledge of breast cancer and early detection measures. In addition, women viewed breast cancer as a highly severe disease. Perceived benefits of early detection measures centered around preparing themselves for what was assumed to be inevitable death. PMID:20677038
Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Eloul, Liyam
Objectives: It has been well established that pathways to care are considerably modified by local, social and psychological characteristics as well as the doctor-patient relationship. Scant attention has been paid to the role of family advice in care-seeking. In Omani society, traditional family values and a collective mindset are the norm rather than the exception. This paper examines how family advice affects the trajectory of care seeking. Methodology: During 2006–2007, data was collected through face-to-face interviews among a randomised sample of patients seeking medical consultation in various primary health care centres in the northern region of Oman. This study enrolled a total of 493 patients. The association between the advice of family members as a reason to seek health care and other predictors was analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that the advice of family members in care-seeking is strongly associated with gender, education, history of chronic illness, previous exposure to traditional medicine, and health education, as well as the history of immunisation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the advice of family members remains a strong catalyst for care-seeking in Oman. The psychosocial factors affecting care-seeking leading to underutilisation of services or otherwise are discussed. PMID:21509309
Smith, Jeanne W.
As more women choose to reenter college or seek employment, marital and family systems undergo change. From an initial sample of 251 women who participated in a reassessment series conducted between 1973 and 1977, 24 women who had chosen to reenter college or initiate careers were selected for follow-up interviews. Women (N=12) who had divorced…
Pupovci, Hatixhe Latifi; Berisha, Violeta Lokaj; Goçi, Aferdita Uka; Gerqari, Antigona
Introduction Acne and hirsutism are common manifestations of hyperandrogenism. Aim To investigate whether or not acne is present in women with hirsutism, associated with different clinical, endocrine and ultrasonographic features. Material and methods The prospective study included 135 women with hirsutism, aged 14–46 years. We measured the levels of hormones with radioimmunoassay/immunoradiometric assay methods. Results Acne were present in 63 (47.6%) women with hirsutism. Sixty women had mild forms of acne, including: whiteheads, blackheads, papules and pustules. Only 3 women had moderate to severe acne, including nodules. In a group of women with hirsutism and acne, 6 (9.5%) were obese. In our study we found a high prevalence of androgen excess among hirsute women with acne: total testosterone was increased in 79%, free testosterone in 20.6%, androstenedione in 69.8%, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in 30.1%, 17-OH-progesterone 68.2% and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was decreased in 33.3% of women. Women with hirsutism and acne have received oral contraceptives for a year, without or in a combination with other medication. Thirty-four (53.9%) women have shown improvement in hirsutism and acne. Conclusions In this study we found a high prevalence of acne in hirsute women. The prevalence of acne was higher in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Since these women have associated endocrine changes it is important to correct them with hormonal therapy. PMID:25610349
Miller, Laura J; Ghadiali, Nafisa Y; Larusso, Elizabeth M; Wahlen, Kelly J; Avni-Barron, Orit; Mittal, Leena; Greene, Judy A
This article summarizes research pertinent to the clinical care of women with bipolar disorder. With bipolar disorder, female gender correlates with more depressive symptoms and different comorbidities. There is a high risk of symptom recurrence postpartum and possibly during perimenopause. Women with bipolar disorder have increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases, unplanned pregnancies, excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Mood stabilizing medications, specific psychotherapies, and lifestyle changes can stabilize mood and improve functioning. Pharmacologic considerations include understanding interactions between mood stabilizing medications and contraceptive agents and risks and benefits of mood stabilizing medication during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:25315819
For nurses and other health care professionals who seek to distinguish the habitus from the humerus, this online medical dictionary provided by MedicineNet will be a place to bookmark for repeat visits. The dictionary contains well-written explanations for over 16,000 medical terms, and users can go ahead and browse around, or enter keywords or phrases into the search engine that resides on the page. The site also features a â??Word of the Dayâ?ť, and visitors can also look through recent news items that address different health issues and also look over the latest entries to the dictionary. The site is rounded out by a list of the â??Top 10 Medtermsâ?ť, which is also a good way to start exploring the materials here.
Patricia D. Franklin; Heather-Lyn A Haley; Barbara C. Ingrassia; Ellen S. More; Mary E Piorun; Phyllis Pollack; Elaine Russo Martin
Purpose of program\\/study\\/research: To accelerate the advancement of women professionals at an academic medical center through creative collaboration.\\u000aMethodology (including study design, analysis, and evaluation): The UMass Medical School Women’s Faculty Committee (WFC) initiated a partnership with the medical library to compete successfully to host the traveling exhibition “Changing the Face of Medicine: Celebrating America’s Women Physicians.” Concurrent with the
Nair, Sunila G.; Adams-Deutsch, Tristan; Epstein, David H.; Shaham, Yavin
Relapse to old, unhealthy eating habits is a major problem in human dietary treatments. The mechanisms underlying this relapse are unknown. Surprisingly, until recently this clinical problem has not been systematically studied in animal models. Here, we review results from recent studies in which a reinstatement model (commonly used to study relapse to abused drugs) was employed to characterize the effect of pharmacological agents on relapse to food seeking induced by either food priming (non-contingent exposure to small amounts of food), cues previously associated with food, or injections of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine. We also address methodological issues related to the use of the reinstatement model to study relapse to food seeking, similarities and differences in mechanisms underlying reinstatement of food seeking versus drug seeking, and the degree to which the reinstatement procedure provides a suitable model for studying relapse in humans. We conclude by discussing implications for medication development and future research. We offer three tentative conclusions: The neuronal mechanisms of food-priming- and cue-induced reinstatement are likely different from those of reinstatement induced by the pharmacological stressor yohimbine.The neuronal mechanisms of reinstatement of food seeking are possibly different from those of ongoing food-reinforced operant responding.The neuronal mechanisms underlying reinstatement of food seeking overlap to some degree with those of reinstatement of drug seeking. PMID:19497349
Peeker, Iréne; Peeker, Ralph
Genuine stress incontinence is often a hidden problem in that many women suffering from genuine stress incontinence after delivery do not seek medical advice. This article reviews signs and symptoms of genuine stress incontinence that, when identified, may enable midwives to initiate or suggest treatment as needed. A comprehensive literature search was performed in relevant medical databases. The following adverse risk factors for the development of genuine stress incontinence are vaginal delivery, multiparity, and obesity, with an increased risk for women who did not actively exert pelvic floor training. Prolonged second stage of labor and heavier babies were two factors associated with an increase in the risk of damage to the pelvic floor innervation as well as genuine stress incontinence. Several conservative treatment options, such as special instructions for pelvic floor training, the use of weight cones, and electrical stimulation, are reported to alleviate genuine stress incontinence symptoms. PMID:12589306
Malls, Oct. 20-24, 8:00am-5:00pm Body Positive James River Room, Webb Center, 12:30pm-1:30 pm Love Your Activists James River Room, Webb Center, 12:30pm-1:30pm December Women's Climb Night - Winter HolidayWomen's Center Fall 2014 Women's Center Fall 2014 August Women's Equality Day Front Lobby, Webb
Ann L. Coker; Christina Derrick; Julia L. Lumpkin; Timothy E. Aldrich; Robert Oldendick
Purpose: In this population-based, random-digit-dial, cross-sectional survey, we assessed the lifetime victimization of intimate partner violence (IPV) and forced or coerced sex among 556 women and men in South Carolina, and the help-seeking behaviors of victims.Results: Among women, 25.3% experienced IPV (sexual, physical, or emotional violence) compared with 13.2% of men. Although women were significantly more likely to report physical
Basu, Debasish; Verma, Vijoy K.; Malhotra, Savita; Malhotra, Anil
SUMMARY Sensation seeking refers to a biologically based personality dimension defined as the need for varied, novel and complex sensations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experiences. Although researched worldwide for nearly three decades now, there is to date no published Indian study utilizing the concept of sensation seeking. This paper describes adaptation of the Sensation Seeking Scale for the Indian population. After due modification of the scale, its reliability, internal consistency and discriminant validity were established Norms were developed for a defined segment of general population. This study may be seen as the beginning of research in India on the subject of sensation seeking. PMID:21743627
Ferrucci, L; Benvenuti, E; Bartali, B; Bandinelli, S; Di Iorio, A; Russo, C R; Lauretani, F
One of the key paradoxes in gerontology is that, despite a higher longevity, aging women experience worse health and longer disability than men. However, there is growing evidence that changes in life-style, medical interventions and systematic screening for certain diseases may substantially reduce the excess risk of major chronic conditions and disability in aging women, and therefore improve the quality of their late life. The potentials and public health implications of prevention in older women have been recently emphasized, not only by the scientific literature, but also by the media. More and more women are turning to their primary care physicians or other health professionals to seek counselling and help on how to reduce the burden of chronic disease and disability in old age by quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, increasing physical activity, and coping with stress. Hormone replacement therapy also has a central role in this action of prevention. To maximize compliance, women should be provided a few guidelines that are easy to understand, and can be followed without interfering too much with their daily life activities. This article reviews the current literature on prevention in older women to select preventive strategies that are based on robust scientific evidence. This list of guidelines should be considered as a starting point for all those who are in charge of caring for middle-aged and older women. PMID:10902053
Mattocks, Kristin; Kroll-Desrosiers, Aimee; Zephyrin, Laurie; Katon, Jodie; Weitlauf, Julie; Bastian, Lori; Haskell, Sally; Brandt, Cynthia
Background An increasing number of young women Veterans seek reproductive health care through the VA, yet little is known regarding the provision of infertility care for this population. The VA provides a range of infertility services for Veterans including artificial insemination, but does not provide in vitro fertilization. This study will be the first to characterize infertility care among OEF/OIF/OND women Veterans using VA care. Methods We analyzed data from the OEF/OIF/OND roster file from the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC)—Contingency Tracking System Deployment file of military discharges from October 1, 2001–December 30, 2010, which includes 68,442 women Veterans between the ages of 18 and 45 who utilized VA health care after separating from military service. We examined the receipt of infertility diagnoses and care using ICD-9 and CPT codes. Results Less than 2% (n = 1323) of OEF/OIF/OND women Veterans received an infertility diagnosis during the study period. Compared with women VA users without infertility diagnosis, those with infertility diagnosis were younger, obese, black, or Hispanic, have a service-connected disability rating, a positive screen for military sexual trauma, and a mental health diagnosis. Overall, 22% of women with an infertility diagnosis received an infertility assessment or treatment. Thirty-nine percent of women Veterans receiving infertility assessment or treatment received this care from non-VA providers. Conclusions Overall, a small proportion of OEF/OIF/OND women Veterans received infertility diagnoses from the VA during the study period, and an even smaller proportion received infertility treatment. Nearly 40% of those who received infertility treatments received these treatments from non-VA providers, indicating that the VA may need to examine the training and resources needed to provide this care within the VA. Understanding women’s use of VA infertility services is an important component of understanding VA’s commitment to comprehensive medical care for women Veterans. PMID:25767979
Ward, Earlise C.; Mengesha, Maigenete; Issa, Fathiya
Little is known about older African American women’s lived experiences with depression. What does depression mean to this group? What are they doing about their depression? Unfortunately, these questions are unanswered. This study examined older African American women’s lived experiences with depression and coping behaviours. The common sense model provided the theoretical framework for present study. Thirteen community-dwelling African American women aged 60 and older (M =71 years) participated. Using qualitative phenomenological data analysis, results showed the women held beliefs about factors that can cause depression including experiences of trauma, poverty, and disempowerment. Results also indicated the women believed that depression is a normal reaction to life circumstances and did not see the need to seek professional treatment for depression. They coped by use of culturally-sanctioned behaviours including religious practices and resilience. It appears these women’s beliefs about depression and use of culturally-sanctioned coping behaviours might potentially be a barrier to seeking professional mental health care, which could result in missed opportunities for early diagnosis and treatment of depression among this group. Implications for research, educational and clinical interventions are discussed. PMID:23742034
FAU Medical Amnesty Policy Division of Student Affairs AVP/Dean of Students Office (A) Policy responsible decisions and to seek medical attention in serious or life-threatening situations that result from alcohol and/or other drug abuse. Students are also encouraged to seek help for any situation where medical
Blank, Arthur E; Fletcher, Jason; Verdecias, Niko; Garcia, Iliana; Blackstock, Oni; Cunningham, Chinazo
Access to sustained HIV medical care is critical to achieving viral suppression. However, a variety of factors may impede or facilitate retention in care or becoming virally suppressed. Though retention and suppression are often treated separately, this study examined both in a cohort of 921 HIV+ women of color who participated in eight demonstration programs across the US. For women who met the inclusion criteria, 83% (n = 587) were retained and 73% (n = 357) were virally suppressed. Average age of women retained was 40.9, and 41.9 for those virally suppressed. The majority were African American/Black or Hispanic/Latina, single, and had no children less than 18 years of age, had health insurance, a high school degree or higher, were stably housed, and unemployed. Some factors associated with retention in care were indecision about seeking HIV medical care (AOR = 0.42) and having children under the age of 18 (AOR = 0.59). Some factors associated with being virally suppressed were living with others (AOR = 0.58), current substance abuse (AOR = 0.38), and fair/poor health (AOR = 0.40). The findings suggest different processes and social mechanisms may influence retention and viral suppression. Interventions seeking to improve retention in care may require tailored program components and strategies that focus on improving viral suppression. PMID:25458205
Herk-Sukel van M. P. P
In the Netherlands, breast cancer is the most frequent (30%) of all cancers in women. In\\u000a2008, around 13,000 women were newly diagnosed with the disease. Worldwide, breast\\u000acancer accounted for almost 1.4 million new cancer patients in 20082.\\u000aIncidence rates of breast cancer have been increasing in the Netherlands since 1960.\\u000aThis increase can be explained by several factors:
Jill E. Rudd; Patricia A. Burant; Michael J. Beatty
This study investigated (1) the type of compliance?gaining strategies that battered women reported using in domestic conflicts and (2) whether these strategies related to the battered women's verbal aggression and argumentativeness. Participants in this study were 115 abused women who were seeking refuge from abusive spouses in temporary shelters for battered women. The results suggest that battered women most frequently
Gattuso, Suzy; Fullagar, Simone; Young, Ilena
In this article we examine the tensions between current Australian depression policy directions and lay beliefs about depression as constructed and circulated through popular media at a time when mental health education discourses are also promoting 'depression literacy' [Parslow & Jorm, 2002. Medical Journal of Australia, 177(7), 117-121]. Drawing upon research into articles on depression published in two women's magazines before and after the promulgation of the National Action Plan for Depression [Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care, 2000. National action plan for depression. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care-Mental Health and Special Programs Branch] we identify the cultural context of certain lay beliefs about depression as articulated through personal and celebrity stories, advice columns and resource links. The depression literacy literature privileges biomedical and psychological expertise in explaining depression and promoting help-seeking behaviour. In contrast, the magazine discourses foreground an individualising discourse of depression as a problem of self-management while also referring to biomedical expertise. They emphasise women's abilities to manage difficult life events and to build informal supportive relationships, which reinforces dominant notions of feminine identity as concerned with balancing competing gender demands. We critique the national policy on depression literacy as taking insufficient account of women's belief structures, which leads, for example, to a limited analysis of stigma. We also critique policy for not engaging sufficiently with the gendered nature of depression and its relation to social inequities, something the magazines replicate. PMID:16029771
Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...
This article defends the public funding of abortion in the Canadian health care system in light of objections by opponents of abortion that the procedure should be denied public funding. Abortion opponents point out that women terminate their pregnancies most often for social reasons, that the Canadian health care system only requires funding for medically necessary procedures, and that abortion for social reasons is not medically necessary care. I offer two lines of response. First, I briefly present an argument that characterizes abortion sought for social reasons as medically necessary care, directly contesting the anti-abortion position. Second, and more substantially, I present a justice argument that shows that even if abortion is not regarded as medically necessary care, the reasons that typically motivate women to seek abortion are sufficiently weighty from the moral perspective that it would be unjust to deny them public funding. I finish by drawing the more general conclusion that health care funding decisions should be guided by a broader concept of necessary care, rather than by a narrow concept of specifically medical necessity. A broad concept of necessary care has been debated in health care policy in the Netherlands, and I suggest that such a concept would be a more just and defensible guide for funding decisions than the concept of medical necessity. PMID:18751904
Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects) By Barbara Cone, Patricia Dorn, Dawn Konrad-Martin, Jennifer Lister, Candice Ortiz, and ... in our Audiology Information Series [PDF]. What Is Ototoxicity? Certain medications can damage the ear, resulting in ...
Nikpour, Soghra; Haghani, Hamid
Background: One of the most critical stages of women's lives is menopause and one of the aims of health for all in the 21st century is the improvement of the quality of life. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exercise on quality of life in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: This study was designed by a randomized-controlled trial. Eighty volunteer postmenopausal women who experienced the menopause period naturally and have been taking hormone replacement treatment (HRT) were divided into two groups randomly (exercise group n = 40, control group n = 40). The Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used to assess quality of life in both groups before and after 8 weeks. The exercise group participated in an exercise program, which was composed of sub-maximal aerobic exercises for an 8-week period 5 times a week. Quality of life in two groups was compared at the end of 8 weeks. Results: The results showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the exercise group for the NHP indicating an improvement in the quality of life (P < 0.05). Conclusion: We concluded that quality of life on postmenopausal women could be improved with a regular and controlled exercise program of 8 weeks. Thus, implementing appropriate educational programs to promote the quality of life in postmenopausal women is recommended. PMID:25540567
Stockman, Jamila K.; Mana-Ay, Margarita; Bertrand, Desiree; Callwood, Gloria B.; Coverston, Catherine R.; Campbell, Doris W.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.
Many victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) do not access services. Education and severity of physical violence have previously been shown to predict resource utilization, but whether these hold true specifically among women of African descent is unknown. This paper furthers our understanding of the relationship between IPV and resource use, considering socio-demographics and aspects of IPV by presenting results from a study conducted with African American and African Caribbean women in Baltimore, Maryland and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Of the 545 women included in this analysis, 95 (18%) reported emotional abuse only, 274 (50%) reported experiencing physical abuse only, and 176 (32%) had experienced both physical and sexual abuse by an intimate partner. Resource utilization was relatively low among these women, with only 57% seeking any help. Among those who did, 13% sought medical, 18% DV, 37% community and 41% criminal justice resources. Generalized linear model results indicated that older age, severe risk for lethality from IPV and PTSD were predictive of certain types of resource use, while education, insurance status, and depression had no influence. Perceived availability of police and shelter resources varied by site. Results suggest that systems that facilitate resource redress for all abused women are essential, particularly attending to younger clients who are less likely to seek help, while building awareness that women accessing resources may be at severe risk for lethality from the violence and may also be experiencing mental health complications. In addition, greater efforts should be made on the community level to raise awareness among women of available resources. PMID:23295377
Objective The impact of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy and women's coping strategies were evaluated through international focus groups. Methods Three-hour focus groups of three to five postmenopausal women who had symptoms of vaginal atrophy but had not sought treatment were conducted in Canada, Sweden, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Participants were asked about their experience with menopause and vaginal atrophy, including use of non-prescription treatments and their interactions with health-care providers. Women were classified as one of five personality types, based on their interaction with the world (individualism or belonging) and strategies for coping with stress (control or liberation). Results Vaginal atrophy was not recognized as a medical condition by focus group participants, and women had not used treatments for vaginal atrophy apart from non-prescription lubricants. Women who had discussed vaginal atrophy symptoms with their doctor felt their concerns were dismissed as a normal part of aging, and they did not receive counseling about treatment options such as low-dose estrogen therapy. Those whose coping strategy involved dominance, combatting, or individualism were more likely to seek treatment than those whose strategy involved submission, acceptance, or belonging. Women who used control to cope with menopausal changes were more likely to respond to information validated by perceived experts than were those who used a strategy of release. Conclusions Women's reactions to their vaginal atrophy varied according to personality. Use of a personality-based approach to patient counseling may encourage patients to discuss vaginal atrophy with their health-care provider and seek treatment. PMID:24083795
Background Studies in K-12 and college students show that their learning preferences have been strongly shaped by new media technologies like video games, virtual reality environments, the Internet, and social networks. However, there is no known research on medical students' game experiences or attitudes towards new media technologies in medical education. This investigation seeks to elucidate medical student experiences and attitudes, to see whether they warrant the development of new media teaching methods in medicine. Methods Medical students from two American universities participated. An anonymous, 30-item, cross-sectional survey addressed demographics, game play experience and attitudes on using new media technologies in medical education. Statistical analysis identified: 1) demographic characteristics; 2) differences between the two universities; 3) how video game play differs across gender, age, degree program and familiarity with computers; and 4) characteristics of students who play most frequently. Results 217 medical students participated. About half were female (53%). Respondents liked the idea of using technology to enhance healthcare education (98%), felt that education should make better use of new media technologies (96%), and believed that video games can have educational value (80%). A majority (77%) would use a multiplayer online healthcare simulation on their own time, provided that it helped them to accomplish an important goal. Men and women agreed that they were most inclined to use multiplayer simulations if they were fun (97%), and if they helped to develop skill in patient interactions (90%). However, there was significant gender dissonance over types of favorite games, the educational value of video games, and the desire to participate in games that realistically replicated the experience of clinical practice. Conclusions Overall, medical student respondents, including many who do not play video games, held highly favorable views about the use of video games and related new media technology in medical education. Significant gender differences in game play experience and attitudes may represent male video game design bias that stresses male cognitive aptitudes; medical educators hoping to create serious games that will appeal to both men and women must avoid this. PMID:20576125
Julie M. Albright
This was an exploratory study of sex and relationship seeking on the Internet, based on a survey of 15,246 respondents in the United States Seventy-five percent of men and 41% of women had intentionally viewed or downloaded porn. Men and gays\\/lesbians were more likely to access porn or engage in other sex-seeking behaviors online compared with straights or women. A
Chang, Chia-Pei; Chou, Chia-Lin; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Shao, Chun-Chih; Su, Irene H.; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Li-Fang; Yu, Hann-Chin
Gynecological care is vital to women’s health but utilization of gynecological care has been seldom addressed. We applied the population-based “ecology model” to demonstrate the utilization of gynecological care of women, with examples from Taiwan. We analyzed the claims data from the cohort datasets within the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Women’s utilization of gynecological care in 2009 was computed. Of 1000 women, 319 utilized gynecological care at least once, 277 visited Western medicine clinics, 193 visited physician clinics, 118 visited hospital-based outpatient clinics, 73 visited traditional Chinese medicine clinics, eight were hospitalized, four were hospitalized in an academic medical center, and four visited emergency departments. More than 90% of young and middle-aged women who sought gynecological care visited gynecologist clinics. Elderly women were less likely to utilize gynecological care in all settings of medical care, but were more likely to be attended by non-gynecologists. Young women tended to visit emergency departments. The ecology model highlighted age disparities in women’s utilization of gynecological care in various settings of medical care. Since gynecological conditions were common among women, more attention should be paid on the availability of gynecologists and continuing medical education in gynecological care for non-gynecologists to guarantee women’s health. PMID:25089773
Ainsbury, Liz; Heaney, Libby; Hodges, Vicki; Harkness, Laura; Russell, Laura
In 2007, the Women in Physics Group of the Institute of Physics initiated the Very Early Career Woman Physicist of the Year Award. The award seeks to recognise the outstanding achievements of women physicists who are embarking on a career in physics and to promote the career opportunities open to people with physics qualifications. The prize is…
Purpose: This study aims to assess whether differences exist in the barriers reported by, and in the person- and situation-centred factors related to the managerial advancement of, women with and without children. The study also seeks to examine whether having children influences womens advancement, by affecting person-situation factors such as…
1 Women's Studies WOMEN'S STUDIES Students gain knowledge of contemporary feminist theories of the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences' arts and humanities programs, women's studies examines women's lives's programs · Bachelor of Arts with a major in women's studies (http:// bulletin.gwu.edu/arts-sciences/womens-studies
Dahlstrom, Jane; Dorai-Raj, Anna; McGill, Darryl; Owen, Cathy; Tymms, Kathleen; Watson, D Ashley R
Background This study was designed to assess the motivations of senior medical clinicians to teach medical students. This understanding could improve the recruitment and retention of important clinical teachers. Methods The study group was 101 senior medical clinicians registered on a teaching list for a medical school teaching hospital (The Canberra Hospital, ACT, Australia). Their motivations to teach medical students were assessed applying Q methodology. Results Of the 75 participants, 18 (24%) were female and 57 (76%) were male. The age distribution was as follows: 30–40 years = 16 participants (21.3%), 41–55 years = 46 participants (61.3%) and >55 years = 13 participants (17.3%). Most participants (n = 48, 64%) were staff specialists and 27 (36%) were visiting medical officers. Half of the participants were internists (n = 39, 52%), 12 (16%) were surgeons, and 24 (32%) were other sub-specialists. Of the 26 senior clinicians that did not participate, two were women; 15 were visiting medical officers and 11 were staff specialists; 16 were internists, 9 were surgeons and there was one other sub-specialist. The majority of these non-participating clinicians fell in the 41–55 year age group. The participating clinicians were moderately homogenous in their responses. Factor analysis produced 4 factors: one summarising positive motivations for teaching and three capturing impediments for teaching. The main factors influencing motivation to teach medical students were intrinsic issues such as altruism, intellectual satisfaction, personal skills and truth seeking. The reasons for not teaching included no strong involvement in course design, a heavy clinical load or feeling it was a waste of time. Conclusion This study provides some insights into factors that may be utilised in the design of teaching programs that meet teacher motivations and ultimately enhance the effectiveness of the medical teaching workforce. PMID:16022738
Levander, Ximena A; Overland, Maryann K
As more women have joined the US military, there has been a shift in the overall veteran population. Those who served in the US military, especially women, have undergone experiences that will impact their overall health and wellbeing. It is therefore critical for providers to better understand US military culture and be prepared on how to ask patients about their military experience. Health care providers need to be aware of the unique medical, psychiatric, and psychosocial needs of women veterans in order to best serve this patient population. PMID:25841605
Al-Hinai, Saleh S.; Al-Busaidi, Ahmed S.; Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim H.
Objectives: This study aimed to understand why people seek medical advice abroad given the trouble and expense this entails. The types of medical problems for which treatment abroad was sought, preferred destinations and satisfaction with the treatment were explored. A secondary aim was to give feedback to stakeholders in the health care system on how to handle this issue and meet the needs of the community. Methods: 45 patients who had recently travelled abroad for treatment were asked to complete a questionnaire or were interviewed by telephone. Results: 40 questionnaires were received. 68% of the respondents were male. Orthopaedic diseases were the most common conditions leading patients to seek treatment abroad. Thailand was the most popular destination followed by India (50% and 30% respectively). 85% of respondents went abroad for treatment only, 10% for treatment and tourism and 2.5% were healthy, but travelled abroad for a checkup. Interestingly, 15% of the participants went abroad without first seeking medical care locally. Out of those initially treated in Oman, 38.2% had no specific diagnosis and 38.2% had received treatment, but it was not effective. 73% of respondents obtained information on treatment abroad from a friend. The Internet and medical tourism offices were the least used sources of information. 15% of the patients experienced complications after their treatment abroad. Conclusion: Various facts about medical treatment abroad need to be disseminated to the public. This will necessitate greater effort in public health promotion and education. PMID:22087396
Elsenberg, Michael B.
A brief overview of one Big6 stage by Mike Eisenberg, followed by articles by two exemplary Big6 teachers, Barbara Jansen and Rob Darrow, offering practical uses of the Big6 in elementary and secondary situations is presented. The two-part nature of information seeking strategies that includes brainstorming and choosing is emphasized.
Johnson, J, David
Explores context in information seeking as equivalent to the situation in which a process is immersed. Discusses contingency approaches that detail active ingredients of the situation that have specific, predictable effects. Examines major frameworks for meaning systems. Discusses how a deeper appreciation of context can enhance understanding of…
Fu, Wai-Tat; Gray, Wayne D
Explicit information-seeking actions are needed to evaluate alternative actions in problem-solving tasks. Information-seeking costs are often traded off against the utility of information. We present three experiments that show how subjects adapt to the cost and information structures of environments in a map-navigation task. We found that subjects often stabilize at suboptimal levels of performance. A Bayesian satisficing model (BSM) is proposed and implemented in the ACT-R architecture to predict information-seeking behavior. The BSM uses a local decision rule and a global Bayesian learning mechanism to decide when to stop seeking information. The model matched the human data well, suggesting that adaptation to cost and information structures can be achieved by a simple local decision rule. The local decision rule, however, often limits exploration of the environment and leads to suboptimal performance. We propose that suboptimal performance is an emergent property of the dynamic interactions between cognition and the environment. PMID:16356487
... in life. Blood pressure during childbearing years Do birth control pills cause high blood pressure? Medical researchers have found that birth control pills increase blood pressure in some women. It's ...
Beisecker, Analee E.; And Others
Administered Beisecker Locus of Authority in Decision Making: Breast Cancer survey to 67 oncologists, 94 oncology nurses, and 288 patients from women's clinic. All groups believed that physicians should have dominant role in decision making. Nurses felt that patients should have more input than patients or physicians felt they should. Physicians…
Background Interventions given to women admitted in latent or active phase of labor may influence the outcomes of labor and ameliorate complications which can affect the mother and fetus. Labour management, maternal and fetal outcomes among low risk women presenting both in latent phase and active phase of labour in Tanzania have not recently been explored. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. It was done from February to April 2013. Case notes were collected serially until the sample size was reached. A structured checklist was used to extract data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. A p < 0.05 was considered significant at 95% confidence interval. Results Five hundred case notes of low risk pregnant women were collected, half of each presented in latent phase and active phase of labour. Key interventions including augmentation with oxytocin, artificial rupture of membranes and caesarean section were significantly higher in the latent phase group than the active phase group 84(33.6%) versus 52(20.8%) p < 0.05; 96(38.6%) versus 56(22.4%) p < 0.05 and 87(34.8%) versus 60(24.0%) p < 0.05 respectively. Spontaneous vertex delivery was higher among pregnant women admitted initially in active phase than in latent phase groups 180(72.0%), versus 153(61.2%) p > 0.01). There were more women in the active phase group who sustained genital tract tear and postpartum haemorrhage than in the latent phase group 101(18.6%), versus 38(15.6%) p < 0.01 and 46(18.4%), versus 17(6.6%) p < 0.05 respectively. Conclusions Pregnant women admitted at BMC in latent phase of labour are subjected to more obstetric interventions than those admitted in the active phase. There is need to produce guidelines on management of women admitted in latent phase of labour at BMC to reduce the risk of unnecessary interventions. PMID:24521301
Al-Natour, Sahar H
The media-fuelled obsession with beauty in modern society has led more women to seek elective cosmetic procedures to meet the portrayed ideals of beauty in different cultures. This study gives insights into incentives and desires to undergo cosmetic procedures in a conservative society with strict religious practices where women are veiled. Questionnaire data were obtained from 509 Saudi women who responded to a survey distributed randomly to a sample of Saudi women aged 17 to 72 years. At least 1 elective cosmetic procedure was performed in 42% of the women, of whom 77.8% wore a veil. Another 33% considered having a procedure. The motives for seeking a cosmetic procedure were to improve self-esteem in 83.7%, attract a husband in 63.3%, or prevent a husband from seeking another wife in 36.2%. The decision to seek a procedure was affected by the media, with high peer influence. Motivation for elective cosmetic procedures in Saudi women is influenced by a combination of emotional and cultural factors, level of education, marital status, and religious beliefs. The veil is not an impediment for seeking such procedures. The limitation of the study was missing data analysis as some items in the questionnaire were completed inaccurately or left unanswered. PMID:25134311
This paper is concerned with aspects of post-secondary education of women in physics in the Caribbean, focusing more specifically on the main university campuses in Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, and Barbados. Within this framework, there are three institutions of tertiary education that provide for undergraduate and post-graduate studies in physics. On average, the bachelor-level graduating class is roughly 40% female. A great majority of these students go on to seek master's degrees in engineering. Among those enrolled in graduate programs featuring research in astronomy, materials science, environmental physics, medical physics, and quantum physics, 58% are female. Significant numbers of women from the selected countries and from the Caribbean region are engaged in bachelor and doctoral programs in physics abroad, but no formal survey is available to provide the relevant quantitative information. However, an attempt will be made to quantify this component. Based in part on personal experience, a comparison will be made between domestic and foreign educational pathways, in terms of access to resources, level of research training, and occupational opportunities following graduation.
Fitzgerald, C.; Zimon, A. E.; Jones, E. E.
Reproductive potential in women declines with age. Age-related changes in the ovary account for most of this loss of reproductive function. Oocytes, all of which are present at birth, decline in number and quality with age. The endocrine function of the ovary also declines with age, and the ovary becomes unable to sustain its normal function in the neuroendocrine axis. The neuroendocrine axis may be further affected by primary changes occurring in the hypothalamus and pituitary during aging, although this has not been established in humans. Aging also affects the function of the uterus as the endometrium loses its ability to support implantation and growth of an embryo. Diminished uterine function during aging may be due to changes in the uterine vasculature or to changes in the hormone-dependent development of the endometrium. Finally, aging increases a woman's risk of developing medical, gynecologic or obstetric conditions that may impair her fertility. Knowledge of these affects of aging on a woman's reproductive function is essential to advise and treat the growing number of women seeking pregnancy at advanced reproductive age. PMID:10527364
Bruce J. Trock
Summary This review of published data on the epidemiology, pathology, and molecular biology of breast cancer in African American women seeks to identify how the etiology and presentation of the disease differ from those in white women. The crossover from higher to lower age-specific incidence rates in African American women at age 45 cannot be explained by current data on
Literature on women's roles suggests that those who don't marry are likely to feel like failures in the realms of relationships, work and independence. The clinic population studied found that 52% of the clientele under age 30 were single women. The research reported was aimed at better understanding this group of help-seeking women, and at…
Townsend, Barbara K.; Twombly, Susan B.
Community colleges have a high percentage of women students and a higher percentage of women faculty and administrators than do four-year colleges. Yet the extent to which the community college offers an equitable work and study site for women is not clear. The authors seek to determine this by applying to existing literature an adaptation of…
Clifford, E; Clifford, M; Georgiade, N G
Information is presented from a clinical study of 65 women and a psychometric study of 85 women. All had had mastectomies because of breast cancer and were reconstruction patients at Duke Hospital. Women seeking breast reconstruction did not exhibit characterological problems. Relatively few were in psychiatric treatment, and previous research had established the presence of positive rather than negative self-images. The marriages of women seeking this surgical procedure were positively and the women viewed their marriages as a chief source of support. Considerable satisfaction was expressed about husbands being supportive, although husbands were also viewed as poor listeners and, at times, as unable to communicate effectively. Most women were satisfied with various aspects of their sexual lives. A small percentage of the women reported problematic marriages. Various factors, related to the presence of conflict in the marriage and the ability of the husband to understand his wife, may account for the distress evidenced in these marriages. Such factors, of course, are present in any problematic marriage; it remains to be demonstrated whether these problems were caused or exacerbated by the woman's mastectomy and decision to seek breast reconstruction. PMID:7458173
It is estimated that 80% of the people involved in grassroots environmental protection advocacy in the US are women. One such self-described "average" woman became an activist upon learning that her drinking water was contaminated with uranium leaking from a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility. When DOE officials tried to brush off her concerns and those of her neighbors at a hearing, she presented them with a jar of water from her kitchen tap and challenged them to drink it. They refused. Thus began a long, but ultimately successful, struggle to shut down the offending facility. The efforts of these US women are mirrored all over the world as women have embraced environmental justice as one of their causes. At recent UN conferences, activists have challenged conventional strategies of economic development as being incompatible with equity and environmental sustainability. They have also established that "women's rights are human rights" and added domestic violence and rape to the human rights agenda. The recent International Conference on Population and Development revolved around women's health and rights issues. Throughout the world, women activists have challenged and changed the social dynamics of families, households, communities, and societies in general. One reason for the increased success of women's groups is that they have adopted the tactics of mass communication, including the use of computers, radio, and film. Although the various efforts are arising from diverse circumstances, they have some things in common such as finding personal experience to be a major impetus for action, realizing the self-reinforcing empowering nature of advocacy work, breaking the silence surrounding culturally taboo topics, and challenging the status quo. Such challenges often lead to political backlash or to counter measures taken by fundamentalist religious groups who link improvements in women's status with societal ills. Despite these challenges, the global women's movement continues to grow and to seek democracy and social justice. PMID:12290007
...Enhanced Collection of Relevant Data and Statistics Relating to Women Presidential Documents...Enhanced Collection of Relevant Data and Statistics Relating to Women Memorandum for...identify and to seek to fill in gaps in statistics and improve survey methodology...
J. B. Antoine Maintz; Petra A. Van Den Elsen; Max A. Viergever
Ridge-like structures in digital images may be extracted by convolving the images with deriva- tives of Gaussians. The choice of the convolution operator and of the parameters involved defines a specific ridge image. In this paper, various ridge measures related to isophote curvature are con- structed, reviewed, and evaluated with respect to their usability in CT\\/MRI matching of human brain
Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Eloul, Liyam
Objectives: Despite its impact on health policy, the relationship between geographical proximity and health care seeking has received scant attention in the medical literature. This paper aims to evaluate the relationship between geographic proximity and health care usage behaviour among patients seeking medical consultation in the northern region of Oman. Methods: During 2006–2007, data was collected via face-to-face interviews among 428 randomized patients seeking medical consultation in various primary health care centres in the northern region of Oman. The association between geographical proximity as a reason to seek health care and other predictors was also analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that preference for geographical proximity as a reason for seeking health care is strongly associated with marital status, previous exposure to traditional medicine and health education, as well as history of immunisation. Conclusion: This finding supports the view from elsewhere that geographical proximity remains a strong catalyst for care seeking in Oman. The psychosocial factors affecting care seeking are discussed. PMID:21748077
Christin-Maitre, S; Bouchard, P; Spitz, I M
This review focuses on advances in the medical termination of pregnancy during the early period of the first trimester, when most abortions are performed. The drugs are used to terminate pregnancy act by inhibiting the synthesis of progesterone, inducing myometrial contractions, antagonizing the action of progesterone, or inhibiting trophoblast development. Among the drugs used in medical abortion are epostane, prostaglandins (including misoprostol and gameprost), combined methotrexate and misoprostol, tamoxifen-misoprostol regimen, mifepristone and prostaglandin, and antiprogestin and prostaglandins. The efficacy, side effects, and contraindications of these drugs in the medical termination of pregnancy are discussed. In general, medical abortion is associated with higher rates of prolonged bleeding, nausea, vomiting, and pain as compared to surgical abortion. However, medical termination of pregnancy has a high rate of efficacy in women with early pregnancies. In addition, medical abortion is safe and acceptable to women, and it does not require anesthesia. Lastly, women who choose medical abortion must have access to a center where suction curettage is available, should heavy bleeding occur and blood transfusion is required. PMID:10738054
by any of the foregoing parties seeking to secure me medical assistance: EMERGENCY CONTACT INFORMATION: _________________________________________________________________________ HEALTH INSURANCE INFORMATION Name of Health Insurance Company: ___________________________________________________________________ MEDICAL HEALTH INFORMATION Current Medication I Am Taking
Background The current conflict in Syria continues to displace thousands to neighboring countries, including Lebanon. Information is needed to provide adequate health and related services particularly to women in this displaced population. Methods We conducted a needs assessment in Lebanon (June-August 2012), administering a cross-sectional survey in six health clinics. Information was collected on reproductive and general health status, conflict violence, stress, and help-seeking behaviors of displaced Syrian women. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine associations between exposure to conflict violence, stress, and reproductive health outcomes. Results We interviewed 452 Syrian refugee women ages 18–45 who had been in Lebanon for an average of 5.1 (± 3.7) months. Reported gynecologic conditions were common, including: menstrual irregularity, 53.5%; severe pelvic pain, 51.6%; and reproductive tract infections, 53.3%. Among the pregnancy subset (n?=?74), 39.5% of currently pregnant women experienced complications and 36.8% of those who completed pregnancies experienced delivery/abortion complications. Adverse birth outcomes included: low birthweight, 10.5%; preterm delivery, 26.5%; and infant mortality, 2.9%. Of women who experienced conflict-related violence (30.8%) and non-partner sexual violence (3.1%), the majority did not seek medical care (64.6%). Conflict violence and stress score was significantly associated with reported gynecologic conditions, and stress score was found to mediate the relationship between exposure to conflict violence and self-rated health. Conclusions This study contributes to the understanding of experience of conflict violence among women, stress, and reproductive health needs. Findings demonstrate the need for better targeting of reproductive health services in refugee settings, as well as referral to psychosocial services for survivors of violence. PMID:24552142
Cindy Davis; Kathleen Darby; Wendy Likes; John Bell
Patient navigation (PN) is a new initiative in health care aimed at reducing disparities by assisting patients in overcoming barriers within the health care system. As PN programs grow around the country, it is important to consult the key stakeholders in the development of these programs. The purpose of this qualitative study was to discuss the needs of medically underserved
PsychiatricMedical Comorbidity The Psychiatric-Medical Comorbidity section will focus on the prevalence and impact of psychiatric disorders in patients with chronic medical illness as well as the prevalence and impact of medical disorders in patients with chronic psychiatric illness. Association between obesity and depression in middle-aged women
Gregory E. Simon; Evette J. Ludman; Jennifer A. Linde; Belinda H. Operskalski; Laura Ichikawa; Paul Rohde; Emily A. Finch; Robert W. Jeffery
Objective: Evaluate the association between obesity and depression among middle-aged women. Methods: A total of 4641 female health plan enrollees aged 40-65 years completed a structured telephone interview including self-reported height and weight, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) assessment of depression; a brief measure of rate was 62%. Results: Prevalence of moderate or severe depression increased from 6.5% among those
The mission of the Association for Women in Mathematics (AWM) is "to encourage women and girls to study and to have active careers in the mathematical sciences, and to promote equal opportunity and the equal treatment of women and girls in the mathematical sciences." Visitors will find links to selected back issues of the AWM newsletter, abstracts of lectures, awards and award-winning essays, and further online resources for educators, students, and professionals. There are also a number of biographies of individual women who have made lasting impacts on the sciences and in mathematics. This is an excellent site for educators and administrators who seek to encourage the participation of women and girls in math and science.
Mangan, Cheryl; Sanci, Lena
Background Young people regularly use online services to seek help and look for information about mental health problems. Yet little is known about the effects that online services have on mental health and whether these services facilitate help-seeking in young people. Objective This systematic review investigates the effectiveness of online services in facilitating mental health help-seeking in young people. Methods Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, literature searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane library. Out of 608 publications identified, 18 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria of investigating online mental health services and help-seeking in young people aged 14-25 years. Results Two qualitative, 12 cross-sectional, one quasi-experimental, and three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were reviewed. There was no change in help-seeking behavior found in the RCTs, while the quasi-experimental study found a slight but significant increase in help-seeking. The cross-sectional studies reported that online services facilitated seeking help from a professional source for an average of 35% of users. The majority of the studies included small sample sizes and a high proportion of young women. Help-seeking was often a secondary outcome, with only 22% (4/18) of studies using adequate measures of help-seeking. The majority of studies identified in this review were of low quality and likely to be biased. Across all studies, young people regularly used and were generally satisfied with online mental health resources. Facilitators and barriers to help-seeking were also identified. Conclusions Few studies examine the effects of online services on mental health help-seeking. Further research is needed to determine whether online mental health services effectively facilitate help-seeking for young people. PMID:24594922
Background Financial reform aims to overcome the problems of financial barriers and utilization of health services. However, it is unclear whether financial reforms or health insurance can reduce delays and/or barriers or if there are still other important obstacles for preventing pregnant women accessing delivery care. This study aimed to assess the effect of health insurance and other factors on delivery care utilization and the perception of delays and barriers to delivery care among women living in Songkhla province, Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Women who delivered at hospital or home in the areas of participating hospitals in four districts were interviewed at 24- or 48-hours postpartum. The impact of health insurance and other factors on outcomes of interest was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Of 2,847 women, 2,822 delivered at a hospital and 25 at home, of which 80% and 40% had health insurance for delivery care, respectively. Muslims, low educated women, those who thought they could not use health insurance for delivery care and those less willing to seek care at their delivery place were more likely to give birth at home. Perception of delays to seeking care, reaching a hospital and receiving care was reduced in women insured by civil servant medical benefit. Women insured by universal coverage and social security perceived a lower delay in reaching a hospital but a higher delay in receiving care. Low education, unwillingness to seek care, out-of-pocket payment, worry about cost of delivery care, transportation difficulties, low perception of receiving good care or a perception of being treated badly were also associated with delays and barriers to health care. Almost all (93%) agreed that health insurance could reduce financial barriers for accessing services. However, having health insurance influenced them to seek care, reach a hospital, and receive care quickly in 50%, 32%, and 23% of the women, respectively. Conclusions Health insurance has a significant impact on perceived delays and barriers, but not place of delivery. Socio-economic determinants continue to play an important role for place of delivery and perceived delays and barriers. PMID:21711550
Satisfaction and health-related quality of life in women with heavy menstrual bleeding; results from a non-interventional trial of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or conventional medical therapy
Xu, Ling; Lee, Byung Seok; Asif, Shaheena; Kraemer, Peter; Inki, Pirjo
Purpose To evaluate the patient satisfaction and health related quality of life (HRQoL) for levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) versus conventional medical treatments ([CMTs] combined oral contraceptives, oral progestins, and antifibrinolytics, alone or in combination) in Asian women with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Patients and methods A total of 647 patients diagnosed with HMB were recruited to this non-interventional study from the eight participating countries in Asia. Patient satisfaction was recorded at the last visit (at 12 months or premature discontinuation). At each visit (at 3, 6, and 12 months), patients completed the menorrhagia multi-attribute scale (MMAS) to assess HRQoL. Results A total of 83.5% of patients on the LNG-IUS were “very satisfied” or at least “satisfied” with the therapeutic effect of HMB treatment, compared with 59.2% of patients with CMTs (P<0.05). The mean (± standard deviation) MMAS score increased from 41.4±24.5 to 87.7±21.4 in the LNG-IUS arm, and from 44.1±24.9 to 73.1±25.3 in the CMTs arm. This increase was significantly higher in patients on the LNG-IUS, as compared with those on CMTs (P<0.05). The improvement in HRQoL in both treatment groups correlated with the body mass index of the patient, with larger improvement obtained in women with a higher body mass index. Conclusion The majority of women using the LNG-IUS or CMTs for HMB were satisfied with their treatment, and both treatment modalities were associated with significant improvements in HRQoL over time. The improvement was greater with the LNG-IUS, compared with CMTs. PMID:24920936
JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HEALTH Volume 17, Number 7, 2008 © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2007.0582 Why Do Faculty Leave? Reasons for Attrition of Women and Minority Faculty from a Medical School: Four on the Status of Women and Minorities, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Medical College
Amanda Spink; Andrew Koricich; B. J. Jansen; Charles Cole
Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior. Seeking sexually related information on the Internet takes many forms and channels, includ- ing chat rooms discussions, accessing Websites or searching Web search engines for sexual materials. The study of sexual Web queries provides insight into sexually-related information- seeking behavior, of value to Web users and providers alike. We
Albright, Julie M
This was an exploratory study of sex and relationship seeking on the Internet, based on a survey of 15,246 respondents in the United States Seventy-five percent of men and 41% of women had intentionally viewed or downloaded porn. Men and gays/lesbians were more likely to access porn or engage in other sex-seeking behaviors online compared with straights or women. A symmetrical relationship was revealed between men and women as a result of viewing pornography, with women reporting more negative consequences, including lowered body image, partner critical of their body, increased pressure to perform acts seen in pornographic films, and less actual sex, while men reported being more critical of their partners' body and less interested in actual sex. Married and divorced were more likely than singles to go online seeking a serious relationship. Only 2% of users met the threshold of compulsive use established by previous studies. PMID:18569538
Curtis, Peter J.; Sampson, Mike; Potter, John; Dhatariya, Ketan; Kroon, Paul A.; Cassidy, Aedín
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of dietary flavonoids on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes on established statin and hypoglycemic therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Despite being medicated, patients with type 2 diabetes have elevated CVD risk, particularly postmenopausal women. Although dietary flavonoids have been shown to reduce CVD risk factors in healthy participants, no long-term trials have examined the additional benefits of flavonoids to CVD risk in medicated postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a parallel-design, placebo-controlled trial with type 2 diabetic patients randomized to consume 27 g/day (split dose) flavonoid-enriched chocolate (containing 850 mg flavan-3-ols [90 mg epicatechin] and 100 mg isoflavones [aglycone equivalents)]/day) or matched placebo for 1 year. RESULTS Ninety-three patients completed the trial, and adherence was high (flavonoid 91.3%; placebo 91.6%). Compared with the placebo group, the combined flavonoid intervention resulted in a significant reduction in estimated peripheral insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] ?0.3 ± 0.2; P = 0.004) and improvement in insulin sensitivity (quantitative insulin sensitivity index [QUICKI] 0.003 ± 0.00; P = 0.04) as a result of a significant decrease in insulin levels (?0.8 ± 0.5 mU/L; P = 0.02). Significant reductions in total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (?0.2 ± 0.1; P = 0.01) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) (?0.1 ± 0.1 mmol/L; P = 0.04) were also observed. Estimated 10-year total coronary heart disease risk (derived from UK Prospective Diabetes Study algorithm) was attenuated after flavonoid intervention (flavonoid +0.1 ± 0.3 vs. placebo 1.1 ± 0.3; P = 0.02). No effect on blood pressure, HbA1c, or glucose was observed. CONCLUSIONS One-year intervention with flavan-3-ols and isoflavones improved biomarkers of CVD risk, highlighting the additional benefit of flavonoids to standard drug therapy in managing CVD risk in postmenopausal type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:22250063
Sherry Robinson; Penn State York
ABSTRACT This study seeks to determine if there are significant differences between women- owned,businesses in rural and non-rural areas by comparing ,the proportion of total businesses owned by women, the sales dollars earned by women employers and non- employers, and the ratio of women-owned businesses to the female population. The proportion of total businesses owned,by women and the ratio women-owned
Alwan, N; Al Attar, W; Eliessa, R; Al-Madfaie, Z; Nedal, F
This study evaluated the knowledge and practice of breast self-examination (BSE), among a sample of educated Iraqi women. The study sample comprised 858 women aged 18-62 years affiliated to 6 major Iraqi universities, categorized according to occupation as teaching staff (11.5%), administrative staff (18.0%) and students (70.5%). Data were collected by a self-completed questionnaire. In all, 93.9% of the women had heard about BSE, the main source of information was television (39.9%), doctors (18.4%) and the awareness campaign of the Iraqi National Breast Cancer Research Programme (11.6%). Only 53.9% of the women practised BSE; the most common excuses by those that did not were lack of knowledge of the significance of BSE (42.0%) and lack of confidence in their ability to perform BSE (39.5%). Just over 38% did not seek medical advice if they experienced signs/symptoms of breast disease, attributing that to reasons of timidity, lack of time or fear of discovering cancer. The majority (88%) of the women were willing to instruct others in BSE (aftertraining), 40% of whom were interested in collaborating with the National Breast Cancer Awareness Programme in Iraq. PMID:22891523
O’Neil, Deborah A.; Hopkins, Margaret M.
In this Perspective article we propose that in order to pave the way for women’s career advancement into the senior ranks of organizations, attention must be directed at the systemic norms and structures that drive the gendered nature of the workplace. A focus on individual level issues, i.e., women lacking confidence and women opting out, detracts from the work that must be done at the organizational level in order to dismantle the system of pervasive, structural disadvantage facing women seeking to advance to senior leadership positions.
Hall, Roberta M.; Sandler, Bernice Resnick
Guidelines are presented to help institutions ensure women's full participation in campus-based and sponsored merit awards and prizes programs. Over 100 recommendations are designed to: explain why such awards and prizes can be particularly important for women students and women faculty; identify overt and inadvertent barriers to women's full…
Davis, James E., Ed.; Davis, Hazel K., Ed.
The 16 articles in this journal issue deal with women's studies within the English curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include (1) the feminist challenge to the male-centered curriculum in higher education; (2) the women's movement and women's studies; (3) connotations of the word "girl"; (4) women in English education; (5) the new…
The early implicit assumptions that industrialization or, generally, modernization should automatically improve the condition of women have been challenged more and more by research and statistical data. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the theory which held that the cultural assimilation of ethnic groups of Indian and African descent into the national Hispanic or Portuguese cultures implied an improvement in the condition of women has been challenged through ethnographic and historical research. Women in closed corporate communities may have higher status, greater participation in authority, and more support from their children than those in open mestizo communities, where excessive alcohol consumption and abusive sexual relations form an integral part of the psychosocial complex of "machismo." New research has dealt with the forced integration of black women and Indian women, as concubines of the dominant white men, as a mechanism of "mestizaje," i.e., mixing of the population, against which women had no legal or "de facto" defense. Such abuse of women, masked by racial and cultural prejudice, continues in many backward rural areas in Latin America. In discussions of the peasantry and of rural development in Latin America and the Caribbean, women had been largely ignored because agriculture was conceptualized as an exclusively male activity. This androcentric view is reflected in census categories that make the component of women's labor in agriculture invisible or unimportant. Consequently, the statistical percentages have always been unrealistically low in most countries. Detailed observations and surveys conducted during the last decade have shown, to the contrary, that peasant women work longer hours than men and are more liable to increase their time and work load to offset pauperization. The research of Deere and Leon (Colombia) as well as that of other women in different countries of the region confirms that women's subordination precedes capitalism and is further used by this system of production for its only ends. Priorities in the Western feminist movements in the 1970s have been equal pay for equal work and sexual and psychological autonomy. In the 3rd world the priorities have been the right to adequate employment and to primary services such as schools, drinking water, housing, and medical services. The main strategy for women in Latin America and the Caribbean has been to participate alongside men in political movements seeking to attain national sovereignty or to challenge economic inequalities, both internally and internationally, as a precondition to the setting up of women's demands as a gender group. The research makes it clear that dependent capitalist development brings an added burden of poverty and subordination to women. Strategies to advance women must be assessed within their particular context. PMID:12279573
Digital Women strives to be a full-service portal for working women in all varieties of business. The site offers a huge collection of resources, including informative articles, manuals, free software, Web tools, and advice, as well as ten free newsletters and mailing lists. Digital Women also provides a place for business women to network, including information about the Digital Women 2000 Annual International Net-Together, which will take place on Vancouver Island September 29-October 1, 2000.
MEDICAL TREATMENT OF MINOR STUDENTS MSU Student Health Services provides medical care for students refers students for specialty services with other physicians within the MSU HealthTeam (medical school generally seek parental consent prior to providing that treatment. (In certain circumstances, like medical
With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a clinic shows that practical thinking linked to advanced technology can greatly improve office efficiency. PMID:21233899
Tozer, Erinn E.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.
This study examined the potential influence of religiosity, sexual orientation identity development, and internalized homonegativity on the propensity to seek conversion therapy to change one's sexual orientation. An Internet sample of 76 women and 130 men who were gay-identified, lesbian-identified, same-sex attracted, and "questioning" was…
Anastasi, Marie-Christine; Sawyer, Robin G.; Pinciaro, Paul J.
Investigated characteristics of students voluntarily seeking human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing at a university health center. Data from student surveys indicated that: 59% were women; reported rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases were low; nearly one-third had had previous HIV testing; 40% reported…
Karen M Gil; Amber M Somerville; Sara Cichowski; Jennifer L Savitski
BACKGROUND: Current research focuses on three variables in evaluating the impact of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) on daily living: severity of incontinence, distress or bother resulting from incontinence, and effect on health related quality of life (HRQoL). Understanding the impact of these variables is important as they are the driving force behind women seeking surgical treatment. Given the importance of
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
seeking between men, women, the general population and people who work in the health sector. Health status changed health management and health-care utilization for health-care professionals and patients desire in patients to assume more responsibilities in the management of their health. Their perception
Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth; Meyer, Silke; Akers, Caroline
Given the far-reaching social, personal, and economic costs of crime and violence, as well as the lasting health effects, understanding how women respond to domestic violence and the types of help sought are critical in addressing intimate partner violence. We use a nationally representative dataset (Canadian General Social Survey, Personal Risk, 1999) to examine the help-seeking behaviors of female intimate partner violence victims (N = 250). Although victims of violent crime often do not call the police, many victims, particularly women who have been battered by their partner rely on family, friends, social service, and mental health interventions in dealing with the consequences of violent crime. We examine the role of income, education, and employment status in shaping women's decisions to seek help, and we treat these economic variables as symbolic and relative statuses as compared to male partners. Although family violence researchers have conceptualized the association between economic variables and the dynamics of intimate partner violence with respect to the structural dimensions of sociodemographic factors, feminist researchers connect economic power to family dynamics. Drawing on these literatures, we tap the power in marital and cohabiting relationships, rather than treating these variables as simply socioeconomic resources. Controlling for other relevant variables we estimate a series of multivariate models to examine the relationship between status compatibilities and help-seeking from both formal and informal sources. We find that status incompatibilities between partners that favor women increase the likelihood of seeking support in dealing with the impact of violence. PMID:22946106
C. Cypowyj; F. Eisinger; M. Morin; A. Mogoutov; H. Sobol; C. Julian-Reynier
Objectives: The first aim of this study was to investigate the information-seeking behaviour (ISB) of women attending cancer genetic consultations at which the possibility of BRCA testing is considered. We focused here specifically on ISB apart from the cancer genetic consultation, i.e. on what complementary sources of information about genetic testing were consulted and what factors were involved in this
Swan, Suzanne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.
Studies have found high rates of help seeking among domestic violence victims. However, little research has investigated the help-seeking patterns of women who use violence (many of whom are also abused). Understanding the resources utilized by women who are violent toward their partners may aid in designing interventions that will reduce the…
Gill, Sharon K
Coronary artery disease and stroke predominantly affect older women as opposed to younger women, but the risk factors that contribute to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk often start in young women. Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with migraine, and who use oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have short-term increases in thrombotic complications that can result in coronary events or stroke. Attention should be focused on risk reduction in women of all ages. Screening for and discussing diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, migraine, PCOS, and pregnancy complication history and discussing the pros and cons of hormone and statin medications are part of reducing cardiovascular risk for women. PMID:25841599
Maki, K C; Geohas, J G; Dicklin, M R; Huebner, M; Udani, J K
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-center trial investigated the lipid-altering effects of a medical food (PDL-0101) providing 1.8g/d eicosapentaenoic acid; 12mg/d astaxanthin, a marine algae-derived carotenoid; and 100mg/d tocopherol-free gamma/delta tocotrienols enriched with geranylgeraniol, extracted from annatto, on triacylglycerols (TAG), other lipoprotein lipids, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in 102 subjects with TAG 150-499mg/dL (1.69-5.63mmol/L) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) ?70mg/dL (1.81mmol/L). Compared to placebo, after eight weeks of treatment, PDL-0101 significantly reduced median TAG (-9.5% vs. 10.6%, p<0.001), while not significantly altering mean LDL-C (-3.0% vs. -8.0% for PDL-0101 and placebo, respectively, p=0.071), mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (~3% decrease in both groups, p=0.732), or median oxidized LDL concentrations (5% vs. -5% for PDL-0101 and placebo, respectively, p=0.112). These results demonstrate that PDL-0101 is an effective medical food for the management of elevated TAG. PMID:26076828
Siena, K P
This article examines medical advertisements for venereal disease treatment from late Stuart London. It explores how privacy issues influenced the services provided by early modern venereologists. It shows that practitioners who sought to get ahead in the competitive field of venereology began to offer private treatment at a time when other physicians seem not to have provided that service. Therefore, market forces such as patient demand had an innovatory effect on early modern medical ethics. The same dynamic that caused venereal patients to seek privacy also led them to demand a practitioner of their own sex. Infected women clearly wished to be treated by a female practitioner. Many male practitioners forged partnerships with women in order to attract female clientele. These partnerships were frequently based on familial connections, most often between husband and wife. The presence of widespread VD in London helped sustain a sizable number of female practitioners who specialized in venereology. PMID:11423681
Leone, Janel M.; Johnson, Michael P.; Cohan, Catherine L.
Research indicates that two major forms of partner violence exist, intimate terrorism (IT) and situational couple violence (SCV). The current study (N=389) used a subgroup of women who responded to the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study to examine whether type of violence experienced is differentially related to formal (e.g., police, medical…
... medlineplus/news/fullstory_152381.html Women Hospitalized for Asthma More Often Than Men Female hormones, differences in ... medical treatment in the emergency room for an asthma attack, women are much more likely than men ...
Walsworth, Matthew K; Doukas, William C; Murphy, Kevin P; Bimson, William; Mielcarek, Billie J; Michener, Lori A
Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal complaint. Patients with shoulder pain who are seeking care in a military tertiary setting in the United States have not been previously described. This study describes the clinical features of 55 patients (47 men, 8 women) undergoing shoulder surgery at a tertiary care military medical center. Patients presenting to a military medical center are different than other previously described samples in the literature. Specifically, the patients in this study had a known mechanism of injury (n = 42; 76%), multiple structures involved (n = 46; 84%) and a high prevalence of glenoid labral involvement (n = 44; 80%). Further research is needed to determine if these patient characteristics identified in this study warrant different management strategies and resource utilization in both the tertiary care center, and in the primary care center where these patients are typically seen before referral to a tertiary care center. PMID:19585780
I argue that the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), as an organization and through its individual members, can and should be a far greater ally in the prevention of violence against women. Specifically, I argue that we need to pay attention to obstetrical practices that inadvertently contribute to the problem of violence against women. While intimate partner violence is a complex phenomenon, I focus on the coercive control of women and adherence to oppressive gender norms. Using physician response to alcohol use during pregnancy and court-ordered medical treatment as examples, I show how some obstetrical practices mirror the attitudes of abusive men insofar as they try to coercively control women's behavior through manipulation and violence. To be greater allies in the prevention of violence against women, obstetricians should stop participating in practices that inadvertently perpetuate violence against women. PMID:22146035
Belinda F. Morrison; Arthur L. Burnett
\\u000a Priapism is a rare disorder, typified by a persistent penile erection, which is usually painful. Though rare, it is seen commonly\\u000a in certain patient populations, e.g. sickle-cell disease. Priapism is a true urological emergency. Unfortunately, due to the\\u000a general rarity of the disorder, many patients delay in seeking medical attention and medical practitioners may also be delayed\\u000a in initiation of
Helitzer, Deborah L.; Newbill, Sharon L.; Morahan, Page S.; Magrane, Diane; Cardinali, Gina; Wu, Chih-Chieh; Chang, Shine
Purpose The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and Drexel University College of Medicine have designed and implemented national career development programs (CDPs) to help women faculty acquire and strengthen skills needed for success in academic medicine. The authors hypothesized that skills women acquired in CDPs would vary by career stage and program attended. Method In 2011, the authors surveyed a national cohort of 2,779 women listed in the AAMC Faculty Roster who also attended one of three CDPs (Early- and Mid-Career Women in Medicine Seminars, and/or Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine) between 1988 and 2010 to examine their characteristics and CDP experiences. Participants indicated from a list of 16 skills whether each skill was newly acquired, improved, or not improved as a result of their program participation. Results Of 2537 eligible CDP women, 942 clicked on the link in an invitation e-mail and 879 (35%) completed the survey. Respondents were representative of women faculty in academic medicine. Participants rated the CDPs highly. Almost all reported gaining and/or improving skills from the CDP. Four skills predominated across all three programs: interpersonal skills, leadership, negotiation, and networking. The skills that attendees endorsed differed by respondents’ career stages, more so than by program attended. Conclusions Women participants perceived varying skills gained or improved from their attendance at the CDPs. Determining ways in which CDPs can support women’s advancement in academic medicine requires a deeper understanding of what participants seek from CDPs and how they use program content to advance their careers. PMID:24871241
Background Group B Streptococcus (GBS) serotype (Ia, Ib, II-IX) correlates with pathogen virulence and clinical prognosis. Epidemiological studies of seroprevalence are an important metric for determining the proportion of serotypes in a given population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of individual GBS serotypes at Madigan Healthcare System (Madigan), the largest military tertiary healthcare facility in the Pacific Northwestern United States, and to compare seroprevalences with international locations. Methods To determine serotype distribution at Madigan, we obtained GBS isolates from standard-of-care anogenital swabs from 207 women of indeterminate gravidity between ages 18-40 during a five month interval. Serotype was determined using a recently described molecular method of polymerase chain reaction by capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) genes associated with pathogen virulence. Results Serotypes Ia, III, and V were the most prevalent (28%, 27%, and 17%, respectively). A systematic review of global GBS seroprevalence, meta-analysis, and statistical comparison revealed strikingly similar serodistibution at Madigan relative to civilian-sector populations in Canada and the United States. Serotype Ia was the only serotype consistently higher in North American populations relative to other geographic regions (p < 0.005). The number of non-typeable isolates was significantly lower in the study (p < 0.005). Conclusion This study establishes PCR-based serotyping as a viable strategy for GBS epidemiological surveillance. Our results suggest that GBS seroprevalence remains stable in North America over the past two decades. PMID:21106080
Chang, Chia-Pei; Chou, Chia-Lin; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Shao, Chun-Chih; Su, H Irene; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Li-Fang; Yu, Hann-Chin
Gynecological care is vital to women's health but utilization of gynecological care has been seldom addressed. We applied the population-based "ecology model" to demonstrate the utilization of gynecological care of women, with examples from Taiwan. We analyzed the claims data from the cohort datasets within the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Women's utilization of gynecological care in 2009 was computed. Of 1000 women, 319 utilized gynecological care at least once, 277 visited Western medicine clinics, 193 visited physician clinics, 118 visited hospital-based outpatient clinics, 73 visited traditional Chinese medicine clinics, eight were hospitalized, four were hospitalized in an academic medical center, and four visited emergency departments. More than 90% of young and middle-aged women who sought gynecological care visited gynecologist clinics. Elderly women were less likely to utilize gynecological care in all settings of medical care, but were more likely to be attended by non-gynecologists. Young women tended to visit emergency departments. The ecology model highlighted age disparities in women's utilization of gynecological care in various settings of medical care. Since gynecological conditions were common among women, more attention should be paid on the availability of gynecologists and continuing medical education in gynecological care for non-gynecologists to guarantee women's health. PMID:25089773
Green, Carla A.; Johnson, Kim M.; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H.
Purpose To explore/identify patient perspectives regarding seeking, delaying, and avoiding health care services, particularly barriers and facilitators. Design Face-to-face interviews with health plan survey respondents. Setting An integrated health plan providing comprehensive care to 480,000 people in Oregon and Washington. Participants Willing respondents randomly selected to maximize heterogeneity within the following strata: gender, health care utilization, and self-reported alcohol consumption (indicator of health practices). Participants were 75 men and 75 women (150 total), 21–64 years old, with ?12 months of health plan membership. Method Participants were recruited by letter (52.5% agreed). Data collection stopped when planned interviews were completed; saturation (the point at which additional interviews were not producing novel information) was achieved for key study questions. Semi-structured interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded. Reviews of codes related to care seeking and feelings/attitudes about providers produced common themes. Results Facilitators of care seeking included welcoming staff, collaborative relationships with providers, and education about the value of preventive care. Barriers included costs, time needed for appointments, and cumbersome processes. Some participants delayed procedures, some avoided care until absolutely necessary, others framed care as routinely necessary. Conclusion Increasing comfort, improving appointment and visit-related processes, having positive patient-physician relationships, and enhancing communication and clinician-provided education may facilitate appropriate use of preventive services. Further research is needed with larger, representative, samples to evaluate findings. PMID:23971522
Sisley, Emma J; Hutton, Jane M; Louise Goodbody, C; Brown, June S L
African Caribbean women are under-represented within mental health services in the United Kingdom, despite sociocontextual vulnerabilities which may increase emotional distress. This qualitative study aimed to explore individual explanatory models of experiences of distress, coping and help-seeking choices, with a view to improving cultural relevance of services. Participants were recruited following their self-referral to self-help community wellbeing workshops. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was carried out following semi-structured interviews with seven African Caribbean women in central London, who reported previously experiencing emotional distress. The study was conducted during 2009. Five super-ordinate themes emerged from the data: explanations of distress, experiences of distress, managing distress, social and cultural influences and seeking help. Each super-ordinate theme consisted of several subthemes which described participants' experiences. Gender roles and a cultural legacy of being strong and hiding distress emerged as influential in participants' beliefs about managing personal difficulties. However, this was balanced with an acknowledgement that intergenerational differences highlighted an increasing acceptance amongst the community of talking about issues and seeking professional support. The findings offered support for the notion that understandings and responses to personal distress are subject to broad-ranging and interwoven influences. This complexity may be conceptualised as an 'exploratory map' where individuals make links between their current and newly encountered knowledge and experience to guide their personal route to coping and help-seeking. The study provides support for tailoring services to individual needs using a flexible approach which empowers individuals from black and minority ethnic groups by valuing explanatory models of distress alternative to the westernised medical model. Furthermore, findings emphasise the importance of readily available and accessible information about statutory and non-statutory community resources which use language relevant to the communities they are aimed at engaging. PMID:21314849
... before starting any new medication. First-Line Medications: Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) These medications are called "first- ... they might try a "second-line" medication instead. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) helps smokers quit by reducing ...
Brazier, Ellen; Fiorentino, Renée; Barry, Saidou; Kasse, Yaya; Millimono, Sita
This article presents findings from a study on women's delivery care-seeking in two regions of Guinea. We explored exposure to interventions promoting birth preparedness and complication readiness among women with recent live births and stillbirths. Using multivariate regression models, we identified factors associated with women's knowledge and practices related to birth preparedness, as well as their use of health facilities during childbirth. We found that women's knowledge about preparations for any birth (normal or complicated) was positively associated with increased preparation for birth, which itself was associated with institutional delivery. Knowledge about complication readiness, obstetric risks, and danger signs was not associated with birth preparation or with institutional delivery. The study findings highlight the importance of focusing on preparation for all births—and not simply obstetric emergencies—in interventions aimed at increasing women's use of skilled maternity care. PMID:24821280
Wright, D M; Kesner, J S; Schrader, S M; Chin, N W; Wells, V E; Krieg, E F
This study was designed to determine the attitudes and compliance of working women toward methods being evaluated for use in the assessment of the effects of toxicants on reproductive potential. Women such as the highly motivated fertility patients and nurses, who are typically familiar with the methods and procedures of fertility assessment and the value of medical research, have been used to validate such methods in a clinical setting. However, the attitudes of a general working female population toward these methods are unknown. Nine participants were selected on the bases, in part, of not seeking fertility assistance, working full-time but not in the medical field, and having less than one year of college education. Attitudes were also evaluated for 193 non-participating women to whom the procedures had been verbally described. Participants measured basal body temperature and salivary and vaginal mucous electrical resistance, evaluated cervical mucus manually (CME), and collected the first morning urine for two menstrual cycles. Blood, saliva, and transvaginal ultrasonograms (US) were obtained at a fertility clinic 6 to 9 days per cycle. Participants brought urine to the laboratory every 3 days. All participants performed all methods. Participants were paid $400; nonparticipants were not compensated. Only 3% of the respondents objected to the proposed methods: principally to CME, US, and giving blood samples. No respondent perceived the study as unimportant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1463920
Kalousova, Lucie; Burgard, Sarah A.
Most American households carry debt, yet we have little understanding of how debt influences health behavior, especially health care seeking. We examined associations between foregone medical care and debt using a population-based sample of 914 southeastern Michigan residents surveyed in the wake of the late-2000s recession. Overall debt and…
Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William
Broadcast Transcript: There's marital duplicity going on here in South Korea. Namely, secret bank accounts. Put together by women. Unbeknownst to their husbands. Apparently, more than 65% of married Korean women are salting away money that they save...
Women's health refers to the branch of medicine that focuses on the treatment and diagnosis of diseases and ... Women's health includes a wide range of specialties and focus areas, such as: Birth control, sexually transmitted infections ( ...
Mian, Nicholas D.; Eisenhower, Abbey S.; Carter, Alice S.
Understanding parent appraisals of child behavior problems and parental help-seeking can reduce unmet mental health needs. Research has examined individual contributors to help-seeking and service receipt, but use of structural equation modeling (SEM) is rare. SEM was used to examine parents’ appraisal of child behavior, thoughts about seeking help, and receipt of professional services in a diverse, urban sample (N = 189) recruited from women infant and children offices. Parents of children 11–60 months completed questionnaires about child behavior and development, parent well-being, help-seeking experiences, and service receipt. Child internalizing, externalizing, and dysregulation problems, language delay, and parent worry about child behavior loaded onto parent appraisal of child behavior. Parent stress and depression were positively associated with parent appraisal (and help-seeking). Parent appraisal and help-seeking were similar across child sex and age. In a final model, parent appraisals were significantly associated with parent thoughts about seeking help, which was significantly associated with service receipt. PMID:23504296
C. A. Tony Buffington
Background: Medically unexplained (or ‘functional’) symptoms (MUS) are physical symptoms that prompt the sufferer to seek healthcare but remain unexplained after an appropriate medical evaluation. Examples of MUS also occur in veterinary medicine. For example, domestic cats suffer a syndrome comparable to interstitial cystitis, a chronic pelvic pain syndrome of humans. Method: Review of current evidence suggests the hypothesis that
...90.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN The STOP (Services â˘ Training â˘ Officers â˘ Prosecutors) Violence Against Women Formula Grant Program § 90.14 Forensic medical...
...90.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN The STOP (Services â˘ Training â˘ Officers â˘ Prosecutors) Violence Against Women Formula Grant Program § 90.14 Forensic medical...
Background Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among Jordanian women. Breast malignancies are detected at late stages as a result of deferred breast health-seeking behaviour. The aim of this study was to explore Jordanian women’s views and perceptions about breast cancer and breast health. Methods We performed an explorative qualitative study with purposive sampling. Ten focus groups were conducted consisting of 64 women (aged 20 to 65?years) with no previous history and no symptoms of breast cancer from four governorates in Jordan. The transcribed data was analysed using latent content analysis. Results Three themes were constructed from the group discussions: a) Ambivalence in prioritizing own health; b) Feeling fear of breast cancer; and c) Feeling safe from breast cancer. The first theme was seen in women’s prioritizing children and family needs and in their experiencing family and social support towards seeking breast health care. The second theme was building on women’s perception of breast cancer as an incurable disease associated with suffering and death, their fear of the risk of diminished femininity, husband’s rejection and social stigmatization, adding to their apprehensions about breast health examinations. The third theme emerged from the women’s perceiving themselves as not being in the risk zone for breast cancer and in their accepting breast cancer as a test from God. In contrast, women also experienced comfort in acquiring breast health knowledge that soothed their fears and motivated them to seek early detection examinations. Conclusions Women’s ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and feelings of fear and safety could be better addressed by designing breast health interventions that emphasize the good prognosis for breast cancer when detected early, involve breast cancer survivors in breast health awareness campaigns and catalyse family support to encourage women to seek breast health care. PMID:22834874
Amer, Marwa R; Cipriano, Gabriela C; Venci, Jineane V; Gandhi, Mona A
The increasing popularity and use of dietary supplements has required health care professionals to become more knowledgeable of their properties, interactions, and adverse effects. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the safety of popular dietary supplements in breastfeeding mothers and the effects on the infants. Nine of the most popular herbal dietary supplements were identified based on the 2011 US market report of the top 10 selling botanicals and the most frequently received inquiries by the Ruth A. Lawrence Lactation Study Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center. Relevant publications were identified through June 2014 using PubMed and EMBASE; tertiary references, including the Drugs and Lactation Database and Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database, were also reviewed. These herbals include black cohosh, cranberry, echinacea, evening primrose, garlic, ginseng, melatonin, milk thistle, and St John's wort. Studies varied greatly with regard to study design, herbal intervention, and outcome measures. Findings suggested that dietary/herbal supplements have not been evaluated in high-quality clinical trials, and there is limited evidence supporting safety of use, particularly among lactating women. Therefore, it is essential for physicians to provide counseling for nursing mothers seeking information on dietary supplements, highlighting reliable safety profiles, inquiring about the potential benefits the patient is seeking, and assessing the patient's perception of this supplement during breastfeeding. More research and clinical trials are required in this area to guide the recommendations and expand our current knowledge of these products. PMID:25881578
Seldin, Jonathan P.
Women's Studies provides an interdisciplinary environment for examination of the historical of the program offerings in Women's Studies. Focusing on embodiment, and utilizing feminist theories, concepts, and methodologies, the major in Women's Studies seeks to inform, transform, and expand traditional forms
Seldin, Jonathan P.
Women's Studies provides an interdisciplinary environment for the examination of historical of the program offerings in Women's Studies. Focusing on embodiment, and utilizing feminist theories, concepts, and methodologies, the major in Women's Studies seeks to inform, transform, and expand traditional forms
Thompson, I. E.
In this paper, Mr Thompson, one of the research fellows appointed to the Edinburgh Medical Group research project, seeks to define medical ethics in relation to traditional ethics in the philosophical sense of enquiring into right and wrong modes of thought and conduct, and to carry that study further into the field of moral decisions made by doctors and other professional people who care for the sick. Until very recently the Victorian definition of medical ethics - medical etiquette - served the doctor well but the complexity of modern medicine and the involvement of other professional workers in medical care appears to have swept away the old framework and left a vacuum. A new medical ethic must be evolved to fill that vacuum, taking account not only of technological advances but also of relationships between doctors and other professionals associated with them and of the role in caring for the sick. PMID:781252
Minnesota's iSeek website "works with the state's workforce development and education authorities to develop and inform policy and to strategize services for career planning, education and e-learning, and workforce development." But the resources on the STEM Careers and Skills section of the site aren't just for those people living in Minnesota; this section provides all visitors the opportunity to explore STEM career skills that can be helpful no matter what state they live in. Visitors interested in learning what STEM skills are, should check out the link "Understanding STEM Skills". Here key STEM skills are outlined, such as analytical skills, science skills, technical, and math skills. The site also goes on to outline some of the soft skills that those in STEM careers should have, such as leadership, organization, communication, and creative skills. Visitors can take a free 5-10 minute "Skills Assessment" to determine which of their interests and skills match up with STEM careers. The "STEM Careers" link has a list of high-demand STEM careers, average hourly wage, and typical education requirements.
Stain, Nolan; Ridge, Damien; Cheshire, Anna
Introduction Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death in both men and women worldwide. Despite the common misconception that CHD is a ‘man's disease’, it is now well accepted that women endure worse clinical outcomes than men following CHD-related events. A number of studies have explored whether or not gender differences exist in patients presenting with CHD, and specifically whether women delay seeking help for cardiac conditions. UK and overseas studies on help-seeking for emergency cardiac events are contradictory, yet suggest that women often delay help-seeking. In addition, no studies have looked at presumed cardiac symptoms outside an emergency situation. Given the lack of understanding in this area, an explorative qualitative study on the gender differences in help-seeking for a non-emergency cardiac events is needed. Methods and analysis A purposive sample of 20–30 participants of different ethnic backgrounds and ages attending a rapid access chest pain clinic will be recruited to achieve saturation. Semistructured interviews focusing on help-seeking decision-making for apparent cardiac symptoms will be undertaken. Interview data will be analysed thematically using qualitative software (NVivo) to understand any similarities and differences between the way men and women construct help-seeking. Findings will also be used to inform the preliminary development of a cardiac help-seeking intentions questionnaire. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approvals were sought and granted. Namely, the University of Westminster (sponsor) and St Georges NHS Trust REC, and the Trust Research and Development Office granted approval to host the study on the Queen Mary's Roehampton site. The study is low risk, with interviews being conducted on hospital premises during working hours. Investigators will disseminate findings via presentations and publications. Participants will receive a written summary of the key findings. PMID:25361835
Winterich, J A; Umberson, D
This study analyzes personal accounts of women's menopausal experiences to understand why most women view menopause as an insignificant event, despite negative cultural and medical constructions of menopause as a time of "loss." We analyze 16 in-depth interviews with a diverse sample of women to examine how social contexts affect women's experiences with menopause and the meaning of those experiences. We find that most women view menopause as inconsequential because other events of midlife are more important or stressful to them. However, when cultural and medical contexts are examined, we find that some women do not avoid others' negative constructions of menopause as a time of "loss." PMID:10721689
Created by Congress on June 5, 1920, to "promote the welfare of wage earning women," the US Department of Labor Women's Bureau (DOLWB) seeks to inform the public of women's work rights and employment issues. Bureau publications include Fact Sheets on Women in the Workplace, the legally informative Know Your Rights Series, survey results, and special reports on the history of the Equal Pay Act, child care, and financial success stories, among others (.pdf format). A Statistics and Data Library will be of particular use to educators, offering current and historical employment totals and earnings estimates in graphical, presentation formats. Male to Female wage and employment comparisons are also included on site, and some DOLWB studies delineate employment totals by occupation. Links to relevant DOL agencies and reports, as well as other women's labor organizations are also useful in researching the long history of women's labor struggles in the US.
Recent attention on health-related information seeking has focused primarily on information seeking within specific health and health risk contexts. This study attempts to shift some of that focus to individual-level variables that may impact health risk information seeking across contexts. To locate these variables, the researcher posits an integrated model, the Planned Risk Information Seeking Model (PRISM). The model, which treats risk information seeking as a deliberate (planned) behavior, maps variables found in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) and the Risk Information Seeking and Processing Model (RISP; Griffin, Dunwoody, & Neuwirth, 1999), and posits linkages among those variables. This effort is further informed by Kahlor's (2007) Augmented RISP, the Theory of Motivated Information Management (Afifi & Weiner, 2004), the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking (Johnson & Meischke, 1993), the Health Information Acquisition Model (Freimuth, Stein, & Kean, 1989), and the Extended Parallel Processing Model (Witte, 1998). The resulting integrated model accounted for 59% of the variance in health risk information-seeking intent and performed better than the TPB or the RISP alone. PMID:20512716
Rupp-Serrano, Karen; Robbins, Sarah
This study explores the information-seeking behavior of academic education faculty from twenty large public research universities. The investigation includes an examination of how frequently education faculty seek or access information, how they stay up-to-date on current developments in the field and identify less recent journal literature, how…
Aberbach, Amy J.; And Others
This study examined factors assumed to influence children's help-seeking styles in the classroom in the domains of math and reading. Children's rating of their comfort in asking for help, and the relation between mothers' helping strategies and children's help-seeking styles, were also investigated. Fifth graders (N=190) completed questionnaires…
McCroskey, James C.; McCroskey, Linda L.
A study explored the extent to which affinity-seeking strategies are used in elementary and secondary school classrooms. Subjects, 311 elementary and secondary school teachers enrolled in classes related to communication instruction, completed a measurement instrument designed to evaluate their use of affinity-seeking strategies. Analysis of the…
Nye, Susan B.
Seeking help with academic tasks has been regarded as an important strategy to enhance student learning (Newman, 1994; Ryan, Gheen, & Midgley, 1998; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1986). Seeking help is conceptualized as student-initiated efforts to secure task information or solicit advice when a deficiency in their understanding of the content…
Azad Ghaffari; Miroslav Krstic; Dragan Nesic
We present a Newton-based extremum seeking algorithm for the multivariable case. The design extends the recent Newton-based extremum seeking algorithms for the scalar case and introduces a dynamic estimator of the Hessian matrix that removes the difficulty with the possible singularity of this matrix estimate. This estimator has the form of a differential Riccati equation. We prove local stability of
Marilyn Daley; Milton Argeriou
Four hundred forty-seven Medicaid-eligible pregnant chemically dependent women were interviewed during their stay in publicly funded detoxification centers in Massachusetts. One hundred eightyfour women (41%) reported sexual abuse during their lifetime. Sexually abused women differed significantly from women who had not been abused, on a variety of psychological, social, and medical problems indicators. Sexually abused women appear to constitute a
Horowitz, Michael D.; Rosensweig, Jeffrey A.; Jones, Christopher A.
The citizens of many countries have long traveled to the United States and to the developed countries of Europe to seek the expertise and advanced technology available in leading medical centers. In the recent past, a trend known as medical tourism has emerged wherein citizens of highly developed countries choose to bypass care offered in their own communities and travel to less developed areas of the world to receive a wide variety of medical services. Medical tourism is becoming increasingly popular, and it is projected that as many as 750,000 Americans will seek offshore medical care in 2007. This phenomenon is driven by marketplace forces and occurs outside of the view and control of the organized healthcare system. Medical tourism presents important concerns and challenges as well as potential opportunities. This trend will have increasing impact on the healthcare landscape in industrialized and developing countries around the world. PMID:18311383
This paper examines the similarities and differences in Scandinavian and American medical sociology. First, the issue of medicalization has not been as important in Scandinavian as it has been in American medical sociology. Second, women's health has been less explored in Scandinavian than in American medical sociology. Third, research on social inequalities and health has been a major focus in Scandinavian medical sociology since the 1990s. Fourth, cultural sociology and the poststructuralist perspective have been part of mainstream theory building in European sociology and also European and Scandinavian medical sociology during the past decade, while American medical sociology has been characterized by social-role theory and a quantitative approach. PMID:14555376
Brunner, C. Cryss
This paper uses the seven principles of "stalking," the cultural wisdom for training Yaqui Indian warriors as described by Carlos Castenada, as a framework for organizing insights shared by successful women superintendents. "Stalking" is a metaphor for the process through which women seek success as superintendents. The research used a modified…
Dena Shenk; Diane Zablotsky; Mary Beth Croom
This paper is based on the findings of small group discussions with self-defined successful African American women age 60+ in Charlotte, North Carolina. These women, who lived through the Jim Crow era and thrived in spite of the obstacles, continue to seek meaning in their lives through the roles they play in their families, churches, and communities. They feel strongly
Abrams, Laura S.
This article explores young women's strategies for seeking personal power and resisting gender-based stereotypes in a wealthy, suburban, White community and a working-class, urban, community of color. Semi-structured interviews with 27 young women were used to examine contextual variations in these gender identity negotiation processes. Both…
Women working in higher education information technology (IT) organizations and those seeking leadership positions in these organizations face a double challenge in overcoming the traditionally male-dominated environments of higher education and IT. Three women higher education chief information officers (CIOs) provided their perspectives,…
Maloch, Janelle K.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Locke, Benjamin D.
This study found that treatment-seeking sexual minority college women evidenced serious eating concerns. Regardless of sexual orientation and compared with those with low levels of eating concerns, women with high levels of eating concerns evidenced increased depression, increased generalized anxiety, and a greater likelihood of experiencing…
This article seeks to explore gendered experiences of homelessness through an examination of survival sex. Survival sex is usually understood to be the exchange of sex for material support, however, this research found a greater complexity in the intimate relationships being undertaken by young women experiencing homelessness. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young women aged 18–25 years living in
Morrison, Joanna; Basnet, Machhindra; Budhathoki, Bharat; Adhikari, Dhruba; Tumbahangphe, Kirti; Manandhar, Dharma; Costello, Anthony; Groce, Nora
Objective there is little evidence about disabled women?s access to maternal and newborn health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and care seeking. Our study explores disabled women?s experiences of maternal and newborn care in rural Nepal. Design we used a qualitative methodology, using semi-structured interviews. Setting rural Makwanpur District of central Nepal. Participants we purposively sampled married women with different impairments who had delivered a baby in the past 10 years from different topographical areas of the district. We also interviewed maternal health workers. We compared our findings with a recent qualitative study of non-disabled women in the same district to explore the differences between disabled and non-disabled women. Findings married disabled women considered pregnancy and childbirth to be normal and preferred to deliver at home. Issues of quality, cost and lack of family support were as pertinent for disabled women as they were for their non-disabled peers. Health workers felt unprepared to meet the maternal health needs of disabled women. Key conclusions and implications for practice integration of disability into existing Skilled Birth Attendant training curricula may improve maternal health care for disabled women. There is a need to monitor progress of interventions that encourage institutional delivery through the use of disaggregated data, to check that disabled women are benefiting equally in efforts to improve access to maternal health care. PMID:24768318
Andersen, Rikke Sand; Třrring, Marie Louise; Vedsted, Peter
Using cancer as an example and drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's concepts of field and on prolonged fieldwork in Danish general medical practice settings, we examine how discourses about what counts as legitimate help-seeking practices are negotiated in local clinical encounters. Overall, we identify competition between two discourses on help-seeking practices. This competition is present most when people seek help with unspecific, vague, or diffuse illness complaints, voicing uncertainty as to what counts as signs of illness, characteristic of proactive discourses emanating from global, scientific biomedicine. Such indistinct help-seeking conflicts with the dominant discourse in the local clinical setting and is characterized by an overt focus on identification of the chief complaint. The analysis illustrates how competing discourses may result in conflicting expectations to the clinical encounter and prove counterproductive to ensuring early diagnosis of cancer. PMID:25355457
Flight testing of the performance seeking control (PSC) excitation mode was successfully completed at NASA Dryden on the F-15 highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) aircraft. Although the excitation mode was not one of the original objectives of the PSC program, it was rapidly prototyped and implemented into the architecture of the PSC algorithm, allowing valuable and timely research data to be gathered. The primary flight test objective was to investigate the feasibility of a future measurement-based performance optimization algorithm. This future algorithm, called AdAPT, which stands for adaptive aircraft performance technology, generates and applies excitation inputs to selected control effectors. Fourier transformations are used to convert measured response and control effector data into frequency domain models which are mapped into state space models using multiterm frequency matching. Formal optimization principles are applied to produce an integrated, performance optimal effector suite. The key technical challenge of the measurement-based approach is the identification of the gradient of the performance index to the selected control effector. This concern was addressed by the excitation mode flight test. The AdAPT feasibility study utilized the PSC excitation mode to apply separate sinusoidal excitation trims to the controls - one aircraft, inlet first ramp (cowl), and one engine, throat area. Aircraft control and response data were recorded using on-board instrumentation and analyzed post-flight. Sensor noise characteristics, axial acceleration performance gradients, and repeatability were determined. Results were compared to pilot comments to assess the ride quality. Flight test results indicate that performance gradients were identified at all flight conditions, sensor noise levels were acceptable at the frequencies of interest, and excitations were generally not sensed by the pilot.
Introduction: The article contributes to the conceptual studies of affective factors in information seeking by examining Kuhlthau's information search process model. Method: This random-digit dial telephone survey of 253 people (75% female) living in a rural, medically under-serviced area of Ontario, Canada, follows-up a previous interview study…
Manoloudakis, Nikolaos; Labiris, Georgios; Karakitsou, Nefeli; Kim, Jong B; Sheena, Yezen; Niakas, Dimitrios
Literature indicates an increased risk of suicide among women who have had cosmetic breast implants. An explanatory model for this association has not been established. Some studies conclude that women with cosmetic breast implants demonstrate some characteristics that are associated with increased suicide risk while others support that the breast augmentation protects from suicide. A systematic review including data collection from January 1961 up to February 2014 was conducted. The results were incorporated to pre-existing suicide risk models of the general population. A modified suicide risk model was created for the female cosmetic augmentation mammaplasty candidate. A 2-3 times increased suicide risk among women that undergo cosmetic breast augmentation has been identified. Breast augmentation patients show some characteristics that are associated with increased suicide risk. The majority of women reported high postoperative satisfaction. Recent research indicates that the Autoimmune syndrome induced by adjuvants and fibromyalgia syndrome are associated with silicone implantation. A thorough surgical, medical and psycho-social (psychiatric, family, reproductive, and occupational) history should be included in the preoperative assessment of women seeking to undergo cosmetic breast augmentation. Breast augmentation surgery can stimulate a systematic stress response and increase the risk of suicide. Each risk factor of suicide has poor predictive value when considered independently and can result in prediction errors. A clinical management model has been proposed considering the overlapping risk factors of women that undergo cosmetic breast augmentation with suicide. PMID:25798383
Krasnoff, Margo J.
Reviews 19 teaching tools about women's health, ranging from general curricula to books, videos, and CD-ROMs that can be used by educators and learners throughout the continuum of medical education. (Author/SLD)
Committee on Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine (CWSEM) #12;Report of the National in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Critical Transition Points for Achieving and Sustaining Careers, environment, water, food, healthcare) will require scientists, engineers, and medical professionals
... Health Care » Women Veterans Health Care Women Veterans Health Care Menu Menu Womens Health Women Veterans Health Care ... more » MyHealtheVet LGBT Awareness Role Models Women Veterans Health Care Did you know that women are the fastest ...
Jo Bensemann; C. Michael Hall
Purpose – The paper seeks to explore the experiences of owners of rural tourism accommodation businesses in New Zealand within the framework of copreneurship. It aims to examine roles within copreneurial rural tourism businesses and describes and evaluates women's experiences of entrepreneurship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The method of the research is a postal survey of rural tourism accommodation business owners complemented
Goodrich, Lisa V.
Harvard Medical School and Harvard School of Dental Medicine Joint Committee on the Status of Women enhance the Harvard Medical School (HMS) and Harvard School of Dental Medicine's (HSDM) culture and suppor
Sinnamon, Gordon J.
Tier 2 Canada Research Chair in Medical Health Informatics Schulich School of Medicine intensive universities, seeks applicants for a Tier 2 Canada Research Chair in Medical Health Informatics, and the potential to achieve international recognition in the field of medical health informatics within the next
Because of its high prevalence, HIV in pregnancy is a major public health issue in French Guyana and Saint Martin, particularly since the risk of transmission to the child can be significantly reduced through pharmacological treatment. Most of the HIV-infected women in these areas are immigrants living in highly precarious circumstances. This study examines the capacity of the healthcare system to adapt to the specific social characteristics of overseas regions, focusing in particular on perceptions of the risks associated with pregnancy among HIV-infected women and the social inequalities affecting adherence to HIV treatment. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Cayenne, Saint-Laurent du Maroni and Saint-Martin with 19 HIV-infected women and 54 social and health care professionals. Observations (medical consultations, therapeutic education consultations, discussion groups, medical meetings) were also conducted to complete the data set. The results show that professionals tend to use the most significant concern expressed by HIV-infected women - i.e. the risk of transmitting their infection to their child - as an opportunity to promote the active involvement of patients in their own care and the health care of their children by encouraging them to adhere to their treatment. The study found that professionals seek to lessen the impact of social inequalities on patient adherence to the treatment in a context of social stigmatization linked to the particular status of their patients as HIV-infected women, undocumented migrants, and ethnic minority members. The example of HIV in pregnancy illustrates the capacity of the healthcare system to reduce the impact of social inequalities on health and highlights the significant negative impact that a reduced commitment to this issue would have. PMID:22365043
Kessler, Lawrence M.; Craig, Benjamin M.; Plosker, Shayne M.; Reed, Damon R.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.
Objective To examine the characteristics of women seeking infertility evaluation and treatment. Design Cross-sectional survey based on in-person interviews, followed by two-step hurdle analysis. Participants 4,558 married or cohabitating women ages 25–44 Setting U.S. household population of women based on the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth Intervention None Main Outcome Measure(s) Likelihood of seeking preliminary infertility evaluation. Likelihood of seeking infertility treatment once evaluated. Treatment type provided. Results 623 women (13.7%) reported seeking infertility evaluation, of which 328 reported undergoing subsequent infertility treatment. Age at marriage, marital status, education, health insurance status, race/ethnicity, and religion were associated with the likelihood of seeking infertility evaluation. For example, the predicted probability that a non-White woman who married at 25 will seek evaluation was 12%. This probability increased to 34% for White women with a graduate degree who married at age 30. Among women who are evaluated, income, employment status, and ethnicity correlated strongly with the likelihood of seeking infertility treatment. Infertility drug therapy was the most frequent treatment used. Reproductive surgery and in vitro fertilization (IVF) were used the least. Conclusions The use of infertility services is not random and understanding the socio-demographic factors correlated with use may assist new couples with family planning. Roughly 50% of the women evaluated for infertility progressed to treatment, and only a small proportion were treated with more advanced assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) such as IVF therapy. Future research aimed at improving access to effective healthcare treatments within the boundaries of affordability is warranted. PMID:23849845
Statistically, men make less use of health-care services than women. This has been interpreted as the result of the 'hegemonic' masculine code in which 'real' men are understood to be physically fit, uninterested in their health and self-reliant. However, less attention has been paid to understanding how hegemonic masculinity intersects with the wider western socio-cultural contexts of men's help-seeking, particularly the valorization of health as a form of social achievement. This article presents the results of interviews with 14 higher socio-economic status (SES) men to uncover their 'interpretive repertoires' in relation to health and illness, help-seeking and masculinity. Although many interviewees drew on the stereotype of the 'Neanderthal Man' who avoids the doctors to explain help-seeking by men 'in general', they constructed their own experiences of help-seeking in terms of being responsible, problem-solving and in control. It is argued that the framing of help-seeking in terms of 'taking action' chimes with an increasingly pro-active 'expert patient' approach within western health-care. This conceptual reconstruction of the dominant masculine code in relation to help-seeking, from 'Neanderthal Man' to 'Action Man', may lead to greater gender equality in terms of accessing health-care. However, it has the potential to exacerbate social inequalities between men from different SES groups. PMID:21602248
Laurie A Lindamer; Emily Wear; Georgia Robins Sadler
BACKGROUND: Health care providers and educators who seek to create health promotion programs and individualized comprehensive care plans for women with schizophrenia are hindered by the lack of data to guide their efforts. PURPOSE: This study tested the hypothesis that women with schizophrenia adhere to mammography screening guidelines at the same rate as other same-age women. The study also investigated
Rubab Abdullah; Sabnam Jahan; Sampa Saha
It was a practice that women would principally do the household tasks, bringing up families and men would work to impart financial supports to the families. But in course of time due to declining population, education, economic welfare and women liberation movement, that convention has changed gradually. Women now seek out careers for livelihood and earning money as well as
The reasons for the loss of high ability women from science, mathematics, and engineering undergraduate majors are not well understood. However, investigators have, consistently, found an early loss of confidence in their ability to do science among such women. In seeking to explain why the vulnerability of women to leaving science majors greatly exceeds that of men, the author draws
Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...
... medications are used to treat certain symptoms of Fragile X syndrome, as shown in the chart below. The NICHD ... of these medications in treating the symptoms of Fragile X syndrome, or for other conditions for which the medications ...
Lisa Worrall; Katy Harris; Roy Stewart; Andrew Thomas; Peter McDermott
Purpose – This paper aims to identify the main barriers that lead to the under-representation of women in the UK construction industry. The study, funded by ConstructionSkills, seeks to explore the issues that women face and investigate the potential positive impact that continuous professional development (CPD) may have upon improving the retention and career progression of women. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The
McCoyd, Judith L M
It is difficult to hear the voices of women describing their experiences of perinatal health care in the United States. This article reports results from interviews with 30 women about their experience of pregnancy termination for fetal anomaly (TFA) and their encounters with the medical system during the diagnosis through the aftermath of termination process. The ways researchers inadvertently silence women's voices are analyzed. Themes emerged from the interviews, including the role of preparedness, access and barriers to care, and the importance of empathic compassion by the provider. Additionally, women give relatively unprocessed advice and feedback to the varied disciplines of the medical care team. PMID:19418323
... more about what’s happening. Women who have had breast lumps, suspicious mammograms, and breast biopsies helped write this. They have gone through ... your health care team. We also have a Breast Cancer Dictionary that many women and their doctors ... Last Medical Review: 07/21/2014 Last Revised: 07/21/2014 ...
Davis, Georgiann; Allison, Rachel
Despite increases in the number of women entering the medical profession during the past four decades, female medical students remain more likely than their male colleagues to enter less prestigious medical specialties. ...
Atkins, Joanna; Naismith, Sharon L; Luscombe, Georgina M; Hickie, Ian B
Objective This study aims to examine perceptions of the helpfulness of treatments/interventions for depression held by elderly care recipients, to examine whether these beliefs are related to help-seeking and whether the experience of depression affects beliefs about treatment seeking, and to identify the characteristics of help-seekers. Method One hundred eighteen aged care recipients were surveyed on their beliefs about the helpfulness of a variety of treatments/interventions for depression, on their actual help-seeking behaviors, and on their experience of depression (current and past). Results From the sample, 32.4% of the participants screened positive for depression on the Geriatric Depression Scale, and of these, 24.2% reported receiving treatment. Respondents believed the most helpful treatments for depression were increasing physical activity, counseling, and antidepressant medication. Help-seeking from both professional and informal sources appeared to be related to belief in the helpfulness of counseling and antidepressants; in addition, help-seeking from informal sources was also related to belief in the helpfulness of sleeping tablets and reading self-help books. In univariate analyses, lower levels of cognitive impairment and being in the two lower age tertiles predicted a greater likelihood of help-seeking from professional sources, and female sex and being in the lower two age tertiles predicted greater likelihood of help-seeking from informal sources. In multivariate analyses, only lower levels of cognitive impairment remained a significant predictor of help-seeking from professional sources, whereas both lower age and female sex continued to predict a greater likelihood of help-seeking from informal sources. Conclusion Beliefs in the helpfulness of certain treatments were related to the use of both professional and informal sources of help, indicating the possibility that campaigns or educational programs aimed at changing beliefs about treatments may be useful in older adults. PMID:25653512
B. C Acebes-Escobal; M. C Nerida; R. A Chez
This retrospective study describes the demographic profiles, types of injuries and characteristics of abusers of 1354 women and children survivors of domestic violence who sought medical care from the obstetrics and gynecology resident and attending staff in the Women and Children Protection Unit in Vicente Sotto Memorial Medical Center from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 1998. Thirty-nine percent of
Hoppenfeld, Jared; Smith, Michael M.
Numerous studies have been performed on information-seeking behaviors in specific disciplines but not in business. The purpose of this study was to gather a better understanding of business faculty research processes and, in doing so, come away...
Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel
Malaria is one of the major public health problems in Malawi, contributing to the majority of morbidity and mortality among children under five. Ignorance of malaria symptoms results in delayed treatment, which often degenerates into fatal emergencies. This study analyzed the impact of maternal malaria knowledge on healthcare preferences and timeliness of treating children with reported fever. The Malaria Indicator Survey data for 2012, which were adequately weighted, were analyzed using multinomial logit and Poisson regression models. The results showed low maternal average years of formal education (3.52) and average mothers' age was 27.97 years. Majority of the women (84.98%) associated fever with malaria, while 44.17% associated it with chilling. Also, 54.42% and 32.43% of the children were treated for fever on the same day and the following day that fever started, respectively. About 9.70% paid for fever treatment from their regular incomes, while 51.38% sought treatment from either public or private health centers. Multinomial Logit regression results showed that relative to using of other treatments, probabilities of selecting private hospitals and public health centers increased with age of the household heads, resident in urban areas, mothers' years of education, number of days taken off for treatment, paying medical bills from regular, occasional and borrowed incomes, and knowledge of diarrhea and shivering as symptoms of malaria. In the Poisson regression results, timeliness of seeking treatment was significantly enhanced by knowledge of fever as malaria symptom, residence in northern and central regions of Malawi and use of income from sale of assets to pay medical bills (p < 0.10).However, delays in treating children was motivated by age of the household heads, number of days taken off to care for sick child and usage of regular, borrowed and other incomes to pay medical bills. (p < 0.05). It was concluded that efficiency of public sector in treating malaria holds significant prospects for fighting malaria in Malawi. However, adequate efforts should be channeled in enhancing the knowledge of women on malaria symptoms, among others. PMID:25584420
In the early 1900s, researchers at the Harvard College Observatory conducted an astonishing amount of astronomical research. A handful of women were integral to this research. Describes the professional lives and scientific findings of five of these women scientists at Harvard to inspire students. Classroom activities are included. (PVD)
President's Commission on the Status of Women, Washington, DC.
FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE COMMISSION AND SEVEN COMMITTEES WHO ASSESSED THE STATUS OF WOMEN ARE REPORTED. THE COMMITTEES MADE RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE AREAS--WOMEN'S EDUCATION AND COUNSELING, HOME AND COMMUNITY SERVICES, PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT (THAT UNDER FEDERAL CONTRACTS), EMPLOYMENT IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, LABOR STANDARDS, FEDERAL SOCIAL…
Empowering Women is a traveling exhibition of folk art that focuses on ten cooperatives from four continents and ten countries. The exhibition is a window into the ways that cooperatives empower women to: (1) preserve and reinvigorate their country's traditional arts; (2) generate steady livelihoods for their families; (3) send their children to…
Roger L. Faith; Brian L. Goff; Robert D. Tollison
We examine bequest-sharing rules where sibling rivalry creates wasteful competition for intergenerational transfers. We show\\u000a that equal division of bequests minimizes rent-seeking expenditures by siblings while primogeniture maximizes rent-seeking\\u000a costs. Our results lend theoretical support to the empirical findings of equal bequests without appeal to complex models of\\u000a the parent-child relationship.
Fisher, Maryanne L; Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin
Researchers have little explored individuals' perceptions of same-sex attractiveness in terms of the influence of relationship status. By using intrasexual competition as a conceptual framework, the authors predicted that romantically involved individuals would protect their relationship by derogating competitors. Although previous researchers have strongly predicted this result, in the present study the relationship status had a negligible impact on competition, for which relationship commitment, sociosexual orientation, and self-monitoring did not account. Also, among uninvolved individuals, the authors expected those individuals seeking mates would use competitor derogation more than would those individuals not seeking mates, but there was no significant difference. Finally, because the vehicle for this investigation was attractiveness, an area in which women compete, the authors proposed that women would derogate more fiercely than would men. However, the results did not support this hypothesis either. The authors discuss future directions for research. PMID:18807423
Gaither, George A; Sellbom, Martin
The Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale (SSSS; Kalichman & Rompa, 1995) is a measure of the propensity to seek out novel or risky sexual stimulation. This measure has been consistently related to HIV-risk behavior in several different samples of gay men and with behavioral correlates of sexual permissiveness in college students. Five hundred twenty-eight college students completed the SSSS and several other sexuality and personality measures. The results reveal significant gender differences on the SSSS and similar (although stronger among women) patterns of significant correlations with sexually permissive characteristics and behaviors. Furthermore, SSSS scores were more highly correlated with sexual measures, whereas a more general measure of sensation seeking was more highly correlated with general personality measures. We discuss implications for use of the SSSS by sexuality educators and sex therapists. PMID:12946922
Altizer, Kathryn P.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Quandt, Sara A.; Bell, Ronny A; Arcury, Thomas A.
This study documents older adults’ sources of health information, describes the purposes for health information seeking, and delineates gender and ethnic variation in health information seeking. Sixty-two African American and white adults age 65 and older completed qualitative interviews describing their use of complementary therapies. Interviews identified how individuals obtained and shared health information. Friends, not family, were the dominant source of health information. Participants ranged from active seekers to passive consumers of health information. Information seeking was common for benign symptoms. More women than men discuss health information with others. Friends are the primary source of health information for rural older adults. There is substantial passivity in the pursuit of health information. Identifying health information sources of rural older adults can support the dissemination of information to those who share it with others. PMID:24188253
Moore-West, Maggi; Lucero, Susan
Personality and a social support system are two factors that may influence women medical students' choice of a rural primary care specialty. The 2-year study of 11 University of New Mexico School of Medicine women students engaged in 4-month rural primary care preceptorships included interviews and a personality inventory. Three women had…
Karen L. Reuter; Stephen P. Baker; F. John Krolikowski
To determine risk factors for carcinoma of the breast, we compared women with cancer on screening and diagnostic mammography with those in whom cancer was not detected. For 39 months, medical histories were collected by mammography technologists on 3492 women having routine screenings or diagnostic mammograms at our institution. Potential risk factors of women with biopsy-proved breast cancer were compared
684 JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HEALTH Volume 14, Number 8, 2005 © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. NIH Director- garding an evidence-based approach to gender and evaluation. 1Department of Medicine and Center for Women's Health Research, Medical School, and 2Women in Science and Engineering Leadership Institute (WISELI
Presents statistics on the status of female faculty members in China. Reports that in 1987, women comprised just over nine percent of the faculty. Indicates that women are most prevalent in the medical sciences and agronomy but scarcest in engineering and law. Predicts that more women will enter higher education careers. (SG)
Statistically, men make less use of health-care services than women. This has been interpreted as the result of the ‘hegemonic’ masculine code in which ‘real’ men are understood to be physically fit, uninterested in their health and self-reliant. However, less attention has been paid to understanding how hegemonic masculinity intersects with the wider western socio-cultural contexts of men’s help-seeking, particularly
Hovick, Shelly R; Kahlor, Leeann; Liang, Ming-Ching
This study retested PRISM, a model of risk information seeking, and found that it is applicable to the context of cancer risk communication. The study, which used an online sample of 928 U.S. adults, also tested the effect of additional variables on that model and found that the original model better fit the data. Among the strongest predictors of cancer information seeking were seeking-related subjective norms, attitude toward seeking, perceived knowledge insufficiency, and affective risk response. Furthermore, risk perception was a strong predictor of an affective risk response. The authors suggest that, given the robustness across studies, the path between seeking-related subjective norms and seeking intention is ready to be implemented in communication practice. PMID:24433251
Hoffler, G. W.; Jackson, M. M.; Johnson, R. L.; Baker, J. T.; Tatro, D.
The results are presented from a special physiological study of women at the Johnson Space Center in 1976 to 1977. Its purpose was to establish a large (98 subjects) database from normal working women. The data sets are medical historical, clinical, anthropometric, and stress response statistics useful for establishing medical criteria for selecting women astronauts. Stressors were lower body negative pressure and static standing (both orthostatic) and treadmill exercise (ergometric). Data shown are original individual values with analyses and subsets, and statistical summaries and correlations relating to human responses to microgravity. Similarities appear between the characteristics of women in this study and those of women astronauts currently flying in Shuttle crews.
França, Katlein; Ledon, Jennifer; Savas, Jessica; Nouri, Keyvan
The history of women in medicine has been marked by many challenges and achievements. Although the role of women in the "art of healing" can be traced back many centuries, only males are traditionally highlighted in history. Across antiquity, access to medical education was denied to females. Dermatology is a medical specialty in which women displayed particular skill and proficiency. Gradually, determination and competence allowed women to lay claim in an essentially male-dominated world. This article presents a brief review of the performance, progress and achievements of women in the history of medicine and dermatology. PMID:24626675
In order to insure the participation of Thai women in the Fourth World Conference on Women, the Thai Grassroots Women's Forum was established in 1994. In seeking ways to improve women's status, the Women's Forum holds as its central position the statement that "Women must have the rights and opportunities to participate in all levels of decision-making processes." The policy implications of this statement affect many aspects of women's lives. In terms of health care, women must be given appropriate information about reproductive health, control over their own bodies must be guaranteed, and the Thai government must develop an occupational health service. All violence against women must be eradicated as a human rights violation, and victimized women must receive help and protection. Women laborers must be included in the labor policy-making process, and the Thai government must ratify International Labor Organization Conventions on workers' organizations, night-time work, rights to collective bargaining, and occupational health and safety. Governments should enact measures to protect women labor migrants, including those who work in the sex industry. The Thai government must support women's groups and provide opportunities for women to participate in government committees at every level. The composition of the Tambol (sub-district) Council should be equally divided between men and women. Finally, the Thai government must terminate any development plan which threatens the environment and must give communities the right to manage their natural resources and environment. PMID:12290170
Shadi S. Martin; Jacqueline Trask; Tina Peterson; Bryan C. Martin; Josh Baldwin; Matthew Knapp
In this study, the influence of culture and discrimination on care-seeking behavior of elderly African Americans was explored. This was a qualitative phenomenological study that involved in-depth interviews with 15 African American men and women aged 60 and older in Alabama. The sample size of 15 was adequate for the phenomenological method of this study. While this was a small
Jacqueline M. Golding
Associations of sexual assault history with multiple measures of physical health were examined among randomly selected women living in Los Angeles (N = 1,610). Sexually assaulted women were more likely than nonassaulted women to report poor health perceptions, functional limitation, several chronic diseases, medically explained somatic symptoms, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. Sexual assault was associated with increased risk of
Miga, Michael I.
1 SPIE Medical Imaging 2006 1 Medical Imaging Fundamentals Kenneth H. Wong, Ph.D. Division of Computer Assisted Interventions and Medical Robotics (CAIMR) Imaging Science and Information Systems (ISIS) Center Department of Radiology Georgetown University SPIE Medical Imaging 2006 2 Main Themes · Describe
Brown, Derek S.; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Mercy, James A.
This article compares three methods for estimating the medical cost burden of intimate partner violence against U.S. adult women (18 years and older), 1 year postvictimization. To compute the estimates, prevalence data from the National Violence Against Women Survey are combined with cost data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the…
Hoffman, Eileen; Magrane, Diane; Donoghue, Glenda D.
Introduces this theme issue dealing with women's health and medical education and discusses the distinction between sex, as biologically based differences, and gender, qualities that are culturally shaped. The current plurality of efforts in women's health provide a new organizational framework for medicine and changes in medical education. (SLD)
Skaer, Tracy L
Fibromyalgia (FM) primarily affects women, and it is increasingly recognized by health care providers as more patients seek assistance for their chronic pain conditions. FM patients suffer from reduced quality of life, daily functioning and productivity. A single FM patient can cost society tens of thousands of dollars each year, with the overall expense increasing alongside disease severity. Indirect costs account for the majority of total expenditures and involve losses in productivity, reduced work hours, absenteeism, disability, unemployment, early retirement, informal care and other out-of-pocket costs. Health care utilization increases in concert with the severity of illness. Moreover, FM patients often have several comorbid illnesses (e.g. depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances), resulting in extreme escalation of overall health care expenditures. Medications with the best efficacy in the treatment of FM include the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline and nortriptyline, cyclobenzaprine (a skeletal muscle relaxant), tramadol, duloxetine, milnacipran, pregabalin and gabapentin. Corticosteroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics, with the exception of tramadol, are not considered efficacious. Medication selection should be individualized and influenced by the severity of illness and the presence of comorbidities and functional disabilities. PMID:24504852
Dehlendorf, Christine; Levy, Kira; Kelley, Allison; Grumbach, Kevin; Steinauer, Jody
Background Little is known about what women value in their interactions with family planning providers and in decision making about contraception. Study Design We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 black, white and Latina patients. Transcripts were coded using modified grounded theory. Results While women wanted control over the ultimate selection of a method, most also wanted their provider to participate in the decision-making process in a way that emphasized the women’s values and preferences. Women desired an intimate, friend-like relationship with their providers and also wanted to receive comprehensive information about options, particularly about side effects. More black and Spanish-speaking Latinas, as compared to whites and English-speaking Latinas, felt that providers should only share their opinion if it is elicited by a patient or if they make their rationale clear to the patient. Conclusion While, in the absence of medical contraindications, decision making about contraception has often been conceptualized as a woman’s autonomous decision, our data indicate that providers of contraceptive counseling can participate in the decision-making process within limits. Differences in preferences seen by race/ethnicity illustrate one example of the importance of individualizing counseling to match women’s preferences. PMID:23177265
of obtaining medical assistance for a legitimate health care concern. How will medical amnesty affect me that if they seek medical assistance when there are health care concerns related to alcohol use, they will not faceMedical Amnesty Question and Answer Prepared by Rebecca Allen, MSU Student Health Services
Astbury, Jill; Bruck, Dorothy; Loxton, Deborah
The prevalence of forced sex and its contribution to sleep difficulties among young Australian women aged 24-30 years (n=9,061) was examined using data from the 2003 Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. The lifetime prevalence of reported forced sex was 8.7%. Significantly higher levels of recurrent sleep difficulties, prescription sleep medication, clinical depression, anxiety disorder, self-harm, and substance use, as well as lower socioeconomic status (SES) indicators, were reported by the forced sex group compared to the no forced sex group. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed the high odds (OR=1.95, CI=1.66-2.26) of recurrent sleep difficulty in such women becomes partially attenuated, but remains statistically significant, after adjusting for key psychological, SES, and behavioral variables. Clinical implications for primary care providers and sleep specialists are discussed. Sleep difficulties are highly prevalent and affect more than 30% of those seeking primary health care (Kushida et al., 2005). They negatively impact on the way a person feels and functions (Dinges et al., 1997) and make a significant contribution to accidents, health care costs, and problems at work (Roth, 2005). PMID:21776829
Lubetkin, Erica I.; Zabor, Emily C.; Isaac, Kathleen; Brennessel, Debra; Kemeny, M. Margaret; Hay, Jennifer L.
Objectives To assess heath literacy, health information seeking, and trust in health-related information among Haitian immigrants seen in primary care. Methods Health literacy was measured by the Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS); items on health information use were from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey. Results BHLS scores differed according to age, education, and survey language. Participants with lower levels of health literacy tended to be more likely to place “a lot” or “some” trust in family and friends and religious organizations and leaders as sources of information about health or medical topics. Conclusions Constructing a culturally-tailored and appropriate intervention regarding health promotion requires understanding how the population accesses and conveys health information. PMID:25741688
MacCormack, C P
In developing countries is medical technology transfer reaching women? Do women control new technologies or are they only passive recipients? What is the impact of these new technologies on women's health and welfare? To answer these questions this article explores concepts of health, technologies, and women, then gives findings from an extensive literature search on contraception, childbirth, immunization, essential drugs, oral rehydration therapy, water, sanitation, and breast-feeding. The article concludes with recommendations on pre-project planning studies, monitoring, and evaluation. PMID:2684870
Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.
Women veterans provide employers with a new and added source of well-educated, highly trained, and highly motivated employees. Women veterans possess an impressive range of skills in many diverse areas, including functional and administrative support, medical and dental specialties, communications and intelligence gathering, service and supply,…
Priscilla M. Flynn; E. Michael Foster; Brian C. Brost
We investigated the effect of indicators of acculturation among Somali refugee women’s birth outcomes. Data were extracted\\u000a from medical records of 584 Somali women delivering infants at a Midwestern hospital between 1993 and 2006. Bivariate analyses\\u000a measured relationships between independent factors and the dependent variables of gestational age and birthweight. Structural\\u000a equation modeling (SEM) determined the fit between factors hypothesized
Halgin, Richard P.; And Others
Investigated the relation of help-seeking history, sex, and depression to college students' attitudes, beliefs, and intentions about obtaining professional psychological help, using those who represented extremes of the depression continuum. Having sought help related positively to feelings about seeking help. The experience of depression,…
Gülpinar, Omer; Halilo?lu, Ahmet H; Abdulmajed, Mohamed Ismat; Bogga, Mehmet Salih; Yaman, Onder
In this study, we report data on attitudes, beliefs, and factors affecting the help-seeking interval among Turkish men with erectile dysfunction to determine whether they are different from those previously published in the literature. Out of 279 Turkish men complaining of erectile dysfunction attending our clinic between December 2006 and March 2008 without the need for referral, 202 were interviewed from a standardized questionnaire covering demographic details, relationships, help-seeking intervals, and attitudes and beliefs. Eleven patients interrupted the questionnaire and only 191 individuals who had never sought medical help for their erectile dysfunction completed the study. The mean age of the study population was 50.1 (20-80) years. Overall, 93.7% of participants had engaged in sexual intercourse during the year preceding the interview. The mean help-seeking interval and the mean estimated time elapsed since last satisfactory sexual intercourse were 24.5 (1-360) and 10.5 (1-180) months, respectively. Patients with low household income and education level had a relatively longer help-seeking interval than the remaining sample. No statistical correlation was seen between treatment-seeking interval and patient age, duration of marriage or continued relationship, and presence of premature ejaculation. Main reasons for delayed consultation included embarrassment (n = 63, 33%) and thinking of erectile dysfunction as a natural process of aging (n = 51, 26.7%). To enable earlier diagnosis and management of erectile dysfunction, emphasis should be put into the provision of affordable health care and wide public education about erectile dysfunction as an entity requiring prompt medical consultation. PMID:22016350
Schbley, Bassima H
This study examines if education, income, and medical insurance coverage are primary factors in determining whether menopausal women use hormone replacement therapy (HRT). To accomplish this purpose, the author conducted a survey of 62 women between 30 and 60 years of age. These women completed a self-administered questionnaire that provided both quantitative and qualitative information. The results suggest that these socioeconomic factors increase the likelihood that menopausal women will receive treatment with HRT. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:19418341
Grooten, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas; Wiktorin, Christina; Norrman, Linda; Josephson, Malin; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus; Alfredsson, Lars
This study estimated the 5-year cumulative incidence of neck/shoulder pain and identified work-related risk factors leading subjects to seek care for this problem. Four to six years after the case-referent MUSIC-Norrtälje Study, a postal questionnaire was sent to the referents of this study, and 81% responded. At baseline, 516 men and 697 women were assessed as to their work-related exposures. The 4- to 6-year cumulative incidence for seeking care for neck/shoulder pain was 29% for women and 18% for men. For men, moderately increased risks were found for manual handling, night work/shift work, hindrances at work, and solitary work. For men, the risk increased with an increasing number of risk indicators. No work-related risk factors were found for women, highlighting the difficulty of identifying risk factors in a general population. PMID:14767216
Carrier, Emily; Gourevitch, Marc N; Shah, Nirav R
The concept of the medical home has existed since the 1960s, but has recently become a focus for discussion and innovation in the health care system. The most prominent definitions of the medical home are those presented by the Patient-Centered Primary Care Collaborative, the National Committee for Quality Assurance, and the Commonwealth Fund. These definitions share: adoption of health information technology and decision support systems, modification of clinical practice patterns, and ensuring continuity of care. Each of these components is a complex undertaking, and there is scant evidence to guide assessment of diverse strategies for achieving their integration into a medical home. Without a shared vocabulary and common definitions, policy-makers seeking to encourage the development of medical homes, providers seeking to improve patient care, and payers seeking to develop appropriate systems of reimbursement will face challenges in evaluating and disseminating the medical home model. PMID:19536005
Rogers, C.; Sturdivant, A. W.; Rister, M.; Lacewell, R. D.
, or for that matter, the baseline model solution results. This cell cannot contain a formula, only real numbers.3 If you wish to return Set cell (i.e., the answer cell) to its beginning or starting value, simply reset the data-4 input cell (i.e., By changing cell...) to its original (prior) value. page 2 of 5 Using Goal Seek (generically) Step 1 ?: Click Tools in the Excel menu bar, and select Goal Seek. You will see a dialog box like this pop up: Step 2: - Enter the cell address containing the formula you ?know...
... form Search Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Medical Management Although there’s no cure for CMT, there are ... individualized physical therapy program. For more on medical management of CMT, see Surgery Sometimes, Bracing Often, Caution ...
... Risk Management (PDF - 1.1MB) Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff - Applying Human Factors and Usability Engineering to Optimize Medical Device Design Spotlight Guidance for Industry: Safety Considerations for Product Design to Minimize Medication ...
Fullilove, Mindy; And Others
The University of California San Francisco's Medical Scholars Program was designed to encourage women and minority students to consider careers in academic medicine. The program ensured academic success in the basic pre-medical courses through the use of peer learning groups and exposed students to research opportunities through informal…
Thureau, S; Le Blanc-Louvry, I; Thureau, S; Gricourt, C; Proust, B
Because few studies demonstrated the types of violence performed by women, the aim of our study was to access violence men against women as well as women against men. A retrospective study was performed based on all the medical certificates for victims who consulted our centre specialized in assault victims. Eleven percent of the victims were men (81 men, 626 women). Episodes of violence were most often repeated against women than men (p < 0.05). Injuring, in most cases mild, were more frequently found in men than women (p < 0.01). They were primarily cutaneous in 66% of cases (85% men, 64% women) and severe in 5% of cases i.e. fractures, with no difference in gender. Three cases of sexual assault and one case of chemical submission was observed in women. Insults were made more often by men than by women (p < 0.002). A psychological impact was more frequently found in women than in men (p < 0.01). The duration of the total incapacity (incapacité totale de travail = ITT) was less than 0-3 days in most cases, and this occurred more often in 91% men than in 65% women (p < 0.01). Consultations for domestic violence occur less frequently in men than in women. Men present more often with injuries that are less severe compared to those observed in women. In contrast, the psychological impact is less frequent in men. Also episodes of violence were most often repeated when the aggressor was a man. PMID:25735783
Research on women's dental health and on differences between men's and women's dental health issues is reviewed. Factors specifically influencing women's health, including medical, economic, social, psychological, and behavioral factors, are also examined. It is argued that the clustering of risk factors for women indicates a need for more…
Brian M Casey; Michael J Lucas; Donald D McIntire; Kenneth J Leveno
Objective: To compare pregnancy outcome in a homogeneous group of women with glucose intolerance with that of women without this disorder.Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of all women with singleton cephalic-presenting pregnancies delivered at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center during the period January 1, 1991, through December 31, 1995. During this period, women were screened selectively for
Caroline Moreau; Jean Bouyer; Hélčne Goulard; Nathalie Bajos
Although access to and knowledge of emergency contraception (EC) have improved, numerous unplanned pregnancies occur each year. We thus assessed the remaining barriers to EC use in a population of women seeking an abortion in four abortion centers in France in 2002.A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 1365 women. Most women have heard of EC (89%), but access to information
Sundby, Johanne; Svanemyr, Joar; Maehre, Tale
Study identified early entry points to sexuality, contraception, abortion, and post-abortion counseling. Young women (N=102) seeking an abortion or contraceptives were interviewed. Results showed there are different levels of consistency in contraceptive use among women, and that even women with few partners and fairly good contraceptive…
Adams, James D.; Garcia, Cecilia
Plants were, and still are, widely used for a number of conditions affecting women in California. This article discusses traditional remedies of the Chumash for dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome, feminine hygiene, heavy menstruation, urinary tract infections, parturition, lactation, infant care, menopause, sexually transmitted diseases, fertility, contraception and abortions. Many plants are presented including Artemisia douglasiana, Paeonia californica, Trichostema lanatum, Salvia apiana, Ephedra viridis, Leymus condensatus, Vitis californica, Eschscholzia californica, Rosa californica, Scirpus acutus, Anemopsis californica and Phoradendron macrophyllum. By providing the specific uses of plants for specific diseases and discussing chemistry, efficacy and safety concerns for each plant, we hope that this article gives direction to women seeking to use plants in their health care. PMID:16550233
Abstract-Mean shift, a simple iterative procedure that shifts each data point to the average of data points in its neighborhood, is generalized and analyzed in this paper. This generalization makes some k-means like clustering algorithms its special cases. It is shown that mean shift is a mode-seeking process on a surface constructed with a \\
Snider, Barry B.
are Discussed with Survivor Police Charges Are Filed by the Survivor No Police Charges are Filed A Community either or BOTH to local police and the Department of Student Rights and Community Standards. #12;#12;Incident Occurs Survivor Seeks to Disclose to a Brandeis Community Member Protocols and Resources
Alia Amin; Jacco Van Ossenbruggen; Lynda Hardman; Annelies Van Nispen
We report on our user study on the information seeking behavior of cultural heritage experts and the sources they use to carry out search tasks. Seventeen experts from nine cultural heritage institutes in the Netherlands were interviewed and asked to answer questionnaires about their daily search activities. The interviews helped us to bet- ter understand their search motivations, types, sources
Seeking Laboratory Accreditation Under ISO 15189 An ISO Revision for 2012 and Beyond Bio-Rad Laboratories Q C E d u C at i o n #12;www.bio-rad.com/qualitycontrol 1 Bio-Rad Laboratories Q C E d u C at i o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Improving Laboratory Quality with ISO 15189 Preparations and Considerations
Michael C. Seto; Martin L. Lalumičre; Vernon L. Quinsey
We examined the relationship between sensation seeking and the self-reports of both sexual interests and behaviours of 162 heterosexual male students and 60 heterosexual males recruited from the community. Because parental investment theory and previous research suggest that males' interest in sexual partner variety is constrained by females' preference for committed sexual relationships, we predicted that participants would desire to
Hill, Brian V.
In retrospect, Anselm's motto "fides quaerens intellectum" (faith seeking understanding) could fairly be taken to reflect the author's life's journey, beginning with a period of intellectual rebellion against the faith of his Methodist parents as he was entering adolescence. At the age of 14, however, in a revelatory moment, and unbeknown to…