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1

Labour, the Body, and Sexuality: Women Sex Workers' Negotiation of Public and Private Sex and Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feminists have been disputing the nature of commercial sex acts for nearly four decades. Some radical feminists argue that the existence of commercial sex signifies women's oppression and see prostitution as nothing but selling sex. In contrast, prostitutes' rights groups and pro-sex feminists tend to consider commercial sex acts as work or labour. The latter group, however, fails to elaborate

Mei-Hua Chen

2006-01-01

2

Male Sex Workers Who Sell Sex to Men Also Engage in Anal Intercourse with Women: Evidence from Mombasa, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior. Design Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Methods Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse. Results From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days – of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one’s own children, and lower education. Conclusions We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond. PMID:23300978

Mannava, Priya; Geibel, Scott; King'ola, Nzioki; Temmerman, Marleen; Luchters, Stanley

2013-01-01

3

Women of courage: commercial sex workers mobilize for HIV / AIDS prevention in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The Calabar Project in Nigeria, which seeks to reduce the vulnerability of prostitutes to HIV infection, began informally in 1987. By 1988, a formal, community-based intervention was created to promote condom use, provide health education as well as literacy and vocational training, and seek better working and living conditions for the prostitutes. The first task of the Calabar Project was to overcome the resistance of the hotel owners and managers where the prostitutes work and to win the confidence of the women. The owners and managers had to be convinced that it was in their best interest for the women to insist on condom use by their clients. The women had to be informed about the nature of HIV/AIDS and to be convinced that the project sought improvements in their general welfare. This was accomplished by helping the prostitutes improve both their relationship with the local police and their access to health services. Negotiations with hotel owners stabilized the prostitutes' rent for a year to enable the women to increase their charges for services and reduce the number of clients they needed so they could insist on condom use. Peer educators were trained to provide health education and to teach prostitutes techniques to get clients to use condoms. Clients were reached through the prostitutes and by providing information to small groups in hotel bars. Condoms were initially distributed for free and eventually were sold through a social marketing program. Peer educators also encouraged prostitutes and their clients to use a clinic the project established to diagnose and treat sexually transmitted diseases. In 1993, the Calabar Project helped create a vocational and literacy training center to improve the women's ability to understand the complex issues related to HIV/AIDS and to give the women a way to supplement their income and improve their self-esteem. By this time, more than 60% of the women reported using condoms for all sex acts. PMID:12345902

Williams, E E

1994-05-01

4

Perceived discrimination and smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women working as restaurant/hotel workers and sex workers in China  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking may be a coping mechanism for psychosocial stress caused by discrimination. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working as restaurant/hotel workers (RHWs) and those working as sex workers (FSWs) in 10 Chinese cities to investigate whether perceived discrimination is associated with smoking. We interviewed RHWs at medical examination clinics and FSWs at entertainment venues. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios. Results Of the 1696 RHWs and 532 FSWs enrolled, 155 (9.1%) and 63 (11.8%) reported perceived discrimination, respectively. Perceived discrimination was independently associated with ever tried smoking (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31–2.23) and current smoking (PR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.32–4.79) among RHWs and ever tried smoking (PR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.16–1.61) and current smoking (PR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.28–2.06) among FSWs. Discussion Perceived discrimination is associated with higher prevalence of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. PMID:22389186

Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Wan, Xia; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H. Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E.

2013-01-01

5

Enhancing benefits or increasing harms: community responses for HIV among men who have sex with men, transgender women, female sex workers, and people who inject drugs.  

PubMed

Studies completed over the past 15 years have consistently demonstrated the importance of community-level determinants in potentiating or mitigating risks for the acquisition and transmission of HIV. Structural determinants are especially important in mediating HIV risk among key populations, including men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, sex workers of all genders, and transgender women. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidence characterizing the community-level determinants that potentiate or mitigate HIV-related outcomes for key populations. The results of the review suggest that although health communication programs represent community-level strategies that have demonstrated the effectiveness in increasing the uptake of HIV testing and decreasing the experienced stigma among people living with HIV, there are limited studies focused on key populations in low- and middle-income settings. Moreover, interpretation from the 22 studies that met inclusion and exclusion criteria reinforce the importance of the continued measurement of community-level determinants of HIV risks and of the innovation in tools to effectively address these risks as components of the next generation of the HIV response. Consequently, the next generation of effective HIV prevention science research must improve our understanding of the multiple levels of HIV risk factors, while programming for key populations must address each of these risk levels. Failure to do so will cost lives, harm communities, and undermine the gains of the HIV response. PMID:25007203

Baral, Stefan; Holland, Claire E; Shannon, Kate; Logie, Carmen; Semugoma, Paul; Sithole, Bhekie; Papworth, Erin; Drame, Fatou; Beyrer, Chris

2014-08-15

6

Substance abuse, treatment needs and access among female sex workers and non-sex workers in Pretoria, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study examined cross-sectional data collected from substance-using female sex workers (FSW) and non-sex workers (non-SW) in Pretoria, South Africa, who entered a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Women who reported alcohol use and recently engaging in sex work or unprotected sex were recruited for a randomized study. The study sample (N = 506) comprised 335 FSW and 171 female

Wendee M Wechsberg; Li-Tzy Wu; William A Zule; Charles D Parry; Felicia A Browne; Winnie K Luseno; Tracy Kline; Amanda Gentry

2009-01-01

7

Women Workers' History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of one page chapters each documenting women's roles in changing the conditions for U.S. workers during and after the industrial revolution. Each chapter is a series of period style drawings with captions detailing the story of that particular incident and cartoon balloons offering humorous comments from the participants. The…

Huck, Gary; Gilmore, Peter

8

Action research with sex workers: Dismantling barriers and building bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional sex work research has tended to pathologize women in the sex industry by studying them as victims who lack the ability to make informed decisions about their lives and their work. Radical feminist research in particular has been successful in affecting public discourses, policy debates, and research agendas in this regard. While sex workers themselves contradict and critique conventional

Emily van der Meulen

2011-01-01

9

Demography and sex work characteristics of female sex workers in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The majority of sex work in India is clandestine due to unfavorable legal environment and discrimination against female sex workers (FSWs). We report data on who these women are and when they get involved with sex work that could assist in increasing the reach of HIV prevention activities for them. METHODS: Detailed documentation of demography and various aspects of

Rakhi Dandona; Lalit Dandona; G Anil Kumar; Juan Pablo Gutierrez; Sam McPherson; Fiona Samuels; Stefano M Bertozzi

2006-01-01

10

Predicting the Job Satisfaction of Female Sex Workers in Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. This study used a cross-sectional survey to examine job satisfaction and its correlates among 247 female sex workers working as private service providers, in licensed brothels, and in illegal sectors of the industry (mainly street-based workers). Overall, most sex workers reported positive job satisfaction. Satisfaction was higher in women working legally and was comparable with women from the general

Charrlotte Seib; Michael P. Dunne; Jane Fischer; Jackob M. Najman

2012-01-01

11

Women Youth Workers and Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined personal and professional development experienced by women youth workers participating in five 5-day, residential, single-sex, outdoor education courses in England. Analysis of diaries and poetry at the end of the courses and questionnaires completed 1 year later by participants and their managers yielded findings in the areas of…

Collins, Di

12

Sex Work Venue and Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Senggigi, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: freelance, brothels, and entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women “nested” within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies, and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered. PMID:23472595

Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A.; Johnson, Timothy P.

2013-01-01

13

Sex work venue and condom use among female sex workers in Senggigi, Indonesia.  

PubMed

This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: (1) freelance locations, (2) brothels and (3) entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women 'nested' within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV-prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered. PMID:23472595

Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A; Johnson, Timothy P

2013-01-01

14

Sex worker health: San Francisco style  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the characteristics of sex workers accessing care at a peer based clinic in San Francisco and to evaluate predictors of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Methods We conducted an observational study of sex workers at St James Infirmary. Individuals underwent an initial questionnaire, and we offered screening for STI at each clinic visit. We performed univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses to assess for predictors of STI in this population. Results We saw 783 sex workers identifying as female (53.6%), male (23.9%), male to female transgender (16.1%), and other (6.5%). 70% had never disclosed their sex work to a medical provider. Participants represented a wide range of ethnicities, educational backgrounds, and types of sex work. The most common substance used was tobacco (45.8%). Nearly 40% reported current illicit drug use. Over half reported domestic violence, and 36.0% reported sex work related violence. Those screened had gonorrhoea (12.4%), chlamydia (6.8%), syphilis (1.8%), or herpes simplex virus 2 (34.3%). Predictors of STI included African?American race (odds ratio (OR) 3.3), male gender (OR 1.9), and sex work related violence (OR 1.9). In contrast, participants who had only ever engaged in collective sex work were less likely to have an STI (OR 0.4). Conclusions The majority of sex workers have never discussed their work with a medical provider. Domestic violence is extremely prevalent as is work related violence. Working with other sex workers appears to be protective of STIs. STI prevention interventions should target African?American and male sex workers. Addressing violence in the workplace and encouraging sex workers to work collectively may be effective prevention strategies. PMID:16854996

Cohan, D; Lutnick, A; Davidson, P; Cloniger, C; Herlyn, A; Breyer, J; Cobaugh, C; Wilson, D; Klausner, J

2006-01-01

15

Sex Work and HIV Status Among Transgender Women: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Transgender women are a key risk group for HIV, and epidemiologic studies have attributed high rates of HIV infection to behaviors associated with sex work in this population. This system- atic review compared HIV prevalence among transgender female sex workers (TFSWs) with prevalence among transgender women who do not engage in sex work, male sex workers, and biologically female

Don Operario; Toho Soma; Kristen Underhill

2008-01-01

16

Kaposi`s sarcoma associated herpesvirus infection among female sex workers and general population women in Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Limited information on epidemiologic patterns of KSHV, with none focusing on heterosexual transmission, is available in mainland China. To clarify this, a cross-sectional study was conducted among a group of female sex workers (FSW) and general population women (GW) in Shanghai, China. Methods An anonymous questionnaire interview was administrated among 600 FSW and 600 GW. Blood samples were collected and tested for antibodies to KSHV, HSV-2, HIV, syphilis and HBsAg. Correlates of KSHV and HSV-2 were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results None of the study participants were tested positive for HIV. The seroprevalence of KSHV, HSV-2 , HBV and syphilis was 10.0%, 52.2%, 12.3% and 10.5%, respectively for FSW, and was 11.0%, 15.3%, 9.8% and 2.8%, respectively for GW. KSHV seropositivity was not associated with syphilis and HSV-2 infection as well as sexual practices among either FSW or GW. Nevertheless, HSV-2 infection among FSW was independently associated with being ever married (OR?=?1.59; 95%CI: 1.04-2.45), >5 years of prostitution (OR?=?2.06; 95%CI: 1.16-3.68) and being syphilis positive (OR?=?2.65; 95%CI: 1.43-4.93). HSV-2 infection among GW was independently associated with an age of >35 years (OR?=?2.29; 95%CI: 1.07-4.93), having had more than 2 sex partners in the prior 12 months (OR?=?6.44; 95%CI: 1.67-24.93) and being syphilis positive (OR?=?3.94; 95%CI: 1.38-11.23). A gradual increase of prevalence with the prostitution time group was also detected for HSV-2 and syphilis, but not for KSHV. Conclusions KSHV is moderately and equivalently prevalent among FSW and GW. Heterosexual contact is not a predominant route for KSHV transmission among Chinese women. PMID:24498947

2014-01-01

17

Automation and Women Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine the repercussions of scientific and technological progress on the employment of women and their conditions of work, the Women's Bureau used available statistical data from 1958-68 to study: (1) Employment and Unemployment, (2) Vocational Guidance and Training, (3) Training and Retraining of Older Women, (4) Remuneration, (5) Hours of…

Wells, Jean A.

18

Burnout Among Female Indoor Sex Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined levels of “burnout” and associated factors among a sample of female indoor sex workers in the Netherlands\\u000a (N=96). Levels of burnout on 3 dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal competence) were assessed.\\u000a Only sex workers' mean score on depersonalization was significantly higher than that of a comparison group of female nurses\\u000a and comparable to those of another

Ine Vanwesenbeeck

2005-01-01

19

Drug use among sex workers in Hungary.  

PubMed

Drug use and sex work are both controversial issues with multiple interesting connections. This article presents findings from the first-ever survey on drug use and sex work in Hungary. The study aimed to chart the prevalence, function, and problems of drug use among various groups of sex workers. Survey forms were collected from 510 participants (average age 29.5 years, 91% female) in and near Budapest over a period of six months. The results show that sex workers have manifold higher lifetime prevalence, 84.3%, of illicit drug use compared with the prevalence of the Hungarian general young adult population, 20.9%. In our sample, it was very rare to perform sex work for alcohol or drugs (5%) or for money to purchase alcohol or drugs (20%). Findings also indicate notable relationships between location-based sex work types and the drugs used. One-third of the street sex workers reported regular amphetamine use, but none reported regular cocaine use. On the contrary, no escorts reported regular amphetamine use, but 38% admitted to regular cocaine use. The location of sex work may pose an additional occupational health risk factor for substance use. Regular use of alcohol was twice as typical (64%) for sex workers who were employed in bars, in salons/parlors, or alone in rented apartments than it was for those working in other indoor locations (33-34%). Furthermore, 74% of street sex workers smoked tobacco compared with 17% of escorts. Problem drug use was roughly estimated by asking the participants about the main problem domains (medical, legal, social, etc.) from the Addiction Severity Index instrument. The most problematic drug was amphetamine, and the most frequent problem was prolonged or excessive drug use. These main findings may contribute to more focused planning of health intervention services, harm reduction measures, outreach programs, and specific treatments. PMID:23906122

Móró, Levente; Simon, Katalin; Sárosi, Péter

2013-09-01

20

Sex workers as safe sex advocates: Sex workers protect both themselves and the wider community from HIV.  

PubMed

Since the advent of HIV, significant changes have made the Australian sex industry one of the safest in the world. Creating this safety has been in large part due to the ability of sex workers to act as safe sex advocates through peer-based health promotion; to negotiate with sex business owners; and to inform and participate in the development of government policy. Empowerment of sex workers through legislative reform and government funding of sex worker organizations has been central to the prevention of HV transmission, as has been the development of genuine partnership between sex worker organizations, government departments and those working in public health. The paper describes these responses in some detail and explores some of the current issues facing sex workers in Australia. PMID:24846482

Bates, Julie; Berg, Rigmor

2014-06-01

21

Violence against women migrant workers in Thailand.  

PubMed

A paper on "Violence against Women Migrant Workers in Thailand" will show the situation of women migrant workers in Thailand, why they have to come to Thailand, what kind of job they do, how they are abused and exploited by employer in many types of violence and how the Thai government manages to solve the problems and assist them. The term or definition of "violence against women-VAW" and "discrimination against women" is provided and based on the definition stated in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Readers will see that violence against women is a form of discrimination committed on a basis of sex. In other words, VAW is a clear violation of women's inherent human rights including the rights to life, liberty, and security of person, equality, equal protection under the law and freedom from all forms of discrimination. More than one hundred thousands of women illegal migrant workers work in Thailand. They come from countries in the Mekong Sub-region namely Myanmar Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and China (Yunnan province). As they come illegally and have low level of education and working skills, they are vulnerable to exploitation, abuse or face violence. In general, they work in small factories, domestic work and restaurant. They are forced begging, forced prostitution or work in a slavery-like condition. Root causes of illegal migration and VAW are interrelated and occur in both sending and receiving countries of migrant workers. Poverty, demand and supply sides of labor, level of education, no knowledge of their own rights, impact of capitalism and gender issues, are mentioned as original factors of migration and VAW. The Thai government has national policy, plan, instrument and measures to cope with in- migration of illegal workers. Not only government agencies are active to solve the problems and assist the women migrant workers, but also non-government and international organizations as well as the UN agencies are working seriously to assist them and protect their rights. PMID:21218599

Chaiyanukij, Charnchao

2004-10-01

22

Sex Work among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Bogot?  

PubMed Central

This qualitative study examined sex work among internally displaced male and transgender female sex workers in Bogotá, Colombia. Internal displacement has occurred in Colombia as a result of decades of conflict among armed groups and has created large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Informed by the polymorphous model of sex work, which posits that contextual conditions shape the experience of sex work, we examined three main research questions. The first dealt with how internal displacement was related to the initiation of sex work; the second concerned the effect of agency on sex worker satisfaction; and the third examined how sex work in this context was related to HIV and other risks. Life history interviews were conducted with a 26 displaced individuals who had done sex work: 14 were men who have sex with men (MSM) and 12 were transgender women (natal males). Findings revealed that many participants began doing sex work in the period immediately after displacement, because of a lack of money, housing, and social support. HIV risk was greater during this time due to limited knowledge of HIV and inexperience negotiating safer sex with clients. Other findings indicated that sex workers who exerted more control and choice in the circumstances of their work reported greater satisfaction. In addition, we found that although many sex workers insisted on condom use with clients, several noted that they would sometimes have unprotected sex for additional money. Specific characteristics affecting the experience of sex work among the transgender women were also discussed. PMID:24464550

Bianchi, Fernanda T.; Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Vidal-Ortiz, Salvador; Gonzales, Felisa A.; Betancourt, Fabian; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J.

2014-01-01

23

Sex work among men who have sex with men and transgender women in bogotá.  

PubMed

This qualitative study examined sex work among internally displaced male and transgender female sex workers in Bogotá, Colombia. Internal displacement has occurred in Colombia as a result of decades of conflict among armed groups and has created large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Informed by the polymorphous model of sex work, which posits that contextual conditions shape the experience of sex work, we examined three main research questions. The first dealt with how internal displacement was related to the initiation of sex work; the second concerned the effect of agency on sex worker satisfaction; and the third examined how sex work in this context was related to HIV and other risks. Life history interviews were conducted with 26 displaced individuals who had done sex work: 14 were men who have sex with men and 12 were transgender women (natal males). Findings revealed that many participants began doing sex work in the period immediately after displacement, because of a lack of money, housing, and social support. HIV risk was greater during this time due to limited knowledge of HIV and inexperience negotiating safer sex with clients. Other findings indicated that sex workers who exerted more control and choice in the circumstances of their work reported greater satisfaction. In addition, we found that although many sex workers insisted on condom use with clients, several noted that they would sometimes have unprotected sex for additional money. Specific characteristics affecting the experience of sex work among the transgender women were also discussed. PMID:24464550

Bianchi, Fernanda T; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Vidal-Ortiz, Salvador; Gonzales, Felisa A; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J

2014-11-01

24

Women Workers of France  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is more than a sentimental side to the story of how the women of France—and for that matter the women of every nation engaged in the gigantic conflict—have enlisted their services in the numerous industrial and civic activities heretofore engaged in by men only. There is involved the all-important question of labor readjustment after the war. And this becomes

Martin Wells

1916-01-01

25

Sexual safety practices of massage parlor-based sex workers and their clients.  

PubMed

The Outreach and Research in Community Health Initiatives and Development (ORCHID) project examines social and structural factors that contribute to HIV/AIDS risk among women working in Vancouver's indoor sex industry and their clients. From 2006 to 2009, two mixed method studies were undertaken in ORCHID: one exploring experiences of women working in the indoor sex industry, mainly in massage parlors, and the other exploring experiences of men as sex "buyers." Both studies emphasize sexual health and safety, risk and protective behaviors, and related contextual factors. No analyses examining the sexual health and safety practices of massage parlor-based sex workers and clients exist in the Canadian context. To address this gap, we analyze two survey datasets - with 118 sex workers and 116 clients. Upon comparing demographics of sex workers and clients, we discuss their condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV testing practices. Sex workers and clients reported high rates of condom use for vaginal/anal intercourse. While both groups reported lower rates of condom use for oral sex during sex transactions, clients did so to a greater extent (p < 0.001). Condom use with noncommercial sex partners was reported to be less consistent by both groups. STI testing was higher among sex workers than clients (p < 0.001). Initiatives targeting clients of massage parlor-based sex workers for STI education and testing are needed. Future research should investigate how different types of relationships between sex workers and clients impact their sexual safety practices. PMID:24617632

Kolar, Kat; Atchison, Chris; Bungay, Vicky

2014-01-01

26

Sex workers in agricultural areas: Their drugs, their children.  

PubMed

Most research on female sex workers is urban-based, emphasizing economic necessity and risk-taking. Few authors discuss sex workers and their children. The objective of the present study was to ethnographically explore the influence of street life on childrearing by women involved in sex work in agricultural areas of the southeastern USA. Interviews took place with 38 women. Findings suggest that the sampled women followed the usual paths into substance use. Most began using substances before they began sex work, at which time use escalated to crack-cocaine. Children of 32 of the 34 women who were mothers were living separately from their mothers. None the less, mothers took an interest in children's wellbeing, and many visited them whenever possible. Their principal concern was assuring that children were raised in the best way available. One daughter followed her mother into sex work, and a few older children drank moderately. Several children had experienced abuse from persons other than parents, but the long-term effects of this abuse are unknown. PMID:16864221

Bletzer, Keith V

2005-01-01

27

Measuring perceived stigma in female sex workers in Chennai, India.  

PubMed

Although sex work is highly stigmatized throughout the world, a limited body of research has examined stigma among female sex workers (FSWs). We developed a Sex Worker Stigma (SWS) Index to measure perceived stigma among 150 FSWs in Chennai, India. These women were at a median age of 35 years and reported, on average, having engaged in sex work for nine out of the previous 12 months. The two-factor structure of the index was verified in both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with acceptable goodness of fit. The final 10-item index comprises of two domains of perceived stigma from the community and perceived stigma from one's family. Cronbach's ? coefficients were 0.87 and 0.88 for each domain, respectively. In regression analysis, we found that income from jobs other than sex work was correlated with decreased levels of perceived stigma from both the community (? = - 0.16; 95% CI: -0.30 and -0.02) and the family (? = - 0.24; 95% CI: -0.40 and -0.07); prior experience of accessing health care system increased perceived stigma from the community while heavier financial responsibility for the family was associated with lower perceived stigma from women's family. With the proposed SWS Index, we have a valid and reliable metric to document and track levels of perceived stigma among FSWs to assess the impact of stigma reduction interventions. PMID:21293991

Liu, Su-Hsun; Srikrishnan, A K; Zelaya, Carla E; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D; Sherman, Susan G

2011-05-01

28

Women Migrant Workers: Embracing Empowerment Over Victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on women migrant workers - women who leave their countries, whether taking their families or leaving them behind, in search of employment and economic opportunity abroad. After a discussion of the recent globalization of migration, this paper continues with an examination of the feminization of migration. Part II then discusses how men and women workers experience migration

Jill Borak

29

Can sex workers regulate police? Learning from an HIV prevention project for sex workers in southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an argument that policing practices exacerbate HIV risk, particularly for female sex workers. Interventions that mobilize sex workers to seek changes in laws and law enforcement practices have been prominent in India and have received considerable scholarly attention. Yet, there are few studies on the strategies sex worker advocates use to modify police behavior or the struggles they

Monica Rao Biradavolu; Scott Burris; Annie George; Asima Jena; Kim M. Blankenship

2009-01-01

30

Reframing the Interpretation of Sex Worker Health: A Behavioral-Structural Approach  

PubMed Central

Expanding sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics in many parts of Asia increase the importance of effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/STI prevention programs for female sex workers. Designing sex worker health research and programs demands a well-stated conceptual approach, especially when one is interpreting the relationship between local policy environments and sex worker health. However, the core principles of the 2 most common conceptual approaches used in sex worker health programs—abolitionism and empowerment—have frequently divergent assumptions and implications. The abolitionist approach sees major aspects of the sex industry as fundamentally coercive and exploitative of women and supports dismantling all or parts of the sex sector. The empowerment approach strengthens sex workers’ agency and rights in order to build collective self-efficacy and have women invested in implementing their own HIV/STI prevention programs. This review compares these approaches using implication analysis and empirical cases from Asia. The misperception of an unresolvable gap between the 2 approaches ignores common ground that forms the basis of a new behavioral–structural conceptual framework. Explicitly accounting for the interaction between female sex worker behaviors and larger structures and policies, a behavioral–structural approach may provide a solid foundation for sex work research and programs. PMID:22043033

Tuminez, Astrid S.

2011-01-01

31

Unprotected sex with their clients among low-paying female sex workers in southwest China.  

PubMed

China has been experiencing a rapid increase in the HIV epidemic for decades. Commercial sex plays a critical role in heterosexual transmission of HIV. Limited studies suggested that low-paying female sex workers (FSWs) faced a higher risk of HIV infection. Low-paying FSWs are women who usually encounter their clients on the street or small establishments in rural or less-developed areas, or who charge low fees for each sexual service. A total of 720 low-paying FSWs from 130 commercial sex venues/locations in southwest China were included in the data analysis. Multivariate regression models were employed to examine the associations of unprotected sex with a number of exploratory variables among the study sample. About 33.9 and 61.5% of low-paying FSWs reported unprotected sex with clients in the last sex act and in the last month, respectively. After controlling for confounders, women's HIV knowledge, risk perception, experience of police arrest, and venue types were significantly associated with unprotected sex among low-paying FSWs. Low-paying FSWs are at an alarmingly high risk of HIV infection. HIV prevention programs are urgently needed to address risk factors posit in both individual and contextual levels among this most-at-risk population in order to curb the HIV epidemic in China. PMID:23062062

Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Hong, Yan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei; Stanton, Bonita

2013-01-01

32

Typology of older female sex workers and sexual risk for HIV infection in China: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The HIV epidemic continues to develop among older adults in China, including older female sex workers. Yet, few studies have been conducted among this relatively hidden population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the reasons for women's entry into sex work during their 30s and to develop typology of older women sex workers. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 63 older women sex workers and six focus-group interviews with stakeholders in three cities in China in 2012. Data were analysed inductively using constant comparative method. The mean age of participants was 43 years and the mean age of entry into sex work was 39 years. The primary reasons for entry into sex work included heavy economic burdens, limited employment opportunities and the appealing nature of sex work. Street-based and venue-based older sex workers were identified based on where they solicited clients. Street-based older sex workers were more likely to engage in unsafe commercial sex due to financial incentives, whereas those in entertainment venues were unlikely to use condoms with regular clients. The development of effective HIV interventions needs to consider older women sex worker's unique characteristics and target factors that impede safer-sex practices. PMID:23998493

Hao, Chun; Liu, Hongjie; Sherman, Susan G; Jiang, Baofa; Li, Xiaojing; Xu, Yongfang; Jiang, Zhenxia; Zang, Chunpeng

2014-01-01

33

Posttraumatic stress disorder among female street-based sex workers in the greater Sydney area, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This paper examines rates of exposure to work-related violence and other trauma, and the prevalence of lifetime and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among female street-based sex workers. It also investigates associations between current PTSD symptoms and: demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, injecting and sex risk behaviours, and trauma history. METHODS: Cross sectional data collected from 72 women via face

Amanda Roxburgh; Louisa Degenhardt; Jan Copeland

2006-01-01

34

Transactional sex among women in Soweto, South Africa: prevalence, risk factors and association with HIV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex workers have long been considered a high-risk group for HIV infection, but to date little quantitative research has explored the association between HIV risk and exchange of sex for material gain by women in the general population. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of such transactional sex among women attending antenatal clinics in Soweto, South

Kristin L. Dunkle; Rachel K. Jewkes; Heather C. Brown; Glenda E. Gray; James A. McIntryre

2004-01-01

35

Female Sex Worker Social Networks and STI/HIV Prevention in South China  

PubMed Central

Background Reducing harm associated with selling and purchasing sex is an important public health priority in China, yet there are few examples of sustainable, successful programs to promote sexual health among female sex workers. The limited civil society and scope of nongovernmental organizations circumscribe the local capacity of female sex workers to collectively organize, advocate for their rights, and implement STI/HIV prevention programs. The purpose of this study was to examine social networks among low-income female sex workers in South China to determine their potential for sexual health promotion. Methods/Principal Findings Semi-structured interviews with 34 low-income female sex workers and 28 health outreach members were used to examine how social relationships affected condom use and negotiation, STI/HIV testing and health-seeking behaviors, and dealing with violent clients. These data suggested that sex worker's laoxiang (hometown social connections) were more powerful than relationships between women selling sex at the same venue in establishing the terms and risk of commercial sex. Female sex workers from the same hometown often migrated to the city with their laoxiang and these social connections fulfilled many of the functions of nongovernmental organizations, including collective mobilization, condom promotion, violence mitigation, and promotion of health-seeking behaviors. Outreach members observed that sex workers accompanied by their laoxiang were often more willing to accept STI/HIV testing and trust local sexual health services. Conclusions/Significance Organizing STI/HIV prevention services around an explicitly defined laoxiang social network may provide a strong foundation for sex worker health programs. Further research on dyadic interpersonal relationships between female sex workers, group dynamics and norm establishment, and the social network characteristics are needed. PMID:21931856

Tucker, Joseph D.; Peng, Hua; Wang, Kaidi; Chang, Helena; Zhang, Sen-Miao; Yang, Li-Gang; Yang, Bin

2011-01-01

36

HIV Risk among Adult Sex Workers in the United States  

MedlinePLUS

... Share Compartir HIV Risk among Adult Sex Workers in the United States Fast Facts Few population-based studies have been ... are few population-based studies of sex workers in the United States or globally because sex work is a stigmatized ...

37

Female sex workers as health educators with men who buy sex: Utilising narratives of rationalisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on findings from an ethnographic study of female sex workers who work in the indoor sex markets in a British city. An unexpected finding was the collective narratives that sex workers construct to rationalise their involvement in the sex industry. Fifty-five respondents who took part in in-depth interviews maintained that prostitution is a useful occupation and function

Teela Sanders

2006-01-01

38

Barriers to Health and Social Services for Street-Based Sex Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homelessness, poverty, drug abuse and violent victimization faced by street-based women sex workers create needs for a variety of health and social services, yet simultaneously serve as barriers to accessing these very services. The present study utilized interview (n = 586) and focus group (n = 25) data to examine the service needs and associated barriers to access among women

Steven P. Kurtz; Hilary L. Surratt; Marion C. Kiley; James A. Inciardi

2005-01-01

39

More Than a Sex Machine: Accomplishing Masculinity Among Chinese Male Sex Workers in the Hong Kong Sex Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situated in the masculinity and deviance literature, this article examines a “deviant” masculinity, that of the male sex worker, and presents the ways men who engage in sex work cope with the job. Based on in-depth interviews of Chinese male sex workers (n = 18) in the Hong Kong sex industry, I argue that the stigma management techniques these men employ are

Travis S. K. Kong

2009-01-01

40

“Over here, it’s just drugs, women and all the madness”: The HIV risk environment of clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico  

PubMed Central

HIV vulnerability depends upon social context. Based in broader debates in social epidemiology, political economy, and sociology of health, Rhodes’ (2002) “risk environment” framework provides one heuristic for understanding how contextual features influence HIV risk, through different types of environmental factors (social, economic, policy, and physical) which interact at different levels of influence (micro, macro). Few data are available on the “risk environment” of male clients of female sex workers (FSWs); such men represent a potential “bridge” for transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from high- to low-prevalence populations. Using in-depth interviews (n=30), we describe the HIV risk environment of male clients in Tijuana, Mexico, where disproportionately high HIV prevalence has been reported among FSWs and their clients. A number of environmental themes influence risky sex with FSWs and the interplay between individual agency and structural forces: social isolation and the search for intimacy; meanings and identities ascribed to Tijuana’s Zona Roja (red light district) as a risky place; social relationships in the Zona Roja; and economic roles. Our findings suggest that clients’ behaviors are deeply embedded in the local context. Using the HIV “risk environment” as our analytic lens, we illustrate how clients’ HIV risks are shaped by physical, social, economic, and political factors. The linkages between these and the interplay between structural- and individual-level experiences support theories that view structure as both enabling as well as constraining. We discuss how the “embeddedness” of clients’ experiences warrants the use of environmental interventions that address the circumstances contributing to HIV risk at multiple levels. PMID:21414702

Goldenberg, Shira; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Gallardo, Manuel; Rhodes, Tim; Wagner, Karla D.; Patterson, Thomas L.

2011-01-01

41

Alcohol consumption and high risk sexual behaviour among female sex workers in Uganda.  

PubMed

Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of Kampala city. We conducted 3 in-depth interviews with 40 female sex workers between 2010 and 2011. Data were analysed thematically, focusing on alcohol use within the context of sex work. Alcohol consumption was very high with only seven women reporting that they did not drink. Alcohol consumption was driven by the emotional and economic needs of the participants, but also promoted by clients who encouraged consumption. Many sex workers only started drinking alcohol when they joined sex work on the advice of more experienced peers, as a way to cope with the job. Alcohol was blamed for unsafe sex, acts of violence and poor decision making which increased sexual and physical violence. Alcohol was reported to affect medication adherence for HIV-positive women who forgot to take medicine. The findings suggest that the drivers of alcohol consumption are multifaceted in this group and require both individual and structural interventions. Alcohol reduction counselling can be supportive at the individual level and should be an integral part of HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers and others such as patrons in bars. The counselling should be addressed in a sensitive manner to bar owners and managers. PMID:25174631

Mbonye, Martin; Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Weiss, Helen; Seeley, Janet

2014-01-01

42

Beyond Compassion: Children of Sex Workers in Kolkata's Sonagachi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, children of sex workers from Kolkata's Sonagachi red-light district formed their own collective, Amra Padatik ("We are Foot Soldiers"), to work for gaining dignity for their mothers and claiming their own rights as children of sex workers. In this article the authors speak to AP's founder members to demystify the culture of fear…

Sircar, Oishik; Dutta, Debolina

2011-01-01

43

Sex workers and the control of sexually transmitted disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To describe and assess measures to control sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among sex workers and their partners. METHODS: A review of medical, historical and social literature, focusing on selected cases. RESULTS: Measures to control disease in sex workers today are often prompted by concerns about HIV transmission. However, the literature shows that prostitution varies from one place and time

S Day; H Ward

1997-01-01

44

Cervical HPV Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Global Perspective  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Approximately 291 million women worldwide are HPV DNA carriers. Studies have indicated that having multiple sexual partners may lead to higher HPV transmission. Thus female sex workers (FSWs) may be at greater risk of infection compared to the general population. Herein we review publications with data on FSW cervical HPV test results. We also examine variations of HPV prevalence and risk behaviors by region. Knowledge of prevalent HPV types in FSWs may lead to improved prevention measures and assist in understanding vaccination in high-risk groups. Methods: We conducted a review of the literature by searching PUBMED using the terms “prostitution” or “female sex workers”, “human papillomavirus” or “HPV”, and “prevalence” or “PCR” to find articles. We excluded studies without HPV testing or HPV type specific results, or unconventional HPV testing. Results: A total of 35 peer-reviewed publications were included in our review. High risk HPV types 16 and 18 ranged from 1.1-38.9‰ in prevalence. In addition to high-risk HPV types, newer studies reported non-carcinogenic HPV types also of high prevalence. The most prevalent HPV types reported among FSWs included HPV 6 (11.5%), 16 (38.9%), 18 (23.1%), 31 (28.4%), 52 (32.7%), and 58 (26.0%). Conclusions: Female sex workers have an overall high prevalence of HPV infection of high-risk types as evident through various testing methods. FSWs are thought to be at increased risk of cervical cancer because of high HPV exposure. This highlights the need for HPV and cervical prevention campaigns tailored to FSWs. PMID:24511334

Soohoo, Melissa; Blas, Magaly; Byraiah, Gita; Carcamo, Cesar; Brown, Brandon

2013-01-01

45

Sex with sex workers among latino day laborers in Suburban Maryland.  

PubMed

Using the structural-environmental conceptual framework, this study employed mixed methods to address the question of whether sex with female sex workers contributes to HIV risk among male immigrant Latino day laborers in suburban Maryland. Because contextual factors can greatly affect HIV risk for both sex workers and their clients, this study investigated the organizational structure of sex work, factors that predicted men's hiring of sex workers, sexual behaviors performed with sex workers, and the use of condoms. Qualitative research was conducted to inform the development of a quantitative survey, but also provided crucial descriptions about the motivations, locations, arrangements, and sexual activities related to sex work. Key informant interviews (N = 10), in-depth interviews with day laborers (N = 10) and Latina female sex workers (N = 4), and two focus groups with day laborers (N = 11) were conducted, and a quantitative survey administered via Audio-enhanced Computer-assisted Self-interviewing (N = 174). Condom use was nearly universal in encounters with female sex workers, thus indicating that the sex workers were not an important source of HIV transmission in this context. Logistic regression was performed to test a model predicting sex with sex workers. Latino day laborers who reported more immigrant stress and who did not have a partner in the U.S. were more likely to have had sex with a sex worker, as were men who reported binge drinking. Structural and social conditions influenced the hiring of sex workers. Further research is warranted to better understand the interrelationships among these circumstances and to inform the development of programs to address them. PMID:23070528

Bianchi, Fernanda T; Reisen, Carol A; Gonzales, Felisa A; Arroyo, Juan C; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J

2013-07-01

46

Condom use, power and HIV\\/AIDS risk: sex-workers bargain for survival in Hillbrow\\/Joubert Park\\/Berea, Johannesburg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through interviews with 50 female sex-workers in the Hillbrow\\/Berea\\/Joubert Park area of Johannesburg, this paper explores sexual negotiations between men and women in the sex industry. This paper focuses on factors that affect sexual decision-making including safer sex practices. In moving beyond approaches that emphasize women's ‘powerlessness’ in sexual negotiation, this article focuses on ways in which sex-workers capitalize on

Janet Maia Wojcicki; Josephine Malala

2001-01-01

47

A Qualitative Exploration of Barriers to Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in China  

PubMed Central

Background Sex workers in China continue to engage in unprotected sex acts that put them at risk for contracting HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and other STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections). The purpose of this study was to explore women’s work history, the context of sex work, condom use, HIV testing services, and potential barriers to condom use in a sample of FSWs (female sex workers) in Guangzhou, China. Methodology/Principal Findings In-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 FSWs in Guangzhou, China. Informants were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using NVivo 8.0. The majority of respondents were internal economic migrants who had entered the sex industry in pursuit of greater financial reward. Most women in the study were married or had steady boyfriends, and were young, with secondary education and limited knowledge about HIV and STIs. Most were not satisfied with their current living conditions and expressed a desire to leave the sex industry. Women reported that they were more likely to use condoms during sex acts with commercial partners than with non-commercial partners. The potential stigma of being seen as a sex worker prevented many from accessing HIV testing. Three key factors put these FSWs at risk for HIV and STIs: unreasonable trust toward clients, stereotypes and assumptions about customers, and financial incentives. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that social and economic factors play an important role in shaping sexual decision-making among female sex workers in Guangzhou. We argue that greater insight into and attention to these factors could enhance the success of HIV prevention efforts. PMID:23056452

Ciyong, Lu; Hui, Wang; Lingyao, Hong; Xueqing, Deng

2012-01-01

48

Social and structural violence and power relations in mitigating HIV risk of drug-using women in survival sex work  

Microsoft Academic Search

High rates of violence among street-level sex workers have been described across the globe, while in cities across Canada the disappearance and victimization of drug-using women in survival sex work is ongoing. Given the pervasive levels of violence faced by sex workers over the last decades, and extensive harm reduction and HIV prevention efforts operating in Vancouver, Canada, this research

Kate Shannon; Thomas Kerr; Shari Allinott; Jill Chettiar; Jean Shoveller; Mark W. Tyndall

2008-01-01

49

The Life of Trafficked Sex Workers From the Former Eastern Bloc: The Canadian Dimension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Canada has become a preferred destination for human smuggling and trafficking, human trafficking represents a topic that is long on media discussion and short on rigorous academic research. Consequently, little is known about women trafficked to Canada. We carried out interviews with 50 persons, including 20 female sex workers, 15 agency personnel, and 15 key informants to better understand

Lynn Mcdonald; Natalya Timoshkina

2007-01-01

50

From violence to sex work: agency, escaping violence, and HIV risk among establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.  

PubMed

Violence experienced by female sex workers has been found to affect the HIV risk and quality of life of these women. Research on this topic has dealt with female sex workers and current experiences of violence with partners, clients, and in the workplace. In this study, we used feminist constructivist grounded theory to explore perceptions of violence among establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico. A key concept that emerged from 20 semi-structured in-depth interviews was "escaping violence with a romantic partner by becoming independent through sex work." The women also emphasized the negative impact of violence in the workplace but felt that achieving separation from a violent partner gave them strength to protect their lives and health. Interventions to help these women protect themselves from HIV infection and improve their quality of life should aim to build upon their strengths and the agency they have already achieved. PMID:23790279

Choudhury, Shonali M; Anglade, Debbie; Park, Kyuwon

2013-01-01

51

United States: Funding restrictions threaten sex workers' rights.  

PubMed

Recent developments concerning the US government's restrictive policies on HIV/AIDS funding have drawn attention to how the government's mandatory "anti-prostitution pledge" endangers the lives of sex workers and trafficking victims. PMID:16365969

Schleifer, Rebecca

2005-08-01

52

"One country, two systems": Sociopolitical implications for female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

Background Under the "two countries, one system" policy implemented by China to manage the return of Hong Kong's sovereignty, Hong Kong has maintained a comparatively prosperous economy within the Asian region. This has resulted in an environment which fosters migration from the mainland to Hong Kong, due largely to proximity, higher earning potential, common language, and a relaxing of border control measures. However not all mainland China citizens are equally able to access these new migration schemes and indeed a number of women such as sex workers are either migrating and/or working illegally and without occupational, legal and health protection within Hong Kong. Discussion Female migrant sex workers are exposed to a number of significant threats to their health, however their illegal status contributes to even greater vulnerability. The prevailing discourses which view these women as either "trafficked women" or as "illegal immigrants" do not adequately account for the complex situations which result in such women's employment in Hong Kong's sex industry. Rather, their position can best be understood within the broader frameworks provided by migration literature and the concept of "structural violence". This allows for a greater understanding of the socio-political issues which are systematically denying migrant sex workers adequate access to health care and other opportunities for social advancement. When these issues are taken into account, it becomes clear that the current relevant legislation regarding both immigration and sex work is perpetuating the marginalised and vulnerable status of migrant sex workers. Unless changes are made, structural barriers will remain in place which impede the ability of migrant sex workers to manage their own health needs and status. Conclusion Female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong are extremely vulnerable to a number of occupational health and safety hazards which have significantly detrimental effects on their health. These risks can best be understood within a broad framework of socio-political factors contributing to their vulnerability. Ensuring that migrant sex workers have adequate support for their health and legal rights requires require structural interventions such as decriminalisation and providing open and inclusive access to health service to counteract such factors. PMID:19077260

Wong, William CW; Holroyd, Eleanor; Chan, Emily Y; Griffiths, Sian; Bingham, Amie

2008-01-01

53

Sex workers and the cost of safe sex: the compensating differential for condom use among Calcutta prostitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anecdotal evidence suggests that sex workers who use condoms face large income losses because clients have a preference for condom-free sex. This has important implications for AIDS policy. We estimate the compensating differential for condom use employing data from a random sample of sex workers in Calcutta. We rely on a natural experiment—the nonsystematic placement of sex workers in a

Vijayendra Rao; Indrani Gupta; Michael Lokshin; Smarajit Jana

2003-01-01

54

Circumstances, experiences and processes surrounding women's entry into sex work in India.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that in India, the early stages of a woman's career as a sex worker may be an important period to target for HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention. Before such an intervention is designed and implemented, it is necessary to first understand the life circumstances of women at the start of their sex work careers. We performed a review to bring together available literature pertaining to entry into sex work in India and to highlight knowledge gaps. We found that historical traditions of dedication into sex work, financial insecurity, family discord, violence and coercion, and desire for financial independence are commonly reported reasons for entering into sex work. We also found that families and the broader sex worker community play an important role in the early stages of a woman's sex work career. We suggest that HIV-prevention programmes in India would substantially benefit from a deeper understanding of the life circumstances of new and young women sex workers. Further research should be conducted focusing on family and community involvement in women's entry into sex work, and on the important period of time after a woman's first commercial sex encounter, but before self-identification as a sex worker. PMID:24236895

McClarty, Leigh M; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Blanchard, James F; Lorway, Robert R; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Mishra, Sharmistha; Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, B M; Washington, Reynold; Moses, Stephen; Becker, Marissa L

2014-01-01

55

Sex-role orientation among incarcerated women.  

PubMed

This study of 120 women inmates of a state prison showed that sex-role orientation was related to the type of offence committed by women but, contrary to the hypothesis about the "new" female offender, violent offenders were more traditionally feminine than financial and drug-related offenders. Drug offenders had high rates of undifferentiated ratings. Women became more traditionally masculine or feminine with length of incarceration. Women who had children were more likely to score as traditionally feminine. PMID:8873792

Trice, A D; Lamb, M

1996-08-01

56

Sex Discrimination and Women's Labor Market Interruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human capital explanation of sex differences in wages is that women intend to work in the labor market more intermittently than men, and therefore invest less. This lower investment leads to lower wages and wage growth. The alternative \\

David Neumark

1993-01-01

57

Sex Discrimination and Women's Labor Market Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human capital explanation of sex differences in wages is that, owing to specialization in household production, women intend to work in the labor market more intermittently than men, and therefore invest less, leading to lower wage growth. An alternative \\

David Neumark; Michele McLennan

1995-01-01

58

AIDS and STD knowledge, condom use and HIV\\/STD infection among female sex workers in Bali, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this paper were to examine changes in AIDS\\/STD knowledge and behaviour from 1992-1998, current levels of STD infection and psychosocial and demographic determinants of condom use and STD infection among female sex workers. Data for the study were drawn from cross-sectional surveys of female sex workers conducted in 1994 and 1997-8. For each survey, women participated in

K. Ford; D. N. Wirawan; B. D. Reed; P. Muliawan; M. Sutarga

2000-01-01

59

Barriers to health and social services for street-based sex workers.  

PubMed

Homelessness, poverty, drug abuse and violent victimization faced by street-based women sex workers create needs for a variety of health and social services, yet simultaneously serve as barriers to accessing these very services. The present study utilized interview (n = 586) and focus group (n = 25) data to examine the service needs and associated barriers to access among women sex workers in Miami, Florida. Women most often reported acute service needs for shelter, fresh water, transportation, crisis intervention, and drug detoxification, as well as long-term needs for mental and physical health care, drug treatment, and legal and employment services. Barriers included both structural (e.g., program target population, travel costs, office hours, and social stigma) and individual (e.g., drug use, mental stability, and fear) factors. Bridging these gaps is tremendously important from a public health perspective given the disease burden among this population. Recommendations include service staff training, outreach, and promising research directions. PMID:15937397

Kurtz, Steven P; Surratt, Hilary L; Kiley, Marion C; Inciardi, James A

2005-05-01

60

Truck drivers, middlemen and commercial sex workers: AIDS and the mediation of sex in south west Uganda.  

PubMed

Although long distance truck drivers have been implicated in the spread of HIV in Africa, there is a paucity of studies of their sexual cultures. This paper reports on a study of the sexual culture of drivers, mediators and commercial sex workers (CSWs) in a roadside truck stop on the Trans-Africa highway in south west Uganda. Sixty-nine truck drivers, six middlemen and 12 CSWs were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Interviewing truck drivers also entailed participating in the town's nightlife and spending much time in the bars. Truck drivers stop briefly at the truck stop for various reasons: to eat, sleep, have sex and sell goods they are carrying. Middlemen mediate the latter two activities. Middlemen buy goods from the drivers and introduce them to 'suitable' women with whom they can have casual sex. Most drivers have sex when they spend the night at the truck stop, and most make use of the services of the middlemen. The most important reasons why drivers use middlemen are that the latter speak the local languages and, in particular, know the trustworthy and 'safe' (HIV-negative) women. The CSWs use middlemen mainly because they are a guarantee that the driver will pay and they usually ensure that drivers pay well. The mediation system is becoming increasingly professionalized. Most drivers claimed to use condoms during casual sex, and this was confirmed by the CSWs. General use of condoms is encouraging, particularly given the context of a culture generally opposed to condoms. The idea that middlemen can recognize 'safe' women is worrying. However, given their key position, middlemen could form the hub of an opinion leader type intervention focused on drivers and the professional group of sex workers described here, providing condoms, advising about the importance of condom use in all casual sexual encounters, giving information about HIV and STDs, and possibly referring drivers and women to appropriate sources of HIV counselling and testing and STD treatment. PMID:11397339

Gysels, M; Pool, R; Bwanika, K

2001-06-01

61

Women who sell sex in a Ugandan trading town: life histories, survival strategies and risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the background of commercial sex workers in Africa. This study investigated how women in a trading town on the trans-Africa highway in southwest Uganda become involved in commercial sex work, which factors contribute to their economic success or lack of success, and what effect life trajectories and economic success have on negotiating power and risk behaviour.

Marjolein Gysels; Robert Pool; Betty Nnalusiba

2002-01-01

62

Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls  

PubMed Central

Sex trafficking involves some form of forced or coerced sexual exploitation that is not limited to prostitution, and has become a significant and growing problem in both the United States and the larger global community. The costs to society include the degradation of human and women’s rights, poor public health, disrupted communities, and diminished social development. Victims of sex trafficking acquire adverse physical and psychological health conditions and social disadvantages. Thus, sex trafficking is a critical health issue with broader social implications that requires both medical and legal attention. Healthcare professionals can work to improve the screening, identification, and assistance of victims of sex trafficking in a clinical setting and help these women and girls access legal and social services. PMID:23687554

Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M

2013-01-01

63

Stigma and sex work from the perspective of female sex workers in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

While the stigma surrounding sex work is both well documented and easily recognised, few studies examine stigma in this context from the perspective of the sex workers themselves. In this article we report on a study using a modified grounded theory approach to analyse a series of semi-structured interviews with 49 female sex workers in Hong Kong, in order to examine the ways in which this group experiences and negotiates the stigma which arises from their employment in the sex industry. Sex workers in Hong Kong were subject to various stigmatising forces in their daily lives in their interactions with the public, the police and their families. These processes could have a negative impact on the sex workers' health, both through obvious manifestations such as physical or verbal abuse and through more subtle processes such as those which generated or perpetuated vulnerability and those which compelled the sex workers to conceal their identities and withdraw themselves from social networks. These findings are situated in the context of broader research surrounding sex work, drawing attention to the consequences of stigma on health and their interaction with health-service providers, before briefly discussing possible means of overcoming stigma-related barriers to providing adequate healthcare for this marginalised group. PMID:21226729

Wong, William C W; Holroyd, Eleanor; Bingham, Amie

2011-01-01

64

Sex, Charades, and Census Records: Locating Female Sex Trade Workers in a Victorian City  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Prostitution was a prominent issue in Canada during the late nineteenth century. In many Canadian cities, female sex-trade workers resided in brothels located in so-called red-light districts. Although they were enumerated in every decennial census, sex-trade workers have been overlooked by historical demographers, urban geographers, and census historians because they used euphemisms such as dressmaker to disguise their occupation. Using

Patrick A. Dunae

2009-01-01

65

Sex, Charades, and Census Records: Locating Female Sex Trade Workers in a Victorian City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostitution was a prominent issue in Canada during the late nineteenth century. In many Canadian cities, female sex-trade workers resided in brothels located in so-called red-light districts. Although they were enumerated in every decennial census, sex-trade workers have been overlooked by historical demographers, urban geographers, and census historians because they used euphemisms such as dressmaker to disguise their occupation. Using

Patrick A. Dunae

2009-01-01

66

Symbolic capital and health: the case of women's sex work in Antananarivo, Madagascar.  

PubMed

Public health research on sex work has been criticized both for representing sex work as a monolithic entity and for focusing only on individual behavioral determinants of health. When broader determinants are acknowledged, they are often described in solely economic terms (ie, comparing health risks of higher class versus lower class sex workers). Drawing from Pierre Bourdieu, I describe women's sex work in Antananarivo, Madagascar as a social 'field' and demonstrate that this field is both highly complex and highly structured. Fourteen months of ethnographic fieldwork (December 2002-December 2003; May-June 2004) in Antananarivo with women sex workers (n approximately 60) and community members (n approximately 85) informed a description of the community's understanding of the sex work field and its contrast to the lived experience of key informant sex workers. Women who sell sex were categorized by their communities into three social positions--ambony (high), antonony (middle) and ambany (low)--which were differentiated by economic capital (earnings per sexual exchange) and symbolic capital (prestige associated with race, ethnicity and moral demeanor). Women who occupied the antonony social position held the greatest volumes of symbolic capital both because they were identified as belonging to the local dominant ethnic group, and because they demonstrated discretion and shame in their sex work practice. Alternatively, women who occupied the ambony and ambany positions openly practiced their sex work and were associated with ethnic or racial minority identities, contributing to their lower volumes of symbolic capital. Symbolic capital influenced unique health vulnerabilities, such as to sexually transmitted disease, by social position through mechanisms operating from the institutional to the interpersonal level. This analysis illustrates the value of examining sex work as a social field, specifically the importance of capturing more than economic capital in order to understand sex workers' unique health vulnerabilities and concerns. PMID:19362403

Stoebenau, Kirsten

2009-06-01

67

The Price of Sex: Condom Use and the Determinants of the Price of Sex Among Female Sex Workers in Eastern Zimbabwe  

PubMed Central

Background.?Higher prices for unprotected sex threaten the high levels of condom use that contributed to the decline in Zimbabwe's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. To improve understanding of financial pressures competing against safer sex, we explore factors associated with the price of commercial sex in rural eastern Zimbabwe. Methods.?We collected and analyzed cross-sectional data on 311 women, recruited during October–December 2010, who reported that they received payment for their most-recent or second-most-recent sex acts in the past year. Zero-inflated negative binomial models with robust standard errors clustered on female sex worker (FSW) were used to explore social and behavioral determinants of price. Results.?The median price of sex was $10 (interquartile range [IQR], $5–$20) per night and $10 (IQR, $5–$15) per act. Amounts paid in cash and commodities did not differ significantly. At the most-recent sex act, more-educated FSWs received 30%–74% higher payments. Client requests for condom use significantly predicted protected sex (P < .01), but clients paid on average 42.9% more for unprotected sex. Conclusions.?Within a work environment where clients' preferences determine condom use, FSWs effectively use their individual capital to negotiate the terms of condom use. Strengthening FSWs' preferences for protected sex could help maintain high levels of condom use. PMID:25381377

Elmes, Jocelyn; Nhongo, Kundai; Ward, Helen; Hallett, Timothy; Nyamukapa, Constance; White, Peter J.; Gregson, Simon

2014-01-01

68

Sexually transmitted infections in women who have sex with women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To describe the prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STIs) in a sample of women who have sex with women (WSW) and to identify risk factors for the acquisition of STI.Method: Cross sectional survey. Questionnaire for demographic, sexual history, and sexual practice data linked with the results of genitourinary examination. 708 new patients attending two sexual health clinics for lesbians

J V Bailey; C Farquhar; C Owen; P Mangtani

2004-01-01

69

Personality Characteristics of Male Clients of Female Commercial Sex Workers in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The personality characteristics of male clients of female sex workers and their motivations for seeking the services of sex workers were examined. It was hypothesized that clients of sex workers would differ from nonclients in that they would adopt less feminine sex roles, exhibit lower social–sexual effectiveness, and show higher levels of sensation-seeking behavior. Sixty-six clients of sex workers and

Luke Xantidis; Marita P. McCabe

2000-01-01

70

Exploring the impact of underage sex work among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities  

PubMed Central

Although sex work and younger age increase HIV vulnerability, empirical data regarding the impacts of underage sex work are lacking. We explored associations between features of the risk environment, sex work and drug use history, and underage sex work entry among 624 female sex workers(FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Forty-one percent (n=253) of women began sex work as minors, among whom HIV and any STI/HIV prevalence were 5.2% and 60.7%. Factors independently associated with increased odds of underage sex work were inhalants as the first drug used, forced first injection, number of drug treatment attempts, and recent receptive syringe-sharing. Number of recent condom negotiation attempts with steady partners and depression as a reason for first injecting were negatively associated with underage entry. These results underscore the importance of efforts to prevent underage sex work and the wider factors contributing to HIV risk among vulnerable youth and underage FSWs. PMID:22012147

Goldenberg, Shira M; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Patterson, Thomas L; Abramovitz, Daniela; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Strathdee, Steffanie A

2011-01-01

71

Anal sex, vaginal sex and HIV risk among female sex workers in Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

Female sex workers (FSW) are considered one of the key affected populations in Papua New Guinea at risk of acquiring HIV. An integrated bio-behavioral survey of sex workers in Port Moresby was conducted to determine the nature and extent of this risk. About half (51.1 %) of the 411 FSW who reported having any sexual intercourse with clients had engaged in both anal and vaginal intercourse with clients in the last 6 months. In spite of having poorer HIV knowledge (OR95 % CI = 0.14-0.34), FSW who had anal intercourse with clients were significantly more likely to have used a condom at the last vaginal intercourse with a client (OR95 % CI = 1.04-2.87). Similarly, FSW who had anal intercourse with regular and casual partners were significantly more likely to have used a condom at the last vaginal intercourse. Those who engaged in both anal and vaginal intercourse with clients had similar condom use for both vaginal and anal intercourse, with the majority (78.1 %) using a condom at the last occasion for both vaginal and anal intercourse. These FSW may have different risk and protective factors that affect their use of condom during sexual intercourse. Further research is needed to investigate this difference between those who practice anal intercourse and those who do not in order to provide evidence for better programming. PMID:24264727

Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Rawstorne, Patrick; Kupul, Martha; Worth, Heather; Shih, Patti; Man, Wing Young Nicola

2014-03-01

72

Sex trafficking of women and girls.  

PubMed

Sex trafficking involves some form of forced or coerced sexual exploitation that is not limited to prostitution, and has become a significant and growing problem in both the United States and the larger global community. The costs to society include the degradation of human and women's rights, poor public health, disrupted communities, and diminished social development. Victims of sex trafficking acquire adverse physical and psychological health conditions and social disadvantages. Thus, sex trafficking is a critical health issue with broader social implications that requires both medical and legal attention. Healthcare professionals can work to improve the screening, identification, and assistance of victims of sex trafficking in a clinical setting and help these women and girls access legal and social services. PMID:23687554

Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M

2013-01-01

73

Empowering sex workers in India to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sonagachi Project was initiated in Kolkata, India in 1992 as a STD\\/HIV intervention for sex workers. The project evolved to adopt strategies common to women's empowerment programs globally (i.e., community mobilization, rights-based framing, advocacy, micro-finance) to address common factors that support effective, evidence-based HIV\\/STD prevention. The Sonagachi model is now a broadly diffused evidence-based empowerment program.We previously demonstrated significant

Dallas Swendeman; Ishika Basu; Sankari Das; Smarajit Jana; Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus

2009-01-01

74

Women, Sex and Modern Society: The Sex Lives of Readers of a Dutch Women's Magazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency to which heterosexual women engage in a range of sexual activities, such as sexual fantasizing and engaging in cybersex, and to examine women's level of satisfaction with their sex lives. In addition, we explored the role of age in women's sexual activities and satisfaction levels. A total of 4,470 heterosexual

Pieternel Dijkstra; Dick P. H. Barelds

2011-01-01

75

Drug use among female sex workers in Hanoi, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To describe the drug use practices among female sex workers (FSWs) in Hanoi and to identify factors associated with their drug injecting. Design, setting and particicipants A two-stage cluster survey of 400 FSWs was conducted from June to September, 2002. Participating FSWs were both establishment- (160) and street-based (240), who were practising in seven urban and one suburban districts

Trung Nam Tran; Roger Detels; Hoang Thuy Long; Hoang Phuong Lan

2005-01-01

76

Sex trade workers’ narratives of sexual violence: A field investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 119 sex trade workers were interviewed about sexually violent experiences. Up to three narratives were elicited: a remarkable, positive (control) event (POS), a well-remembered sexual assault (WELL), and a poorly recalled sexual assault (POOR). The results demonstrated that WELL narratives contained more details than POS narratives despite the fact that the respective experiences were older. WELL narratives

Dorothee Griesel; John C. Yuille

2012-01-01

77

Sex trade workers' narratives of sexual violence: A field investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 119 sex trade workers were interviewed about sexually violent experiences. Up to three narratives were elicited: a remarkable, positive (control) event (POS), a well-remembered sexual assault (WELL), and a poorly recalled sexual assault (POOR). The results demonstrated that WELL narratives contained more details than POS narratives despite the fact that the respective experiences were older. WELL narratives

Dorothee Griesel; John C. Yuille

2012-01-01

78

AIDS/other STIs prevention in China: the effect of sex worker migration and the organization of the sex industry.  

PubMed

HIV/AIDS prevention projects that pay special attention to the socio-cultural context of a community have been implemented in a number of Asian and African countries recently. Such projects integrate scientific approaches, such as condom promotion, with cultural approaches that focus on regional social norms. This paper explores effective intervention strategies in the context of sex workers' mobility patterns, and the sex industry's internal organization in China. It argues that a social network based on quasi-familial relations and regional ties recruits young women into the business, helps them move vertically as well as horizontally within the business, and facilitates the smooth operation of the business. A sound understanding of the specific characteristics of sex work in China, therefore, is instrumental in formulating effective intervention tactics. PMID:23514622

Zhuang, Kongshao; McQuaide, Shiling

2013-04-01

79

Dyspareunia: Painful Sex for Women  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Dyspareunia Overview What is dyspareunia? Dyspareunia (say: "dis-par-oon-ya") is painful sexual intercourse for women. The pain can be in the genital area or deep inside the pelvis. The pain is often described as sharp, burning or similar to menstrual cramps. It can have ...

80

Assessment of Respondent Driven Sampling for Recruiting Female Sex Workers in Two Vietnamese Cities: Reaching the Unseen Sex Worker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respondent driven sampling (RDS) is a relatively new method to sample hard-to-reach populations. Until this study, female sex workers (FSWs) in Vietnam were sampled using a variety of methods, including time location sampling (TLS), which may not access the more hidden types of FSWs. This paper presents an analysis from an HIV biological and behavioral surveillance survey to assess the

Lisa Grazina; Keith Sabin Johnston; Mai Thu Hien; Pham Thi Huong

81

‘She's a professional like anyone else’: social identity among Brazilian sex workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community mobilisation among sex workers is recognised as an important HIV\\/STI prevention strategy. However, factors such as poverty and stigma often negatively influence participation in activities that attempt to mobilise around a common identity of ‘sex workers’. A qualitative study was conducted to explore the relationship between social identity and participation among 24 sex workers enrolled in an HIV\\/STI prevention

Laura R. Murray; Sheri A. Lippman; Angela A. Donini; Deanna Kerrigan

2010-01-01

82

Occupational hazards and coping strategies of sex workers in southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The researcher investigated occupational hazards of sex work and determined coping strategies adopted by female sex workers in Nigeria. Participants were 112 female sex workers selected from three urban towns in southwestern Nigeria. An instrument titled "Questionnaire on Sex Work" adapted from Akinnawo ( 1995 ) was administered to collect information on factors influencing the growth of the sex industry, occupational hazards in the industry, and coping mechanisms adopted by sex workers. It was found that the majority of sex workers joined the profession for socioeconomic reasons. Reported occupational hazards include poor health, risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), police harassment, and loss of social prestige. PMID:23311907

Popoola, Bayode Isaiah

2013-01-01

83

"You are wasting our drugs": health service barriers to HIV treatment for sex workers in Zimbabwe  

PubMed Central

Background Although disproportionately affected by HIV, sex workers (SWs) remain neglected by efforts to expand access to antiretroviral treatment (ART). In Zimbabwe, despite the existence of well-attended services targeted to female SWs, fewer than half of women diagnosed with HIV took up referrals for assessment and ART initiation; just 14% attended more than one appointment. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the reasons for non-attendance and the high rate of attrition. Methods Three focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted in Harare with HIV-positive SWs referred from the ‘Sisters with a Voice’ programme to a public HIV clinic for ART eligibility screening and enrolment. Focus groups explored SWs’ experiences and perceptions of seeking care, with a focus on how managing HIV interacted with challenges specific to being a sex worker. FGD transcripts were analyzed by identifying emerging and recurring themes that were specifically related to interactions with health services and how these affected decision-making around HIV treatment uptake and retention in care. Results SWs emphasised supply-side barriers, such as being demeaned and humiliated by health workers, reflecting broader social stigma surrounding their work. Sex workers were particularly sensitive to being identified and belittled within the health care environment. Demand-side barriers also featured, including competing time commitments and costs of transport and some treatment, reflecting SWs’ marginalised socio-economic position. Conclusion Improving treatment access for SWs is critical for their own health, programme equity, and public health benefit. Programmes working to reduce SW attrition from HIV care need to proactively address the quality and environment of public services. Sensitising health workers through specialised training, refining referral systems from sex-worker friendly clinics into the national system, and providing opportunities for SW to collectively organise for improved treatment and rights might help alleviate the barriers to treatment initiation and attention currently faced by SW. PMID:23898942

2013-01-01

84

Individual, Interpersonal, and Social-Structural Correlates of Involuntary Sex Exchange Among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate individual, interpersonal, and social-structural factors associated with involuntary sex exchange among female sex workers (FSWs) along the Mexico–U.S. border. Methods In 2010–2011, 214 FSWs from Tijuana (n=106) and Ciudad Juarez (n=108) aged ?18 who reported lifetime use of heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine, having a stable partner, and having sold/traded sex in the past month completed quantitative surveys and HIV/STI testing. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of involuntary sex exchange among FSWs. Results Of 214 FSWs, 31 (14.5%) reported involuntary sex exchange. These women were younger at sex work entry (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.84/1 year increase, 95% CI: 0.72–0.97) and were significantly more likely to service clients whom they perceived to be HIV/STI-infected (AOR: 12.41, 95% CI: 3.15–48.91). Additionally, they were more likely to have clients who used drugs (AOR: 7.88, 95% CI: 1.52–41.00), report poor working conditions (AOR: 3.27, 95% CI: 1.03–10.31), and report a history of rape (AOR: 4.46, 1.43–13.91).] Conclusions Involuntary sex exchange is disproportionate among FSWs who begin to exchange sex at a younger age, and these women experience elevated risk of violence and HIV/STIs related to their clients’ behaviors and their working conditions. These data suggest the critical need for evidence-based approaches to preventing sexual exploitation of women and girls and to reducing harm among current sex workers. Multi-level interventions for sex workers and their clients that target interpersonal and social-structural risks (e.g., measures to improve safety and reduce exploitation within the workplace) are needed. PMID:23614997

Goldenberg, S.M.; Rangel, G.; Staines, H.; Vera, A.; Lozada, R.; Nguyen, L.; Silverman, J.G.; Strathdee, S.A.

2013-01-01

85

Genital ulcers associated with human immunodeficiency virus-related immunosuppression in female sex workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study among female sex workers in Abidjan was conducted to study the association between sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and HIV-related immunosuppression. Among 1209 women tested for HIV, 962 (80%) were seropositive. HIV infection was independently associated with a longer duration of sex work, a lower price for intercourse, being an immigrant, and having a positive Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (P < .05). Genital ulcers (25% vs. 5%), genital warts (14% vs. 4%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (32% vs. 16%), Trichomonas vaginalis (27% vs. 17%), and syphilis (27% vs. 17%) were more frequent (P < .05) in HIV-infected than -uninfected women. Among HIV-infected women, the proportions with a genital ulcer were 17%, 25%, and 36% for those with > 28%, 14%-28%, and < 14% CD4 cells, respectively (P < .001). This study suggests that genital ulcers are an opportunistic disease in female sex workers in Abidjan. PMID:7594681

Ghys, P D; Diallo, M O; Ettiègne-Traoré, V; Yeboué, K M; Gnaoré, E; Lorougnon, F; Kalé, K; Van Dyck, E; Brettegaard, K; Hoyi, Y M

1995-11-01

86

Commercial sex venues, syphilis and methamphetamine use among female sex workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with methamphetamine (MA) use, syphilis, and unprotected sex among female sex workers from different type of venues in Qingdao City, Shandong Province of China. Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys provided information on demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, and HIV-related services. Of 1187 participants, 3.0% were infected with syphilis; 30.2%

Dianming Kang; Meizhen Liao; Zhenxia Jiang; Xijiang Zhang; Wenwen Mao; Ning Zhang; Xiaorun Tao; Tao Huang; Zhenqiang Bi; Muktar Aliyu; Pingsheng Wu; Baofa Jiang; Yujiang Jia

2011-01-01

87

HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Sex Workers in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, in 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the preva- lence and risk factors of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, in 2002. Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among FSWs presenting for the first time at the STI clinic of Matonge, Kinshasa. The women

Judith M. Vandepitte; Faustin Malele; Samuel Edidi; Said Abdellati; Joelle Kabamba; Catherine Van Overloop

2007-01-01

88

Contraceptive practices, sexual and reproductive health needs of HIV-positive and negative female sex workers in Goa, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesIn India, female sex workers (FSWs), suffer from high HIV prevalence and abortions. Contraceptive use among general population women is well understood. However, FSWs contraceptives practices and reproductive health needs are under-researched. We investigated contraceptive practices among HIV-positive and negative FSWs in Goa, India and explored its association with socio-demographic and sex work related factors.MethodsCross-sectional study using respondent driven sampling

Sonali Wayal; Frances Cowan; Pamela Warner; Andrew Copas; David Mabey; Maryam Shahmanesh

2010-01-01

89

Intravaginal practices among female sex workers in Kibera, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo assess vaginal cleansing and lubricant use among female sex workers (FSW) in Kenya participating in a 6-month, prospective study of the acceptability of the use of the diaphragm.MethodsThe study is based on 140 FSW in Nairobi, who completed 140 baseline visits and 390 bi-monthly follow-up visits. Participants were instructed to wear the diaphragm for all coital acts during follow-up

Maria F Gallo; Anjali Sharma; Elizabeth A Bukusi; Betty Njoroge; Rosemary Nguti; Denise J Jamieson; April J Bell; David A Eschenbach

2010-01-01

90

Myths About Black Women Workers in Modern America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A systematic examination and debunking of three myths surrounding black women workers: (1) black women have better jobs than black men, (2) black women and white men are the most successful groups in U.S. society, and (3) black women do most of the work because they are the heads of most black families. (EH)

Nelson, Charmeynne D.

1975-01-01

91

Human papillomavirus infections among Hungarian female sex workers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in cervical, oropharyngeal and anal samples of the high-risk population of Hungarian female sex workers (FSWs). HPV testing of swab specimens from FSWs (n = 34) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology was performed. Results were compared with control group (n = 52) matched for age. Questionnaires were used to obtain data regarding participants' sexual behaviour. Data were analysed using SPSS. HPV DNA was detected in at least one location in a great majority of FSWs (82.4%), compared with 46.2% of the general female population (P < 0.05). Both the cervical and the anal samples of sex workers showed higher infection rates than those of controls (64.7% vs. 34.6% and 50.0% vs. 15.4%, respectively, P < 0.05). High-risk HPV prevalence was also significantly higher in sex workers (55.9% vs. 25.0%, P < 0.05). A significantly higher proportion of FSWs had a history of genital warts (26.5% vs. 3.8%, P < 0.05). The results suggest that condom use may not result in adequate protection from HPV infection. The high infection rates among FSWs should be viewed as a priority group for HPV and cervical cancer prevention programmes since they are sources of HPV infection for the general population. PMID:23957436

Marek, E; Dergez, T; D'cruz, G; Bozsa, S; Cseh, A; Szilard, I; Benczik, M; Kiss, I; Varszegi, D; Vilagi, S; Ember, I; Gocze, P

2014-01-01

92

Divorced, Separated, and Widowed Women Workers in Rural Mozambique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A remarkably high proportion of women wage workers in rural Mozambique are divorced, separated, or widowed. This paper explores the factors underlying the difference between the marital status of these wage workers and other rural women in Mozambique and establishes a strong relationship between labor-market participation and female divorce or widowhood. The association is likely to work in both directions.

Carlos Oya

2009-01-01

93

Unprotected Sex with Injecting Drug Users among Iranian Female Sex Workers: Unhide HIV Risk Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of unprotected sex with injecting drug users (IDUs) among a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in Iran. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 144 FSWs who were interviewed as a part of Unhide HIV Risk Study, a national behavioral survey focusing on various high-risk populations, including IDUs, FSWs, and Men who have Sex with Men (MSMs) in 2009. The survey was conducted in eight provinces in Iran using respondent-driven sampling. Participants' sociodemographic status, HIV knowledge, and HIV attitude were analyzed via logistic regression to determine the predictors of unprotected sex with IDU(s) during the past month. Results. Nineteen percent of FSWs reported at least one occasion of unprotected sex with IDU(s) in the month preceding the study. Higher educational level (OR = ?0.653, 95%CI = ?1.192 to ?0.115), perceived HIV risk (OR = ?1.047, 95%CI = ?2.076 to ?0.019), and perceived family intimacy during childhood (OR = ?1.104, 95%CI = ?1.957 to ?0.251) were all independently associated with lower odds of having unprotected sex with IDU(s) in the month preceding the study. Age, marital status, living condition, HIV knowledge, and perceived behavioral control did not affect the odds of FSWs having sex with IDUs. Conclusion. Perceived HIV risk, which is a modifiable factor, seems to be a promising target for harm reduction interventions amongst Iranian female sex workers. Data presented here may aid in reducing or eliminating the role of sex workers as a bridge for HIV transmission from IDUs to the general population in Iran. PMID:22506107

Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Rezazade, Majid; Nafarie, Mohammad; Moazen, Babak; Yarmohmmadi Vasel, Mosaieb; Assari, Shervin

2012-01-01

94

Bureaucratic justice: the incarceration of mainland Chinese women working in Hong Kong's sex industry.  

PubMed

Since Hong Kong's return to the People's Republic of China (PRC) there has been a significant rise in the number of Chinese visitors to Hong Kong, including women crossing the border to engage in sex work. Sex work itself is not a crime in Hong Kong, but related activities, like soliciting, are prohibited. Sex work is treated as work for immigration purposes, and visitors who engage in work without an employment visa are breaching their conditions of stay. More than 10,000 mainland Chinese women have been arrested, prosecuted, and sentenced in recent years, causing the correctional population to expand beyond capacity. The authors examine the experiences of 58 incarcerated women in their encounters with the Hong Kong criminal justice system and find that women are processed in a highly routinized bureaucratic manner. They consider the purpose served by the largely bureaucratic form of justice that has emerged in response to migrant sex workers in Hong Kong. PMID:17210657

Laidler, Karen Joe; Petersen, Carole; Emerton, Robyn

2007-02-01

95

Occupational Stigma as a Primary Barrier To Health Care For Street-Based Sex Workers in Canada  

PubMed Central

Individuals working in the sex industry continue to experience many negative health outcomes. As such, disentangling the factors shaping poor health access remains a critical public health priority. Within a quasi-criminalised prostitution environment, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of occupational stigma associated with sex work and its relationship to barriers to accessing health services. Analyses draw on baseline questionnaire data from a community-based cohort of women in street-based sex work in Vancouver, Canada (2006–8). Of a total of 252 women, 141 (58.5%) reported occupational sex work stigma (defined as hiding occupational sex work status from family, friends and/or home community), while 125 (49.6%) reported barriers to accessing health services in the previous six months. In multivariable analysis, adjusting for socio-demographic, interpersonal and work environment risks, occupational sex work stigma remained independently associated with an elevated likelihood of experiencing barriers to health access. Study findings indicate the critical need for policy and societal shifts in views of sex work as a legitimate occupation, combined with improved access to innovative, accessible and non-judgmental health care delivery models for street-based sex workers that include the direct involvement of sex workers in development and implementation. PMID:22084992

Lazarus, Lisa; Deering, Kathleen N; Nabess, Rose; Gibson, Kate; Tyndall, Mark W; Shannon, Kate

2011-01-01

96

Assessment of Respondent Driven Sampling for Recruiting Female Sex Workers in Two Vietnamese Cities: Reaching the Unseen Sex Worker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respondent driven sampling (RDS) is a relatively new method to sample hard-to-reach populations. Until this study, female\\u000a sex workers (FSWs) in Vietnam were sampled using a variety of methods, including time location sampling (TLS), which may not\\u000a access the more hidden types of FSWs. This paper presents an analysis from an HIV biological and behavioral surveillance survey\\u000a to assess the

Lisa Grazina Johnston; Keith Sabin; Mai Thu Hien; Pham Thi Huong

2006-01-01

97

The 'Stolen Generations' of Mothers and Daughters: Child Apprehension and Enhanced HIV Vulnerabilities for Sex Workers of Aboriginal Ancestry  

PubMed Central

Objectives The number of children in care of the state continues to grow in BC, Canada with a historical legacy of child apprehension among criminalized and marginalized populations, particularly women of Aboriginal ancestry and sex workers. However, there is a paucity of research investigating child apprehension experiences among marginalized mothers. The objective of the current analysis is to examine the prevalence and correlates of child apprehensions among female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Analyses were drawn from the AESHA (An Evaluation of Sex Workers Health Access, 2010-present), a prospective cohort of street and off-street SWs, through outreach and semi-annual visits to the research office. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine correlates of child apprehension. Results Of a total of 510 SWs, 350 women who had given birth to at least one child were included in the analyses (median age?=?37 yrs: IQR: 31–44 yrs). The prevalence of child apprehension among mothers was 38.3%, with 37.4% reporting having been apprehended themselves by child welfare services. In multivariable analysis, servicing clients in outdoor public spaces (versus formal sex work establishments or informal indoor settings) (adjusted odds ratio, (aOR)?=?2.73; 95%CI 1.27–5.90), history of injecting drugs (aOR?=?2.53; 95%CI 1.42–4.49), Aboriginal ancestry (aOR?=?1.66; 95%CI 1.01–2.74) were associated with increased odds of child apprehension. Discussion/Conclusions Child apprehension rates are high, particularly among the most marginalized sex workers, including sex workers who use drugs and sex workers of Aboriginal ancestry. Structural reforms to child protection are urgently needed, that support family-based care address the historical legacy of colonization affecting Aboriginal peoples. PMID:24927324

Duff, Putu; Bingham, Brittany; Simo, Annick; Jury, Delores; Reading, Charlotte; Shannon, Kate

2014-01-01

98

HIV risk perceptions, knowledge and behaviours among female sex workers in two cities in Turkmenistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes HIV risk behaviour patterns among street- and bar-based female sex workers in the Turkmenistan cities of Ashgabat and Mary. Street-based sex workers had little to no knowledge of HIV and primarily used condoms when condom use was initiated by clients. Bar-based sex workers had HIV knowledge and reported regularly using condoms mainly with first-time clients. While sex

Z. Chariyeva; R. Colaco; S. Maman

2011-01-01

99

An Effective HIV Risk-Reduction Protocol for Drug-Using Female Sex Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female sex workers are especially vulnerable to HIV infection, particularly those who use drugs and engage in street-based sex exchange. This study examines the risk behaviors and HIV serostatus of 806 drug-using female sex workers in Miami and assesses the relative impact of two HIV and hepatitis prevention interventions on changes in risk behavior. Drug-using sex workers were recruited using

Hilary L. Surratt; James A. Inciardi

2010-01-01

100

The female condom: a promising but unavailable method for Dominican sex workers, their clients, and their partners.  

PubMed

Despite evidence of the potential of the female condom as a method that effectively protects against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and pregnancy, it is still not widely available. We conducted in-depth interviews with 18 sex workers, 15 male clients, and seven partners in the Dominican Republic to assess the acceptability of the female condom. The majority of the sex workers found the female condom acceptable and welcomed the option of a female-controlled method. Clients and partners of the sex workers were also positive about the female condom and, particularly with regard to pleasure; almost all preferred it to the male condom. These findings suggest that the female condom offers an acceptable option for protection against HIV, STIs, and pregnancy. The positive attitudes of women and men could be developed into messages in marketing campaigns for the female condom, targeting not only vulnerable groups but also the general population. PMID:23465398

van Dijk, Marieke G; Pineda, Diana Lara; Grossman, Daniel; Sorhaindo, Annik; García, Sandra G

2013-01-01

101

How stigma affects healthcare access for transgender sex workers.  

PubMed

Stigmatisation of transgender sex workers (TSWs) has been recognised as contributing to illness and poorer health outcomes for this population. It could be argued that part of this stigma comes from nurses. With their frequent face-to-face interactions with their clients, nurses come from a unique place of power to influence the health outcomes and the feelings and thoughts that transgender sex workers have about the healthcare system in general, and whether or not they feel safe accessing it. Because there is very limited literature that explores stigmatisation of TSWs on the part of nurses, the needs of TSWs are scarcely being addressed. This article addresses why a higher proportion of transgender people participate in sex work compared with people in the general population; how stigmatisation by nurses affects access to healthcare resources for TSWs; why nurses experience stigmatising thoughts and beliefs; and how nurses can create a positive impact on TSW clients. The authors have found that, although there are a number of complex reasons for bias and stigma, it is extremely important for the health of these clients that nurses put empathy, sensitivity and compassion at the forefront of their practice. PMID:25426530

Roche, Kirsten; Keith, Corey

2014-11-27

102

Sex Workers Perspectives on Strategies to Reduce Sexual Exploitation and HIV Risk: A Qualitative Study in Tijuana, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Globally, female sex workers are a population at greatly elevated risk of HIV infection, and the reasons for and context of sex industry involvement have key implications for HIV risk and prevention. Evidence suggests that experiences of sexual exploitation (i.e., forced/coerced sex exchange) contribute to health-related harms. However, public health interventions that address HIV vulnerability and sexual exploitation are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to elicit recommendations for interventions to prevent sexual exploitation and reduce HIV risk from current female sex workers with a history of sexual exploitation or youth sex work. From 2010–2011, we conducted in-depth interviews with sex workers (n?=?31) in Tijuana, Mexico who reported having previously experienced sexual exploitation or youth sex work. Participants recommended that interventions aim to (1) reduce susceptibility to sexual exploitation by providing social support and peer-based education; (2) mitigate harms by improving access to HIV prevention resources and psychological support, and reducing gender-based violence; and (3) provide opportunities to exit the sex industry via vocational supports and improved access to effective drug treatment. Structural interventions incorporating these strategies are recommended to reduce susceptibility to sexual exploitation and enhance capacities to prevent HIV infection among marginalized women and girls in Mexico and across international settings. PMID:24023661

Goldenberg, Shira M.; Engstrom, David; Rolon, Maria Luisa; Silverman, Jay G.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2013-01-01

103

Sexual practices, identities and health among women who have sex with women in Lesotho - a mixed-methods study.  

PubMed

Despite the high prevalence of HIV and STIs among women in Africa and the growing literature on HIV and STIs among women who have sex with women, research on the sexual health of women who have sex with women in Africa is scant. This study used mixed methods to describe sexual identity, practices and health among women who have sex with women in Lesotho. Most respondents (48%) described themselves as lesbian, 29% as bisexual and 23% as heterosexual. Almost half (45%) had disclosed their same-sex attraction to family, but only 25% had done so with healthcare workers. A total of 8% reported having HIV. Self-reported HIV was associated with having three or more male partners, having male and female partners at the same time and having a history of STIs. Gender norms, the criminalisation of homosexuality, varied knowledge of, and access to, safer-sex strategies, and mixed experiences of HIV/STI testing and sexual healthcare provided social and structural contexts for HIV- and STI-related vulnerability. PMID:24237008

Poteat, Tonia; Logie, Carmen; Adams, Darrin; Lebona, Judith; Letsie, Puleng; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan

2014-01-01

104

Researching Non-Governmental Strategies for Male Sex Workers' Empowerment in Northern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the methodological insights derived from a research trip undertaken to study the existing non-governmental strategies for male sex workers? empowerment in Northern Thailand. My research was concerned with determining whether NGOs can effectively provide an alternative to the governmental programs, in order to meet the needs of Thai male sex workers. Although the topic of sex work

Simona-Gabriela Gavrila

2008-01-01

105

Reducing Intimate and Paying Partner Violence against Women Who Exchange Sex in Mongolia: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women who exchange sex for money or other goods, that is, female sex workers, are at increased risk of experiencing physical and sexual violence from both paying and intimate partners. Exposure to violence can be exacerbated by alcohol use and HIV/STI risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a HIV/STI risk reduction and…

Carlson, Catherine E.; Chen, Jiehua; Chang, Mingway; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Toivgoo, Aira; Riedel, Marion; Witte, Susan S.

2012-01-01

106

Predictors of Sexual Risk Reduction Among Mexican Female Sex Workers Enrolled in a Behavioral Intervention Study  

PubMed Central

Objective We recently showed efficacy of an intervention to increase condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, situated on the Mexico–United States border. We determined whether increases in condom use were predicted by social cognitive theory and injection drug user status among women randomized to this intervention. Methods Four hundred nine HIV-negative FSWs aged ?18 years having unprotected sex with clients within the prior 2 months received a brief individual counseling session integrating motivational interviewing and principles of behavior change (ie, HIV knowledge, self-efficacy for using condoms, and outcome expectancies). Results Increases in self-efficacy scores were associated with increases in percent condom use (P = 0.008), whereas outcome expectancies were not. Female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) increased condom use with clients but not to the same extent as other FSWs (P = 0.09). Change in HIV knowledge was positively associated with change in percent condom use among FSW-IDUs (P = 0.03) but not noninjection drug users. Conclusions Increases in self-efficacy significantly predicted increased condom use among FSWs, consistent with social cognitive theory. Increased HIV knowledge was also important among FSW-IDUs, but their changes in condom use were modest. Enhanced interventions for FSW-IDUs are needed, taking into account realities of substance use during sexual transactions that can compromise safer sex negotiation. PMID:19384101

Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Mausbach, Brent; Lozada, Remedios; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Semple, Shirley J.; Abramovitz, Daniela; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel; de la Torre, Adela; Amaro, Hortensia; Martinez-Mendizabal, Gustavo; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.

2009-01-01

107

Violence as a Barrier for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Argentina  

PubMed Central

Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been increasingly reported as an important determinant of HIV infection risk. This study explores the frequency of different violent experiences (sexual abuse, rejection, beating and imprisonment) among FSWs in Argentina and its association with condom use and HIV and T. pallidum prevalence. Methods A convenience sample of 1255 FSWs was included in a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2006 and November 2009. Results Sexual abuse was reported by 24.1% (219/907) of women. A total of 34.7% (42/1234) reported rejection experiences, 21.9% (267/1215) reported having been beaten and 45.4% (561/1236) stated having been arrested because of their sex work activity. There was a higher frequency of inconsistent condom use with clients among FSWs who had experienced sexual abuse, rejection, and police detention. A higher frequency of HIV and T. pallidum infection was detected among FSWs who reported having been arrested by the police. Conclusion The study shows for the first time the frequency of different violent situations among FSWs in Argentina. The association between violence against sex workers, condom use and STI prevalence demonstrated here calls for measures to reduce stigma and violence against FSWs. Such violent experiences may increase vulnerability to STI through coerced unprotected sex. PMID:23342092

Pando, Maria A.; Coloccini, Romina S.; Reynaga, Elena; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Montano, Silvia M.; Avila, Maria M.

2013-01-01

108

Commercial sex venues, syphilis and methamphetamine use among female sex workers.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with methamphetamine (MA) use, syphilis, and unprotected sex among female sex workers from different type of venues in Qingdao City, Shandong Province of China. Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys provided information on demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, and HIV-related services. Of 1187 participants, 3.0% were infected with syphilis; 30.2% ever used MA; 58.3% ever had unprotected commercial sex in the past month. The prevalence rates of syphilis and MA use were 2.5% and 33.0% for participants recruited from saunas, night clubs, bars or hotels; 2.7% and 28.3% for hair/beauty salon-based participants; and 4.5% and 15.8% for street-based participants. Street-based MA users were more likely to be single, non-Shandong residents, have first lifetime sex act at younger age, and recruited in 2008 (vs. 2006). Saunas, night clubs, bars, or hotels-based MA users were more likely to be younger, sex debut at younger age, have longer duration of sex work, have unprotected commercial sex, and be syphilis-infected. Hair/beauty salon-based MA users were more likely to be non-Shandong residents, younger, and to have unprotected commercial sex. Syphilis among the sauna-, night club-, bar-, or hotel-based participants was associated with MA use and ever receipt of HIV testing. Syphilis among the hair/beauty salon-based participants was associated with longer duration of sex work. MA users who frequent commercial sex venues are engaging in high-risk behaviors and are at risk for syphilis/other sexually transmitted diseases. Better-targeted intervention efforts to curtail the epidemics of MA use and HIV/syphilis should therefore take cognizance of the role of commercial sex venues as focal points of MA use and syphilis/sexually transmitted disease transmission. PMID:21660748

Kang, Dianming; Liao, Meizhen; Jiang, Zhenxia; Zhang, Xijiang; Mao, Wenwen; Zhang, Ning; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Bi, Zhenqiang; Aliyu, Muktar; Wu, Pingsheng; Jiang, Baofa; Jia, Yujiang

2011-06-01

109

The use of the Internet by gay and bisexual male escorts: sex workers as sex educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

While prior studies have targeted street-based male sex workers as potential vectors of disease transmission, the number of men who work independently through Internet chat-rooms and other online endeavors has steadily increased. It is likely that these men differ substantially from their street-based counterparts in terms of sexual risk behaviors with their clients. The purpose of this study was to

J. T. Parsons; J. A. Koken; D. S. Bimbi

2004-01-01

110

HIV risk perceptions, knowledge and behaviours among female sex workers in two cities in Turkmenistan.  

PubMed

This paper describes HIV risk behaviour patterns among street- and bar-based female sex workers in the Turkmenistan cities of Ashgabat and Mary. Street-based sex workers had little to no knowledge of HIV and primarily used condoms when condom use was initiated by clients. Bar-based sex workers had HIV knowledge and reported regularly using condoms mainly with first-time clients. While sex workers perceived themselves to be at low risk for acquiring HIV, they were aware of other sexually transmitted infections (STI) and expressed a strong desire for free STI testing and treatment services. PMID:20486005

Chariyeva, Z; Colaco, R; Maman, S

2011-01-01

111

HIV-related risk perception among female sex workers in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Over one-third of sex workers in Nigeria are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet there is a lack of understanding of sex workers’ own perception of sexual risk-taking. Applying the theory of cognitive dissonance, this paper examined the personal HIV risk perception of brothel-based sex workers. Methods The study is based on 24 focus group discussions held among brothel-based sex workers in four geographically and culturally dispersed cities in Nigeria. Results It was found that sex workers underestimated their risk of infection and rationalized, defended, or justified their behaviors, a typical psychological response to worry, threat, and anxiety arising from the apparent discrepancies between beliefs and behaviors. To reduce dissonance, many sex workers had a strong belief in fatalism, predestination, and faith-based invulnerability to HIV infection. Many believed that one will not die of acquired immune deficiency syndrome if it is not ordained by God. The sex workers also had a high level of HIV-related stigma. Conclusion From these findings, most sex workers considered risk reduction and in particular condom use as far beyond their control or even unnecessary, as a result of their strong beliefs in fatalism and predestination. Therefore, one critical area of intervention is the need to assist sex workers to develop accurate means of assessing their personal vulnerability and self-appraisal of HIV-related risk. PMID:22096411

Ankomah, Augustine; Omoregie, Godpower; Akinyemi, Zacch; Anyanti, Jennifer; Ladipo, Olaronke; Adebayo, Samson

2011-01-01

112

Relationship of sex guilt and moral reasoning to premarital sex in college women and in couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory, the Sex Experience Inventory, and Kohlberg's Moral Dilemmas Questionnaire in Exp I to assess 119 unmarried college women with regard to sex behavior, sex guilt, and moral reasoning. Categories of sexual expression were developed which were useful in predicting behavior. Guilt was a better predictor of sex than morality. Maintaining virginity and losing it

Judith F. DAugelli; Herbert J. Cross

1975-01-01

113

Sex Differences in Relationship between Stress Responses and Lifestyle in Japanese Workers  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined the relationships between stress responses and lifestyle, including sleeping and eating behaviors, in Japanese workers according to sex. Methods Questionnaires about stress responses and lifestyle were completed by 3,017 workers in a financial enterprise (41.5% men, 58.5% women). Data were collected in Japan in August 2011. Participants were classified into stress and nonstress groups. Relationships between stress responses and lifestyle were investigated using logistic regression analysis with stress response as a dependent variable. Results There were 254 (8.4%) participants in the stress group and 2,763 (91.6%) in the nonstress group. The results showed that sleeping for shorter periods [odds ratio (OR) = 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58–5.60] was associated with stress responses in women, whereas we found no relationship between stress responses and lifestyle among men. However, working overtime was associated with stress responses in men (OR = 2.71, 95% CI: 1.43–5.15). Eating at night was associated with stress responses in the univariate analysis (men: OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.16–3.80; women: OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.09–2.39). Conclusion This study showed that stress responses were related to lifestyle among women but not among men. Among women, stress responses were related to sleeping for shorter periods, whereas they were related to working long hours among men. In addition, stress responses were related to eating at night in the univariate analysis, although this relationship was not seen in the multivariate analysis, in either sex. PMID:24932418

Suzuki, Akiko; Akamatsu, Rie

2014-01-01

114

Women as Sex Objects and Victims in Print Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content analysis examined the depiction of women in 1,988 advertisements from 58 popular U.S. magazines. Advertisements\\u000a were coded with respect to whether women were presented as sex objects and\\/or as victims using a scheme developed by the researchers.\\u000a On average across magazines, one of two advertisements that featured women portrayed them as sex objects. Women appeared as\\u000a victims in

Julie M. Stankiewicz; Francine Rosselli

2008-01-01

115

Transactional sex risk and STI among HIV-infected female sex workers and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs in India.  

PubMed

To describe sex risk behaviors of HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs) and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs, to evaluate associations between risky transactional sex and number of unprotected transactional sex episodes, and to assess the association between unprotected transactional sex and self-reported sexually transmitted infection (STI). Adult HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) and HIV-infected male clients (n = 205) were surveyed in Mumbai about demographics, STI, and past 90-day and past year sex and substance use histories. Gender-stratified Poisson regression models were used to evaluate associations between four risky transactional sex behaviors (number of transactional sex partners; alcohol use before transactional sex; anal transactional sex; and transactional sex with a known HIV-infected partner) and number of unprotected transactional sex episodes; logistic regression was used to assess the association between unprotected transactional sex and self-reported STI. Twenty-nine percent of females and 7% of males reported any unprotected transactional sex episodes in the past 90 days. Thirty-nine percent of females and 12% of males reported past year STI. Among males, a greater number of transactional sex partners was associated with more unprotected transactional sex episodes (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 8.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-38.4 highest vs. lowest tertile), and any unprotected transactional sex was associated with a higher odds of self-reported STI in the past year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.6, 95% CI = 1.4-22.4). For women, risky transactional sex behaviors were not associated with condom non-use, and unprotected sex was negatively associated with STI (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.9). Reports of condom use during transactional sex were high for these samples. However, standard predictors of unprotected transactional sex (i.e., greater number of partners) and STI (i.e., unprotected sex) only held true for males. Further research is needed to guide an understanding of sex risk and STI among HIV-infected FSWs in India. PMID:21711167

Raj, Anita; Saggurti, N; Cheng, Debbie M; Dasgupta, Anindita; Bridden, Carly; Pradeshi, Manojkumar; Samet, J H

2011-11-01

116

Sex work in the Caribbean Basin: patterns of substance use and HIV risk among migrant sex workers in the US Virgin Islands.  

PubMed

Drug use, commercial sex work, and migration each play a role in the spread of HIV in the Caribbean, yet the intersection of these factors in the region is not well understood. This paper explores the connections between substance use and HIV risk among migrant female sex workers in the US Virgin Islands. Participants were located through targeted sampling techniques in Christiansted and Frederiksted, St. Croix, and Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas where 101 women were interviewed regarding their drug use, sexual behaviours, migration patterns and health status. In the month prior to interview, 25.7% reported no substance use, 57.4% reported alcohol use only and 16.8% indicated use of an illicit drug. Drug using sex workers reported a significantly greater number of past-month sexual partners than alcohol-only and non-drug users. In logistic regression analyses, illicit drug users were significantly more likely to report unprotected sexual activity, client violence and sexually transmitted infections as well. In addition, illicit drug users engaged in sex work in a significantly greater number of countries and were more likely to work in locations outside the US Virgin Islands. The intersection of multiple risk factors for HIV identified among drug-involved sex workers in the region, including unprotected sexual activity with multiple partners, violent victimization and migration between high and low HIV-prevalence areas, suggests that illicit drug use may play an important role in driving the growing heterosexual HIV epidemic in the Caribbean. PMID:18071971

Surratt, H

2007-11-01

117

Women animal foster care workers: An ecofeminist critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

As with other forms of animal rights activism, animal foster care also appears to be dominated by women. In this paper I explore the role of animal foster care in, and its implications for, a Patriarchal society based on hierarchical dualisms. I argue that through their work as animal foster care workers and adoption facilitators these women do create positions

Denise L Roemer

2004-01-01

118

Sexual Health Knowledge and Health Practices of Female Sex Workers in Liuzhou, China, Differ by Size of Venue  

PubMed Central

We conducted qualitative interviews with 48 female sex workers (FSW) recruited from entertainment venues in Liuzhou, China. Analyses found that HIV knowledge and sexual health seeking strategies differed by size of venue: (1) Women in smaller venues said they douched before/after sex and used condoms with all but their regular partners and clients. Most found the brochures distributed by Chinese CDC workers “irrelevant” or “boring” and relied on friends for health advice. (2) FSW in middle and large venues were less concerned about prevention, claiming their clients were “healthy.” They relied more on the Internet for health information and were less concerned about the cost of seeing a doctor. (3) Pregnancies and abortions were frequent, especially among the younger women in large venues. This research documents the need to develop tailored HIV-related messages and prevention strategies with the help of FSW to address differences among FSW working in venues of different sizes. PMID:23612941

Brown, Jane D.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Xianxiang, Feng; Wenzhen, He

2013-01-01

119

Sexual health knowledge and health practices of female sex workers in Liuzhou, China, differ by size of venue.  

PubMed

We conducted qualitative interviews with 48 female sex workers (FSW) recruited from entertainment venues in Liuzhou, China. Analyses found that HIV knowledge and sexual health seeking strategies differed by size of venue: (1) Women in smaller venues said they douched before/after sex and used condoms with all but their regular partners and clients. Most found the brochures distributed by Chinese CDC workers "irrelevant" or "boring" and relied on friends for health advice. (2) FSW in middle and large venues were less concerned about prevention, claiming their clients were "healthy." They relied more on the Internet for health information and were less concerned about the cost of seeing a doctor. (3) Pregnancies and abortions were frequent, especially among the younger women in large venues. This research documents the need to develop tailored HIV-related messages and prevention strategies with the help of FSW to address differences among FSW working in venues of different sizes. PMID:23612941

Zhang, Youchun; Youchun, Zhang; Brown, Jane D; Muessig, Kathryn E; Feng, Xianxiang; Xianxiang, Feng; He, Wenzhen; Wenzhen, He

2014-02-01

120

Correlates of Inconsistent Refusal of Unprotected Sex among Armenian Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs' demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n = 62) of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for participants' age and education revealed that perceiving more barriers toward condom use (AOR = 1.1; P < 0.01), reporting more types of abuse (AOR = 2.1; P < 0.01), and setting lower fees for service (AOR = 0.9; P = 0.02) significantly predicted inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex. HIV-risk-reduction behavioral interventions tailored to FSWs working in Yerevan Armenia should address the factors identified in this study toward the goal of enhancing refusal of unprotected sex and ultimately preventing acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. PMID:25349727

Markosyan, Karine; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

2014-01-01

121

[Sex hormones and adipocytokines in postmenopausal women].  

PubMed

Visceral fat accumulation occuring in postmenopausal women is connected with hypoestrogenism, decreased production of sex-hormone binding globuline (SHBG) and with rise in free testosterone. They have been identified as risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The exact mechanisms mediating relationships between the excess of visceral adiposity, hormonal variations after menopause and metabolic disturbances, remain unknown. We speculate that adipocytokines produced by adipose tissue: adiponectin, leptin and resistin, might play a role. Adiponectin is a hormone which plays a role in insulin sensitivity and lipid oxidation, and possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Increased levels of androgens post menopause and low SHBG are connected with decreased production of adiponectin. Leptin is another of the adipocytokines which has been shown to be linked to insulin resistance, increased pressure and hypertriglyceridaemia. Sex steroids have effect on leptin secretion but the associations between leptin and menopause are controversial. Recently it was found that resistin, another bioactive substance produced by adipose tissue may related to insulin resistance. Studies on animals indicate that ovariectomy and testosterone significantly increased resistin expression. It seems that adipocytokines may be a link connecting postmenopasual hormonal changes, the excess of visceral fat and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:17007280

Siemi?ska, Lucyna; Cicho?-Lenart, Agata; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Kos-Kud?a, Beata; Marek, Bogdan; Lenart, Jaros?aw; Nowak, Mariusz

2006-06-01

122

A study on female sex workers in southern China (Shenzhen): HIV-related knowledge, condom use and STD history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to investigate the perspective relations between HIV\\/AIDS and condom-related knowledge, condom use, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and predictive factors of condom use by female sex workers (FSW) who were sent to the Women Re-education Center (WRC) in Shenzhen, People's Republic of China. Seven hundred and one FSW were interviewed. Whereas respondents had attained certain

J. T. F. Lau; H. Y. Tsui; P. C. Siah; K. L. Zhang

2002-01-01

123

Sexual Risk Behaviors, Alcohol Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence Among Sex Workers in Mongolia: Implications for HIV Prevention Intervention Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines HIV\\/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV\\/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using

Susan S. Witte; Altantsetseg Batsukh; Mingway Chang

2010-01-01

124

University Student Beliefs about Sex: Men vs. Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of survey data from 326 undergraduates at a large southeastern university revealed significant differences between men and women in their sexual beliefs. Specifically, men were more likely to think that oral sex is not sex; that cybersex is not cheating, that men can't tell if a woman is faking orgasm and that sex frequency drops in…

Knox, David; Zusman, Marty; McNeely, Andrea

2008-01-01

125

Prevalence and correlates of sexual risk among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviours among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, the busiest border crossing area on the US – Mexico border, analysing survey data from a purposive, cross-sectional sample of male and female sex workers who worked in a range of indoor and outdoor settings. Logistic regression was used to determine factors

Yasmina Katsulis; Alesha Durfee

2012-01-01

126

Social and behavioral determinants of consistent condom use among female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at investigating the social and behavioral predictors of consistent condom use among female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) in Ghana. Street commercial sex workers were interviewed in Accra, Kumasi and Techiman. Whereas respondents had attained certain accurate knowledge about HIV transmission routes, misconceptions were still commonly reported. The level of condom education was very low (14%), however consistent

Ahmed Adu-Oppong

2005-01-01

127

The health and welfare needs of female and transgender street sex workers in New South Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the health and welfare status of female and transgender street sex workers and their work-related experiences. Also to estimate population numbers, determine work locations, and identify the most appropriate education, health and welfare services for this group. Methods: Forty-eight street sex workers completed a questionnaire, mainly at their place of work. Demographic and sexual health profiles of

Christine Harcourt; Ingrid van Beek; Jenny Heslop; Maria McMahon; Basil Donovan

2001-01-01

128

"He can be good and still have AIDS". Peer education prevents AIDS in Thai women workers.  

PubMed

Focus group discussions and interviews with 240 single adolescent women who had migrated to northern Thailand to work in the garment industry revealed a high incidence of unprotected premarital sex and widespread misinformation about the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many believed that "good people" could not get AIDS and that condoms were men's concern, for use with prostitutes rather than girlfriends. In response, an educational program was designed for these young factory workers with the aim of providing accurate information and encouraging women to insist on protected sex. Peer education was selected as the strategy most likely to promote participatory learning, skill acquisition, and emotional support. Educational materials were interactive and based on problem-solving. A comic book featured an invisible flying condom that instructed young women how to negotiate condom use; a romantic novel about a young migrant factory worker addressed the false notion that "good men" cannot become infected with AIDS. The peer education program lasted for 3 months, after which participants received a certificate. Post-program evaluation indicated widespread acceptance of condoms as a contraceptive option for women and enhanced relational skills in negotiating for safe sex. PMID:12345370

Cash, K

1993-01-01

129

Prevalence and Correlates of Genital Warts in Kenyan Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

Background Our goal in the present study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of genital warts in a population of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Because of the high prevalence of HIV-1 in this population, we were particularly interested in the association between HIV-1 infection and genital warts. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of the prevalence and correlates of genital warts among high-risk women in Mombasa, Kenya. Between 2001 and 2007, 1182 women were enrolled, of whom 613 (51.4%) were HIV-1-seropositive. Chi square tests and logistic regression were used to examine the associations between genital warts and potential correlates. Results Genital warts were identified on clinical examination in 27 (2.3%) women. Women who were HIV-1-seropositive were nearly 8 times as likely to have genital warts compared to HIV-1-seronegative women (OR 7.69, 95% CI 2.30–25.6). Conclusion Understanding the prevalence and correlates of genital warts will help to determine whether coverage for the wart-inducing subtypes 6 and 11 in an HPV vaccine is an important consideration in resource-limited countries. PMID:23060082

Kavanaugh, Barbara E.; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Jaoko, Walter; Estambale, Benson; Kiarie, James N.; Masese, Linnet N.; Deya, Ruth; Manhart, Lisa E.; Graham, Susan M.; McClelland, R. Scott

2012-01-01

130

Poverty as a contextual factor affecting sexual health behavior among female sex workers in India.  

PubMed

A thorough understanding of the environmental and structural factors that precipitate unsafe sexual practices is necessary for HIV/AIDS-prevention research among high-risk population groups like commercial sex workers. I examined how poverty contextualizes sexual health behavior, including condom compliance among commercial female sex workers in a red light district in Calcutta, India. For my research I did an ethnographic study and conducted in-depth interviews of 37 commercial female sex workers. I found that poverty, instead of serving as a catalyst for poor health choices among sex workers, acted as an impetus for pursuing safe sex practices and remaining healthy. The results indicate that sex work, poverty, and health do not always have a paradoxical relationship. PMID:23558710

Dasgupta, Satarupa

2013-06-01

131

Gender based violence as a risk factor for HIV-associated risk behaviors among female sex workers in Armenia.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study identified the prevalence of gender based violence (GBV) and examined its association with sexual risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs). Among 120 participants between ages 20 and 52, a total of 56.7 % reported lifetime GBV. Multivariate analyses revealed that GBV was significantly associated with inconsistent condom use, unprotected sex, condom misuse, fear of client reaction to requests of condom use, self-reported history of STIs, and earlier age of initiation of sex work. GBV must be considered an urgent public health priority among FSWs in Armenia. Interventions addressing FSWs, in addition to targeting skill-based, sexual risk reduction must also introduce a discourse among FSWs, sexual partners, clients and community members about the role of GBV in HIV-associated risk behaviors and infection. Structural level initiatives must address economic opportunities for women, health-sector policies and responses to FSWs' health needs, law enforcement training and societal norms toward women. PMID:22760740

Lang, Delia L; Salazar, Laura F; DiClemente, Ralph J; Markosyan, Karine

2013-02-01

132

Rape, sex partnership, and substance use consequences in women veterans.  

PubMed

The association of rape history and sexual partnership with alcohol and drug use consequences in women veterans is unknown. Midwestern women veterans (N = 1,004) completed a retrospective telephone interview assessing demographics, rape history, substance abuse and dependence, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One third met lifetime criteria for substance use disorder (SUD), half reported lifetime completed rape, a third childhood rape, one quarter in-military rape, 11% sex with women. Lifetime SUD was higher for women with rape history (64% vs. 44%). Women with women as sex partners had significantly higher rates of all measures of rape, and also lifetime substance use disorder. Postmilitary rape, sex partnership, and current depression were significantly associated with lifetime SUD in multivariate models (odds ratio = 2.3, 3.6, 2.1, respectively). Many women veterans have a high need for comprehensive mental health services. PMID:21567476

Booth, Brenda M; Mengeling, Michelle; Torner, James; Sadler, Anne G

2011-06-01

133

Sexual Risk Behaviors, Alcohol Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence among Sex Workers in Mongolia: Implications for HIV Prevention Intervention Development  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY This study examines HIV/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using alcohol before engaging in sex with paying partners, and 38% reported high levels of depression. Focus group findings provide contextual support and narrative descriptions for the ways that poverty, alcohol abuse, interpersonal violence, and cultural norms that stigmatize and marginalize women are intertwined risk factors for STIs, including HIV, among these vulnerable women. PMID:20391057

Witte, Susan S.; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Chang, Mingway

2010-01-01

134

Social Cohesion, Social Participation, and HIV Related Risk among Female Sex Workers in Swaziland  

PubMed Central

Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] ?=?2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR?=?2.39, 95% CI: 1.36–4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR?=?1.99, 95% CI: 1.13–3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR?=?0.55, 95% CI: 0.33–0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland. PMID:24498125

Fonner, Virginia A.; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Baral, Stefan

2014-01-01

135

Social cohesion, social participation, and HIV related risk among female sex workers in Swaziland.  

PubMed

Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36-4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13-3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland. PMID:24498125

Fonner, Virginia A; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Baral, Stefan

2014-01-01

136

Situating HIV risk in the lives of formerly trafficked female sex workers on the Mexico-US border.  

PubMed

Due to stigma and the psychosocial repercussions of past trauma and abuse, survivors of sex trafficking may experience increased susceptibility to violence, revictimization, and various harmful health outcomes, including HIV infection. Given the paucity of research characterizing the experiences of formerly trafficked female sex workers (FSWs), we set out to describe and contextualize perceptions of HIV risk among women who have experienced past episodes of sex trafficking and who are currently engaged in sex work in Tijuana, Mexico. Based on semi-structured interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, we describe the following interrelated themes as influencing formerly trafficked FSWs' perceptions and experiences of HIV risk: economic vulnerability; susceptibility to violence; and psychological trauma. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention efforts to incorporate broader structural and social interventions aimed at reducing vulnerability to violence and human rights abuses among this population and improving their general economic, psychological, and social well-being. PMID:22963518

Collins, Shane P; Goldenberg, Shira M; Burke, Nancy J; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A

2013-01-01

137

Human rights abuses and collective resilience among sex workers in four African countries: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Sex work is a criminal offence, virtually throughout Africa. This criminalisation and the intense stigma attached to the profession shapes interactions between sex workers and their clients, family, fellow community members, and societal structures such as the police and social services. Methods We explore the impact of violence and related human rights abuses on the lives of sex workers, and how they have responded to these conditions, as individuals and within small collectives. These analyses are based on data from 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with female, male and transgender sex workers in Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected by sex worker outreach workers trained to conduct qualitative research among their peers. Results In describing their experiences of unlawful arrests and detention, violence, extortion, vilification and exclusions, participants present a picture of profound exploitation and repeated human rights violations. This situation has had an extreme impact on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of this population. Overall, the article details the multiple effects of sex work criminalisation on the everyday lives of sex workers and on their social interactions and relationships. Underlying their stories, however, are narratives of resilience and resistance. Sex workers in our study draw on their own individual survival strategies and informal forms of support and very occasionally opt to seek recourse through formal channels. They generally recognize the benefits of unified actions in assisting them to counter risks in their environment and mobilise against human rights violations, but note how the fluctuant and stigmatised nature of their profession often undermines collective action. Conclusions While criminal laws urgently need reform, supporting sex work self-organisation and community-building are key interim strategies for safeguarding sex workers’ human rights and improving health outcomes in these communities. If developed at sufficient scale and intensity, sex work organisations could play a critical role in reducing the present harms caused by criminalisation and stigma. PMID:23889941

2013-01-01

138

HIV behavioural risks and the role of work environment among Chinese male sex workers in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male sex workers are a highly marginalised group in Hong Kong and it is increasingly so with an influx of them travelling from mainland China to work as “freelance” sex workers. This study aimed to measure important work environment variables that might affect the likelihood of condom use among male sex workers working in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional survey of

William C. W. Wong; Phil W. S. Leung; C. W. Li

2012-01-01

139

Women’s sex-toy parties: Technology, orgasm, and commodification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents participant-observation research from five female-only sex-toy parties. We situate the sale of sex toys\\u000a in the context of in-home marketing to women, the explosion of a sex industry, and the emergence of lifestyle and body politics.\\u000a We explore the significance of sex toys for women as marketed in female-only contexts, paying particular attention to the\\u000a similarities and

Martha McCaughey; Christina French

2001-01-01

140

20 Facts on Women Workers. Facts on Working Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of the 108 million women age 16 or over who were part of the 1999 civilian noninstitutional U.S. population, 65 million (about 60%) were either employed or actively looking for work. In 1999, black, white, and Hispanic women participated in the labor force at rates of 63.5%, 59.6%, and 55.9%, respectively. According to projections, women will…

Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

141

Amphetamine-type stimulant use and HIV/STI risk behaviour among young female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Use of amphetamine-type substances (ATS) has been linked to increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) worldwide. In Cambodia, recent ATS use is independently associated with incident STI infection among young female sex workers (FSW). Methods We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with women (15–29 years old) engaged in sex work to explore ATS use and vulnerability to HIV/STI. Results Participants reported that ATS, primarily methamphetamine in pill and crystalline forms (yama), were cheap, widely available and commonly used. Yama was described as a “power drug” (thnam kamlang) which enabled women to work long hours and serve more customers. Use of ATS by clients was also common, with some providing drugs for women and/or encouraging their use, often resulting in prolonged sexual activity. Requests for unprotected sex were also more common among intoxicated clients and strategies typically employed to negotiate condom use were less effective. Conclusion ATS use was highly functional for young women engaged in sex work, facilitating a sense of power and agency and highlighting the occupational significance and normalization of ATS in this setting. This highly gendered dynamic supports the limited but emerging literature on women’s use of ATS, which to date has been heavily focused on men. Results indicate an urgent need to increase awareness of the risks associated with ATS use, to provide women with alternative and sustainable options for income generation, to better regulate the conditions of sex work, and to work with FSWs and their clients to develop and promote culturally appropriate harm reduction interventions. PMID:21316935

Maher, L; Phlong, P; Mooney-Somers, J; Keo, S; Stein, E; Page, K

2011-01-01

142

Relationships Between Teenage Smoking and Attitudes Toward Women's Rights, Sex Roles, Marriage, Sex and Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the relationships of cigarette smoking to attitudes toward equal opportunities for women, attitudes toward appropriate roles for women and men, and attitudes toward marriage, sex and family. Our analyses utilize data for white high school seniors from the 1985 Monitoring the Future national survey. Smoking was not related to attitudes toward equal opportunities for women, attitudes toward

Ingrid Waldron; Diane Lye

1990-01-01

143

Moving beyond safe sex to women-controlled safe sex: A concept analysis  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper is a report of a conceptual analysis of women-controlled safe sex. Background Women bear disproportionate burdens from sexually-related health compromising outcomes. Imbalanced societal gender and power positions contribute to high morbidities. The expression, women-controlled safe sex, aims to empower women to gain control of their sexual lives. Few researchers focus on contextualized socio-cultural definitions of sexual safety among women. Data Sources The sample included scientific literature from Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Sociological Abstracts. Papers were published 2000–2010. Review Methods Critical analyses of literature about women-controlled safe sex were performed using Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis methods. The search focused on social and cultural influences on sexual practices aimed at increasing women’s control over their sexual safety. Results The analysis uncovered five attributes of women-controlled safe sex: technology; access to choices; women at-risk; “condom migration” panic; and communication. Three antecedents included: male partner influence; body awareness; and self-efficacy. Consequences were categorized as positive or negative. Nine surrogate terms included: empowerment; gender power; female-controlled sexual barrier method; microbicides; diaphragm; sexual negotiation and communication; female condom; women-initiated disease transmission prevention; and spermicides. Finally, a consensus definition was identified: a socio- culturally influenced multilevel process for initiating sexual safety by women deemed at-risk for sexually-related dangers, usually sexually transmitted infections and/or HIV/AIDS. Conclusion This concept analysis described current significance, uses, and applications of women-controlled safe sex in the scientific literature. The authors clarified its limited nature and conclude that additional conceptual refinement in nursing is necessary to influence women’s health. PMID:22111843

Alexander, Kamila A.; Coleman, Christopher L.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Jemott, Loretta S.

2011-01-01

144

Natural history of Mycoplasma genitalium Infection in a Cohort of Female Sex Workers in Kampala, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background There have been few studies of the natural history of Mycoplasma genitalium in women. We investigated patterns of clearance and recurrence of untreated M. genitalium infection in a cohort of female sex workers in Uganda. Methods Women diagnosed as having M. genitalium infection at enrollment were retested for the infection at 3-month intervals. Clearance of infection was defined as testing negative after having a previous positive result: persistence was defined as testing positive after a preceding positive test result, and recurrence as testing positive after a preceding negative test result. Adjusted hazard ratios for M. genitalium clearance were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Among 119 participants infected with M. genitalium at enrollment (prevalence, 14%), 55% had spontaneously cleared the infection within 3 months; 83%, within 6; and 93%, within 12 months. The overall clearance rate was 25.7/100 person-years (pyr; 95% confidence interval, 21.4–31.0). HIV-positive women cleared M. genitalium infection more slowly than did HIV-negative women (20.6/100 pyr vs. 31.3/100 pyr, P = 0.03). The clearance rate was slower among HIV-positive women with CD4 counts less than 350/mL3 than among those with higher CD4 counts (9.88/100 pyr vs. 29.5/100 pyr, P < 0.001). After clearing the infection, M. genitalium infection recurred in 39% women. Conclusions M. genitalium is likely to persist and recur in the female genital tract. Because of the urogenital tract morbidity caused by the infection and the observed association with HIV acquisition, further research is needed to define screening modalities, especially in populations at high risk for HIV, and to optimize effective and affordable treatment options. PMID:23588134

Vandepitte, Judith; Weiss, Helen A.; Kyakuwa, Nassim; Nakubulwa, Susan; Muller, Etienne; Buve, Anne; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Hayes, Richard; Grosskurth, Heiner

2014-01-01

145

Legal Service Needs and Utilization of Women Who Trade Sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women who trade sex for money or drugs experience extensive victimization and criminalization and could benefit from legal\\u000a services. In this study, 91 women currently trading sex disclosed experiences of community, intimate partner, societal, and\\u000a police abuse, and a history of arrests and incarcerations. The majority of respondents indicated a need for services to help\\u000a with abuse, violence, and\\/or legal

Christine M. Sloss; Gary W. Harper

2010-01-01

146

HIV vulnerabilities of sex-trafficked Indian women and girls  

PubMed Central

Objective To qualitatively explore potential mechanisms that may confer heightened risk for HIV infection among survivors of sex trafficking in India. Methods Case narratives of 61 repatriated women and girls who reported being trafficked into sex work and were receiving services at an NGO in Mysore, India, were reviewed. Narratives were analyzed to examine potential sources of HIV risk related to sex trafficking. Results Participants were aged 14–30 years. Among the 48 women and girls tested for HIV, 45.8% were HIV positive. Narratives described very low levels of autonomy, with control exacted by brothel managers and traffickers. Lack of control appeared to heighten trafficked women and girls’ vulnerability to HIV infection in the following ways: use of violent rape as a means of coercing initiation into sex work, inability to refuse sex, inability to use condoms or negotiate use, substance use as a coping strategy, and inadequate access to health care. Conclusion Sex trafficked women and girls lack autonomy and are rendered vulnerable to HIV infection through several means. Development of HIV prevention strategies specifically designed to deal with lack of autonomy and reach sex-trafficked women and girls is imperative. PMID:19625022

Gupta, Jhumka; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G.

2009-01-01

147

Partner Status Influences Women's Interest in the Opposite Sex  

E-print Network

Partner Status Influences Women's Interest in the Opposite Sex Heather Rupp & Giliah R. Librach 2009 # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009 Abstract Previous research has demonstrated that hormones, relationship goals, and social context influence interest in the opposite sex. It has not been

148

Sex, gender, and pain: Women and men really are different  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex-related differences in the experience of both clinical and experimentally induced pain have been widely reported. Specifically,\\u000a females are at greater risk for developing several chronic pain disorders, and women exhibit greater sensitivity to noxious\\u000a stimuli in the laboratory compared with men. Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for these sex differences. Psychosocial\\u000a factors such as sex role beliefs,

Roger B. Fillingim

2000-01-01

149

Sex trafficking and initiation-related violence, alcohol use, and HIV risk among HIV-infected female sex workers in Mumbai, India.  

PubMed

Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5 participants (41.7%) reported being forced or coerced into sex work. During the first month in sex work, such FSWs had higher odds of sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-6.1), ? 7 clients per day (AOR, 3.3; 1.8-6.1), no use of condoms (AOR, 3.8, 2.1-7.1), and frequent alcohol use (AOR, 1.9; 1.0-3.4) than HIV-infected FSWs not entering involuntarily. Those trafficked into sex work were also at higher odds for alcohol use at first sex work episode (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). These results suggest that having been trafficked into sex work is prevalent among this population and that such FSWs may face high levels of sexual violence, alcohol use, and exposure to HIV infection in the first month of sex work. Findings call into question harm reduction approaches to HIV prevention that rely primarily on FSW autonomy. PMID:22043037

Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Decker, Michele R; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H

2011-12-01

150

Structural barriers to receiving health care services for female sex workers in Russia.  

PubMed

Female sex workers in Russia have been particularly vulnerable to recent social, political, and economic changes. In this article, we describe the facilitators and barriers for sex workers receiving health care services in St. Petersburg, Russia. We conducted observations at medical institutions and nongovernmental organizations and in-depth interviews with 29 female sex workers. We identified the following barriers: poverty, not having documents, lack of anonymity in testing, and the official registration system. We identified the following facilitators: intervention by family members, social connections within the health care system, and referral services from a nongovernmental organization. Our findings indicate a need for reassessing policies and designing programs that better facilitate the use of health care services for the most vulnerable populations. This should include the expansion of support systems and outreach services designed to help female sex workers navigate the health care system. PMID:23774627

King, Elizabeth J; Maman, Suzanne

2013-08-01

151

Women brothel workers and occupational health risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objectives: This study examined working conditions, reported morbidity, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression and their relation to an index of occupational health risk among women working in brothels in Israel.Design: Personal structured interviews with a scale of occupational risk that included seven self report items reflecting past and present morbidity and symptoms.Participants and setting: A purposive

J Cwikel; K Ilan; B Chudakov

2003-01-01

152

Estimates of the number of female sex workers in different regions of the world  

PubMed Central

Objectives To collect estimated numbers of female sex workers (FSW) and present proportions of FSW in the female population (FSW prevalence) in different regions of the world. Methods Subnational and national estimated numbers of FSW reported in published and unpublished literature, as well as from field investigators involved in research or interventions targeted at FSW, were collected. The proportion of FSW in the adult female population was calculated. Subnational estimates were extrapolated to national estimates if appropriate. Population surveys were scanned for proportions of adult women having sex in exchange for money or goods. Results In sub?Saharan Africa, the FSW prevalence in the capitals ranged between 0.7% and 4.3% and in other urban areas between 0.4% and 4.3%. Population surveys from this same region yielded even higher proportions of women involved in transactional sex. The national FSW prevalence in Asia ranged between 0.2% and 2.6%; in the ex?Russian Federation between 0.1% and 1.5%; in East Europe between 0.4% and 1.4%; in West Europe between 0.1% and 1.4%; and in Latin America between 0.2% and 7.4%. Estimates from rural areas were only available from one country. Conclusions Although it is well known and accepted that FSW are a highly vulnerable group in the scope of the HIV epidemic, most countries in the world do not know the size of this population group. The estimates of the prevalence of FSW presented in this paper show how important this hard?to?reach population group is in all parts of the world. PMID:16735288

Vandepitte, J; Lyerla, R; Dallabetta, G; Crabbe, F; Alary, M; Buve, A

2006-01-01

153

Occupational health and safety amongst sex workers: a pilot peer education resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadly, it refers to the practice of those of the same societal group or social standing educating each other. Like other target groups, sex workers This paper presents an account of a pilot project to design and implement an innovative, sex- have been conceived as a marginalized population who are 'hard-to-reach' and vulnerable to health worker-driven approach to peer education

W. Rickard; T. Growney

2001-01-01

154

Sexual hazards, life experiences and social circumstances among male sex workers in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The sexual health and rights needs of male sex workers in Nigeria remain poorly understood and served. Men who sell sex are at high risk of discrimination and violation because of laws criminalising same-sex activity and sex work. This paper examines the experiences, social circumstances, vulnerabilities and sexual hazards experienced by male sex workers in Nigeria. In-depth interviews were used to explore the experiences of six male sex workers who were selected by means of convenience sampling from among those who came for counselling. Findings reveal that economic disadvantage drives some men to engage in sex work and risky sexual behaviour. Subsequently, sex work may put their lives and health at risk as a result of violation by the police and clients, including ritual murder. Men's extreme vulnerability points to the need for appropriate interventions to improve well-being. Sexual health and rights programmes must identify ways of making male sex workers less vulnerable to abuse, and devise strategies for protecting their health and human rights, while empowering them economically to reduce their dependency on often risky sexual behaviour for livelihoods. PMID:23252939

Okanlawon, Kehinde; Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Titilayo, Ayotunde

2013-01-01

155

Sexism and Women as Sex Object  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent analysis of schisms within feminist theory, in this journal, John Ryskamp commented on the women's movement and the evaluation of women as being sexually attractive and as objects. His comments were examined. (Author/RK)

Eames, Elizabeth R.

1976-01-01

156

Faculty Sex Composition and Job Satisfaction Among Academic Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The connection between faculty sex composition and job satisfaction among women academics in selected institutions of higher education in Pennsylvania was examined. Responses to a mailed questionnaire were received from 1,089 respondents, including 214 women. Biographical data and demographic information were collected, and job satisfaction was…

Hill, Malcolm D.

157

Sex affects health: women are different than men  

E-print Network

. Autoimmune conditions Sex affects health Males & females have different patterns of illness & health Cancer lactation Women have 34% less lean body mass Females more likely to maintain body fat than males Males but women have a much poorer outcome once diagnosed with heart disease. The death rate due to CVD

Dever, Jennifer A.

158

Sex education attitudes and outcomes among North American women.  

PubMed

Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents or schools reported fewer pregnancies and abortions. In school, women receiving a combination of contraceptive and abstinence education and those receiving primarily abstinence education were least likely to experience unplanned pregnancy. Religious identification was significantly related to unplanned pregnancy and type of sex education received from parents. These factors seem to play a significant role in reducing unplanned pregnancy and abortion. PMID:16689438

Williams, Monnica T; Bonner, Laura

2006-01-01

159

Conditional Manipulation of Sex Ratios by Ant Workers: A Test of Kin Selection Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable queen mating frequencies provide a unique opportunity to study the resolution of worker-queen conflict over sex ratio in social Hymenoptera, because the conflict is maximal in colonies headed by a singly mated queen and is weak or nonexistent in colonies headed by a multiply mated queen. In the wood ant Formica exsecta, workers in colonies with a singly mated

Liselotte Sundstrom; Michel Chapuisat; Laurent Keller

1996-01-01

160

The Zimbabwe HIV prevention program for truck drivers and commercial sex workers: a behaviour change intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Zimbabwe National Employment Council for the Transport Operating Industry (NECTOI) began an AIDS education program in 1992 targeting transport workers though their companies. An outreach program was designed for long-distance truck drivers and their assistants through their contacts with sex workers, to stabilize or reduce incidence of STDs including HIV among truckers and their sexual partners along three major

Karen Mupemba

161

The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women  

SciTech Connect

Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Gutai, J.P. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA)); Powell, J.G. (East Carolina School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (USA))

1989-06-01

162

Poz-itively Transformational: Sex Workers and HIV/AIDS Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

HIV and AIDS are complex events that offer numerous opportunities for adult education. However, mainstream education on this issue has often not been relevant to a number of subpopulations, including sex workers. This chapter explores sources and content of HIV/AIDS education in the sex work industry (including art and the Internet) and suggests…

Hill, Robert J.

2005-01-01

163

Risk behaviours among internet-facilitated sex workers: evidence from two new datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex workers have historically played a central role in STI outbreaks by forming a core group for transmission and due to their higher rates of concurrency and inconsistent condom usage. Over the past 15 years, North American commercial sex markets have been radically reorganised by internet technologies that channelled a sizeable share of the marketplace online. These changes may have

Scott Cunningham; Todd D Kendall

2010-01-01

164

Government crackdown of sex work in China: Responses from female sex workers and implications for their health.  

PubMed

The Chinese Government periodically enforces anti-prostitution laws through regular police presence in red light districts and through the arrests of brothel managers and sex workers. One of the most intense crackdowns on prostitution occurred throughout China in 2010. Using the 'structure-agency' framework and ethnographic approach, this paper examines the influence of the 2010 government anti-prostitution crackdown on female sex workers (FSWs). We observed 10 red light districts (6 cities and 2 counties) and interviewed 107 FSWs, 26 managers and 37 outreach workers working with FSWs. The findings describe variations in police practices and diverse strategies adopted by FSWs in response to police actions. The strategies include: soliciting sex outside of establishments in less visible channels, increasing the mobility and flexibility of sex work, changing sexual practices, sharing knowledge of how to identify policemen disguised as male clients and building personal relationships with local police. Our study suggests that, rather than disappearing as a result of crackdowns, the terms and content of sex work changed as a result of the FSWs' responses to police practices. Some of these responses potentially increased the health risks associated with sex work, but others laid the foundation for an effective response to police practices. PMID:25226069

Huang, Yingying; Pan, Suiming

2014-10-01

165

Acculturation and the Hispanic Woman: Attitudes Toward Women, Sex-Role Attribution, Sex-Role Behavior, and Demographics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the relationship of acculturation to the variables of attitudes toward women, sex-role attribution, sex-role behaviors, and demographics in Hispanic women. First, Mexican American women, and other Hispanic women, were investigated to determine if they could be placed on a continuum of acculturation. Second, the relationship between different levels of acculturation and the above variables was investigated.

Edgar J. Kranau; Vicki Green; Gloria Valencia-Weber

1982-01-01

166

'We are despised in the hospitals': sex workers' experiences of accessing health care in four African countries.  

PubMed

Sex workers in east and southern Africa are exposed to multiple occupational health and safety risks. Detailed understanding of barriers to accessing care would optimise design of improved services for this population. In this study, trained sex workers conducted 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with 106 female, 26 male and 4 transgender sex workers across 6 urban sites in Kenya, Zimbabwe, Uganda and South Africa. Data were analysed thematically, following an interpretive framework. Participants cited numerous unmet health needs, including diagnosis and treatment for sexually transmitted infections and insufficient access to condoms and lubricant. Denial of treatment for injuries following physical assault or rape and general hostility from public-sector providers was common. Resources permitting, many sex workers attended private services, citing higher quality and respect for dignity and confidentiality. Sex workers in southern Africa accessed specialised sex worker clinics, reporting mostly positive experiences. Across sites, participants called for additional targeted services, but also sensitisation and training of public-sector providers. Criminalisation of sex workers and associated stigmatisation, particularly of transgender and male sex workers, hinder HIV-prevention efforts and render access to mainstream healthcare precarious. Alongside law reform, sex worker-led peer outreach work should be strengthened and calls by sex workers for additional targeted services heeded. PMID:23414116

Scorgie, Fiona; Nakato, Daisy; Harper, Eric; Richter, Marlise; Maseko, Sian; Nare, Prince; Smit, Jenni; Chersich, Matthew

2013-01-01

167

Healthcare worker’s perceptions of barriers to care by immigrant women with postpartum depression: an exploratory qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Objective: We interviewed healthcare workers working in Toronto, Canada, regarding their experience of providing care to recent immigrant\\u000a women suffering from postpartum depression. The objective was two-fold: 1) to identify potential barriers to care that recent\\u000a immigrant women may encounter as perceived by healthcare workers; and 2) to identify challenges healthcare workers felt that\\u000a they faced as providers of

L. Teng; E. Robertson Blackmore; D. E. Stewart

2007-01-01

168

20 Facts on Women Workers. Fact Sheet No. 88-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fact sheet lists 20 interpreted statistics on women workers. The facts cover the following data: number of women workers and their percentage in the labor force; length of time women are expected to stay in the labor force; racial and ethnic groups in the labor force; part-time and full-time employment; types of occupations in which women are…

Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

169

Mental Health and Sexual Identity in a Sample of Male Sex Workers in the Czech Republic  

PubMed Central

Background Previous qualitative research has examined male sex workers in the Czech Republic, but this mapping study is the first to investigate male sex work in a quantitative research design and focus on the mental health of these sex workers. This study also examines male sex workers’ mental health problems in relation to their sexual identity or orientation. Material/Methods A sample of Czech male sex workers (N=40) were examined on a range of sexual and psychological variables using a quantitative survey administered face-to-face. The study employed locally validated versions of Beck’s Depression Inventory and Zung’s Self-Report Anxiety Scale. Results The results indicate that for homosexuals, working as a male sex worker is not related to any serious mental health problems. However, those identifying as heterosexual and bisexual more frequently reported symptoms of depression and bisexuals showed significantly more anxiety. Conclusions These findings suggest sexual identity is an important issue to consider when addressing the mental health needs of this population. PMID:25239091

Bar-Johnson, Michael; Weiss, Petr

2014-01-01

170

STI declines among sex workers and clients following outreach, one time presumptive treatment, and regular screening of sex workers in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Objectives This intervention linked research aimed to reduce prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) and Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) among female sex workers by means of one round of presumptive treatment (PT), and improved prevention and screening services. Methods A single round of PT (azithromycin 1?g) was given to all female sex workers reached during a 1?month period of enhanced outreach activity. Routine sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening services were successfully introduced for two groups of unregistered sex workers who work in brothels (BSWs) and on the street (SSWs). No changes were made to existing screening methods for registered sex workers (RSWs) or lower risk guest relations officers (GROs). Cross sectional prevalence of Ng and Ct was measured by PCR on three occasions, and stratified by type of sex work. Ng/Ct prevalence was assessed twice in clients of BSWs. Results Prevalence of Ng and/or Ct at baseline, 1?month post?PT, and 7?months post?PT was BSWs: 52%, 27%, 23%; SSWs: 41%, 25%, 28%; RSWs: 36%, 26%, 34%; GROs: 20%, 6%, 24%, respectively. Ng/Ct declines 1?month post?PT were significant for all groups. 6?months later prevalence remained low for BSWs (p<0.001), and SSWs (p?=?0.05), but had returned to pre?intervention levels for the other groups. Prevalence of Ng/Ct among clients of BSWs declined from 28% early in the intervention to 15% (p?=?0.03) 6?months later. Conclusions In this commercial sex setting, one round of PT had a short term impact on Ng/Ct prevalence. Longer term maintenance of STI control requires ongoing access to effective preventive and curative services. PMID:17012514

Wi, T; Ramos, E R; Steen, R; Esguerra, T A; Roces, M C R; Lim?Quizon, M C; Neilsen, G; Dallabetta, G

2006-01-01

171

Partners and Clients of Female Sex Workers in an Informal Urban Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

This paper compares and contrasts number of partners and condom use behaviour for female sex workers (FSWs) and a sample of women working in other economic activities, with both samples drawn from the large informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya. As expected, univariate analysis revealed much higher numbers of overall sexual partners and higher levels of condom use among FSWs compared to Kibera women in other occupations. An unexpected finding, however, was that FSWs with a romantic partner had significantly fewer sexual partners per unit time than FSWs without such a partner. This finding held for multivariate analysis, with negative binomial regression analyses showing that having a romantic partner was significantly associated with reductions in total number of both sexual partners overall and with sexual partners who did not use condoms. In contrast, HIV status, education, number of immediate family members, and levels of alcohol consumption were non-significant factors for both regression analyses. Results suggest that FSWs’ romantic partners act as more than sources of possible HIV infection; rather, romantic partners appear to also have an important positive impact on health. We discuss this finding in light of possible harm reduction programmes focusing on FSWs and their romantic partners. PMID:21936649

Ngugi, Elizabeth; Benoit, Cecilia; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga; Jansson, Mikael; Roth, Eric Abella

2013-01-01

172

HIV infection and related risk behaviours among female sex workers in greater Cairo, Egypt.  

PubMed

Although illegal in Egypt, prostitution exists. The prevalence of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Cairo is not precisely known. This cross-sectional study investigated the high-risk behaviour for HIV infection and HIV prevalence among FSWs in greater Cairo. A total of 431 FSWs were interviewed about their sexual history with paid and unpaid partners, condom use and risky behaviour for HIV infection; all were tested for HIV. Use of alcohol and drugs was reported by 39.9% and 49.0% of the women respectively; 37.6% only used such substances while with a client. Male condoms were known by 72.6% but their use in the previous month was low (32.8%) and only 22.4% had used one with their last client. The main reasons for not using condoms were not thinking of it (40.6%) and client refusal (20.5%). All the women tested negative for HIV infection. The high-risk behaviour of many FSWs necessitates intervention programmes to reduce their risk of HIV infection. PMID:23057384

Kabbash, I A; Abdul-Rahman, I; Shehata, Y A; Omar, A A R

2012-09-01

173

Truck drivers, middlemen and commercial sex workers: AIDS and the mediation of sex in south west Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although long distance truck drivers have been implicated in the spread of HIV in Africa, there is a paucity of studies of their sexual cultures. This paper reports on a study of the sexual culture of drivers, mediators and commercial sex workers (CSWs) in a roadside truck stop on the Trans-Africa highway in south west Uganda. Sixty-nine truck drivers, six

M. Gysels; R. Pool; K. Bwanika

2001-01-01

174

Is the partnership gap closing for women? Cohort differences in the sex gap in partnership chances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper test predictions from three social science explanations as to how sex differences in attainment of partnership and how women’s perceptions of sex discrimination should have changed as women have been integrated into law. Men’s and women’s partnership rates 15years after graduation and women’s reports of sex discrimination are compared for two cohorts of University of Michigan Law School

Mary C. Noonan; Mary E. Corcoran; Paul N. Courant

2008-01-01

175

Violence against substance-abusing South African sex workers: intersection with culture and HIV risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Republic of South Africa has become an epicentre of heterosexual HIV transmission among Black women, and the interface between violence against women, substance abuse, and HIV risk is becoming evident. This paper describes the characteristics of Black South African women who engage in sex work in Pretoria and examines their intersecting experiences of high-risk sexual behaviour, substance abuse, and

W. M. Wechsberg; W. K. Luseno; W. K. Lam

2005-01-01

176

Health outcomes among women trafficked for sex in the United States: a closer look.  

PubMed

Human trafficking is recognized as a major public health problem and a tragic transnational crime. Little is known about the health outcomes of victims of human trafficking. This study identifies the relationship of risk factors to physical, sexual, and mental health outcomes in three groups of women (N = 38) exploited for sex in the United States: international trafficking victims, domestic trafficking victims, and nontrafficked sex workers. To date this is the first study to examine the impact of risk factors on health outcomes using a sample of women trafficked for sex in the United States that includes both domestic and international victims. Overall, findings suggest that the experiences in sex work of domestic trafficking victims were dissimilar to those of international trafficking victims. Moreover, domestic trafficking victims displayed poorer health outcomes compared to international trafficking victims. In terms of risk factors, a higher percentage of women involved in street prostitution reported sexual health problems, co-occurring health issues, and addiction. Childhood physical/sexual victimization was related to poor physical health. PMID:23295378

Muftic, Lisa R; Finn, Mary A

2013-06-01

177

Sex Hormones in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer on Tamoxifen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 42 postmenopausal women with breast cancer aged 48-85 (mean age 62.4) years, the blood sex hormone levels were measured before and after 6 months of tamoxifen administration (20 mg daily). Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels decreased after tamoxifen administration (p < 0.001), but remained in the postmenopausal range, oestradiol levels increased (p < 0.05), sex hormone binding globulin

Ifigenia Kostoglou-Athanaou; Konstantinos Ntalles; John Gogas; Christos Markopoulos; Vassiliki Alevizou-Terzaki; Panagiotis Athanassiou; Evangelos Georgiou; Charalambos Proukakis

1997-01-01

178

Group Work Practice with Transgendered Male to Female Sex Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines group work with transgendered male-to-female adolescents who engage in sex work. Provides an overview of the role that sex work plays in the lives of some transgendered youth, using case examples, and offers guidance for those utilizing group work approaches with transgendered adolescents. Discusses homelessness and institutionalization,…

Klein, Rebecca

1999-01-01

179

Women inmates' risky sex and drug behaviors: are they related?  

PubMed

The large concentration of female illicit drug users in state correctional facilities prompted an examination of the associations among different types of drug use and sexual risk factors related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among women inmates. A consecutive sample of 805 women felons admitted to the North Carolina Correctional Institution for Women between July 1991 and November 1992 was interviewed. Of these inmates, 651 had complete information on relevant characteristics. Of the women inmates, 73% had used drugs prior to incarceration; most women were crack smokers only (33%), followed by non-drug users (27%), other drug users (19%), crack-smoking injecting drug users (15%), and injecting drug users only (6%). Inconsistent condom use with multiple sex partners, a history of a diagnosed sexually transmitted disease (STD), a drug-injecting sex partner, or exchanging sex for money or drugs prior to incarceration were reported by 55% of the women. Sexual risk factors differed across different types of drug users, with crack-smoking injectors being placed at greatest potential risk for exposure to heterosexually transmitted HIV, followed by injecting drug users, crack smokers, and then other drug users. Given the differential associations between sexual risk factors and types of drug use, prison-based sexual-risk reduction strategies should be tailored to specific types of drug users. In times of limited resources, special attention should be given to crack smokers and/or drug injectors. PMID:10078982

Cotten-Oldenburg, N U; Jordan, B K; Martin, S L; Kupper, L

1999-02-01

180

Women, sex and marriage. Restraint as a feminine strategy.  

PubMed

The expression of sexuality varies in different cultures, and most societies attempt to control sexuality through the institution of marriage. In the West, the availability of cheap, effective contraceptives separated sex from reproduction and promoted the sexual liberation of women. Today, while divorce is common, sexually liberated people nevertheless engage in a form of serial monogamy. Sexual liberation in the West causes women to be exploited by men and creates instability in nuclear families. In India, feminism is tempered by a belief that familial rights have precedence over individual rights. India women practice sexual self-denial after being widowed to protect their children and to gain power and respect in the community. The power of chastity was illustrated by Mahatma Gandhi who marshalled his spiritual forces to fight for independence. The stories of many individual women illustrate how they attain status and prestige through chastity. Other women maintain absolute marital faithfulness as a marital strategy to control wayward husbands. These women deemphasize their roles as wives and emphasize their roles as mothers. The children of such women often recognize their sacrifices and become their strongest allies. On the other hand, examples of women who have chosen sexual freedom show that such a choice places them at the mercy of men, makes them social outcasts, and causes other women to distrust them as competitors for their husbands. In patriarchal societies, women can not win if they try to mimic men's capacity for irresponsible sex. Sexual freedom can only work for women in matrilineal communities that shun marriage in favor of strong ties within a woman's natal family. Indian women rooted in the extended family enjoy the resilience and flexibility attendant upon playing a larger role than simply pleasing men. Opting for sexual restraint can be an effective though costly strategy to achieve the sympathy and support of an extended family when a man is being sexually irresponsible. PMID:12348107

Kishwar, M

1997-01-01

181

Emputada: A Transnational Critique of Trafficking, Prostitution, and Global Sex Worker Organizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis provides a genealogy of the international sex trafficking discourse, as defined juridically through the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, by annotating how the category and definition of \\

Alexandra Douglas

2008-01-01

182

Men's and women's responses to sex role portrayals in advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the emotions evoked with the audience by advertisements featuring female and male models in different sex roles? Do women and men differ in their emotional and attitudinal response? And how do consumer a priori attitudes towards stereotyped portrayals affect advertising effectiveness? These and related questions are addressed in this paper by examining consumer response to magazine advertisements for

Ulrich R Orth; Denisa Holancova

2004-01-01

183

Transactional sex risk and STI among HIV-infected female sex workers and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

To describe sex risk behaviors of HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs) and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs, to evaluate associations between risky transactional sex and number of unprotected transactional sex episodes, and to assess the association between unprotected transactional sex and self-reported sexually transmitted infection (STI). Adult HIV-infected FSWs (n=211) and HIV-infected male clients (n=205) were surveyed in Mumbai about

Anita Raj; N. Saggurti; Debbie M. Cheng; Anindita Dasgupta; Carly Bridden; Manojkumar Pradeshi; J. H. Samet

2011-01-01

184

Enumeration of sex workers in the central business district of Nairobi, Kenya.  

PubMed

Accurate program planning for populations most at risk for HIV/STI acquisition requires knowledge of the size and location where these populations can best be reached. To obtain this information for sex workers operating at 137 hotspots in the central business district (CBD) in Nairobi, Kenya, we utilized a combined mapping and capture-recapture enumeration exercise. The majority of identified hotspots in this study were bars. Based on this exercise, we estimate that 6,904 male and female sex workers (95% confidence intervals, 6690 and 7118) were working nightly in the Nairobi CBD in April 2009. Wide ranges of captures per spot were obtained, suggesting that relatively few hot spots (18%) contain a relatively high proportion of the area's sex workers (65%). We provide geographic data including relatively short distances from hotspots to our dedicated sex worker outreach program in the CBD (mean<1 km), and clustering of hotspots within a relatively small area. Given the size covered and areas where sex work is likely taking place in Nairobi, the estimate is several times lower than what would be obtained if the entire metropolitan area was enumerated. These results have important practical and policy implications for enhancing HIV/STI prevention efforts. PMID:23372713

Kimani, Joshua; McKinnon, Lyle R; Wachihi, Charles; Kusimba, Judith; Gakii, Gloria; Birir, Sarah; Muthui, Mercy; Kariri, Anthony; Muriuki, Festus K; Muraguri, Nicholas; Musyoki, Helgar; Ball, T Blake; Kaul, Rupert; Gelmon, Lawrence

2013-01-01

185

The voices of sex workers (prostitues?) and the dilemma of feminist discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of prostitution has been a longtime concern for many societies. It has also been a complicated issue within feminist discourse. Some women choose sex work as a viable economic option while others are forced into prostitution by traffickers and pimps and some are forced into it due to disadvantaged circumstances. The presence of sex work and prostitution is

Justine L Kessler

2005-01-01

186

The deregulated global economy: women workers and strategies of resistance.  

PubMed

This article discusses the lack of input from women in international debates about the global economy. Women in the South are the most vulnerable to exploitation and most ignored in international discussions of how to protect fair labor standards. Restructuring has led to loss of secure jobs in the public sector and the expansion of female employment in low-paid, insecure, unskilled jobs. Businesses desire a cheap and flexible workforce. Declines in social services, the elimination of subsidies on basic goods, and the introduction of user fees puts pressure on women to supplement family income. A parallel outcome is reduced employment rights, neglect of health and safety standards, and increased disregard among women for their domestic responsibilities. There is a need for alternative models of development. The Self-Employed Women's Organization in India serves as a model for resisting exploitation among self-employed and home-based employees. Female industrial strikers are demanding attention to excessive hours of work, enforced overtime, bullying, and lack of sanitary and medical facilities. There is always fear that organized resistance will lead to industrial relocation or loss of jobs. The International Labor Organization has had a code for 20 years, but the threat of exposure to the press is sometimes more effective. There must be regulation throughout subcontracting chains of transnational companies. International alliances should revolve around issues/strategies identified by workers. International alliances are needed for influencing multinational companies and national governments and lobbying global economic and financial institutions. Standards that are included in social clause discussions are minimum requirements that do not address gender-specific issues. Women Working Worldwide is developing a position statement of social clauses that incorporates a women's perspective. PMID:12347718

Hale, A

1996-10-01

187

Safer Conception Needs for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Burkina Faso and Togo  

PubMed Central

Background. Reproductive health programming for female sex workers (FSW) may include contraceptive services but rarely addresses safer pregnancy planning. Methods. Adult FSW were enrolled into a cross-sectional study across four sites in Burkina Faso and Togo using respondent-driven sampling. Sociobehavioral questionnaires and HIV counseling and testing were administered. Sample statistics and engagement in HIV treatment were described and compared using Chi-squared statistics. Results. 1,349 reproductive-aged FSW were enrolled from January to July 2013. Overall, 267 FSW (19.8%) were currently trying to conceive. FSW trying to conceive were more likely to test positive for HIV at enrollment as compared to women not trying to become pregnant (24.5% versus 17.7%, P < 0.01); however awareness of HIV status was similar across groups. Among FSW trying to conceive, 79.0% (211/267) had previously received HIV testing, yet only 33.8% (23/68) of HIV-infected FSW reported a previous HIV diagnosis. Overall 25.0% (17/68) of HIV-infected FSW trying to conceive were on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion. FSW frequently desire children. However engagement in the HIV prevention and treatment cascade among FSW trying to conceive is poor potentiating periconception transmission risks to partners and infants. Programs to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis for FSW and safer conception counseling are needed as components of effective combination HIV prevention services.

Schwartz, Sheree R.; Papworth, Erin; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Anato, Simplice; Ouedraogo, Henri Gautier; Ketende, Sosthenes; Pitche, Vincent Palokinam

2014-01-01

188

Violence, HIV risk behaviour and depression among female sex workers of eastern Nepal  

PubMed Central

Objectives The primary objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of depression among female sex workers (FSWs) of eastern Nepal. The secondary objective was to search for an association between depression, violence and HIV risk behaviour. Design Cross-sectional/observational study. Study setting This study was carried out in five cities of eastern Nepal (Dharan, Itahari, Biratnagar, Damak and Birtamode). Both restaurant-based and street-based FSWs were recruited in the study. Participants Women who had been involved in commercial sex activity in the past 6?months and gave informed consent were included in the study. Primary outcome measure A score of more than or equal to 16 on the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) scale was considered as depression. Methodology Face-to-face interviews were conducted with respondents who were sought through a snowball sampling technique. Information regarding their depression status, HIV high-risk behaviour and violence was recorded. The estimated sample size was 210. Results We interviewed 210 FSWs (both restaurant-based and street-based). The prevalence of depression among respondents was 82.4%. FSWs who had experienced violence were five times more likely to be depressed than those who were not victims of violence. The odds of depression were six times higher among respondents who were involved in any HIV risk behaviour compared with those who were not involved. Conclusions The present study reports a high prevalence of depression, HIV risk behaviours and violence among FSWs of eastern Nepal. The mental health of FSWs should also be regarded as an important aspect of HIV prevention efforts which can help to promote the overall health of this population. PMID:23794589

Sagtani, Reshu Agrawal; Bhattarai, Sailesh; Adhikari, Baikuntha Raj; Baral, Dharanidhar; Yadav, Deepak Kumar; Pokharel, Paras Kumar

2013-01-01

189

Integrated bio-behavioural HIV surveillance surveys among female sex workers in Sudan, 2011-2012  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess HIV and syphilis prevalence, HIV-related behaviours and testing for HIV in female sex workers (FSW) in Sudan. Design Bio-behavioural surveys using respondent-driven sampling were carried out among FSW in the capital cities of 14 states in Sudan in 2011–2012. HIV and syphilis testing was done by rapid tests. Results 4220 FSW aged 15–49?years were recruited. The median age of recruited women varied from 21 to 28?years per site. The highest HIV prevalence was measured at two sites in the eastern zone (5.0% and 7.7%), while in the other zones it ranged from 0% to 1.5%. Syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.5% in the northern zone to 8.9% in the eastern zone. Ever having been tested for HIV was reported by 4.4%–23.9% of FSW across all sites. Condom use at last sex with a client varied from 4.7% to 55.1%, while consistent condom use with clients in the month preceding the surveys was reported by 0.7%–24.5% of FSW. The highest reporting of ever injecting drugs was measured at a site in the western zone (5.0%). Conclusions The surveys’ findings indicate that the highest burden of HIV in FSW is in the eastern states of the country. Condom use and HIV testing data demonstrate the need for HIV interventions that should focus on HIV testing and risk reduction strategies that include stronger condom promotion programmes in FSW and their clients. PMID:23996450

Elhadi, Magda; Elbadawi, Abdulateef; Abdelrahman, Samira; Mohammed, Ibtisam; Bozicevic, Ivana; Hassan, Ehab A; Elmukhtar, Mohammed; Ahmed, Sally; Abdelraheem, Mohammed Sidahmed; Mubarak, Nazik; Elsanousi, Salwa; Setayesh, Hamidreza

2013-01-01

190

A Profile of HIV Risk Factors in the Context of Sex Work Environments among Migrant Female Sex Workers in Beijing, China  

PubMed Central

Migrant female sex workers (FSWs) are one of the most at-risk populations for HIV in China. This study demonstrates how multiple risk factors are situated and vary by types of sex work environments in a sample of 348 migrant FSWs in Beijing. Participants reported high rates of clients' refusal to use condoms (76%), unsafe sex with both clients (32%), non-paid regular partners (e.g., boyfriend or husband) (76%), and a STI symptom (79%) last year. Only 22% of FSWs had been tested for HIV. Risk factors were compared by three types of sex work environments: (1) entertainment establishments, (2) personal services sectors, and (3) street-based venues, including roadside brothels. Street-based FSWs, compared to the other FSWs, were more likely to be older, married with children, migrate from rural areas, and be arrested by police, and less likely to be educated, have contact with prevention services, be knowledgeable about HIV, and be tested for HIV. The FSWs in entertainment establishments were more likely than street-based FSWs to have reported being physically, verbally, and/or sexually abused by clients. Multiple discriminant analysis distinguished a profile of two different groups of risk factors: (1) police arrest, lack of protection from violence, access to prevention and health care, and HIV knowledge, and (2) verbal and physical abuse and clients' refusal of condom use. In the massive internal migration in China, disadvantages in economic sectors drive women to become involved in sex work. HIV prevention strategies must target socio-structural factors embedded in sex work environments. PMID:20391235

Yi, Huso; Mantell, Joanne E.; Wu, Rongrong; Lu, Zhao; Zeng, Jing; Wan, Yanhai

2010-01-01

191

Street smarts and urban myths: women, sex work, and the role of storytelling in risk reduction and rationalization.  

PubMed

Storytelling has a strong tradition in inner-city American communities. In this article, we examine patterns of storytelling among a sample of drug-using women from New York City who engage in street-based sex work. We consider two particular formats of storytelling for analysis: "street smarts" and "urban myths." Street smarts are stories of survival, and urban myths are compilations of street legends spread by word of mouth. The narratives are filled with tales of extreme risk across situations. The women used the stories to delineate the boundaries of risk as well as to rationalize risks they deemed to be inevitable but temporary in their lives. Few of the women capitalized on the greater instructive quality of the stories toward increased risk reduction, which may relate to the women's distance from an identity of "sex worker." If properly harnessed, the strength of storytelling suggests new avenues for risk-reduction interventions. PMID:15974325

Roche, Brenda; Neaigus, Alan; Miller, Maureen

2005-06-01

192

Sex with women among men who have sex with men in China: prevalence and sexual practices.  

PubMed

Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are a potential bridge population for transmitting HIV to heterosexual women. This study assessed key characteristics of this subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Of 1141 eligible MSM, 45.6% reported bisexual behaviors. Besides marriage as a strong predictor (odds ratio: 23.90, 95% confidence interval: 14.29-39.98), older age (1.12, 1.10-1.15) and lower education (or no college education) (1.98, 1.52-2.59) were also independently associated with having ever had sex with women. MSMW reported higher proportions of alcohol drinking, heterosexual/bisexual orientation, and preference for an insertive role in anal sex than men who had sex with men only; but there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and in history of sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention intervention programs should break the bridging role of HIV transmission in MSMW population. PMID:23931683

Tao, Jun; Ruan, Yuhua; Yin, Lu; Vermund, Sten H; Shepherd, Bryan E; Shao, Yiming; Qian, Han-Zhu

2013-09-01

193

Sex with Women Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: Prevalence and Sexual Practices  

PubMed Central

Abstract Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are a potential bridge population for transmitting HIV to heterosexual women. This study assessed key characteristics of this subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Of 1141 eligible MSM, 45.6% reported bisexual behaviors. Besides marriage as a strong predictor (odds ratio: 23.90, 95% confidence interval: 14.29–39.98), older age (1.12, 1.10–1.15) and lower education (or no college education) (1.98, 1.52–2.59) were also independently associated with having ever had sex with women. MSMW reported higher proportions of alcohol drinking, heterosexual/bisexual orientation, and preference for an insertive role in anal sex than men who had sex with men only; but there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and in history of sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention intervention programs should break the bridging role of HIV transmission in MSMW population. PMID:23931683

Tao, Jun; Ruan, Yuhua; Yin, Lu; Vermund, Sten H.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Shao, Yiming

2013-01-01

194

Have sex will travel: romantic ‘sex tourism’ and women negotiating modernity in the Sinai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1970s, studies on western women's ethnosexual tourist–local relationships have tended to focus on the beaches of the Caribbean and have come to one of two main conclusions – either they are no different from the overtly exploitative relationships of heterosexual male sex tourists or they are different because they involve a softer, caring element of romance. This article

Jessica Jacobs

2009-01-01

195

HIV, syphilis infection, and sexual practices among transgenders, male sex workers, and other men who have sex with men in Jakarta, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To establish the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and sexual risk behaviour among three groups of men who have sex with men in Jakarta, Indonesia, and to investigate sexual links between these men and broader heterosexual populations.Methods: Anonymous, cross sectional surveys among community recruited transgender and male sex workers and self recognised men who have sex with men (MSM) were

E Pisani; P Girault; M Gultom; N Sukartini; J Kumalawati; S Jazan; E Donegan

2004-01-01

196

Men's and Women's Preferences Regarding Sex-Related and Nurturing Traits in Dating Partners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate men and women (n=103) were randomly assigned to a sex-primed, a nurturing-primed, or a control condition. The hypothesis that men will prefer sex and women will prefer nurturing was supported: across experimental conditions, men preferred sex-related qualities and women preferred nurturing qualities. Environmental primes had little…

Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Heesacker, Martin

1995-01-01

197

Clinical Characteristics Associated with Mycoplasma genitalium among Female Sex Workers in Nairobi, Kenya.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium is high in vulnerable populations of women in low-resource settings. However, the epidemiology of infection in these populations is not well established. To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and its association with cervical cytology and other correlates, we recruited 350 female sex workers (FSW) who were 18 to 50 years old in Nairobi, Kenya, for a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was administered at baseline to obtain information on sociodemographics and sexual behaviors. Women underwent a pelvic exam, during which a physician collected cervical-exfoliation samples for conventional cytology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Samples were tested for M. genitalium and other STI organisms (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis) and the E6/E7 mRNA of human papillomavirus (HPV) by Aptima nucleic amplification assays. The prevalence of M. genitalium was 12.9%. FSW who engaged in sexual intercourse during menses were less likely to have M. genitalium infection than those who did not (odds ratio [OR], 0.3; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.1, 0.9). M. genitalium was also less prevalent among FSW who had worked in prostitution for >5 years (6.2%) than among those who had worked for <3 years (17.6%) (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1, 0.8). FSW who reported more frequent condom use were more likely to be infected with M. genitalium than those who reported less frequent use (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.2, 11.6). These correlates differ from those found in M. genitalium studies conducted with FSW from West Africa and China. Further longitudinal analyses assessing associations with persistent M. genitalium infection are needed. PMID:25100823

Gomih-Alakija, Ayodele; Ting, Jie; Mugo, Nelly; Kwatampora, Jessie; Getman, Damon; Chitwa, Michael; Patel, Suha; Gokhale, Mugdha; Kimani, Joshua; Behets, Frieda S; Smith, Jennifer S

2014-10-01

198

Studying alcohol use prior to sexual intercourse among female sex workers in eastern Indonesia.  

PubMed

Researching female sex workers (FSWs) in Indonesia, where commercial sex tends to be hidden or undercover, is challenging but possible. This is even more challenging when it involves investigation of sensitive behaviors, such as their alcohol use, a known disinhibitor to risk behavior. The adoption of effective strategies is needed to increase response rates and improve data quality. This article describes procedures used to research FSWs' alcohol use during commercial sex in the Eastern part of Indonesia. Challenges, lessons learned, and recommendations for best practices are discussed. PMID:23819738

Safika, Iko; Johnson, Timothy P

2013-12-01

199

Transactional sex risk across a typology of rural and urban female sex workers in Indonesia: a mixed methods study.  

PubMed

Context-specific typologies of female sex workers (FSWs) are essential for the design of HIV intervention programming. This study develops a novel FSW typology for the analysis of transactional sex risk in rural and urban settings in Indonesia. Mixed methods include a survey of rural and urban FSWs (n=310), in-depth interviews (n=11), key informant interviews (n=5) and ethnographic assessments. Thematic analysis categorises FSWs into 5 distinct groups based on geographical location of their sex work settings, place of solicitation, and whether sex work is their primary occupation. Multiple regression analysis shows that the likelihood of consistent condom use was higher among urban venue-based FSWs for whom sex work is not the only source of income than for any of the other rural and urban FSW groups. This effect was explained by the significantly lower likelihood of consistent condom use by rural venue-based FSWs (adjusted OR: 0.34 95% CI 0.13-0.90, p=0.029). The FSW typology and differences in organisational features and social dynamics are more closely related to the risk of unprotected transactional sex, than levels of condom awareness and availability. Interventions need context-specific strategies to reach the different FSWs identified by this study's typology. PMID:23285205

Puradiredja, Dewi Ismajani; Coast, Ernestina

2012-01-01

200

Epidemiology and Etiology of Sexually Transmitted Infection among Hotel-Based Sex Workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among hotel-based sex workers (HBSWs) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, was studied. A total of 400 HBSWs were enrolled in the study during April to July 2002. Endocervical swabs, high vaginal swabs, and blood samples from 400 HBSWs were examined for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (by culture), Chlamydia trachomatis (by PCR), Trichomonas

Khairun Nessa; Shama-A Waris; Zafar Sultan; Shirajum Monira; Maqsud Hossain; Shamsun Nahar; Habibur Rahman; Mahbub Alam; Pam Baatsen; Motiur Rahman

2004-01-01

201

An HIV-Prevention Intervention for Sex Workers in Tijuana, Mexico: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Female sex workers (FSW) are at high risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, and putting their clients and other partners at risk for infection. There is considerable evidence that Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)?based interventions are effective in reducing high-risk sexual behavior among at-risk populations in the…

Patterson, Thomas L.; Semple, Shirley J.; Fraga, Miguel; Bucardo, Jesus; Davila-Fraga, Wendy; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2005-01-01

202

Factors associated with HIV among female sex workers in a high HIV prevalent state of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur, Nagaland, a high HIV prevalence state of India. A total of 426 FSWs were recruited into the study using respondent driven sampling (RDS). Data on demographic characteristics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours were collected from them and were tested for

Gajendra Kumar Medhi; Jagadish Mahanta; Ramesh S. Paranjape; Rajatashuvra Adhikary; Nabjyoti Laskar; P. Ngully

2011-01-01

203

Factors associated with HIV among female sex workers in a high HIV prevalent state of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur, Nagaland, a high HIV prevalence state of India. A total of 426 FSWs were recruited into the study using respondent driven sampling (RDS). Data on demographic characteristics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours were collected from them and were tested for

Gajendra Kumar Medhi; Jagadish Mahanta; Ramesh S. Paranjape; Rajatashuvra Adhikary; Nabjyoti Laskar; P. Ngully

2012-01-01

204

Demographic Correlates of Constant Condom Use among Sex Workers in Tangail, Dhaka, Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consistent condom use, particularly by promiscuous individuals, is a major safeguard against sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. This study examines some demographic factors that may affect such use among Bangladeshi female commercial sex workers at a brothel in Tangail (n = 196; mean age = 23.44 years), and the streets of Dhaka (n…

Eva, Nilufar Akter; Munakata, Tsunetsugu; Onuoha, Francis N.

2007-01-01

205

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (serotypes DK) infection in Jamaican commercial street sex workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in commercial street sex workers (CSSW) in Jamaica. METHODS: The prevalence of C trachomatis infection was determined in 129 Jamaican CSSW using the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) method and the isolation techniques which utilise fluorescent and iodine staining of endocervical cytobrush specimens cultured in McCoy cells. The seroprevalence of C

G Dowe; S D King; A R Brathwaite; Z Wynter; R Chout

1997-01-01

206

Young Sex-Workers in Ho Chi Minh City Telling Their Life Stories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study the life stories of 22 sex-workers (age 15-18 years) in Vietnam are organized into three thematic narratives depicting how the girls presented their lives. Poverty, lack of job alternatives and the responsibility to share in the support of their families led the girls into prostitution. Strong family ties gave many girls…

Rubenson, Birgitta; Hanh, Le Thi; Hojer, Bengt; Johansson, Eva

2005-01-01

207

Review of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female sex workers (FSW) are at greater risk for HIV and STIs. A systematic literature review of HIV and STI prevalence and incidence data for FSW in China was conducted to assess current trends. Studies between 1996 and 2010 detailing seroprevalence or incidence data, other laboratory-based tests, and clinical diagnoses of infections among FSW were reviewed. Select articles from Chinese

Adrienne N. Poon; Zhijun Li; Ning Wang; Yan Hong

2011-01-01

208

High-risk behavior of HIV/AIDS among females sex workers in Bangladesh: survey in Rajshahi City.  

PubMed

Female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients are one of the major sources of spread of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of unprotected sex among FSWs in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. A total of 200 FSWs were randomly selected for the survey from February to September 2012. The age range of FSWs was 16-41 years (average age, 24.52 ± 6.26 years), and the majority of these women (84.4%) were married. More than 88% of FSWs reported practicing unprotected sex because of clients' insistence. Further analysis showed a significantly higher rate of protected sex among unmarried FSWs (P < 0.01). Approximately 32% of FSWs did not undergo voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for HIV, and this factor was significantly associated with the education level (P < 0.01), age (P < 0.01), and economic status (P < 0.05). Furthermore, 89.5% respondents did not ask their new clients about VCT/HIV status, and this factor was associated with the resident area (P < 0.05), age (P < 0.05), and economic status (P < 0.01) of FSWs. Authorities in this country should focus their HIV/AIDS prevention efforts on illiterate FSWs, married FSWs, and FSWs aged below 21 years or above 30 years. PMID:24858608

Uddin, Sheikh Moin; Hossain, Md Golam; Islam, Md Ashraful; Islam, Md Nurul; Aik, Saw; Kamarul, T

2014-01-01

209

Acceptability of circumcision among clients of female sex worker in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Clients of female sex workers (CFSW) are at high risk of HIV transmission. Circumcision reduces the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV. A total of 353 CFSW were interviewed using a combined interviewer-computer-assisted method. Amongst the participants, 28.0% were circumcised, whilst 63.8% of the uncircumcised participants were willing to take up circumcision (conditioned on being briefed about a 50% potential risk reduction effect). In a stepwise logistic regression model, frequency of patronizing female sex workers and factors related to the Health Belief Model were significantly associated with conditional willingness. Amongst uncircumcised participants, 20.9% anticipated risk compensation (i.e. would use condoms less frequently after being circumcised). Adjusting for background variables, inconsistent condom use during commercial sex and self-reported STD history in the last 6 months were significantly associated with anticipated risk compensation. It is feasible to promote circumcision among CFSW but such programs also need to promote condom use. PMID:22080385

Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph T F; Gu, Jing

2012-10-01

210

Predictors of HIV Sexual Risk Behavior among Men Who Have Sex with Men, Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women, and Transgender Women  

PubMed Central

Men who have sex with men, men who have sex with men and women, and transgender women are at high risk for HIV infection. This study seeks to clarify which known HIV risk factors (partner type, sex location, serodiscordance, multiple sex partners, substance use during sex) contribute to engagement in high-risk (unprotected receptive anal) sex in each population. Data collected from June 2005 through June 2008 indicate all three populations display different HIV sexual risk profiles. The data suggest that HIV-prevention interventions should be individually tailored to address the specific needs of these three highly vulnerable and impacted populations. PMID:24660042

Bowers, Jane Rohde; Branson, Catherine M.; Fletcher, Jesse B.; Reback, Cathy J.

2014-01-01

211

Women and Sex at Midlife: Desire, Dysfunction, and Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arewomen likely to experience more sexual and relationship satisfaction in midlife than in earlier periods of their lives?\\u000a Which women are, and why? Does a woman experience heterosexual partner sex more positively when she is no longer responsible\\u000a for birth control or parenting? In what ways, if any, do the sexual relations of aging lesbians improve over time? Arewomen\\u000a who

Maureen C. McHugh

212

Survival times of pre-1950 US women radium dial workers  

SciTech Connect

Survival times of US women radium dial workers to the end of 1989 were examined by life table methods. Included were 1301 women rust employed before 1930 and 1242 first employed in 1930-1949. Expected numbers of deaths were estimated from age- and time-specific death rates for US white females. In the early group, 85 deaths from the well-known radium-induced cancers - bone sarcomas and head carcinomas - were observed, but only 724 deaths from aH other causes were observed vs 755 expected. Life shortening ({plus_minus}S.E.) of 1.8 {plus_minus}0.5 y compared to the general population of US white females was calculated from the time distribution of all deaths in the pre-1930 group. In the 1930--1949 group, 350 deaths were observed vs 343 expected and no bone sarcomas or head carcinomas occurred. Among women who survived at least 2 y after rust measurement of body radium, a significant excess of observed vs expected deaths was found only for radium intakes greater than 1.85 MBq of {sup 226}Ra + {sup 228}Ra, and no trend of deaths or reduction of life expectancy was found with length of employment.

Stehney, A.F.

1994-05-01

213

When It Comes to Sex Partners, Men Prefer Younger Women: Study  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. When It Comes to Sex Partners, Men Prefer Younger Women: Study Researchers found women likelier ... News) -- In books and movies, plots involving older men chasing much younger women abound. Now, new research ...

214

Sexy ladies sexing ladies: women as consumers in strip clubs.  

PubMed

Recent shifts in the consumer base of the sex industry have involved greater female attendance in strip clubs. This article examines how strip clubs and dancers incorporate female patrons into a sexualized space traditionally designed for men by identifying three interactional processes: passing over, sidestaging, and tailoring. We suggest dancers pass over women because they perceive female patron behavior to include resistance to "buying the game" and spending patterns that diverge from male customers. Drawing on Goffman's dramaturgical analysis, we suggest the dynamic relationship between dancer and female patron involves what we term sidestaging, which refers to both dancers' disclosure and how the club's spatial organization inhibits the construction of women as customers through sharing gendered spaces, such as the bathroom. We argue that when a dancer tailors her lap dance for a female patron, she succeeds in acknowledging the female customer's sexual subjectivity and potential same-sex desires by providing an individualized avenue for exploring an erotic experience. Finally, we discuss data implications for understanding how same-sex desire and sexual identity operate in an environment that eroticizes the female form, and how the strip club becomes a potential space for engaging in same-sex eroticism that includes elements of play. PMID:18686149

Wosick-Correa, Kassia R; Joseph, Lauren J

2008-01-01

215

Cognitive function in association with sex hormones in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Several studies have suggested gender differences in cognitive function, but data on the association between sex hormones and cognitive function are contradictory. The aim of our randomized double-blind study was to explore the possible relations between cognitive function and serum levels of sex hormones, oxytocin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in postmenopausal women. Two-hundred healthy postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to receive estrogen, testosterone or placebo treatment for 1 month. The associations of spatial ability, verbal fluency and verbal memory with serum levels of estradiol, testosterone, estradiol/testosterone ratio, androstanediol, oxytocin and IGF-I were analyzed. Spatial ability showed a negative correlation with serum estradiol, estradiol/testosterone ratio, oxytocin levels and a positive association with androstanediol levels. Verbal fluency displayed a negative relationship with serum levels of testosterone, IGF-I and a positive with estradiol/testosterone ratio. Verbal memory displayed a positive correlation to androstanediol. Data suggest that not only absolute levels of sex hormones but also the balance between estrogen and testosterone and their metabolites may be important for cognitive function in women. PMID:22967437

Kocoska-Maras, Ljiljana; Rådestad, Angelique Flöter; Carlström, Kjell; Bäckström, Torbjörn; von Schoultz, Bo; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

2013-01-01

216

Implementing for results: Program analysis of the HIV/STI interventions for sex workers in Benin  

PubMed Central

HIV response has entered a new era shaped by evidence that the combination of interventions impacts the trajectory of the epidemic. Even proven interventions, however, can be ineffective if not to scale, appropriately implemented, and with the right combination. Benin is among the pioneering countries that prioritized HIV prevention for sex workers and clients early on. Effective implementation up to 2006 resulted in consistent condom use among sex workers increasing from 39% to 86.2% and a decline in prevalence of gonorrhea from 5.4% to 1.6%. This study responds to the growing concern that, although proven interventions for female sex workers (FSWs) were expanded in Benin since 2008, indicators of coverage and behaviors are far from satisfactory. The quest to better understand implementation and how to render service delivery efficient and effective resonates with increased emphasis in the international arena on return for investments. Quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized to collect data. The output measured is the number of sex workers seeking Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) care at user-friendly STI Clinics (SCs). Data were collected for 2010–2011 in nine regions of Benin. While recognizing that commitment to scale up is commendable, the study revealed deficiencies in program design and implementation that undermine outcomes. The selected mix of interventions is not optimal. Allocation of funds is not proportionate to the needs of FSW across regions. Only 5 of 41 SCs were fully functional at time of study. Free distribution of condoms covers only 10% of needs of FSWs. Funding and financing gaps resulted in extended interruptions of services. Successful HIV prevention in Benin will depend on the effective and efficient implementation of well-funded programs in sex work setting. Resources should be aligned to local sex work typology and presence in communities. A national framework defining an appropriate mix of interventions, management structure, referral mechanisms, and operational standards is required to guide rigorous implementation. Health services, in particular functional and user-friendly SCs coupled with mechanisms that link community-based work and health facilities should be strengthened to ensure STI care/anti-retroviral treatment expansion. Without leadership of sex workers, any attempt to end HIV will be unsuccessful. PMID:23745627

Semini, Iris; Batona, Georges; Lafrance, Christian; Kessou, Leon; Gbedji, Eugene; Anani, Hubert; Alary, Michel

2013-01-01

217

Violence, condom breakage and HIV infection among female sex workers in Benin, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationship between violence, condom breakage and HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). Methods Data were obtained from the 2012 cross-sectional integrated biological and behavioural survey conducted in Benin. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) of HIV infection and condom breakage in relation to violence towards FSWs. A score was created to examine the relationship between the number of violence types reported and HIV infection. Results Among the 981 women who provided a blood sample, HIV prevalence was 20.4%. During the last month, 17.2%, 13.5% and 33.5% of them had experienced physical, sexual and psychological violence, respectively. In addition, 15.9% reported at least one condom breakage during the previous week. There was a significant association between all types of violence and HIV prevalence. The APRs of HIV were 1.45 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.05 – 2.00), 1.42 (95%CI: 1.02 – 1.98), and 1.41 (95%CI: 1.08 – 1.41) among those who had ever experienced physical, sexual and psychological violence, respectively. HIV prevalence increased with the violence score (p=0.002, test for trend), and physical and sexual violence were independently associated with condom breakage (p values 0.010 and 0.003, respectively). Conclusion The results show that violence is associated with a higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and that condom breakage is a potential mediator for this association. Longitudinal studies designed to analyse this relationship and specific interventions integrated to current HIV prevention strategies are needed to reduce the burden of violence among FSWs. PMID:24722385

Tounkara, Fatoumata K.; Diabate, Souleymane; Guedou, Fernand A.; Ahoussinou, Clement; Kintin, Frederic; Zannou, Djimon M.; Kpatchavi, Adolphe; Bedard, Emmanuelle; Bietra, Raphael; Alary, Michel

2014-01-01

218

Prevalence and correlates of client-perpetrated abuse among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities.  

PubMed

History of abuse has been associated with greater HIV risk among women. This study examined client-perpetrated abuse among female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Among 924 FSWs, prevalence of client-perpetrated abuse was 31%. In multivariate logistic regression models, intimate partner violence (IPV), psychological distress, and having drug-using clients were associated with experiencing client-perpetrated abuse. FSWs along the Mexico-U.S. border report frequently experiencing abuse from both clients and intimate partners, which may have serious mental health consequences. Our findings suggest the need for screening and gender-based violence prevention services for Mexican FSWs. PMID:24686125

Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L

2014-04-01

219

HPV and cervical cancer related knowledge, awareness and testing behaviors in a community sample of female sex workers in China  

PubMed Central

Background Limited data suggested that the prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among female sex workers (FSW) is much higher than in the general female population. The current study aimed to examine the HPV and cervical cancer related awareness, knowledge, and behaviors among FSW in China. Methods A total of 360 FSW recruited from entertainment establishments in Beijing completed a self-administered survey including demographics, HPV related knowledge, and health-seeking and cervical cancer preventive behaviors. Results Approximately 70.8% of the participants ever heard of cervical cancer, and as few as 22.1% and 13.3% ever heard of HPV and HPV vaccine, respectively. The mean score on a 7-item knowledge scale was 2.2 (SD?=?2.4). Less than 10% of FSW perceived any risk of cervical cancer, and only 15.3% ever had a Pap smear. About 40.8% of FSW would accept HPV vaccine if it is free, and 21.8% would accept it even with a charge. Multivariate regression suggested that women with better knowledge of cervical cancer were more likely to have a Pap smear (aOR?=?1.35); women who had tested for HIV were 11 times more likely to have a Pap smear, and women who had worked longer in commercial sex (aOR?=?1.01) and had regular health check-ups (aOR?=?1.95) were more likely to accept HPV vaccine. Conclusions Our study underscores the needs for effective cervical cancer prevention programs for FSW in China and other resource-limited countries. We specifically call for cervical cancer and HPV knowledge and awareness programs and regular screening as well as HPV risk-reduction programs for these vulnerable women. PMID:23898889

2013-01-01

220

Opening Pathways to Cancer Screening for Vietnamese-American Women: Lay Health Workers Hold a Key  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose.We describe a controlled trial of a community outreach intervention to promote recognition, receipt, and screening-interval maintenance of clinical breast examinations (CBE), mammograms, and Pap smears among Vietnamese-American women.Methods.Over a 3-year period, indigenous lay health workers conducted small-group sessions of Vietnamese women in a low-income district of San Francisco, California. Women in Sacramento, California, served as controls. Lay workers conducted

Joyce Adair Bird; Stephen J. McPhee; Ngoc-The Ha; Bich Le; Thomas Davis; Christopher N. H. Jenkins

1998-01-01

221

Understanding STI Risk and Condom Use Patterns by Partner Type Among Female Sex Workers in Peru  

PubMed Central

While brothel-based sex work is regulated by the Peruvian government, there is little data on STI risk factors reported by female sex workers (FSW). This study compared high risk behaviors among 120 Peruvian FSW from government regulated brothels with both clients and non-commercial partners. Our study found that 12% of FSW reported unprotected vaginal sex with clients (compared to 75% with non-commercial partners), and 42% reported unprotected anal sex with clients (compared to 87% with non-commercial partners). Group differences were observed in the expectation to have oral sex (32% for partners vs 60% for clients; p<0.01), and a history of anal sex (65% for partners vs 32% for clients; p<0.01) and both vaginal and anal sex with the same partners (46% for partners vs 25% for clients; p<0.001). These findings suggest that FSW constitute an important bridge population for STI/HIV transmission in Peru. PMID:24949112

Kinsler, Janni J; Blas, Magaly M; Cabral, Alejandra; Carcamo, Cesar; Halsey, Neal; Brown, Brandon

2014-01-01

222

Human rights of migrant women workers in janitorial services and night clubs : A case of North Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To discuss the gender dimension of migration and human rights, and to provide an assessment of how to improve human rights protections for migrant women workers in janitorial services and night clubs across registered and unregistered migrant women workers in North Cyprus. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey is done to establish the employment conditions of migrant women workers in

Fatma Güven-Lisaniler; Sevin U?ural; Leopoldo Rodríguez

2008-01-01

223

Associations between migrant status and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine associations between migration and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among Mexican female sex workers (FSW).Methods:FSW aged 18 years and older in Tijuana, Baja California (BC) underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia. Multivariate logistic regressions identified correlates of STI.Results:Of 471 FSW, 79% were migrants to BC. Among migrant FSW, prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia

V D Ojeda; S A Strathdee; R Lozada; M L A Rusch; M Fraga; P Orozovich; C Magis-Rodriguez; A De La Torre; H Amaro; W Cornelius; T L Patterson

2009-01-01

224

Sexual risk behaviours, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo assess the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic situation among female sex workers (FSW) in Indonesia using data from the 2007 Integrated Biological-Behavioural Surveillance (IBBS).MethodsBehavioural data were collected from time–location samples of 5947 FSW in 10 cities in late 2007. HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia test results were obtained for 4396, 4324, 3291 and 3316 FSW, respectively. Trends in HIV prevalence were assessed

Robert Magnani; Pandu Riono; Nurhayati; Eko Saputro; Dyah Mustikawati; Atiek Anartati; Ciptasari Prabawanti; Nurholis Majid; Guy Morineau

2010-01-01

225

Unprotected intercourse for extra money among commercial sex workers in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the extent and correlates of the practice of engaging in unprotected intercourse for extra money among commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire among a convenience sample of 136 CSWs. More than one-quarter of CSWs (26.5%) engaged in unprotected intercourse for extra money.

M. Ntumbanzondo; R. Dubrow; L. M. Niccolai; K. Mwandagalirwa; M. H. Merson

2006-01-01

226

PREVALENCE OF HIV AND OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS AMONG FEMALE COMMERCIAL SEX WORKERS IN ARGENTINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have shown to enhance the transmission of human immunodefi- ciency virus (HIV) and to be more common among female commercial sex workers (FSWs). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 625 FSWs in six cities of Argentina in 2000-2002. The seroprevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I\\/II,

CAROLINA BERINI; MARIEL BIBINI; MAURO FERNÁNDEZ; ELENA REINAGA; SERGIO MAULEN; RUBÉN MARONE; MIRNA BIGLIONE; SILVIA M. MONTANO; CHRISTIAN T. BAUTISTA; MERCEDES WEISSENBACHER; JOSÉ L. SANCHEZ; MARÍA M. AVILA

227

HIV Prevention Needs Among Street-Based Male Sex Workers in Providence, Rhode Island.  

PubMed

We examined data derived from a needs assessment of the personal and social characteristics and HIV risk behavior of street-based male sex workers, in Providence, Rhode Island, who engage in transactional sexual intercourse with other men. Substance use, injected drugs, needle sharing, and psychosocial distress were highly prevalent among the sample. History of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse was associated with increased risk of condomless anal sexual intercourse with paying male clients. PMID:25211761

Landers, Stewart; Closson, Elizabeth F; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Holcomb, Richard; Spurlock, Shannon; Mimiaga, Matthew J

2014-11-01

228

Did South Africa's soccer bonanza bring relief to sex workers in South Africa? The 2010 FIFA World Cup and the impact on sex work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex workers are an exceptionally vulnerable group in South Africa. Ongoing criminalisation of the sex work industry fuels the AIDS epidemic by precluding effective prevention and education strategies, and infringes human rights. The 19th FIFA World Cup was held in South Africa in June–July 2010 and was expected to attract 450 000 or more visitors. Intense attention was focused on

Marlise Richter; Dianne Massawe

2010-01-01

229

HIV prevalence among female sex workers, drug users and men who have sex with men in Brazil: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Brazilian response towards AIDS epidemic is well known, but the absence of a systematic review of vulnerable populations ? men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW), and drug users (DU) remains a main gap in the available literature. Our goal was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing HIV prevalence among

Monica Malta; Monica MF Magnanini; Maeve B Mello; Ana Roberta P Pascom; Yohana Linhares; Francisco I Bastos

2010-01-01

230

Treated Sex Offenders as "Paraprofessional" Co-Workers in the Treatment of the Sex Offender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper will briefly review the utilization of the paraprofessional in a community-based sex offender treatment programme in Merseyside, UK. The paraprofessionals are treated paedophiles in the role of treatment co-facilitators. Further thoughts on the role dynamic, training issues and supervision are discussed. This is an example of…

Hossack, Alex; Robinson, Julie

2005-01-01

231

Nontraditional sex role aspirations, gender identity conflict, and disordered eating among college women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies point directly to the role played by sex roles and indirectly to the role played by gender identity in the onset of disordered eating. In this study, women who report adhering to nontraditional sex role aspirations are almost twice as likely as other women to report purging or frequent bingeing. Women who exhibit gender identity conflict by drawing

Brett Silverstein; Shari Carpman; Deborah Perlick; Lauren Perdue

1990-01-01

232

Sex Hormone Binding Globulin and Sex Steroids Among Premenopausal Women in the Diabetes Prevention Program  

PubMed Central

Context: It is unknown whether intensive lifestyle modification (ILS) or metformin changes sex steroids among premenopausal women without a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Objectives: We examined 1-year intervention impact on sex steroids (estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione [A4]) and SHBG and differences by race/ethnicity. Participants: A subgroup of Diabetes Prevention Program participants who were premenopausal, not using estrogen, without a history of PCOS or irregular menses, and who reported non-Hispanic white (NHW), Hispanic, or African-American race/ethnicity (n = 301). Interventions: Randomization arms were 1) ILS with the goals of weight reduction of 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, 2) metformin 850 mg twice a day, or 3) placebo. Results: Neither intervention changed sex steroids compared to placebo. ILS, but not metformin, increased median SHBG by 3.1 nmol/L (?11%) compared to decreases of 1.1 nmol/L in the placebo arm (P < .05). This comparison remained significant after adjustment for changes in covariates including waist circumference. However, associations with glucose were not significant. Median baseline A4 was lower in Hispanics compared to NHWs (5.7 nmol/L vs 6.5 nmol/L, P < .05) and increases in A4 were greater in Hispanics compared to NHWs (3.0 nmol/ vs 1.2 nmol/L, P < .05), and these differences did not differ significantly by intervention arm. No other racial/ethnic differences were significant. Conclusions: Among premenopausal glucose-intolerant women, no intervention changed sex steroids. ILS increased SHBG, although associations with glucose were not significant. SHBG and sex steroids were similar by race/ethnicity, with the possible exception of lower baseline A4 levels in Hispanics compared to NHWs. PMID:23709655

Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Stentz, Frankie B.; Murphy, Mary Beth; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Kitabchi, Abbas E.

2013-01-01

233

Effects of hazardous and harmful alcohol use on HIV incidence and sexual behaviour: a cohort study of Kenyan female sex workers  

PubMed Central

Aims To investigate putative links between alcohol use, and unsafe sex and incident HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A cohort of 400 HIV-negative female sex workers was established in Mombasa, Kenya. Associations between categories of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the incidence at one year of unsafe sex, HIV and pregnancy were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Violence or STIs other than HIV measured at one year was compared across AUDIT categories using multivariate logistic regression. Results Participants had high levels of hazardous (17.3%, 69/399) and harmful drinking (9.5%, 38/399), while 36.1% abstained from alcohol. Hazardous and harmful drinkers had more unprotected sex and higher partner numbers than abstainers. Sex while feeling drunk was frequent and associated with lower condom use. Occurrence of condom accidents rose step-wise with each increase in AUDIT category. Compared with non-drinkers, women with harmful drinking had 4.1-fold higher sexual violence (95% CI adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?1.9-8.9) and 8.4 higher odds of physical violence (95% CI AOR?=?3.9-18.0), while hazardous drinkers had 3.1-fold higher physical violence (95% CI AOR?=?1.7-5.6). No association was detected between AUDIT category and pregnancy, or infection with Syphilis or Trichomonas vaginalis. The adjusted hazard ratio of HIV incidence was 9.6 comparing women with hazardous drinking to non-drinkers (95% CI?=?1.1-87.9). Conclusions Unsafe sex, partner violence and HIV incidence were higher in women with alcohol use disorders. This prospective study, using validated alcohol measures, indicates that harmful or hazardous alcohol can influence sexual behaviour. Possible mechanisms include increased unprotected sex, condom accidents and exposure to sexual violence. Experimental evidence is required demonstrating that interventions to reduce alcohol use can avert unsafe sex. PMID:24708844

2014-01-01

234

Cues to the sex ratio of the local population influence women's preferences for facial symmetry  

E-print Network

Cues to the sex ratio of the local population influence women's preferences for facial symmetry-00762 Keywords: attraction dominance fluctuating asymmetry mate preference sex ratio within-sex competition intensifies within-sex competition. In two experiments, we tested for analogous effects in humans

Little, Tony

235

Can rights stop the wrongs? Exploring the connections between framings of sex workers’ rights and sexual and reproductive health  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing interest in the ways in which legal and human rights issues related to sex work affect sex workers’ vulnerability to HIV and abuses including human trafficking and sexual exploitation. International agencies, such as UNAIDS, have called for decriminalisation of sex work because the delivery of sexual and reproductive health services is affected by criminalisation and social exclusion as experienced by sex workers. The paper reflects on the connections in various actors’ framings between sex workers sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and the ways that international law is interpreted in policing and regulatory practices. Methods The literature review that informs this paper was carried out by the authors in the course of their work within the Paulo Longo Research Initiative. The review covered academic and grey literature such as resources generated by sex worker rights activists, UN policy positions and print and online media. The argument in this paper has been developed reflectively through long term involvement with key actors in the field of sex workers’ rights. Results International legislation characterises sex work in various ways which do not always accord with moves toward decriminalisation. Law, policy and regulation at national level and law enforcement vary between settings. The demands of sex worker rights activists do relate to sexual and reproductive health but they place greater emphasis on efforts to remove the structural barriers that limit sex workers’ ability to participate in society on an equal footing with other citizens. Discussion and conclusion There is a tension between those who wish to uphold the rights of sex workers in order to reduce vulnerability to ill-health and those who insist that sex work is itself a violation of rights. This is reflected in contemporary narratives about sex workers’ rights and the ways in which different actors interpret human rights law. The creation of regulatory frameworks around sex work that support health, safety and freedom from abuse requires a better understanding of the broad scope of laws, policies and enforcement practices in different cultural contexts and economic settings, alongside reviews of UN policies and human rights conventions. PMID:22376152

2011-01-01

236

Alcohol Use and Sex Risk Behaviors Among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers (FSWs) and HIV-Infected Male Clients of FSWs in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unprotected heterosexual transactional sex plays a central role in the spread of HIV in India. Given alcohol’s association\\u000a with risky sex in other populations and alcohol’s role in HIV disease progression, we investigated patterns of alcohol use\\u000a in HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs) and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs in Mumbai. Analyses identified factors associated\\u000a with heavy alcohol use and

Jeffrey H. SametChristine; Christine A. Pace; Debbie M. Cheng; Sharon Coleman; Carly Bridden; Manoj Pardesi; Niranjan Saggurti; Anita Raj

2010-01-01

237

Contextual influences on safer sex negotiation among female sex workers (FSWs) in Hong Kong: the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), FSWs' managers, and clients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite social-cognitive interventions to increase safer sex awareness, condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) continued to be inconsistent. To account for the possible influences of contextual factors that may hinder or promote FSWs' safer sex negotiation and condom use, the present study examined the effects of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), FSWs' managers, and clients on FSWs' negotiation efficacy and condom-use

Shannon S. Y. Cheng; Winnie W. S. Mak

2010-01-01

238

WOMEN AND CHILDREN LAST: SEX TRAFFICKING AND SEX OFFENSES: PROSECUTION OF SEX TRAFFICKERS AS SEX OFFENDERS: THE NEED FOR A SEX TRAFFICKER REGISTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to explore the application of U.S. sex offender laws to the sex traffickers. Sex offender laws seek to dramatically decrease recidivism of sex offenders. Applying sex offender laws to sex traffickers could have the same deterrent effect. This article is divided into seven sections. Part one defines human trafficking. Part two analyzes three different

Geneva O Brown

2011-01-01

239

WOMEN AND CHILDREN LAST: SEX TRAFFICKING AND SEX OFFENSES: PROSECUTION OF SEX TRAFFICKERS AS SEX OFFENDERS: THE NEED FOR A SEX TRAFFICKER REGISTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to explore the application of U.S. sex offender laws to the sex traffickers. Sex offender laws seek to dramatically decrease recidivism of sex offenders. Applying sex offender laws to sex traffickers could have the same deterrent effect. This article is divided into seven sections. Part one defines human trafficking. Part two analyzes three different

Geneva O Brown

2010-01-01

240

Where do sex workers go for health care? A community based study in Abidjan, C?te d'Ivoire  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To describe health seeking behaviour of female sex workers in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Methods: A population based survey among a representative sample of 500 female sex workers and six focus group discussions. Results: The sites of first encounter for care for the last STI episode included a public hospital or health centre (28%), a private clinic (16%), a confidential clinic (13%), a pharmacy (13%), and the informal sector (23%). The agreement between preferred and actual services used was weak (kappa 0.16). Conclusions: Sex workers expressed interest in seeking STI care in a wide range of public and private healthcare facilities. Those services should be upgraded to better respond to their sexual health needs. Key Words: sex workers; health care; Africa; Côte d'Ivoire PMID:11588281

Vuylsteke, B; Ghys, P; Mah-bi, G; Konan, Y; Traore, M; Wiktor, S; Laga, M

2001-01-01

241

Selective Sexual Harassment: Differential Treatment of Similar Groups of Women Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

If male workers categorize different groups of women coworkers and, subsequently, treat them differently, the experiences of women from one of these groups would not be indicative of the experiences of women from another group. When this different treatment involves hostile environment sexual harassment of one group, but not the other, then the law must recognize the possibility of “selective

Elizabeth A. Hoffmann

2004-01-01

242

Whatever She Wants: An Ethnography of American Women, Sex, Intimacy and the Internet  

E-print Network

media depictions of women openly engaging with sexuality and intimacy on their own terms – think Sex andmedia: The historical context of psychology’s reaction to sexuality on the Internet." Journal of Sex

May, Suepattra G.

2009-01-01

243

Diversity among Clients of Female Sex Workers in India: Comparing Risk Profiles and Intervention Impact by Site of Solicitation. Implications for the Vulnerability of Less Visible Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

Background It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. Methods The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040). The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT) of intervention messages on clients’ consistent condom use with FSW. Results Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%). Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%), and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%). Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001) and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001). In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. Conclusion Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks. PMID:24023877

Suryawanshi, Dipak; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Deshpande, Sucheta; Zhou, Weiwei; Singh, Pankaj; Collumbien, Martine

2013-01-01

244

An exploration of elevated HIV and STI risk among male sex workers from India  

PubMed Central

Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) who also report transactional sex (male sex workers or MSWs) are known to be at higher risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The study aimed to profile socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors associated with high HIV prevalence among MSWs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008–9 among 483 high-risk MSM who attended STI clinics at Mumbai and Hyderabad, two large cities in India. Results About 70% of the MSM reported transactional sex. As compared to other MSM, MSWs had more male partners (8.9 versus 2.5, p?sex (96% versus 72%, p?sex work (increased by 8% for every additional year). Conclusion The study showed that MSWs are at high risk for HIV acquisition/transmission, which highlights the need for intensified interventions for personalized risk-reduction counselling and STI screening. Newer biomedical interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention could also be considered. PMID:24209579

2013-01-01

245

Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers and Male Clients: An Integrative Review of Global Literature  

PubMed Central

Aims: To review the patterns, contexts and impacts of alcohol use associated with commercial sex reported in the global literature. Methods: We identified peer-reviewed English-language articles from 1980 to 2008 reporting alcohol consumption among female sex workers (FSWs) or male clients. We retrieved 70 articles describing 76 studies, in which 64 were quantitative (52 for FSWs, 12 for male clients) and 12 qualitative. Results: Studies increased over the past three decades, with geographic concentration of the research in Asia and North America. Alcohol use was prevalent among FSWs and clients. Integrating quantitative and qualitative studies, multilevel contexts of alcohol use in the sex work environment were identified, including workplace and occupation-related use, the use of alcohol to facilitate the transition into and practice of commercial sex among both FSWs and male clients, and self-medication among FSWs. Alcohol use was associated with adverse physical health, illicit drug use, mental health problems, and victimization of sexual violence, although its associations with HIV/sexually transmitted infections and unprotected sex among FSWs were inconclusive. Conclusions: Alcohol use in the context of commercial sex is prevalent, harmful among FSWs and male clients, but under-researched. Research in this area in more diverse settings and with standardized measures is required. The review underscores the importance of integrated intervention for alcohol use and related problems in multilevel contexts and with multiple components in order to effectively reduce alcohol use and its harmful effects among FSWs and their clients. PMID:20089544

Li, Qing; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

2010-01-01

246

Experience of violence and adverse reproductive health outcomes, HIV risks among mobile female sex workers in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Female sex workers (FSWs) are a population sub-group most affected by the HIV epidemic in India and elsewhere. Despite research\\u000a and programmatic attention to FSWs, little is known regarding sex workers' reproductive health and HIV risk in relation to\\u000a their experiences of violence. This paper therefore aims to understand the linkages between violence and the reproductive\\u000a health and HIV risks

Suvakanta N Swain; Niranjan Saggurti; Madhusudana Battala; Ravi K Verma; Anrudh K Jain

2011-01-01

247

A Psychosocial Study of Male-to-Female Transgendered and Male Hustler Sex Workers in São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined sociodemographic variables, personality characteristics, and alcohol and drug misuse among male sex workers\\u000a in the city of Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 45 male-to-female transgender sex workers and 41 male hustlers were\\u000a evaluated in face-to-face interviews at their place of work from 2008 to 2010. A “snowball” sampling procedure was used to\\u000a access this

Fernanda Cestaro Prado Cortez; Douglas Pieter Boer; Danilo Antonio Baltieri

248

Sexual Behavior of Female Sex Workers and Access to Condoms in Kenya and Uganda on the trans-Africa Highway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female sex workers and their clients remain a high risk core group for HIV in Africa. We measured sexual behavior of a snowball\\u000a sample of female sex workers (FSW) along the Trans Africa highway from Mombasa, Kenya to Kampala, Uganda and surveyed the\\u000a availability of male condoms at 1,007 bars and lodgings in Kenya along the highway trucking stops where

Chester N. Morris; Sheldon R. Morris; Alan G. Ferguson

2009-01-01

249

Measuring the impact of a behaviour change intervention for commercial sex workers and their potential clients in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

A peer-education HIV\\/AIDS prevention pro- gramme for bar-based sex workers and their potential clients (long-distance truck drivers) in Malawi was evaluated for impact. A mixed method approach was used, the tools being structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. The results showed that in the active districts, the presence of sex worker peer educators led to a increase in condom use

Vivien Margaret Walden; Kondwani Mwangulube; Paul Makhumula-Nkhoma

1999-01-01

250

Is Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) Useful in Risk Behaviour Assessment of Female and Male Sex Workers, Mombasa, Kenya?  

PubMed Central

Background Audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) may elicit more frequent reporting of socially sensitive behaviours than face-to-face (FtF)-interview. However, no study compared responses to both methods in female and male sex workers (FSW; MSW) in Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequentially enrolled adults recruited for an HIV-1 intervention trial into a comparative study of ACASI and FtF-interview, in a clinic near Mombasa, Kenya. Feasibility and acceptability of ACASI, and a comparative analysis of enrolment responses between ACASI and FtF on an identical risk assessment questionnaire were evaluated. In total, 139 women and 259 men, 81% of eligible cohort participants, completed both interviews. ACASI captured a higher median number of regular (2 vs. 1, p<0.001, both genders) and casual partners in the last week (3 vs. 2, p?=?0.04 in women; 2 vs. 1, p<0.001 in men). Group sex (21.6 vs. 13.5%, p<0.001, in men), intravenous drug use (IDU; 10.8 vs. 2.3%, p<0.001 in men; 4.4 vs. 0%, p?=?0.03 in women), and rape (8.9 vs. 3.9%, p?=?0.002, in men) were reported more frequently in ACASI. A surprisingly high number of women reported in ACASI that they had paid for sex (49.3 vs. 5.8%, p<0.001). Behaviours for recruitment (i.e. anal sex, sex work, sex between males) were reported less frequently in ACASI. The majority of women (79.2%) and men (69.7%) felt that answers given in ACASI were more honest. Volunteers who were not able to take ACASI (84 men, and 37 women) mostly lacked reading skills. Conclusions/Significance About 1 in 5 cohort participants was not able to complete ACASI, mostly for lack of reading skills. Participants who completed ACASI were more likely to report IDU, rape, group sex, and payment for sex by women than when asked in FtF interview. ACASI appears to be a useful tool for high risk behaviour assessments in the African context. PMID:19412535

van der Elst, Elisabeth M.; Okuku, Haile Selassie; Nakamya, Phellister; Muhaari, Allan; Davies, Alun; McClelland, R. Scott; Price, Matthew A.; Smith, Adrian D.; Graham, Susan M.; Sanders, Eduard J.

2009-01-01

251

High Lifetime Pregnancy and Low Contraceptive Usage Among Sex Workers Who Use Drugs- An Unmet Reproductive Health Need  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to describe levels of pregnancy and contraceptive usage among a cohort of street-based female sex workers (FSWs) in Vancouver. Methods The study sample was obtained from a community-based prospective cohort study (2006-2008) of 211 women in street-based sex work who use drugs, 176 of whom had reported at least one prior pregnancy. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate lifetime pregnancy prevalence, pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage, abortion, adoption, child apprehension, child custody), and contraceptive usage. In secondary analyses, associations between contraceptive usage, individual and interpersonal risk factors and high number of lifetime pregnancies (defined as greater than the sample mean of 4) were examined. Results Among our sample, 84% reported a prior pregnancy, with a mean of 4 lifetime pregnancies (median = 3; IQR: 2-5). The median age of women reporting 5+ pregnancies was 38 years old [interquartile range (IQR): 25.0-39.0] compared to 34 years [IQR: 25.0-39.0] among women reporting 4 or fewer prior pregnancies. 45% were Caucasian and 47% were of Aboriginal ancestry. We observed high rates of previous abortion (median = 1;IQR:1-3), apprehension (median = 2; IQR:1-4) and adoption (median = 1; IQR:1-2) among FSWs who reported prior pregnancy. The use of hormonal and insertive contraceptives was limited. In bivariate analysis, tubal ligation (OR = 2.49; [95%CI = 1.14-5.45]), and permanent contraceptives (e.g., tubal ligation and hysterectomy) (OR = 2.76; [95%CI = 1.36-5.59]) were both significantly associated with having five or more pregnancies. Conclusion These findings demonstrate high levels of unwanted pregnancy in the context of low utilization of effective contraceptives and suggest a need to improve the accessibility and utilization of reproductive health services, including family planning, which are appropriately targeted and tailored for FSWs in Vancouver. PMID:21851622

2011-01-01

252

"I do what I have to do to survive": An investigation into the perceptions, experiences and economic considerations of women engaged in sex work in Northern Namibia  

PubMed Central

Background There is little published research investigating sex work in Namibia, particularly in rural areas. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to determine the views of women engaged in sex work in the Oshakati area of Namibia concerning the main factors influencing their use, or non-use, of male condoms during transactional sexual exchanges. Methods Qualitative interviews were used to better understand the perceptions, experiences and economic considerations of female sex workers in Namibia who were involved in a Behavior Change Communication Program encouraging safer sex practices among high-risk populations in 2006 and 2007. Results While the Behavior Change Communication Program has made significant strides in educating and empowering young women to negotiate more consistent condom use with sexual partners, the gendered economic inequalities and power imbalances within rural and semi-urban Namibian society that favor men hinder further advancement towards positive behavioral change for HIV prevention and also hinder the development of the loving relationships sought by some sex workers. Conclusion This study found that sex workers and transactional sex encounters are heterogeneous entities dependent upon the characteristics of the man (known, stranger, wealthy, attractive to the woman) and the woman (in financial need, desiring love). These features all influence condom use. The 3 E's 'education, empowerment and economic independence' are critical factors needed to encourage and facilitate consistent condom use to prevent HIV transmission. Without financial independence and occupational alternatives building on their health education and empowerment, women who engage in sex work-and transactional sex more generally-will remain largely marginalized from Namibian society, and will continue engaging in risky sexual practices that facilitate HIV acquisition and transmission throughout the community. PMID:21813006

2011-01-01

253

Women are Victims, Men Make Choices: The Invisibility of Men and Boys in the Global Sex Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invisibility of men and boys in scholarly discussions of the global sex trade was analyzed through a sample of 166 recent\\u000a articles published in social science journals. Most failed to acknowledge the existence of male sex workers at all. When male\\u000a sex workers were discussed, they were assigned considerably more agency than female sex workers, the chief danger ascribed

Jeffery P. Dennis

2008-01-01

254

Vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities: a retrospective study on sexual violence, substance use and HIV risk.  

PubMed

Most studies of female sex workers (FSWs) conducted in the Mexico-US border region have focused on individual HIV risk, centered on sexual behaviors and substance abuse patterns. Little attention has been drawn to the reality that sex workers are often parents whose children potentially face vulnerabilities unique to their family situation. The objective of the present study was to identify the vulnerabilities faced by the children of FSWs in two Mexican-US border cities. From 2008 to 2010, 628 FSW-injection drug users underwent interviewer-administered surveys and HIV/STI testing. Approximately one in five participants (20%) reported having a parent involved in sex work and majority referred it was their mother (88%). Close to one-third of participants (31%) reported first injecting drugs <18 years of age, and 33% reported they began working regularly as a prostitute <18 years of age. First drinking alcohol <18 years old (AOR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.13-3.08), lifetime cocaine use (AOR = 1.76, 95%CI: 1.09-2.84), ever being forced or coerced into non-consensual sex as a minor (<18 years of age; AOR = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.01-2.35), and injecting drugs with used syringes in the prior month (AOR = 1.63, 95%CI: 1.07-2.49) were the factors associated with having had a parent involved in sex work. These findings begin to lay the groundwork for understanding the potential vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers. Understanding these potential needs is necessary for creating relevant, evidence-based interventions focused on supporting these women. PMID:25117749

Servin, Argentina E; Strathdee, Steffanie; Muñoz, Fatima A; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Silverman, Jay G

2015-01-01

255

Testosterone Plays Minor Role in Older Women's Sex Lives, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Testosterone Plays Minor Role in Older Women's Sex Lives, Study Finds Quality of relationships may ... Related MedlinePlus Pages Hormones Menopause Sexual Problems in Women THURSDAY, Nov. 20, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- While levels ...

256

Young Clients of Hotel-Based Sex Workers in Bangladesh: Vulnerability to HIV, Risk Perceptions, and Expressed Needs for Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative study was conducted among key informants and 53 young clients (15 to 24 years of age) of commercial sex workers from nine hotels in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Respondents reported first sexual encounter before 18 years of age, and reasons for purchasing sex were to prove masculinity or to reduce wet dreams and masturbation, thought to be detrimental to health.

Rukhsana Gazi; Sharful Islam Khan; Fariha Haseen; Haribondhu Sarma; Mohammad Ashraful Islam; Andrea L. Wirtz; Motiur Rahman

2009-01-01

257

A Comparative Study of Sex Salary Differentials for Full-time Workers with a Degree in Science or Engineering  

E-print Network

. The SEI provides a study based on data from 1999 about the sex effects on salary, adds controls, and records the changes in the effect of sex on salary. The SEI study finds after adding controls for worker heterogeneity and compensating wage differentials...

McKinley, Rayna L.

2010-07-14

258

The role of Methodist women workers in Mexico from 1871 to the Mexican Revolution  

E-print Network

This study evaluates the entrance of Methodist women mission workers into Mexico and the work they carried out there. Until the 1870s the strength of the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico prevented Protestant entrance. The Methodist Episcopal Church...

Bond, Shelley R.

2012-06-07

259

The making of unwanted sex: gendered and neoliberal norms in college women's unwanted sexual experiences.  

PubMed

Building on extant research regarding the role of gendered norms in women's consent to unwanted sex with male partners as well as recent studies of how the sociopolitical discourse of neoliberalism shapes sexuality at the individual level, we conducted a thematic analysis of undergraduate women's (N = 22) descriptions of their experiences of unwanted sex. In accordance with previous research (Gavey, 2005; Martin, 1996; Phillips, 2000; Tolman, 2002), gendered norms (e.g., women's sexual passivity; subordination of women's sexual interests to those of men) played important roles (a) laying the foundation for unwanted sex, and (b) in-the-moment negotiations between partners. In an extension of the established literature regarding unwanted sex, we also noted the emergence of neoliberal norms (e.g., personal responsibility) in participants' discussions of unwanted sex after the fact. We use these results to argue that gender and neoliberal ideologies work in tandem to (re)produce women's consent to unwanted sex. PMID:18937130

Bay-Cheng, Laina Y; Eliseo-Arras, Rebecca K

2008-01-01

260

Chinese Sex-Role Conceptions: A Double Edged Sword for Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Chinese government policies officially support the equality of the sexes, stereotyped views about the nature of men and women often serve to perpetuate discrimination and to keep women in inferior positions. Women are often segregated into lower paying jobs because of stereotypical views about what is natural for women to do. Despite…

Korabik, Karen

261

How Women’s Nonconscious Association of Sex with Submission Relates to Their Subjective Sexual Arousability and Ability to Reach Orgasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common cultural stereotypes promote women’s submission to men, especially within intimate heterosexual relationships. Mirroring these stereotypes, women possess nonconscious associations between sex and submission (Sanchez, Kiefer & Ybarra, 2006). Moreover, women’s sex-submission associations predict greater reports of engagement in submissive sexual behavior (Sanchez et al., 2006). In the present research, we again found that women associate sex with submission at

Amy K. Kiefer; Diana T. Sanchez; Christina J. Kalinka; Oscar Ybarra

2006-01-01

262

The syndemic condition of psychosocial problems and HIV risk among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.  

PubMed

In Vietnam, the co-occurrence (i.e., "syndemic") of psychosocial factors (e.g., depression and substance use) may disproportionately burden male sex workers and increase their HIV risk. A comprehensive survey was conducted among 300 male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in 2010. We performed logistic regression to examine the association between the syndemic variable-a count score of the number of five psychosocial conditions endorsed-and unprotected anal sex (UAS) in the past. One-third of participants reported any UAS, and 42 % reported ?2 psychosocial health problems. In multivariable models, experiencing ?4 psychosocial health problems was significantly associated with UAS. Every unit increase in number of psychosocial health problems was associated with a 25-30 % increase in odds of UAS. Understanding the syndemic condition and its association with HIV risk among male sex workers in Vietnam may lead to the development of more effective, comprehensive interventions. PMID:24081899

Biello, Katie B; Colby, Donn; Closson, Elizabeth; Mimiaga, Matthew J

2014-07-01

263

Social Influence and Individual Risk Factors of HIV Unsafe Sex among Female Entertainment Workers in China  

PubMed Central

Female entertainment workers in China are at increased sexual risk of HIV, but causes of their unprotected sex remain poorly understood. We develop a model that integrates information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) with social influences and test the model in a venue-based sample of 732 female entertainment workers in Shanghai. Most IMB and social influence measures are statistically significant in bivariate relationships to condom use; only HIV prevention motivation and behavioral self-efficacy remain significant in the multiple regressions. Self-efficacy in condom use is the most proximate correlate, mediating the relationship between information and motivation and condom use. Both peer and venue supports are important, but their influences over condom use are indirect and mediated through prevention motivation and/or self-efficacy. Behavioral intervention is urgently needed and should take a multi-level approach, emphasizing behavioral skills training and promoting a supportive social/working environment. PMID:20166789

Yang, Xiushi; Xia, Guomei; Li, Xiaoming; Latkin, Carl; Celentano, David

2010-01-01

264

'Where sex ends and emotions begin': love and HIV risk among female sex workers and their intimate, non-commercial partners along the Mexico-US border.  

PubMed

This study explores the affective dimensions of female sex workers' relationships with their intimate, non-commercial partners and assesses how emotions shape each partner's sexual and drug-related risk within their relationship. We draw on qualitative data from a study of HIV, sexually transmitted infections and high-risk behaviours among female sex workers and their non-commercial partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, to illustrate that these couples share relationships based on love, trust, respect and emotional and material support. These relationships range in emotional intensity, which shapes partners' decisions not to use condoms with each other. Drugs were important in most couples' relationships. Among injectors, syringe sharing was common and represented both a sign of care and a pragmatic reaction to conditions of material scarcity. Our findings suggest that couple-based HIV interventions to address dual sexual and drug-related risks should be tailored to the emotional dynamics of sex workers' intimate relationships. PMID:23473586

Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Robertson, Angela M; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Rangel, M Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

2013-01-01

265

High prevalence of syphilis among street-based female sex workers in Nanchang, China  

PubMed Central

Background: Female sex workers (FSWs) play a critical role in the heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in China. Several studies reported that street-based FSWs have higher risk behaviors than establishment-based FSWs. Therefore, street-based FSWs should be specifically targeted for HIV and STIs intervention programs. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the prevalence rates and risk factors of HIV and syphilis among FSWs in Nanchang, China. Materials and Methods: Using convenience sampling methods, 361 street-based FSWs were recruited from August 2011 to February 2012. All participants completed an anonymous questionnaire on socioeconomic and sex behavioral information and were tested for HIV and syphilis. Risk for HIV and syphilis infection was assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: No HIV infections were found. The prevalence rate of syphilis was 43.5%. Nearly 46.1% of street-based FSWs reported having education for no more than 6 years. Having reproductive tract infections at current visit, duration of sex work more than 5 years, indulgence in unprotected sex trade in the last time, unprotected sex trade in the last month, and unprotected sex with boyfriend or spouse in the last month were reported by 35.2%, 43.5%, 33.8%, 60.4%, and 93.1% street-based FSWs, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, having reproductive tract infections at current visit [odds ratio (OR), 12.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.01-24.37], duration of sex work more than five years (OR, 4.26; 95% CI, 2.40-7.54), and unprotected sex trade in the last month (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.06-3.22) were independently associated with syphilis infection. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of syphilis among street-based FSWs is very high. Most street-based FSWs in our survey had low education, long experience of commercial sex, and high rate of inconsistent condom use. Comprehensive interventions targeting this high-risk group, especially scaling up screening and ensuring consistent use of condoms during sex are needed.

Tao, Xiao Hua; Jiang, Tao; Shao, Dan; Xue, Wei; Ye, Fa Shun; Wang, Ming; He, Mei Hua

2014-01-01

266

A cross-sectional evaluation of the prevalence and associations of HIV among female sex workers in the Gambia.  

PubMed

To determine HIV prevalence among female sex workers in the Gambia and HIV risk factors, we accrued participants (n = 251) through peer-referral and venue-based recruitment. Blood samples were screened for HIV and participants were administered a questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression identified factors associated with HIV status. Forty respondents (15.9%) were HIV-positive: 20 (8.0%) were infected with HIV-1 only, 10 (4.0%) with HIV-2 only, and 10 (4.0%) with both HIV-1 and HIV-2; 12.5% (n = 5/40) knew their status. Condom usage at last sex was 97.1% (n = 170/175) with new clients and 44.2% (n = 53/120) with non-paying partners. Having a non-paying partner, living with relatives or friends, having felt scared to walk in public, selling sex in multiple locations, and recent depressive symptoms were positively associated with HIV under multivariate regression. Female sex workers have a higher prevalence of HIV compared to the general Gambian population. Interventions should be rights-based, promote safer sex practices and regular testing for female sex workers and linkage to HIV treatment and care with adherence support for those living with HIV. In addition, service providers should consider non-paying partners of female sex workers, improve knowledge and availability of condoms and lubricant, and address safety and mental health needs. PMID:23970652

Peitzmeier, Sarah; Mason, Krystal; Ceesay, Nuha; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou; Loum, Jaegan; Baral, Stefan

2014-03-01

267

Factors associated with pathways toward concurrent sex work and injection drug use among female sex workers who inject drugs in Northern Mexico  

PubMed Central

Aims To identify factors associated with time to initiation of (1) sex work prior to injecting drugs, (2) injection drug use, and (3) concurrent sex work and injection drug use (i.e., initiated at the same age) among female sex workers who currently inject drugs (FSW-IDU). Design Parametric survival analysis of baseline data for time to initiation event. Setting Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez situated on the Mexico-U.S. border. Participants 575 FSW-IDUs aged ?18. Measurements Interview-administered surveys assessing context of sex work and injection drug use initiation. Findings Nearly half (n=256) initiated sex work prior to beginning to inject, a third (n=163) initiated injection first, and a quarter (n=136) initiated both sex work and injection drug use concurrently. Low education and living in Ciudad Juarez accelerated time to sex work initiation. Being from a southern Mexican state and initiating drug use with inhalants delayed the time to first injection drug use. Having an intimate partner encourage entry into sex work and first injecting drugs to deal with depression accelerated time to initiating sex work and injection concurrently. Early physical abuse accelerated time to initiating sex work and injection, and substantially accelerated time to initiation of both behaviors concurrently. Conclusions Among female sex workers who currently inject drugs in two Mexican-US border cities, nearly half appear to initiate sex work prior to beginning to inject, nearly one third initiate injection drug use before beginning sex work, and one quarter initiate both behaviors concurrently. Predictors of these three trajectories differ, and this provides possible modifiable targets for prevention. PMID:22775475

Morris, Meghan D.; Lemus, Hector; Wagner, Karla D.; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Gomez, Rangel Maria Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2012-01-01

268

Levels of alcohol use and history of HIV testing among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya.  

PubMed

HIV testing is a critical first step to accessing HIV care and treatment, particularly for high-risk groups such as female sex workers (FSWs). Alcohol use may be a barrier to accessing HIV services, including HIV testing. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 818 FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya, and estimated the association between different levels of alcohol use and having never tested for HIV. In multivariable analyses, higher levels of alcohol consumption were associated with having never tested for HIV (PR 1.60; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.40). Future interventions should explore whether reducing harmful drinking improves HIV testing among FSWs. PMID:25040114

Bengtson, Angela M; L'Engle, Kelly; Mwarogo, Peter; King'ola, Nzioki

2014-12-01

269

Sex differences in cardiovascular health: does sexism influence women's health?  

PubMed

This commentary provides a brief overview of theory and research that supports the idea that sexism may be related to the disproportionate negative cardiovascular health outcomes in women. It describes sexism as a stressor and outlines its association with a variety of health outcomes as evidence for why sex disparities should be examined within the context of pervasive inequities. To date, population-based studies have not explicitly examined the relationship between sexism and cardiovascular disease, but smaller studies have yielded fairly consistent results. It is suggested that future research should aim to examine the influence of 2 types of sexism (ie, hostile and benevolent) and that daily or within-day designs be used to assess cognitive, behavioral and physiological responses to everyday sexist experiences. PMID:25054736

Molix, Lisa

2014-08-01

270

Female Sex Workers and Their Gatekeepers in China: Implications for HIV/STI Prevention.  

PubMed

Female sex workers (FSWs) play a key role in HIV/AIDS transmission and their gatekeepers play a crucial role in shaping their behaviors. Limited studies are available on the relationship between FSWs and gatekeepers. In the current study we used an ethnographic approach to examine the dynamic and multidimensional relationship of FSWs and their gatekeepers from the perspectives of both parties. We recruited 38 FSWs and 16 gatekeepers from different types of commercial sex venues in Guangxi, China, and conducted in-depth individual interviews. Our data suggest that FSWs and gatekeepers maintain an interdependent and reciprocal relationship during their business practice, but gatekeepers exert significant influence and control over FSWs. Designing culturally appropriate HIV/STI-prevention programs requires us to take advantage of the unique and crucial roles of gatekeepers. We conclude with a call for structural interventions to protect FSWs' occupational health and safety. PMID:25147221

Hong, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Guo, Weigui

2014-10-01

271

Examining women's customary roles as sex educators through community media in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This briefing investigates a popular sex education programme of a community radio station in the rural village of Nakaseke in Uganda. The programme, which is referred to as Ssenga (which refers to paternal aunts), hosts ‘elderly’ women who ‘educate’ young women about their traditional\\/cultural roles. These duties and responsibilities revolve around the household: child bearing, housekeeping and, most importantly, sex

Carol Azungi Dralega

2008-01-01

272

Sex-Role Attitudes and Employment among Women: A Dynamic Model of Change and Continuity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of working women was conducted to test the hypothesis that prior sex-role attitudes influence subsequent labor force behavior which, in turn, affects later sex-role attitudes. Separate data were collected for younger (ages 14-24) and older women from the National Longitudinal Surveys during the period of 1967-1972. Findings revealed that…

Macke, Anne Statham; And Others

273

Type II Diabetes Abrogates Sex Differences in Endothelial Function in Premenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Obesity is a more potent cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) in men than in women. Because traditional CVRFs cannot fully account for this sex difference, we tested the hypothesis that compared with men, women exhibit more robust endothelial function independent of obesity and that this sex difference is abrogated by diabetes. Methods and Results—We studied leg blood flow (LBF) responses to

Helmut O. Steinberg; Giancarlo Paradisi; Jessica Cronin; Kristin Crowde; Annette Hempfling; Ginger Hook; Alain D. Baron

2010-01-01

274

Is Military Sexual Trauma Associated with Trading Sex Among Women Veterans Seeking Outpatient Mental Health Care?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust association between sexual trauma and trading sex has been documented in civilian samples but has not been examined in veterans. Women veterans experience high rates of sexual victimization across the lifespan, including during military service (military sexual trauma [MST]). Associations between MST and trading sex were examined in 200 women enrolled in a crosssectional study of HIV risks

Jennifer L. Strauss; Christine E. Marx; Julie C. Weitlauf; Karen M. Stechuchak; Kristy Straits-Tröster; Ayaba W. Worjoloh; Christina B. Sherrod; Maren K. Olsen; Marian I. Butterfield; Patrick S. Calhoun

2011-01-01

275

[Access to sexual health care for women who have sex with women in São Paulo, Brazil].  

PubMed

This article focuses on the relationship between health care for women who have sex with women and representations of gender, sexuality, and the body. The study used ethnographic observation and in-depth interviews held from 2003 to 2006, with 30 women ranging from 18 to 45 years of age, belonging to different social segments, backgrounds, and sexual identities, living in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo. Analysis of the material pointed to greater difficulty in accessing gynecological care for lower-income women, those who had never had sex with men, or those with masculine body language. Not only the negative representations and experiences in relation to health services, but also identity constructions concerning gender and sexuality, are related to difficulties in accessing health care. Although a large share of the relevant international literature emphasizes the relationship between homophobia and decreased access to health services, the findings suggest that although situations involving discrimination are a reality, they were not considered impediments to the search for care, and were more associated with reporting of erotic practices and preferences at the services. PMID:19684936

Barbosa, Regina Maria; Facchini, Regina

2009-01-01

276

Prevalence of HIV, Herpes Simplex Virus-2, and Syphilis in male sex partners of pregnant women in Peru  

PubMed Central

Background: Sexually active heterosexual men may represent an important risk factor for HIV infection and STI transmission to their female partners and unborn children, though little is known about the prevalence of STIs in this population. We sought to determine the prevalence of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and syphilis infection and associated risk behaviors among male sex partners of pregnant women in Peru. Methods: Survey and seroprevalence data were collected from 1,835 male partners of pregnant women in four cities in Peru. Serum was tested for antibodies to HIV, HSV-2, and syphilis. Results: Among the 1,835 male participants, HIV prevalence was 0.8% (95% CI = 0.5–1.4%), HSV-2 16.0% (95% CI = 14.3–17.8%), and syphilis 1.6% (95% CI = 1.0–2.2%). Additionally, 11.0% reported a lifetime history of intercourse with men, and 37.1% with female sex workers. Unprotected intercourse with men during the previous year was reported by 0.9% and with female sex workers by 1.2%. Conclusion: Pregnant women's sex partners reported lifetime sexual contact with core risk groups, had an elevated prevalence of HSV-2, and demonstrated the potential to spread HIV and other STIs to their partners. Though the prevalence of HIV in the population was not significantly higher than observed in other samples of heterosexuals in Peru, the risk of HIV transmission to their female partners may be exacerbated by their increased prevalence of HSV-2 infection. Further study of heterosexual populations is necessary to fully understand the epidemiology of HIV/STIs in Latin America. PMID:18284696

Clark, Jesse L; Konda, Kelika A; Munayco, Cesar V; Pun, Monica; Lescano, Andres G; Leon, Segundo R; Pajuelo, Jose; Suarez-Ognio, Luis; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Coates, Thomas J; Caceres, Carlos F

2008-01-01

277

Risks, benefits and survival strategies-views from female sex workers in Savannakhet, Laos  

PubMed Central

Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Savannakhet province in Laos. Methods Five focus group discussions (FGDs) and seven interviews were conducted with FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Laos. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed text. Results The results revealed that the FSWs were aware of risks but they also talked about benefits related to their work. The risks were grouped into six categories: STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, stigma, violence, being cheated, and social and economic insecurity. The reported benefits were financial security, fulfilling social obligations, and sexual pleasure. The FSWs reported using a number of strategies to reduce risks and increase benefits. Conclusions The desire to be self-sufficient and earn as much money as possible put the FSWs in disadvantaged and vulnerable situations. Fear of financial insecurity, obligations to support one’s family and the need to secure the future influenced FSWs’ decisions to have safe or unsafe sex. The FSWs were, however, not only victims. They also had some control over their lives and working environment, with most viewing their work as an easy and good way of earning money. PMID:23164407

2012-01-01

278

Behaviour change and associated factors among Female Sex Workers in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Initiatives aimed at behaviour change of key populations such as the female sex workers (FSWs) are pivotal in reducing the transmission of HIV. An 8-year implementation research to establish the predictor factors of behaviour change among FSWs in Kenya was initiated by the African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) with Sida and DfID support. Methods This cross-sectional survey interviewed 159 female sex workers (FSWs) identified through snowball procedure. The measurement of behaviour change was based on: the consistent use of condoms with both regular and non regular clients, reduced number of clients, routine checks for STIs, and involvement in alternative income generating activities. The adjusted odds ratios at 95% confidence interval computed during binary logistic regression analysis were used to determine the behaviour change predictor factors. Results Most FSWs (84%) had participated in AMREF's integrated intervention programme for at least one year and 59.1% had gone through behaviour change. The adjusted odds ratio showed that the FSWs with secondary education were 2.23 times likely to change behaviour, protestants were 4.61 times, those in sex work for >4 years were 2.36 times, FSWs with good HIV prevention knowledge were 4.37 times, and those engaged in alternative income generating activities were 2.30 times more likely to change their behaviour compared to respective counterparts. Conclusion Behaviour change among FSWs was possible and is associated with the level of education, religious affiliation, number of years in sex work and one's level of HIV prevention knowledge. A re-orientation on the peer education programme to focus on HIV preventive measures beyond use of condoms is emphasized. PMID:23467892

Nyagero, Josephat; Wangila, Samuel; Kutai, Vincent; Olango, Susan

2012-01-01

279

Contributions of sex guilt and masturbation guilt to women's contraceptive attitudes and use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were, first, to confirm inverse relationships between sex guilt and contraceptive use and attitudes and, second, to demonstrate that guilt regarding masturbation in comparison to sex guilt was a specific inhibitor of diaphragm use. In a sample of 186 single college women, sex guilt accounted for 28% of the variance in nine measures of contraceptive

Donald L. Mosher; Susan G. Vonderheide

1985-01-01

280

Syphilis infection among female sex workers in Nagaland, Northeast India: analysing their vulnerability to the infection.  

PubMed

This paper describes the sex work characteristics and factors associated with syphilis among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur district of high HIV prevalence Indian state, Nagaland. The study recruited 426 FSWs in 2006 using respondent-driven sampling. The prevalence of syphilis was 21.1% and HIV prevalence was 11.7%. Approximately half were under 25 years of age. Clients were solicited mainly in public places (32.7%), while hotels/lodges/rented rooms were the most common places of entertainment (57.2%). Condom use during the last sex was 36.5% with occasional and 27% with regular clients. Being married, being widowed/divorced/separated, being illiterate or having a history of drug use increased the likelihood of syphilis infection. Entertaining clients in bars/booze joints decreased the probability of syphilis. FSWs who moved between soliciting in public places or bars/booze joints and then entertaining in hotels/lodges/rented rooms had a higher vulnerability to syphilis. In summary, we found that the vulnerability to syphilis among mostly young FSWs in Dimapur varied according to their sex work characteristics, marital and educational status and drug use habits. They may be more vulnerable to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) due to the low rate of condom use. The findings have direct implications for HIV/STI prevention programmes in Northeast India. PMID:23514833

Medhi, G K; Mahanta, J; Hazarika, I; Armstrong, G; Adhikary, R; Mainkar, M; Paranjape, R S

2013-03-01

281

Sex-specific interaction effects of age, occupational status, and workplace stress on psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load among healthy Montreal workers.  

PubMed

Socio-demographics and workplace stress may affect men and women differently. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess sex-specific interactions among age, occupational status, and workplace Demand-Control-Support (D-C-S) factors in relation to psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load levels representing multi-systemic "wear and tear". It was hypothesized that beyond main effects, D-C-S factors would be moderated by occupational status and age in sex-specific directions predictive of subjective psychiatric symptoms and objective physiological dysregulations. Participants included healthy male (n?=?81) and female (n?=?118) Montreal workers aged 20 to 64 years (Men: M?=?39.4 years, SD?=?11.3; Women: M?=?42.8 years, SD?=?11.38). The Job Content Questionnaire was administered to assess workplace D-C-S factors that included psychological demands, decisional latitude, and social support. Occupational status was coded using the Nam--Powers--Boyd system derived from the Canadian census. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Sex-specific allostatic load indices were calculated based on fifteen biomarkers. Regression analyses revealed that higher social support was associated with less depressive symptoms in middle aged (p?=?0.033) and older men (p?=?0.027). Higher occupational status was associated with higher allostatic load levels for men (p?=?0.035), while the reverse occurred for women (p?=?0.048). Women with lower occupational status but with higher decision latitude had lower allostatic load levels, as did middle-aged (p?=?0.031) and older women (p?=?0.003) with higher psychological demands. In summary, age and occupational status moderated workplace stress in sex-specific ways that have occupational health implications. PMID:23952366

Juster, Robert-Paul; Moskowitz, D S; Lavoie, Joel; D'Antono, Bianca

2013-11-01

282

Risk of sexually transmitted infections and violence among indoor-working female sex workers in London: the effect of migration from Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo examine risk factors associated with HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and experience of physical and sexual violence among sex workers in London, with a particular focus on differences in risk between migrants from Eastern Europe (EE) or the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and UK-born sex workers.MethodsThe authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of sex workers born in the UK,

Lucy Platt; Pippa Grenfell; Chris Bonell; Sarah Creighton; Kaye Wellings; John Parry; Tim Rhodes

2011-01-01

283

Organizational policy recommendations for control of STI\\/HIV among female sex workers in China: regular examination of workers in social hygiene clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to address female sex workers at high risk for contracting HIV in China by recommending evidence-based socio-structural interventions and policies at the national level that have yielded effective outcomes in other countries. National governments such as the Philippines and Hong Kong have utilized the Social Hygiene Clinic (SHC) model. A similar national policy can be highly effective

Donald E. Morisky; Lianne A. Urada

2011-01-01

284

TOO MANY MEN? SEX RATIOS AND WOMEN'S PARTNERING BEHAVIOR IN CHINA  

PubMed Central

The relative numbers of women and men are changing dramatically in China, but the consequences of these imbalanced sex ratios have received little attention. We merge data from the Chinese Health and Family Life Survey with community-level data from Chinese censuses to examine the relationship between cohort- and community-specific sex ratios and women’s partnering behavior. Consistent with demographic-opportunity theory and sociocultural theory, we find that high sex ratios (indicating more men relative to women) are associated with an increased likelihood that women marry before age 25. However, high sex ratios are also associated with an increased likelihood that women engage in premarital and extramarital sexual relationships and have had more than one sexual partner, findings consistent with demographic-opportunity theory but inconsistent with sociocultural theory. PMID:22199403

Trent, Katherine; South, Scott J.

2011-01-01

285

Grant Title: DRUG ABUSE DISSERTATION RESEARCH: EPIDEMIOLOGY, PREVENTION, TREATMENT, SERVICES AND WOMEN AND SEX/GENDER DIFFERENCES (R36)  

E-print Network

AND WOMEN AND SEX/GENDER DIFFERENCES (R36) Funding Opportunity Number: PAR-10-020. CFDA Number(s):93/or women and sex/gender differences. Grant support is designed to encourage doctoral candidates from

Farritor, Shane

286

Winners and losers in health insurance: access and type of coverage for women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships.  

PubMed

Using data from the American Community Survey, 2009 (N=580,754), we compared rates of health insurance coverage and types of coverage used between women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships. This large, national dataset also allowed us to investigate regional variation in insurance coverage for women in same-sex partnerships by comparing "gay-tolerant" states versus other states. Multivariate analyses revealed that women in same-sex partnerships consistently had lower rates of health insurance coverage than married women in opposite-sex partnerships, but always more than unmarried women in opposite-sex partnerships. We also found that state-level variation in gay tolerance did not contribute to the access or type of coverage used by women in same-sex partnerships. PMID:24400654

Pals, Heili; Waren, Warren

2014-01-01

287

DEFINING TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses challenges and dilemmas surrounding current definitions of trafficking in women. The analysis is based on the review of literature and the findings of a phenomenological study which examined the life experiences of migrant\\/trafficked sex workers from the former Eastern Bloc in Canada. The study interviewed 20 female sex workers, 15 health and social service providers, and 15

Natalya Timoshkina

288

Social and cultural contexts of HIV risk behaviors among Thai female sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand.  

PubMed

Recently, the number of indirect female sex workers (FSWs) who work at bars/clubs and massage parlors is substantially increasing in Thailand; however, there are huge gaps in knowledge about HIV risk behaviors among indirect FSWs. This study aimed to describe and understand HIV risk behaviors among Thai FSWs in Bangkok in relation to sociocultural factors and work environment (e.g., bars/clubs, massage parlors, brothels, and street). Based on venue-based purposive sampling methods, Thai FSWs were recruited for qualitative interviews (n=50) and survey interviews (n=205). Based on mixed methods, the study revealed that HIV risk and substance use behaviors among FSWs significantly differed depending on work venues, although there were no significant differences between work venues on some key risk behaviors (e.g., inconsistent condom use with primary partners and customers; willingness to engage in unsafe sex with customers). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that FSWs who had used illicit drugs, were young, had low levels of self-esteem, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with customers. Also, FSWs who worked at bars/clubs, were young, had higher income, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in sex with customers under the influence of alcohol. Qualitative interviews illustrated FSWs' alcohol and drug use due to their stressful life (e.g., long working hours and a large number of customers) and easy access to alcohol and drugs. FSWs had shown inaccurate knowledge about HIV prevention methods and engaged in risky behaviors, such as washing vagina with water or toothpaste after having had sex with customers. The HIV prevention strategies in Thailand need to be re-structured through implementing evidence-based HIV prevention intervention programs for FSWs, which must address sociocultural factors (e.g., self-esteem) and alcohol and drug use specific to work venues. PMID:23082928

Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Sakata, Maria; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada

2013-01-01

289

HIV Risk Behaviours Differ by Workplace Stability Among Mexican Female Sex Workers With Truck Driver Clientele  

PubMed Central

Background In a study of female sex workers (FSWs) servicing truck driver clients in Mexican border cities, we evaluated differences in HIV/STI risk behaviours determined by workplace. Design and Methods Our study was cross-sectional and its population comprised 100 FSWs from Nuevo Laredo (US border) and 100 FSWs from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border). The main outcome was primary place of sex work defined as unstable (street, vehicle, gas station, etc.) vs stable (bar, brothel, and hotel). Logistic regression was used to identify correlates associated with trading sex at unstable workplaces in the last month. Results Of the FSWs surveyed, 18% reported an unstable workplace. The majority of FSWs surveyed were young (<30 years), single, had <9th grade education, and had worked in the sex trade for a median of 4.9 years. After controlling for study site, FSWs with unstable vs stable workplaces were more likely to have a majority/all truck driver clientele, but were less likely to have visited a gynaecologist in the last year (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.03-0.4) or ever had an HIV test (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.06-0.3), and there was a trend towards lower condom use self-efficacy scores (OR 0.8 per unit increase, 95% CI 0.7-1.0). On multivariate regression, unstable workplace was associated with having majority/all truck driver clientele, being surveyed in Nuevo Laredo, and decreased odds of ever having an HIV test. Conclusions Among Mexican FSWs with truck driver clients, providing safe indoor spaces for sex work may help facilitate public health interventions that improve HIV/STI prevention and reproductive health outcomes. PMID:24724056

Chen, Nadine E.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Rangel, Gudelia; Patterson, Thomas L.; Uribe-Salas, Felipe J.; Rosen, Perth; Villalobos, Jorge; Brouwer, Kimberly C.

2012-01-01

290

Courtesy stigma: a hidden health concern among front-line service providers to sex workers.  

PubMed

Courtesy stigma, also referred to as 'stigma by association', involves public disapproval evoked as a consequence of associating with a stigmatised individual or group. While a small number of sociological studies have shown how courtesy stigma limits the social support and social opportunities available to family members of stigmatised individuals, there is a paucity of research examining courtesy stigma among the large network of people who provide health and social services to stigmatised groups. This article presents results from a mixed methods study of the workplace experiences of a purposive sample of workers in a non-profit organisation providing services to sex workers in Canada. The findings demonstrate that courtesy stigma plays a role in workplace health as it shapes both the workplace environment, including the range of resources made available to staff to carry out their work activities, as well as staff perceptions of others' support. At the same time, it was evident that some workers were more vulnerable to courtesy stigma than others depending on their social location. We discuss these results in light of the existing literature on courtesy stigma and conclude that it is an under-studied determinant of workplace health among care providers serving socially denigrated groups. PMID:22103893

Phillips, Rachel; Benoit, Cecilia; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga; Vallance, Kate

2012-06-01

291

Syphilis and HIV prevalence among commercial sex workers in Central Java, Indonesia: risk-taking behavior and attitudes that may potentiate a wider epidemic.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 commercial sex workers (CSWs) from two brothel communities in Central Java, Indonesia, to determine the seroprevalence of syphilis and HIV and characterize associated knowledge, beliefs, and risk-taking behaviors. A questionnaire was administered and blood drawn for HIV and syphilis serologies. Focus groups with a total of 20 women were also conducted at both communities to supplement survey data. The mean CSW age was 27.3 years; mean number of clients seen per day was 2.27. The prevalence of syphilis and HIV were 7.5% and 0.5%, respectively. Thirty percent said they and their partners never used condoms during sex, and only 3.0% said they always used condoms. The most common client groups were truck drivers and sailors. While Central Java appears to remain in a pre-epidemic state, there is enormous potential for a significant increase in HIV and STD transmission. PMID:14746667

Sugihantono, A; Slidell, M; Syaifudin, A; Pratjojo, H; Utami, I M; Sadjimin, T; Mayer, Kenneth H

2003-11-01

292

Coming of age on the streets: survival sex among homeless young women in Hollywood.  

PubMed

This study examined childhood physical or sexual abuse, involvement in dependency or delinquency systems, psychiatric hospitalization, and suicide as possible risk factors for survival sex among homeless young women. Homeless young women were found to have similarly high rates of childhood sexual abuse, dependency and delinquency systems involvement, and psychiatric hospitalization. Homeless young women involved in survival sex disclosed higher rates of attempted suicide and reported marginally higher rates of childhood physical abuse. Analysis of qualitative data showed that those engaged in survival sex were motivated primarily by desperation to meet basic needs including a place to stay, food and money, and one third mentioned that peers commonly were influential in decisions to engage in survival sex. Others were influenced by coercion (10%) or pursuit of drugs (10%). Young women engaged in survival sex generally experienced regret and shame about their experience. PMID:24215967

Warf, Curren W; Clark, Leslie F; Desai, Mona; Rabinovitz, Susan J; Agahi, Golnaz; Calvo, Richard; Hoffmann, Jenny

2013-12-01

293

Longitudinal change in sex role orientations: Differences between men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longitudinal comparisons over the five-year period of 1975–1980 show that both men and women have significantly lessened in sex role traditionalism. The change among women, further, is significantly greater than that for men. Using multiple regression analysis it is found that for women, entry into marriage, but not employment, is associated with lessened traditionalism. For men, it is not entry

William H. McBroom

1987-01-01

294

Ambivalent sexism and attitudes toward women who engage in premarital sex in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship of ambivalent sexism, political conservatism, demographic variables (age, education, and gender), and prior sexual experience to Turkish men's and women's attitudes toward women who engage in premarital sex. Participants included 124 Turkish undergraduate students and 60 nonstudent Turkish adults. Benevolent but not hostile sexism uniquely predicted more negative views of women who engage in premarital

Peter Glick

2003-01-01

295

Depicting Women as Sex Objects in Television Advertising: Effects on Body Dissatisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether exposure to TV ads that portray women as sex objects causes increased body dissatisfaction among women and men. Participants were exposed to 15 sexist and 5 nonsexist ads, 20 nonsexist ads, or a no ad control condi- tion. Results revealed that women exposed to sexist ads judged their current body size as larger and revealed a

Howard Lavine; D. Sweeney; S. H. Wagner

1999-01-01

296

Young urban women's patterns of unprotected sex with men engaging in HIV risk behaviors.  

PubMed

This study explored reasons women engaged in unprotected sex with male partners they distrusted and perceived to engage in HIV risk behaviors. Seven focus groups were held in public housing and neighborhood centers in the urban Northeast with 43 African American and Latina women. Content analysis was conducted by open and axial coding. Barrett's theory of power as knowing participation in change and sex script theory guided interpretation. Results indicated that Patterns of Unprotected Sex is a usual practice to maintain hope, sensuality, intimacy, strategic gain, and stability with a male partner. In low power sex scripts the salient risks of HIV were buried under an awareness of oneself as having to satisfy a man and accept cheating. High power sex scripts involved women's awareness of themselves as worthy of self care with diverse choices. High power scripts can be integrated into normative sex scripts as exemplars of more powerful ways of being and acting to reduce HIV risk. PMID:17160484

Jones, Rachel; Oliver, Marsha

2007-11-01

297

Toward an understanding of the context of anal sex behavior in ethnic minority adolescent women.  

PubMed

Understanding the context of anal sex behavior among ethnic minority adolescent women has public health implications for behavioral sexual health promotion and risk reduction interventions. African-American (n = 94) and Mexican-American (n = 465) women (14-18 years of age) enrolled in a clinical trial completed semi-structured interviews to assess psychosocial and situational factors and relationships to sexual risk behavior, substance use, sexually transmitted infection/HIV acquisition, and violence. Bivariate analyses with comparisons by anal sex experiences identified differences by ethnicity and higher self-reported histories of sexual risk behaviors, substance use, violence, and stressful psychosocial and situational factors among adolescent women experiencing anal sex. Predictors of anal sex identified through logistic regression included Mexican-American ethnicity, ecstasy use, methamphetamine use, childhood sexual molestation, oral sex, and sex with friends for benefits. PMID:24963851

Dimmitt Champion, Jane; Roye, Carol F

2014-07-01

298

Hombre Seguro (Safe Men): a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of female sex workers  

PubMed Central

Background Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods/Design Male clients of FSWs who were at least 18, were HIV-negative at baseline, and reported recent unprotected sex with FSWs were randomized to the Hombre Seguro sexual risk reduction intervention, or a time-attention didactic control condition. Each condition lasted approximately one hour. Participants underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV and other STIs at baseline, and at 4, 8, and 12 month follow-ups. Combined HIV/STI incidence and unprotected vaginal and anal sex acts with FSWs were the primary outcomes. Discussion A total of 400 participants were randomized to one of the two conditions. Analyses indicated that randomization was successful; there were no significant differences between the participants in the two conditions at baseline. Average follow-up was 84% across both conditions. This is the first study to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs using the rigor of a randomized controlled trial. Trial registration NCT01280838, Date of registration: January 19, 2011. PMID:24885949

2014-01-01

299

HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among male clients of female sex workers in Yunnan, China  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the prevalence and risk factors of HIV among male clients of female sex workers in China. Methods Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit 315 clients using FSW-client and client-client networks. Subjects provided information on socio-demographic characteristics and sexual and drug behavior patterns. Blood samples were collected for HIV testing and urine samples for opiate testing. Results Overall HIV prevalence was 6.0%; among drug users it was 30.8%. 33.7% of respondents reported that they always use condoms in commercial sex and 63.5% that they used a condom in the last commercial sex episode. Drug use (OR: 6.1; 95% CI: 1.7–21.4) and lack of a regular sexual partner (OR: 6.3; 95% CI: 1.8–21.9) were significantly associated with HIV infection. Conclusions Clients of FSWs serve as potential bridges for HIV transmission from the high-risk FSWs to the low-risk general population, making them a key target for intervention. High HIV prevalence rates among clients in Kaiyuan is particularly alarming given their risk behavior patterns including high rates of partner exchange, low condom use rates, and drug using behaviors. Innovative interventions are needed to reduce the risk of HIV among clients and reduce the bridge of transmission to the general population. PMID:19730110

Jin, Xia; Smith, Kumi; Chen, Ray Y.; Ding, Guowei; Yao, Yan; Wang, Haibo; Qian, Han-Zhu; Chang, Dongfang; Wang, Guixiang; Wang, Ning

2009-01-01

300

Prevalence of HIV Infection and Predictors for Syphilis Infection among Female Sex Workers in Southern China  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for syphilis infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Liuzhou City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China. A cross-sectional study recruited FSWs using a venue-based method and subsequent snowball sampling with mapping strategies. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted to collect demographic and behavioral information. Blood was tested for syphilis (RPR with TPPA confirmation) and HIV (EIA with Western blot confirmation) infections. Of the 362 eligible participants, 81.7% were non-local residents (60.5% from other parts of Guangxi and 21.2% were non-Guangxi residents); 58.0% belonged to non-Han minority ethnic groups; 37.5% reported inconsistent condom use with their clients and 71.2% reported inconsistent condom use with their regular sex partners during the past month. Nearly 10% reported having had sex with drug users. The prevalence rates for HIV and syphilis infections were 2.3% and 11.0%, respectively. Almost half (46.6%) of participants reported having had STD symptoms. Inconsistent condom use with clients in the past month (AOR=5.0; 95%CI=1.8-13.8), less education (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.1-7.4), and HIV infection (AOR=8.1; 95%CI=1.1-68.5) were independently associated with syphilis infection. PMID:19323011

Lu, Fan; Jia, Yujiang; Sun, Xinhua; Wang, Lan; Liu, Wei; Xiao, Yan; Zeng, Gang; Li, Chunmei; Liu, Jianbo; Cassell, Holly; Chen, Huey T; Vermund, Sten H

2009-01-01

301

Women's Sexual Satisfaction as a Predictor of Well-Being in Same-Sex Versus Mixed-Sex Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural equation modelling was used to assess the strengths of the links between sexual satisfaction and self-reported (a) relationship well-being, (b) mental health, and (c) physical health for women in same-sex (i.e., homosexual, n = 114) versus mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual, n = 208) relationships. Participants came from a large-scale Internet study. Sexual satisfaction was found to be an extremely strong predictor of relational well-being,

Diane Holmberg; Karen L. Blair; Maggie Phillips

2010-01-01

302

HIV Vulnerability and Condom Use Among Migrant Women Factory Workers in Puebla, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

International migration is associated with increased HIV vulnerability, but little is known about the vulnerability of internal migrants. This qualitative study explored perceptions of HIV and condom use among Mexican migrant female factory workers. Migration and male sexual infidelity contributed to increased HIV vulnerability and unprotected sex was ubiquitous. The dominant cultural discourse that dichotomizes “good” (monogamous) and “bad” (sexually

Tamil Kendall; Blanca Estela Pelcastre

2010-01-01

303

Intervention for the control of STDs including HIV among commercial sex workers, commercial drivers and students in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Ondo State University-Australian National University collaborative research program on sexual networking, a survey of the commercial sex industry and the people engaged in it was undertaken in five major cities and large towns in Nigeria in 1992-93 (Orubuloye, Caldwell and Caldwell 1994). A total of 914 sex workers were interviewed and all participated in subsequent in-depth

F. Oguntimehin

1999-01-01

304

Sex-trafficking, violence, negotiating skill, and HIV infection in brothel-based sex workers of eastern India, adjoining Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh.  

PubMed

A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based sex workers of West Bengal, eastern India, to understand sex-trafficking, violence, negotiating skills, and HIV infection in them. In total, 580 sex workers from brothels of four districts participated in the study. A pretested questionnaire was introduced to study their sociodemography, sex-trafficking, violence, and negotiating skills. Blood sample of 4-5 mL was collected from each sex worker using an unlinked anonymous method to study their HIV status. Data were edited and entered into a computer using the Epi Info software (6.04d version). Both univariate and multivariate analyses were done to find out any association between HIV and relevant risk factors. Results of the study revealed that a sizeable number of the participants were from Nepal (9%) and Bangladesh (7%). The seroprevalence of HIV was strikingly higher among Nepalese (43%) than among Bangladeshis (7%) and Indians (9%). Almost one in every four sex workers (24%) had joined the profession by being trafficked. Violence at the beginning of this profession was more among the trafficked victims, including those sold by their family members (57%) compared to those who joined the profession voluntarily (15%). The overall condom negotiation rate with most recent two clients was 38%. By multivariate analysis, HIV was significantly associated with sexual violence (odds ratio=2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.5). The study has documented that the trafficked victims faced violence, including sexual violence, to a greater magnitude, and sexual violence was associated with acquiring HIV in them. There is a need for an in-depth study to understand the problem of trafficking and its consequences. PMID:18686555

Sarkar, Kamalesh; Bal, Baishali; Mukherjee, Rita; Chakraborty, Sekhar; Saha, Suman; Ghosh, Arundhuti; Parsons, Scott

2008-06-01

305

Prevalence of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers in Kisumu, Western Kenya, 1997 and 2008  

PubMed Central

Background In 1997, a survey in Kisumu found a prevalence of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSW) of 75%. Only 50% reported using a condom with the last client. In 2008, we conducted another survey to collect data to inform an intervention targeting FSW in Kisumu. Methods In 2008 FSW were recruited by respondent-driven sampling. Women completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to explore factors associated with HIV-infection, and with condom use. Prevalence of HIV infection was compared in the two surveys from 1997 and 2008. Multivariate analysis was used to assess whether a change in HIV prevalence between the two surveys could be explained by changes in socio-demographic characteristics and/or behavioral factors. Results 481 FSW participated in the 2008 study. HIV prevalence was 56.5% (95% CI 52.0–61.6). Factors independently associated with HIV were age older than 29 years; being a widow; STI treatment in the past year; herpes simplex virus Type-2 infection; bacterial vaginosis; and trichomoniasis. Condom use with last client was reported by 75.0% (95% CI 70.9–78.9). Predictors of condom use with the last client were age older than 29 years; higher price paid by last client; ever having been tested for HIV. Predictors of unprotected sex were being drunk during last sex act; usually having sex during menses; and STI treatment in the past year. The odds ratio of HIV infection associated with year of survey was 0.49 (95% CI 0.33–0.75) after adjusting for socio-demographic and behavioral factors. Conclusions The prevalence of HIV among FSW in Kisumu was found to be lower in 2008 than in 1997, while reported condom use was higher. However, access to HIV/STI prevention and care services needs to improve to further decrease HIV transmission between FSW and their clients. PMID:23372801

Vandenhoudt, Hilde M.; Langat, Lilian; Menten, Joris; Odongo, Fredrick; Oswago, Simon; Luttah, Geoffrey; Zeh, Clement; Crucitti, Tania; Laserson, Kayla; Vulule, John; Buve, Anne

2013-01-01

306

Relationship between mobility, violence and HIV/STI among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background Violence and mobility have been identified as critical factors contributing to the spread of HIV worldwide. This study aimed to assess the independent and combined associations of mobility and violence with sexual risk behaviors and HIV, STI prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in India. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, bio-behavioral survey conducted among 2042 FSWs across five districts of southern India in 2005–06. Regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sexual risk behaviors and HIV infection based on experience of violence and mobility after adjusting for socio-demographic and sex work related characteristics. Results One-fifth of FSWs (19%) reported experiencing violence; 68% reported travelling outside their current place of residence at least once in the past year and practicing sex work during their visit. Mobile FSWs were more likely to report violence compared to their counterparts (23% vs. 10%, p?sex with occasional (adjusted OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.76–4.65) and regular clients (adjusted OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.40–3.06). Conclusions The findings indicate that mobility and violence were independently associated with HIV infection. Notably, the combined effect of mobility and violence posed greater HIV risk than their independent effect. These results point to the need for the provision of an enabling environment and safe spaces for FSWs who are mobile, to augment existing efforts to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. PMID:22967276

2012-01-01

307

HIV/AIDS risk behaviours among Roma and non-Roma sex workers in Belgrade (Serbia).  

PubMed

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze differences between Roma and non-Roma sex workers (SWs) according to their HIV/AIDS risk behaviors. In this study 91 Roma and 100 non-Roma SWs were included. They offered sex services at Belgrade hot spots during the period 2006-2007. Roma SW were significantly younger and with lower education and they were significantly more often without reading and writing skills than non Roma SW. They also significantly more often had the first sexual intercourse before an age of 14 years. Roma and non-Roma SWs did not differ significantly in their risky sex behaviors. Out of all SWs (both Roma and non-Roma) 13.6% had more than 5 clients daily, 61.3% always used a condom with the commercial sex partners and 17.3% always used a condom with the steady partner. More than half of all participants (55.0%) reported daily use of some psychoactive substance. Correct answers to all 6 standardized questions regarding HIV transmission gave only 9.9% Roma and 5.0% non-Roma SW and mean scores were 2.87 for Roma and 3.03 for non-Roma SW. These differences were not significant. According to multivariate analysis, Roma SWs were significantly younger, less educated, and with more testing to HIV during life in comparison with non Roma SWs. Significantly protective determinants for Roma SWs were knowledge of reading and writing and less frequently daily using of ecstasy during last month in comparison with non Roma SWs. It is necessary to continue work on education of both Roma and non-Roma SWs and to reconsider and revise the existing prevention programs regarding their impact on HIV transmission knowledge and the respective protective behaviors. PMID:23390811

Sipeti?, Sandra; Ili?, Dragan; Marinkovi?, Jelena; Vlajinac, Hristina; Bjegovi?, Vesna; Cuci?, Viktorija; Laaser, Ulrich

2012-12-01

308

The Influence of a Psychology of Women Course on Sex-Role Concept, Assertiveness, and Attitudes towards Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research on the effects of women's studies courses has indicated that there are two general approaches to teaching: a concern for competence or mastery and a concern for personal change and advocacy. It was hypothesized that students taking a psychology of women course would become more androgynous and masculine in sex-role concept, more…

O'Connell, Agnes N.

309

Youth, violence and non-injection drug use: nexus of vulnerabilities among lesbian and bisexual sex workers.  

PubMed

Despite increasing evidence of enhanced HIV risk among sexual minority populations, and sex workers (SWs) in particular, there remains a paucity of epidemiological data on the risk environments of SWs who identify as lesbian or bisexual. Therefore, this short report describes a study that examined the individual, interpersonal and structural associations with lesbian or bisexual identity among SWs in Vancouver, Canada. Analysis drew on data from an open prospective cohort of street and hidden off-street SWs in Vancouver. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the independent relationships between individual, interpersonal, work environment and structural factors and lesbian or bisexual identity. Of the 510 individuals in our sample, 95 (18.6%) identified as lesbian or bisexual. In multivariable analysis, reporting non-injection drug use in the last six months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.89; 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.42, 5.75), youth ?24 years of age (AOR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.24, 4.73) and experiencing client-perpetrated verbal, physical and/or sexual violence in the last six months (AOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.98) remained independently associated with lesbian/bisexual identity, after adjusting for potential confounders. The findings demonstrate an urgent need for evidence-based social and structural HIV prevention interventions. In particular, policies and programmes tailored to lesbian and bisexual youth and women working in sex work, including those that prevent violence and address issues of non-injection stimulant use are required. PMID:24382155

Lyons, Tara; Kerr, Thomas; Duff, Putu; Feng, Cindy; Shannon, Kate

2014-01-01

310

Sex work and its associations with alcohol and methamphetamine use among female bar and spa workers in the Philippines.  

PubMed

To assess the prevalence of sex work and its associations with substance use among female bar/spa workers in the Philippines (N = 498), workers from 54 bar or spa venues in Metro Manila (2009-2010) were surveyed on demographics, drug/alcohol use, abuse history, and sex work. Their median age was 23 years and 35% engaged in sex work. Sex work was independently associated with methamphetamine use (19% vs 4%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-6.2), alcohol use with patrons (49% vs. 27%; AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.4), and alcohol intoxication during sex (50% vs. 24%; AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.5), but inversely associated with daily alcohol use (13% vs. 16%; AOR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.5). Additional significant covariates included sexual abuse history, younger age, and not having a higher education. Findings suggest that interventions with sex workers in bars and spas should focus on methamphetamine use, alcohol use contexts, and violence victimization, to better meet the needs of this population. PMID:23343641

Urada, Lianne A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Morisky, Donald E; Schilling, Robert F; Simbulan, Nymia P; Estacio, Leonardo R; Raj, Anita

2014-03-01

311

Ambivalent sexism and attitudes toward women who engage in premarital sex in Turkey.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship of ambivalent sexism, political conservatism, demographic variables (age, education, and gender), and prior sexual experience to Turkish men s and women s attitudes toward women who engage in premarital sex. Participants included 124 Turkish undergraduate students and 60 nonstudent Turkish adults. Benevolent but not hostile sexism uniquely predicted more negative views of women who engage in premarital sex once other variables were controlled. Regression analyses demonstrated that for both men and women, older, more politically conservative and less sexually experienced respondents and more educated men (but not women) respondents were more likely to disapprove of women who engage in premarital sex. Similarly, regression analysis revealed that men who were older, politically conservative, and less sexually experienced expressed stronger preferences for marrying a virgin. Both hostile and benevolent sexism predicted men s preference for marrying a virgin after all other variables were controlled. PMID:14533024

Sakalli-U?urlu, Nuray; Glick, Peter

2003-08-01

312

Transactional sex amongst young people in rural northern Tanzania: an ethnography of young women's motivations and negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Material exchange for sex (transactional sex) may be important to sexual relationships and health in certain cultures, yet the motivations for transactional sex, its scale and consequences are still little understood. The aim of this paper is to examine young women's motivations to exchange sex for gifts or money, the way in which they negotiate transactional sex throughout their

Joyce Wamoyi; Daniel Wight; Mary Plummer; Gerry Hilary Mshana; David Ross

2010-01-01

313

Circulating Sex Steroids, Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin, and Longitudinal Changes in Forearm Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women and Men: The Tromsø Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone loss during advancing age in women and men is partly the result of sex steroid deficiency. As the contribution of circulating\\u000a sex steroids and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) to bone loss remains uncertain, we sought to determine whether levels\\u000a of sex steroids or SHBG predict change in bone mineral density (BMD) in women and men. A population-based study in

Åshild Bjørnerem; Nina Emaus; Gro K. R. Berntsen; Ragnar M. Joakimsen; Vinjar Fønnebø; Tom Wilsgaard; Pål Øian; Ego Seeman; Bjørn Straume

2007-01-01

314

Challenging the stigmatization of female sex workers through a community-led structural intervention: learning from a case study of a female sex worker intervention in Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural interventions represent a potentially powerful approach to HIV prevention among female sex workers (FSW) that focus on changing the social context of risk rather than individual behavior. Community-led structural interventions (CLSI) represent a particular form of structural interventions whereby the collective energy of FSW is directed toward action to address the contextual factors that promote their risk. Among these

Kim M. Blankenship; Monica R. Biradavolu; Asima Jena; Annie George

2010-01-01

315

Coverage of HIV prevention services for female sex workers in seven cities of Myanmar.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional surveys of female sex workers using time-location sampling in seven cities of Myanmar gauged coverage of HIV prevention programs. HIV testing in last year ranged from 28 to 73 %; attending peer educator talks ranged from 15 to 50 %; exposure to media campaigns varied by city and materials (e.g., lower for TV and radio, higher for printed materials). Consistent condom use with clients in last week was high (88-99 %) across all cities. The largest city, Yangon, lagged behind others in coverage of most programs. Such data are necessary for planning, targeting, and evaluating the prevention response for this key population disproportionately affected by HIV. PMID:23695521

Aung, Tin; Paw, Ethi; Aye, Nyo Me; McFarland, Willi

2014-01-01

316

Feasibility and Acceptability of Cell Phone Diaries to Measure HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers.  

PubMed

Individual, social, and structural factors affecting HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) are difficult to assess using retrospective surveys methods. To test the feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to collect information about sexual events, we recruited 26 FSWs in Indianapolis, Indiana (US). Over 4 weeks, FSWs completed twice daily digital diaries about their mood, drug use, sexual interactions, and daily activities. Feasibility was assessed using repeated measures general linear modeling and descriptive statistics examined event-level contextual information and acceptability. Of 1,420 diaries expected, 90.3 % were completed by participants and compliance was stable over time (p > .05 for linear trend). Sexual behavior was captured in 22 % of diaries and participant satisfaction with diary data collection was high. These data provide insight into event-level factors impacting HIV risk among FSWs. We discuss implications for models of sexual behavior and individually tailored interventions to prevent HIV in this high-risk group. PMID:24643312

Roth, Alexis M; Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Garfein, Richard S; Gunn, Jayleen K L; Wiehe, Sarah E

2014-12-01

317

Behavioural and medical predictors of bacterial vaginosis recurrence among female sex workers: longitudinal analysis from a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Data on risk factors of recurrent bacterial vaginosis (RBV) are still scarce. We used data from female sex workers (FSW) participating in a randomized controlled microbicide trial to examine predictors of BV recurrence. Methods Trial’s participants with at least an episode of BV which was treated and/or followed by a negative BV result and at least one subsequent visit offering BV testing were included in the analysis. Behavioural and medical data were collected monthly while laboratory testing for STI and genital tract infections were performed quarterly. The Andersen-Gill proportional hazards model was used to determine predictors of BV recurrence both in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results 440 women were included and the incidence rate for RBV was 20.8 recurrences/100 person-months (95% confidence interval (CI) =18.1–23.4). In the multivariate analysis controlling for the study site, recent vaginal cleansing as reported at baseline with adjusted hazard-ratio (aHR)=1.30, 95% CI = 1.02-1.64 increased the risk of BV recurrence, whereas consistent condom use (CCU) with the primary partner (aHR=0.68, 95% CI=0.49-0.93) and vaginal candidiasis (aHR=0.70, 95% CI=0.53-0.93), both treated as time-dependent variables, were associated with decreased risk of RBV. Conclusion This study confirms the importance of counselling high-risk women with RBV about the adverse effects of vaginal cleansing and the protective effects of condom use with all types of partners for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections, including BV. More prospective studies on risk factors of BV recurrence are warranted. Trial registration Trial registration: NCT00153777 PMID:23657072

2013-01-01

318

The Connections of Mental Health Problems, Violent Life Experiences, and the Social Milieu of the “Stroll” with the HIV Risk Behaviors of Female Street Sex Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the connections of mental health, victimization, and sexual risk behaviors among a sample of 278 street-based female sex workers in Miami. Using targeted sampling strategies, drug-using sex workers were recruited into an HIV prevention research program. Data were collected by trained interviewers, and focused on drug use and sexual risk for HIV, childhood abuse, recent victimization, and

Hilary L. Surratt; Steven P. Kurtz; Jason C. Weaver; James A. Inciardi

2005-01-01

319

Addressing Poverty, Unemployment and Gender Inequality in Southern Africa: An Alternative Strategy for HIV/AIDS Prevention with Sex Workers in Botswana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the results of a study that was conducted as an effort to identify the needs of sex workers as potential beneficiaries of future HIV prevention and empowerment activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the situation and needs of sex workers in the context of HIV/AIDS. Data were collected from one of the small…

Ntseane, Peggy Gabo

2004-01-01

320

Change in U.S. Womens Sex Role Attitudes, 1969-1974  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that the structural or ideological positions represented by educational attainment and employment experience are strongly related to womens sex role attitudes--higher education and more recent employment experience being associated with less traditional outlook. (Author/AM)

Mason, Karen Oppenheim; And Others

1976-01-01

321

Amphetamine-type stimulant use and HIV\\/STI risk behaviour among young female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundUse of amphetamine-type substances (ATS) has been linked to increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) worldwide. In Cambodia, recent ATS use is independently associated with incident STI infection among young female sex workers (FSWs).

L. Maher; P. Phlong; J. Mooney-Somers; S. Keo; E. Stein; M. C. Couture; K. Page

2011-01-01

322

Children of female sex workers and drug users: a review of vulnerability, resilience and family-centred models of care  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Injection drug users and female sex workers are two of the populations most at risk for becoming infected with HIV in countries with concentrated epidemics. Many of the adults who fall into these categories are also parents, but little is known about the vulnerabilities faced by their children, their children's sources of resilience, or programmes providing services to these

Jennifer Beard; Godfrey Biemba; Mohamad I Brooks; Jill Costello; Mark Ommerborn; Megan Bresnahan; David Flynn; Jonathon L Simon

2010-01-01

323

Cost-effectiveness of the female condom in preventing HIV and STDs in commercial sex workers in rural South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the cost-effectiveness of the female condom (FC) in preventing HIV infection and other STDs among commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients in the Mpumulanga Province of South Africa. The health and economic outcomes of current levels of male condom (MC) use in 1000 CSWs who average 25 partners per year and have an HIV prevalence of 50.3%

Elliot Marseille; James G. Kahn; Kelvin Billinghurst; Joseph Saba

2001-01-01

324

The incidence of sexually transmitted infections among frequently screened sex workers in a decriminalised and regulated system in Melbourne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) among decriminalised and regulated sex workers in Victoria.Methods: The incidence of STI was calculated for individuals who attended the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre on more than one occasion. Results of initial screen specimens were not included. Follow up time was calculated in person months and used as the denominator with

D M Lee; A Binger; J Hocking; C K Fairley

2005-01-01

325

Perceptions about HIV and Condoms and Consistent Condom Use among Male Clients of Commercial Sex Workers in the Philippines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV…

Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E.

2013-01-01

326

Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers in China: Role of Gatekeepers  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to assess the potential role of gatekeepers of establishments in promoting condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. Goals The goals of this study were to explore FSWs’ perceptions of gatekeeper attitudes and support for condom use, and to assess their association with FSWs’ practice, communication, intention, proper use, knowledge of correct use, and perceptions related to condom use. Study The authors conducted a cross-sectional study among 454 establishment-based FSWs in one Chinese county. Results Perceived gatekeeper support for condom use was low among FSWs. Perceived support was positively associated with condom use communication with sexual partners, condom use frequency and intention, but not associated with proper condom use among FSWs. Perceived support was significantly associated with most condom use-related perceptions (e.g., self-efficacy of condom use, barriers to condom use, and perceived peer condom use) among FSWs. Conclusions Healthcare professionals should work with gatekeepers to create a supportive local environment for condom use in sex work establishments. Gatekeepers need to clearly articulate their support for condom use to the FSWs. Training and skill acquisition regarding correct use of condoms among FSWs will be necessary. PMID:16118607

YANG, HONGMEI; LI, XIAOMING; STANTON, BONITA; FANG, XIAOYI; ZHAO, RAN; DONG, BAIQING; LIU, WEI; LIANG, SHAOLING; ZHOU, YUEJIAO; HONG, YAN

2007-01-01

327

Suppressed cellular alloimmune responses in HIV-exposed seronegative female sex workers  

PubMed Central

Particular human leucocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms have been associated with a reduced risk of HIV transmission. However, protective alloimmune responses expected to result from such a genetic predisposition have not been demonstrated. To this end, we analysed and compared cellular and humoral alloimmune responses in a cohort of female sex workers who remained human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative despite more than 3 years of high-risk sexual activity (ESN FSWs) with those of low-risk HIV-seronegative female blood donors in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. ESN FSWs showed significantly lower allostimulated CD69 expression and secretion of interferon-?, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1? and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) by lymphocytes than controls. In contrast, ESN FSWs showed significantly higher mitogen-stimulated CD69 expression and secretion of tumour necrosis factor-? and MIP-1? than controls. Suppression of cellular alloimmune responses among ESN FSWs was associated with a higher self-reported frequency of unprotected sex. Levels of anti-HLA class I alloantibodies in plasma were not significantly different between ESN FSWs and controls. These findings indicate that frequent sexual exposure to multiple partners results in suppression rather than activation of cellular alloimmune responses. Our data support the hypothesis that suppressed cellular alloimmune responses may play a role in protection against HIV infection. PMID:16487242

Jennes, W; Evertse, D; Borget, M-Y; Vuylsteke, B; Maurice, C; Nkengasong, J N; Kestens, L

2006-01-01

328

Adolescents’ Exposure to a Sexualized Media Environment and Their Notions of Women as Sex Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate whether adolescents’ exposure to a sexualized media environment is associated with\\u000a stronger beliefs that women are sex objects. More specifically, we studied whether the association between notions of women\\u000a as sex objects and exposure to sexual content of varied explicitness (i.e., sexually non-explicit, semi-explicit, or explicit)\\u000a and in different formats (i.e., visual and audio-visual)

Jochen Peter; Patti M. Valkenburg

2007-01-01

329

Work & Home Physical Activity Profile Of Women Workers In An Electronics Factory In The Klang Valley, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the prevalence of exercise and other physical activities as well as their correlates among women workers in an electronics factory in the Klang Valley. This was a cross-sectional survey using guided self-administered questionnaires on 496 women workers. Comparisons of sociodemographic profiles, selected physiological parameters, work and physical activity profiles, knowledge and attitudes related to exercise and mental

Anita Megat; Mohd Nordin

330

Homelessness among a cohort of women in street-based sex work: the need for safer environment interventions  

PubMed Central

Background Drawing on data from a community-based prospective cohort study in Vancouver, Canada, we examined the prevalence and individual, interpersonal and work environment correlates of homelessness among 252 women in street-based sex work. Methods Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression using generalized estimating equations (GEE) was used to examine the individual, interpersonal and work environment factors that were associated with homelessness among street-based sex workers. Results Among 252 women, 43.3% reported homelessness over an 18-month follow-up period. In the multivariable GEE logistic regression analysis, younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.93; 95%confidence interval [95%CI] 0.93-0.98), sexual violence by non-commercial partners (aOR = 2.14; 95%CI 1.06-4.34), servicing a higher number of clients (10+ per week vs < 10) (aOR = 1.68; 95%CI 1.05-2.69), intensive, daily crack use (aOR = 1.65; 95%CI 1.11-2.45), and servicing clients in public spaces (aOR = 1.52; CI 1.00-2.31) were independently associated with sleeping on the street. Conclusions These findings indicate a critical need for safer environment interventions that mitigate the social and physical risks faced by homeless FSWs and increase access to safe, secure housing for women. PMID:21838894

2011-01-01

331

The Effect of Premarital Sex on Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and High Risk Behaviors in Women.  

PubMed

This research aimed to study the effect of premarital sex on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and high risk behaviors among women in sub-Saharan Africa. It included 1393 women randomly selected from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participants' demographic and socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use, condom use, number of partners, symptoms of STIs and age at first sex and marriage were obtained. Moreover, blood and urine samples were tested for HIV-1, HSV-2, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas and Mycoplasma genitalium infections. The average duration of premarital sex in the study participants was 1.66 years (SD of 2.61 years). Women with longer duration of premarital sex had higher odds of HIV-1, HSV-2 and other STIs. Moreover, women with longer duration of premarital sex were more likely to report multiple sexual partners. These findings highlight the importance of a lengthy period of premarital sex as a public health issue. STIs prevention programs in sub-Saharan Africa should address factors leading to a longer period of premarital sex in women. PMID:23626920

Ghebremichael, Musie S; Finkelman, Matthew D

2013-02-01

332

HIV seroprevalence and high-risk sexual behavior among female sex workers in Central Brazil.  

PubMed

Female sex workers (FSWs) are considered a high-risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection due to their social vulnerability and factors associated with their work. We estimated the prevalence of HIV, and identified viral subtypes and risk factors among FSWs. A cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was conducted among 402 FSWs in Campo Grande city, Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. Participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire about sociodemograpic characteristics and risk behavior. Blood samples were collected for serological testing of HIV. Of the 402 FSWs, median age and age of initiating sex work were 25 years (Interquartile range [IQR]: 9) and 20 years (IQR: 6), respectively. The majority reported use of alcohol (88.5%), had 5-9 years (median: 9; IQR: 3) of schooling (54.5%), 68.6% had tattoos/body piercings, and 45.1% had more than seven clients per week (median: 7; IQR: 10). Only 32.9% of FSW reported using a condom with nonpaying partners in the last sexual contact. Prevalence of HIV infection was 1.0% (95% CI: 0.1-2.6%). Genotyping for HIV-1 performed on three samples detected subtypes B, C, and F1. Sex work in the Midwestern region of Brazil is characterized by reduced education, large numbers of clients per week, and inconsistent condom use, mainly with nonpaying partners. Although prevalence of HIV infection is currently low, elevated levels of high-risk sexual behavior confirm a need to implement prevention measures. Specific interventions targeting FSWs must emphasize the risk associated with both clients and nonpaying partners while providing knowledge about HIV prevention. PMID:24617659

Fernandes, Fernanda R P; Mousquer, Gina J; Castro, Lisie S; Puga, Marco A; Tanaka, Tayana S O; Rezende, Grazielli R; Pinto, Clarice S; Bandeira, Larissa M; Martins, Regina M B; Francisco, Roberta B L; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana R C

2014-01-01

333

Too Many Men? Sex Ratios and Women's Partnering Behavior in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relative numbers of women and men are changing dramatically in China, but the consequences of these imbalanced sex ratios have received little empirical attention. We merge data from the Chinese Health and Family Life Survey with community-level data from Chinese censuses to examine the relationship between cohort- and community-specific sex

Trent, Katherine; South, Scott J.

2011-01-01

334

Violence against women in sex work and HIV risk implications differ qualitatively by perpetrator  

PubMed Central

Background Physical and sexual violence heighten STI/HIV risk for women in sex work. Against this backdrop, we describe the nature of abuse against women in sex work, and its STI/HIV implications, across perpetrators. Methods Adult women involved in sex work (n?=?35) in Baltimore, MD participated in an in-depth interview and brief survey. Results Physical and sexual violence were prevalent, with 43% reporting past-month abuse. Clients were the primary perpetrators; their violence was severe, compromised women’s condom and sexual negotiation, and included forced and coerced anal intercourse. Sex work was a factor in intimate partner violence. Police abuse was largely an exploitation of power imbalances for coerced sex. Conclusions Findings affirm the need to address physical and sexual violence, particularly that perpetrated by clients, as a social determinant of health for women in sex work, as well as a threat to safety and wellbeing, and a contextual barrier to HIV risk reduction. PMID:24060235

2013-01-01

335

A Comparison of Relationship Satisfaction, Social Support, and Stress Between Women with First and Prior Same-Sex Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Internet-based study was to determine differences between women in their first same-sex relationships and women who have had same-sex relationships prior to their current relationship. Participants included 754 women within the United States and Canada who were at least 18 years of age and were in an ongoing same-sex relationship of at least six months. Women

Teresa Reeves; Sharon G. Horne

2009-01-01

336

Polistes dominulus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) larvae show different cuticular patterns according to their sex: workers seem not use this chemical information.  

PubMed

During reproductive phase, larvae of male and female are intermingled in nest of social wasps. Workers care for and feed larvae that gives them an opportunity to bias investment with respect to sex, or even to kill some larvae, if they can distinguish between immature males and females. Cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) mixtures are the most studied cues for species, nestmate, and caste recognition in social Hymenoptera. In this study, we investigate the paper wasp Polistes dominulus to see if male and female larvae show different patterns of CHCs and if workers are able to discriminate between male and female larvae on this basis. We performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis on cuticular extracts of larvae, and then we genotyped them to assign sex. We found sex-based variation in CHC-profiles sufficient for discrimination. However, our behavioral assays do not support the view that adults discriminate between male and female larvae within nests. PMID:19147809

Cotoneschi, Chiara; Dani, Francesca Romana; Cervo, Rita; Scala, Clea; Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C; Turillazzi, Stefano

2009-03-01

337

Selective sexual harassment: differential treatment of similar groups of women workers.  

PubMed

If male workers categorize different groups of women coworkers and, subsequently, treat them differently, the experiences of women from one of these groups would not be indicative of the experiences of women from another group. When this different treatment involves hostile environment sexual harassment of one group, but not the other, then the law must recognize the possibility of "selective sexual harassment." Without this understanding of the nuances of the workplace dynamics, a court could mistake the women of the unharassed group as representing "reasonable women" and the women of the harassed group as simply oversensitive. This paper draws on empirical data to demonstrate such a situation and advocates for a version of the "reasonable victim" standard to facilitate a closer analysis of hostile environment sexual harassment suits. PMID:15055340

Hoffmann, Elizabeth A

2004-02-01

338

Appropriating social citizenship: women's labour, poverty, and entrepreneurship in the manual workers union of Botswana.  

PubMed

Interrogating critiques of the 'African labour aristocracy' thesis, the article proposes that public service industrial-class manual workers in Botswana form, if not a labour 'aristocracy' in the sense first defined by Saul and Arrighi, then a marginal worker 'elite'. They are privileged in having a regular salary above minimum pay, augmented by periodic lump-sum gratuity payments. This sets them apart from the other low-paid workers in the private sector, casual workers in the informal economy and a vast army of unemployed job seekers. In the absence of a national unemployment benefit scheme in Botswana, the article explores some of the strategies deployed by women members of the Manual Workers Union in their attempts to contend with the spectre of future unemployment and impoverishment. In gender terms, the article highlights the independence, autonomy and decision-making capacity of women trade unionist leaders, who straddle the worlds of workers' rights and citizens' rights, and manoeuvre their way through the maze of rules and regulations they encounter in both. PMID:20879188

Werbner, Pnina

2010-01-01

339

Exploring sex and gender differences in sleep health: a Society for Women's Health Research Report.  

PubMed

Previous attempts have been made to address sleep disorders in women; however, significant knowledge gaps in research and a lack of awareness among the research community continue to exist. There is a great need for scientists and clinicians to consider sex and gender differences in their sleep research to account for the unique biology of women. To understand the role of sex differences in sleep and the state of women's sleep health research, the Society for Women's Health Research convened an interdisciplinary expert panel of well-established sleep researchers and clinicians for a roundtable meeting. Focused discussions on basic and clinical research along with a focus on specific challenges facing women with sleep-related problems and effective therapies led to the identification of knowledge gaps and the development of research-related recommendations. Additionally, sex differences in sleep disorders were noted and discussed in the context of underlying hormonal differences. Differences in sleep behavior and sleep disorders may not only be driven by biological factors but also by gender differences in the way women and men report symptoms. Progress has been made in identifying sex and gender differences in many areas of sleep, but major research gaps in the areas of epidemiology, sleep regulation, sleep quality, diagnosis, and treatment need to be addressed. Identifying the underlying nature of sex and gender differences in sleep research has potential to accelerate improved care for both men and women facilitating better diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately prevention of sleep disorders and related comorbid conditions. PMID:24956068

Mallampalli, Monica P; Carter, Christine L

2014-07-01

340

Drug-using male clients of female sex workers who report being paid for sex: HIV/STI, demographic and drug use correlates  

PubMed Central

Background Research has focused on male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) and their risk for HIV/STIs. Yet, it is unclear whether the commercial sex behaviors of these men are limited to paying for sex, or whether they may also be paid for sex themselves. Methods We analyzed interview data and HIV/STI test results from 170 drug-using male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico, to determine the extent to which these men report being paid for sex and the association with positive HIV/STI results. Results Over one-quarter of men reported having been paid for sex in the past four months. In a multivariate logistic regression model, reporting having been paid for sex was significantly associated with testing positive for any HIV/STI (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AdjOR] 3.53, 95% C.I. 1.33–9.35), being bisexual (AdjOR 15.59, 95% C.I. 4.81–50.53), injection drug use in the past four months (AdjOR 2.65, 95% C.I. 1.16–6.03), and cocaine use in the past four months (AdjOR 2.93, 95% C.I. 1.22–7.01). Conclusions Findings suggest that drug-using male clients of FSWs may be characterized by unique risk profiles that require tailored HIV prevention interventions. PMID:23863514

Wagner, Karla D.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Chavarin, Claudia V.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.

2013-01-01

341

Minorities and Women in the Health Fields: Applicants, Students and Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report presents a compilation of selected available data on the representation of racial/ethnic minority groups and women in health fields. It includes the most recent data available on health school applicants and students as well as on workers in health occupations. The report is divided into two parts. The first contains a series of 10…

Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Resources Development.

342

Educated Immigrant Women Workers Doing Well with Change: Helping and Hindering Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the strategies that helped or hindered 10 immigrant women workers to do well with change that affected their work. A total of 182 incidents were extracted and grouped into 9 categories: personal beliefs/traits/values, taking action, skills/education, personal challenges, self-care, relationships/support,…

Koert, Emily; Borgen, William A.; Amundson, Norman E.

2011-01-01

343

Women and Reproductive Loss: Client-Worker Dialogues Designed to Break the Silence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An estimated one in four women experiences a pregnancy loss during her lifetime. Despite the pervasiveness of fetal mortality reflected by these numbers, social workers rarely initiate dialogues regarding reproductive loss history. Reproductive loss experiences are interwoven with typical themes emerging in everyday social work practice, including…

Price, Sarah Kye

2008-01-01

344

An international comparative public health analysis of sex trafficking of women and girls in eight cities: achieving a more effective health sector response.  

PubMed

Sex trafficking, trafficking for the purpose of forced sexual exploitation, is a widespread form of human trafficking that occurs in all regions of the world, affects mostly women and girls, and has far-reaching health implications. Studies suggest that up to 50 % of sex trafficking victims in the USA seek medical attention while in their trafficking situation, yet it is unclear how the healthcare system responds to the needs of victims of sex trafficking. To understand the intersection of sex trafficking and public health, we performed in-depth qualitative interviews among 277 antitrafficking stakeholders across eight metropolitan areas in five countries to examine the local context of sex trafficking. We sought to gain a new perspective on this form of gender-based violence from those who have a unique vantage point and intimate knowledge of push-and-pull factors, victim health needs, current available resources and practices in the health system, and barriers to care. Through comparative analysis across these contexts, we found that multiple sociocultural and economic factors facilitate sex trafficking, including child sexual abuse, the objectification of women and girls, and lack of income. Although there are numerous physical and psychological health problems associated with sex trafficking, health services for victims are patchy and poorly coordinated, particularly in the realm of mental health. Various factors function as barriers to a greater health response, including low awareness of sex trafficking and attitudinal biases among health workers. A more comprehensive and coordinated health system response to sex trafficking may help alleviate its devastating effects on vulnerable women and girls. There are numerous opportunities for local health systems to engage in antitrafficking efforts while partnering across sectors with relevant stakeholders. PMID:24151086

Macias Konstantopoulos, Wendy; Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Cafferty, Elizabeth; McGahan, Anita; Williams, Timothy P; Castor, Judith Palmer; Wolferstan, Nadya; Purcell, Genevieve; Burke, Thomas F

2013-12-01

345

Risk and Reward in Managua’s Commercial Sex Market: The Importance of Workplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the capabilities of women in sex work—a sector in which a substantial number of women in developing countries find themselves. Sex workers confront important unfreedoms—violence and disease—on a daily basis. How well sex workers can manage these threats has implications not only for the workers themselves but also their families and communities, and thus is an

Alys Willman

2010-01-01

346

Identifying the HIV Transmission Bridge: Which Men Are Having Unsafe Sex with Female Sex Workers and with Their Own Wives or Steady Partners?  

PubMed Central

Objective To gain insights into bridging behaviors and their correlates among male clients of female sex workers (FSWs). Methods Men aged ?18 years who recently paid or traded for sex with FSWs were recruited in Tijuana in 2008–2009. Participants underwent interviews and testing for HIV, chlamydia, syphilis, and gonorrhea. Logistic regression compared “bridgers” (clients who had unprotected sex with FSWs and with a wife or steady partner) with men who did not. Results Of 383 men, 134 (35%) had a steady partner. Half (n = 70) of those had unprotected sex with both FSWs and the steady partner. Prevalence of any STI or HIV was 16.5% among bridgers and 2.3% among non-bridgers. Compared to other clients, bridgers were more likely to use drugs during sex with FSWs (81.4% versus 46.9%, p < 0.0001), had higher sensation-seeking (p < 0.0001) and misogyny scores (p = 0.05), and were more likely to offer FSWs extra money for unprotected sex (34.4% versus 1.6%, p < 0.0001). Factors independently associated with bridging were: using drugs during sex with FSWs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.4, p = 0.007), sensation-seeking (AOR: 4.3 per unit increase, p = 0.05), and offering FSWs more money for unprotected sex (AOR: 24.5, p = 0.003). Conclusion Sensation-seeking clients who use drugs during sex and coerce FSWs into unprotected sex may be less responsive to standard risk reduction interventions. Interventions are needed that target clients rather than rely on FSWs to change behaviors that may not be under their control. PMID:22481603

Patterson, Thomas L.; Volkmann, Tyson; Gallardo, Manuel; Goldenberg, Shira; Lozada, Remedios; Semple, Shirley J.; Anderson, Christy M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2012-01-01

347

Pregnant women's social status, stress, self-esteem, and their infants' sex ratio at birth.  

PubMed

A reported association of social status of parents with infants' sex ratio at birth and of psychological stress (score on Beck Depression Inventory) with sex ratio were not supported by our analysis, but the possibility of an association between scores on the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale and sex ratio at birth for a sample of 385 pregnant women showed that women who have given birth to boys scored lower on self-esteem during pregnancy than those who have given birth to girls. Some explanations are reviewed to discuss this unforeseen association. PMID:11065335

Marleau, J D; Saucier, J F

2000-10-01

348

Will Japanese Women Ever Achieve Equality? Sex-Role Differentiations Related to Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Controversy exists concerning whether or not sex discrimination is the norm in Japan and what will happen with the status of Japanese women. One U.S. scholar was surprised after talking to female students at a Japanese college that only a few of them had a view of their future. It is fair to say that Japanese women are not taught to become…

Inoue, Yukiko

349

The Effects of Childhood Trauma on Sex Trading in Substance Using Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a model developed to understand the relationship between childhood victimization, perpetration of violence, and later cocaine dependence and adult sex trading among drug using women. A cohort of heavy drinking and drug using women (N=594) recruited for two on-going community based HIV prevention studies in St. Louis City was analyzed to evaluate this association using path analysis.

Krishna Vaddiparti; Jane Bogetto; Catina Callahan; Arbi B. Abdallah; Edward L. Spitznagel; Linda B. Cottler

2006-01-01

350

Empowered Positions? Listening to Sexually Experienced Young Women Talking about Sex, Disappointments, and Compromise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to discuss how sex and relationship education (SRE) could benefit from considering current levels of young women's empowerment in (hetero)sexual relationships and challenge popular notions of twenty-first century young women "having it all" and occupying powerful relational and sexual positions.…

Sieg, Ellen

2008-01-01

351

Psychosexual correlates of viewing sexually explicit sex on television among women in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on frequency, motives, and reactions in relation to viewing sexually explicit sex on tv (SETV) among a sample of 201 Dutch women, and explores correlations with demographic, psychosexual, and behavioral variables. We found that 60% of these women watch SETV on a somewhat regular basis. Motivations are most often leisure or sensation seeking. Reactions appreciative of SETV

Ine Vanwesenbeeck

2001-01-01

352

An Alternate HIV Preventive Strategy: Sex Scripts in Media for Women of Color  

Microsoft Academic Search

New cases of HIV\\/AIDS among women of color in the United States highlight the continuing need for the public and private sectors to develop alternate preventive strategies. The author discusses the conceptual basis for using television sex scripts to incorporate women of color relational needs (trust, romance, sexual pressure) to promote HIV risk-reduction messages through a process of association with

Catherine Medina

2011-01-01

353

Sexuality, Women's Liberation, and Sex Education. A Preliminary Draft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the history of societal attitudes toward the role of women. The question is raised as to whether the present sexual revolution can enhance either sexual fulfillment or civil liberties for contemporary women. This is discussed in reference to the nuclear family, sexual bargaining, cultural assumptions about women's sexual…

Hacker, Helen Mayer

354

Tricks of the Trade: Sexual Health Behaviors, the Context of HIV Risk, and Potential Prevention Intervention Strategies for Male Sex Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex work is a significant risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM); however, there is a dearth of knowledge about how to reduce risk in this group. MSM sex workers (N = 32) completed a semistructured qualitative interview and a close-ended quantitative assessment. Analyses focused on themes relevant to intervention development.

Sari L. Reisner; Matthew J. Mimiaga; Kenneth H. Mayer; Jake P. Tinsley; Steven A. Safren

2009-01-01

355

Women in the Workplace and Sex Discrimination Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article entails a critical analysis of federal sex discrimination law. A feminist perspective is employed to interpret the legal policies enacted by two federal courts (the U.S. Supreme Court and the District of Columbia's Court of Appeals) in the 1980s in regard to the workplace issues of sexual harassment and sex discrimination in promotion decisions. Specifically, the evaluative criteria

Francis Carleton

1993-01-01

356

The Conundrum of Women's Agency: Migrations and the Sex Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I begin with an overview of migration theory as it relates to those selling sex, including two key concepts: the feminisation of migration and labour migration. I then explore the interest that has arisen regarding the ways people leave their countries and arrive in others, in general, and then the particular concern for those who sell sex

Laura María Agustín

2006-01-01

357

Where Sex Ends and Emotions Begin: Love and HIV Risk among Female Sex Workers and their Intimate, Non-Commercial Partners along the Mexico-U.S. Border  

PubMed Central

This study explores the affective dimensions of female sex workers’ relationships with their intimate, non-commercial partners and assesses how emotions shape each partner’s sexual and drug-related risk within their relationship. We draw on qualitative data from a study of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and high risk behaviours among female sex workers and their non-commercial partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, to illustrate that these couples share relationships based on love, trust, respect, and emotional and material support. These relationships ranged in emotional intensity, which shaped partners’ decisions not to use condoms with each other. Drugs were important in most couples’ relationships. Among injectors, syringe sharing was common and represented both a sign of care and a pragmatic reaction to conditions of material scarcity. Our findings suggest that couple-based HIV interventions to address dual sexual and drug-related risks should be tailored to the emotional dynamics of sex workers’ intimate relationships. PMID:23473586

Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Robertson, Angela M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2013-01-01

358

Transgender women and the sex work industry: roots in systemic, institutional, and interpersonal discrimination.  

PubMed

Because transgender people face discrimination on systemic, institutional, and interpersonal levels, the previous literature has supported that many transgender women view the sex work industry as their only viable career option. The current article reviews the literature on discrimination against transgender people, explores how discrimination influences their participation in sex work, and discusses how institutional discrimination against transgender women manifests within the criminal justice system. Furthermore, recommendations are provided for advocating for the rights of transgender people while promoting healthy behaviors and higher quality of life. Throughout the article, quotes from previous qualitative research are used to illustrate the experiences of transgender women through their own voices and perspectives. PMID:24313294

Nadal, Kevin L; Davidoff, Kristin C; Fujii-Doe, Whitney

2014-01-01

359

Sex differences favoring women in verbal but not in visuospatial episodic memory.  

PubMed

Sex differences favoring women have been found in a number of studies of episodic memory. This study examined sex differences in verbal, nonverbal, and visuospatial episodic memory tasks. Results showed that although women performed at a higher level on a composite verbal and nonverbal episodic memory score, men performed at a higher level on a composite score of episodic memory tasks requiring visuospatial processing. Thus, men can use their superior visuospatial abilities to excel in highly visuospatial episodic memory tasks, whereas women seem to excel in episodic memory tasks in which a verbalization of the material is possible. PMID:11324860

Lewin, C; Wolgers, G; Herlitz, A

2001-04-01

360

Sexual trafficking in women: International political economy and the politics of sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent manifestation of the North\\/South, East\\/West political-economic divide is the international sex trade in women, of\\u000a which trafficking in women for purposes of sexual employment is a large subset. Trafficking in humans in general, and women\\u000a in particular, has taken center state in many nation-states as an issue of a threat to national security and societal cohesion.\\u000a This article

Andrea Marie Bertone

1999-01-01

361

Young Women's Narratives of Same-Sex Sexual Desire in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate young women's retrospective narratives of their experiences of same-sex sexual desire in adolescence. Seven women aged 19–25 were interviewed. An across-narrative analysis was conducted, producing five major themes. It is anticipated that this research will help to redress the missing discourse of desire in social constructions of younger women's sexuality and contribute

Corinne Logan; Marla Buchanan

2008-01-01

362

Anger as a Moderator of Safer Sex Motivation among Low Income Urban Women  

PubMed Central

Theoretical models suggest that both HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception inform rational decision-making and, thus, predict safer sex motivation and behavior. However, the amount of variance explained by knowledge and risk perception is typically small. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether the predictive power of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on safer sex motivation is affected by trait anger. We hypothesized that anger may disrupt rational-decision making, distorting the effects of both HIV knowledge and risk perception on safer sex intentions. Data from 232 low-income, urban women at risk for HIV infection were used to test a path model with past sexual risk behavior, HIV knowledge, and HIV risk perception as predictors of safer sex intentions. Moderator effects of anger on safer sex intentions were tested by simultaneous group comparisons between high-anger and low-anger women (median-split). The theoretically expected “rational pattern” was found among low-anger women only, including (a) a positive effect of knowledge on safer sex intentions, and (b) buffer (inhibitor) effects of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on the negative path leading from past risk behavior to safer sex intentions. Among high-anger women, an “irrational pattern” emerged, with no effects of HIV knowledge and negative effects of both past risk behavior and HIV risk perception on safer sex intentions. In sum, the results suggest that rational knowledge and risk-based decisions regarding safer sex may be limited to low-anger women. PMID:16247592

Carey, Michael P.

2005-01-01

363

Client demands for unsafe sex: the socio-economic risk environment for HIV among street and off-street sex workers  

PubMed Central

Objective Among sex workers (SWs) in Vancouver, Canada, this study identified social, drug use, sex work, environmental-structural and client-related factors associated with being offered and accepting more money after clients' demand for sex without a condom. Design Cross-sectional study using baseline (February/10-October/11) data from a longitudinal cohort of 510 SWs. Methods A two-part multivariable regression model was used to identify factors associated with two separate outcomes: (1) being offered and (2) accepting more money for sex without a condom in the last six months, among those who had been offered more money. Results The sample included 490 SWs. In multivariable analysis, being offered more money for sex without a condom was more likely for SWs who used speedballs, had higher average numbers of clients per week, had difficulty accessing condoms and had clients who visited other SWs. Accepting more money for sex without a condom was more likely for SWs self-reporting as a sexual minority and who had experienced client violence and used crystal methamphetamine use less than daily (vs. none), and less likely for SWs who solicited for clients mainly indoors (vs. outdoor/public places). Conclusions These results highlight the high demand for sex without a condom by clients of SWs. HIV prevention efforts should shift responsibility toward clients to reduce offers of more money for unsafe sex. Programs that mitigate the social and economic risk environments of SWs alongside the removal of criminal sanctions on sex work to enable condom use within safer indoor work spaces are urgently required. PMID:23614990

DEERING, Kathleen N; LYONS, Tara; FENG, Cindy X; NOSYK, Bohdan; STRATHDEE, Steffanie A; MONTANER, Julio SG; SHANNON, Kate

2013-01-01

364

Knowledge, attitudes and experiences of sex trafficking by young women in Benin City, South-South Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benin City, the headquarters of Edo State, is known to have one of the highest rates of international sex trafficking of young women in Nigeria. This study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of young women in Benin City, towards international sex trafficking. A random household sample of 1456 women aged 15–25 years was interviewed with a

F. E. Okonofua; S. M. Ogbomwan; A. N. Alutu; Okop Kufre; Aghahowa Eghosa

2004-01-01

365

Prevalence and correlates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers and their non-commercial male partners in two Mexico-USA border cities.  

PubMed

Female sex workers (FSWs) acquire HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) through unprotected sex with commercial and non-commercial (intimate) male partners. Little research has focused on FSWs' intimate relationships, within which condom use is rare. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV/STIs within FSWs' intimate relationships in Northern Mexico. From 2010 to 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of FSWs and their non-commercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. Eligible FSWs and their verified male partners were aged ?18 years; FSWs reported lifetime use of heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine and recently exchanged sex (past month). Participants completed baseline questionnaires and testing for HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. We determined the prevalence and correlates of individuals' HIV/STI positivity using bivariate probit regression. Among 212 couples (n?=?424), prevalence of HIV was 2.6 % (n?=?11). Forty-two (9.9 %) tested positive for any HIV/STIs, which was more prevalent among women than men (12.7 % vs. 7.1 %, p?sex work clients were less likely to test positive for HIV/STIs than those without regular clients. Similarly, male partners of FSWs who had regular clients were 9 % less likely to have HIV/STIs. Higher sexual decision-making power was protective against HIV/STIs for women. Men who recently used methamphetamine or reported perpetrating any conflict within steady relationships were more likely to test positive for HIV/STIs. Within FSWs' intimate relationships in two Mexican-US border cities, nearly one in ten partners tested positive for HIV/STIs. Couple-based prevention interventions should recognize how intimate relationship factors and social contexts influence HIV/STI vulnerability. PMID:24488651

Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Ulibarri, Monica D; Rangel, M Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

2014-08-01

366

Contraceptive Utilization and Pregnancy Termination Among Female Sex Workers in Afghanistan  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background To determine the prevalence and correlates of prior pregnancy termination and unmet need for contraception among female sex workers (FSWs) in Afghanistan. Methods FSWs in Jalalabad, Kabul, and Mazar-i-Sharif were recruited between June 2006 and December 2007 through outreach programs. Participants completed an interviewer-administered survey describing demographics, behaviors associated with risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancy, and medical history. Correlates of prior pregnancy termination and current unmet need for contraception were assessed with logistic regression analysis, controlling for site. Results Of 520 FSWs, most (82.3%) had been pregnant at least once (mean 4.9?±?2.7, range 1–17), among whom unplanned pregnancy (36.9%) and termination (33.2%) were common. Jalalabad participants were more likely to report both prior unplanned pregnancy (60.6% vs. 48.3% in Kabul or 20.7% in Mazar, p?sex outside their city of residence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-2.77) and inversely associated with illicit drug use (AOR 0.41, 95% CI 0.31-0.53). Conclusions Although FSWs in Afghanistan report high rates of contraceptive use, unplanned pregnancy is common. Reproductive health services should be included in programming for FSWs to reduce unplanned pregnancies and to reduce HIV/STI risks. PMID:20879869

Nasir, Abdul; Raza Stanekzai, Mohammad; Scott, Paul T.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Botros, Boulos A.; Tjaden, Jeffrey

2010-01-01

367

Psychosocial Correlates of Unprotected Sex Without Disclosure of HIV-Positivity among African-American, Latino, and White Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

African-American, Latino, and White men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) may be a bridge of HIV transmission from men\\u000a to women. Very little research has directly compared culturally specific correlates of the likelihood of unprotected sex among\\u000a MSMW. The present study examined psychosocial correlates of unprotected sex without disclosure of HIV status with male and\\u000a female partners

Matt G. Mutchler; Laura M. Bogart; Marc N. Elliott; Tara McKay; Marika J. Suttorp; Mark A. Schuster

2008-01-01

368

Blood pressure and water regulation: understanding sex hormone effects within and between men and women  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death for both men and women. Hypertension is less prevalent in young women compared with young men, but menopausal women are at greater risk for hypertension compared with men of similar age. Despite these risks, women do not consistently receive first line treatment for the early stages of hypertension, and the greater morbidity in menopause reflects this neglect. This review focuses on ovarian hormone effects on the cardiovascular and water regulatory systems that are associated with blood pressure control in women. The study of ovarian hormones within young women is complex because these hormones fluctuate across the menstrual cycle, and these fluctuations can complicate conclusions regarding sex differences. To better isolate the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on the cardiovascular and water regulation systems, we developed a model to transiently suppress reproductive function followed by controlled hormone administration. Sex differences in autonomic regulation of blood pressure appear related to ovarian hormone exposure, and these hormonal differences contribute to sex differences in hypertension and orthostatic tolerance. Oestrogen and progesterone exposure are also associated with plasma volume expansion, and a leftward shift in the osmotic operating point for body fluid regulation. In young, healthy women, the shift in osmoregulation appears to have only a minor effect on overall body water balance. Our overarching conclusion is that ovarian hormone exposure is the important underlying factor contributing to differences in blood pressure and water regulation between women and men, and within women throughout the lifespan. PMID:23027816

Wenner, Megan M; Stachenfeld, Nina S

2012-01-01

369

HIV Infection, Risk Factors, and Preventive Services Utilization among Female Sex Workers in the Mekong Delta Region of Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSW) are considerable drivers of HIV infections in Vietnam, especially transmission between high-risk and low-risk groups. We assessed HIV prevalence and its correlates among FSWs, and the use of preventive services among this community in the Mekong Delta region, southern Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1,999 FSWs was carried out in five provinces including Ben Tre, Hau Giang, Kien Giang, Tien Giang, and Vinh Long between June, 2006 and June, 2007. We interviewed participants face-to-face in order to elicit information about their lives and potential risk factors, and we tested their sera to determine their HIV status. We then performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to investigate factors associated with HIV infection. Results Seventeen percent of the participating FSWs were street-based sex workers (SSWs) and the rest (83%) were entertainment establishment-based sex workers (ESWs). Unprotected sex with regular and casual clients in the past month was frequent among study participants (40.5% and 33.5% respectively). However, few respondents (1.3%) had ever injected drugs. Only 2.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6%–2.8%) of FSWs were found to be infected with HIV. HIV prevalence among SSWs was greater than among ESWs (3.8% vs. 1.8%, p?=?0.02, respectively). Increased risk for HIV infection was significantly associated with the number of clients per month (adjusted odd ratio (aOR)?=?2.65, 95% CI: 1.26–5.59). Conclusions Interventions to reduce unsafe sex and drug injection, and to increase uptake of HIV testing among FSWs are necessary. Differences in HIV prevalence and its correlates by type of sex work emphasize the importance of constrained contexts in shaping risk behaviors among FSWs; that should be considered in designing HIV prevention programs. PMID:24475096

Pham, Quang Duy; Nguyen, Phuc Duy; Khuu, Nghia Van; Nguyen, Nhung Phuong; Bui, Duc Hoang; Thi Phan, Huong Thu; Nguyen, Long Thanh

2014-01-01

370

Sexual behavior of female sex workers and access to condoms in Kenya and Uganda on the Trans-Africa highway.  

PubMed

Female sex workers and their clients remain a high risk core group for HIV in Africa. We measured sexual behavior of a snowball sample of female sex workers (FSW) along the Trans Africa highway from Mombasa, Kenya to Kampala, Uganda and surveyed the availability of male condoms at 1,007 bars and lodgings in Kenya along the highway trucking stops where transactional sex occurs. There were 578 FSW one month sex diaries analyzed, 403 from Kenya and 175 from Uganda. Kenyan FSW had a median of 45 sexual acts per 28 days compared to 39 sex acts per 28 days by Ugandan FSW (P < 0.05). Condom use by FSW for all sexual liaisons was 79% in Kenya compared to 74% in Uganda. In multivariate analysis, adjusting for repeated measures, Kenyan FSW were more likely to use a condom by an adjusted odds ratio of 2.54 (95% confidence interval 1.89-3.41) compared to Ugandan FSW. Condom use with regular clients was 50.8% in Uganda compared with 68.7% in Kenya (P < 0.01). The number of sex workers reporting 100% condom use was 26.8% in Kenya and 18.9% in Uganda (P < 0.01). Bars and lodges in Kenya compared to Uganda were more likely to: have condom dispensers, 25% versus 1%, respectively (P < 0.01); distribute or sell condoms, 73.9% versus 47.6% (P < 0.01); and have more weekly condom distribution, 4.92 versus 1.27 condoms per seating capacity (P < 0.01). Our data indicate that in both countries condom use for FSW is suboptimal, particularly with regular partners, and greater condom use by Trans African highway FSW in Kenya compared to Uganda may be related to availability. Targeted interventions are warranted for FSW and truck drivers to prevent transmission in this important core group. PMID:18665445

Morris, Chester N; Morris, Sheldon R; Ferguson, Alan G

2009-10-01

371

Psychological Fears among Low-Paid Female Sex Workers in Southwest China and Their Implications for HIV Prevention  

PubMed Central

Commercial sex plays a critical role in rapidly increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. Low-paid female sex workers (FSWs) are especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Because of the illegality and stigma associated with sex work, FSWs may constantly live with fears in their daily life. Based on cross-sectional study of 794 low-paid FSWs in China we described their psychological fears related to commercial sex and examined the associations between fears and HIV-related behaviors. Fear of HIV infection was significantly associated with consistent use of condoms with clients. However, fear of breaching sex worker identity significantly prevented the FSWs from consistently using condoms with clients and taking HIV tests. Fear of being arrested by the police was positively associated with consistent use of condoms but negatively associated with accessing HIV prevention services. Our findings underlined the importance of examining the triadic interaction of behavioral, psychological and environmental factors in HIV prevention interventions among low-paid FSWs. PMID:25330242

Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

2014-01-01

372

Peer norms and consistent condom use with female sex workers among male clients in Sichuan province, China  

PubMed Central

Despite their crucial role in HIV infection and transmission, commercial sex male clients (CSMCs) are rarely studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between peer norms and consistent condom use with female sex workers (FSWs) among CSMCs in Sichuan province, China. Male clients with peers who had paid for sex (n=562) were recruited by local health workers through snowball sampling. Measures of peer norms included 1) descriptive norms which were evaluated by perceptions of peer’s condom attitudes and behaviors with FSWs; 2) injunctive norms which were assessed by the perceived peer approval of using condoms with FSWs; and 3) communication of HIV-related topics with peers. The outcome was consistent condom use with FSWs. Results of multivariate logistic regression models revealed that consistent condom use with FSWs was significantly more likely among male clients who perceived more pro-condom descriptive and injunctive norms among their peer groups. In addition, the pattern of commercial sex visits moderated the relations between peer norms and consistent condom use with FSWs. More peer approval of condom use and more HIV-related communication were significantly associated with consistent condom use among clients who visited FSWs with friends but not among those who visited FSWs alone. The findings suggest that social activities surrounding commercial sex visits may provide an entry point for HIV prevention intervention with men who patronize FSWs and that such efforts should tap into existing dynamics of social interaction to promote pro-condom norms. PMID:20541859

Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad

2010-01-01

373

Psychological morbidity among female commercial sex workers with alcohol and drug abuse  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Substance abuse may act as precursors and also can form outcomes of sexual behaviors. The confluence of drug use, mental stressors, poverty, sexually transmitted diseases, low self-esteem and high-risk partners forms a fertile ground for psychological morbidity. Aim: To assess the psychological morbidity among female commercial sex workers (CSWs) who use alcohol and other substance abuse. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive CSWs with alcohol and drug abuse patients attending the psychiatric OPD at Victoria hospital were assessed clinically. Relevant investigations were also carried out. General health questionnaire and substance use disorder identification tests were administered. Results: A total of 100 cases between 30-40 years of age were taken up for the study. All were abusing alcohol with tobacco chewing or smoking being (64). Eighty-seven were married. Fifty of them being illiterate. Seventy-eight were suffering from physical illness. Two were HIV patient on treatment. Seventy-eight were having psychological morbidity (depression and adjustment disorder). Conclusion: Preventive interventions, targeting substance abuse and stimulating healthier-environments and providing economically independent. PMID:23372238

Pandiyan, Kasthuri; Chandrasekhar, H.; Madhusudhan, S.

2012-01-01

374

Distinct circulating recombinant HIV-1 strains among injecting drug users and sex workers in Afghanistan.  

PubMed

Little information is available regarding a circulating HIV genotype among high-risk groups in Afghanistan; we describe HIV genotypes among injecting drug users (IDUs) and sex workers (SWs) in four Afghan cities. Participants completed behavioral questionnaires and HIV testing. Western blot-confirmed specimens had peripheral mononuclear blood cells isolated for genotyping. Analysis of recombinants was done by bootscanning and manual sequence alignment. The single SW sample harbored a CRF01_AE strain. Of 10 IDUs available for analysis, all were CRF35_AD and from Hirat. Analyzed subregions (gag p17 and env C1-C5) revealed close homology between the Hirat specimens. Three distinct subclusters comprising two or three strains were identified, whereas two other strains were generally equidistant from previously identified Kabul strains. Results suggest that the nascent HIV epidemic among IDUs in Hirat is largely, if not entirely, subtype CRF35_AD, and the close homology suggests recent infection; harm reduction should be supported to avert further transmission. PMID:20438383

Sanders-Buell, Eric; Bose, Meera; Nasir, Abdul; Todd, Catherine S; Stanekzai, M Raza; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Scott, Paul T; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Tjaden, Jeffrey; Michael, Nelson L; McCutchan, Francine E

2010-05-01

375

Venue-based affiliation networks and HIV risk-taking behavior among male sex workers  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined venue-based networks constituted by affiliation with gay bars and street intersections where male sex workers (MSWs) congregate to find their sexual/drug-sharing partners, and network influence on risky sexual behavior (e.g., unprotected anal intercourse [UAI]) and HIV infection. Methods Data collected during 2003–2004 in Houston, Texas, consists of 208 MSWs affiliated with 15 gay bars and 51 street intersections. Two-mode network analysis was conducted to examine structural characteristics in affiliation networks, as well as venue-based network influence on UAI and HIV infection. Results Centralized affiliation patterns were found where only a few venues were popular among MSWs and these were highly inter-dependent. Distinctive structural patterns of venue-based clustering were associated with UAI and infection. Individuals who shared venue affiliation with MSWs who engage in UAI were less likely to have UAI themselves. This suggests a downhill effect, i.e., individuals compensate for their risk of infection by adjusting their own risk-taking behavior, based on their perceptions of their venue affiliates. Conclusions Venue-based HIV/AIDs interventions could be tailored to specific venues so as to target specific clusters that are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior. PMID:23677019

Fujimoto, Kayo; Williams, Mark L.; Ross, Michael W.

2013-01-01

376

Sex differences in attraction to familiar and unfamiliar opposite-sex faces: men prefer novelty and women prefer familiarity.  

PubMed

Familiarity is attractive in many types of stimuli and exposure generally increases feelings of liking. However, men desire a greater number of sexual partners than women, suggesting a preference for novelty. We examined sex differences in preferences for familiarity. In Study 1 (N = 83 women, 63 men), we exposed individuals to faces twice and found that faces were judged as more attractive on the second rating, reflecting attraction to familiar faces, with the exception that men's ratings of female faces decreased on the second rating, demonstrating attraction to novelty. In Studies 2 (N = 42 women, 28 men) and 3 (N = 51 women, 25 men), exposure particularly decreased men's ratings of women's attractiveness for short-term relationships and their sexiness. In Study 4 (N = 64 women, 50 men), women's attraction to faces was positively related to self-rated similarity to their current partner's face, while the effect was significantly weaker for men. Potentially, men's attraction to novelty may reflect an adaptation promoting the acquisition of a high number of sexual partners. PMID:23740467

Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

2014-07-01

377

Systematic review of facility-based sexual and reproductive health services for female sex workers in Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Several biological, behavioural, and structural risk factors place female sex workers (FSWs) at heightened risk of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and other adverse sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. FSW projects in many settings have demonstrated effective ways of altering this risk, improving the health and wellbeing of these women. Yet the optimum delivery model of FSW projects in Africa is unclear. This systematic review describes intervention packages, service-delivery models, and extent of government involvement in these services in Africa. Methods On 22 November 2012, we searched Web of Science and MEDLINE, without date restrictions, for studies describing clinical and non-clinical facility-based SRH prevention and care services for FSWs in low- and middle-income countries in Africa. We also identified articles in key non-indexed journals and on websites of international organizations. A single reviewer screened titles and abstracts, and extracted data from articles using standardised tools. Results We located 149 articles, which described 54 projects. Most were localised and small-scale; focused on research activities (rather than on large-scale service delivery); operated with little coordination, either nationally or regionally; and had scanty government support (instead a range of international donors generally funded services). Almost all sites only addressed HIV prevention and STIs. Most services distributed male condoms, but only 10% provided female condoms. HIV services mainly encompassed HIV counselling and testing; few offered HIV care and treatment such as CD4 testing or antiretroviral therapy (ART). While STI services were more comprehensive, periodic presumptive treatment was only provided in 11 instances. Services often ignored broader SRH needs such as family planning, cervical cancer screening, and gender-based violence services. Conclusions Sex work programmes in Africa have limited coverage and a narrow scope of services and are poorly coordinated with broader HIV and SRH services. To improve FSWs’ health and reduce onward HIV transmission, access to ART needs to be addressed urgently. Nevertheless, HIV prevention should remain the mainstay of services. Service delivery models that integrate broader SRH services and address structural risk factors are much needed. Government-led FSW services of high quality and scale would markedly reduce SRH vulnerabilities of FSWs in Africa. PMID:24916010

2014-01-01

378

The mothering experiences of sex-trafficked women: between here and there.  

PubMed

This qualitative study focuses on the mothering experiences of women from the former Soviet Union (FSU) who were sex-trafficked to Israel. In-depth interviews were conducted with 8 women who gave birth either in the FSU or in Israel. The women's stories reflect 3 experiential spheres, those of "the good mother," "the sacrificing mother," and "the mother who wants for herself." These mothering spheres were found to exist against the backdrop of a life between 2 countries, where the women's mothering is split between "here" and "there." Furthermore, it was found that the women's sex-trafficking experience continually threatened to invade the 3 mothering spheres and destabilize the balance among them. The splits and conflicts among the mothering spheres are examined from a gendered perspective with emphasis on mother-daughter relationships and on the social constructions of mothering and prostitution. PMID:24164529

Peled, Einat; Parker, Ayelet

2013-10-01

379

Cuban Women, Sex Role Conflicts and Use of Prescription Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on Cuban women migrants living in Miami (Florida) and on their adaptation to life in exile, especially their use of minor tranquilizers. Many of these women left Cuba for political and economic reasons. The migration process restructured their social status in many ways. They were not allowed to bring valuables or financial…

Gonzalez, Diana H.; Page, J. Brian

380

Vulnerability to sexual violence and participation in sex work among high-end entertainment centre workers in Hunan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Background China has seen a proliferation of entertainment centres that are frequented by business people. Employees at these centres often are young, female rural-to-urban migrants who may be vulnerable to sexual violence and exploitation. Methods Data for this study were collected using a self-administered survey among male and female employees in two high-end entertainment centres in Changsha, Hunan Province, China. We used logistic regression to examine predictors of violent and potentially exploitative experiences (partner violence, forced sex and transactional sex). Predictors included gender, ever having a same-sex partner, migration variables and employment characteristics. Results Participants reported high levels of partner violence (16.0% ever and 9.0% in the past 3 months) and forced sex (13.9% ever and 5.5% in the past 3 months). Nineteen percent reported sex work in the past 3 months. In the multivariate regressions, ever having had a same-sex partner was associated with higher odds of ever having experienced partner violence (odds ratio (OR) = 7.8, P < 0.001), partner violence in the past 3 months (OR = 9.0, P < 0.001), ever having had transactional sex (OR = 6.0, P < 0.001) and transactional sex in the past 3 months (OR = 5.2, P = 0.001). After adjusting for transactional sex, the association between having had a same-sex partner and partner violence remained significant. Neither gender nor migration status was associated with any of the outcomes. Conclusion High-end entertainment centre workers in China are at risk for sexual violence and should be targeted with employment-based interventions. PMID:23809910

Kelvin, Elizabeth A.; Sun, Xiaoming; Mantell, Joanne E.; Zhou, Jianfang; Mao, Jingshu; Peng, Yanhui

2013-01-01

381

Bridging Populations—Sexual Risk Behaviors and HIV Prevalence in Clients and Partners of Female Sex Workers, Bangkok, Thailand 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to estimate HIV prevalence and assess sexual behaviors in a high-risk and difficult-to-reach population\\u000a of clients of female sex workers (FSWs). A modified variation of respondent-driven sampling was conducted among FSWs in Bangkok,\\u000a where FSWs recruited 3 FSW peers, 1 client, and 1 nonpaying partner. After informed consent was obtained, participants completed\\u000a a questionnaire,

Neha S. Shah; Ray W. Shiraishi; Wonchart Subhachaturas; Abhijeet Anand; Sara J. Whitehead; Suvimon Tanpradech; Chomnad Manopaiboon; Keith M. Sabin; Kimberley K. Fox; Andrea Y. Kim

382

“Rights to Stop the Wrong”: Cultural Change and Collective Mobilization—The Case of Kolkata Sex Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade-and-a-half, sex workers in Kolkata (India) red-light districts have involved themselves in a STD–HIV health project and, at the same time, formed an autonomous organization to protest against exploitation and to challenge social norms that ostracize them. This paper examines how this marginalized group, who previously saw themselves as socially alienated victims, came to reinvent themselves as

Nandini Gooptu; Nandinee Bandyopadhyay

2007-01-01

383

Circular Migration by Mexican Female Sex Workers Who are Injection Drug Users: Implications for HIV in Mexican Sending Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circular migration and injection drug use increase the risk of HIV transmission in sending communities. We describe female\\u000a sex workers who are injection drug users’ (FSW-IDUs) circular migration and drug use behaviors. Between 2008-2010, 258 migrant\\u000a FSW-IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico responded to questionnaires. 24% of FSW-IDUs were circular migrants.\\u000a HIV prevalence was 3.2% in circular migrants

Victoria D. Ojeda; José Luis Burgos; Sarah P. Hiller; Remedios Lozada; Gudelia Rangel; Alicia Vera; Irina Artamonova; Carlos Magis-Rodriguez

384

Health indicators among low income women who report a history of sex work: the population based Northern California Young Women's Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives: We examined differences in demographic characteristics, HIV related risk behaviour, prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI), and HIV and other health concerns among women with and without a history of sex work. Methods: A secondary analysis of a population based, cross sectional survey of young, low income women in northern California. Results: Of the 2543 women interviewed, 8.9% reported a history of sex work. These women reported more lifetime male sexual partners, were more likely to use drugs before sex, and were more likely to have a history of having sex with partners at high risk for HIV (that is, men who have sex with men, inject drugs, or were known to be HIV positive). They were significantly more likely to have positive serology for syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and hepatitis C regardless of their personal injecting drug use history; however, they were no more likely to have HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, hepatitis A or hepatitis B infection compared to women without a history of sex work. Women with a history of sex work were significantly more likely to have a history of sexual coercion and tobacco use. Conclusions: These data measure the population prevalence of sex work among low income women and associated STI. Women with a history of sex work have health concerns beyond STI and HIV treatment and prevention. PMID:16199746

Cohan, D; Kim, A; Ruiz, J; Morrow, S; Reardon, J; Lynch, M; Klausner, J; Molitor, F; Allen, B; Green, A; Ferrero, D; Bell, S; Page-Shafer, K; Delgado, V; McFarland, W; t for

2005-01-01

385

The organization of sex work in low- and high-priced venues with a focus on the experiences of ethnic minority women working in these venues.  

PubMed

Prior research on female sex workers (FSW) in China, and their risk for HIV and STI, neglects the nuanced experiences of ethnic minority FSW. We conducted participant observations and in-depth interviews with 33 FSW and six venue bosses to describe the experiences of FSW and management structures in low and high-priced sex work venues in Liuzhou, China. In low-priced venues, FSW had more autonomy and stronger relationships with their ethnic minority peers. Mid- and high-priced venues had more formal management structures. Ethnic minority FSW working in higher priced venues experienced less support and kinship with their peers. HIV/STI prevention outreach activities occurred in all of the venues, but they were not tailored for different venue types or for ethnic minority FSW. Our findings provide guidance for tailoring public health programs that meet the needs of ethnic minority women working in different types of sex work venues. PMID:23912337

Liu, Qian; Zhuang, Kongshao; Henderson, Gail E; Shenglong, Quzhen; Fang, Jingwen; Yao, Huiqin; Qin, Jingxin; Yang, Yanzhen; Abler, Laurie

2014-02-01

386

Poverty and sex work in Durban, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the experience of the welfare state in the developed world has demonstrated, many of the problems associated with poverty are not due to a lack of income. In South Africa, one group of high-income women, who nonetheless display many of the signs of poverty, are commercial sex workers. Seventy sex workers were interviewed about their backgrounds, lifestyles, work practices

Ted Leggett

1999-01-01

387

Sex Work and Drug Use in a Subculture of Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the subculture of violence thesis as it relates to female street sex workers in Miami. Interview and focus group methods were used to study the intersections of childhood trauma, drug use, and violent victimization among 325 women. Using targeted sampling, crack- and heroin-using sex workers were recruited through street…

Surratt, Hilary L.; Inciardi, James A.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Kiley, Marion C.

2004-01-01

388

Work ability in health care workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work Ability Index was used as a complementary tool for the periodical health surveillance of health care workers in order to evaluate their functional working capacity and to plan more appropriate preventive and compensatory measures. 867 health care workers of both sexes (337 men, 530 women), aged between 23 and 65 years and with a work experience from 0.5 to

G. Costa; S. Sartori; B. Bertoldo; D. Olivato; G. Antonacci; V. Ciuffa; F. Mauli

2005-01-01

389

A Qualitative Assessment of the Sex Education Needs of Married Iranian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a comprehensive reproductive health program there is little sex education available in Iran. In this article we present\\u000a results of a study conducted to identify content area for a proposed sex education program for married Iranian women. Twenty-one\\u000a married female clients (23–45 years) and 18 reproductive health providers, recruited from urban health clinics in Tehran using\\u000a non-probability sampling, participated in

Khosro Refaie Shirpak; Maryam Chinichian; Eleanor Maticka-Tyndale; Hassan Eftekhar Ardebili; Abolghasem Pourreza; Ali Ramenzankhani

2008-01-01

390

Women's colleges: Results of a single-sex environment on salaries, advanced degrees, and leadership positions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect attendance at single-sex college had on career success and advanced degrees of graduates. A questionnaire was used to gather data from women alumni of a coeducational institution and a single-sex institution who attended during 1990–1995. The questionnaire consisted of six categories: salary, current educational level, leadership positions in college, leadership positions after college, year graduated,

Carla Gale Hatfield

2004-01-01

391

Perceived Risks and Benefits of Sex Work among Transgender Women of Color in San Francisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has shown that male-to-female (MTF) transgender women of color in the United States have a high rate of HIV\\u000a infection and often engage in sex work for economic survival. With the exception of studies on HIV prevalence and behavioral\\u000a risk, little research exists to elucidate the social context and determinants of sex work and related health risks among

Lydia A. Sausa; JoAnne Keatley; Don Operario

2007-01-01

392

Family Sex Composition Preferences among Guatemalan Men and Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The predominant preference among men and and women is for equal numbers of sons and daughters. Yet agreement between husbands and wives is low. Motivations for preferring equal numbers may differ between the rural and semiurban areas. (Author)

Pebley, Anne R.; And Others

1980-01-01

393

Randomized trial of HPV4 vaccine assessing the response to HPV4 vaccine in two schedules among Peruvian female sex workers  

PubMed Central

Two hundred female sex workers (FSWs) in Lima, Peru were randomized to receive HPV4 vaccine in the standard (0, 2, 6 months) or a modified schedule (0, 3, 6 months). One hundred and eighty four (92%) participants completed 3 doses of vaccine. Baseline seropositive rates were 58% for HPV6, 22.5% for HPV11, 41.5% for HPV16, and 13% for HPV18. The final geometric mean antibody titer (GMT) following vaccination was significantly greater for women who were seropositive at baseline compared to seronegative women: HPV6 (GMT ratio=2.3, p<0.01), HPV11 (GMT ratio=2.7, p<0.01), HPV16 (GMT ratio=1.3, p=0.04), and HPV18 (GMT ratio=2.4, p<0.01)). Antibody titers in the modified schedule were not inferior to those in the standard schedule, suggesting the modified schedule may be paired with required STD visits. Although all women benefit from vaccination, administration at a younger age and before sexual debut is needed to achieve maximum protection from vaccine. PMID:22306855

Brown, Brandon; Blas, Magaly; Cabral, Alejandra; Carcamo, Cesar; Gravitt, Patti; Halsey, Neal

2012-01-01

394

Gender inequity in the lives of women involved in sex work in Kampala, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Gender inequity is manifested in the social and economic burden women carry in relation to men. We investigate women's experiences of gender relations from childhood to adult life and how these may have led to and kept women in sex work. Methods Participants were drawn from an ongoing epidemiological cohort study of women working in high HIV/STI risk environments in Kampala. From over 1000 enrolled women, we selected 101 for a qualitative sub-study. This analysis focuses on 58 women who engaged in sex work either as a main job or as a side job. In-depth life history interviews were conducted to capture points of vulnerability that enhance gender inequity throughout their lives. Results Most participants were young, single parents, poorly educated, who occupied low skilled and poorly paying jobs. All women knew their HIV status and they disclosed this in the interview; 31 were uninfected while 27 said they were infected. Parental neglect in childhood was reported by many. Participants described experiences of violence while growing up sometimes perpetuated by relatives and teachers. Early unwanted pregnancies were common and for many led to leaving school. Some women stated a preference for multiple and short-term money-driven sexual relationships. Needing to earn money for child care was often the main reason for starting and persisting with sex work. Violence perpetrated by clients and the police was commonly reported. Alcohol and drug use was described as a necessary “evil” for courage and warmth, but sometimes this affected clear decision making. Many felt powerless to bargain for and maintain condom use. Leaving sex work was considered but rarely implemented. Conclusions Inequities in gender and power relations reduce economic and social opportunities for better lives among women and increase risky sexual behaviour. Interventions focused on these inequities that also target men are crucial in improving safer practices and reducing risk. PMID:22713353

Mbonye, Martin; Nalukenge, Winifred; Nakamanya, Sarah; Nalusiba, Betty; King, Rachel; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet

2012-01-01

395

The Impact of Homelessness on Recent Sex Trade among Pregnant Women in Drug Treatment.  

PubMed

This study is a secondary data analysis aimed to examine the influence of recent homelessness on recent sex trade among pregnant women in drug treatment after controlling for psychiatric comorbidity, age, education, and race. Eighty-one pregnant women from a drug treatment program in Baltimore, Maryland attended an in-person interview and completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV for Axis I disorders, the HIV Risk Behavior Interview, and demographic questionnaires, which assessed psychiatric symptoms, recent homelessness, and sexual risk behavior respectively. Women who experienced recent homelessness had a 4.74 greater odds of having recently traded sex than women who had not been recently homeless, suggesting that homelessness uniquely influences sex trade beyond psychiatric status, which was also a significant correlate of recent sex trade. Addressing both homelessness and psychiatric problems may effectively reduce sex trade and risk for infectious diseases, which could adversely impact maternal and child health outcomes. PMID:22754382

Brown, Qiana L; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Penniman, Typhanye V; Latimer, William W

2012-01-01

396

The Impact of Homelessness on Recent Sex Trade among Pregnant Women in Drug Treatment  

PubMed Central

This study is a secondary data analysis aimed to examine the influence of recent homelessness on recent sex trade among pregnant women in drug treatment after controlling for psychiatric comorbidity, age, education, and race. Eighty-one pregnant women from a drug treatment program in Baltimore, Maryland attended an in-person interview and completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV for Axis I disorders, the HIV Risk Behavior Interview, and demographic questionnaires, which assessed psychiatric symptoms, recent homelessness, and sexual risk behavior respectively. Women who experienced recent homelessness had a 4.74 greater odds of having recently traded sex than women who had not been recently homeless, suggesting that homelessness uniquely influences sex trade beyond psychiatric status, which was also a significant correlate of recent sex trade. Addressing both homelessness and psychiatric problems may effectively reduce sex trade and risk for infectious diseases, which could adversely impact maternal and child health outcomes. PMID:22754382

Brown, Qiana L.; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Penniman, Typhanye V.; Latimer, William W.

2012-01-01

397

Understanding the diversity of male clients of sex workers in China and the implications for HIV prevention programmes.  

PubMed

Male clients of sex workers have been overlooked in China's HIV prevention efforts. This study aims to examine men's practices and attitudes toward extramarital sexual relationships, motivations for visiting female sex workers (FSWs), perceptions of sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV risk and risk prevention strategies used. One hundred and eighty-six clients of FSWs with varying socio-economic statuses were interviewed in different sex work settings. Men described no conflict between their role as a client and a responsible family provider. They described social pressure from peers and business partners to visit FSWs, sexual pleasure and companionship as motivators to seek commercial sex. While some men reported no risks associated with visiting FSWs, others identified risks such as being arrested by the police, robbed by gangs and threatening the health of their families by contracting a STI. This study underscores the diversity of FSW clients and the need to understand the beliefs and behaviours of different client types to develop appropriate HIV prevention programmes. It also demonstrates the feasibility of recruiting different types of male clients, a hard-to-reach population for Chinese HIV prevention efforts. PMID:22313090

Huang, Yingying; Maman, Suzanne; Pan, Suiming

2012-01-01

398

Sex hormone-binding globulin and insulin resistance in African-American women.  

PubMed

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) binds testosterone, determining the level of free, biologically active hormone, and is a sensitive indicator of androgen status in women. SHBG is strongly correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL), central obesity, and insulin sensitivity in Caucasian and Mexican-American women, thereby acting as a biologic marker for cardiovascular disease risk. The purpose of this study was to determine if SHBG was a significant correlate of metabolic cardiovascular risk factors in African-American women. Eighty-one nondiabetic, normotensive African-American women were enrolled (mean age, 30 years). After excluding women on oral contraceptives (n = 19), 62 women were examined during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic insulin clamp, and the lipid and sex hormone levels were measured. Correlation analyses showed a significant correlation between SHBG and the following variables in women: central obesity, body mass index (BMI), HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (apoB), insulin sensitivity adjusted for lean mass (M'), and the sum of insulin during the OGTT. The strongest correlates of SHBG in women were measures of insulin resistance (r = .421, P < .001). SHBG appears to be a biologic marker for insulin resistance, which is linked to cardiovascular risk, in African-American women. PMID:9440480

Sherif, K; Kushner, H; Falkner, B E

1998-01-01

399

A behaviour sentinel surveillance for female sex workers in the Social Hygiene Service in Hong Kong (1999-2000).  

PubMed

Behavioural serial sentinel surveillance survey for female sex workers (FSWs) was carried out in the Government Social Hygiene Clinics in Hong Kong during 1999 and 2000. A total of 1366 and 1451 FSWs participated in the questionnaire survey respectively. The results showed that the majority of FSWs attending the clinics were of Chinese ethnicity (83.8%, 87.6%) while Thai (13.0%, 9.49%) and Filipino (2.1%, 2.7%) were the main foreign ethnic groups. The karaoke night club was the most frequent reported workplace (32.0%, 32.6%) followed by a club (8.9%, 11.7%) and free-lancing (8.6%, 9.0%). The proportion of FSWs who always used condoms in vaginal sex with commercial sex partners was 70.9% and 75.0% respectively (P=0.038). Compared with previous results, a rising trend of condom use by FSWs in commercial sex was observed. However, there was a relatively low condom use during commercial oral sexual intercourse (30.7%, 36.6%) and sex with their regular sex partners in all forms of sexual activities. Client dislike is the main attributed factor for not wearing condoms. The point prevalence of both infectious syphilis and HIV infection was 0.1% in both years. These data are useful for planning, resource allocation and evaluation of outreach activities and STI services targeting at FSWs and their clients. They provide a sampling framework for further surveillance. PMID:12537733

Chan, Michael Kam Tim; Ho, King Man; Lo, Kuen Kong

2002-12-01

400

Correlates of self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.  

PubMed

Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past 4 months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior. PMID:23842786

Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Ompad, Danielle C; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L

2014-05-01

401

Women's unprotected sex intentions: roles of sexual victimization, intoxication, and partner perception.  

PubMed

Sexually victimized women may make sexual decisions differently than nonvictimized women. This study used an eroticized scenario and laboratory alcohol administration to investigate the roles of victimization history, intoxication, and relationship context in women's perceptions of a male partner and their subsequent intentions for unprotected sex. A community sample of 436 women completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. After random assignment to an alcohol or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into a sexual scenario that depicted the male partner as having high or low potential for a lasting relationship. Participants rated their perceptions of his intoxication, sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk level, and anticipated reactions to insistence on condom use. They then indicated their likelihood of allowing the partner to decide how far to go sexually (abdication) and of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses revealed that intoxication predicted greater unprotected sex likelihood indirectly via abdication. CSA and ASA predicted partner perceptions, which in turn predicted unprotected sex likelihood. These findings indicate that, compared to their nonvictimized counterparts, sexually victimized women may respond differently in sexual encounters partly as a function of their perceptions of partners' STI risk and anticipated reactions to condom insistence. PMID:23718552

Masters, N Tatiana; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Gilmore, Amanda K; Nguyen, Hong V; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Otto, Jacqueline M; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A

2014-01-01

402

Drug use and risk behaviours among injecting drug users: a comparison between sex workers and non-sex workers in Sydney, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This paper examines the differences in demographics, drug use patterns and self reported risk behaviours between regular injecting drug users (IDU) who report engaging in sex work for money or drugs and regular injecting drug users who do not. METHODS: Cross sectional data collected from regular IDU interviewed as part of the New South Wales (NSW) Illicit Drug Reporting

Amanda Roxburgh; Louisa Degenhardt; Courtney Breen

2005-01-01

403

Estimating the number of people who inject drugs, female sex workers, and men who have sex with men, Unguja Island, Zanzibar: results and synthesis of multiple methods.  

PubMed

To determine the number of people who inject drugs (PWID), female sex workers (FSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) living in Unguja Island, Zanzibar in 2011/2012, we applied several, practical population size estimation methods including literature review, unique object multiplier, recapture from the 2007 survey, wisdom of the crowds and service multiplier. We synthesized findings and presented them to a panel of experts in order to determine plausible estimates for each population. The estimates adopted by a panel of experts as being most plausible were 3,000 for PWID, 3,958 for FSW and 2,157 for MSM. We learned that no one method could be concluded to be the standard for all three populations. The estimates we found, though still not perfect, are useful for the HIV programmes serving these populations. PMID:23709254

Khalid, Farhat J; Hamad, Fatma M; Othman, Asha A; Khatib, Ahmed M; Mohamed, Sophia; Ali, Ameir Kh; Dahoma, Mohammed J U

2014-01-01

404

Sex-Related Wage Differentials and Women's Interrupted Labor Careers--The Chicken or the Egg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex-related wage differentials are almost universal. Economists traditionally tend to attribute a major fraction of the differential to the difference in on-the-job training. This difference is in turn often explained by the lower profitability of this investment for women who plan to interrupt their careers for family reasons. An alternative explanation that women do not invest because of lack of

Reuben Gronau

1982-01-01

405

Relationship between Insulin and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels during Weight Loss in Obese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of insulin sensitivity on the relationship between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and insulin levels during active weight loss in euthyroid obese women. Research Design and Methods: The study population comprised 80 premenopausal overweight and obese (BMI ?27) women (mean age 41.44 ± 10.03 years). Seventy patients were considered eligible

Fulya Akin; Mehmet Bastemir; Bunyamin Kaptanoglu

2007-01-01

406

A comparison of respondent-driven and venue-based sampling of female sex workers in Liuzhou, China  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare two methods for sampling female sex workers (FSWs) for bio-behavioural surveillance. We compared the populations of sex workers recruited by the venue-based Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) method and a concurrently implemented network-based sampling method, respondent-driven sampling (RDS), in Liuzhou, China. Methods For the PLACE protocol, all female workers at a stratified random sample of venues identified as places where people meet new sexual partners were interviewed and tested for syphilis. Female workers who reported sex work in the past 4?weeks were categorised as FSWs. RDS used peer recruitment and chain referral to obtain a sample of FSWs. Data were collected between October 2009 and January 2010. We compared the socio-demographic characteristics and the percentage with a positive syphilis test of FSWs recruited by PLACE and RDS. Results The prevalence of a positive syphilis test was 24% among FSWs recruited by PLACE and 8.5% among those recruited by RDS and tested (prevalence ratio 3.3; 95% CI 1.5 to 7.2). Socio-demographic characteristics (age, residence and monthly income) also varied by sampling method. PLACE recruited fewer FSWs than RDS (161 vs 583), was more labour-intensive and had difficulty gaining access to some venues. RDS was more likely to recruit from areas near the RDS office and from large low prevalence entertainment venues. Conclusions Surveillance protocols using different sampling methods can obtain different estimates of prevalence and population characteristics. Venue-based and network-based methods each have strengths and limitations reflecting differences in design and assumptions. We recommend that more research be conducted on measuring bias in bio-behavioural surveillance. PMID:23172350

Weir, Sharon S; Merli, M Giovanna; Li, Jing; Gandhi, Anisha D; Neely, William W; Edwards, Jessie K; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Henderson, Gail E; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

2012-01-01

407

Sex-role orientation and psychological adjustment: comparison of MMPI profiles among college women and housewives.  

PubMed

Androgynous, masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated women, as determined by the Bern Sex Role Inventory, were compared on the three validity and ten clinical scales of the MMPI. Two samples of women were included: Female college students and a group of upper middle-class suburban housewives. No significant differences emerged in the housewife sample. Among college women, androgynous and masculine women did not differ in adjustment, and both groups were better adjusted (i.e., less depressed, anxious, tense, and less socially introverted) than the undifferentiated women. A cross-validation study with a comparable student sample essentially replicated the results of the first study. Rather than supporting Bem's (1974) hypothesis of better psychological adjustment in androgynous persons, results were interpreted as providing support for the notion that masculinity is associated with equally good adjustment as androgyny in college women. PMID:16367624

Adams, C H; Sherer, M

1982-12-01

408

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Sex Hormone Levels among Postmenopausal Women in the Diabetes Prevention Program  

PubMed Central

Context: Sex hormones may differ by race/ethnicity in postmenopausal women. Whether racial/ethnic differences also exist among those who are overweight and glucose intolerant is not clear. Objectives: The objective of the study was to compare sex hormones by race/ethnicity [non-Hispanic white (NHW), Hispanic, African-American (AA)] in overweight, glucose-intolerant, postmenopausal women. Design: This was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Participants: Participants included postmenopausal glucose-intolerant women participating in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Interventions: Interventions included intensive lifestyle modification (consisting of diet and physical activity) or metformin 850 mg twice a day vs. placebo. Main Outcome Measures: Baseline levels and 1-yr intervention-related changes in SHBG, total and bioavailable estradiol (E2), total and bioavailable testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured. Results: At baseline, among women not using estrogen (n = 370), NHW had higher total and bioavailable E2 and testosterone levels than Hispanics independent of age, type of menopause, waist circumference, alcohol intake, and current smoking. NHW also had higher levels of bioavailable E2 and lower levels of SHBG than AA. At baseline, among estrogen users (n = 310), NHW had higher total and bioavailable E2 than Hispanics and higher levels of SHBG than AA after adjustment. At 1 yr, among women not using estrogen, NHW had larger declines in total E2 and bioavailable E2 levels than AA after adjustment for the above covariates, changes in waist circumference, and randomization arm. At 1 yr, among estrogen users, sex hormone changes did not differ by race/ethnicity. Conclusions: Among postmenopausal women, there were significant race/ethnicity differences in baseline sex hormones and changes in sex hormones. PMID:22879633

Golden, Sherita Hill; Mather, Kieren J.; Laughlin, Gail A.; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Randolph, John F.

2012-01-01

409

Police sexual coercion and its association with risky sex work and substance use behaviors among female sex workers in St. Petersburg and Orenburg, Russia  

PubMed Central

Background Extensive research documents that female sex workers (FSWs) in Russia are very vulnerable to abuses from police, including police sexual coercion. However, despite qualitative data suggesting abusive policing practices are more likely for FSWs contending with substance abuse issues and risky sex work contexts, there is a paucity of quantitative study evaluating these associations specifically in terms of police sexual coercion. Such research is needed to guide structural interventions to improve health and safety for FSWs in Russia and globally. Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of police sexual coercion among FSWs from two Russian cities, St. Petersburg and Orenburg, and to determine whether riskier sex work behaviors and contexts and substance use behaviors, including both IDU and risky alcohol use, are associated with increased risk for sexual coercion from police Method FSWs in St. Petersburg and Orenburg were recruited via time-location and convenience sampling and completed structured surveys on demographics (age, education), sex work risks (e.g., violence during sex work) and substance use. Logistic regression analyses assessed associations of substance use and risky sex work with police sexual coercion, adjusting for demographics. Results Participants (N=896) were aged 15 and older (94% were 20+ years). Most (69%) reported past year binge alcohol use, and 48% reported IDU the day before. Half (56%) reported 4+ clients per day. Rape during sex work ever was reported by 64%. Police sexual coercion in the past 12 months was reported by 38%. In the multivariate model, both current IDU (AOR=2.09, CI=1.45–3.02) and past year binge alcohol use (AOR=1.46, CI=1.03–2.07) were associated with police sexual coercion, as was selling sex on the street (not in venues) (AOR=7.81, CI=4.53–13.48) and rape during sex work (AOR=2.04, CI=1.43–2.92). Conclusion Current findings document the substantial role police sexual violence plays in the lives of FSWs in Russia. These findings also highlight heightened vulnerability to such violence among self-managed and substance abusing FSWs in this context. Structural interventions addressing police violence against FSWs may be useful to improve the health and safety of this population. PMID:23916802

Odinokova, Veronika; Rusakova, Maia; Urada, Lianne A; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita

2014-01-01

410

Sex Preferences, Marital Dissolution and the Economic Status of Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American society is confronting the consequences of increase in divorce rates. There is substantial increase in households that are headed by a single female. The possible reasons for the rise in divorces and the labor market outcomes for women are analyzed. It is also noted that if the first-born is a girl, the marriage is less likely to…

Bedard, Kelly; Deschenes, Olivier

2005-01-01

411

Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: Study design, ethics, and methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trafficking of women and children for work in the globalized sex industry is a global social problem. Quality data is needed to provide a basis for legislation, policy, and programs, but first, numerous research design, ethical, and methodological problems must be addressed. Research design issues in studying women trafficked for sex work (WTSW) include how to (a) develop coalitions

Julie Cwikel; Elizabeth Hoban

2005-01-01

412

Men and Women on the Tube: Sex and Sex-Stereotypes on Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Televised sexuality is examined in the context of gender stereotypes for three recent, "new adult" programs which have been billed as departures from traditional treatments of sex roles and/or sexuality: "All That Glitters,""Soap," and "We've Got Each Other." Using these examples, the paper focuses on three main areas: (1) characters and settings…

Hesselbart, Susan

413

Interrelation Between Sex Hormones and Plasma Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Hemoglobin A1c in Healthy Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Androgenicity, as measured by low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and elevations in testosterone and free androgen index (FAI), is associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, possibly due to effects on insulin resistance and glycemia. Methods Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration, SHBG, and sex hormones were available in 200 non-diabetic postmenopausal women who were not using hormone therapy (HT) in the Women's Health Study. Of these, 98 were cardiovascular disease (CVD) cases; the remainders were matched controls. To achieve normality, continuous values were log transformed and geometric means were calculated. Associations between sex hormones and HbA1c were examined using general linear models (GLM), partial correlations, and multiple linear regression analyses. Results Lower SHBG levels and higher FAI and HbA1c values were found among the CVD cases, and all analyses were adjusted for this factor. In GLM, higher values of HbA1c were observed in the highest quartiles of FAI and the lowest quartiles of SHBG. However, the correlation between SHBG and HbA1c across quartiles was eliminated after adjusting for body mass index (BMI). In partial correlations, HbA1c values were inversely associated with SHBG (r = ?0.19, P = 0.008) and positively associated with FAI (r = 0.19, P = 0.01), even after adjusting for age, CVD case–control status, and BMI. In multivariate models, a significant inverse association between SHBG and HbA1c persisted, as well as a significant positive association between FAI and HbA1c. Conclusions Androgenicity, as measured by low SHBG and high FAI, is associated with glycemia, and thereby may contribute to CVD risk in postmenopausal women. PMID:19344226

Goulart, Alessandra C.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.

2009-01-01

414

Male sex workers in Moscow, Russia: a pilot study of demographics, substance use patterns, and prevalence of HIV1 and sexually transmitted infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Russian federation has been undergoing a concentrated epidemic of HIV-1 with high rates of infection among injecting drug users. Less is known about the relative risk and contribution to the country's HIV epidemic by other at-risk populations including sex workers and men who have sex with men. The goals of this project were to explore demographic characteristics, substance use

Stefan Baral; Darya Kizub; Nicole Franck Masenior; Alena Peryskina; Julie Stachowiak; Mark Stibich; Vladimir Moguilny; Chris Beyrer

2010-01-01

415

Correlates of amphetamine-type stimulants use and associations with HIV-related risks among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use has increased in Cambodia and emerged as a significant problem among female sex workers (FSWs), potentially contributing to increased risk of HIV. We examined the prevalence of ATS use and its effect on sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among FSWs in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods A one-year prospective study among young women engaged in sex work in brothels, entertainment establishments and on a freelance basis. Socio-demographics, sexual risks, and recent ATS use were assessed by self-report. Blood and urine samples were collected to detect HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC). Bivariate and multivariate longitudinal analyses were conducted to assess the effects of ATS use on number of sex partners, inconsistent condom use with paying partners and incident STI. Results ATS use was higher among women working freelance (35.6%) and in brothels (34.8%) compared to women working in entertainment establishments (17.7%) or in multiple venues (14.8%). ATS users reported more sex partners and days drunk in the previous month. In multivariate longitudinal analysis, ATS use was associated with having a higher number of sex partners (Adjusted Risk Ratio 1.49; 95% CI: 1.00–2.21) and incident STI (Adjusted Odds Ratio 5.41; 95% CI: 1.15–25.48), but not inconsistent condom use with paying partner. Conclusion ATS users had more sex partners, high level of alcohol use, and were at increased risk of STI. Our findings underscore ATS use as an important emerging risk exposure that should be integrated into HIV prevention interventions targeting this population. PMID:21820251

Couture, Marie-Claude; Evans, Jennifer L.; Sothy, Neth San; Stein, Ellen S.; Sichan, Keo; Maher, Lisa; Page, Kimberly

2011-01-01

416

Venue-level correlates of female sex worker registration status: a multilevel analysis of bars in Tijuana, Mexico.  

PubMed

In Tijuana, Mexico, sex work is regulated by the municipal government, through registration cards issued to female sex workers (FSWs) for an annual fee. Registration has been associated with decreased drug use and increase condom use and HIV testing. Previously, it was demonstrated that FSWs operating in bars were more likely than street-based FSWs to be registered. This implies that certain venues may be more accessible to local authorities for the enforcement of this type of programme. Taking a novel multilevel approach, we examined whether venue characteristics of bars reflecting greater organised management and visibility affect registration status of FSWs. In an analysis of venue-level characteristics, predictors of being registered were availability of free condoms at work and distance to the main sex strip; however, these were not independently associated after inclusion of FSWs' income, illicit drug use and history of HIV testing. Our findings suggest that sex work regulations may inadvertently exclude venues in which the more vulnerable and less visible FSWs, such as injection drug users and those with limited financial resources, are situated. Efforts to revise or reconsider sex work regulations to ensure that they best promote FSWs' health, human and labour rights are recommended. PMID:23534477

Gaines, Tommi L; Rusch, Melanie L A; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Goldenberg, Shira M; Lozada, Remedios; Robertson, Angela M; Perkins, Emily; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

2013-01-01

417

Venue-level correlates of female sex worker registration status: A multilevel analysis of bars in Tijuana, Mexico  

PubMed Central

In Tijuana, Mexico, sex work is regulated by the municipal government, through registration cards issued to female sex workers (FSWs) for an annual fee. Registration has been associated with decreased drug use and increase condom use and HIV testing. Previously, it was demonstrated that FSWs operating in bars were more likely than street-based FSWs to be registered. This implies that certain venues may be more accessible to local authorities for the enforcement of this type of programme. Taking a novel multilevel approach, we examined whether venue characteristics of bars reflecting greater organised management and visibility affect registration status of FSWs. In an analysis of venue-level characteristics, predictors of being registered were availability of free condoms at work and distance to the main sex strip; however, these were not independently associated after inclusion of FSWs’ income, illicit drug use and history of HIV testing. Our findings suggest that sex work regulations may inadvertently exclude venues in which the more vulnerable and less visible FSWs, such as injection drug users and those with limited financial resources, are situated. Efforts to revise or reconsider sex work regulations to ensure that they best promote FSWs’ health, human and labour rights are recommended. PMID:23534477

Gaines, Tommi L.; Rusch, Melanie L.A.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Goldenberg, Shira M.; Lozada, Remedios; Robertson, Angela M.; Perkins, Emily; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

2013-01-01

418

What Schoolteachers Think about the Rights of Women and Equality of the Sexes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present article represents an attempt to single out the gender aspect of schoolteachers' perceptions of the law and to analyze the specific nature of their views as to the problem of women's rights and equality of the sexes. The analysis is based on the findings of a study focusing on schoolteachers' perceptions that are conditioned not only…

Osetrova, N. V.

2004-01-01

419

Trafficking and Women's Rights: Beyond the Sex Industry to ‘Other Industries’1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I put forward three lines of argument. Firstly, the current debate on traffick- ing in human beings focuses narrowly on exploitation in the sex industry. This has pro- duced a stand-off between moralists and liberals which is detrimental to developing strategies to combat trafficking. Moreover, this narrow focus leads to missing out the large numbers of women

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