Pakseresht, Sedigheh; Ingle, Gopal Krishna; Garg, Suneela; Sarafraz, Nahid
Background: Patients with cancer often delay seeking medical advice in developing countries. It can adversely influence the outcome of disease. Objectives: The present study was performed to determine the stage at diagnosis and delay in seeking medical care among women with breast cancer in Delhi, India. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on a census (case series) approach to reach all women (172) diagnosed with primary breast cancer “detected in surgery Out Patient Department (OPD) from January 2007 to December 2009” at Lok Nayak Hospital, Delhi, India. Patients were interviewed using a self-structure questionnaire. Seeking behavior variables were awareness of problem, first consultation, followed physician's advice, detection of problem, system of medicine and gap between knowing the problem and consultation (patient delay). Statistical Analysis was performed using the Microsoft SPSS-pc version 14.0 statistical program. The analytic methods were used (mean, standard deviation, X2, Fisher's Exact Test, K-S, Kruskal-Wallis) for variables. All statistical tests were performed at a significance level of 5% (P < 0.05). Results: the mean age of women was 46.99 years. 38.4% of women were ≤ 40 years. 61% of women were in stage IV of cancer at the time of diagnosis. The mean duration of gap between knowing the problem and consulting a physician (patients delay) was 10.90 months. There was no significant association between stage of cancer and consultation gap. A significant association was found between the stage of breast cancer and income; women with lower income had a higher stage of breast cancer (P < 005). Conclusions: A significant association was found between ages of women with their delays in consultation. Delay is still prevalent amongst women with breast cancer. It seems necessary to design educating programs for women in both clinical and community settings, about breast cancer and early detection practices. PMID:25763229
Sormanti, Mary; Shibusawa, Tazuko
Although intimate partner violence (IPV) may occur throughout a woman's life course, there has been a paucity of research on the experiences of victimization among midlife and older women. This article examines both the prevalence of IPV among a sample of women ages 50 to 64 (N = 620), who were recruited at an emergency department and primary care…
Belsky, J E
If the efforts now underway to limit access to abortion services in the United States are successful, their greatest impact will be on women who lack the funds to obtain abortions elsewhere. There is little published information, however, about the experience of medically indigent women who sought abortions under the old, restrictive state laws. This article details the psychiatric evaluation of 199 women requesting a therapeutic abortion at a large municipal hospital in New York City under a restrictive abortion law. Thirty-nine percent had tried to abort the pregnancy. Fifty-seven percent had concrete evidence of serious psychiatric disorder. Forty-eight percent had been traumatized by severe family disruption, gross emotional deprivation or abuse during childhood. Seventy-nine percent lacked emotional support from the man responsible for the pregnancy, and the majority were experiencing overwhelming stress from the interplay of multiple problems exacerbated by their unwanted pregnancy. PMID:1628716
Tiihonen Möller, Anna; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti
Objectives Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Methods Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital, Sweden. Baseline assessments of mental health were carried out and followed up after six months. Results Thirty-nine percent of the women had developed PTSD at the six month assessment, and 47% suffered from moderate or severe depression. The major risk factors for PTSD were having been sexually assaulted by more than one person, suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD) shortly after the assault, having been exposed to several acts during the assault, having been injured, having co-morbid depression, and having a history of more than two earlier traumas. Further, ASD on its own was found to be a poor predictor of PTSD because of the substantial ceiling effect after sexual assaults. Conclusions Development of PTSD is common in the aftermath of sexual assaults. Increased risk of developing PTSD is caused by a combination of victim vulnerability and the extent of the dramatic nature of the current assault. By identifying those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD appropriate therapeutic resources can be directed. PMID:25340763
30 single women attending the Auckland Medical Aid Center (AMAC) for an abortion during a 3-week period in May 1977 were interviewed about the factors leading up to the pregnancy, the impact of the pregnancy on their relationships with relevant others, and the process of obtaining an abortion. The prospective subjects were divided into 2 age groups, 16-20 and 21-25 years and 2 residence groups, Auckland city area or beyond this area. The proportion of the sample selected from each category was intended to approximate proportions as reported for all AMAC clientele. Of the 30 women interviewed, half were aged less than 20 years and half were more than 20. 24 of the women were European and the remainder Polynesian. 3 women had previously been married, in 2 cases resulting in children. 3 women had given birth; 2 of these women were solo parents while 1 woman had had her child adopted. All those who had either married or given birth were in the 21-25 year age group. In 20 cases the women had decided on abortion either before pregnancy even occurred or as soon as it was confirmed. This along with the fact that only 2 women in this sample actually made the decision to seek an abortion after arriving at the clinic suggests that counseling directed at helping women decide the future of the pregnancy after arrival at the hospital is largely superfluous. Other major problems of the women which caused considerable stress included obtaining a doctor's referral to AMAC, the physical difficulties in getting to AMAC, changes the pregnancy precipitated in relationships between women and those they confided in. 2/3 of the younger group made little or no use of contraception. None gave ignorance as a reason for nonuse. Women in the older age group tended to use more sophisticated techniques, such as oral contraception (OC), IUD, or diaphragm; the younger women relied on condoms or used nothing at all. In addition to the 7 women who had never used contraception, a further 12 women
Kligfeld, Marnin; Hoffman, Kaaren I.
To explore the antecedents of emotional distress among physicians, the relationship between year in medical school and student attitude toward seeking professional psychological help was investigated using students at the University of Southern California. For women, no attitudinal changes were noted; an early, significant positive change was…
Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Sabzevari, Sakineh; Negahban Bonabi, Tayebeh
Background Today, women empowering is an important issue. Several methods have been introduced to empower women. Health information seeking is one of the most important activities in this regard. A wide range of capabilities have been reported as outcomes of health information seeking in several studies. As health information seeking is developed within personal-social interactions and also the health system context, it seems that the qualitative paradigm is appropriate to use in studies in this regard. This study aimed to explore how women’s empowerment through health information seeking is done. Methods In this qualitative content analysis study, data collection was done with regard to inclusion criteria, through purposive sampling by semi-structured interviews with 17 women and using documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneous with data collection. Results Four central themes were emerged to explain women’s empowerment through health information seeking that included: a) Health concerns management with three subcategories of Better coping, Stress management, Control of situation, b) Collaborative care with two subcategories of Effective interaction with health professions and Participation in health decision making c) Individual development d) Self-protection with four sub- categories of Life style modification, Preventive behaviors promoting, Self-care promoting, and medication adherence. Conclusion The results of this study indicate the importance of women empowerment through foraging their health information seeking rights and comprehensive health information management. PMID:26005690
West, Lindsey M.
With the rise in advanced-degree seeking women and the minimal research on the dual impact of sexism and role overload, the current study aims to better understand the impact of sexism and role overload on psychological distress in a particular sample of advanced-degree seeking women. Seventy-six female medical student participants (mean age 24.7)…
In 1991, 4158 women from Ireland and 1766 from Northern Ireland traveled to England for abortions. This situation has been ignored by Irish authorities. The 1992 case of the 14-year old seeking an abortion in England finally caught legal attention. This study attempts to help define who these abortion seekers are. Questionnaires from 200 Irish abortion seeking women attending private Marie Stopes clinics in London and the British Pregnancy Advisory Services clinic in Liverpool between September 1988 and December 1990 were analyzed. Findings pertain to demographic characteristics, characteristics of first intercourse, family discussion of sexual activity, and contraceptive use. From this limited sample, it appears that Irish women are sexually reserved and without access to modern methods of birth control and abortion. Sex is associated with shame and guilt. 23% had intercourse before the age of 18 years and 42% after the age of 20. 76% were single and 16% were currently married. 95% were Catholic; 33% had been to church the preceding Sunday and 68% within the past month. Basic information about menstruation is also limited and procedures such as dilatation and curettage may be performed selectively. 28% of married women were uninformed about menstruation prior to its onset. Only 24% had been using birth control around the time of pregnancy. The reason for nonuse was frequently the unexpectedness of intercourse. 62% of adults and 66% of women believe in legalizing abortion in Ireland. British groups have tried to break through the abortion information ban by sending telephone numbers of abortion clinics to Irish firms for distribution to employees. On November 25, 1992, in the general election, there was approval of constitutional amendments guaranteeing the right to travel for abortions and to receive information on abortion access. The amendment to allow abortion to save the life of the mother was not accepted. PMID:1483530
Bean, Glynis; Kidder, Louise H.
Research on the characteristics of women in non-traditional fields, e.g., medicine, has yielded complex information in terms of adherence to sex-role stereotypes. To determine whether students' attitudes toward helping and achieving followed sex-role typing and were different at various stages in medical school, 384 male and female oncology…
Berin, Emilia; Sundell, Micaela; Karki, Chanda; Brynhildsen, Jan; Hammar, Mats
Objective To map the knowledge about and attitudes toward birth control methods among women in Kathmandu, Nepal, and to compare the results between women seeking an induced abortion and a control group. Method This was a cross-sectional cohort study with matched controls. Women aged 15–49 years seeking medical care at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Kathmandu Medical College were included and interviewed. A case was defined as a woman who sought an elective medical or surgical abortion. A control was defined as a woman who sought medical care at the outpatient department or had already been admitted to the ward for reasons other than elective abortion. A questionnaire developed for the study – dealing with different demographic characteristics as well as knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives – was filled out based on the interview. Results A total of 153 women were included: 64 women seeking an abortion and 89 controls. Women seeking an abortion had been pregnant more times than the control group and were more likely to have been informed about contraceptives. Women with higher education were less likely to seek an abortion than women with lower education. There was no significant difference in knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives between cases and controls. The women considered highest possible effectiveness to be the most important feature when deciding on a birth control method. Conclusion Women seeking abortion in Kathmandu had shorter education and a history of more pregnancies and deliveries than women in the control group. Education and counseling on sex and reproduction as well as on contraceptive methods probably need to be improved in Nepal to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Attitudes about contraceptives need to be further investigated to develop better and more effective methods to educate women about family planning in order to increase reproductive health. PMID:24672261
Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Bates, Lisa M; Islam, Farzana
This article seeks to deepen understanding of the reasons that abused women in a resource-poor rural setting seek recourse so seldom and with so little success. Data from in-depth interviews and group discussions are used to explore the range of responses to domestic violence and to examine barriers to recourse seeking. Findings illustrate how the combination of poverty and gender inequality, inequities in the legal framework, and patriarchal attitudes and corruption in both formal and informal institutions at the local level discourage abused women from seeking recourse and decrease the likelihood of a favorable outcome when they do. PMID:18292373
Scully, A L
The presence in the West of women physicians with degrees from regular medical schools spans a period of approximately 130 years. Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania graduated many of these early women physicians. The first woman medical graduate of a western school was Lucy M. Field Wanzer, who finished in 1876 at the Department of Medicine, University of California in San Francisco. Soon thereafter, schools that would become Stanford University and the Oregon Health Sciences University schools of medicine, as well as the newly founded University of Southern California, were contributing to the pool of women physicians. The University of Michigan Medical School, the first coeducational state medical school, also educated some of the western women physicians, who by 1910 numbered about 155. This regional account of the progress of women physicians as they strove to become an integral part of the profession emphasizes the familiar themes of altruism, ingenuity, and perseverance that characterized their efforts. Images PMID:3074578
Bankole, Akinrinola; Sedgh, Gilda; Oye-Adeniran, Boniface A; Adewole, Isaac F; Hussain, Rubina; Singh, Susheela
This study used data from a community-based survey to examine women's experiences of abortion in Nigeria. Fourteen percent of respondents reported that they had ever tried to terminate a pregnancy, and 10% had obtained an abortion. The majority of women who sought an abortion did so early in the pregnancy. Forty-two percent of women who obtained an abortion used the services of a non-professional provider, a quarter experienced complications and 9% sought treatment for complications from their abortions. Roughly half of the women who obtained an abortion used a method other than D&C or MVA. The abortion prevalence and conditions under which women sought abortions varied by women's socio-demographic characteristics. Because abortion is illegal in Nigeria except to save the woman's life, many women take significant risks to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Reducing the incidence of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion can significantly impact the reproductive health of women in Nigeria. PMID:17711597
Hoagland, K. Elaine
Women scientists met to make policy recommendations on issues related to the participation of women in scientific research. The group suggested programs that would reduce sex-role stereo-typing at the lower educational levels as a way to prevent the wastage of talent that they feel now occurs in the sciences. (Author/MA)
Background The current political climate with regards to abortion in the US, along with the economic recession may be affecting women’s reasons for seeking abortion, warranting a new investigation into the reasons why women seek abortion. Methods Data for this study were drawn from baseline quantitative and qualitative data from the Turnaway Study, an ongoing, five-year, longitudinal study evaluating the health and socioeconomic consequences of receiving or being denied an abortion in the US. While the study has followed women for over two full years, it relies on the baseline data which were collected from 2008 through the end of 2010. The sample included 954 women from 30 abortion facilities across the US who responded to two open ended questions regarding the reasons why they wanted to terminate their pregnancy approximately one week after seeking an abortion. Results Women’s reasons for seeking an abortion fell into 11 broad themes. The predominant themes identified as reasons for seeking abortion included financial reasons (40%), timing (36%), partner related reasons (31%), and the need to focus on other children (29%). Most women reported multiple reasons for seeking an abortion crossing over several themes (64%). Using mixed effects multivariate logistic regression analyses, we identified the social and demographic predictors of the predominant themes women gave for seeking an abortion. Conclusions Study findings demonstrate that the reasons women seek abortion are complex and interrelated, similar to those found in previous studies. While some women stated only one factor that contributed to their desire to terminate their pregnancies, others pointed to a myriad of factors that, cumulatively, resulted in their seeking abortion. As indicated by the differences we observed among women’s reasons by individual characteristics, women seek abortion for reasons related to their circumstances, including their socioeconomic status, age, health, parity and
Alkhalaf, Ahmad Abdullah
This study explored university students' information seeking behaviors related to prescription medication (PM) information. Specifically, it examined the different sources students use for PM information, their use and perceptions of online sources, the types of PM information they seek, their concerns about, and methods they apply to verify the…
Veale, David; Eshkevari, Ertimiss; Ellison, Nell; Costa, Ana; Robinson, Dudley; Kavouni, Angelica; Cardozo, Linda
Little is known about the factors associated with the desire for labiaplasty. We compared 55 women seeking labiaplasty with 70 women in a comparison group who were not seeking labiaplasty. Measures administered included the Perception of Appearance and Competency Related Teasing Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Disgust Scale Revised, and the Genital Appearance Satisfaction scale with open-ended questions about their genitalia. Approximately a third of the labiaplasty group recalled specific negative comments in the past towards their labia, a proportion significantly greater than the three per cent in the comparison group. Participants reporting genital teasing also showed higher Genital Appearance Satisfaction scores than those who were not teased. However, women seeking labiaplasty were, compared to the comparison group, no more likely to have a history of neglect or abuse during childhood. There was no difference between the groups on disgust sensitivity or the perception of being teased in the past about their competence or appearance in general. PMID:24239491
Wodrich, David L.; Kaplan, Allen M.
Recognizing barriers to academic success and full student development, some of which are medical in nature, is a primary task of school psychologists. Expanding biomedical information compels school-based psychologists to collaborate with medical professionals when their input can clarify diagnostic issues and expand treatment choices. This…
Fisher, M J; Ewigman, B; Campbell, J; Benfer, R; Furbee, L; Zweig, S
To assess the relationship of cognitive factors to a pregnant woman's decision to seek prenatal care, a semi-structured interview instrument was administered to 30 women soon after they were seen for care. A content analysis of interview transcripts was performed to identify variables affecting the decision to seek care. Variables were coded numerically, and those correlated with number of weeks gestation at first visit for pregnancy care were entered into a stepwise linear multiple regression model. Three variables accounted for 74% of the variance in the week of gestation at which pregnancy care began. Women who desired the pregnancy, wished confirmation of the pregnancy, and experienced pregnancy-related symptoms tended to seek care earlier. Results were discussed in terms of the usefulness of this integration of quantitative and qualitative methods for the study of factors related to seeking pregnancy care and the need to consider cognitive factors when designing programs to improve the delivery of prenatal care. PMID:1936719
Raker, Christina A.; Myers, Deborah L.; Clark, Melissa A.
Introduction and hypothesis The Autonomy Preference Index (API) and Control Preferences Scale (CPS) measure information-seeking and decision-making preferences. Our objective was to validate these scales in women with pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) and identify variables associated with decision-making preferences. Methods Women seeking care for PFDs completed the API and the CPS. Psychometric properties were determined. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of information-seeking and decision-making preferences. Results One hundred ten women were recruited. Both scales demonstrated good psychometric properties (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.5 to 0.7; Cronbach’s alpha = 0.8 for the API, and r=−0.3 between the API and CPS). Based on scores, women had strong preferences to be well informed, but were more neutral in their decision-making preferences. In multivariable analyses, higher education levels were associated with a stronger desire for seeking medical information. Conclusions Women seeking care for PFDs vary in their preferences for participating in treatment decisions. PMID:20424822
Lown, E. Anne; Schmidt, Laura A.; Wiley, James
Objectives. Exposure to violence is a widespread problem among women who receive welfare benefits. Research has focused on partner violence among women with children on Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), ignoring low-income women without dependent children who are eligible for General Assistance (GA). Methods. We report findings from a survey of 1235 women seeking TANF (N=1095) and GA (N=140) throughout a California county. Results. Estimates of recent physical, sexual, and severe violence were high in both populations. However, the highest rates occurred among women without children seeking GA, suggesting that they are at higher risk for sexual violence and more severe forms of physical violence, especially from intimate partners. This increased risk is partly accounted for by the co-occurrence of other serious health and social problems. In multivariate analyses, past-year violence was associated with substance use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5, 2.9), recent homelessness (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4, 2.6), family fragmentation including divorce or separation (AOR=3.1, 95% CI 1.8, 5.2), or foster care involvement (AOR=2.2, 95% CI=1.1, 4.5) Conclusions. Welfare reform created TANF programs to address domestic violence. Women seeking GA may need similar services because of the high prevalence of violence. PMID:16809602
Stokes, Sonya; Seritan, Andreea L; Miller, Elizabeth
This study explored patterns of abuse and care seeking among women victims of gender-based violence (GBV) in Afghanistan. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 Afghan women (M age = 19 years) living in a shelter for victims of GBV. Interviews were analyzed thematically. Participants reported experiencing multiple forms of abuse. The majority received medical treatment for abuse-related health concerns. However, less than half reported abuse to health care providers or were asked by health care providers about the context of their injuries. Strategies to improve health care responses to GBV are needed to ensure safety and support for Afghan women. PMID:26681300
Wu, Jiuling; Guo, Sufang; Qu, Chuanyan
A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence, type and severity of domestic violence (DV), and determine the factors related to DV among women seeking induced abortion in China. A total of 1215 women seeking induced abortion were interviewed. The results show that the prevalence of DV among participants was 22.6%. The violence included 18.1% sexual abuse, 7.8% physical abuse and 3.0% emotional abuse. Among abused women, 46 (16.8%) experienced violence frequently; 4.4% experienced three types of violence (sexual, physical and emotional violence). The number of times of having induced abortion in the abused group was significantly higher than that in the nonabused group (p<.001). There is statistically significant association between the occurrence of DV and relevant factors including fear of partner, quarreling with partner, partner's economic control, receiving the cold shoulder from partner (p<.001, OR 1.8-2.5). PMID:16022850
Dalle Grave, R; Calugi, S; Compare, A; El Ghoch, M; Petroni, M L; Colombari, S; Minniti, A; Marchesini, G
Studies on small samples or in single units applying specific treatment programmes found an association between some personality traits and attrition and weight loss in individuals treated for obesity. We aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment personality traits were associated with weight loss outcomes in the general population of women with obesity. Attrition and weight loss outcomes after 12 months were measured in 634 women with obesity (mean age, 48; body mass index (BMI), 37.8 kg m(-2)) seeking treatment at eight Italian medical centres, applying different medical/cognitive behavioural programmes. Personality traits were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), eating disorder features with the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ). Within the 12-month observation period, 32.3% of cases were lost to follow-up. After adjustment for demographic confounders and the severity of eating disorders, no TCI personality traits were significantly associated with attrition, while low scores of the novelty seeking temperament scale remained significantly associated with weight loss ≥ 10% (odds ratio, 0.983; 95% confidence interval, 0.975-0.992). Additional adjustment for education and job did not change the results. We conclude that personality does not systematically influence attrition in women with obesity enrolled into weight loss programmes in the community, whereas an association is maintained between novelty seeking and weight loss outcome. Studies adapting obesity interventions on the basis of individual novelty seeking scores might be warranted to maximize the results on body weight. PMID:26256916
Ward, Earlise C.; Clark, Le Ondra; Heidrich, Susan
Little is known about African American women's beliefs about mental illness. In this qualitative study we employed the Common Sense Model (CSM) to examine African American women's beliefs about mental illness, coping behaviors, barriers to treatment seeking, and variations in beliefs, coping, and barriers associated with aging. Fifteen community-dwelling African American women participated in individual interviews. Dimensional analysis, guided by the CSM, showed that participants believed general, culturally specific, and age-related factors can cause mental illness. They believed mental illness is chronic, with negative health outcomes. Participants endorsed the use of prayer and counseling as coping strategies, but were ambivalent about the use of medications. Treatment-seeking barriers included poor access to care, stigma, and lack of awareness of mental illness. Few age differences were found in beliefs, coping behaviors, and barriers. Practice and research implications are discussed. PMID:19843967
Kumar, Rajesh; Zavier, A J Francis; Kalyanwala, Shveta; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J
Many abortion seekers in India attempt to induce abortion on their own, by accessing oral medication/preparations from a chemist without a prescription or from an unauthorized provider, and present at registered facilities if these attempts fail. However, little is known about those whose efforts fail or the ways in which programmes and policies may address the needs of such women. This paper explores the experiences of women whose efforts failed, including their socio-demographic profile, the preparations they used, and the extent to which they experienced serious complications, delayed seeking care from an authorized provider, or delayed abortion until the second trimester of pregnancy. Data come from a larger study assessing the feasibility of the provision of medical abortion by non-physicians; a total of 3394 women who sought medical abortion from selected clinical settings in Bihar and Jharkhand between 2008 and 2010 constitute the sample. Prior to visiting the clinic, nearly a third of these women (31%) had made at least one unsuccessful attempt to terminate the unwanted pregnancy by using a range of oral medications/preparations available over-the-counter in medical shops. Logistic regression analysis suggests that educated women (OR 1.6-1.7), those from urban areas (OR 6.2) and those from Bihar (OR 1.6) were significantly more likely than women with no education, rural women and those from Jharkhand to have used such medication. Also notable is that the average gestational age of women who had made a previous attempt to terminate their pregnancy was almost identical to that of women who had not done so when they presented at the registered facility. These findings may inform policies and programmes that seek to identify and reduce the potential risks associated with unauthorized abortion-seeking practices, and highlight the need to fully inform women, chemists and providers about oral medications, what works and what does not, and how effective medication
Marlow, Heather M; Biswas, Kamal; Griffin, Risa; Menzel, Jamie
Menstrual regulation has been legal in Bangladesh since 1974, but the use of medication for menstrual regulation is new. In this study, we sought to understand women's experiences using medication for menstrual regulation in Bangladesh. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with rural and urban women between December 2013 and February 2014. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computer recorded and coded for analysis. The majority of women in our study had had positive experiences with medication for menstrual regulation and successful outcomes, regardless of whether they obtained their medication from medicine sellers/pharmacies, doctors or clinics. Women were strongly influenced by health providers when deciding which method to use. There is a need to educate not only women of reproductive age, but also communities as a whole, about medication for menstrual regulation, with a particular emphasis on cost and branding the medication. Continued efforts to improve counselling by providers about the dose, medication and side-effects of medication for menstrual regulation, along with education of the community about medication as an option for menstrual regulation, will help to de-stigmatise the procedure and the women who seek it. PMID:26529099
Background The working population is ageing, which will increase the number of workers with chronic health complaints, and, as a consequence, the number of workers seeking health care. It is very important to understand factors that influence medical care-seeking in order to control the costs. I will investigate which work characteristics independently attribute to later care-seeking in order to find possibilities to prevent unnecessary or inefficient care-seeking. Methods Data were collected in a longitudinal two-wave study (n = 2305 workers). The outcome measures were visits (yes/no and frequency) to a general practitioner (GP), a physical therapist, a medical specialist and/or a mental health professional. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out separately for men and women for workers with health complaints. Results In the Dutch working population, personal, health, and work characteristics, but not sickness absence, were associated with later care-seeking. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the frequency of visits to the GP. Women experience more health complaints and seek health care more often than men. For women, experiencing a work handicap (health complaints that impede work performance) was the only work characteristic associated with more care-seeking (GP). For men, work characteristics that led to less care-seeking were social support by colleagues (GP frequency), high levels of decision latitude (GP frequency) and high levels of social support by the supervisor (medical specialist). Other work characteristics led to more care-seeking: high levels of engagement (GP), full time work (GP frequency) and experiencing a work handicap (physical therapist). Conclusions We can conclude that personal and health characteristics are most important when explaining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking
Wamala, Sarah; Merlo, Juan; Boström, Gunnel; Hogstedt, Christer
Study objective To analyse the association between perceived discrimination and refraining from seeking required medical treatment and the contribution of socioeconomic disadvantage. Design and setting Data from the Swedish National Survey of Public Health 2004 were used for analysis. Respondents were asked whether they had refrained from seeking required medical treatment during the past 3 months. Perceived discrimination was based on whether respondents reported that they had been treated in a way that made them feel humiliated (due to ethnicity/race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, age or disability). The Socioeconomic Disadvantage Index (SDI) was developed to measure economic deprivation (social welfare beneficiary, being unemployed, financial crisis and lack of cash reserves). Participants Swedish population‐based survey of 14 736 men and 17 115 women. Main results Both perceived discrimination and socioeconomic disadvantage were independently associated with refraining from seeking medical treatment. Experiences of frequent discrimination even without any socioeconomic disadvantage were associated with three to nine‐fold increased odds for refraining from seeking medical treatment. A combination of both frequent discrimination and severe SDI was associated with a multiplicative effect on refraining from seeking medical treatment, but this effect was statistically more conclusive among women (OR = 11.6, 95% CI 8.1 to 16.6; Synergy Index (SI) = 2.0 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.2)) than among men (OR = 12, 95% CI 7.7 to 18.7; SI = 1.6 (95% CI 1.3 to 2.1)). Conclusions The goal of equitable access to healthcare services cannot be achieved without public health strategies that confront and tackle discrimination in society and specifically in the healthcare setting. PMID:17435207
Jin, Xuan; Wang, Gongxian; Liu, Sisun; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Fang; Qiu, Yun; Huang, Xiaojin
Background. In previous studies, people's knowledge of reproductive health and infertile women's psychological states was surveyed in several countries. However, there has been limited information concerning the psychological states of infertile women seeking treatment and the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in China. Methods. Infertile women were asked to complete short questionnaires on the day that their oocytes were retrieved; these questionnaires covered the durations of their infertility, levels of education, sources of pressure, and psychological states. Data concerning IVF outcomes were provided by embryologists and clinicians. The correlations between the duration of infertility and educational level, psychological state and education level, and psychological state and outcome of IVF were analyzed in the cohort study. Results. The duration of infertility in more than half of the females was longer than 5 years. Compared with less-educated women, women with higher levels of education sought treatment earlier and their rates of depressive symptoms were lower. There is an association between negative emotions and outcome of IVF. Conclusions. The survey of the situations of infertile women seeking IVF treatment in China indicates the importance of popularizing knowledge concerning reproductive health. Improving medical conditions, reducing the costs of treatment, and developing social culture will aid in relieving the stress of infertile women and improving assisted reproductive treatment. PMID:24369006
Riessman, C K; Whalen, M H; Frost, R O; Morgenthau, J E
Although previous research shows that adult women in intimate relations tend to enjoy better health than women without partners, this study finds the opposite tends to be true for late adolescent women. We followed a college entering class prospectively for 4 years and measured romantic involvement and various aspects of health and illness behavior in a questionnaire. Health service use was determined from the medical record, and disaggregated into distress and health maintenance visits, as well as visits expressly for psychological counseling. First year students who were romantically involved had more physical symptoms, more medical visits, but not more counseling visits, than non-involved women. At senior year, they continued to have more health maintenance, more counseling, but not more distress visits, and they tended to experience greater interference in social role performance due to illness when compared to non-involved women. When several mediators of the relationship between romantic involvement and health service use were controlled-number and intensity of physical symptoms, sexual activity, stress in the relationship, and social network characteristics--the differences persisted. Romance appears to motivate help-seeking among late adolescent women for reasons that are not easily explained empirically. Recent work on adolescent women's development offers theoretical leads that can guide future investigations. PMID:1807069
Leone, Janel M; Lape, Megan E; Xu, Yili
This study examined the help-seeking decisions of low-income women (n = 389) in two types of physically violent heterosexual relationships-intimate terrorism (i.e., physical violence used within a general pattern of coercive control) and situationally violent (i.e., physical violence that is not part of a general pattern of coercive control). Intimate terrorism victims were significantly more likely than situational couple violence victims to cite fear as a reason for not seeking help from the police, medical centers, and counselors/agencies. In contrast, situational couple violence victims more often said that they did not need help. Regression analyses also indicate that additional violence-related factors predict women's help-seeking. Findings emphasize the importance of distinguishing between types of male partner violence and recognizing women's exertions of personal choice and perceptions of dangerousness when examining their decisions about seeking help from service providers. PMID:24366964
Minassian, Vatche A; Yan, Xiaowei; Lichtenfeld, Marc J; Sun, Haiyan; Stewart, Walter F
Aims To determine predictors of health care utilization in women with urinary incontinence (UI) from the population to specialty care. Methods The General Longitudinal Overactive Bladder Evaluation – UI is a population-based study on the natural history of UI in women ≥ 40 years of age. Prevalence of UI was estimated by using the bladder health survey (BHS). Survey data were linked with electronic health records (EHR) to examine factors associated with a clinical UI diagnosis using logistic regression. Risk factors analyzed included: UI symptoms, subtypes, bother, severity, duration and effect on quality of life, and demographic and other health characteristics. All statistical tests were two-sided with a p-value < 0.05 being significant. Results The overall prevalence of any UI based on responses to the BHS was 1,618/4064 (40%). Of the 1,618 women with UI, there were only 398 (25%) women with EHR (clinical) diagnosis of UI. Women with UI versus those without UI were more likely to be have a BMI >25kg/m2 (70% versus 58%), more likely to be parous (91% versus 87%) and college educated (54% versus 46%), P<0.001. After adjusting for confounders in the model, variables significantly associated with clinical UI diagnosis included: older age (OR=1.96), higher parity (> 1 birth) (OR=1.76), higher urgency UI (OR=1.08), adaptive behavior (OR=1.2), and UI bother scores (OR=1.01), as well as more frequent outpatient visits (OR=1.03), P<0.05. Conclusions UI is a highly prevalent condition with only a minority of women seeking care. Factors associated with health care utilization include older age, parity (1+), number of doctor visits, urgency UI subtype, UI bother and impact on behavior. PMID:22378605
Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schally, Jennifer L.
The current study aimed to examine formal and informal help-seeking responses to interpersonal victimization among a national sample of Latino women. In addition, an examination of help-seeking by victimization type was undertaken. Data came from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas (SALAS) study that obtained help-seeking rates among a victimized…
This article examines online women-seeking-women (WSW) personal ads that engage with tomboy identities and ideologies. This research demonstrates the importance of body and physicality among lesbian personal ads and the diversity of women using online personal ads. The meaning of "tomboy" in the language of WSW personal ads suggests major themes of use including: as an intermediate identity distinct within a butch/femme dichotomy, as a tempering agent for traditional femininity, as a fluid construct of personality, physicality, and body, as an understood descriptor of a particular aesthetic or physicality, and as synonymous with butch. To be a tomboy is to be simultaneously understood as a social stereotype, but also as complex, fluid, and of multiple meanings. PMID:21973069
This research explores the problems that women professors encounter when combining the pursuit of tenure with having and raising children. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 women academics at one Canadian university. These women believe that engaging in childbearing/childrearing practices prior to obtaining tenure is detrimental to their…
Dhanjal, Mandish K
Women with medical disease have a higher incidence of maternal mortality compared with healthy women, with cardiac disease now being the most common cause of maternal death in the UK. A handful of medical conditions exist where pregnancy is not recommended due to mortality rates approaching 50%. It is imperative that such women have the most reliable methods of contraception available. Contraceptive agents may themselves affect medical disease, or may interact with medications used by such women. There may be a range of contraceptive agents suitable for each medical condition. The contraceptive selected should be tailored to suit the individual. The following points should be considered when deciding on the most appropriate contraceptive agent: efficacy, thrombotic risk (oestrogen containing contraceptives), arterial risks (oestrogen containing contraceptives), infective risk (e.g. insertion of intrauterine device [IUD]), vagal stimulation (e.g. insertion of IUD, ESSURE®), bleeding risks with patients on anticoagulants, interaction with concomitant drugs, effects of anaesthesia and ease of use. This review aims to cover the different contraceptive agents available and the best ones to use for certain medical illnesses. PMID:27582790
Oshi, Daniel C; Oshi, Sarah N; Alobu, Isaac N; Ukwaja, Kingsley N
This is a qualitative, descriptive study to explore gender-related factors that influence health seeking for tuberculosis (TB) care by women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. In-depth interviews based on interview guides were conducted with participants selected through purposive sampling in communities in the state. The results show that gender relations prohibit women from seeking care for symptoms of TB and other diseases outside their community without their husbands' approval. Gender norms on intra-household resource ownership and control divest women of the power to allocate money for health care seeking. Yet, the same norms place the burden of spending on health care for minor illnesses on women, and such repeated, out-of-pocket expenditures on health care at the village level make it difficult for women to save money for use for health care seeking for major illnesses such as TB, which, even if subsidized, still involves hidden costs such as transport fare. The opening hours of TB clinics do not favour their use by most women as they are open when women are usually engaged in income-generating activities. Attending the clinics may therefore entail opportunity costs for many women. People with chronic, infectious diseases such as TB and HIV are generally stigmatized and avoided. Women suffer more stigma and discrimination than men. Stigma and discrimination make women reluctant to seek care for TB until the disease is advanced. Policies and programmes aimed at increasing women's access to TB services should not only take these gender norms that disempower women into explicit consideration but also include interventions to address them. The programmes should integrate flexible opening hours for TB treatment units, including introduction of evening consultation for women. Interventions should also integrate anti-stigma strategies led by the community members themselves. PMID:26627885
Ambrose, Graham; Amlani, Ashraf; Buxton, Jane A
Objectives This study sought to identify factors that may be associated with help-seeking by witnesses during overdoses where naloxone is administered. Setting Overdose events occurred in and were reported from the five regional health authorities across British Columbia, Canada. Naloxone administration forms completed following overdose events were submitted to the British Columbia Take Home Naloxone programme. Participants All 182 reported naloxone administration events, reported by adult men and women and occurring between 31 August 2012 and 31 March 2015, were considered for inclusion in the analysis. Of these, 18 were excluded: 10 events which were reported by the person who overdosed, and 8 events for which completed forms did not indicate whether or not emergency medical help was sought. Primary and secondary outcome measures Seeking emergency medical help (calling 911), as reported by participants, was the sole outcome measure of this analysis. Results Medical help was sought (emergency services—911 called) in 89 (54.3%) of 164 overdoses where naloxone was administered. The majority of administration events occurred in private residences (50.6%) and on the street (23.4%), where reported rates of calling 911 were 27.5% and 81.1%, respectively. Overdoses occurring on the street (compared to private residence) were significantly associated with higher odds of calling 911 in multivariate analysis (OR=10.68; 95% CI 2.83 to 51.87; p<0.01), after adjusting for other variables. Conclusions Overdoses occurring on the street were associated with higher odds of seeking emergency medical help by responders. Further research is needed to determine if sex and stimulant use by the person who overdosed are associated with seeking emergency medical help. The results of this study will inform interventions within the British Columbia Take Home Naloxone programme and other jurisdictions to encourage seeking emergency medical help. PMID:27329442
Mainuddin, AKM; Ara Begum, Housne; Rawal, Lal B.; Islam, Anwar; Shariful Islam, SM
Objective: Over the last few decades, Bangladesh has made significant progress towards achieving targets for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and women empowerment. This study is aimed at identifying the levels and patterns of women empowerment in relation to health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 200 rural married women in Cox’s Bazar district in Bangladesh using multi stage sampling technique and face-to-face interview. Data was collected on socio-economic characteristics, proxy indicators for women empowerment in mobility and health seeking behavior related decision making. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify associations between women empowerment in relation to health seeking behavior on mobility and decision making, controlling the effect of other independent variables. Results: The results showed that only 12% women were empowered to decide on their own about seeking healthcare and 8.5% in healthcare seeking for their children. In multivariate analysis women empowerment in health seeking behavior was higher among age group 25-34 years (OR 1.76, [CI = 0.82-3.21]), women’s education, husband’s education, age at marriage > 18 years (OR 6.38, [CI = 0.98-4.21]) and women’s working status (OR 16.44, [CI = 0.79-2.71]). Conclusion: Women empowerment enhances their decision-making authority regarding health seeking behavior. Acknowledging and adopting the implications of these findings are essential for an integrated health and development strategy for Bangladesh and achieving the MDGs. PMID:26175761
Miville, Marie L.; Constantine, Madonna G.
The authors explored the extent to which Asian American college women's perceived stigma about counseling mediated the relationship between their adherence to Asian cultural values and intentions to seek counseling, Participants, 201 Asian American college women (age range = 18-24 years), completed measures of Asian cultural values, perceived…
Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja
Background. Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. Conclusion. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high. PMID:26078881
Gil-Llario, María Dolores; Morell-Mengual, Vicente; Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Giménez-García, Cristina; Castro-Calvo, Jesus
This study analyzes the relation of sexual orientation and gender to sexual sensation seeking. Participants were 382 individuals (200 men, 182 women) between 17 and 29 years old who completed the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale. Of the 382 participants, 52.46% self-reported heterosexual orientation, and 47.64% self-reported homosexual orientation. The results showed differences with Sexual Sensation Seeking being more frequent among heterosexuals and men. There were no differences between heterosexual and homosexual men. Heterosexual women had higher sexual sensation seeking scores than did homosexual women. These results and their possible implications for the effective development of prevention and intervention programs in affective-sexual education are discussed. PMID:24918266
Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Smith, Phillip N
Women seeking shelter from intimate partner violence are at an increased risk for suicide ideation and attempts compared to women in the general population. Control-based violence, which is common among shelter-seeking women, may play a pivotal role in the development of suicide ideation and attempts. Current risk assessment and management practices for shelter-seeking women are limited by the lack of an empirically grounded understanding of increased risk in this population. We argue that in order to more effectively promote risk assessment and management, an empirically supported theory that is sensitive to the experiences of shelter-seeking women is needed. Such a theory-driven approach has the benefits of identifying and prioritizing targetable areas for intervention. Here, we review the evidence for the link between coercive control and suicide ideation and attempts from the perspective of Baumeister's escape theory of suicide. This theory has the potential to explain the role of coercive control in the development of suicide ideation and eventual attempts in shelter-seeking women. Implications for suicide risk assessment and prevention in domestic violence shelters are discussed. PMID:24415137
Hyman, Ilene; Forte, Tonia; Mont, Janice Du; Romans, Sarah; Cohen, Marsha M
We examined rates of help seeking for intimate partner violence (IPV) among recent (0-9 years in Canada) and non-recent (10+ years in Canada) immigrant women. Data from a national, cross-sectional, telephone survey were used. Help-seeking variables included disclosure of IPV, reporting IPV to police, use of social services subsequent to IPV, and barriers to social service use. Recent immigrant women, compared with non-recent immigrant women, were significantly more likely to report IPV to police and less likely to use social services. Findings have important implications for prevention and detection of IPV in immigrant communities and in future research. PMID:16893805
Gerbing, Kim-Kristin; Thiel, Ansgar
Medical care in sport comprises a variety of treatments, from scientifically proven biomedicine to complementary and alternative medicine. Information and knowledge about these diverse treatment options is spread by different sources. Thus, athletes encounter information of varying content, quality and background. This exploratory pilot study addresses athletes' medical opinions, their health-related information seeking behaviour and the knowledge sources they utilise. Questionnaires were used to examine n = 110 German athletes (n(male) = 69, n(female) = 41; mean(age) = 24.28 ± 4.97 years) at high performance levels (national team and/or European championship and/or World championship n = 22; first national league and/or German championship n = 51, second national league and/or State championship n = 37) from various Olympic sports. A cluster analysis regarding the athletes' attitudes towards sport medicine exhibited four different types of athletes: 'the autonomous athlete', 'the open-minded athlete', 'the functionalistic athlete' and 'the conservative athlete'. In general, our findings show that the most used and trusted information sources are physicians and physiotherapists. However, medical information is trusted the most if it is experience- and field-tested, and comes from the athletes' sport-specific network. Our findings also suggest that professional medical knowledge management in competitive sport is needed. PMID:25563758
Kostick, Kristin M; Schensul, Stephen L; Jadhav, Kalpita; Singh, Rajendra; Bavadekar, Amruta; Saggurti, Niranjan
Vaginal discharge (safed pani in Hindi, meaning "white water") is one of the leading symptoms for which women in India seek care. Treatment-seeking for safed pani is disproportionately high among poor women, representing a physical, emotional and financial burden for low-income families. Safed pani is only rarely indicative of a reproductive tract or sexually transmitted infection. The discrepancy between symptom reports and observed pathology has led some researchers to characterize safed pani as a culturally based expression of more generalized negative life situation. Data are drawn from two prevention intervention studies (2002-2006 and 2007-2012) conducted in economically marginal communities in Mumbai. Results show that husbands as problem generators and spousal abusers and women's greater perceived empowerment and reported tension are significantly associated with safed pani. These results provide the basis for identifying women at greater risk for psychosocial distress and providing supports at the locations at which they seek treatment. PMID:20533080
Norsa'adah, Bachok; Rahmah, Mohd Amin; Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Knight, Aishah
Delay in help-seeking behaviour which is potentially preventable has a major effect on the prognosis and survival of patients with breast cancer. The objective of this study was to explore reasons for delay in seeking help among patients with breast cancer from the East Coast of peninsular Malaysia. A qualitative study using face- to-face in-depth interview was carried out involving 12 breast cancer patients who had been histo-pathologically confirmed and were symptomatic on presentation. Respondents were selected purposely based on their history of delayed consultation, diagnosis or treatment. All were of Malay ethnicity and the age range was 26-67 years. Three were in stage ll, seven in stage lll and two in stage lV. At the time of interview, all except one respondent had accepted treatment. The range of consultation time was 0.2-72.2 months with a median of 1.7 months, diagnosis time was 1.4-95.8 months( median 5.4 months )and treatment time was 0-33.3 months (median 1.2 months). The themes derived from the study were poor knowledge or awareness of breast cancer, fear of cancer consequences, beliefs in complementary alternative medicine, sanction by others, other priorities, denial of disease, attitude of wait and see and health care system weakness. Help-seeking behaviour was influenced by a complex interaction of cognitive, environmental, beliefs, culture and psycho-social factors. Breast cancer awareness and psychological counselling are recommended for all patients with breast symptoms to prevent delay in seeking clinical help. PMID:23098462
Elizabeth, Adhapillil Mathai; Khan, Abdul Mazeed; Rashid, Wahid
Background: The study tries to understand what are the dimensions of Reproductive Health care seeking behavior among the urban slum women in Delhi, their level of awareness and treatment seeking patterns? Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in one of the slum in south district of Delhi. 253 women of reproductive age group were selected by systematic random sampling. Interpersonal interview was conducted to seek information on the selected parameter. Results: Around three/fourth women had undergone for blood pressure check up, weight recording and stomach/abdomen check up during pregnancy. Only 39.9% received advice on avoiding intake of medicine during pregnancy. About 14.6% mentioned that at least 40 days rest were required for resuming daily routine activities after delivery. Thus majority of these slum women are ignorant about the importance of post natal care which was necessary for post delivery care of the women and her infant. Conclusion: The correct knowledge on the importance of ANC and PNC and various checkups need to be carried out during pregnancy and postnatal period needs to be imparted to these women. Thus, health education and health promotion campaigns are needed for bring changes in the existing health-seeking behaviors among urban slum women. PMID:27462629
Johnson, Katherine M.; Johnson, David R.
We examined male partners' influence on the decision to seek medical help for infertility using the National Study of Fertility Barriers. Building upon an existing help-seeking framework, we incorporated characteristics of both partners from 219 heterosexual couples who had ever perceived a fertility problem. In logistic regression analyses, we…
Magid, David J.; Houry, Debra; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Ziller, Andrew; Soules, Michael R.; Jenny, Carole
Women who seek medical care following sexual assault are usually evaluated and treated in an emergency department (ED). Therefore, EDs can be an important source of sexual assault surveillance data. The authors compared the incidence of sexual assault presenting for emergency care in a single county during July to November of 1974 and 1991.…
Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Trivers, Katrina F; Stewart, Sherri L
To investigate U.S. women's intended care seeking for symptoms associated with ovarian cancer, data from the 2012 HealthStyles Fall survey of U.S. adults were examined. Analyses were limited to women with no history of gynecologic cancer (N = 1726). Logistic regression models for intended care seeking within 2 weeks of symptom onset were developed. A minority of women recognized that unexplained pelvic or abdominal pain (29.9%), unexplained bloating (18.1%), and feeling full after eating a small amount of food (10.1%) can indicate ovarian cancer, and 31.1% mistakenly believed that the Papanicolaou (Pap) test screens for the disease. In the multivariate regression models, the most consistent, significant predictors (p < 0.01) of intended care seeking within 2 weeks of symptom onset were age (older women were more likely to seek care) and awareness that symptoms could signal ovarian cancer. Care seeking in response to ovarian cancer symptoms may be delayed among younger women and those who do not recognize the potential significance of symptoms. Raising awareness of ovarian cancer symptoms may promote early detection. However, educational efforts should emphasize that symptoms associated with ovarian cancer may also result from benign conditions. PMID:27419020
Parrish, Marilyn McKinley; Taylor, Edward W.
Oral history interviews form the basis of an investigation into both the context and the everyday actions that contributed to the learning environment for women within the Catholic Worker Movement during the 1930s and 1940s. Findings reveal that narrators (a) were grounded in a variety of learning environments including family, Catholic Church,…
Prouty, Anne M.; Protinsky, Howard O.; Canady, Donna
Late adolescent college women (N=578) were surveyed regarding eating disorders. Participants found to have eating disorders were younger and more likely to be white, in a sorority, and Christian. Additionally, they were most likely to say that they would prefer a close friend to support them when dealing with disordered eating, followed by their…
This grounded theory study in California, United States was an inquiry into the perceptions of health of Cambodian women in resettlement. The sequelae of significant life trauma on the health of women who escaped political conflict have received little attention in the nursing literature. Thirty-nine Cambodian women were recruited through a social service organization and verbal referrals. Open-ended questions and a conversational approach to dialogue and data gathering facilitated the interview process. Women were interviewed at home or the local temple. Seeking life balance emerged as the core perspective of this study. The relationships between thematic categories of seeking life balance, patterns of knowing, and caring for self were salient. Outcomes of these interrelationships further moved women's health toward disharmony or harmony. The findings of this study are limited by sampling participants in a tightly networked community and may serve as a pilot for future research. PMID:23545697
McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Namy, Sophie; Nyoni, Joyce; Rweyemamu, Datius; Salvatory, Adrophina; Steven, Ester
In Tanzania, 44% of women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime, but the majority never seeks help, and many never tell anyone about their experience. Even among the minority of women who seek support, only 10% access formal services. Our research explored the social and structural barriers that render Tanzanian women unable to exercise agency in this critical domain of their lives. We collected qualitative data in three regions of Tanzania through 104 key informant interviews with duty bearers and participatory focus groups with 96 male and female community members. The findings revealed numerous sociocultural barriers to help-seeking, including gendered social norms that accept IPV and impose stigma and shame upon survivors. Because IPV is highly normalised, survivors are silenced by their fear of social consequences, a fear reinforced by the belief that it is women's reporting of IPV that brings shame, rather than the perpetration of violence itself. Barriers to help-seeking curtail women's agency. Even women who reject IPV as a 'normal' practice are blocked from action by powerful social norms. These constraints deny survivors the support, services and justice they deserve and also perpetuate low reporting and inaccurate estimates of IPV prevalence. PMID:26156577
... to medical care, National Health Interview Survey Does health insurance coverage differ by race and ethnicity for young ... having health insurance coverage. Definitions Terms related to health insurance Health insurance coverage: Health insurance is broadly defined ...
Ladjali, M; Toubia, N
Female Circumcision (FC) is "the total or partial cutting away of the female external genital organs." There are 3 types of FC: 1) Sunna where the foreskin of the clitoris is removed; 2) excision which involved removal of a part or all of the clitoris with a part or all of the labia minora; and 3) infibulation or pharaonic circumcision (the most severe type) which includes excision and removal of the labia majora only leaving a small hole to allow the exit of urine and menstrual fluid. FC carries the high risk of HIV infection because it is often practiced without anesthesia and with either a razor blade or a knife. The damages go beyond the physical--they include long-term side effects on women's physical and psychological health. The international battle against FC includes a series of legislative and political acts: 1) In 1946 the British Colonial government made one of the earliest efforts of its kind by making pharaonic circumcision in Sudan a felony and punishable by imprisonment; 2) In 1959 Egypt passed a law making circumcision illegal; 3) In 1977 the Special Committee of Non- Governmental Organizations on Human Rights of the United Nations in collaboration with WHO and UNICEF organized a sub-committee to investigate the status of women in 20 African countries and published a report; 4) In 1979 WHO held a conference in Sudan entitled "The Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children" whose outcomes were published in a report; 5) In 1980 WHO forbade the practice of FC; 6) In 1984 a Pan-African seminar was held in Dakar, Senegal that established the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Practices Affecting Women and Children (IAC); 7) In 1985 the UN Nairobi Conference on The Women's Decade passed resolutions against FC; 8) In 1988 the 39th Assembly of the WHO/Africa Region passed a resolution calling for the abolition of female sexual mutilation. Presidents of several African countries have condemned FC including Benin, Burkina Faso
Hill, Erin M
The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of emotional and instrumental social support seeking in the quality of life (QOL) and mental health of women with ovarian cancer. Participants were recruited through the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and one hundred women took part in a mail questionnaire that collected information on their demographics, medical status, social support seeking, QOL and mental health including anxiety, depression and stress. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the influence of emotional and instrumental social support seeking on QOL and mental health. After controlling for remission status, greater emotional social support seeking was predictive of higher overall QOL, social/family QOL, functional QOL and lower depression scores. Instrumental social support seeking was not significant in the models. The results illustrate that social support seeking as a coping mechanism is an important consideration in the QOL and mental health of women with ovarian cancer. Future studies should examine the psychological and behavioral mediators of the relationship to further understand the QOL and mental health of women with ovarian cancer. PMID:26549407
Pakgohar, Minoo; Sabetghadam, Shadi; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan
Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common condition, especially in middle-aged and older women. UI is known to affect sexual function. Many women with UI do not consult a doctor about their condition. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of sexual function and help seeking in postmenopausal women with urinary incontinence. This cross-sectional correlation study took place from March to May 2012. The subjects were selected by a clustered sampling method from various zones of Rasht (North of Iran). The data were collected using personal data forms, Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis, Incontinence Severity Index, and Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS17 at the significant level of P < .05 and then were compared by parametric and nonparametric tests. A total of 313 menopausal women aged 45 to 60 years (mean 52.9) were recruited for the study. The mean sexual function score was 31.07 ± 7.52. Only 27.3% of subjects seek care for urinary incontinence. There was a significant correlation between sexual function and help seeking. The results of this study indicate that there is a significant correlation between sexual function and help seeking in postmenopausal women who participated in the present study. Health-care professionals should pay more attention to sexual symptoms of UI and make patients aware of available treatments. PMID:26882204
Cogdill, Keith W.; Friedman, Charles P.; Jenkins, Carol G.; Mays, Brynn E.; Sharp, Michael C.
Fifteen community-based primary care physician-preceptors were interviewed while working with and without a medical student concerning questions that had arisen that required further investigation. Follow-up indicated that preceptors generated fewer questions when students were present; the proportion of questions pursued also decreased when…
Olatokun, Wole Michael; Ajagbe, Enitan
This survey-based study examined the information-seeking behaviour of traditional medical practitioners using Taylor's information use model. Respondents comprised all 160 traditional medical practitioners that treat sickle cell anaemia. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. Frequency and percentage…
Hamberger, L. Kevin; Saunders, Daniel G.
Although many battered women seek help from their family physicians as outpatients, rates of current and lifetime victimization among outpatient female patients have not been well studied. This study tested two hypotheses regarding whether battered women presented to the clinic in a different manner than did nonbattered women. First, within the…
DiLorenzo, Terry A.; Dornelas, Ellen A.; Fischer, Edward H.
Objective This study examines the predictive validity of the action/intention subscale of the attitudes toward seeking medical help scale in a college sample. Participants Participants were 51 female undergraduates recruited from psychology classes. Data were collected at two time points between January and April, 2011. Methods Students completed the attitudes subscale and a measure of medical contacts twice, over a two month interval. Results Internal consistency and test–retest reliability of the measure were supported. Correlations between time one attitudes and medical contacts/intentions at time two provide evidence for predictive validity of the measure. Conclusion This relatively brief, psychometrically sound measure of attitudes toward medical help seeking can be used to identify individuals who may be reluctant to seek health care and to assess the effectiveness of health education programs. PMID:26844063
Willis-Gray, Marcella G.; Sandoval, Juan S.; Maynor, Jean; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Siddiqui, Nazema Y.
Introduction We compared barriers to urinary incontinence (UI) healthcare seeking between white, black, and Latina women. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of white, black, and Latina women. Women completed the Barriers to Incontinence Care Seeking Questionnaire (BICS-Q), the Incontinence Quality of Life Instrument (I-QOL), the Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis (QUID), and the Incontinence Severity Index (ISI). The primary objective was to assess barriers to UI care seeking among groups, as measured by the BICS-Q. Secondary objectives were to assess factors associated with barriers to incontinence care and to compare specific barriers using BICS-Q subscale scores. Regression analyses were used to further assess for differences among groups while adjusting for potential confounding variables. Results We included a total of 93 subjects, including 30 white, 33 black, and 30 Latina women. Mean I-QOL, QUID, and ISI scores were not significantly different among our three groups. Barriers, based on BICS-Q scores, were lowest in white women and higher in blacks and Latinas (2.9 vs. 7.3 vs. 10.9 respectively, p<0.001). When adjusting for potential confounders such as age, income, education, presence of UI, ISI score, and I-QOL score, Latinas continued to demonstrate higher barriers compared to white or black women (β= 7.4, 95% CI: 2.2–12.7; p=0.006). There were no significant differences between black women compared to other groups in the adjusted analyses. Conclusions Latinas experience more barriers to UI healthcare seeking compared to white and black women. PMID:25185610
Gollop, C J
This study explored the ways in which urban, older, African American women obtain health information and some of the factors that influence such activity. Among the possible determinants examined were self-perceived literacy, access to health information, and mobility. The findings suggest that respondents receive health information from their physicians, the mass media, and members of their social networks. The results of this research also indicated that members of this population have a highly positive perception of the public library, although only a small segment use the library regularly, and that it may be in the interest of the library to investigate the role it could play in providing health information to older adults. PMID:9160150
Gollop, C J
This study explored the ways in which urban, older, African American women obtain health information and some of the factors that influence such activity. Among the possible determinants examined were self-perceived literacy, access to health information, and mobility. The findings suggest that respondents receive health information from their physicians, the mass media, and members of their social networks. The results of this research also indicated that members of this population have a highly positive perception of the public library, although only a small segment use the library regularly, and that it may be in the interest of the library to investigate the role it could play in providing health information to older adults. PMID:9160150
Khakbazan, Zohreh; Taghipour, Ali; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Mohammadi, Eesa
Background and Objective Patient delay makes a critical contribution to late diagnosis and poor survival in cases of breast cancer. Identifying the factors that influence patient delay could provide information for adopting strategies that shorten this delay. The aim of this meta-ethnography was to synthesize existing qualitative evidence in order to gain a new understanding of help seeking behavior in women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms and to determine the factors that influence patient delay. Methods The design was a meta-ethnography approach. A systematic search of the articles was performed in different databases including Elsevier, PubMed, ProQuest and SCOPUS. Qualitative studies with a focus on help seeking behaviors in women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms and patient delay, published in the English language between 1990 and 2013 were included. The quality appraisal of the articles was carried out using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative research checklist and 13 articles met the inclusion criteria. The synthesis was conducted according to Noblit and Hare’s meta-ethnographic approach (1988), through reciprocal translational analysis and lines-of-argument. Findings The synthesis led to identification of eight repeated key concepts including: symptom detection, initial symptom interpretation, symptom monitoring, social interaction, emotional reaction, priority of medical help, appraisal of health services and personal-environmental factors. Symptom interpretation is identified as the important step of the help seeking process and which changed across the process through active monitoring of their symptoms, social interactions and emotional reactions. The perceived seriousness of the situation, priority to receive medical attention, perceived inaccessibility and unacceptability of the health care system influenced women’s decision-making about utilizing health services. Conclusion Help seeking processes are
Edlich, Richard F; Long, William B; Gubler, Dean K; Rodeheaver, George T; Thacker, John G; Borel, Lise; Chase, Margot E; Fisher, Allyson L; Mason, Shelley S; Lin, Kant Y; Cox, Mary J; Zura, Robert D
This article reviews information on the hazards of cornstarch powder on medical gloves. Dusting powders were first applied to latex gloves to facilitate donning. After 1980, manufacturers devised innovative techniques without dusting powder. It has been well documented that these powders on gloves present a health hazard to patients and health care workers by 5 different mechanisms. First, the glove cornstarch has documented detrimental effects on wound closure techniques. Second, this powder potentiates wound infection. Third, cornstarch induces peritoneal adhesion formation and granulomatous peritonitis. Finally, these powders serve as carriers as latex allergen and they precipitate a life-threatening allergic reaction in sensitized patients. These well-documented hazards of glove powder have caused the United Kingdom and Germany to ban cornstarch powder on medical gloves over 10 years ago. PMID:19546685
Laz, Tabassum H.; Berenson, Abbey B.
Objectives To examine the influence of race/ethnicity on seeking health information from the internet among women aged 16–24 years. Methods A self-administered survey was conducted on 3181women regarding their internet use and obtaining information on reproductive health (menstruation, contraception, pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections) and general health from the internet. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine the association between race/ethnicity and online health-related information seeking after adjusting for covariates. Results Racial/ethnic disparities were noted in overall internet use and its use to locate health information. Overall, more white (92.7%) and black (92.9%) women used the internet than Hispanics (67.5%). More white women (79.2%) used it to find health information than blacks and Hispanics (70.3% and 74.3%, respectively). Compared to white women, blacks and Hispanics were less likely to seek information on contraception [(odds ratio (OR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58–0.91) and (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61–0.92)], and more likely to seek information on pregnancy tests [(OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.28 −2.18) and (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.09–1.81] and sexually transmitted infections [(OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.11–1.73) and (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01–1.54)] respectively. With regard to general health issues, such as how to quit smoking, how to lose weight, alcohol/drug use, mood disorders, and skin disorders, blacks, but not Hispanics, were significantly less likely to seek online information than whites. Conclusions Disparities in the way women from different backgrounds use the internet for health-related information could be associated with overall health awareness. PMID:23130608
O'Mahony, J M; Donnelly, T T
The number of migrants arriving in Canada from non-European countries has grown significantly over the past three decades. How best to assist these escalating numbers of immigrant and refugee women to adapt to their new environment and to cope with postpartum depression (PPD) is a pressing issue for healthcare providers. Evidence has shown that immigrant and refugee women experience difficulties in accessing care and treatment for PPD. This qualitative study was conducted with 30 immigrant and refugee women using in-depth interviews to obtain information about the women's PPD experiences. The primary aim was to explore how cultural, social, political, historical and economic factors intersect with race, gender and class to influence the ways in which immigrant and refugee women seek help to manage PPD. Results reveal that immigrant and refugee women experience many complex gender-related challenges and facilitators in seeking equitable help for PPD treatment and prevention. We will demonstrate that (a) structural barriers and gender roles hinder women's ability to access necessary mental healthcare services and (b) insecure immigration status coupled with emotional and economic dependence may leave women vulnerable and disadvantaged in protecting themselves against PPD. PMID:22962942
Szanton, S.; Taylor, T.J.; Page, G.G; Campbell, J.C.
Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have consistently reported rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women that are twice that of men. In men and women, PTSD has been associated with comorbid medical conditions, medical symptoms and lower self-rating of health. In low-income urban women, rates of PTSD are even more elevated than in suburban women and may be related to observed health disparities. Methods In this study, 250 women seeking healthcare at an urban clinic were interviewed for a PTSD diagnosis, major depressive disorder (MDD), the experience of traumatic events, the experience of current and past common medical conditions and symptoms, and subjective rating of health. A chart review was used to assess healthcare use in the past year. Results More current (5.2 vs. 3.8, p < 0.05) and past medical conditions (4.6 vs. 3.3, p < 0.05) were reported by women with a lifetime history of PTSD than by women without this history, after controlling for demographics and current depression. Women with lifetime PTSD also had more annual clinic appointments (5.9 vs. 3.8 p < 0.03) and were 2.4 times (p < 0.05) more likely to report lower appraisal of their physical health. Conclusions These findings suggest that urban health-seeking women with PTSD experience health impairments that may cause increased morbidity and that healthcare providers should consider the health ramifications of PTSD when providing medical care to women. PMID:19183098
Berger, MB; Patel, DA; Miller, JM; DeLancey, JO; Fenner, DE
Aims Objectives of this study are: 1) To examine the prevalence of healthcare seeking among black and white women with self-reported urinary incontinence (UI), 2) To investigate barriers to treatment for incontinence, and 3) To investigate commonly used therapeutic modalities for UI. Methods This is a planned secondary analysis of responses from 2812 black and white community-dwelling women living in southeastern Michigan, aged 35-64 years, who completed a telephone interview concerning UI, healthcare-seeking behaviors and management strategies. The study population was 571 subjects (278 black, 293 white) who self-identified as having urinary incontinence. Results Of these women with UI, 51% sought healthcare with no statistically significant difference between the two races (53% black, 50.6% white, p 0.64). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, a higher likelihood of seeking healthcare was associated with increased age, body mass index lower than 30 kg/m2, prior surgery for UI, having regular pelvic exams, having a doctor, and worsening severity of UI. There was no significant association between hypothesized barriers to care seeking and race. Almost 95% of the subjects identified lack of knowledge of available treatments as one barrier. Black and white women were similar in percentage use of medications and some self-care strategies, e.g., pad wearing and bathroom mapping, but black women were significantly more likely to restrict fluid intake than white women and marginally less likely to perform Kegels. Conclusions Black and white women seek healthcare for UI at similar, low rates. Improved patient-doctor relationships and public education may foster healthcare seeking behavior. PMID:21717504
Research with refugees and asylum seekers tends to be divided into research with adults or research with children under the age of 18. This is despite relational approaches to studying age that contest such dichotomous and fixed understandings of "life-stages". This article seeks to provide an insight into the experiences of young women who in…
Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Yalew, Alemayehu Worku; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun
Background Maternal complications are morbidities suffered during pregnancy through the postpartum period of 42 days. In Ethiopia, little is known about women's experience of complications and their care-seeking behavior. This study attempted to assess experiences related to obstetric complication and seeking assistance from a skilled provider among women who gave birth in the last 12 months preceding the study. Methods This study was a cross-sectional survey of women who gave birth within one year preceding the study regardless of their delivery place. The study was carried out in six selected districts in North Gondar Zone, Amhara Region. Data was collected house-to-house in 12 selected clusters (kebeles) using a pretested Amharic questionnaire. During the survey, 1,668 women were interviewed. Data entry was done using Epi Info version 3.5.3 and was exported to SPSS for analysis. Logistic regression was applied to control confounders. Results Out of the total sample, 476 women (28.5%, 95% CI: 26.4%, 30.7%) reported some kind of complication. The most common complications reported were; excessive bleeding and prolonged labor that occurred mostly at the time of delivery and postpartum period. Out of the total women who faced complications, 248 (52.1%, 95% CI: 47.6%, 56.6%) sought assistance from a skilled provider. Inability to judge the severity of morbidities, distance/transport problems, lack of money/cost considerations and use of traditional options at home were the major reasons for not seeking care from skilled providers. Belonging to a wealthier quintile, getting antenatal care from a skilled provider and agreement of a woman in planning for possible complications were significantly associated with seeking assistance from a skilled provider. Conclusion Nearly half of the women who faced complications did not use skilled providers at the time of obstetric complications. Cognitive, geographic, economic and cultural barriers were involved in not using skilled
This article draws on legal arguments made by civil society organisations to challenge the legal reasoning that apparently produced the decision in the Ms Y case in Ireland in August 2014. I show how legal standards of reasonableness and practicality ought to be interpreted in ways that are respectful of the patient's wishes and rights. The case concerned a decision by the Health Service Executive, the Irish public health authority, to refuse an abortion to a pregnant asylum seeker and rape survivor on the grounds that a caesarean section and early live delivery were practicable and reasonable alternatives justified by the need to protect fetal life. I argue that the abortion refusal may not have been a reasonable decision, as required by the terms of relevant legislation, for four different reasons. First, the alternative of a caesarean section and early live delivery was not likely to avert the risk of suicide, and in fact did not do so. Second, the consent to the caesarean section alternative may not have been a real consent in the legal sense if it was not voluntary. Third, an abortion refusal and forcible treatment fall below the norms of good medical practice as interpreted through a patient-centred perspective. Fourth, an abortion refusal that entails forms of cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment ought not to be a reasonable action under the legislation. PMID:25555759
Ranjbar, Fahimeh; Behboodi-Moghadam, Zahra; Borimnejad, Leili; Ghaffari, Saeed Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi
Background: Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are complicated and stressful techniques and the social and cultural norms are major obstacles against their use. Many qualitative studies have been done in the field of women’s experiences of infertility, but less is known about the experiences of infertile women seeking assisted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to understand and describe the experience of women who have used assisted reproductive technologies for their current pregnancy. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted based on a content analysis approach. With purposive sampling, 12 pregnant women who were using ART were recruited from Avicenna Fertility Center in Tehran. Women were selected purposefully and with maximum variation. Interviews were performed after a positive test of pregnancy and women were introduced to researchers in their first visit of pregnancy in the prenatal clinic. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed concurrently. Semi-structured interviews were coded, categorized and the themes were also identified. Results: Four main themes were uncovered which included struggle to achieve pregnancy, fear and uncertainty, escape from stigma and the pursuit to achieve husband satisfaction. Conclusion: It is essential for these women to be counseled and prepared by their health care providers after the use of ARTs. Distress can be reduced for infertile women seeking assisted pregnancy when they are prepared for possible failures, empowered to deal with stigma, and have their partners’ involvement in counseling sessions. PMID:27110521
Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Reyes-Romero, Miguel Arturo; Carrera-Rodríguez, Margarita
Background HPV infection in women from developing countries is an important public health problem. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalences of HPV infection and HPV genotypes in a female population of Durango City, Mexico. Also to determine whether any socio-demographic characteristic from the women associated with HPV infection exists. Methods Four hundred and ninety eight women seeking cervical Papanicolaou examination in three public Health Centers were examined for HPV infection. All women were tested for HPV DNA PCR by using HPV universal primers. In addition, all positive HPV DNA PCR samples were further analyzed for genotyping of HPV genotype 16, 18 and 33. Socio-demographic characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Twenty-four out of four hundred and ninety-eight (4.8%) women were found infected by HPV. HPV genotype 16 was found in 18 out of the 24 (75%) infected women. Two of them were also coinfected by HPV genotype 18 (8.3%). In the rest 6 PCR positive women, genotyping for HPV genotypes 16, 18 and 33 were negative. Conclusion The prevalence of HPV in women of Durango City is low; however, most infected women have high risk HPV genotype. The women who were studied showed low frequency of risk factors for HPV infection and this may explain the low prevalence of HPV infection. The high frequency of high risk HPV genotypes observed might explain the high rate of mortality for cervical cancer in our region. PMID:16504014
Kiss, Ligia; d'Oliveira, Ana Flavia Lucas; Zimmerman, Cathy; Heise, Lori; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Watts, Charlotte
Over the past three decades, international covenants have been signed and countries have implemented strategies and legislation to address violence against women. Concurrently, strong evidence on the magnitude and impact of violence against women has emerged from around the world. Despite a growing understanding of factors that may influence women's vulnerability to violence and its effects, key questions about intervention options persist. Using evidence from a WHO household survey on domestic violence, our paper discusses women's help-seeking patterns and considers these findings in relation to Brazil's policies and strategies on violence against women. For the WHO survey, data from a large urban center (the city of São Paulo) and from a rural region (Zona da Mata Pernambucana [ZMP]) was collected. Findings from this survey indicate that in São Paulo, only 33.8% of women who experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) sought help from a formal service provider, including health, legal, social, or women's support services; in the Forest Zone of the State of Pernambuco, an even smaller proportion (17.1%) sought formal assistance. The majority of women were likely to contact only informal sources of support, such as family, friends, and neighbors. Women who used formal services were primarily those who experienced more severe levels of violence, were severely injured, had children who witnessed the violence, or whose work was disrupted by the violence. Although Brazil adopted progressive laws and national and local strategies to address violence against women (VAW), messages about violence and equality need to reach informal networks and the wider community in order to national anti-violence policies to be successful in supporting women before violence becomes intolerable.. To translate international standards and national policies into actions that genuinely reach women experiencing violence, states must carefully consider evidence on women's options and decision
Cash Ghee, Anna; Bolling, Lanny C.; Johnson, Candace S.
This study examined the efficacy of a condensed version of the "Seeking Safety" intervention in the reduction of trauma-related symptoms and improved drug abstinence rates among women in residential chemical dependence treatment. One hundred and four women were randomly assigned to treatment including a condensed (six session) "Seeking Safety"…
Kim, Jae Yop; Lee, Ji Hyeon
In total, 123 battered Korean women who used domestic violence agencies were asked where they had turned for assistance in response to intimate partner violence. This study examined the factors related to use of formal and informal resources by these women. Formal resources included police, medical, legal, and shelter; informal were family or…
Godin, G; Fortin, C; Mahnès, G; Boyer, R; Nadeau, D; Duval, B; Bradet, R; Hounsa, A
The aim of this study was to identify the factors explaining intention to seek medical care promptly if STD symptoms were suspected. A random sample of 1617 undergraduate students completed a questionnaire assessing intention, attitude, perceived norm among friends, perceived behavioral control, and risk of disease, along with different socio-demographic variables. The regression of intention on all variables yielded an adjusted R2 of 0.32 (P < 0.0001). The factors explaining this variance were the perceived advantages, easiness, and social norm among friends regarding seeking medical care promptly, age, and gender. Perception of risk to delay seeking medical care and perceived personal risk of getting STDs were not significant variables. Overall, the results indicate the need to develop programs for male first-year students. These programs will have to influence the attitude, that is, the perceived advantages of seeking medical care promptly if STD symptoms are suspected. Seeking advice from students' friends, and perception of these friends as a significant reference source if STD symptoms are suspected, should also be promoted. PMID:8503056
Dunivan, Gena C; Komesu, Yuko M; Cichowski, Sara B; Lowery, Christine; Anger, Jennifer T; Rogers, Rebecca G
Objectives To evaluate urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse knowledge among elder Southwestern American Indian women and to assess barriers to care for pelvic floor disorders through Community Engaged Research. Methods Our group was invited to provide an educational talk on urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse at an annual meeting of American Indian Elders. Female attendees ≥55 years anonymously completed demographic information and two validated questionnaires; the Prolapse and Incontinence Knowledge Questionnaire (PIKQ) and Barriers to Incontinence Care Seeking Questionnaire (BICS-Q). Questionnaire results were compared to historical controls from the original PIKQ and BICS-Q validation study. Results 144 women completed questionnaires. The mean age was 77.7 ± 9.1 years. The mean PIKQ UI score was 6.6 ± 3.0 (similar to historic gynecology controls 6.8 ± 3.3, p=0.49) and the mean PIKQ POP score was 5.4 ± 2.9 (better than historic gynecology controls 3.6 ± 3.2, p<0.01). Barriers to care seeking reported by the elder women were highest on the BICS-Q subscales of “Cost” and “Inconvenience”. Conclusions Urinary incontinence knowledge is similar to historic gynecology controls and pelvic organ prolapse knowledge is higher than historic gynecology controls among elder Southwestern American Indian women. American Indian elder women report high levels of barriers to care. The greatest barriers to care seeking for this population were related to cost and inconvenience, reflecting the importance of assessing socioeconomic status when investigating barriers to care. Addressing these barriers may enhance care seeking Southwestern American Indian women. PMID:25185612
von Jan, Ute
Objectives: Quantitative review and categorization of available endocrinology related mobile apps for the iOS platform (Apple®) and outline of search strategies to identify appropriate mobile apps for this field. Methods: A total of 80 endocrinology related search terms were collected and grouped into 8 main categories covering different areas of endocrinology. These terms were then used to perform comprehensive searches in three categories of Apple’s app store, namely ‘Medicine’, ‘Health and Fitness’, and ‘Reference’. Results: Altogether, matches were found for only 33 of the 80 collected endocrinology related search terms; the majority of matches were found in the medical category, followed by matches for the health and fitness (27/33), and reference (16/33) categories. Restricting the search to these categories significantly helped in discriminating between health related apps and those having another purpose. The distribution of apps per category roughly matches what one can expect considering available data for incidence and prevalence of corresponding endocrinological conditions. Apps matching terms belonging to the spectrum of glucose homeostasis disorders are the most common. For conditions where patients do not have to constantly monitor their condition, apps tend to have a reference or educational character, while for conditions that require a high level of involvement from patients, there are proportionally more apps for self-management. With a single exception, the identified apps had not undergone regulation, and information about the data sources, professional backgrounds, and reliability of the content and integrated information sources was rare. Conclusions: While applying a good search strategy is important for finding apps for endocrinology related problems, users also need to consider whether the app they have found respects all necessary criteria regarding reliability, privacy and data protection before they place their trust in
Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Azim, Safia; Bhuiya, Abbas; Persson, Lars Ake
This paper explores the magnitude of physical violence by husbands, the disclosure of it and the help-seeking behavior of abused women in urban and rural Bangladesh. The data come from a larger study on domestic violence against women conducted in Bangladesh during 2000-2004. All ever-married women covered by the population-based survey component (n=2702) conducted in 2001 were included in the current analysis. We also draw on in-depth interviews with 28 women who were physically abused by their husbands. Results show a high prevalence of lifetime physical spousal violence against women: 40% in urban and 42% in rural areas. Most of the abused women (66%) were silent about their experience. The main reasons behind this silence were high acceptance of violence, stigma and fear of greater harm. Sixty percent of urban and 51% of rural abused women never received any help from others. Only 2% ever sought help from institutional sources, from where support was not forthcoming. Women approached these sources only when they could not endure anymore or the violence became life threatening or children were at risk. The findings show that although providing appropriate services is absolutely necessary, it is also important to foster the use of such services and to help women overcome the barriers for accessing these services. PMID:16426717
Hyde, Melissa K.; Zajdlewicz, Leah; Wootten, Addie C.; Nelson, Christian J.; Lowe, Anthony; Dunn, Jeff; Chambers, Suzanne K.
Introduction Although sexual dysfunction is common after prostate cancer, men's decisions to seek help for sexual concerns are not well understood. Aim Describe predictors of actual prior help-seeking and intended future medical help-seeking for sexual dysfunction in prostate cancer survivors. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 510 prostate cancer survivors assessed masculine beliefs, attitudes, support/approval from partner/peer networks (subjective norm), and perceived control as predictors of medical help-seeking for sexual concerns. A theory of planned behavior (TPB) perspective was used to examine actual prior and planned future behavior and contributing factors. Statistical analyses included multiple and logistic regressions. Main Outcome Measures Intention to see a doctor for sexual advice or help in the next 6 months was measured using the intention subscale adapted from the Attitudes to Seeking Help after Cancer Scale. Prior help-seeking was measured with a dichotomous yes/no scale created for the study. Results Men were Mage 71.69 years (SD = 7.71); 7.54 years (SD = 4.68) post-diagnosis; received treatment(s) (58.1% radical prostatectomy; 47.1% radiation therapy; 29.4% hormonal ablation); 81.4% reported severe ED (IIED 0–6) and 18.6% moderate–mild ED (IIED 7–24). Overall, 30% had sought sexual help in the past 6 months, and 24% intended to seek help in the following 6 months. Prior help-seeking was less frequent among men with severe ED. Sexual help-seeking intentions were associated with lower education, prior sexual help-seeking, sexual importance/ priority, emotional self-reliance, positive attitude, and subjective norm (R2 = 0.56). Conclusion The TPB has utility as a theoretical framework to understand prostate cancer survivors' sexual help-seeking decisions and may inform development of more effective interventions. Masculine beliefs were highly salient. Men who were more emotionally self-reliant and attributed greater importance to sex
Person, Bobbie; Addiss, David G; Bartholomew, L Kay; Meijer, Cecilia; Pou, Victor; van den Borne, Bart
Background In the Dominican Republic, a Latin American country with filariasis-endemic areas, more than 63,000 people have lymphatic filariasis and more than 400,000 people are at risk of future infection. In this paper, we explore the health beliefs, health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of women with lymphoedema in filariasis-endemic areas to better understand the needs of women when developing lymphoedema morbidity control programs. Methods Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews of 28 women, 3 focus group discussions with 28 women, field notes and photographs. Results Women described exhaustive and expensive attempts at seeking a cure for their lymphoedema. Family members were influential in providing women with initial care seeking referrals to indigenous healers credited with influence over physical, mental, spiritual and supernatural properties of illness. When indigenous treatments proved to be ineffectual, the women sought care from trained healthcare providers. Most healthcare providers incorrectly diagnosed the edema, failed to adequately treat and meet the needs of women and were viewed as expensive. Most women resorted to self-prescribing injectable, oral, or topical antibiotics along with oral analgesics as a standard practice of self-care. Conclusion Healthcare providers must understand a woman's cultural perspectives of illness, her natural networks of support and referral, her behavioural practices of care-seeking and self-care and the financial burden of seeking care. In the culture of the Dominican Republic family members and traditional healthcare providers are influential advisors on initial health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices. For this reason family-oriented interventions, support groups for women and their families, community education and training on simple, low cost lymphoedema management techniques for indigenous healers are viable ways to influence the early detection, diagnosis and
Wong, Li Ping; Awang, Halimah; Jani, Rohana
In the present study, researchers explored attitudes toward midlife crises, experience with midlife crises, help-seeking, and needs among multi-ethnic Malaysian women. A total of 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 89 Malaysian women of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Women expressed concern over physical aging and decline in their physical functional health. Having a midlife crisis was frequently reported. Issues that were frequently reported to trigger a midlife crisis, such as empty nest syndrome, impact of aging on sexual and reproductive function, extended parenthood, caring for aging or ill parents, and career challenges were noted by the study participants (listed here in order of most to least frequently reporting of these themes across the group discussions). Overall, these issues were associated with attitudes about aging. A comparatively less open attitude toward sexual attitudes and help-seeking for sexual problems were found among the Malay and Indian women. This may imply that intervention to increase positive attitudes concerning both sexuality and help-seeking intentions should be culturally specific. The use of religious coping for comfort and consolation was frequently reported; therefore, those providing midlife crisis prevention and intervention programs should consider involving faith-based interventions in the Malaysian setting. PMID:23127220
Das, Ashavaree; Sarkar, Madhurima
Objectives: Understanding health information-seeking behaviors and barriers to care and access among pregnant women can potentially moderate the consistent negative associations between poverty, low levels of literacy, and negative maternal and child health outcomes in India. Our seminal study explores health information needs, health information-seeking behaviors, and perceived information support of low-income pregnant women in rural India. Methods: Using the Wilson Model of health information-seeking framework, we designed a culturally tailored guided interview to assess information-seeking behaviors and barriers to information seeking among pregnant women. We used a local informant and health care worker to recruit 14 expectant women for two focus group interviews lasting 45 minutes to an hour each. Thirteen other related individuals including husbands, mothers, mothers-in-law, and health care providers were also recruited by hospital counselors for in-depth interviews regarding their pregnant wives/daughters and daughters-in-law. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by coding the data into thematic categories. Results: The data were coded manually and emerging themes included pregnancy-related knowledge and misconceptions and personal, societal, and structural barriers, as well as risk perceptions and self-efficacy. Lack of access to health care and pregnancy-related health information led participants to rely heavily on information and misconceptions about pregnancy gleaned from elder women, friends, and mothers-in-law and husbands. Doctors and para-medical staff were only consulted during complications. All women faced personal, societal, and structural level barriers, including feelings of shame and embarrassment, fear of repercussion for discussing their pregnancies with their doctors, and inadequate time with their doctors. Conclusion: Lack of access and adequate health care information were of primary concern to pregnant women and their families
Thacker, Holly L; Maxwell, Richard; Saporito, Jennifer; Bronson, David
Shared medical appointments (SMAs) are a new way to deliver woman-focused interdisciplinary care for midlife women. SMAs are a series of one physician to one patient encounters with other patient observers. The women's health physician addresses each woman's unique medical needs individually but in the context of a shared setting. The major focus is on delivering individual medical care with the benefits of additional time spent educating women patients and answering questions. PMID:16313217
This quasi-experimental study explored the association of perceived racism and seeking social support to vascular reactivity in a college sample of 110 Black women. Perceived racism and seeking social support were assessed via self-report, and vascular reactivity was measured before and during a standardized speaking task. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived racism was positively related to changes in systolic blood pressure. These analyses also indicated that seeking social support moderated the relationship between perceived racism and systolic blood pressure changes. This interaction effect persisted after controlling for several potential confounders. Follow-up regression analyses showed that perceived racism was positively associated with reactivity among participants who were low in seeking social support. A significant relationship was not observed between perceived racism and systolic blood pressure changes among participants who were high in seeking social support. Perceived racism and seeking social support were not significantly associated with changes in diastolic blood pressure. These findings highlight the importance of examining psychosocial factors that may mitigate the hypothesized relationship between perceived racism and reactivity. PMID:16448294
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documentation an eligible requester seeking medical benefits must submit. 102.60 Section 102.60 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Required Documentation for Eligible Requesters...
... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Documentation an eligible requester seeking medical benefits must submit. 102.60 Section 102.60 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Required Documentation for Eligible Requesters...
... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Documentation an eligible requester seeking medical benefits must submit. 102.60 Section 102.60 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Required Documentation for Eligible Requesters...
... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Documentation an eligible requester seeking medical benefits must submit. 102.60 Section 102.60 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Required Documentation for Eligible Requesters...
... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Documentation an eligible requester seeking medical benefits must submit. 102.60 Section 102.60 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Required Documentation for Eligible Requesters To Receive Benefits § 102.60...
Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Gunter, Katie
Objective: To examine the factors that influenced African American men's medical help seeking. Method: Thematic analysis of 14 focus groups with 105 older, urban African American men. Results: African American men described normative expectations that they did not go to the doctor and that they were afraid to go, with little explanation. When they…
Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of perceived lung cancer stigma and timing of medical help-seeking behavior in symptomatic individuals. Data sources A convenience sample was recruited from an academic thoracic oncology clinic and community hospital-based outpatient radiation center in a large city in the southeastern United States. This descriptive, cross-sectional study used survey methodology and semi-structured interviews to examine the relationship of perceived lung cancer stigma and delayed medical help-seeking finding a statistically significant positive correlation. Additional examination revealed positive correlations between the stigma and shame, social isolation, and smoking-related stigma subscales and delay. The discrimination-related subscale was not associated with delay. In addition, smoking status was not related to perceived lung cancer stigma. Conclusions Findings support an association between lung cancer stigma and delayed medical help-seeking behavior. Therefore, lung cancer stigma is a potential barrier to timely medical help-seeking behavior in lung cancer symptoms, which can have important patient outcome implications. Implications for practice As primary care nurse practitioners, awareness that lung cancer stigma exists for patients is essential regardless of smoking status and efforts to decrease this barrier to timely healthcare are important. PMID:25736473
Wright, Caroline Vaile; Johnson, Dawn M
Legal redress can play a critical role in interrupting the pattern of domination and control inherent in intimate partner violence (IPV), yet it remains an infrequent strategy among battered women. The current study employed a contextual framework for investigating the correlates for engagement in the criminal justice system for a sample of 227 sheltered battered women. Results indicated that individual, relational, and system-level factors were all associated with two legal help-seeking behaviors: having a civil protection order and criminal prosecution. In particular, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology, social support, and prior experience with police officers were significant correlates for legal help-seeking. Results highlight the need for a coordinated community response to IPV, addressing both legal needs and psychological needs simultaneously. PMID:20055214
Everett, Bethany G.; Mollborn, Stefanie
Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,810), this study examines disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation identity during young adulthood. We use binary logistic regression and expand Andersen’s health care utilization framework to identify factors that shape disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation. We also investigate whether the well-established gender disparity in health-seeking behaviors among heterosexual persons holds for sexual minorities. The results show that sexual minority women are more likely to report unmet medical needs than heterosexual women, but no differences are found between sexual minority and heterosexual men. Moreover, we find a reversal in the gender disparity between heterosexual and sexual minority populations: heterosexual women are less likely to report unmet medical needs than heterosexual men, whereas sexual minority women are more likely to report unmet medical needs compared to sexual minority men. Finally, this work advances Andersen’s model by articulating the importance of including social psychological factors for reducing disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation for women. PMID:25382887
Bahkali, Salwa; Alfurih, Suha; Aldremly, Maha; Alzayyat, Ma'an; Alsurimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa
The internet has become an important resource to help people search for online medication information. This study aims to report the prevalence and profile of Saudi online medication seeking behavior. Conducted via a web-based survey with Twitter participants between January-February, 2015, the primary outcome measures were the self-reported rates of using the internet to search for medication related information. A valid sample of 4847 participants was collected over the period of the study. Out of the total participants, 68.3% (n=3311) were found to seek online medication related information frequently. Most of the social media users were female 83.5% (n=2766). The majority of respondents 63.6% (n= 3081) used Google, followed by Twitter 28.7% (n= 1392), Snapchat 21%, (n=1019), WhatsApp 13.8% (n= 670), Instagram 11.4%, (n= 553), and Facebook 5.5 % (n= 267), with few searching YouTube 1.3% (n=65) to access online medication information. Findings indicate that the Saudi population actively uses the internet and social media to obtain medication information. Further studies are needed to explore the influence of the internet and social media on user perception, attitude, and behavior with the use of online medication information. PMID:27350524
Mahapatro, Meerambika; Gupta, R N; Gupta, Vinay K
In India, there is limited prioritization of domestic violence, which is seen as a private and family matter, and handled as a social responsibility rather than a complaint or crime. Despite the Domestic Violence Act, implemented in 2006, the widespread phenomenon of domestic violence across Indian states goes unreported. Using control and support models, this article aims to examine women's behavior in seeking help while dealing with partner violence. It is a population-based analytical cross-sectional study covering 14,507 married women from 18 states of India, selected through a systematic multistage sampling strategy. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to generate data. It was observed that legal complexities combined with social realities make the life of an average Indian woman insecure and miserable. Most women surveyed preferred the social-support model and opined that if they face domestic violence, they would seek help from their parents as the first option in the order of preference. The responses of women while dealing with domestic violence are often spontaneous and determined by the pressing need to resolve matters within the home/community, rather than addressing them in the public domain of state institutions where procedures are cumbersome and lengthy. A new integrated development model proposed by several communities aims to prevent domestic violence through the intervention of health care systems. PMID:25069150
Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn
Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support, PMID:25996432
Lee, Jessica; Papic, Melissa; Baldauf, Erin; Updike, Glenn; Schwarz, E. Bimla
Objective To assess how a checklist reminding clinicians to deliver a bundled intervention affects contraceptive knowledge and use 3 months after women seek walk-in pregnancy testing. Methods Pre-intervention, an inner-city family planning clinic provided unstructured care; during the intervention period, clinic staff used a checklist to ensure women received needed services. Women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing who wished to avoid pregnancy for at least 6 months were asked to complete surveys about their contraceptive knowledge and use immediately after and 3-months after visiting the study clinic. To assess the significance of changes over time, we used logistic regression models. Results Between January 2011 and May 2013, over 1500 women sought pregnancy testing from the study clinic; 323 completed surveys (95 pre-intervention and 228 during the intervention period). With this checklist intervention, participants were more likely to receive emergency contraception (EC) (22% vs. 5%, aOR=4.64, 95% CI 1.77-12.17), have an intrauterine device or implant placed at the time of their clinic visit (5% vs. 0%, p=0.02), or receive a contraceptive prescription (23% vs. 10%, p<0.001). Three months after visiting the study clinic, participants from the intervention period were more knowledgeable about intrauterine and subdermal contraception and were more likely to be using intrauterine, subdermal or injectable contraception (aOR=2.18, 95% CI 1.09-4.35). Conclusions Women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing appear more likely to receive EC and to have switched to a more effective form of birth control in 3 months following their visit when clinic staff used a 3-item checklist and provided scripted counseling. Implications A checklist reminding clinic staff to assess pregnancy intentions, provide scripted counseling about both emergency and highly-effective reversible contraception, and offer same-day contraceptive initiation to women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing
CORLISS, HEATHER L.; GRELLA, CHRISTINE E.; MAYS, VICKIE M.; COCHRAN, SUSAN D.
Background Illicit substance use and abuse may be an important contributor to behavioral health problems of lesbian and bisexual women. This paper describes the nature and extent of self-reported illicit and licit drug use, associated severity, and substance use-related help-seeking behaviors in an urban/metropolitan community sample of sexual minority women in California. Methods Self-administered questionnaire data from 2011 lesbian and bisexual women recruited through multiple strategies were used. Multiple logistic regression was employed to describe patterns of reported drug use and to compare lifetime severity of drug use with demographic characteristics, recent drug use, indicators of current social and emotional problems, and help-seeking behaviors. Results Drug use, especially marijuana (33% used in the past year), was fairly common. Overall, 16.2% of the women in the study reported lifetime drug use that was associated with self-reported severity of substance use, and another 10.8% indicated moderate-risk use. Extent of lifetime drug use was positively correlated with self-reported recent drug use as well as current life problems. Of the respondents who evidenced more problematic drug use, 41.5% indicated that they had received professional help for a substance use problem, and 16.3% wanted but had not received such help. Conclusions The women in this study reported elevated rates of illicit drug use that was frequently associated with impairment and specific life problems. A significant proportion wanted and had not received professional treatment for their drug use problems. Future studies that examine pathways by which lesbians and bisexual women can obtain referrals and treatment for substance use problems are needed. PMID:16796483
Ohashi, Ayumi; Higuchi, Michiyo; Labeeb, Shokria Adly; Mohamed, Asmaa Ghareds; Chiang, Chifa; Aoyama, Atsuko
This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women's health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women's health-seeking behavior in areas including maternal health and common illnesses of women and children. Our results showed that maternal health issues were often discussed by husbands and wives, while mothers-in-law had little apparent influence. We also found that women could access support resources more easily than expected through their extended families. Our study showed that husbands had an important role in encouraging women's health in the family, while the effect of mothers-in-law on women's health-seeking behavior was not substantial. The study indicated that women received considerable support from co-resident family members, their natal family, and their neighbors, which helped women in seeking health services. PMID:25129988
Fanslow, Janet L.; Robinson, Elizabeth M.
Efforts to understand and support the process of help seeking by victims of intimate partner violence are of considerable urgency if we are to design systems and responses that are capable of actively and appropriately meeting the needs of victims. Using data from the New Zealand Violence Against Women Study, which drew from a representative…
Dienye, Paul Owajionyi; Judah, Funsho; Ndukwu, Geraldine
Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms and health seeking behaviour of women with menopausal symptoms attending the General Outpatient Department of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Method: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study in which data was collected from menopausal women using a three-part, pre-tested questionnaire for a period of three months (July–September 2010). Part 1 consisted of information regarding socio-demographic and general medical information. Part 2 consisted of the modified version of the menopause rating scale (MRS). Part 3 sought for information on their health seeking behaviour. Data was analysed using EPI INFO version 6.04d software package. Results: A total of 385 women were recruited with ages ranging from 35 to 95 years, and a mean of 58.4 ± 10.39 years. The most prevalent menopausal symptoms were loss of libido (92.47%), muscle pain (87.53%), joint pain (85.45%) and tiredness (80.26%). Urinary symptoms had the least prevalence (7.79%). Results on the severity of menopausal symptoms showed that 28.25%, 49.84% and 21.9% were experiencing severe, moderate and mild menopausal symptoms, respectively. Loss of libido (79.21 %) was the most severe symptom followed by urinary symptoms (40%). The patent drug dealers were the most consulted (51.4%) followed by health workers (44.7%). The traditional healers were consulted by a small percentage (3.8%). Conclusion: The most common menopausal symptom among the patients in this study was loss of libido and the least common was urinary symptoms. The symptoms are similar to findings in other parts of the world but their prevalence and severity differ. In spite of the available health facilities in these communities, the utilization of the services of patent drug dealers is still very high but the traditional healers were poorly utilized. PMID:23777719
Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.
Mindfulness has received an abundance of research attention in recent years, largely due to mindfulness-based interventions demonstrating positive mental and physical health outcomes. However, less research has examined individual’s trait levels of mindfulness and how it is related to mental health, particularly among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the relation between trait mindfulness and early maladaptive schemas (EMS), which are dysfunctional cognitive and behavioural patterns that theoretically underlie the development of mental health problems, among women seeking residential substance use treatment. Pre-existing, adult female, patient records from a residential substance abuse treatment facility were reviewed (N = 67). Results demonstrated that higher trait mindfulness was negatively associated with 12 of the 18 EMS. Moreover, patients who endorsed multiple EMS reported lower trait mindfulness than patients who endorsed zero (or one) EMS. These findings are the first to examine the relation between trait mindfulness and EMS among women seeking substance use treatment. Findings suggest that EMS and trait mindfulness are robustly related and future research should examine whether mindfulness-based interventions reduce EMS. PMID:26366142
Court Decision: 353 Federal Reporter, 3d Series 436; 2003 Dec 17 (date of decision). The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit reversed a lower court decision and held that Ohio's partial-birth abortion law was constitutional because the law permitted the procedure in the event of significant maternal health risk and did not prohibit dilation and evacuation (a lawful abortion procedure). Women's Medical Professional Corporation challenged the constitutionality of Ohio's ban on partial-birth abortion, claiming that the law did not contain an adequate exception for maternal health and that it unduly burdened a woman's right to abort a nonviable fetus by dilation and evacuation (D&E). The Sixth Circuit held that the law's maternal health exception was valid under the Fourteenth Amendment because it allowed partial-birth abortion when there is significant maternal health risk. The court rejected the plaintiff's assertion that partial-birth abortion should be allowed at any physician's discretion and noted that precedent allows states to "restrict an abortion procedure except when the procedure is necessary to prevent a significant health risk." The court also held that the law did not ban D&E, the most common second-trimester abortion procedure, because the law explicitly tracked the medical differences between D&E and partial-birth abortion, it provided an exception for D&E, and it focused on other distinctions between D&E and partial-birth abortion. For these reasons, Ohio's partial-birth abortion ban did not unduly burden a woman's right to terminate a pregnancy and was therefore constitutional. PMID:16477714
Greaves, Lorraine; Poole, Nancy; Schmidt, Rose
Background. National data from Canada and the United States identify women to be at greater risk than men for the misuse of prescription opioid medications. Various sex- and gender-based factors and patient and physician practices may affect women's use and misuse of prescription opioid drugs. Objectives. To explore the particular risks, issues, and treatment considerations for prescription opioid misuse among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Methods. A scoping review for articles published between January 1990 and May 2014 was conducted on sex- and gender-based risks and treatment considerations among women who experience chronic noncancer pain and trauma. Results. A total of 57 articles were identified. The present narrative review summarizes the specific risks for the misuse of prescription opioid medication among women who have experienced violence and trauma, Aboriginal women, adolescents and young women, older women, pregnant women, women of a sexual minority, and transwomen. Discussion. The majority of the literature is descriptive, with few studies that evaluate approaches and interventions to respond to the issue of chronic pain, trauma, and misuse of prescription opioids among women, particularly vulnerable subgroups of women. Conclusions. Trauma-informed and women-centred approaches that address women's vulnerabilities and complex needs require further attention. PMID:27445597
Greeley, Christopher Spencer; Chuo, Ching-Yi; Kwak, Min Ji; Henin, Sally S; Donnaruma-Kwoh, Marcella; Ferrell, Jamie; Giardino, Angelo Peter
Child sexual abuse (CSA) affects over 62,000 children annually in the United States. A primary obstacle to the success of a public health prevention strategy is the lack of knowledge around community level risk factors for CSA. We evaluated community level characteristics for children seeking care for suspected CSA in the Greater Houston area for 2009. There was a total incidence rate of medical evaluations for suspected CSA of 5.9/1000 children. We abstracted the medical charts of 1982 (86 %) children who sought a medical evaluation for suspected CSA at three main medical systems in the Greater Houston area for 2009. We evaluated 18 community level variables from the American Community Survey for the 396 zip codes these children lived in. The mean number of cases per Greater Houston zip code was 2.77 (range 0-27), with 62 % of zip codes not having a case at any of the three sites surveyed. Zip codes with a higher than Houston average rate of vacant houses, never married females and unemployed labor force with high family poverty rate, were associated with an increased rate of children seeking care for suspected CSA. We demonstrated zip codes level characteristics which were associated with an increased rate of children seeking care for suspected CSA. Our modelling process and our data have implications for community based strategies aimed at improved surveillance or prevention of CSA. The process of identifying locally specific community level factors suggests target areas which have particular socioeconomic characteristics which are associated with increased rate of seeking CSA evaluations. PMID:26803840
Background There is limited understanding of the factors that influence decisions to seek HIV care and treatment services in community settings. The aim of this study was to explore the socio-cultural and health system factors affecting health-seeking behaviour among deceased women in Kenya who were living with HIV at the time of death. Methods Out of a total of 796 deaths for which a caregiver was available to provide information, retrospective data were drawn from verbal and social autopsies administered to caregivers of 218 women who had died of AIDS-related illnesses aged 15 to 49 years. Information was collected on essential elements of the care-seeking process from the onset of severe illness episodes and analysed using qualitative and quantitative techniques. Results Results from the quantitative data showed that poor women were less likely to access formal health services (OR = 0.2; p < 0.001) compared to non-poor women. The qualitative data showed that socioeconomic status, poor knowledge and understanding of AIDS-related illness, distance to facility and transportation costs, medical pluralism, stigma, low HIV risk perception, lack of family support and health care system barriers contributed to delays/constraints in seeking care. Conclusions The findings highlight important issues that have implications for addressing challenges faced by women living with HIV, including non-adherence to treatment regimen and late diagnosis of HIV. Provision of transportation subsidies as part of the national social safety-net strategy can help in addressing financial constraints associated with transportation costs among poor women living with HIV. PMID:24968717
Nielsen, Anna; Lan, Pham Thi; Marrone, Gaetano; Phuc, Ho Dang; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia
We interviewed 1,805 women in a rural setting in Vietnam with the aim of investigating women's knowledge regarding reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and their health-seeking behavior. We found that women's overall knowledge was poor. Furthermore, only one-third of the symptomatic women sought health care. RTIs affect millions of women globally each year. Most vulnerable are women in low- and middle-income countries where poverty and gender inequities affect their access to health care services. Findings from our study can be used in similar rural settings worldwide to understand and manage the widespread problem of RTIs. PMID:24850497
Tobin, Carolyn L; Murphy-Lawless, Jo
Background Immigration and asylum seeking has been an important social and political phenomenon in Ireland since the mid 1990s. Inward migration to Ireland was seen in unprecedented numbers from 1995 onward, peaking in 2002 with 11,634 applications for refugee status. Asylum and immigration is an issue of national and international relevance as the numbers of displaced people worldwide continues to grow, reaching the highest level in 20 years at 45.2 million in 2012. Midwives provide the majority of care to childbearing women around the world, whether working as autonomous practitioners or under the direction of an obstetrician. Limited data currently exist on the perspectives of midwives who provide care to childbearing women while they are in the process of seeking asylum. Such data are important to midwifery leaders, educators, and policy-makers. The aims of this study were to explore midwives’ perceptions and experiences of providing care to women in the asylum process and to gain insight into how midwives can be equipped and supported to provide more effective care to this group in the future. Methods Data were collected via indepth unstructured interviews with a purposive sample of ten midwives from two sites, one a large urban inner city hospital, and the second, a smaller more rural maternity hospital. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Results Five themes emerged from the data, barriers to communication, understanding cultural difference, challenges of caring for women who were unbooked, the emotional cost of caring, and structural barriers to effective care. Conclusion Findings highlight a need to focus on support and education for midwives, improved maternity services for immigrant women, and urgent policy revision. PMID:24516340
Machado, Carolina Leme; Fernandes, Arlete Maria Dos Santos; Osis, Maria José Duarte; Makuch, Maria Yolanda
In Brazil, abortion is permitted by law in cases of rape-related pregnancy. This study reports on various aspects in the experience of women that have been sexually assaulted: diagnosis of the pregnancy, seeking legal abortion, and hospitalization in a university hospital. This was a qualitative study that interviewed ten women 18 to 38 years of age, with at least eight years of schooling, one to five years after legal abortion. The women had been previously unaware of their right to a legal abortion, were ashamed about the sexual assault, kept it secret, and had not sought immediate care. The diagnosis of pregnancy provoked anxiety and the wish to undergo an abortion. Women treated through private health plans received either insufficient orientation or none at all. Respectful treatment by the healthcare staff proved relevant for the women to cope with the abortion. The study highlights the need to publicize the right to abortion in cases of rape-related pregnancy and the healthcare services that perform legal abortion, in addition to training healthcare and law enforcement teams to handle such cases. PMID:25760168
Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Roy, Lolita
Growing evidence suggests intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance misuse are co-occurring problems that disproportionately affect low income urban women seeking care in emergency departments (EDs) and represent leading causes of injuries that result in ED visits. This paper examines temporal bi-directional associations between different types of drug and alcohol use and different types of IPV in a longitudinal study of a representative sample of 241 low income, urban women receiving emergency care from an ED in the Bronx, New York. After adjusting and matching for socio-demographics and potentially confounding multi-level risk and protective covariates, women who reported using heroin in the prior six months at Wave 1 were twice as likely as non-heroin using women to indicate any physical, injurious or sexual IPV at subsequent waves and were 2.7 times more likely to indicate experiencing an injury from IPV at subsequent waves. Crack or cocaine use in the past 6 months at Wave 1 was associated with an increased likelihood of injurious IPV and severe verbal abuse at subsequent waves. Findings also suggested that sexual IPV was significantly associated with subsequent use of crack or cocaine. The multiple bidirectional associations found linking these problems underscore the need for conducting routine screening for IPV and substance misuse among women in low income, urban EDs, and for improving linkages to services that will ultimately reduce the risk of morbidity, disability, and mortality related to these co-occurring problems. PMID:22023020
Baguso, Glenda N; Gay, Caryl L; Lee, Kathryn A
Medication adherence is linked to health outcomes among adults with HIV infection. Transgender women living with HIV (TWLWH) in the US report suboptimal adherence to medications and are found to have difficulty integrating HIV medication into their daily routine, but few studies explore the factors associated with medication adherence among transgender women. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine demographic and clinical factors related to self-reported medication adherence among transgender women. This secondary analysis is based on data collected from the Symptom and Genetic Study that included a convenience sample of 22 self-identified transgender women, 201 non-transgender men, and 72 non-transgender women recruited in northern California. Self-reported medication adherence was assessed using the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Adherence Questionnaire. Gender differences in demographic and clinical variables were assessed, as were differences between transgender women reporting high and low adherence. Transgender women had lower adherence to medications compared to non-transgender males and non-transgender females (p = .028) and were less likely to achieve viral suppression (p = .039). Within the transgender group, Black/African-Americans reported better adherence than participants who were Whites/Caucasian or other races (p = .009). Adherence among transgender women was unrelated to medication count and estrogen therapy, but consistent with other reports on the HIV population as a whole; transgender women with high adherence were more likely to achieve viral suppression compared to the transgender women with low adherence. Despite the high incidence of HIV infection in the transgender population, few studies focus on TWLWH, either in regard to their adherence to antiretroviral therapies or to their healthcare in general. To address ongoing health disparities, more studies are needed focusing on the transgender population's continuum of care in
Johnson, Sophia Alice
This paper seeks to contribute to an understanding of the changing nature of support and information-seeking practices for women in the transition to first-time motherhood. In the context of increasing digitalisation, the significance of new virtual spaces for parenting is discussed. The paper demonstrates how women seek out alternative forms of expertise (specifically, non-medical expertise) and social support. The author argues for the importance of 'intimate mothering publics' through which women gather experiential information and practical support. These publics can act as a space for women to 'test' or legitimise their new identity as a mother. Intimate mothering publics are particularly useful for thinking about the meaning-making practices and learning experiences that occur during intimate online and face-to-face interactions. A variety of types of online support may be used during pregnancy. Surreptitious support in particular involves users invisibly receiving advice, information and reassurance that might otherwise be lacking. Access to intimate mothering publics is motivated by a number of factors, including feelings of community or acceptance, the desire to be a good mother or parent, emotional support and the need for practical and experiential advice. PMID:25339096
Taft, Casey T.; Vogt, Dawne S.; Mechanic, Mindy B.; Resick, Patricia A.
This study examined associations between intimate partner aggression and physical health symptoms among a sample of help-seeking women experiencing relationship aggression (N = 388). Using a structural equation modeling framework, the authors found posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms to fully mediate the associations of both physical and psychological aggression with physical health symptoms. The influence of PTSD symptoms on physical health symptoms was partially mediated by anger/irritability. Results were consistent with studies from other trauma groups suggesting that PTSD is pivotal with respect to explaining the effects of trauma on health. PMID:17874920
Ahmad, Farah; Driver, Natasha; McNally, Mary Jane; Stewart, Donna E
This study explores why South Asian immigrant women with experiences of partner abuse delay seeking help from professionals. Three focus groups were conducted in Hindi language with South Asian immigrant women in Toronto. Twenty-two women participated with a mean age of 46 years (range 29-68 years). Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed data using constant comparison techniques within and across the groups. We found that three major themes emerged from the discussions: reasons for delayed help-seeking, turning points and talking to professionals. Women expressed delaying help-seeking to the point when "Pani sar se guzar jata he" (water crosses over your head). Their dominant reasons for delayed help-seeking were social stigma, rigid gender roles, marriage obligations, expected silence, loss of social support after migration and limited knowledge about available resources and myths about partner abuse. Women usually turned for help only after experiencing pronounced mental and physical health problems. The findings are interpreted in light of participants' immigration context and the socio-cultural norms of patriarchy, collectivism and familism. Prevention approaches to address partner abuse and delayed help-seeking among South Asian immigrant women should include tailored community education, social services to reduce vulnerability, and cultural competency of professionals. Further research and program evaluation is needed to advance the field. PMID:19576669
Potdar, Rukmini; Fetters, Tamara; Phirun, Lam
The study describes the loss of productive time and income related to abortion care and care-seeking among 110 women presenting at public and private sector abortion providers in Cambodia. Data were collected through women's exit interviews, and descriptive analysis was used to examine lost time and income against a number of explanatory variables, such as gestational age of pregnancy, type of abortion provider and facility, type of uterine evacuation procedure, number of health visits, and the woman's occupation. Results indicate that lost time and earnings increase with the number of visits to obtain the termination, gestational age, and selection of a private physician or non-governmental organization clinic. Lost time and earnings also vary by the woman's type of employment. The study underscores the need for safer, accessible, and more affordable abortion services in order to ensure that these services are available for all women. Even in the Cambodian context, where abortion is unrestricted during the first trimester of pregnancy, the study findings show that the process of searching for and obtaining high-quality abortion care was unnecessarily complicated and costly to women and their household members. PMID:18308261
van Zanten, Marta; Boulet, John R.
The purposes of this research were to examine medical education accreditation practices around the world, with special focus on the Caribbean, and to explore the association between medical school accreditation and graduates' examination performance. In addition to other requirements, graduates of international medical schools seeking to…
Hussain, M A; Mishra, R; Kansal, S; Mishra, C P; Jha, S K; Hasan, H
The socio-cultural and economic contexts in developing countries influence the epidemiology or STIs and helps in making them an important public health priority. This study was carried out to explore the health care seeking pathway of the women suffering from RTls/STls. influence or major socio-demographic variables on treatment seeking pattern. This cross sectional study was carried out comprising or eight hundred reproductive age (15-49 years) women selected following a multistage sampling procedure. The information pertaining to health seeking behaviour were collected from them using a pre-designed pretested interview schedule. Quantum of RTIs/STIs in the study group was estimated and symptomatics were asked specially about time lag between appearance of symptoms and seeking acre; reason for not seeking care; outcome of treatment they have taken if any. Out of total 359 subjects with symptoms of RTls/STls only about one-third (37.3%) had sought treatment. Only a few (4.5%) had sought treatment within 1 month of appearance of symptoms. Considering it to be physiological about half of the subjects (45.3%) did not seek treatment. The treatment seeking pattern was highly associated with the level of education (p = 0.000). Reluctance in seeking treatment, delay in its initiation, prelerence for unqualified practitioners in first consultation and significant association between education and treatment seeking pattern emphasize BCC and service provision for control and prevention of RTls/STls. PMID:23785881
Kutner, Nancy G.; Brogan, Donna R.
Women students from two southern medical schools were found to be as likely as their male peers to hold unfavorable attitudes toward other female students or to be unsure of how they felt. (Author/MK)
Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schally, Jennifer L
Interpersonal violence research on Latinos has largely ignored the ethnic group variations that are included under the pan-ethnic term Latino. The current study adds to the literature by utilizing a national sample of Latino women to examine the interpersonal victimization experiences and help-seeking responses to victimization by ethnic group. The sample was drawn from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas Study (SALAS; Cuevas & Sabina, 2010) that surveyed 2,000 self-identified adult Latino women. For the purpose of this study, victimization in the United States was examined among Mexican ethnics (73.3% of sample), Cuban ethnics (14%), and other ethnics (12.8%). Mexican ethnicity was found to be significantly associated with increased odds of experiencing any, physical, sexual, threat, and stalking victimization. Findings also show that higher levels of Latino orientation and being an immigrant were associated with decreased odds of experiencing any victimization, whereas Anglo orientation, as measured by the Brief ARSMA-II (Cuéllar, Arnold, & Maldonado, 1995), was associated with greater odds of experiencing any victimization. Anglo orientation was significantly associated with formal help seeking. Taken as a whole, these findings emphasize the importance of bilingual and culturally competent services and also reveal that culturally competent services includes developing an understanding of the cultural differences between Latino ethnic groups. Specifically, service providers should be aware that Latinos of Mexican ethnicity may face unique risks for victimization. PMID:25111549
Flicker, Sharon M; Cerulli, Catherine; Zhao, Xi; Tang, Wan; Watts, Arthur; Xia, Yinglin; Talbot, Nancy L
This study uses National Violence against Women Survey data to investigate the differential impact of concomitant forms of violence (sexual abuse, stalking, and psychological abuse) and ethnicity on help-seeking behaviors of women physically abused by an intimate partner (n = 1,756). Controlling for severity of the physical abuse, women who experienced concomitant sexual abuse are less likely to seek help, women who experienced concomitant stalking are more likely to seek help, whereas concomitant psychological abuse is not associated with help seeking. Ethnic differences are found in help seeking from friends, mental health professionals, police, and orders of protection. Implications for service outreach are discussed. PMID:21821618
Atekyereza, Peter R; Mubiru, Kenneth
Maternal mortality remains a challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda. Antenatal Care (ANC) is one of the recommended measures to improve maternal and child health. However, the influence of pregnancy definition and perception on patterns of seeking regular and timely antenatal care among women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) is not known. The objectives of this study were to: (i) understand the women's social definitions and perceptions on their pregnancy; (ii) understand the socio-cultural beliefs related to pregnancy among women of the reproductive age group; and, (iii) examine the influence of social definitions, perceptions and beliefs about pregnancy on women's antenatal care seeking behaviour patterns to inform the decentralised health care delivery system in Uganda. A total of 45 women, mothers and expectant women who were purposively selected from Kimanya sub county of Masaka district in Uganda participated in the study. Ten key informant interviews and four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted. Key findings indicate that the women's socio-definitions and perceptions of pregnancy influence their seeking behaviour on antenatal health care. To the women with a positive orientation towards antenatal care, pregnancy provides joy, happiness, pride, promotes their social status and safe-guards their marriage. Pregnancy is rewarding with care, love, support and gifts. Women who shun antenatal care perceive pregnancy to be a source of misery, sadness, pain and suffering. It is an uncomfortable and regrettable experience. Women also hold socio-cultural beliefs on pregnancy, which are culturally constructed and rooted in taboos, rituals and practices of their communities. It is therefore important to sensitise women and those who attend to them when they are pregnant to understand these perceptions and definitions to motivate them to seek antenatal and postnatal care for better maternal and child health. PMID:26891521
Background This qualitative study sets to fill a gap in knowledge by exploring the health seeking behaviour of rural women living in the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt). The existing literature on the oPt has so far focused on unravelling the country’s epidemiological and health system profile, but has largely neglected the assessment of factors shaping people’s decisions on health care use. Methods Based on a conceptual framework rooted in the Anderson behavioural model, we conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with purposely selected women and seven key informant interviews in three purposely selected villages in Ramallah district. Results Our findings indicate that women delay seeking professional care, use self-prescribed medications and home treatment, and do not use preventive and educational health services. Their health seeking behaviour is the result of the interplay of several factors: their gendered socio-cultural role; their health beliefs; financial affordability and geographical accessibility; their perceptions of the quality of care; and their perceived health needs. Conclusions Findings are discussed in the light of their policy implications, suggesting that adequate health policy planning ought to take into considerations socio-cultural dimensions beyond those directly pertinent to the health care system. PMID:23705933
McCauley, Jenna L.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Walsh, Kate; Resnick, Heidi S.
Objective To examine post-rape substance use, associated post rape medical and social concern variables, and past year substance abuse among women reporting having received medical care following a most recent or only lifetime incident of rape. Method Using a subsample of women who received post-rape medical care following a most recent or only rape incident (n=104) drawn from a national household probability sample of U.S. women, the current study described the extent of peritraumatic substance use, past year substance misuse behaviors, post-rape HIV and pregnancy concerns, and lifetime mental health service utilization as a function of substance use at time of incident. Results One-third (33%) of women seeking post-rape medical attention reported consuming alcohol or drugs at the time of their rape incident. Nearly one in four (24.7%) and one in seven (15%) women seeking medical attention following their most recent rape incident endorsed drug (marijuana, illicit, non-medical use of prescription drugs, or club drug) use or met substance abuse criteria, respectively, in the past year. One in twelve (8.4%) women reported at least monthly binge drinking in the past year. Approximately two-thirds of women reported seeking services for mental health needs in their lifetime. Post-rape concerns among women reporting peritraumatic substance use were not significantly different from those of women not reporting such use. Conclusions Substance use was reported by approximately one-third of women and past year substance abuse was common among those seeking post-rape medical care. Implications for service delivery, intervention implementation, and future research are discussed. PMID:23380490
Jain, Tanu; Garg, Suneela; Singh, M M; Kaushik, Annu; Batra, Sachin; Gupta, V K; Ingle, G K
A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the pattern of antepartum morbidities and its relationship with socio-economic, demographic characteristics and the health seeking behaviour among 214 women in an urban slum community of Delhi. Interviews were conducted in the households using a pretested semi-structured schedule. The age at marriage, age at co-habitation, and age at child-birth were below 18 years in 36.4%, 32.7%, and 5.1% respectively. The average number of antepartum morbidities per woman was 1.7. Commonest morbidities were: Urinary problems (11.2%), swelling over hands and feet (9.3%), fever > 3 days duration (7.5%), antepartum bleeding (7.0%), etc. The antepartum morbidities were found to be significantly higher among wives of illiterate (p = 0.01) husbands and of unskilled workers (p = 0.01). Out of 144 morbidities, consultation was sought for 101 morbidities (70.1%), mostly in a government hospital (78.2%). Main reasons for non-consultation among 43 women were: Non-availability of persons to accompany (32.6%), or to look after the children (23.3%) and feeling unnecessary to consult (23.3%). Study findings revealed the need for family support, sensitising men about women's health problems during pregnancy and education regarding identification of danger signs during pregnancy for reducing maternal morbidity and related mortality. PMID:22187764
Fletcher, Jason J.; Verdecias, Niko; Cunningham, Chinazo O.
Abstract We sought to examine characteristics of HIV-positive women with varying levels of engagement in care and care-seeking behaviors. From 2010 to 2013, in a multi-site US-based study of engagement in care among HIV-positive women, we conducted baseline interviews, which included socio-demographic, clinical, and risk behavior characteristics, and barriers to care. We used multinomial logistic regression to compare differences among three distinct categories of 748 women: engaged in care; not engaged in care, but seeking care (“seekers”); and not engaged in care and not seeking care (“non-seekers”). Compared with women in care, seekers were more likely to be uninsured and to report fair or poor health status. In contrast, non-seekers were not only more likely to be uninsured, but, also, to report current high-risk drug use and sexual behaviors, and less likely to report transportation as a barrier to care. Examining care-seeking behaviors among HIV-positive women not engaged in care revealed important differences in high-risk behaviors. Because non-seekers represent a particularly vulnerable population of women who are not engaged in care, interventions targeting this population likely need to address drug use and be community-based given their limited interaction with the health care system. PMID:25561307
Blackstock, Oni J; Blank, Arthur E; Fletcher, Jason J; Verdecias, Niko; Cunningham, Chinazo O
We sought to examine characteristics of HIV-positive women with varying levels of engagement in care and care-seeking behaviors. From 2010 to 2013, in a multi-site US-based study of engagement in care among HIV-positive women, we conducted baseline interviews, which included socio-demographic, clinical, and risk behavior characteristics, and barriers to care. We used multinomial logistic regression to compare differences among three distinct categories of 748 women: engaged in care; not engaged in care, but seeking care ("seekers"); and not engaged in care and not seeking care ("non-seekers"). Compared with women in care, seekers were more likely to be uninsured and to report fair or poor health status. In contrast, non-seekers were not only more likely to be uninsured, but, also, to report current high-risk drug use and sexual behaviors, and less likely to report transportation as a barrier to care. Examining care-seeking behaviors among HIV-positive women not engaged in care revealed important differences in high-risk behaviors. Because non-seekers represent a particularly vulnerable population of women who are not engaged in care, interventions targeting this population likely need to address drug use and be community-based given their limited interaction with the health care system. PMID:25561307
Zamberlin, Nina; Romero, Mariana; Ramos, Silvina
fact that some women eventually need to seek medical care at a hospital where they might be sanctioned for having an abortion and even reported to the police. PMID:23259660
Sheridan, Jennifer T.; Fine, Eve; Pribbenow, Christine Maidl; Handelsman, Jo; Carnes, Molly
One opportunity to realize the diversity goals of academic health centers comes at the time of hiring new faculty. To improve the effectiveness of search committees in increasing the gender diversity of faculty hires, the authors created and implemented a training workshop for faculty search committees designed to improve the hiring process and increase the diversity of faculty hires at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. They describe the workshops, which they presented in the School of Medicine and Public Health between 2004 and 2007, and they compare the subsequent hiring of women faculty in participating and nonparticipating departments and the self-reported experience of new faculty within the hiring process. Attendance at the workshop correlates with improved hiring of women faculty and with a better hiring experience for faculty recruits, especially women. The authors articulate successful elements of workshop implementation for other medical schools seeking to increase gender diversity on their faculties. PMID:20505400
Pelzer, N L; Wiese, W H; Leysen, J M
Veterinary medical students at Iowa State University were surveyed in January of 1997 to determine their general use of the Veterinary Medical Library and how they sought information in an electronic environment. Comparisons were made between this study and one conducted a decade ago to determine the effect of the growth in electronic resources on student library use and information-seeking behavior. The basic patterns of student activities in the library, resources used to find current information, and resources anticipated for future education needs remained unchanged. The 1997 students used the library most frequently for photocopying, office supplies, and studying coursework; they preferred textbooks and handouts as sources of current information. However, when these students went beyond textbooks and handouts to seek current information, a major shift was seen from the use of print indexes and abstracts in 1987 towards the use of computerized indexes and other electronic resources in 1997. Almost 60% of the students reported using the Internet for locating current information. Overall use of electronic materials was highest among a group of students receiving the problem-based learning method of instruction. Most of the students surveyed in 1997 indicated that electronic resources would have some degree of importance to them for future education needs. The electronic environment has provided new opportunities for information professionals to help prepare future veterinarians, some of whom will be practicing in remote geographical locations, to access the wealth of information and services available on the Internet and Web. PMID:9681170
Safer, M A; Tharps, Q J; Jackson, T C; Leventhal, H
Factors affecting delay were studied in patients seeking treatment for the first time for a particular symptom at clinics in a major, innercity hospital. On the basis of the patients' retrospective report, the total time from first noticing a symptom to the seeking of treatment was divided into three sequential stages: 1) appraisal delay--the time the patient takes to appraise a symptom as a sign of illness; 2) illness delay--the time taken from deciding one is ill until deciding to seek professional medical care; and 3) utilization delay--the time from the decision to seek care until the patient goes to the clinic and uses its services. The variables used to predict the length of delay for each of the three stages and for total delay included reports on concrete, sensory perceptions and abstract, conceptual beliefs about one's symptoms, behavioral factors such as strategies for self-appraisal and techniques for coping with illness, emotional reactions, negative imagery elicited by the illness threat, situational barriers, and socio-demographic factors. Patients experiencing a very painful symptom and patients who did not read about their symptom had a short appraisal delay. Patients with old symptoms and those who imagined possible, severe consequences of their illness had long illness delays. Utilization delay was shortest for persons who were not concerned about the cost of treatment, who had a painful symptom, and who were certain that their symptom could be cured. Patients who had short total delays were persons who did not have a competing personal problem and who had a painful symptom. All of these predictors were significantly correlated with the measure of delay at or beyond the p = .01 level. It was concluded that different factors mediate delay in each of the three stages and that studies which use only a single measure of total delay are likely to be of limited value in understanding delay. PMID:759741
Background Dealing with pregnancy, childbirth and the care of newborn babies is a challenge for female asylum seekers and their health care providers. The aim of our study was to identify reproductive health issues in a population of women seeking asylum in Switzerland, and to examine the care they received. The women were insured through a special Health Maintenance Organisation (HMO) and were attending the Women's Clinic of the University Hospital in Basel. We also investigated how the health professionals involved perceived the experience of providing health care for these patients. Methods A mixed methods approach combined the analysis of quantitative descriptive data and qualitative data obtained from semi-structured interviews with health care providers and from patients' files. We analysed the records of 80 asylum-seeking patients attending the Women's Clinic insured through an HMO. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 care providers from different professional groups. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively. Qualitative data analysis was guided by Grounded Theory. Results The principal health problems among the asylum seekers were a high rate of induced abortions (2.5 times higher than in the local population), due to inadequate contraception, and psychosocial stress due to the experience of forced migration and their current difficult life situation. The language barriers were identified as a major difficulty for health professionals in providing care. Health care providers also faced major emotional challenges when taking care of asylum seekers. Additional problems for physicians were that they were often required to act in an official capacity on behalf of the authorities in charge of the asylum process, and they also had to make decisions about controlling expenditure to fulfil the requirements of the HMO. They felt that these decisions sometimes conflicted with their duty towards the patient. Conclusion Health policies for asylum
Newman, Frederick L; Seff, Laura R; Beaulaurier, Richard L; Palmer, Richard C
The study's (n = 447) purposes were to (1) describe relationships of abuser behavior to elder women's perception of barriers to help-seeking; (2) compare fit of model to participants' levels of abuse, race-ethnicity, age, and gender and relationship of identified close other; and (3) determine extent to which the model differentiated relationship of abuser to participant and level of abuse. Analyses identified six factors contributing to the overall barrier score, accounting for 84% of total variance (χ2/df = 1.527, CFI = .989, RMSEA = .034), including three internal and two external factors and a single abuser behavior factor that were invariant across participant characteristic; however, covariances did differ. PMID:23627428
Objective The objective of the study was to describe our early experience with a comprehensive uterine fibroid center and report our results in women seeking a second opinion for management of symptomatic uterine leiomyoma. Methods We performed a HIPAA-complaint, IRB-approved retrospective study of women seeking second opinion for management of uterine fibroids at our multidisciplinary fibroid treatment center in a tertiary care facility from July 2008 to August 2011. After a review of patients’ history, physical examination, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, treatment options were discussed which included conservative management, uterine-preserving options, and hysterectomy. We performed Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables between the cohort that did or did not undergo a uterine-preserving treatment. Differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. Results The mean age of the 205 patient study cohort was 43.8 years (SD 7.5). One hundred sixty-two (79.0%) patients had no prior therapy. Based on MRI, one or more fibroids were detected in 178/205 (86.8%), adenomyosis in 8/205 (3.9%), and a combination of fibroid and nonfibroid condition (i.e., adenomyosis, endometrial polyp) in 18/205 (8.8%). In those who desired to transition their care to our institution (n = 109), 85 patients underwent 90 interventions: 39 MRgFUS (magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound surgery), 14 UAE (uterine artery embolization), 25 myomectomies, 8 hysterectomies, 3 polypectomies, and 1 endometrial ablation. Five patients had two procedures. Intramural and subserosal fibroids were most commonly treated with MRgFUS followed by myomectomy and then UAE; in contrast, pedunculated fibroids were frequently managed with myomectomy. Conclusions Multidisciplinary fibroid evaluation may facilitate the increase use of less invasive options over hysterectomy for symptomatic fibroid treatment. PMID:25512867
Thorburn, Sheryl; Kue, Jennifer; Keon, Karen Levy; Lo, Patela
Low rates of breast and cervical cancer screening among Hmong women have been documented. Mistrust of Western medicine and the health care system, as well as experiences of discrimination in health care, may be barriers to seeking health care for this population. In this study, we explored medical mistrust among Hmong women and men, their experiences with discrimination in health care, and how these factors may influence Hmong women’s breast and cervical cancer screening behavior. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with women and men who were members of the Hmong community in Oregon. Transcripts of 83 interviews were analyzed using content analysis. Despite personally trusting Western medicine and the health care system, participants shared reasons that some Hmong people feel mistrust including lack of understanding or familiarity, culture, and tradition. Although mistrust was thought to result in delaying or avoiding breast or cervical cancer screening, more frequently trust was described as positively influencing screening. In addition, few participants reported being treated differently during breast or cervical cancer screening because they were Hmong. When discussing health care more broadly, however, some participants described differential (e.g., disrespectful or rude) treatment. Such experiences led to feelings such as anger and sadness and affected behavior, including willingness to seek care and choice of provider. Medical mistrust and perceived discrimination were not major barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening in this study. Additional studies are needed to assess whether our findings reflect the experiences of other Hmong. PMID:22116737
The library facilities, resource materials, training of librarians and so on are described at first. The library collection is that of middle sized medical library. However, since the facilities are not enough to handle it, it is necessary for the library to be supplemented by information services. Then primary information services such as reading of materials, interlibrary loan and journal acquisition system of the recent issues for each laboratory is outlined. Secondary information services centered around on-line information retrieval service, contents sheet service and preparation of index cards are also described. What a medical library should be is considered in terms of its relation to information services.
Phillips, S P; Ferguson, K E
BACKGROUND: Medical school has historically reinforced traditional views of women. This cohort study follows implementation of a revitalized curriculum and examines students' attitudes toward women on entry into an Ontario medical school, and 3 years later. METHODS: Of the 75 students entering first year at Queen's University medical school 70 completed the initial survey in September 1994 and 54 were resurveyed in May 1997. First-year students at 2 other Ontario medical schools were also surveyed in 1994, and these 166 respondents formed a comparison group. Changes in responses to statements about sex-role stereotypes, willingness to control decision-making of female patients, and conceptualization of women as "other" or "abnormal" because they are women were examined. Responses from the comparison group were used to indicate whether the Queen's group was representative. RESULTS: Attitudinal differences between the primary group and the comparison group were not significant. After 3 years of medical education students were somewhat less accepting of sex-role stereotypes and less controlling in the doctor-patient encounter. They continued, however, to equate adults with men and to see women as "not adult" or "other." Female students began and remained somewhat more open-minded in all areas studied. INTERPRETATION: A predicted trend toward conservatism was not seen as students became older, more aware and closer to completion of medical training, although they continued to equate adults with male and to see women as "other." Findings may validate new curricular approaches and increased attention to gender issues in the academic environment. PMID:10065081
Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan
Although growing research supports cancer survivor information-seeking, little is known about breast cancer prevention information-seeking among women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in breast cancer risk factor knowledge, information sources, and desired mobile messages among Hispanic and non-Hispanic rural women. Women were recruited to complete a survey at an imaging center during a mammography screening visit. A total of 156 women (mean age = 61, SD = 12.07) completed the survey. Breast cancer risk factor knowledge was significantly higher for non-Hispanic women compared to Hispanic women (p = .035). Television, magazines, and Internet were the most frequent information sources. Providers were the most frequent interpersonal information source. Nearly 87 % used cell phones and 47 % used texting. Hispanic women were more likely to desire breast cancer prevention cell voice messages (p < .001) and text messages (p = .001) compared to non-Hispanic women. No significant differences were found for text appointment reminders by ethnicity. Health educators and clinicians must promote mobile messages for Hispanics and non-Hispanics for mammography adherence, breast cancer prevention education, and best practices to manage screening appointments. PMID:24163017
Tolomiczenko, George; Sanger, Terry
Medical students are attracted by the prospect of a meaningful addition to their clinical work. Engineering students are excited by a unique opportunity to learn directly alongside their medical student peers. For both, as well as the scientific community at large, the boutique program at the University of Southern California (USC) linking engineering and medical training at the graduate level is instructive of a new way of approaching engineering education that can potentially provide benefits to both students and society. Students who have grown up in an era of ?mass customization? in the retail and service industries can enjoy that same degree of flexibility also in the realm of education. At the same time, society gains engineers who have developed an increased empathy and awareness of the clinical contexts in which their innovations will be implemented. PMID:26583889
Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's. PMID:25454637
Matovu, Sarah Natalia; La cour, Karen; Hemmingsson, Helena
Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is essential to improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS; however, it still remains a challenge especially for young African women. The purpose of the study was to explore how young women with HIV/AIDS in Uganda experience the influence of their everyday life occupations on adherence to HAART after more than 1 year on the medication. Narratives of six participants were elicited using two semistructured interviews within a period of 1 month. Narrative analysis was used to develop themes reflecting the participants' stories of coping with everyday activities. The participants described their adherence to HAART in relation to everyday life occupations as a "tug of war", which describes the struggles they had taking medication because they were afraid of being discriminated by peers and the general society. They also expressed fear of not being included in many activities if people knew they have HIV/AIDS because there are many beliefs associated with the illness especially for young women in which they are branded promiscuous. However, in the Ugandan culture, women are considered to be home makers, which restricted their activities mostly around domestic work making it hard for them to prioritize their medication, and when they young women prioritized, it was all about fun activities that seemed to consume much time, hence contributing to the poor adherence. It is therefore important to assess the everyday occupations of young women before they start taking medication, so that HAART is scheduled in accordance with their everyday life occupation to reduce poor adherence. The implications of the study on practice is that it will enable occupational therapists working with persons with HIV/AIDS develop age-specific activities taking into consideration HAART as an everyday life activity rather than one that needs to be incorporated into their already existing activities, hence improving their
Yousaf, Omar; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A; Hunter, Myra S
Despite a growing literature on the factors associated with men's low rates of medical and psychological help-seeking, a systematic review of these is missing. Such an overview can help to inform health psychologists of the barriers to the performance of adaptive health behaviours, such as prompt help-seeking, and could inform theoretical advancements and the development of targeted interventions to facilitate prompt help-seeking among men. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative empirical papers on factors associated with delays in men's medical and psychological help-seeking. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed, and we used the databases PsycINFO, Medline, Embase and PsycARTICLES (with keywords: men/male*/gender*, help*/seek* and health*/service*/utili*[sation]) for papers in English. 41 citations (amounting to 21,787 participants aged 15-80 + ) met the inclusion criteria. Approximately half of these used qualitative methodologies (i.e., semi-structured interviews and focus groups), while half used quantitative methodologies (i.e., questionnaires). We identify a number of recurring cognitive, emotional, health-service related and socio-demographic help-seeking factors/predictors from the 41 papers. Of these, the most prominent barriers to help-seeking were disinclination to express emotions/concerns about health, embarrassment, anxiety and fear, and poor communication with health-care professionals. PMID:26209212
Crisafi, Denise N; Jasinski, Jana L
Our study examines the effects of abused women's relocation and recentness to an area on informal and formal help-seeking, and how access to personal and social resources affect these relationships. Secondary data analysis was conducted using a sample of 572 women with histories of abuse and homelessness who were interviewed at shelters in the state of Florida. Findings from nested linear regressions demonstrate that relocation affects formal help-seeking while recentness to an area affects informal help-seeking. Access to personal resources also predicts women's use of both informal and formal resources. Implications for intimate partner violence help-seeking are discussed. PMID:26612273
Iverson, Katherine M.; Bauer, Margret R.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Pineles, Suzanne L.; Harrington, Ellen F.; Resick, Patricia A.
The relationship between partner violence and physical health symptoms is well-established. Although some researchers have theorized that the physical health effects of partner violence may be worse for ethnic minority women, there is little research addressing this topic. The current study examined whether African American women demonstrate a differential association in this relationship than Caucasian women. This study included 323 women (232 African American, 91 Caucasian) who participated in a larger investigation of the psychological and psychophysiological correlates of recent partner violence among women seeking help for the abuse. Race was examined as a moderator of the relationship between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms. Although mean levels of partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms did not significantly differ between African American and Caucasian women, linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant positive relationship between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms for African American women; whereas there was no association observed between these variables for Caucasian women. Post hoc analyses revealed that posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms partially mediated the association between partner violence frequency and physical health symptoms for the African American women. The current findings underscore the importance of considering race when studying the effect of partner violence on women’s health. PMID:23616911
Prusty, Ranjan Kumar; Unisa, Sayeed
Background: India is home to the highest number of adolescents in the world. Adolescents in India suffer from lack of knowledge and empowerment to make informed sexual and reproductive health decisions. This paper analyses the prevalence of reproductive tract infections and sexually transmitted infections (RTI/STI) and treatment seeking behavior among married adolescent women in India aged 15-19 years. Methods: Data from the District Level Household Survey (DLHS, 2007-08) of India were used. The prevalence of RTIs symptoms and treatment seeking behavior among women by different socio-demographic characteristics was analyzed. Factor analysis was utilized to create an index using information about 11 symptoms of RTI/STI collected in the survey. Linear and binary logistic regressions were used to know the association between infections and treatment seeking behavior with socio-demographic factors. Results: About 15 percent of adolescent women reported having any symptoms of RTI/STI. The main symptoms reported were low backache, pain in the lower abdomen, pain during intercourse and itching or irritation around the vulvar region. Factor analysis showed the concentration of diseases in three clusters - infection in around the vulva, other reproductive infection and abnormal discharge; and intercourse related problems. Major predictors of both symptoms of reproductive infections and treatment seeking behavior from multivariate analysis are age, education, wealth, region and awareness about RTI/STI. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Knowledge and treatment seeking behavior is poor among adolescent women in India. There is need for programmatic and policy emphasis on increasing knowledge and awareness through family life education including in educational curriculum at school level.
Niksic, Maja; Rachet, Bernard; Warburton, Fiona G; Forbes, Lindsay J L
Background: Ethnic differences in cancer symptom awareness and barriers to seeking medical help in the English population are not fully understood. We aimed to quantify these differences, to help develop more effective health campaigns, tailored to the needs of different ethnic groups. Methods: Using a large national data set (n=38 492) of cross-sectional surveys that used the Cancer Research UK Cancer Awareness Measure, we examined how cancer symptom awareness and barriers varied by ethnicity, controlling for socio-economic position, age and gender. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Awareness of cancer symptoms was lower in minority ethnic groups than White participants, with the lowest awareness observed among Bangladeshis and Black Africans. Ethnic minorities were more likely than White British to report barriers to help-seeking. South Asians reported the highest emotional barriers, such as lack of confidence to talk to the doctor, and practical barriers, such as worry about many other things. The Irish were more likely than the White British to report practical barriers, such as being too busy to visit a doctor. White British participants were more likely than any other ethnic group to report that they would feel worried about wasting the doctor's time. Overall, Black Africans had the lowest barriers. All differences were statistically significant (P<0.01 level), after controlling for confounders. Conclusions: Our findings suggest the need for culturally sensitive and targeted health campaigns, focused on improving recognition of cancer symptoms among ethnic minorities. Campaigns should tackle the specific barriers prevalent in each ethnic group. PMID:27280638
Turner-Moss, Eleanor; Zimmerman, Cathy; Howard, Louise M; Oram, Siân
Research on the health of trafficked men and on the health problems associated with trafficking for labor exploitation are extremely limited. This study analysed data from a case series of anonymised case records of a consecutive sample of 35 men and women who had been trafficked for labor exploitation in the UK and who were receiving support from a non-governmental service between June 2009 and July 2010. Over three-quarters of our sample was male (77 %) and two-thirds aged between 18 and 35 years (mean 32.9 years, SD 10.2). Forty percent reported experiencing physical violence while they were trafficked. Eighty-one percent (25/31) reported one or more physical health symptoms. Fifty-seven percent (17/30) reported one or more post-traumatic stress symptoms. A substantial proportion of men and women who are trafficked for labor exploitation may experience violence and abuse, and have physical and mental health symptoms. People who have been trafficked for forced labor need access to medical assessment and treatment. PMID:23649665
Strauss, Jennifer L; Marx, Christine E; Weitlauf, Julie C; Stechuchak, Karen M; Straits-Troster, Kristy; Worjoloh, Ayaba W; Sherrod, Christina B; Olsen, Maren K; Butterfield, Marian I; Calhoun, Patrick S
A robust association between sexual trauma and trading sex has been documented in civilian samples but has not been examined in veterans. Women veterans experience high rates of sexual victimization across the lifespan, including during military service (military sexual trauma [MST]). Associations between MST and trading sex were examined in 200 women enrolled in a crosssectional study of HIV risks and seroprevalence among women receiving outpatient mental health care at a Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center. Each woman completed an assessment interview composed of validated measures that queried childhood sexual trauma; substance use; and risk behaviors, including trading sex for money, drugs, shelter, food, or other things. History of MST was derived from mandated VA screening results and chart notes. Overall, 19.7% reported a history of trading sex. Those who reported trading sex had a higher rate of MST than those who did not report trading sex (87.2% vs. 62.9%, respectively). A multivariable logistic regression model examined the relationship between trading sex and MST, controlling a priori for substance abuse and childhood sexual trauma (both associated with trading sex in civilian samples) and education, which was associated with trading sex in our sample. In this adjusted model, MST was associated with trading sex: odds ratio = 3.26, p = .025, 95% confidence interval = [1.16, 9.18]. To our knowledge, this is the 1st report of an association between MST and trading sex. Results extend previously observed associations between sexual trauma and trading sex in civilian cohorts and underscore the pernicious influence of sexual victimization across the lifespan. PMID:21534097
Callender, Valerie D; McMichael, Amy J; Cohen, George F
Hair loss is a common problem that challenges the patient and clinician with a host of cosmetic, psychological and medical issues. Alopecia occurs in both men and women, and in all racial and ethnic populations, but the etiology varies considerably from group to group. In black women, many forms of alopecia are associated with hair-care practices (e.g., traction alopecia, trichorrhexis nodosa, and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia). The use of thermal or chemical hair straightening, and hair braiding or weaving are examples of styling techniques that place African American women at high risk for various "traumatic" alopecias. Although the exact cause of these alopecias is unknown, a multifactorial etiology including both genetic and environmental factors is suspected. A careful history and physical examination, together with an acute sensitivity to the patient's perceptions (e.g., self-esteem and social problems), are critical in determining the best therapy course. Therapeutic options for these patients range from alteration of current hair grooming practices or products, to use of specific medical treatments, to hair replacement surgery. Since early intervention is often a key to preventing irreversible alopecia, the purpose of the present article is to educate the dermatologist on all aspects of therapy for hair loss in black women--including not only a discussion of the main medical and surgical therapies but also an overview of ethnic hair cosmetics, specific suggestions for alterations of hair-care practices, and recommendations for patient education and compliance. PMID:15113284
Rose, Sally B.; Wei, Zhang; Cooper, Annette J.; Lawton, Beverley A.
Background Migrant Asian women reportedly have low levels of contraceptive use and high rates of abortion in New Zealand. Chinese make up the largest proportion of migrant Asian in New Zealand. This study aimed to describe the contraceptive choices of Chinese women seeking abortion; to examine method choice in relation to demographic characteristics (including length of stay) and to determine whether Chinese women were over-represented among abortion clinic attendees. Methods Retrospective review of medical records at a public hospital abortion clinic involving 305 Chinese women. Previously collected data for European (n = 277) and Maori women (n = 128) were used for comparative analyses. Regression analyses explored correlates of contraceptive method choice. Population census data were used to calculate rates of clinic attendance across ethnic groups. Results Chinese women were not over-represented among clinic attendees, and had similar rates of contraceptive non-use pre-abortion as women in comparison groups. Use of the oral contraceptive pill by Chinese was lower pre-abortion than for other ethnic groups, but choice of this method post-abortion was similar for Chinese (46.9%, 95% CI 41–52.7) and European women (43.7%, 95% CI 37.8–49.7). Post-abortion choice of an intrauterine device did not differ significantly between Chinese (28.9%, 95% CI 23.8–34.3) and Maori women (37%, 95% CI 28.4–45.7), but was higher than uptake of this method by European women (21.7%, 95% CI 17–27.0). Age, parity and previous abortion were significant predictors of post-abortion method choice by Chinese women (p<0.05). Conclusions Following contraceptive counseling at the clinic, Chinese women chose more effective contraceptive methods for use post-abortion than they had used previously. As the population of migrant Chinese in New Zealand continues to increase, strategies are urgently needed to provide new arrivals with appropriate information and advice about
Jadva, V.; Freeman, T.; Tranfield, E.; Golombok, S.
STUDY QUESTION What are the characteristics, motivations and expectations of men and women who search for a co-parent online? SUMMARY ANSWER Male and female prospective co-parents differed in terms of their motivations, choice of co-parent and expectations of co-parenting, while differences according to sexual orientation were less marked. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Very few studies have addressed the experiences of elective co-parents, i.e. men and women who are not in a relationship with each other creating and raising a child together. No study has examined the motivations and experiences of those who seek co-parents online. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION An online survey was completed by 102 participants (61 men, 41 women) who were members of Pride Angel, an online connection website that facilitates contact between people looking for someone with whom to have a child. The survey was live for 7 weeks. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Details of the survey were emailed to all members of Pride Angel. The survey obtained data on participants' demographic characteristics, motivations, choice of co-parent and expectations of co-parenting. Data were analysed to examine differences by gender and by sexual orientation within each gender. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Approximately one-third of men and one half of women seeking co-parenting arrangements were heterosexual. The majority (69, 68%) of participants were single, although significantly more gay and bisexual men (15, 36%) and lesbian and bisexual women (11, 55%) had a partner compared with heterosexual men (4, 20%) and heterosexual women (2, 12%), respectively. Overall, the most important motivation for seeking co-parenting arrangements was in order for both biological parents to be involved in the child's upbringing. Co-parents were looking for someone with a good medical history. Most female co-parents expected the child to live with them, whereas male co-parents either wished the child to reside
Waisbren, S E; Hamilton, B D; St James, P J; Shiloh, S; Levy, H L
OBJECTIVES. This study identified factors predicting adherence to medical recommendations in maternal phenylketonuria, which can result in severe fetal damage. METHODS. Sixty-nine women with phenylketonuria, 68 of their acquaintances, and 69 women with diabetes mellitus were interviewed annually for 5 years. A model in which each stage in the maternal phenylketonuria life cycle represented a treatment-related goal provided a means to assess adherence. RESULTS. At the stages of prevention of unplanned pregnancy, treatment initiation, and diet continuation throughout pregnancy, attitudes and social support were associated with adherence to medical recommendations. No specific variables were associated with outcome at reproductive decision making, but women with phenylketonuria were more likely to delay making a decision, resulting in unplanned and, hence, untreated or late-treated pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS. Women with phenylketonuria differed from their acquaintances and diabetic women in many respects, suggesting that special programs are needed. Greater emphasis on reproductive decision making is especially needed. Interventions that focus on improving social support networks and attitudes about treatment may increase adherence to recommendations. PMID:7503337
Orisaremi, Titilayo Cordelia
In this study, which was part of a larger project I undertook in North-central Nigeria, I explored the differences in the sexual health seeking behavior of Tarok women and men and how these differences affect the spread of HIV. With the help of three research assistants, I conducted 16 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in four Tarok communities in North-central Nigeria. I found certain negative effects of gender inequality on women's sexual health seeking behavior in particular, a situation that has adverse implications for HIV acquisition and transmission. I therefore concluded that addressing the challenges of gender inequality is imperative for a sustained fight against HIV and AIDS in Nigeria. PMID:25365697
Kaiser, Dorina; Grundmann, Johanna; Schulze, Claudia; Stubenvoll, Martina; Kosar, Marita; Junker, Marita; Najavits, Lisa M; Schäfer, Ingo
Seeking Safety is an integrated coping skills therapy for substance use disorder (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Our aim was to examine the effects of Seeking Safety in a sample of female German outpatients with current SUD and PTSD. A total of 53 women were offered 12 weekly sessions of Seeking Safety, conducted in group modality. Women (N=33) who attended at least six sessions were considered minimum-dose completers and were in the analysis. We measured PTSD and substance use symptoms using the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI-Lite) at end-of-treatment and three-month follow-up. Additional measures were the Brief Symptom Checklist (BSI) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-25). Our sample reported chronic SUD, multiple prior detoxifications, and serious childhood trauma. We found medium to large effect sizes for improvements in PTSD symptoms, general psychopathology, and interpersonal problems at end-of-treatment, all of which were sustained at follow-up. Alcohol use improved significantly only at follow-up. This study suggests that the model was associated with positive effects, at least in a subgroup of women attending a minimum of sessions. Limitations include the lack of a control condition as well as an intention-to-treat analysis. PMID:26514284
Jansen, Natalie Anne; Saint Onge, Jarron M
Infertility is a condition that affects nearly 30 percent of women aged 25-44 in the United States. Though past research has addressed the stigmatization of infertility, few have done so in the context of stigma management between fertile and infertile women. In order to assess evidence of felt and enacted stigma, we employed a thematic content analysis of felt and enacted stigma in an online infertility forum, Fertile Thoughts, to analyze 432 initial threads by women in various stages of the treatment-seeking process. We showed that infertile women are frequently stigmatized for their infertility or childlessness and coped through a variety of mechanisms including backstage joshing and social withdrawal. We also found that infertile women appeared to challenge and stigmatize pregnant women for perceived immoral behaviors or lower social status. We argue that while the effects of stigma power are frequently perceived and felt in relationships between infertile women and their fertile peers, the direction of the enacted stigma is related to social standing and feelings of fairness and reinforces perceived expressions of deserved motherhood in the United States. PMID:26584236
Rooks, Ronica N; Wiltshire, Jacqueline C; Elder, Keith; BeLue, Rhonda; Gary, Lisa C
Increasing numbers of adults in the United States of America (USA) are seeking and using health information within their medical encounters. The theory of uncertainty management suggests that patients reduce health care uncertainty by increasing their understanding of disease etiology or treatment options, improving patient-doctor communication, and enhancing knowledge of disease self-management through health information seeking. However, research shows racial and ethnic minorities are less likely than Whites to seek health information and use it in their physician visits. How racial and ethnic minorities use health information outside of their medical encounters is unknown. In this study we used data from the 2007 USA Health Tracking Household survey, a nationally-representative survey of civilian, non-institutionalized Americans (n = 12,549). Using logistic regression we found African Americans were no different from Whites in seeking health information and using it when they talked with their doctors. Latinos were significantly less likely than Whites to seek health information and less likely to use it when they talked with their doctors. But, among those who sought health information, African Americans and Latinos were significantly more likely than Whites to use health information to change their approach to maintaining their health and better understand how to treat illnesses. Also, education significantly moderated the relationship between race/ethnicity and health information seeking. However, results were mixed for education as a moderator in the relationship between race/ethnicity and health information use. Future research should focus on interventions to improve how African Americans and Latinos interface with providers and ensure that health information sought and used outside of their medical encounters augments treatment protocols. PMID:22154611
Decker, Michele R; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Sabri, Bushra; Jethva, Meghna; Raj, Anita; Donta, Balaiah; Silverman, Jay G
Domestic violence is a significant public health issue. India is uniquely affected with an estimated 1 in 3 women facing abuse at the hands of a partner. The current mixed-methods study describes violence-related coping and help-seeking, and preferences for health care-based intervention, among perinatal women residing in low-income communities in Mumbai, India. In-depth interviews were conducted with women who had recently given birth and self-reported recent violence from husbands (n = 32), followed by survey data collection (n = 1,038) from mothers seeking immunization for their infants ages 6 months or younger at 3 large urban health centers in Mumbai, India. Participants described fears and other barriers to abuse disclosure, and there was a low level of awareness of formal support services related to violence. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicated that formal help-seeking is uncommon and that informal help sources are most frequently sought. Quantitative results revealed that, while few (<5%) women had been screened for violence in the health care setting, most (67%) would be willing to disclose abuse if asked. When presented with a list of possible clinic-based violence support interventions, participants endorsed crisis counseling and safety planning as most helpful (90.9%). Findings provide direction for violence-related intervention services for perinatal women. A multipronged approach that includes strengthening the informal support system, for example, neighbors and family members, as well as facilitating access to formal services building on the health care system, warrants exploration in this context. PMID:23295374
Peitzman, Steven J
The male founders and early faculty of Philadelphia's Woman's Medical College were mostly abolitionist physicians, zealous moralists for whom medical feminism formed only one of the cherished causes they could "manfully" and righteously defend. Male faculty of the late nineteenth century comprised "self-made" men, mostly new specialists, for whom strict sexism probably seemed inconsistent with progressive medicine. For some of these physicians-obviously a small minority-defending medical women and breaking the barriers of fraternity could be consistent with "manly" responsibility. The outcome of the collaboration of women and the dissident men physicians in nineteenth-century Philadelphia amounted to another seeming paradox: the majority of the male medical profession, both locally and nationally, tyrannically hindered women's entry into the profession, yet medicine opened its doors in advance of law and the clergy; and where this first occurred, such as in the community centered on Woman's Medical College, a novel gender rearrangement arose based on collaboration and friendship. PMID:14523261
Brodsky, Annette M.
Reviews some of the progress in the last 15 years in counseling women. It notes that at this stage of the status of counseling women, there is a need to treat women as individuals who are as different from each other as they are from men. (NG)
Mousa, Shimaa M; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A; Hablas, Ahmed; Elbana, Eman S; Soliman, Amr S
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Egyptian women, accounting for 37.6% of female tumors, and is often diagnosed at later stages. The objective of this study was to investigate breast cancer patient navigation through the health care system in the Nile Delta. Interviews were conducted with 163 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients at the Tanta Cancer Center (TCC), the major cancer center of the region. Patients described their medical care pathway from the initial symptom experienced until their arrival at TCC. Patients whose initial contact was with a general surgeon (OR: 7.6, 95% CI: 2.1, 27.6), primary care provider (OR: 12.2, 95% CI: 2.9, 51.0), or gynecologist (OR: 8.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 53.4) were significantly more likely to experience a delay in reaching the TCC as compared to those visiting a surgical oncologist. Overcoming health care system and patient navigation barriers in developing countries may reduce the time for breast cancer patients to reach a cancer center for early management. PMID:21807518
Oluwole, Ebenezer O.
Background There is significantly high contraceptive knowledge in South Africa, but the uptake of contraceptives is average to low with resultant soaring of unplanned pregnancy and rising statistics of termination of pregnancy (TOP) services. This study aimed to establish the contraceptive practices among women in the South African population seeking TOP in one public hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among women seeking TOP in a women’s clinic. Self-administered questionnaires were used as data collection tool, and the data collected were entered into SPSS software for analysis, using descriptive statistics to calculate frequencies and percentages while chi-square test was used to determine the associations between the socio-demography and contraceptive practices of the participants. Results Majority of the women were aged between 20 and 29 years, had secondary education, unemployed, single and resided in townships. Contraceptive uptake prior to termination of pregnancy (CTOP) among them was 44.1%, but 85.8% had good contraceptives knowledge. Their contraceptive practices are determined by partner’s opinion, source and availability of contraceptives, previous CTOP, side effect of contraceptives and having children. Age group, educational level and employment status were found to be related to the contraceptive practices of the participants but were not statistically significant. Conclusion To reduce unplanned pregnancies and subsequent number of women seeking CTOP, the socio-economic factors associated with contraceptive practices as well as the programmes, policies and guidelines of contraceptives need to be improved on for any improvement on the factors determining contraceptive practices. PMID:27608676
There is a strong international push to secure broader rights for women. In the 20 years since the first global conference on women's issues was held in Mexico City, governments have adopted legislation which promotes equal opportunity, treatment, and rights, and women are entering the labor market in unprecedented numbers. There is evidence that investments in women have had an enormous impact upon society overall, but millions of individual women continue to face discrimination in social, economic, political, and cultural spheres. They are disproportionately denied access to positions of leadership, undereducated, underpaid, die from complications related to childbirth and unsafe abortions, and are battered and killed by men. The Fourth World Conference on Women will be held September 4-15, 1995, in Beijing, to allow participants to assess the progress and shortfalls of the past two decades and identify action to be taken into the next century. The UN-sponsored global meeting will offer governments, nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, and individuals the opportunity to review their efforts and renew their commitment to improve the equality and conditions of women and defend their human rights. The main objectives are to adopt a plan of action against obstacles to the advancement of women worldwide, to determine priority actions to be taken by the international community over the period 1996-2001, and to mobilize men and women at the grassroots level to achieve those objectives. A parallel nongovernmental organization forum on women will be held August 30 - September 8, also in Beijing. PMID:12289951
Roberts, Julie; Griffiths, Frances E; Verran, Alice; Ayre, Catherine
The commercial availability of ultrasound scans for pregnant women has been controversial yet little is known about why women make use of such services. This article reports on semi-structured interviews with women in the UK who have booked a commercial scan, focusing on the reasons women gave for booking commercially provided ultrasound during a low-risk pregnancy. Participants' reasons for booking a scan are presented in five categories: finding out the sex of the foetus; reassurance; seeing the baby; acquiring keepsakes and facilitating bonding. Our analysis demonstrates that women's reasons for booking commercial scans are often multiple and are shaped by experiences of antenatal care as well as powerful cultural discourses related to 'good' parenting and the use of technology in pregnancy. Sociological and public debate about the availability of commercial ultrasound and its social and personal impacts should consider the wider sociocultural context that structures women's choices to make use of such services. PMID:26094706
Godin, G.; Naccache, H.; Pelletier, R.
OBJECTIVE: To identify beliefs associated with seeking medical advice promptly when symptoms of HIV infection are suspected among HIV-negative gay men. DESIGN: Qualitative study of beliefs among focus group participants. SETTING: Quebec city, Que, metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Referred sample of 20 HIV-negative gay men 18 to 45 years old who attended bars, university, or gay associations in Quebec city. METHOD: Three focus groups of five to seven subjects were formed and each 2-hour session was tape-recorded. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: Participants thought that seeking medical advice promptly when symptoms of HIV are suspected would help them be informed about their health status and would eliminate unnecessary anxiety and fear, but would force them to face reality and make major changes. Barriers were the quality of the relationship with their physicians and concern about discussing their sexual lives. Normative beliefs were sought from members of community groups, circles of close friends, health providers, and the media. CONCLUSIONS: Several beliefs could influence the motivation of seronegative gay men to seek medical advice promptly when symptoms of HIV infection are suspected. These beliefs should be integrated into programs promoting early consultation with physicians and into clinical counseling, as integration could facilitate early treatment and care. Physicians should give special attention to establishing relationships of trust with these patients. PMID:10790818
Aghakhani, Nader; Sharif Nia, Hamid; Moosavi, Ehsan; Eftekhari, Ali; Zarei, Abbas; Bahrami, Nasim; Nikoonejad, Ali Reza
Background: Today, domestic violence against women is a growing epidemic that can be observed in many countries. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the types of domestic violence against women who were referred to the Legal Medical Organization of Iran in Urmia, Iran in 2012. Materials and Methods: The descriptive survey included demographic information, abuse screening, and items regarding partner involvement. Data was gathered using face-to-face structured interviews. The study population included 300, women 18 years of age or older, and data was collected about their demographic characteristics and the types of domestic violence they experienced. SPSS software version 16 was used for the analyses. Results: The majority of participants were in the 25 – 30 age group, and 83% of them were battered by their husbands in various ways. No significant relationships were observed between violence and unemployment, increasing age, and home ownership. Conclusions: The prevalence of abuse reported by women in this population suggests that many women that are referred to the Legal Medical Organization of Iran may have a history of abuse. Abused women may have different reasons for seeking a divorce. If routine screening for abuse is included in counseling, health providers will have the opportunity to develop a safety plan and initiate appropriate referrals. PMID:26834806
Kenna, George A.; Zywiak, William H.; Swift, Robert M.; McGeary, John E.; Clifford, James S.; Shoaff, Jessica R.; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Leggio, Lorenzo
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 exon III polymorphisms with gender in non-treatment seeking alcohol dependent (AD) individuals while alternately taking ondansetron and sertraline. Evidence suggests that alcohol dependence may be influenced by a genetic interaction that may be gender specific with temporal changes making pharmacological treatment with serotonergic drugs complex. The main trial was a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory study with 77 non-treatment-seeking AD individuals randomized (55 completed, 49 complete data) to receive 200mg/day of sertraline or 0.5mg/day of ondansetron for 3-weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then placebo for three weeks followed by a second ASAE, then receive the alternate drug, in a counterbalanced order, for three weeks followed by a third ASAE. Results for men were not significant. Women with the LL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving ondansetron and SS/SL 5-HTTLPR genotypes receiving sertraline (matched), drank significantly fewer drinks per drinking day (DDD) during the 7-days prior to the first and third ASAEs than women receiving the mismatched medication (i.e. sertraline to LL and ondansetron to SS/SL). In a three-way interaction, 5-HTTLPR alleles by DRD4 alleles by medications, women with the LL genotype who received ondansetron and had DRD4 ≥7 exon III repeats drank significantly fewer DDD as did SS/SL women who received sertraline but conversely had DRD4 <7-repeats in the 7-day period leading up to the first and third ASAEs. Consistent with these data was a significant reduction of milliliters consumed ad lib during these same ASAEs. These exploratory findings add possible support to gender and genetic differences among AD individuals in response to serotonergic pharmacotherapies. Future trials should be powerful enough to take into account that endophenotypes and a targeting of serotonergic interactions
Kenna, George A; Zywiak, William H; Swift, Robert M; McGeary, John E; Clifford, James S; Shoaff, Jessica R; Fricchione, Samuel; Brickley, Michael; Beaucage, Kayla; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L; Leggio, Lorenzo
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and DRD4 exon III polymorphisms with gender in non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals while alternately taking ondansetron and sertraline. Evidence suggests that alcohol dependence may be influenced by a genetic interaction that may be gender-specific with temporal changes making pharmacological treatment with serotonergic drugs complex. The main trial was a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory study with 77 non-treatment-seeking AD individuals randomized (55 completed, 49 complete data) to receive 200 mg/day of sertraline or 0.5 mg/day of ondansetron for 3 weeks followed by an alcohol self-administration experiment (ASAE), then placebo for 3 weeks followed by a second ASAE, then receive the alternate drug, in a counterbalanced order, for 3 weeks followed by a third ASAE. Results for men were not significant. Women with the LL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving ondansetron and SS/SL 5-HTTLPR genotype receiving sertraline (matched), drank significantly fewer drinks per drinking day (DDD) during the 7 days prior to the first and third ASAEs than women receiving the mismatched medication (i.e., sertraline to LL and ondansetron to SS/SL). In a 3-way interaction, 5-HTTLPR alleles by DRD4 alleles by medications, women with the LL genotype who received ondansetron and had DRD4≥7 exon III repeats drank significantly fewer DDD as did SS/SL women who received sertraline but conversely had DRD4<7 repeats in the 7-day period leading up to the first and third ASAEs. Consistent with these data was a significant reduction of milliliters consumed ad libitum during these same ASAEs. These exploratory findings add possible support to gender and genetic differences among AD individuals in response to serotonergic pharmacotherapies. Future trials should be powerful enough to take into account that endophenotypes and a targeting of serotonergic interactions may be
Webber, Gail C.; Chirangi, Bwire
In rural Africa, deaths from childbirth are common and access to health care facilities with skilled providers is very limited. Leading causes of death for women are bleeding and infection. In this pilot study, we establish the feasibility of distributing oral medications to women in rural Tanzania to self-administer after delivery to reduce bleeding and infection. Of the 642 women provided with medications, 90% of the women took them appropriately, while the remaining 10% did not require them. We conclude that is it feasible to distribute oral medications to rural women to self-administer after delivery. PMID:24786175
Ferrari, Giulia; Agnew-Davies, Roxane; Bailey, Jayne; Howard, Louise; Howarth, Emma; Peters, Tim J.; Sardinha, Lynnmarie; Feder, Gene Solomon
Background Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) are associated with increased risk of mental illness, but we know little about the mental health of female DVA survivors seeking support from domestic violence services. Objective Our goal was to characterise the demography and mental health of women who access specialist DVA services in the United Kingdom and to investigate associations between severity of abuse and measures of mental health and health state utility, accounting for important confounders and moderators. Design Baseline data on 260 women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a psychological intervention for DVA survivors were analysed. We report the prevalence of and associations between mental health status and severity of abuse at the time of recruitment. We used logistic and normal regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. The following mental health measures were used: Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment, and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale to measure posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) measured abuse. Results Exposure to DVA was high, with a mean CAS score of 56 (SD 34). The mean CORE-OM score was 18 (SD 8) with 76% above the clinical threshold (95% confidence interval: 70–81%). Depression and anxiety levels were high, with means close to clinical thresholds, and more than three-quarters of respondents recorded PTSD scores above the clinical threshold. Symptoms of mental illness increased stepwise with increasing severity of DVA. Conclusions Women DVA survivors who seek support from DVA services have recently experienced high levels of abuse, depression, anxiety, and especially PTSD. Clinicians need to be aware that patients presenting with mental health conditions or symptoms of depression or anxiety may be experiencing or have experienced DVA. The high psychological
Ferrari, Giulia; Agnew-Davies, Roxane; Bailey, Jayne; Howard, Louise; Howarth, Emma; Peters, Tim J.; Sardinha, Lynnmarie; Feder, Gene
Background Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) are associated with an increased risk of mental illness, but we know little about the mental health of female DVA survivors seeking support from domestic violence services. Objective To characterize the demography and mental health of women who access specialist DVA services in the United Kingdom and to investigate associations between severity of abuse and measures of mental health and health state utility, accounting for important confounders and moderators. Design Baseline data on 260 women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a psychological intervention for DVA survivors was analyzed. We report prevalence of and associations between mental health status and severity of abuse at the time of recruitment. We used logistic and normal regression models for binary and continuous outcomes, respectively. Mental health measures used were: Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), Patient Health Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment, and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) to measure posttraumatic stress disorder. The Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) measured abuse. Results Exposure to DVA was high, with a mean CAS score of 56 (SD 34). The mean CORE-OM score was 18 (SD 8) with 76% above the clinical threshold (95% confidence interval: 70–81%). Depression and anxiety levels were high, with means close to clinical thresholds, and all respondents recorded PTSD scores above the clinical threshold. Symptoms of mental illness increased stepwise with increasing severity of DVA. Conclusions Women DVA survivors who seek support from DVA services have recently experienced high levels of abuse, depression, anxiety, and especially PTSD. Clinicians need to be aware that patients presenting with mental health conditions or symptoms of depression or anxiety may be experiencing or may have experienced DVA. The high psychological morbidity in this population means that trauma
Cristia, Julian P.
Estimating the causal effect of a first child on female labor supply is complicated by the endogeneity of fertility. This paper addresses this problem by focusing on a sample of women from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) who sought help to become pregnant. After a certain period, only some of these women gave birth. Results using this…
Background In Ethiopia maternal mortality rate is very high more than one in five women die from pregnancy or pregnancy related causes. The use of contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion is an important strategy to minimize maternal mortality rate. Among various forms of contraception, emergency contraceptives are the only one that can be used after sexual intercourse offering chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital (JUSH). Methods Institution base cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive was conducted at JUSH from April to June, 2011Data was collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Results In this study 89 women were interviewed. More than half of them (48) were from urban area and 41 were from rural area.46 (51.7%) of them were single. Of all the respondents only nine women had awareness about emergency contraceptive. Seven of the women mentioned pills as emergency contraception and only two of them mentioned both pills and injectable as emergency contraception. All of them have positive attitude towards emergency contraception but none of them have ever used emergency contraceptives. Conclusion and recommendation The finding revealed pregnancy among women of 15-19 years was very common. The knowledge and practice of emergency contraception is very low. But there is high positive attitude towards emergency contraceptives. Since there is much deficit on knowledge of women on emergency contraceptives, in addition to making them accessible; programs targeted at promotion and education of emergency contraceptives is helpful to prevent unwanted pregnancy. PMID:22410271
Ragusa, Angela T
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study applies a sociological lens by framing the IPV and legal help-seeking experiences of rural Australian women gained from 36 in-depth face-to-face interviews as socially contextualized interactions. Findings reveal police and court responses reflect broader social inequalities and rurality exacerbates concerns such as anonymity and lack of service. Cultural differences and power imbalances between survivors and formal support providers are manifested to inform future research seeking to improve survivors' willingness to engage and satisfaction with formal services. Finally, the important role police and the criminal justice system play in de-stigmatizing IPV and legitimating its unacceptability is argued a crucial, yet unrecognized, key to social change. PMID:22929344
Huang, Bu; Appel, Hoa; Ai, Amy L
There is ample research showing that there are health disparities for minorities with respect to seeking mental health services in the United States. Although there are general barriers for minorities in seeking service health, minority women are more vulnerable due to their negative experiences and lower satisfaction in receiving health care, compared to men. This study utilized the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) data set, which is the first population-based mental health study on Latino and Asian Americans, to give a full description of Latina and Asian American women's experience in mental health service seeking and identifies the opportunities in increasing their satisfaction levels. The results showed that perceived discrimination attributed to gender or race/ethnicity is negatively predicting levels of satisfaction of mental health service seeking. Older age, higher education levels, longer duration in the United States, and better mental health, are positively related to satisfaction levels for Latina and Asian American women. PMID:21213187
Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Johnson, E Diane
The aims of this qualitative systematic review were to better understand domestic abuse among South Asian (SA) women in westernized locales and to make evidence-based inferences related to helping services. Thirty English-language research reports met the inclusion criteria. Findings were extracted, assessed for quality, and analyzed using an iterative approach. Based on the results, domestic abuse appears to be grounded in the context of SA mores and the experience of immigration. Situational circumstances and language barriers make it difficult for SA women to reach and utilize helping services. Nurses are urged to consider these barriers as they assist SA immigrant women to enhance their well-being. PMID:24274242
Appel, Toby A
Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead (1867–1941), a leader among second-generation women physicians in America, became a pioneer historian of women in medicine in the 1930s. The coalescence of events in her personal life, the declining status of women in medicine, and the growing significance of the new and relatively open field of history of medicine all contributed to this transformation in her career. While she endeavored to become part of the community of male physicians who wrote medical history, her primary identity remained that of a “medical woman.” For Hurd-Mead, the history of women in the past not only filled a vital gap in scholarship but served practical ends that she had earlier pursued by other means—those of inspiring and advancing the careers of women physicians of the present day, promoting organizations of women physicians, and advocating for equality of opportunity in the medical profession. PMID:25345770
Lafta, Riyadh K; Hayawi, Ali H; Khudhairi, Jamal M
Background: Women-headed families tend to be the most marginalized and poverty prone in any given community. One in 10 Iraqi households is headed by woman according to International Organization for Migration, though their assessments suggest that this ratio rises to 1 in 8 in displaced families. Objective: To draw attention to the exposure and vulnerability of women headed families to key medical and social problems. Methods: This cross – sectional study was conducted from March through February 2011. Eleven non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were chosen to be the pool of data collection, in addition to 50 primary, intermediate, and secondary schools for girls. The actual participants were 720 with a response rate of (97%). Women headed families participated in the study were distributed in different areas of Baghdad and the districts around. Results: Hypertension is the leading disease (20%) followed by arthritis (9.6%), heart disease (7.6%), and diabetes mellitus (5.2%), the least was tuberculosis (0.1%). On the other hand, the number of sons and daughters with chronic disease was 159 (6.4%). Respiratory system disease is at the top of the list at a rate of (20.6 per 1000) while the gastrointestinal disease is at the bottom at a rate of (1.6 per 1000). 7.8% of the studied household-heading women were exposed to violence that was either verbal (75%) or physical (25%), the source was the woman's parents (42.9%), husband's family (34%), neighbors (8.9%), and others (14.3%). The percentage of problematic sons (17.9%) who show different types of behavior, (30.2%) of them not obeying their mothers, (21%) hit their brothers, (9.3%) insulting the mother, (2.3%) have problems with neighbors. PMID:25003041
Behets, Frieda; Edmonds, Andrew; Kitenge, François; Crabbé, François; Laga, Marie
Background We examined HIV prevalence trends over 4.5 years among women receiving antenatal care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, by geographic location, clinic management and urbanicity. Methods Quarterly proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of pregnant women with HIV positive results were determined using aggregate service provision and uptake data from 22 maternity units that provided vertical HIV prevention services from October 2004 to March 2009. Assuming linearity, proportions were assessed for trend via the Cochran–Armitage test. Multivariable binomial regression was used to describe detailed prevalence trends. Results HIV testing was offered to 220 006 pregnant women; 210 348 (95.6%) agreed to be tested and 191 216 (90.9%) received their results. A total of 3999 women were found to be HIV positive, a prevalence of 1.90% (95% CI: 1.84–1.96%). The median quarterly proportion of women testing positive for HIV was 1.94% (range: 1.44–2.44%). Prevalence was heterogeneous in terms of maternity management, urbanicity and geographic location. Modeling suggested that the overall prevalence dropped from 2.04% (95% CI: 1.92–2.16%) to 1.77% (95% CI: 1.66–1.88%) over 4.5 years, a relative decrease of 13.2% (95% CI: 3.53–22.9%). Trend testing corroborated this decline (P < 0.01). Conclusions The decreasing HIV prevalence among Kinshasa antenatal care seekers is robust and encouraging. The relatively low prevalence and the weak existing healthcare system require prevention of mother-to-child transmission interventions that strengthen maternal and child healthcare service delivery. Complacency would be unwarranted: assuming a uniform national crude birth rate of 50/1000 and 1.8% antenatal HIV prevalence, approximately 7000 pregnant HIV infected women in Kinshasa, and 60 000 nationwide, are in need of care and prevention services yearly. PMID:20453017
Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Seyede Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali
Background: Infertility is a major life event that brings about social and psychological problems. The type and rate these problems in the context of socio-cultural of different geographical areas and sex of people is different. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explain the psychological consequences of infertility in Iranian infertile women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was done using qualitative content analysis on 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children in 2012. They were purposefully selected with maximum sample variation from a large Fertility Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using 32 semi-structured interviews and analyzed by the conventional content analysis method. Results: The findings of this study include four main themes: 1. Cognitive reactions of infertility (mental engagement; psychological turmoil). 2. Cognitive reactions to therapy process (psychological turmoil; being difficult to control in some situations; reduced self-esteem; feelings of failure). 3. Emotional-affective reactions of infertility (fear, anxiety and worry; loneliness and guilt; grief and depression; regret). 4. Emotional-affective reactions to therapy process (fear, anxiety and worry; fatigue and helplessness; grief and depression; hopelessness). Conclusion: This study revealed that Iranian infertile women seeking treatment face several psychological-emotional problems with devastating effects on the mental health and well-being of the infertile individuals and couples, while the infertility is often treated as a biomedical issue in Iranian context with less attention on the mental-emotional, social and cultural aspects. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Seyede Batool Hasanpoor-Azghady) PMID:24799871
... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of these medications: (1) Women who have a ... health care professional about the potential benefits and harms of taking a risk- reducing medication such as ...
E St Louis, Michael; C Figueiredo, Ninive; Milbratz, Ildes; Page-Shafer, Kimberly
Background. Young women often have diverse options for addressing their reproductive health and other health needs in urban settings. In Brazil, they may access care through the government-run Family Health Program (FHP). Understanding factors associated with service utilization can enhance access to and delivery of appropriate services. Objectives. To describe demographic, behavioural and clinical characteristics of young women accessing services through FHP in Vitória, Brazil. Methods. From March to December 2006, women aged 18–29 years were recruited into a population-based, household survey. Responses were analysed to assess previous 6 months utilization of FHP services in this population and characteristics associated with accessing care through this public family practice model. Results. Of 1200 eligible women identified, 1029 enrolled (85.7%). Median age was 23 (interquartile range 20–26) years, 42.7% were married or cohabitating with a male partner. A majority (72%) accessed FHP services in the preceding 6 months, principally for routine and gynaecological visits. Factors independently associated with seeking FHP included: ever tested for human immunodeficiency virus, using anal sex as contraceptive method and reporting a current vaginal discharge. Prior commercial sex work, previous diagnosis with an sexually transmitted infection or using oral sex as a contraceptive method were associated with less use of FHP services. Conclusions. A public option for delivery of FHP has attracted wide utilization across a cross-section of young women in Vitoria, Brazil. Greater sensitization to specific practices and needs of this population, especially around reproductive health, could further enhance the services provided by family practitioners. PMID:19770219
Wickersham, Karen; Happ, Mary Beth; Bender, Catherine M.
The oral hormonal agent anastrozole improves clinical outcomes for women with breast cancer, but women have difficulty taking it for the five-year course. The unique medication-taking experiences related to self-management of anastrozole therapy for women with early stage breast cancer are not known. Our purpose was to describe the medication-taking experiences for postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer who were prescribed a course of anastrozole therapy. Twelve women aged 58 to 67 years, midway through therapy, participated in audio-recorded interviews. Women's medication-taking experiences involved a belief in their importance and an imperative to take anastrozole. We found that women's side effect experiences, particularly menopausal symptoms, were significant, but only one woman stopped anastrozole due to side effects. Medication-taking included routinization interconnected with remembering/forgetting and a storage strategy. Some women noted a mutual medication-taking experience with their spouse, but most felt taking anastrozole was something they had to do alone. Our results provide insight into the way some women with early stage breast cancer manage their hormonal therapy at approximately the midpoint of treatment. Next steps should include examinations of patient-provider communication, potential medication-taking differences between pre- and postmenopausal women, and the effects of medication-taking on clinical outcomes. PMID:23326655
Bowen, Shelly-Ann; Williams, Edith M.; Stoneberg-Cooper, Chayah M.; Glover, Saundra H.; Williams, Michelle S.; Byrd, Michael D.
Purpose The study uses qualitative research to gain a better understanding of what occurs after low-income women receive an abnormal breast screening and the factors that influence their decisions and behavior. A heuristic model is presented for understanding this complexity. Design Qualitative research methods used to elicited social and cultural themes related to breast cancer screening follow-up. Setting Individual telephone interviews were conducted with 16 women with confirmed breast anomaly. Participants Low-income women screened through a national breast cancer early detection program. Method Grounded theory using selective coding was employed to elicit factors that influenced the understanding and follow-up of an abnormal breast screening result. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and uploaded into NVivo 8, a qualitative management and analysis software package. Results For women (16, or 72% of case management referrals) below 250% of the poverty level, the impact of social and economic inequities creates a psychosocial context underlined by structural and cultural barriers to treatment that forecasts the mechanism that generates differences in health outcomes. The absence of insurance due to underemployment and unemployment and inadequate public infrastructure intensified emotional stress impacting participants’ health decisions. Conclusion The findings that emerged offer explanations of how consistent patterns of social injustice impact treatment decisions in a high-risk vulnerable population that have implications for health promotion research and systems-level program improvement and development. PMID:23448411
Carvalho, Teresa; Santiago, Rui
This paper provides an analysis of the potential impact of changes in recruitment and hiring processes in Portuguese higher education institutions--under the New Public Management framework--on the representation of women in academia. Based on official data from the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education, two major…
Johnson, Emily; Lahey, Joanna
Obtaining an entry-level job can be critically important for women with little education, particularly those who have taken time out of the labor force. This article uses archival data from a field experiment, called a resume audit study, to examine the characteristics of entry-level resumes that are important to potential employers. In accordance…
Grotegut, Chad A.; Chisholm, Christian A.; Johnson, Lauren N. C.; Brown, Haywood L.; Heine, R. Phillips; James, Andra H.
Objective The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older. Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM) codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35–44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes. Results Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35. Conclusion Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may
Fertile women may be exposed to ionizing radiation as human subjects in medical research studies. If the woman is pregnant, such exposures may result in risk to an embryo/fetus. Fertile women may be screened for pregnancy before exposure to ionizing radiation by interview, general examination, or pregnancy test. Use of the sensitive serum pregnancy test has become common because it offers concrete evidence that the woman is not pregnant (more specifically, that an embryo is not implanted). Evidence suggests that risk to the embryo from radiation exposure before organogenesis is extremely low or nonexistent. Further, demonstrated effects on organogenesis are rare or inconclusive at fetal doses below 50 mSv (5 rem). Therefore, there may be some level of radiation exposure below which risk to the fetus may be considered essentially zero, and a serum pregnancy test is unnecessary. This paper reviews the fetal risks and suggests that consideration be given to establishing a limit to the fetus of 0.5 mSv (50 mrem), below which pregnancy screening need not include the use of a serum pregnancy test.
Foster, Katherine T; Li, Ningfei; McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Gray, Kevin M
Cannabis continues to rise in popularity as the perception of its harmfulness decreases and evidence of its deleterious developmental effect increases. While internalizing distress and suicide risk have been linked with cannabis use problems [DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (CUD); DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence] it remains unclear how this association varies over the course of development in treatment-seeking men and women. The current study utilized the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) to conduct a cross-sectional comparison of internalizing distress and suicide risk among men (n=437) and women (n=163) spanning ages 18-50 who met DSM-5 criteria for CUD. Interactions between gender and developmental stage (i.e., late adolescence, early adulthood, and middle adulthood) were observed for suicide risk and anxiety but not depression problems. Specifically, women seeking CUD treatment in late adolescence and middle adulthood exhibited significantly higher rates of anxiety and suicide risk compared to men seeking treatment during the same developmental stages. Internalizing distress and suicide risk did not differ between treatment-seeking men and women in the early adult stage. Overall, results suggest that the structure of risk for CUD may differ in men and women across the lifespan and that women presenting for CUD treatment during late adolescence and middle adulthood may uniquely benefit from intervention designed to address these elevations in anxiety and suicide risk. PMID:27211992
Bailey, Genie L; Herman, Debra S; Stein, Michael D
Most patients with opioid addiction do not receive medication at the time of discharge from brief inpatient detoxification programs despite the high risk of relapse and the availability of three FDA-approved medications. We surveyed 164 inpatient opioid detoxification patients to assess desire for pharmacotherapy following detoxification program discharge. Participants were predominantly male (71.3%) and 80% had detoxed in the past. Reporting on their most recent previous inpatient detoxification, 27% had relapsed the day they were discharged, 65% within a month of discharge, and 90% within a year of discharge. 63% reported they wanted medication-assisted treatment (MAT) after discharge from the current admission. The odds of desiring a treatment medication increased by a factor of 1.02 for every 1% increase in perceived relapse risk (p<.01). These data suggest patient preference discussions including relapse risk could increase post-detox abstinence. PMID:23786852
Bailey, Genie L; Herman, Debra S.; Stein, Michael D.
Most patients with opioid addiction do not receive medication at the time of discharge from brief inpatient detoxification programs despite the high risk of relapse and the availability of three FDA-approved medications. We surveyed 164 inpatient opioid detoxification patients to assess desire for pharmacotherapy following detoxification program discharge. Participants were predominantly male (71.3%) and 80% had detoxed in the past. Reporting on their most recent previous inpatient detoxification, 27% had relapsed the day they were discharged, 65% within a month of discharge, and 90% within a year of discharge. 63% reported they wanted medication-assisted treatment (MAT) after discharge from the current admission. The odds of desiring a treatment medication increased by a factor of 1.02 for every 1% increase in perceived relapse risk (p < .01). These data suggest patient preference discussions including relapse risk could increase post-detox abstinence. PMID:23786852
Samayoa, Marianne B
This article draws upon letters to a colonial physician, contemporary printed medical advice and published medical texts to confirm that formal medical assistance and information about treatment options were available in late colonial New Spain. Publications approved and supervised by the government, doctors, and pharmacies provided up-to-date medical treatments, and individuals actively sought health care from physicians and pharmacists, and expected relief from their ailments. A tradition of government participation in public health in Spain supported structures in New Spain where the latest European advances joined local traditions and experimentation. Although historians may question the effectiveness of any particular cure or treatment, they must accept that individuals in late colonial New Spain participated in their own health care and expected relief from their ailments. PMID:17153157
The campaign for abortion reform in the Weimar Republic occasioned passionate disputes between factions supporting and opposing liberalization of abortion laws. Nevertheless, both camps agreed on one issue: that doctors, and only doctors, should be authorized to terminate a pregnancy. The implication was that an operation induced by a registered medical practitioner was safe, while so-called back-street operations were always dangerous. By and large, this view has also been accepted by historians, often uncritically. This article shows that evidence of the very real risks of terminating a pregnancy was open to cultural and political manipulation. The claims of academic physicians were often contradictory: on the one hand, they dismissed the risks of medical procedures as a way of fighting lay abortions; on the other hand, they exaggerated these risks as a way of explaining unsuccessful surgeries. Using a case study from Bavaria at the beginning of the Republic, this article shows the ambiguous role doctors played and the biased view of the courts. It also sheds light on the experience of abortion-seeking women, whose interests were largely ignored by the law enforcement agencies. PMID:14674407
Ehrhart, Julie Kuhn; Sandler, Bernice R.
The report focuses attention on those areas of medical school education that may have a negative effect on women students' confidence and competence. It examines the different ways that male and female medical students experience their training and the particular stresses that women may face, including: role conflicts; questions about commitment;…
Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla
Objective Despite its burden on a person’s life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals’ experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda. Methods Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis. Results The theme “Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women’s health care seeking when women are abused” expressed the health care professionals’ experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter. Conclusion Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV. PMID:27152680
Cerulli, Catherine; Kothari, Catherine; Dichter, Melissa; Marcus, Steve; Kim, Tae Kuen; Wiley, Jim; Rhodes, Karin V
Following a criminal case disposition, an intimate partner violence (IPV) victim's willingness to seek future police and prosecutorial assistance may depend on her prior experiences within the system. This longitudinal study examines the relationship between IPV victims' future help-seeking based on past experiences. We hypothesized women would return to the criminal justice system if their adjudication wishes corresponded with prosecutors' actions. Contrary to the hypothesis, results suggest women return to the criminal system and other venues even if prosecutors' actions do not correspond to their earlier stated wishes. This has important policy implications given pro-prosecution protocols that encourage adjudication regardless of a woman's participation. PMID:25774412
Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo
The purpose of this study was to examine among college women acquired breast cancer prevention information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and information given to mothers. Using a cross-sectional study, a survey was administered to college women at a southwestern university. College women (n = 546) used the Internet (44 %) for active breast cancer prevention information-seeking and used the Internet (74 %), magazines (69 %), and television (59 %) for passive information receipt. Over half of the participants desired breast cancer prevention apps (54 %) and texts (51 %). Logistic regression analyses revealed predictors for interest to receive apps were ethnicity (Hispanic), lower self-efficacy, actively seeking online information, and older age and predictors for interest to receive texts were lower self-efficacy and higher university level. Eighteen percent of college women (n = 99) reported giving information to mothers and reported in an open-ended item the types of information given to mothers. Predictors for giving information to mothers were actively and passively seeking online information, breast self-exam practice, and higher university level. Screenings were the most frequent types of information given to mothers. Breast cancer prevention information using apps, texts, or Internet and daughter-initiated information for mothers should be considered in health promotion targeting college students or young women in communities. Future research is needed to examine the quality of apps, texts, and online information and cultural differences for breast cancer prevention sources. PMID:23979671
Kolars, Joseph C; Cahill, Kathleen; Donkor, Peter; Kaaya, Ephata; Lawson, Aaron; Serwadda, David; Sewankambo, Nelson K
One of the major needs for medical schools and health systems in less affluent countries is system strengthening through the training and development of faculty, doctors, nurses, and other skilled health care workers. Partnering with medical schools in more affluent countries such as the United States is one potential approach for medical schools in underresourced areas, such as Sub-Saharan Africa. Most commonly, these partnerships have focused on research agendas or limited educational exchanges. In this perspective, the authors present an approach to strengthening collaborative relationships between three medical schools in the United States and four in Sub-Saharan Africa. The approach is explicitly focused on achieving partnerships that enable institutions to improve care. It developed from an initiative to fund partnerships or "collaboratives" that address 10 key learning questions determined to be central to focusing efforts on strengthening education systems and, in turn, improving health in Sub-Saharan Africa. The leaders of the schools involved in these partnerships met multiple times across three years to discuss how their collaboratives could address the ten learning questions including what is the best approach and what are the key ingredients for creating effective, multidimensional collaborations between academic institutions in the North and institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa. Collaboratively, they defined a framework of evidence that can be used for evaluating their current initiatives and, potentially, for structuring future partnerships. PMID:22189887
Casebeer, Linda; Bennett, Nancy; Kristofco, Robert; Carillo, Anna; Centor, Robert
Responses from 2,200 physicians indicated that nearly all have Internet access and use it primarily for medical information and professional development, not for communicating with patients. Credibility of source, speed, accessibility, and searching ease were most important. Barriers included information overload and too little information…
Levandowski, Brooke A; Pearson, Erin; Lunguzi, Juliana; Katengeza, Hans R
Abortion is illegal in Malawi except when the pregnancy endangers the mother's life, yet complications of abortion account for the majority of admissions to gynecological wards. This study collected data on all post-abortion care (PAC) cases reporting to all PAC-providing health facilities in Malawi over a 30-day period. Of a total of 2,028 PAC clients, 20.9% were adolescents (age 10-19) and 29.6% were young adults (age 20-24). More than half of adolescents and almost 80% of young adults were married. Less than 5% of adolescents and 22.5% of young adults reported using contraception when they became pregnant. Being unmarried was associated with previous abortion and contraceptive use among young adults. These statistics indicate a high proportion of unwanted pregnancy and lack of access to modern contraception among young women. Programs to increase access to pregnancy prevention services and protect young women from unsafe abortions are greatly needed. PMID:22916557
Potter, S; Mills, N; Cawthorn, S; Wilson, S; Blazeby, J
Background: Breast reconstruction (BR) may improve psychosocial and cosmetic outcomes after mastectomy for breast cancer but currently, few women opt for surgery. Reasons for this are unclear. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore access to care and the provision of procedure choice to women seeking reconstructive surgery. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of patients who had undergone BR and professionals providing specialist care explored participants' experiences of information provision before BR. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative technique of grounded theory. Sampling, data collection and analysis were performed concurrently and iteratively until data saturation was achieved. Results: Both patients and professionals expressed concerns about the provision of adequate procedure choice and access to care. Lack of information and/or time, involvement in decision making and issues relating to the evolution and organisation of reconstructive services, emerged as potential explanations for the inequalities seen. Interventions to improve cross-speciality collaboration were proposed to address these issues. Conclusion: Inequalities in the provision of choice in BR exist, which may be explained by a lack of integration between surgical specialities. Pathway restructuring, service reorganisation and standardisation of training may enhance cross-speciality collaboration and improve the patient experience. PMID:23928662
Dr. Gary Gibson of Cambridge, Ont., went many years without identifying a single gay patient in his practice. When he "came out" about his homosexuality in 1981, about 15 of his patients revealed they were gay. Gibson, a professor of family medicine at the University of Western Ontario who is active in the College of Family Physicians of Canada, says such information is useful, because "if they don't identify, they may not get the medical advice they need." He wants medical students to receive more education in gay and lesbian issues, and recently drafted a gay and lesbian curriculum for postgraduate family medicine, which has been endorsed by the CMA. Images p766-a p766-b p768-a p768-b p770-a PMID:8823221
Jovic, Olga S
The content of this work is conceived on the research of the consequences of surrogate motherhood as a process of assisted procreation, which represent a way of parenthood in cases when it is not possible to realize parenthood through a natural way. Surrogate motherhood is a process in which a woman (surrogate mother) agrees to carry a pregnancy with the intent to give the child to the couple with whom she has made a contract on surrogate maternity after the birth. This process of conception and birth makes the determination of the child's origin on its mother's side hard to determine, because of the distinction of the genetic and gestation phases of the two women. The concept of surrogate motherhood is to appear in two forms, depending on the existence or the non-existence of the genetic link between the surrogate mother and the child she gives birth to. There are gestation (full) and genetic (partial) surrogates each with different modalities and legal and ethical implications. In Serbia, Infertility Treatment and the Bio-medically Assisted Procreation Act from 2009 explicitly forbids surrogate motherhood, despite the fact that an infertile couple decides to use it, as a rule, after having tried all other treatment procedures, in cases when there is a diagnosis but the conventional treatment applied has not produced the desired results. Given the fact that no one has the right to ignore the sufferings of people who cannot procreate naturally, the medical practice and legal science in our country plead for a formulation of a legal framework in which to apply surrogate motherhood as an infertility treatment, under particular conditions. PMID:21528795
Najavits, Lisa M; Lande, R Gregory; Gragnani, Cynthia; Isenstein, Debra; Schmitz, Martha
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder are two of the most prominent psychiatric disorders among military service members. Seeking Safety (SS) is an evidence-based behavioral therapy model for this comorbidity. This article reports results of a study of SS conducted in a military setting. Our pilot trial addressed outcomes, feasibility, and satisfaction. SS was conducted as is to evaluate its impact without adaptation for military culture. The sample was 24 outpatient service members (from the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines) with 33% minority representation. Inclusion criteria were current PTSD and/or SUD. Ten clinicians participated in this study after receiving SS training. Results showed significant improvements on most outcomes, including substance use on the Brief Addiction Monitor; PTSD symptoms on the PTSD Checklist-Military Version (total and criterion D); and the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (sexual abuse trauma index and anxiety subscale); functioning on the Sheehan Disability Scale (total and family subscale); psychopathology on the Zung Depression Scale total; the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS)-24 (total and subscales depression functioning, emotional liability, and psychosis); and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (total and anxiety subscale); and coping on the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (total). Satisfaction was strong. Discussion includes methodology limitations and next steps. PMID:27483508
Bo Vatnar, Solveig Karin; Bjorkly, Stal
This article reports a study of the possible impact of immigration on interactional aspects of intimate partner violence (IPV) among help-seeking women. Are there differences concerning (a) IPV categories, (b) IPV severity, frequency, duration, regularity, and predictability, (c) guilt and shame, (d) partners' ethnicity, and (e) children being…
Ni, Chunping; Ma, Lihua; Wang, Bo; Yan, Yongping; Huang, Yueqin; Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Li, Lu; Lang, Hongjuan; Hua, Qianzhen
Objective This study assessed knowledge of neurotic disorders, and attitudes and preferences toward professional help and treatment for them, among general medical outpatients in general hospitals in Xi’an, China. Methods General medical outpatients (N=372) from general hospitals in China were recruited by using a stratified cluster sampling method between June and September 2010. In face-to-face interviews, participants age 16 years or older were assessed for their knowledge, attitudes, and help-seeking preferences in regard to neurotic disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and panic disorder). Demographic data were also collected. Results Lack of insight into neurotic disorders was common among medical outpatients in general hospitals of Xi’an, China. Twenty-four percent to 58% of the outpatients had some knowledge of the symptoms and treatment of neurotic disorders. Only 11% of the outpatients would reveal to others that they or a family member suffered from neurotic disorders. When faced with the problem of neurotic disorders, the preference of the respondents was to visit a psychiatrist in a general hospital (44%), and only 17% would visit a physician in a psychiatric hospital. Major ways for the outpatients to obtain knowledge regarding neurotic disorders were via radio and television (36%), and only 18%223% of outpatients obtained knowledge about neurotic disorders through printed public health materials and by attending lectures. Conclusions Study results underscore the need for information campaigns aimed at improving the mental health literacy of general medical outpatients. Such campaigns must consider culturally relevant beliefs to facilitate the development of specific educational programs. PMID:24733481
Hasahya, Olivia Topister; Berggren, Vanja; Sematimba, Douglas; Nabirye, Rose Chalo; Kumakech, Edward
Background Cervical cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Despite earlier information campaigns to introduce human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination, which also targeted cervical cancer, misinterpretation and misunderstanding of the subject remain high. Women in Uganda present with cervical cancer at an advanced stage due to poor health-seeking behaviours, with an associated high mortality rate. This project explored beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, and health-seeking behaviours in relation to cervical cancer among women in Uganda after an HPV vaccination project had been rolled out. Design A qualitative study design was used, with six focus group discussions (FGDs) that included 36 women, aged 25–49 years, with no previous history of cervical cancer symptoms or diagnosis. The women were interviewed in February and March 2013. The transcribed data was analysed using content analysis. Results Three themes emerged: feeling unprotected and unsafe, misbelief and wondering about cervical cancer, and fear of the testing procedure. Participating women had heard of cervical cancer but preferred to wait to access cervical cancer screening until symptom debut. Conclusions There are still barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in Uganda, where there is a need for culture-specific, sensitive information and interventions to address the issues of improving the cervical cancer screening uptake among these women. Societal context needs to be taken into account when implementing community-based health education. PMID:26895145
Purcell, Carrie; Cameron, Sharon; Lawton, Julia; Glasier, Anna; Harden, Jeni
Objective To examine experiences of contraceptive care from the perspective of health professionals and women seeking abortion, in the contexts of hospital gynaecology departments and a specialist sexual and reproductive health centre (SRHC). Materials and methods We conducted in-depth semistructured interviews with 46 women who had received contraceptive care at the time of medical abortion (gestation≤9 weeks) from one SRHC and two hospital gynaecology-department-based abortion clinics in Scotland. We also interviewed 25 health professionals (nurses and doctors) involved in abortion and contraceptive care at the same research sites. We analysed interview data thematically using an approach informed by the Framework method, and comparison was made between the two clinical contexts. Results Most women and health professionals felt that contraceptive counselling at abortion was acceptable and appropriate, if provided in a sensitive, nonjudgemental way. Participants framed contraceptive provision at abortion as significant primarily as a means of preventing subsequent unintended conceptions. Accounts of contraceptive decision making also presented tensions between the priorities of women and health professionals, around ‘manoeuvring’ women towards contraceptive uptake. Comparison between clinical contexts suggests that women's experiences may have been more positive in the SRHC setting. Conclusions Whilst abortion may be a theoretically and practically convenient time to address contraception, it is by no means an easy time to do so and requires considerable effort and expertise to be managed effectively. Training for those providing contraceptive care at abortion should explicitly address potential conflicts between the priorities of health professionals and women seeking abortion. Implications This paper offers unique insight into the detail of women and health professionals' experiences of addressing contraception at the time of medical abortion. The
Behets, F. M.; Miller, W. C.; Cohen, M. S.
The syndromic treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in women seeking primary care in clinics where resources are scarce, as recommended by WHO and implemented in many developing countries, necessitates a balance to be struck between overtreatment and undertreatment. The present paper identifies factors that are relevant to the selection of specific strategies for syndromic treatment in the above circumstances. Among them are the general aspects of decision-making and caveats concerning the rational decision-making approach. The positive and negative implications are outlined of providing or withholding treatment following a specific algorithm with a given accuracy to detect infection, i.e. sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Other decision-making considerations that are identified are related to implementation and include the stability of risk factors with regard to time, space and the implementer, acceptability by stakeholders, and environmental constraints. There is a need to consider empirically developed treatment algorithms as a basis for policy discourse, to be evaluated together with the evidence, alternatives and arguments by the stakeholders. PMID:11731816
Gardiner, Paula; Stargrove, Mitchell Bebel; Dog, Tieraona Low
Dietary supplements are becoming increasingly popular as therapies for symptom relief among menopause-age women in the United States. However, a large gap exists between research in the concomitant use of prescription medications and dietary supplements and provider preparedness to guide patient decision making. Many menopausal women take prescription medications, over the counter medications, and herbs and dietary supplements for climactic symptoms or other health conditions. With any drug, there is the potential for interactions. Women taking medications with a narrow therapeutic index, such as anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, and drugs for the treatment of chronic diseases, are at particular risk. Patients should be queried regarding their use of dietary supplements when starting or stopping a prescription drug, or if unexpected reactions occur. When counseling patients, one must carefully consider the risks and benefits of each supplement and medication being taken by each individual. PMID:21168291
Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Postlethwaite, Debbie A.; Hung, Yun-Yi; Armstrong, Mary Anne
Background Certain medications are identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as class D or X because they increase the risk for birth defects if used during pregnancy. Objective To assess pregnancy rates and the frequency of contraceptive counseling documented with prescriptions for class D or X drugs filled by women of reproductive age. Design Description of prescriptions filled in 2001. Setting A large health maintenance organization in northern California in 2001. Patients 488 175 women age 15 to 44 years who filled a total of 1 011 658 class A, B, D, or X prescriptions. Measurements Medications dispensed, contraceptive counseling, and pregnancy testing. Results A class D or X prescription was filled by 1 of every 6 women studied. Women who filled a prescription for class D or X medications were no more likely than women who filled prescriptions for safer, class A or B medications to have received contraceptive counseling, filled a contraceptive prescription, or been sterilized (48% vs. 51% of prescriptions). There was little variation by clinical indication in rates of contraceptive counseling with class D or X prescriptions, except for isotretinoin. Women who filled a class D or X prescription were only slightly less likely to have a pregnancy documented within 3 months than women filling a class A or B prescription (1.0% vs. 1.4% of prescriptions). Limitations International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes underestimate contraceptive counseling. Documentation of a positive pregnancy test after filling a prescription may overestimate medication use in early pregnancy. Women who filled several prescriptions are overrepresented in prescription analyses. Conclusion Prescriptions for potentially teratogenic medications are frequently filled by women of childbearing age without documentation of contraceptive counseling. PMID:17876020
Oster-Aaland, Laura; Thompson, Kevin; Eighmy, Myron
This study analyzed the impact of a medical amnesty policy and an online alcohol poisoning video on college students' intentions to seek help when witnessing alcohol poisoning symptoms. Students were randomly assigned to receive an amnesty policy, alcohol poisoning video, or both. The group that received both treatments was most likely to seek…
Abasiubong, Festus; Bassey, Emem Abasi; Udobang, John Akpan; Akinbami, Oluyinka Samuel; Udoh, Sunday Bassey; Idung, Alphonsus Udo
Introduction There is increasing evidence that self-medications among pregnant women are common in many developing countries. Despite the adverse impact on pregnancy, there are few programs available for their control. The objective of this study was to assess the level of self-medication amongst Nigerian pregnant women in order to determine possible harmful effects on fetus. Methods Five hundred and eighteen 518 pregnant women, aged between 18 and 40 years, drawn from three General hospitals in Akwa Ibom State were assessed for self-medication and substance abuse using an instrument, adapted from a modified form of 117-item self-report questionnaire based on the WHO guidelines for students’ substance use survey. Results Of the 518 pregnant women assessed, 375 (72.4%) indulged in one form of self-medication or the other; 143 (27.6%) used only drugs prescribed from the antenatal clinic. A total of 157 (41.9%) pregnant women self-medicate fever/pain relievers; 47 (9.1%) mixture of herbs and other drugs; 15 (4.0%) sedatives; 13 (3.5%) alcohol; while 5 (1.3%) used kolanuts. Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and witchcrafts, preventing pregnancy from coming out, for blood; poor sleep, fever and vomiting and infections. There was a significant difference in the rate of using analgesics (X2=9.43, p=0.001); and antibiotic (X2=4.43, p=0.001) among pregnant women who were highly educated compared to those with little or no education. However, the level of education has no impact in the usage of native herbs. Conclusion This study shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment. There is need for adequate education of pregnant women during antenatal clinics on the potential danger of self-medication so as to prevent child and maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23308320
Carter, J. H.; Rogers, C.
Today's research explaining women's usage of alcohol is inaccurate. Researchers have failed to include the powerful variable of race. African-American females are increasing their use of alcohol, yet the literature fails to tell why. To understand alcoholism among African-American women, it is necessary to conceive their culture, values, and role in society. This article highlights the biopsychosocial issues impacting female African Americans, and the need for unbiased research and treatment. Women who have the dual status of addiction and are members of a racial minority face a special range of stressors. Therefore, clinicians who serve them must possess more than generalized clinical skills. PMID:8776062
Albright, Brittany; Skipper, Betty; Riley, Shawne; Wilhelm, Peggy; Rayburn, William F.
Objective: The study objective was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a rehabilitation residence for pregnant women with substance-use disorders yielded changes in their attitudes and comfort levels in providing care to this population. Methods: This randomized educational trial involved 96 consecutive medical students during…
This qualitative study sought to identify the complex issues facing Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women students at one Midwestern medical school as they subjectively experience their medical training. Students reported parental and Asian community influences on their decision to enter medicine; most thought faculty perceive them as "quiet," often…
Background The Tanzanian government recommends women who attend antenatal care (ANC) clinics to accept receiving intermittent preventive treatment against malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) and vouchers for insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) at subsidized prices. Little emphasis has been paid to investigate the ability of pregnant women to access and effectively utilize these services. Objectives To describe the experience and perceptions of pregnant women about costs and cost barriers for accessing ANC services with emphasis on IPTp in rural Tanzania. Methods Qualitative data were collected in the districts of Mufindi in Iringa Region and Mkuranga in Coast Region through 1) focus group discussions (FGDs) with pregnant women and mothers to infants and 2) exit-interviews with pregnant women identified at ANC clinics. Data were analyzed manually using qualitative content analysis methodology. Findings FGD participants and interview respondents identified the following key limiting factors for women's use of ANC services: 1) costs in terms of money and time associated with accessing ANC clinics, 2) the presence of more or less official user-fees for some services within the ANC package, and 3) service providers' application of fines, penalties and blame when failing to adhere to service schedules. Interestingly, the time associated with travelling long distances to ANC clinics and ITN retailers and with waiting for services at clinic-level was a major factor of discouragement in the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women because it seriously affected their domestic responsibilities. Conclusion A variety of resource-related factors were shown to affect the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women in rural Tanzania. Thus, accessibility to ANC services was hampered by direct and indirect costs, travel distances and waiting time. Strengthening of user-fee exemption practices and bringing services closer to the users, for example by promoting community-directed control of
Okoro, Olihe; Odedina, Folakemi T
African-American women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV-related morbidity and mortality. To address the burden of HIV/AIDS among this at-risk population, there is need to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence and affect their care-seeking behavior and specifically adherence to antiretroviral treatment. A preliminary qualitative study was conducted with a sample of the target population (n = 10) using grounded theory as the methodological approach. Similarly, 21 healthcare providers - physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and case managers - were then interviewed. A thematic analysis of the transcripts compared care-provider perceptions and narrated experiences with those from the patient participants. Themes related to patient care perceived to enhance medication adherence included (1) provider-patient relationship; (2) holistic and patient-centered care; (3) adequacy of patient education and counseling; (4) modeling adherence behavior; and (5) motivation. Two intervention strategies are proposed - Peer educators as an integral part of the care team and Patient Advisory Groups as a feedback mechanism to enhance effective delivery of patient care in the target population. This exploratory research lays a foundation for the design of targeted interventions to improve linkage to care and enhance medication adherence in African-American women living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26278429
Background Although antenatal care coverage in Ghana is high, there exist gaps in the continued use of maternity care, especially utilization of skilled assistance during delivery. Many pregnant women seek care from different sources aside the formal health sector. This is due to negative perceptions resulting from poor service quality experiences in health facilities. Moreover, the socio-cultural environment plays a major role for this care-seeking behavior. This paper seeks to examine beliefs, knowledge and perceptions about pregnancy and delivery and care-seeking behavior among pregnant women in urban Accra, Ghana. Methods A qualitative study with 6 focus group discussions and 13 in-depth interviews were conducted at Taifa-Kwabenya and Madina sub-districts, Accra. Participants included mothers who had delivered within the past 12 months, pregnant women, community members, religious and community leaders, orthodox and non-orthodox healthcare providers. Interviews and discussions were audio-taped, transcribed and coded into larger themes and categories. Results Evidence showed perceived threats, which are often given socio-cultural interpretations, increased women’s anxieties, driving them to seek multiple sources of care. Crucially, care-seeking behavior among pregnant women indicated sequential or concurrent use of biomedical care and other forms of care including herbalists, traditional birth attendants, and spiritual care. Use of multiple sources of care in some cases disrupted continued use of skilled provider care. Furthermore, use of multiple forms of care is encouraged by a perception that facility-based care is useful only for antenatal services and emergencies. It also highlights the belief among some participants that care from multiple sources are complementary to each other. Conclusions Socio-cultural interpretations of threats to pregnancy mediate pregnant women’s use of available healthcare services. Efforts to encourage continued use of
Palmsten, Kristin; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Chambers, Christina D; Mogun, Helen; Lai, Sophia; Gilmer, Todd P; Huybrechts, Krista F
Objectives To characterize the 20 most common prescription medications and the 10 most common prescription medications classified in the former U.S. Food and Drug Administration categories D or X dispensed to pregnant women enrolled in the U.S. Medicaid program. Methods We conducted a cohort study of 1,106,757 pregnant women with live births using 2000-2007 Medicaid Analytic eXtract data. We used outpatient pharmacy records to identify medication dispensings and reported the proportion of pregnancies that were dispensed at least one prescription medication. Maternal age and race and ethnicity–stratified estimates were compared using prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results During pregnancy, 82.5% of the cohort had a dispensing for one or more prescription medication. The most commonly dispensed medications during pregnancy included nitrofurantoin (21.6%), metronidazole (19.4%), amoxicillin (18.0%), azithromycin (16.9%), and promethazine (13.5%). Proportions were highest among younger women for several medications; eg, nitrofurantoin (23.9% vs 15.4%; PR: 1.55, CI: 1.52-1.58), metronidazole (20.7% vs 12.0%; PR: 1.73, CI: 1.69-1.77), and azithromycin (21.1% vs 11.0%; PR: 1.93, CI: 1.89-1.97) were more common among women younger than 20 than among women aged 35 years or older. Proportions were highest among white women with some exceptions; eg, compared with white women, metronidazole was more common among black women (29.8% vs 14.4%; PR: 2.07, CI: 2.05-2.09). Excluding fertility treatments, 42.0% had at least one dispensing for a D or X medication during pregnancy. Codeine (11.9%) and hydrocodone (10.2%) were the most common D medications. Conclusions Medications used to treat infections were the most commonly dispensed prescription medications. Dispensing of commonly used prescription medications during pregnancy varied by maternal age and race–ethnicity. PMID:26244530
Fogel, Joshua; Teichman, Chaim
This study examines variables associated with seeking information from doctors, the Internet, and a combination of both doctors and Internet after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertisements. Data were analyzed from 462 college students. Younger age, women, and health insurance were associated with greater odds for doctor; women, subjective norms, intentions, and greater time since seen doctor were associated with greater odds for Internet; and African American, Hispanic, subjective norms, intentions, and health insurance were associated with greater odds for both doctor and Internet. Marketers of direct-to-consumer advertisements can use these findings for tailoring and targeting direct-to-consumer advertisements. PMID:24878404
De Jesus, Maria
Mass media health communication has enormous potential to drastically alter how health-related information is disseminated and obtained by different populations. However, there is little evidence regarding the influence of media channels on health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behaviors among the Hispanic population. The Pew 2007 Hispanic Healthcare Survey was used to test the hypothesis that the amount of mass media health communication (i.e., quantity of media-based health information received) is more likely to influence Hispanic adults' health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior compared to health literacy and language proficiency variables. Results indicated that quantity of media-based health information is positively associated with health decision-making and medical advice-seeking behavior above and beyond the influence of health literacy and English and Spanish language proficiency. In a context where physician-patient dynamics are increasingly shifting from a passive patient role model to a more active patient role model, media-based health information can serve as an influential cue to action, prompting Hispanic individuals to make certain health-related decisions and to seek more health advice and information from a health provider. Study implications are discussed. PMID:22888787
The discussion about the study of medicine for women rose in high waves in Germany in the middle of the eighties of the last century. A lecture on this topic held by the anatomist Waldeyer in 1888 was typical for the reservations of the majority of the German professors. It led to a polemics by means of which a convinced suffragatte tried to refute those prejudices which had to be overcome before beginning with 1908 the way to the Prussian universities was judicially made free for the German women. PMID:2683428
Twigg, M J; Lupattelli, A; Nordeng, H
Background Previous research has examined the number and extent of medicines taking in pregnant women but not their beliefs and risk perception surrounding their use. Objective To describe beliefs and risk perception associated with medicines use for the treatment of common acute conditions among UK women and explore whether this is related to actual medicines use. Settings Cross-sectional, web-based study in the UK. Methods Pregnant women and mothers within 1 year of giving birth were invited to participate in an online cross-sectional questionnaire-based study via a pregnancy website in the UK. Anonymous data were collected from women regarding their use of medicines (both over-the-counter and prescribed) and their beliefs regarding medicines use during pregnancy. Main outcome measures Pregnant women's beliefs about medicines and their relation to pharmacological treatment of acute conditions in pregnancy. Results Pharmacological treatment of conditions in pregnancy ranged from 65.4 % for urinary tract infections (UTIs) to 1.1 % for sleeping problems. Almost three out of ten women avoided using some medications during pregnancy. For heartburn and UTIs, women who did not treat the condition viewed medicines in general as being overused, more harmful and less beneficial, than those who treated the condition. In general, UK pregnant women perceived medicines to be beneficial and slightly overused. Conclusions Women's beliefs about medications impact on treatment of specific conditions in pregnancy such as heartburn and UTIs. Healthcare professionals should explore patient's beliefs regarding medication at the first maternity care visit to promote appropriate medication use in pregnancy. PMID:27241342
Tyer-Viola, LA; Corless, IB; Webel, A; Reid, P; Sullivan, KM; Nichols, P
Objective Women infected with HIV live with many factors that affect antiretroviral (ARV) medication adherence. Social Action Theory (SAT) explains how context, environment, and psychological factors influence behavior. How these factors are related to HIV adherence in women is unique. The purpose of this analysis was to explore the relationships among contextual, environmental, and regulatory factors with ARV medication adherence in order to assist care providers in improving care for women living with HIV. Design Convenience descriptive multicenter Setting Sixteen HIV clinics and service organizations in North America Participants This sample was drawn from a larger study of 2,182 persons living with HIV recruited from clinics and service from September 2009 to January, 2011. Our study included 383 North American women living with HIV who were taking ARV medications. Methods We assessed the relationship of contextual, environmental, and psychological factors specific to women living with HIV with adherence to ARV medication. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to examine the effects of these factors on self-reported ARV adherence. Results Age, depression symptoms, stigma, and engagement with health care provider, and four psychological factors were correlated with self-reported ARV medication adherence (p = .01). Regression analysis indicated that adherence self-efficacy and depression symptoms accounted for 19% for 3-day and 22% for 30-day self-reported medication adherence. Conclusions Adherence self-efficacy and depression symptoms predict ARV medication adherence in women and should be evaluated by nurses. Future research is needed to identify antecedents to and interventions that support adherence self-efficacy and decrease depression symptoms. PMID:24502460
Abel, Willie M.; Efird, Jimmy T.
Background: Black women have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the world. Reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. The historical legacy of medical maltreatment of Blacks in the U.S. provides some insight into distrust in the medical profession, refusal of treatment, and poor adherence to treatment regimens. Methods: Black women (N = 80) who were prescribed antihypertensive medications were recruited from urban communities in North Carolina. Study participants completed the Trust in Physician and Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy questionnaires. An exact discrete-event model was used to examine the relationship between trust and medication adherence. Results: Mean age of study participants was 48 ± 9.2 years. The majority of participants (67%) were actively employed and 30% had incomes at or below the federal poverty level. Increasing levels of trust in the health care provider was independently associated with greater medication adherence (PTrend = 0.015). Conclusion: Black women with hypertension who trusted their health care providers were more likely to be adherent with their prescribed antihypertensive medications than those who did not trust their health care providers. Findings suggest that trusting relationships between Black women and health care providers are important to decreasing disparate rates of hypertension. PMID:24350234
Wakefield, Juliet R. H.; Hopkins, Nick; Greenwood, Ronni M.
The stereotype that women are dependent on men is a commonly verbalized, potentially damaging aspect of benevolent sexism. We investigated how women may use behavioral disconfirmation of the personal applicability of the stereotype to negotiate such sexism. In an experiment (N = 86), we manipulated female college students' awareness that women may…
Garman, Jamie L.
The purpose of the study was to document how individuals' experiences and understanding of genetics concepts affects their medical experiences. Recently pregnant women were interviewed because they represent a population that needs to comprehend biological and genetic information to understand their health. Three women were designated as science experts (SE) defined as having extensive university level science education and three women were designated as science non-experts (SNE). In general, SEs described a more positive pregnancy experience. Both SEs and SNEs demonstrated a basic understanding of genetic concepts but varied in the application of concepts to personal medical issues. Participants' views and experiences of pre and postnatal tests were linked to their understanding of nature of science components such as recognition that tests have limitations. Results from this study indicate an incomplete understanding of the nature of science among participants may have led to unsatisfactory medical experiences.
Bhatt, R. V.; And Others
Women account for 15 percent of the total admissions in medicine and present overall better examinations than men. Obstetrics and gynecology is the most common speciality selected by women, and job satisfaction is found in 87 percent. Sixty-six percent are married to other doctors, and 39 percent emigrate. (Author/LBH)
Many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medicines, especially those available over-the-counter, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals such as general practitioners and pharmacists. The primary aim of this review therefore, was to investigate the literature relating to health professionals' and women's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards medication use and safety in breastfeeding. The limited literature that was uncovered identified that general practitioners and pharmacists have poor knowledge, but positive attitudes, and variable practices that are mostly guided by personal experience. They tend to make decisions about the use of a medicine whilst breastfeeding based on the potential 'risk' that it poses to the infant in terms of possible adverse reactions, rather than its 'compatibility' with breast milk. The decision-making process between health professionals and women is usually not a negotiated process, and women are often asked to stop breastfeeding whilst taking a medicine. Women, in turn, are left dissatisfied with the advice received, many choosing not to initiate therapy or not to continue breastfeeding. Some directions for future research have been suggested to address the issues identified in this critical area. This review is important from a societal perspective because many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medications, especially those available without prescription, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals, which is ultimately influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and practices. However, there is an absence of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials on the safety of medications taken during breastfeeding, which naturally would hinder health professionals from appropriately advising women. It is equally important to know about women's experiences of advice received from health professionals, and whether
Darnall, Beth D.; Stacey, Brett R.; Chou, Roger
Background Long-term opioid use has increased substantially over the past decade for U.S. women. Women are more likely than men to have a chronic pain condition, to be treated with opioids, and may receive higher doses. Prescribing trends persist despite limited evidence to support the long-term benefit of this pain treatment approach. Purpose To review the medical and psychological risks and consequences of long-term opioid therapy in women. Method Scientific literature containing relevant keywords and content were reviewed. Results and Conclusions Long-term opioid use exposes women to unique risks, including endocrinopathy, reduced fertility, neonatal risks, as well as greater risk for polypharmacy, cardiac risks, poisoning and unintentional overdose, among other risks. Risks for women appear to vary by age and psychosocial factors may be bidirectionally related to opioid use. Gaps in understanding and priorities for future research are highlighted. PMID:22905834
Bismark, Marie; Morris, Jennifer; Thomas, Laura; Loh, Erwin; Phelps, Grant; Dickinson, Helen
Objective To elicit medical leaders’ views on reasons and remedies for the under-representation of women in medical leadership roles. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews with medical practitioners who work in medical leadership roles. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Setting Public hospitals, private healthcare providers, professional colleges and associations and government organisations in Australia. Participants 30 medical practitioners who hold formal medical leadership roles. Results Despite dramatic increases in the entry of women into medicine in Australia, there remains a gross under-representation of women in formal, high-level medical leadership positions. The male-dominated nature of medical leadership in Australia was widely recognised by interviewees. A small number of interviewees viewed gender disparities in leadership roles as a ‘natural’ result of women's childrearing responsibilities. However, most interviewees believed that preventable gender-related barriers were impeding women's ability to achieve and thrive in medical leadership roles. Interviewees identified a range of potential barriers across three broad domains—perceptions of capability, capacity and credibility. As a counter to these, interviewees pointed to a range of benefits of women adopting these roles, and proposed a range of interventions that would support more women entering formal medical leadership roles. Conclusions While women make up more than half of medical graduates in Australia today, significant barriers restrict their entry into formal medical leadership roles. These constraints have internalised, interpersonal and structural elements that can be addressed through a range of strategies for advancing the role of women in medical leadership. These findings have implications for individual medical practitioners and health services, as well as professional colleges and associations
Kozhimanil, Katy Backes; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Attanasio, Laura B.; Gjerdingen, Dwenda K.; McGovern, Patricia M.
Background There is limited documentation of non-medical methods of labor induction and pain management during childbirth in the U.S. We estimated the prevalence of non-medical interventions for induction and pain management and examined the association between medical and non-medical care during labor. Methods We used a nationally-representative survey of U.S. women who gave birth in 2005 (N=1,382) to examine use of non-medical methods of labor induction and pain management. Using logistic regression, we calculated odds of non-medical and medical interventions to induce labor or mitigate pain, and the odds of medical induction and obstetric analgesia by whether non-medical methods were used. Results Nearly 30% of women used non-medical methods to start labor, and over 70% of women used non-medical pain management. Doula support was the strongest predictor of non-medical methods of labor induction (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 3.0) and labor pain management (AOR = 5.7). Use of non-medical pain management was significantly associated with decreased odds of medical pain management (OR = 0.65); this relationship was attenuated with covariate adjustment. Conclusions Non-medical methods to induce labor and manage pain during childbirth are commonly used by U.S. women. Future research should examine effectiveness of these strategies and their influence on medical services use. PMID:24344703
Wehner, Mackenzie R; Nead, Kevin T
Objectives To draw attention to sex related disparities in academic medical leadership by investigating the representation of female leaders compared with leaders with moustaches. Design Cross sectional analysis. Setting Academic medical departments in the United States. Participants Clinical department leaders (n=1018) at the top 50 US medical schools funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Main outcome measures The proportions of female leaders and moustachioed leaders across institutions and specialties (n=20). Additionally, the moustache index: the proportion of women compared with the proportion of moustaches, analyzed with multinomial logistic regression models. Results Women accounted for 13% (137/1018) of department leaders at the top 50 NIH funded medical schools in the US. Moustachioed leaders accounted for 19% (190/1018). The proportion of female department leaders ranged from 0% (0/20) to 26% (5/19) across institutions and 0% (0/53) to 36% (19/53) across specialties. Only seven institutions and five specialties had more than 20% of female department leaders. The overall moustache index of all academic medical departments studied was 0.72 (95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.90; P=0.004). Only six of 20 specialties had more women than moustaches (moustache index >1). Conclusions Moustachioed individuals significantly outnumber women as leaders of medical departments in the US. We believe that every department and institution should strive for a moustache index ≥1. Known, effective, and evidence based policies to increase the number of women in leadership positions should be prioritized. PMID:26673637
Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary
Cancer is the leading cause of death for Korean-Americans (KAs), while cancer screening rates among KAs have been consistently low. Seven semi-structured focus group interviews with 34 KA women aged 40 or older in the Washington, DC metropolitan area were conducted to explore the perceptions of KA women about seeking physical examinations and cancer screening services in Korea. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Informants positively perceived the use of health screening services in Korea in comparison to seeking such services in the US. Decision-making factors included cost benefits, high quality services, and more convenient screening procedures in Korea. These benefits outweighed the risks of delaying health care and travelling a vast distance with incurring additional travel costs. Motivations to seek these services in Korea included opportunities to visit their homeland and to enjoy comfortable communication with their native language. The increase of available information about Korean medical services due to the industry's aggressive marketing/PR was identified as a facilitator. Most informants did not recognize possible negative health outcomes of obtaining services in Korea such as inappropriate follow up care if having abnormal findings. Educational programs are needed to educate KAs about the benefits and risks of getting the services in Korea and proper follow up care in the US. Health care providers need to know the different cancer risks and screening needs for this population. PMID:24322599
Bell, Margret E.; Goodman, Lisa A.; Dutton, Mary Ann
Despite assumptions that leaving the batterer offers the best chance for improvement in battered women's lives, few studies provide conclusive data on this issue. Although many women eventually reunite with partners, also unexamined is the influence of relationship course over time. Five waves of data from 206 low-income, largely Black,…
Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others
A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)
Parker, Elizabeth M; Gielen, Andrea C; Castillo, Renan; Webster, Daniel
This study examined safety strategy use in relation to intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, perceived effectiveness of the strategies, and perception of danger from IPV among 197 abused women. More than 90% of the women used 1 or more strategies in the 6 months prior to their interview. Severe physical and sexual violence were significantly associated with an increased use of placating strategies. Perceived effectiveness of the strategies was high yet not associated with strategy use. Increased perception of danger from IPV was significantly associated with increased use of safety planning strategies. The findings suggest that safety planning should be tailored to fit women's specific contexts. Safety planning discussions should focus on strategies that reduce women's risk of continued violence and build on women's strengths. PMID:26159732
Flicker, Sharon M.; Cerulli, Catherine; Swogger, Marc T.; Talbot, Nancy L.
This investigation examined the relationship of abuse-specific coping strategies and perceived responses to abuse disclosure to symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress among 131 women seeking a protection order against an intimate partner. Disengagement, denial, and self-blame coping strategies, as well as blaming of the participant by others, were associated with greater depressive and posttraumatic symptoms. None of the strategies of coping or responses to abuse disclosure were negatively related to depressive or posttraumatic stress symptoms. Findings suggest that mental health providers may find it useful to address these negative styles of coping while public education campaigns should target victim-blaming. PMID:22735315
Lian, Olaug S; Hansen, Anne Helen
Bodily conditions that are difficult to identify, explain and treat with the aid of medical knowledge and technology appear to be particularly challenging to medical encounters. Patients are often dissatisfied with the help they receive, and they often experience that their medical needs are not met. To explore factors facilitating patient satisfaction among patients with a medically unexplained condition, we ask: what is the importance of individual versus relational factors in facilitating patient satisfaction in clinical encounters between general practitioners (GPs) and women with medically unexplained long-term fatigue? We approach this question through a statistical analysis of survey data collected from a net sample of 431 women recruited through a patient organisation for people suffering from myalgic encephalomyelitis in 2013. Participants were asked about their experiences with general practitioners in the Norwegian national health system in two different phases: shortly after illness onset, and current regular general practitioner last 12 months. The questions evolved around themes concerning shared understanding and decision making, being taken seriously, being paid due respect and being treated as an equal partner. Through descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analyses, we explored how their experiences were related to individual and relational factors, respectively. Free-text comments from the questionnaires were used while interpreting the results. The analysis illuminates that relational aspects in medical encounters between GPs and ME patients, especially continuity, congruence in doctor-patient views and being seen by a specialist, are important catalysts of patient satisfaction. The probability of being satisfied with the initial investigation was more than six times higher in women who were referred to specialists, compared to those who were not. We conclude that continuity of care and experiences of being in a
Ramakrishnan, Aditi; Sambuco, Dana
Abstract Although much literature has focused on the status of female physicians in the United States, limited English-language studies have examined the role of women in the medical profession elsewhere in the world. This article synthesizes evidence regarding the status of female physicians in three purposively selected regions outside the United States: Japan, Scandinavia, and Russia and Eastern Europe. These three regions markedly differ in the proportion of female physicians in the workforce, overall status of the medical profession, cultural views of gender roles, and workforce policies. Through a review of studies and articles published between 1992 and 2012 examining women's representation, status measures such as salary and leadership positions, and experiences of female physicians, the authors discuss potential relationships between the representation of female physicians, their status in medicine, and the overall status of the profession. The findings suggest that even when women constitute a high proportion of the physician workforce, they may continue to be underrepresented in positions of leadership and prestige. Evolving workforce policies, environments, and cultural views of gender roles appear to play a critical role in mediating the relationship between women's participation in the medical profession and their ability to rise to positions of influence within it. These insights are informative for the ongoing debates over the impact of the demographic shifts in the composition of the medical workforce in the United States. PMID:25320867
Dunatov, Linda J.
The purpose of this narrative inquiry study was to gain a richer understanding from the perspective of gender about how third and fourth year women osteopathic medical students at the University of Pikeville-Kentucky College of Osteopathic Medicine (KYCOM) constructed their developing professional identities as future osteopathic physicians. This…
Ramakrishnan, Aditi; Sambuco, Dana; Jagsi, Reshma
Although much literature has focused on the status of female physicians in the United States, limited English-language studies have examined the role of women in the medical profession elsewhere in the world. This article synthesizes evidence regarding the status of female physicians in three purposively selected regions outside the United States: Japan, Scandinavia, and Russia and Eastern Europe. These three regions markedly differ in the proportion of female physicians in the workforce, overall status of the medical profession, cultural views of gender roles, and workforce policies. Through a review of studies and articles published between 1992 and 2012 examining women's representation, status measures such as salary and leadership positions, and experiences of female physicians, the authors discuss potential relationships between the representation of female physicians, their status in medicine, and the overall status of the profession. The findings suggest that even when women constitute a high proportion of the physician workforce, they may continue to be underrepresented in positions of leadership and prestige. Evolving workforce policies, environments, and cultural views of gender roles appear to play a critical role in mediating the relationship between women's participation in the medical profession and their ability to rise to positions of influence within it. These insights are informative for the ongoing debates over the impact of the demographic shifts in the composition of the medical workforce in the United States. PMID:25320867
Anderson, Carolyn A.; Hammen, Constance L.
Studied behavior problems, social competence, internalizing/externalizing behaviors, academic performance, and school behavior of 96 children (ages 8-16) of unipolar depressed, bipolar, medically ill, and psychiatrically normal women over 2 years. Children of unipolar mothers showed significantly poorer functioning on all measures; greater…