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1

HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers.  

PubMed

Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941

Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don

2015-01-17

2

Living the reality of forced sex work: perspectives from young migrant women sex workers in northern Vietnam.  

PubMed

Young women are often lured or forced into selling sex as a result of migrating from rural to urban areas to find work. In this setting, they are exposed to high-risk situations, which may leave them vulnerable to exploitation. Using interviews with young migrant women currently working as sex workers in northern Vietnam, we recorded the perspectives of their initiation into sex work and life as a sex worker. The study found that high levels of forced sex and sexual exploitation were experienced by the majority of the young women interviewed. The young women describe their entry into sex work, first sexual experience (intercourse), violence, and condom negotiation and use. Although access to health care was available, the young women perceived the stigma attached to sex work as a barrier to receiving health care, and thus, preferred health education and care from peers. Health education programs focusing on peer education and support are essential for protecting and empowering these young women. In addition, policies and programs must work toward effective strategies to protect young migrant women. PMID:15973256

Rushing, Rosanne; Watts, Charlotte; Rushing, Sharon

2005-01-01

3

Early Life Trauma Among Women Shoplifters and Sex Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing from the life history of 38 drug-addicted women, this article adds to extant literature on early life trauma in female offenders by distinguishing between women on the crimes they chose to pursue. It revealed how chronic physical and sexual abuses and the invisible suffering of emotional abuse, neglect, and abandonment occurring within the childhood home resonated as the trigger

Gail A. Caputo

2009-01-01

4

Magdalena Pilot Project: motivational outreach to substance abusing women street sex workers.  

PubMed

The Magdalena Pilot Project provided outreach to Albuquerque women sex workers who were also using illicit drugs, primarily cocaine and heroin. This initial uncontrolled trial evaluated the feasibility and potential impact of motivational interviewing (MI) on change in drug use and HIV risk behaviors. Twenty-seven women were enrolled and interviewed about their substance use, health risk behaviors, and plans for change, using the client-centered, directive method of MI. Four months later, 25 women (93%) were interviewed again to assess their drug use and health risk behaviors. Large reductions were reported in frequency (days) of drug use and sex work, with a corresponding increase in days of lawful employment. In identifying problems that most needed to be addressed in order to help them live healthier lives, the women prioritized (1) basic needs including decent housing, (2) mental health care, and (3) treatment for substance use disorders. PMID:12127468

Yahne, Carolina E; Miller, William R; Irvin-Vitela, Lilly; Tonigan, J Scott

2002-07-01

5

The effect of serostatus on HIV risk behaviour change among women sex workers in Miami, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV prevention and risk reduction are especially salient and timely issues for women, particularly among those who are drug-involved or who exchange sex for drugs or money. Studies suggest that HIV-prevention measures can be effective with highly vulnerable women, and have the potential to produce significant reductions in risk behaviours among both HIV-negative and HIV-positive women. Within this context, this

J. A. Inciardi; H. L. Surratt; S. P. Kurtz; J. C. Weaver

2005-01-01

6

Sex workers self-organizing and empowerment : the experience of Women’s Network for Unity (WNU) in Cambodia : article produced as part of the KIC Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organizations that are working with sex workers have learned that it is ineffective to provide HIV and other health services to them if they do not consider – and address – sex workers’ work environments, where many cases of human rights violations can be found. Thus, they gradually move into rights-based activities. By reframing sex workers’ health as a

Womyn's Agenda for Change

2007-01-01

7

Women of courage: commercial sex workers mobilize for HIV / AIDS prevention in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The Calabar Project in Nigeria, which seeks to reduce the vulnerability of prostitutes to HIV infection, began informally in 1987. By 1988, a formal, community-based intervention was created to promote condom use, provide health education as well as literacy and vocational training, and seek better working and living conditions for the prostitutes. The first task of the Calabar Project was to overcome the resistance of the hotel owners and managers where the prostitutes work and to win the confidence of the women. The owners and managers had to be convinced that it was in their best interest for the women to insist on condom use by their clients. The women had to be informed about the nature of HIV/AIDS and to be convinced that the project sought improvements in their general welfare. This was accomplished by helping the prostitutes improve both their relationship with the local police and their access to health services. Negotiations with hotel owners stabilized the prostitutes' rent for a year to enable the women to increase their charges for services and reduce the number of clients they needed so they could insist on condom use. Peer educators were trained to provide health education and to teach prostitutes techniques to get clients to use condoms. Clients were reached through the prostitutes and by providing information to small groups in hotel bars. Condoms were initially distributed for free and eventually were sold through a social marketing program. Peer educators also encouraged prostitutes and their clients to use a clinic the project established to diagnose and treat sexually transmitted diseases. In 1993, the Calabar Project helped create a vocational and literacy training center to improve the women's ability to understand the complex issues related to HIV/AIDS and to give the women a way to supplement their income and improve their self-esteem. By this time, more than 60% of the women reported using condoms for all sex acts. PMID:12345902

Williams, E E

1994-05-01

8

Perceived discrimination and smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women working as restaurant/hotel workers and sex workers in China  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking may be a coping mechanism for psychosocial stress caused by discrimination. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working as restaurant/hotel workers (RHWs) and those working as sex workers (FSWs) in 10 Chinese cities to investigate whether perceived discrimination is associated with smoking. We interviewed RHWs at medical examination clinics and FSWs at entertainment venues. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios. Results Of the 1696 RHWs and 532 FSWs enrolled, 155 (9.1%) and 63 (11.8%) reported perceived discrimination, respectively. Perceived discrimination was independently associated with ever tried smoking (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31–2.23) and current smoking (PR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.32–4.79) among RHWs and ever tried smoking (PR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.16–1.61) and current smoking (PR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.28–2.06) among FSWs. Discussion Perceived discrimination is associated with higher prevalence of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. PMID:22389186

Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Wan, Xia; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H. Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E.

2013-01-01

9

Enhancing benefits or increasing harms: community responses for HIV among men who have sex with men, transgender women, female sex workers, and people who inject drugs.  

PubMed

Studies completed over the past 15 years have consistently demonstrated the importance of community-level determinants in potentiating or mitigating risks for the acquisition and transmission of HIV. Structural determinants are especially important in mediating HIV risk among key populations, including men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, sex workers of all genders, and transgender women. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidence characterizing the community-level determinants that potentiate or mitigate HIV-related outcomes for key populations. The results of the review suggest that although health communication programs represent community-level strategies that have demonstrated the effectiveness in increasing the uptake of HIV testing and decreasing the experienced stigma among people living with HIV, there are limited studies focused on key populations in low- and middle-income settings. Moreover, interpretation from the 22 studies that met inclusion and exclusion criteria reinforce the importance of the continued measurement of community-level determinants of HIV risks and of the innovation in tools to effectively address these risks as components of the next generation of the HIV response. Consequently, the next generation of effective HIV prevention science research must improve our understanding of the multiple levels of HIV risk factors, while programming for key populations must address each of these risk levels. Failure to do so will cost lives, harm communities, and undermine the gains of the HIV response. PMID:25007203

Baral, Stefan; Holland, Claire E; Shannon, Kate; Logie, Carmen; Semugoma, Paul; Sithole, Bhekie; Papworth, Erin; Drame, Fatou; Beyrer, Chris

2014-08-15

10

Women Workers' History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of one page chapters each documenting women's roles in changing the conditions for U.S. workers during and after the industrial revolution. Each chapter is a series of period style drawings with captions detailing the story of that particular incident and cartoon balloons offering humorous comments from the participants. The…

Huck, Gary; Gilmore, Peter

11

HIV prevention among female sex workers in Africa.  

PubMed

Sex work occurs to meet the demand for sexual services and is a universal phenomenon. In Africa sex work takes many forms and is an important source of income for many women. Yet sex worker reproductive health needs remain largely unmet. The criminalisation of sex work; community and service provider stigma; violence; substance use and limited access to health services and prevention commodities contribute to the high HIV burden evident among female sex workers in Africa. Following UNAIDS' three pillar approach to HIV prevention and sex work we present an overview of current opportunities, barriers and suggestions to improve HIV prevention policy and programming for sex work in Africa. Universal access to a comprehensive package of HIV services is the first pillar. Reproductive health commodities; voluntary and anonymous HIV counselling and testing; treatment of sexually transmitted infections, HIV and opportunistic infections; harm reduction for substance use and psychosocial support services make up the recommended package of services. The second pillar is a sex worker-supportive environment. The inclusion of sex worker programmes within national HIV strategic planning; sex worker-led community mobilisation and the establishment of sex work community networks (comprised of sex workers, health service providers, law enforcers and other stakeholders) enable effective programme implementation and are recommended. The reduction of sex worker vulnerability and addressing structural issues form the final pillar. The decriminalisation of sex work; development of supportive policy; gender equality and economic development are key factors that need to be addressed to increase sex worker resilience. Evidence supports the public health benefit of human rights based approaches to HIV prevention; moralistic and restrictive policy and laws towards sex work are harmful and should be removed. The establishment of these pillars will increase sex worker safety and enhance the inclusiveness of the HIV response. PMID:23237073

Scheibe, A; Drame, F M; Shannon, K

2012-01-01

12

Women Youth Workers and Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined personal and professional development experienced by women youth workers participating in five 5-day, residential, single-sex, outdoor education courses in England. Analysis of diaries and poetry at the end of the courses and questionnaires completed 1 year later by participants and their managers yielded findings in the areas of…

Collins, Di

13

Demography and sex work characteristics of female sex workers in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The majority of sex work in India is clandestine due to unfavorable legal environment and discrimination against female sex workers (FSWs). We report data on who these women are and when they get involved with sex work that could assist in increasing the reach of HIV prevention activities for them. METHODS: Detailed documentation of demography and various aspects of

Rakhi Dandona; Lalit Dandona; G Anil Kumar; Juan Pablo Gutierrez; Sam McPherson; Fiona Samuels; Stefano M Bertozzi

2006-01-01

14

Adolescent female sex workers: invisibility, violence and HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of female sex workers are children. Multiple studies demonstrate that up to 40% of women in prostitution started this work prior to age 18. In studies across India, Nepal, Thailand and Canada, young age at entry to sex work has been found to heighten vulnerability to physical and sexual violence victimisation in the context of prostitution, and

Jay G Silverman

2011-01-01

15

Mujer Mas Segura (Safer Women): a combination prevention intervention to reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs  

PubMed Central

Background Female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) are at risk of acquiring HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and blood-borne infections through unprotected sex and sharing injection equipment. We conducted a 2×2 factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Methods/design FSW-IDUs ?18 years reporting sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients within the last month were randomized to one of four conditions based on an a priori randomization schedule, blinding interviewer/counselors to assignment. Due to the extreme vulnerability of this population, we did not include a control group that would deny some women access to preventive information. All women received similar information regardless of group allocation; the difference was in the way the information was delivered and the extent to which women had an interactive role. Each condition was a single 60-minute session, including either an interactive or didactic version of an injection risk intervention and sexual risk intervention. Women underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Trichomonas at baseline and quarterly for 12 months. Combined HIV/STI incidence will be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes are proportionate reductions in sharing of injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients. Discussion Of 1,132 women, 548 (48.4%) were excluded (88.9% were ineligible; 11.1% refused to participate or did not return); 584 eligible women enrolled (284 in Tijuana; 300 in Ciudad Juarez). All 584 participants completed the baseline interview, provided biological samples and were randomized to one of the four groups. During follow-up, 17 participants (2.9%) were lost to follow-up, of whom 10 (58.8%) had died, leaving 567 participants for analysis. This study appears to be the first intervention to attempt to simultaneously reduce injection and sexual risk behaviors among FSW-IDUs. The factorial design will permit analysis to determine whether the combination of the two interactive interventions and/or its respective components are effective in reducing injection and/or sexual risks, which will have direct, tangible policy implications for Mexico and potentially other resource-poor countries. Trial registration NCT00840658 PMID:22891807

2012-01-01

16

Outplacement for Underserved Women Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an outplacement program for hourly women workers that assisted participants in identifying skills, interests, and values; identified community resources; taught job hunting skills; and encouraged participation in a support group. (JOW)

Freeman, Suzanne C.; Haring-Hidore, Marilyn

1988-01-01

17

An action agenda for HIV and sex workers.  

PubMed

The women, men, and transgender people who sell sex globally have disproportionate risks and burdens of HIV in countries of low, middle, and high income, and in concentrated and generalised epidemic contexts. The greatest HIV burdens continue to be in African female sex workers. Worldwide, sex workers still face reduced access to needed HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Legal environments, policies, police practices, absence of funding for research and HIV programmes, human rights violations, and stigma and discrimination continue to challenge sex workers' abilities to protect themselves, their families, and their sexual partners from HIV. These realities must change to realise the benefits of advances in HIV prevention and treatment and to achieve global control of the HIV pandemic. Effective combination prevention and treatment approaches are feasible, can be tailored for cultural competence, can be cost-saving, and can help to address the unmet needs of sex workers and their communities in ways that uphold their human rights. To address HIV in sex workers will need sustained community engagement and empowerment, continued research, political will, structural and policy reform, and innovative programmes. But such actions can and must be achieved for sex worker communities everywhere. PMID:25059950

Beyrer, Chris; Crago, Anna-Louise; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Butler, Jenny; Shannon, Kate; Kerrigan, Deanna; Decker, Michele R; Baral, Stefan D; Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Weir, Brian W; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Kazatchkine, Michel; Sidibé, Michel; Dehne, Karl-Lorenz; Boily, Marie-Claude; Strathdee, Steffanie A

2015-01-17

18

Sex Work Venue and Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Senggigi, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: freelance, brothels, and entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women “nested” within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies, and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered. PMID:23472595

Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A.; Johnson, Timothy P.

2013-01-01

19

Kaposi`s sarcoma associated herpesvirus infection among female sex workers and general population women in Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Limited information on epidemiologic patterns of KSHV, with none focusing on heterosexual transmission, is available in mainland China. To clarify this, a cross-sectional study was conducted among a group of female sex workers (FSW) and general population women (GW) in Shanghai, China. Methods An anonymous questionnaire interview was administrated among 600 FSW and 600 GW. Blood samples were collected and tested for antibodies to KSHV, HSV-2, HIV, syphilis and HBsAg. Correlates of KSHV and HSV-2 were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results None of the study participants were tested positive for HIV. The seroprevalence of KSHV, HSV-2 , HBV and syphilis was 10.0%, 52.2%, 12.3% and 10.5%, respectively for FSW, and was 11.0%, 15.3%, 9.8% and 2.8%, respectively for GW. KSHV seropositivity was not associated with syphilis and HSV-2 infection as well as sexual practices among either FSW or GW. Nevertheless, HSV-2 infection among FSW was independently associated with being ever married (OR?=?1.59; 95%CI: 1.04-2.45), >5 years of prostitution (OR?=?2.06; 95%CI: 1.16-3.68) and being syphilis positive (OR?=?2.65; 95%CI: 1.43-4.93). HSV-2 infection among GW was independently associated with an age of >35 years (OR?=?2.29; 95%CI: 1.07-4.93), having had more than 2 sex partners in the prior 12 months (OR?=?6.44; 95%CI: 1.67-24.93) and being syphilis positive (OR?=?3.94; 95%CI: 1.38-11.23). A gradual increase of prevalence with the prostitution time group was also detected for HSV-2 and syphilis, but not for KSHV. Conclusions KSHV is moderately and equivalently prevalent among FSW and GW. Heterosexual contact is not a predominant route for KSHV transmission among Chinese women. PMID:24498947

2014-01-01

20

Sex worker health: San Francisco style  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the characteristics of sex workers accessing care at a peer based clinic in San Francisco and to evaluate predictors of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Methods We conducted an observational study of sex workers at St James Infirmary. Individuals underwent an initial questionnaire, and we offered screening for STI at each clinic visit. We performed univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses to assess for predictors of STI in this population. Results We saw 783 sex workers identifying as female (53.6%), male (23.9%), male to female transgender (16.1%), and other (6.5%). 70% had never disclosed their sex work to a medical provider. Participants represented a wide range of ethnicities, educational backgrounds, and types of sex work. The most common substance used was tobacco (45.8%). Nearly 40% reported current illicit drug use. Over half reported domestic violence, and 36.0% reported sex work related violence. Those screened had gonorrhoea (12.4%), chlamydia (6.8%), syphilis (1.8%), or herpes simplex virus 2 (34.3%). Predictors of STI included African?American race (odds ratio (OR) 3.3), male gender (OR 1.9), and sex work related violence (OR 1.9). In contrast, participants who had only ever engaged in collective sex work were less likely to have an STI (OR 0.4). Conclusions The majority of sex workers have never discussed their work with a medical provider. Domestic violence is extremely prevalent as is work related violence. Working with other sex workers appears to be protective of STIs. STI prevention interventions should target African?American and male sex workers. Addressing violence in the workplace and encouraging sex workers to work collectively may be effective prevention strategies. PMID:16854996

Cohan, D; Lutnick, A; Davidson, P; Cloniger, C; Herlyn, A; Breyer, J; Cobaugh, C; Wilson, D; Klausner, J

2006-01-01

21

Preparing for Civil Disobedience: Indian Sex Workers and the Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the reform of prostitution laws in India. It begins with an outline of the current legislative framework available in this regard and then critically evaluates the various alternatives to the framework that have been proposed through the 1990s by the Indian government, universities and research institutions, the Indian women's movement and sex-worker organizations. After undertaking an

Prabha Kotiswaran

2001-01-01

22

[Sex workers: limited access to healthcare].  

PubMed

Sex workers constitute a heterogeneous group possessing a combination of vulnerability factors such as geographical instability, forced migration, substance addiction and lack of legal residence permit. Access to healthcare for sex workers depends on the laws governing the sex market and on migration policies in force in the host country. In this article, we review different European health strategies established for sex workers, and present preliminary results of a pilot study conducted among 50 sex workers working on the streets in Lausanne. The results are worrying: 56% have no health insurance, 96% are migrants and 66% hold no legal residence permit. These data should motivate public health departments towards improving access to healthcare for this vulnerable population. PMID:21815501

Gloor, E; Meystre-Agustoni, G; Ansermet-Pagot, A; Vaucher, P; Durieux-Paillard, S; Bodenmann, P; Cavassini, M

2011-06-29

23

Acceptability of a Microenterprise Intervention Among Female Sex Workers in Chennai, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female sex workers have been central in India’s HIV epidemic since it was first diagnosed among them in 1989. Female sex workers’\\u000a risk of HIV is primarily economically motivated. The Pi pilot study examined the feasibility and association of a microenterprise\\u000a intervention, the tailoring of canvas bags, on sexual risk behaviors among female sex workers (N = 100) in Chennai. Women were

Susan G. ShermanA; A. K. Srikrishnan; Katharine A. Rivett; Su-Hsun Liu; Suniti Solomon; David D. Celentano

2010-01-01

24

Can sex workers regulate police? Learning from an HIV prevention project for sex workers in southern India.  

PubMed

There is an argument that policing practices exacerbate HIV risk, particularly for female sex workers. Interventions that mobilize sex workers to seek changes in laws and law enforcement practices have been prominent in India and have received considerable scholarly attention. Yet, there are few studies on the strategies sex worker advocates use to modify police behavior or the struggles they face in challenging state institutions. This paper draws upon contemporary theories of governance and non-state regulation to analyze the evolving strategies of an HIV prevention non-governmental organization (NGO) and female sex worker community-based organizations (CBOs) to reform police practices in southern India. Using detailed ethnographic observations of NGO and CBO activities over a two year period, and key informant interviews with various actors in the sex trade, this paper shows how a powerless group of marginalized and stigmatized women were able to leverage the combined forces of community empowerment, collective action and network-based governance to regulate a powerful state actor, and considers the impact of the advocacy strategies on sex worker well-being. PMID:19261364

Biradavolu, Monica Rao; Burris, Scott; George, Annie; Jena, Asima; Blankenship, Kim M

2009-04-01

25

Sex work among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Bogotá.  

PubMed

This qualitative study examined sex work among internally displaced male and transgender female sex workers in Bogotá, Colombia. Internal displacement has occurred in Colombia as a result of decades of conflict among armed groups and has created large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Informed by the polymorphous model of sex work, which posits that contextual conditions shape the experience of sex work, we examined three main research questions. The first dealt with how internal displacement was related to the initiation of sex work; the second concerned the effect of agency on sex worker satisfaction; and the third examined how sex work in this context was related to HIV and other risks. Life history interviews were conducted with 26 displaced individuals who had done sex work: 14 were men who have sex with men and 12 were transgender women (natal males). Findings revealed that many participants began doing sex work in the period immediately after displacement, because of a lack of money, housing, and social support. HIV risk was greater during this time due to limited knowledge of HIV and inexperience negotiating safer sex with clients. Other findings indicated that sex workers who exerted more control and choice in the circumstances of their work reported greater satisfaction. In addition, we found that although many sex workers insisted on condom use with clients, several noted that they would sometimes have unprotected sex for additional money. Specific characteristics affecting the experience of sex work among the transgender women were also discussed. PMID:24464550

Bianchi, Fernanda T; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Vidal-Ortiz, Salvador; Gonzales, Felisa A; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J

2014-11-01

26

Sex Work among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Bogotá  

PubMed Central

This qualitative study examined sex work among internally displaced male and transgender female sex workers in Bogotá, Colombia. Internal displacement has occurred in Colombia as a result of decades of conflict among armed groups and has created large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Informed by the polymorphous model of sex work, which posits that contextual conditions shape the experience of sex work, we examined three main research questions. The first dealt with how internal displacement was related to the initiation of sex work; the second concerned the effect of agency on sex worker satisfaction; and the third examined how sex work in this context was related to HIV and other risks. Life history interviews were conducted with a 26 displaced individuals who had done sex work: 14 were men who have sex with men (MSM) and 12 were transgender women (natal males). Findings revealed that many participants began doing sex work in the period immediately after displacement, because of a lack of money, housing, and social support. HIV risk was greater during this time due to limited knowledge of HIV and inexperience negotiating safer sex with clients. Other findings indicated that sex workers who exerted more control and choice in the circumstances of their work reported greater satisfaction. In addition, we found that although many sex workers insisted on condom use with clients, several noted that they would sometimes have unprotected sex for additional money. Specific characteristics affecting the experience of sex work among the transgender women were also discussed. PMID:24464550

Bianchi, Fernanda T.; Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Vidal-Ortiz, Salvador; Gonzales, Felisa A.; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J.

2014-01-01

27

Sexual safety practices of massage parlor-based sex workers and their clients.  

PubMed

The Outreach and Research in Community Health Initiatives and Development (ORCHID) project examines social and structural factors that contribute to HIV/AIDS risk among women working in Vancouver's indoor sex industry and their clients. From 2006 to 2009, two mixed method studies were undertaken in ORCHID: one exploring experiences of women working in the indoor sex industry, mainly in massage parlors, and the other exploring experiences of men as sex "buyers." Both studies emphasize sexual health and safety, risk and protective behaviors, and related contextual factors. No analyses examining the sexual health and safety practices of massage parlor-based sex workers and clients exist in the Canadian context. To address this gap, we analyze two survey datasets - with 118 sex workers and 116 clients. Upon comparing demographics of sex workers and clients, we discuss their condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV testing practices. Sex workers and clients reported high rates of condom use for vaginal/anal intercourse. While both groups reported lower rates of condom use for oral sex during sex transactions, clients did so to a greater extent (p < 0.001). Condom use with noncommercial sex partners was reported to be less consistent by both groups. STI testing was higher among sex workers than clients (p < 0.001). Initiatives targeting clients of massage parlor-based sex workers for STI education and testing are needed. Future research should investigate how different types of relationships between sex workers and clients impact their sexual safety practices. PMID:24617632

Kolar, Kat; Atchison, Chris; Bungay, Vicky

2014-01-01

28

HIV prevention interventions for young male commercial sex workers.  

PubMed

The sex industry, where men sell sexual services to other men or women, has grown in recent years. These men who offer sexual services are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection due to such factors as: frequency of risky sexual practices, number of sex partners, drug-taking, prevalence of sexually-transmitted infections (STI) and their specific situation of social exclusion which may hinder access to health services. These multi-faceted realities faced by sex workers explain the burgeoning interest in new avenues of scientific research. There are too few preventive programs however aimed at this population group and the studies that evaluate their effectiveness are fewer still. In this article we survey more recent studies on the difficulties of implementing programs for HIV prevention in male sex workers (MSW), as well as the studies that have gauged the impact of preventive programs in this group. PMID:24366476

Ballester-Arnal, R; Gil-Llario, M D; Salmeron-Sánchez, P; Giménez-García, C

2014-03-01

29

High Prevalence of Forced Sex Among Non-Brothel Based, Wine Shop Centered Sex Workers in Chennai, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual violence has been shown to increase women’s risk of HIV infection. India is a country where the HIV epidemic is growing\\u000a among women and intimate partner violence (IPV) is pervasive. This study examined prevalence of and factors associated with\\u000a forced sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Chennai, India. We conducted a probability survey among FSWs in 24 slum

Vivian F. GoAylur; Aylur K. Srikrishnan; Corette Breeden Parker; Megan Salter; Annette M. Green; Sudha Sivaram; Sethulakshmi C. Johnson; Carl Latkin; Wendy Davis; Suniti Solomon; David D. Celentano

2011-01-01

30

Prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence among a prospective cohort of female sex workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence against female sex workers in an environment of criminalised prostitution.Design Prospective observational study.Setting Vancouver, Canada during 2006-8.Participants Female sex workers 14 years of age or older (inclusive of transgender women) who used illicit drugs (excluding marijuana) and engaged in street level sex work. Main outcome measure Self reported

Kate Shannon; T Kerr; S A Strathdee; J Shoveller; J S Montaner; M W Tyndall

2009-01-01

31

Women Migrant Workers: Embracing Empowerment Over Victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on women migrant workers - women who leave their countries, whether taking their families or leaving them behind, in search of employment and economic opportunity abroad. After a discussion of the recent globalization of migration, this paper continues with an examination of the feminization of migration. Part II then discusses how men and women workers experience migration

Jill Borak

32

Measuring perceived stigma in female sex workers in Chennai, India.  

PubMed

Although sex work is highly stigmatized throughout the world, a limited body of research has examined stigma among female sex workers (FSWs). We developed a Sex Worker Stigma (SWS) Index to measure perceived stigma among 150 FSWs in Chennai, India. These women were at a median age of 35 years and reported, on average, having engaged in sex work for nine out of the previous 12 months. The two-factor structure of the index was verified in both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with acceptable goodness of fit. The final 10-item index comprises of two domains of perceived stigma from the community and perceived stigma from one's family. Cronbach's ? coefficients were 0.87 and 0.88 for each domain, respectively. In regression analysis, we found that income from jobs other than sex work was correlated with decreased levels of perceived stigma from both the community (? = - 0.16; 95% CI: -0.30 and -0.02) and the family (? = - 0.24; 95% CI: -0.40 and -0.07); prior experience of accessing health care system increased perceived stigma from the community while heavier financial responsibility for the family was associated with lower perceived stigma from women's family. With the proposed SWS Index, we have a valid and reliable metric to document and track levels of perceived stigma among FSWs to assess the impact of stigma reduction interventions. PMID:21293991

Liu, Su-Hsun; Srikrishnan, A K; Zelaya, Carla E; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D; Sherman, Susan G

2011-05-01

33

A descriptive profile of abused female sex workers in India.  

PubMed

This descriptive study presents the profiles of abused female sex workers (FSWs) in Chennai, India. Of 100 abused FSWs surveyed using a structured questionnaire, severe forms of violence by intimate partners were reported by most (98%) respondents. Of the total sample, 76% experienced violence by clients. Sexual coercion experiences of the FSWs included verbal threats (77%) and physical force (87%) by intimate partners and forced unwanted sexual acts (73%) by clients. While 39% of the women consumed alcohol before meeting a client, 26% reported that their drunkenness was a trigger for violence by clients. The findings suggest that there is an urgent need to integrate services, along with public-health interventions among FSWs to protect them from violence. Recognition of multiple identities of women in the contexts of intimate relationships versus sex work is vital in helping women to stay safe from adverse effects on health. PMID:20635631

Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C; Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, A K; Zelaya, Carla; Solomon, Suniti; Go, Vivian F; Celentano, David

2010-06-01

34

Women brothel workers and occupational health risks  

PubMed Central

Study objectives: This study examined working conditions, reported morbidity, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression and their relation to an index of occupational health risk among women working in brothels in Israel. Design: Personal structured interviews with a scale of occupational risk that included seven self report items reflecting past and present morbidity and symptoms. Participants and setting: A purposive sample of 55 women in three cities in Israel, between the ages of 18–38. Main results: Most (82%) women were trafficked into Israel to work illegally in prostitution, effectively deriving them of access to discretionary health care. A third of the sample (32%) had a high score (between 3 to 6) on the index of occupational risk factors. A high score was not related to recent physician or gynaecological visits and was more common among illegal workers than those with residence status. A set of regression analyses showed that the most significant predictors of reporting a high level of occupational risk symptoms were starting sex work at an early age, the number of hours worked in a day, a history of suicide attempts and PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: High occupational risk was found to be unrelated to recent physician or gynaecological visits, indicating that these visits were most probably controlled by the brothel owners and not by medical need as perceived by the women themselves. Furthermore, occupational risk factors were associated with some of the working and background conditions reported by women brothel workers. There is an urgent need for medical care for this high risk group. PMID:14573588

Cwikel, J; Ilan, K; Chudakov, B

2003-01-01

35

An Instrument to Measure Safer Sex Strategies Used by Male Sex Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have related safe sex in the commercial sex encounter to the ability of sex workers to apply specific safer sex strategies. However, no instrument has been previously available to measure these skills. The Safer-Sex Strategy Scale (SSS) was developed for such purposes. The psychometric properties (reliability and validity) were evaluated with a sample of sex workers recruited from

Rodrigo Mariño; Jan Browne; Victor Minichiello

2000-01-01

36

Sex workers, unite! (Litigating for sex workers' freedom of association in Russia).  

PubMed

The existing legal framework in Russia makes sex work and related activities punishable offenses, leaving sex workers stigmatized, vulnerable to violence, and disproportionally affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. In 2013, the Ministry of Justice, supported by the courts, refused registration and official recognition to the first all-Russia association of sex workers, referring to the fact that sex work is under administrative and criminal punitive bans and therefore the right of association for sex workers is unjustified. In light of international human rights standards, in particular the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, we examine in this paper whether the overall punitive legal ban on sex work in Russia is discriminatory. The government's positive obligations concerning discrimination against sex workers whose activities are consensual and between adults, and whose working conditions leave them among society's most vulnerable, should outweigh their punitive laws and policies around sex work. The scope of legal criminalization is narrow: it should apply only in exceptional cases where it is clearly justified. PMID:25569722

Arps, F S E Freddie; Golichenko, Mikhail

2014-01-01

37

Rethinking substance abuse treatment with sex workers: how does the capability approach inform practice?  

PubMed

Substance abuse treatment providers commonly provide services for men and women involved in sex work. Sex workers often present to treatment with a complicated array of challenges (M. L. Burnette et al., 2008a; D. C. Ling, W. C. W. Wong, E. A. Holroyd, & S. A. Grayson, 2007; M. Young, C. Boyd, & A. Hubbell, 2000), and, while many scholars have posited the need for adapted interventions for sex workers (L. Nuttbrock, A. Rosenblum, S. Magura, C. Villano, & J. Wallace, 2004; A. Weiner, 1996), there is still a lull in the development of comprehensive, tailored services for sex workers seeking substance abuse treatment (L. Nuttbrock et al., 2004). Augmenting this gap is the lack of a clear framework through which to understand the challenges that sex workers endure and how their challenges may differ from treatment-seeking non-sex workers. In order to address this gap, the current study explored the utility of a social justice framework, namely the Capability Approach, in predicting sex work involvement among a substance-abusing sample. We hypothesize that increased challenges to achieving capability will predict sex work involvement among a substance-abusing sample. Results suggest that the Capability Approach is a useful framework that can be used to differentiate between sex workers and their substance-abusing counterparts and that sex workers experience greater challenges to achieving capability. As such, the current findings support recent calls in the literature for the development of tailored services to meet the needs of this population. PMID:23523250

Patton, Rikki; Snyder, Anastasia; Glassman, Michael

2013-08-01

38

Reframing the Interpretation of Sex Worker Health: A Behavioral–Structural Approach  

PubMed Central

Expanding sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics in many parts of Asia increase the importance of effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/STI prevention programs for female sex workers. Designing sex worker health research and programs demands a well-stated conceptual approach, especially when one is interpreting the relationship between local policy environments and sex worker health. However, the core principles of the 2 most common conceptual approaches used in sex worker health programs—abolitionism and empowerment—have frequently divergent assumptions and implications. The abolitionist approach sees major aspects of the sex industry as fundamentally coercive and exploitative of women and supports dismantling all or parts of the sex sector. The empowerment approach strengthens sex workers’ agency and rights in order to build collective self-efficacy and have women invested in implementing their own HIV/STI prevention programs. This review compares these approaches using implication analysis and empirical cases from Asia. The misperception of an unresolvable gap between the 2 approaches ignores common ground that forms the basis of a new behavioral–structural conceptual framework. Explicitly accounting for the interaction between female sex worker behaviors and larger structures and policies, a behavioral–structural approach may provide a solid foundation for sex work research and programs. PMID:22043033

Tuminez, Astrid S.

2011-01-01

39

HIV risk practices by female sex workers according to workplace  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To investigate differences in HIV infection- related risk practices by Female Sex Workers according to workplace and the effects of homophily on estimating HIV prevalence. METHODS Data from 2,523 women, recruited using Respondent-Driven Sampling, were used for the study carried out in 10 Brazilian cities in 2008-2009. The study included female sex workers aged 18 and over. The questionnaire was completed by the subjects and included questions on characteristics of professional activity, sexual practices, use of drugs, HIV testing, and access to health services. HIV quick tests were conducted. The participants were classified in two groups according to place of work: on the street or indoor venues, like nightclubs and saunas. To compare variable distributions by place of work, we used Chi-square homogeneity tests, taking into consideration unequal selection probabilities as well as the structure of dependence between observations. We tested the effect of homophily by workplace on estimated HIV prevalence. RESULTS The highest HIV risk practices were associated with: working on the streets, lower socioeconomic status, low regular smear test coverage, higher levels of crack use and higher levels of syphilis serological scars as well as higher prevalence of HIV infection. The effect of homophily was higher among sex workers in indoor venues. However, it did not affect the estimated prevalence of HIV, even after using a post-stratification by workplace procedure. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that strategies should focus on extending access to, and utilization of, health services. Prevention policies should be specifically aimed at street workers. Regarding the application of Respondent-Driven Sampling, the sample should be sufficient to estimate transition probabilities, as the network develops more quickly among sex workers in indoor venues. PMID:25119937

Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges

2014-01-01

40

Typology of older female sex workers and sexual risks for HIV infection in China: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

The HIV epidemic continues to develop among older adults in China, including older female sex workers. Yet, few studies have been conducted among this relatively hidden population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the reasons for women's entry into sex work during their thirties and to develop typology of older women sex workers. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with sixty-three older women sex workers and six focus groups interviews with stakeholders were conducted in three cities in China in 2012. Data were analysed inductively using constant comparative method. The mean age of participants was 43 years old and the mean age of entry into sex work was 39 years old. The primary reasons for entry into sex work include heavy economic burdens, limited employment opportunities, and the appealing nature of sex work. Street-based and venue-based older sex workers were identified based on where they solicited clients. Street-based older sex workers were more likely to engage in unsafe commercial sex due to financial incentives, whereas those in entertainment venues were unlikely to use condoms with regular clients. The development of effective HIV interventions needs to consider older women sex workers unique characteristics and target factors that impede safer sex practices. PMID:23998493

Hao, Chun; Sherman, Susan G.; Jiang, Baofa; Li, Xiaojing; Xu, Yongfang; Jiang, Zhenxia; Zang, Chunpeng

2013-01-01

41

Human Papillomaviruses and Cervical Cancer in Bangkok. III. The Role of Husbands and Commercial Sex Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between September 1991 and September 1993, husbands of women with and without cervical neoplasia and commercial sex workers in one brothel and one massage parlor in Bangkok, Thailand, were interviewed; serologic tests for sexually transmitted infections were performed; and cervical and penile scrapings were tested for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA. The risks of cervical carcinoma in monogamous women and of

David B. Thomas; Roberta M. Ray; Jane Kuypers; Nancy Kiviat; Amorn Koetsawang; Rhoda L. Ashley; Qin Qin; Suporn Koetsawang

42

Generational Sex And HIV Risk Among Indigenous Women In A Street-Based Urban Canadian Setting  

PubMed Central

In Canada, indigenous women are overrepresented among new HIV infections and street-based sex workers. Scholars suggest that Aboriginal women’s HIV risk stems from intergenerational effects of colonisation and racial policies. This research examined generational sex work involvement among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women and the effect on risk for HIV acquisition. The sample included 225 women in street-based sex work and enrolled in a community-based prospective cohort, in partnership with local sex work and Aboriginal community partners. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression modeled an independent relationship between Aboriginal ancestry and generational sex work; and the impact of generational sex work on HIV infection among Aboriginal sex workers. Aboriginal women (48%) were more likely to be HIV-positive, with 34% living with HIV compared to 24% non-Aboriginal. In multivariate logistic regression model, Aboriginal women remained 3 times more likely to experience generational sex work (aOR:2.97; 95%CI:1.5,5.8). Generational sex work was significantly associated with HIV (aOR=3.01, 95%CI: 1.67–4.58) in a confounder model restricted to Aboriginal women. High prevalence of generational sex work among Aboriginal women and 3-fold increased risk for HIV infection are concerning. Policy reforms and community-based, culturally safe and trauma informed HIV prevention initiatives are required for Indigenous sex workers. PMID:24654881

Bingham, Brittany; Leo, Diane; Zhang, Ruth; Montaner, Julio

2014-01-01

43

From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises

2010-01-01

44

Child Sex Trafficking Victims Easily Missed by Doctors, Social Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Child Sex Trafficking Victims Easily Missed by Doctors, Social Workers: ... and training to identify potential victims of child sex trafficking, a new study suggests. "We need to ...

45

“Over here, it’s just drugs, women and all the madness”: The HIV risk environment of clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico  

PubMed Central

HIV vulnerability depends upon social context. Based in broader debates in social epidemiology, political economy, and sociology of health, Rhodes’ (2002) “risk environment” framework provides one heuristic for understanding how contextual features influence HIV risk, through different types of environmental factors (social, economic, policy, and physical) which interact at different levels of influence (micro, macro). Few data are available on the “risk environment” of male clients of female sex workers (FSWs); such men represent a potential “bridge” for transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from high- to low-prevalence populations. Using in-depth interviews (n=30), we describe the HIV risk environment of male clients in Tijuana, Mexico, where disproportionately high HIV prevalence has been reported among FSWs and their clients. A number of environmental themes influence risky sex with FSWs and the interplay between individual agency and structural forces: social isolation and the search for intimacy; meanings and identities ascribed to Tijuana’s Zona Roja (red light district) as a risky place; social relationships in the Zona Roja; and economic roles. Our findings suggest that clients’ behaviors are deeply embedded in the local context. Using the HIV “risk environment” as our analytic lens, we illustrate how clients’ HIV risks are shaped by physical, social, economic, and political factors. The linkages between these and the interplay between structural- and individual-level experiences support theories that view structure as both enabling as well as constraining. We discuss how the “embeddedness” of clients’ experiences warrants the use of environmental interventions that address the circumstances contributing to HIV risk at multiple levels. PMID:21414702

Goldenberg, Shira; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Gallardo, Manuel; Rhodes, Tim; Wagner, Karla D.; Patterson, Thomas L.

2011-01-01

46

More Than a Sex Machine: Accomplishing Masculinity Among Chinese Male Sex Workers in the Hong Kong Sex Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situated in the masculinity and deviance literature, this article examines a “deviant” masculinity, that of the male sex worker, and presents the ways men who engage in sex work cope with the job. Based on in-depth interviews of Chinese male sex workers (n = 18) in the Hong Kong sex industry, I argue that the stigma management techniques these men employ are

Travis S. K. Kong

2009-01-01

47

Female garment factory workers in Cambodia: migration, sex work and HIV/AIDS.  

PubMed

Female garment factory workers in Cambodia are more exposed to HIV/AIDS than previously thought. Although HIV/AIDS epidemics are fast spreading in Cambodia, relatively little is known about the sexual health of women other than those perceived as commercial sex workers or married women of reproductive age. In-depth interviews with 20 unmarried female garment factory workers, who reported to have engaged in multi-partnered sex through direct or discretionary commercial sex occupations, demonstrate that they are exposed to HIV-risk created along the gradients of power. Low socioeconomic status (low education, meager factory wage and high dependency rate at their rural households) and obligations as daughters to provide for the family mainly determine their entry into sex work. At the location of sex work, they are subjected to physical violence, alcohol and drug use, both self-taken and forced, and receive meager wages. In a society where women are expected to be virtuous and obedient to parents and husbands, these workers are motivated to identify male sex partners in paid sex as "sweethearts" rather than "guests." These factors contribute to low consistency of condom use. This paper demonstrates the complex interrelationships between power, cultural definitions of intimacy and economic dependency, which structure sexual relationships and the risk of HIV/AIDS. PMID:12216990

Nishigaya, Kasumi

2002-01-01

48

Opportunities for Woman-Initiated HIV Prevention Methods among Female Sex Workers in Southern China  

PubMed Central

Rapid changes in China over the past two decades have led to significant problems associated with population migration and changing social attitudes, including a growing sex industry and concurrent increases in STIs and HIV. This article reports results of an exploratory study of microbicide acceptability and readiness and current HIV prevention efforts among female sex workers in two rural and one urban town in Hainan and Guangxi Provinces in southern China. The study focused on these women’s knowledge and cultural understandings of options for protecting themselves from exposure to STIs and HIV, and the potential viability and acceptability of woman-initiated prevention methods. We report on ethnographic elicitation interviews conducted with women working within informal sex-work establishments (hotels, massage and beauty parlors, roadside restaurants, boarding houses). We discuss implications of these findings for further promotion of woman-initiated prevention methods such as microbicides and female condoms among female sex workers in China. PMID:17599276

Weeks, Margaret R.; Liao, Susu; Abbott, Maryann; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiang; Jiang, Jingmei; Wei, Liu; Yu, Wang

2010-01-01

49

High prevalence of forced sex among non-brothel based, wine shop centered sex workers in Chennai, India.  

PubMed

Sexual violence has been shown to increase women's risk of HIV infection. India is a country where the HIV epidemic is growing among women and intimate partner violence (IPV) is pervasive. This study examined prevalence of and factors associated with forced sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Chennai, India. We conducted a probability survey among FSWs in 24 slum venues and identified predictive factors for recent forced sex using univariate and multivariable proportional odds models. Among 522 FSWs, 28% reported having forced sex with one partner and 35% with 2+ partners. In the final multivariable model, women who had a high number of partners who had a strong tendency to drink alcohol before sex were more likely to have experienced forced sex, and women who had both unprotected sex with a nonspousal partner and > 20 days of alcohol consumption in the last 30 days were more likely to have experienced forced sex. Discussion about family violence with larger social networks was independently associated with lower odds of forced sex among FSWs. HIV interventions for FSWs and their clients aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and encouraging condom use could be enhanced by violence prevention interventions to facilitate discourse about sexual violence. PMID:20628897

Go, Vivian F; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Parker, Corette Breeden; Salter, Megan; Green, Annette M; Sivaram, Sudha; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C; Latkin, Carl; Davis, Wendy; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D

2011-01-01

50

Social and structural violence and power relations in mitigating HIV risk of drug-using women in survival sex work  

Microsoft Academic Search

High rates of violence among street-level sex workers have been described across the globe, while in cities across Canada the disappearance and victimization of drug-using women in survival sex work is ongoing. Given the pervasive levels of violence faced by sex workers over the last decades, and extensive harm reduction and HIV prevention efforts operating in Vancouver, Canada, this research

Kate Shannon; Thomas Kerr; Shari Allinott; Jill Chettiar; Jean Shoveller; Mark W. Tyndall

2008-01-01

51

Sex workers and the control of sexually transmitted disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To describe and assess measures to control sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among sex workers and their partners. METHODS: A review of medical, historical and social literature, focusing on selected cases. RESULTS: Measures to control disease in sex workers today are often prompted by concerns about HIV transmission. However, the literature shows that prostitution varies from one place and time

S Day; H Ward

1997-01-01

52

Beyond Compassion: Children of Sex Workers in Kolkata's Sonagachi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, children of sex workers from Kolkata's Sonagachi red-light district formed their own collective, Amra Padatik ("We are Foot Soldiers"), to work for gaining dignity for their mothers and claiming their own rights as children of sex workers. In this article the authors speak to AP's founder members to demystify the culture of fear…

Sircar, Oishik; Dutta, Debolina

2011-01-01

53

Sex worker collective organization : Between advocacy group and labour union?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine contemporary sex worker labour unionism in a number of major western economies because it now faces an acute historical dilemma of being forced into acting as the antithesis of what it professes and aims to be, namely, elite pressure groups. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Interviews and structured e-mail dialogues with sex worker

Gregor Gall

2010-01-01

54

The Experiences of Violence and Occupational Health Risks of Sex Workers Working in Brothels in Ankara  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to reveal and discuss occupational health risks, violence against sex workers working in brothels and their working conditions in Ankara. Materials and Methods: The study included 138 sex workers. Data were collected at face to face interviews with a questionnaire composed of 40 questions about socio-demographic features, familial characteristics, reasons for becoming a sex worker, experiences of violence and occupational health risks. Results: Twenty-two point five percent of the women were aged 21–30 years and 39.9% were aged 31–40 years. The mean time of education was 5.9±3.5 (0–14) years. Forty-eight point five percent of the women were exposed to physical abuse and 13% of the women had been exposed to sexual abuse in their childhood. Fifty-five point eight percent of the women reported that their clients always used condoms, but 97.1% of the women noted that their clients insisted on not using a condom. Fourteen point five percent and 70.3% of the women were exposed to physical and verbal violence respectively from their clients. Ten point one percent of the women suffered sexual assault while working. Conclusion: Sex workers, like other people, should have human rights, all types of violence that they face should be eliminated and the social conditions they are exposed to should be improved. Sexually transmitted diseases, the most important health risk of sex workers, should be considered as occupational diseases in the new regulations. PMID:25206986

Odaba??, Aysun Balseven; ?ahinoglu, Serap; Genç, Yasemin; Bilge, Ya?ar

2012-01-01

55

A Qualitative Exploration of Barriers to Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in China  

PubMed Central

Background Sex workers in China continue to engage in unprotected sex acts that put them at risk for contracting HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and other STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections). The purpose of this study was to explore women’s work history, the context of sex work, condom use, HIV testing services, and potential barriers to condom use in a sample of FSWs (female sex workers) in Guangzhou, China. Methodology/Principal Findings In-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 FSWs in Guangzhou, China. Informants were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using NVivo 8.0. The majority of respondents were internal economic migrants who had entered the sex industry in pursuit of greater financial reward. Most women in the study were married or had steady boyfriends, and were young, with secondary education and limited knowledge about HIV and STIs. Most were not satisfied with their current living conditions and expressed a desire to leave the sex industry. Women reported that they were more likely to use condoms during sex acts with commercial partners than with non-commercial partners. The potential stigma of being seen as a sex worker prevented many from accessing HIV testing. Three key factors put these FSWs at risk for HIV and STIs: unreasonable trust toward clients, stereotypes and assumptions about customers, and financial incentives. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that social and economic factors play an important role in shaping sexual decision-making among female sex workers in Guangzhou. We argue that greater insight into and attention to these factors could enhance the success of HIV prevention efforts. PMID:23056452

Ciyong, Lu; Hui, Wang; Lingyao, Hong; Xueqing, Deng

2012-01-01

56

Sex worker activism, feminist discourse and HIV in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This paper explores the relationship between sex worker activism and HIV-related discourse in Bangladesh, relating recent developments in activism to the influence of feminist thought. Following their eviction in 1991 from brothels from red light areas, Bangladeshi sex workers started a social movement, at just about the same time that programmes started to work with sex workers to reduce the transmission of HIV. This paper argues that both sex worker activism and HIV-prevention initiatives find impetus in feminist pro-sex-work perspectives, which place emphasis on individual and collective agency. However, by participating in these programmes, sex workers failed to contest the imagery of themselves as 'vectors' of HIV. In this way, they were unwittingly complicit in reproducing their identity as 'polluting others'. Moreover, by focusing on individual behaviour and the agency of sex workers, HIV programmes ignored the fact that the 'choices' made by sex workers are influenced by a wide range of structural and discursive factors, including gender norms and notions of bodily purity, which in turn have implications for the construction of HIV-related risk. PMID:25588539

Sultana, Habiba

2015-06-01

57

From Protests to Politics: Sex Work, Women's Worth, and Ciudad Juárez Modernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper combines ethnographic research with discourse analysis to discuss how the protests of women sex workers in downtown Ciudad Juárez also represent protests against a larger urban economy that valorizes the disappearance of women from urban space. In Ciudad Juárez today, these disappearances are taking place as women and girls vanish from the publicity regarding progress in the maquiladora

Melissa W. Wright

2004-01-01

58

Women's Responses to Sex in Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advertising researchers have neglected to analyze women's reactions to sexual appeals, and researchers are just beginning to recognize the utility of personality variables as predictors of responses to sex in advertising. This study addresses both areas by testing women's reactions to a sexual commercial, and examining the relationship between women's sexual schemas with their responses. Sexual schemas are people's cognitive

Tom Reichert; Ignatius Fosu

2006-01-01

59

From violence to sex work: agency, escaping violence, and HIV risk among establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.  

PubMed

Violence experienced by female sex workers has been found to affect the HIV risk and quality of life of these women. Research on this topic has dealt with female sex workers and current experiences of violence with partners, clients, and in the workplace. In this study, we used feminist constructivist grounded theory to explore perceptions of violence among establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico. A key concept that emerged from 20 semi-structured in-depth interviews was "escaping violence with a romantic partner by becoming independent through sex work." The women also emphasized the negative impact of violence in the workplace but felt that achieving separation from a violent partner gave them strength to protect their lives and health. Interventions to help these women protect themselves from HIV infection and improve their quality of life should aim to build upon their strengths and the agency they have already achieved. PMID:23790279

Choudhury, Shonali M; Anglade, Debbie; Park, Kyuwon

2013-01-01

60

An untold story in labor health: Korean women workers.  

PubMed

Very little is known about labor health among Korean women workers, who have been left behind by the occupational safety and health institutions. In this article, we examine, from a gender perspective, the occupational safety and health (OSH) statistics, institutions, and the struggles of women workers, and discuss how to make a society where women workers become and stay healthy. The problems Korean women workers face have both universal and unique aspects. On the one hand, they tend to be exposed to "invisible hazards" and to disproportionately suffer from neo-liberal policies, as do women workers in other countries. On the other hand, Korean women workers are still positioned under the strong patriarchy found in pre-modern societies. The examples of struggle presented here come out of this condition; those struggles by women workers and support from concerned specialists have played an important role in overcoming patriarchy and protecting health rights for women workers. PMID:18184625

Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Hyun-joo

2007-01-01

61

HIV Risk among Adult Sex Workers in the United States  

MedlinePLUS

... barrier to HIV prevention efforts and other services. Socioeconomic Factors Many sex workers face discrimination, poverty, and lack of access to health care and other social services—all of which ...

62

Foster care history and HIV infection among drug-using African American female sex workers.  

PubMed

Foster care has been associated with increased HIV risk behaviors among youth, yet long-term association with HIV infection has not been examined. This study explored the associations between foster placement, victimization, mental health, onset of sex work and HIV infection among highly vulnerable female sex workers. 562 drug-involved African American women were enrolled into an intervention study to increase health services utilization and reduce HIV risk. Seventeen percent reported a history of foster placement. Foster history was associated with significantly lower educational attainment, higher victimization, and more severe mental health problems. Women with foster histories reported significantly earlier entry into paid sex work, with some 62% active in the sex trade before age 18. Multivariate analyses found that foster care was independently associated with HIV seropositivity, and that early sex work partially mediated this association. The potential long-term health vulnerabilities associated with foster placement are understudied and warrant additional research. PMID:21818654

Surratt, Hilary L; Kurtz, Steven P

2012-05-01

63

Douching practices among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Several studies indicate that douching has few benefits but numerous adverse health outcomes, including increased risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV. No published study explores douching practices among Cambodian female sex workers. This report provides preliminary data about the prevalence and frequency of douching among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Survey data were obtained from 81 female sex workers who were taken into custody due to engagement in commercial sex from March to June 2011. Results showed that 91% of participants douched. The mean numbers of times douched before sex and after sex per 10 sex episodes were 4.43 (SD?=?3.87) and 4.63 (SD?=?3.94), respectively. Half of the participants thought that douching could help to prevent sexually transmitted infections including HIV; 24% were unsure about this. Usually, douching after sex was associated with ever obtaining an HIV test (p?=?.012) and was marginally associated (although not statistically significant) with a higher average number of clients per week (p?=.?063) and consistent condom use with clients (p?=?.053). This suggests that these practices may be related to individual perceptions of sexually transmitted infections/HIV risk or susceptibility. Given the commonness of douching and related misperceptions among Cambodian female sex workers, future studies and interventions are needed to prevent adverse health problems. PMID:24810219

Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly T H; Ross, Michael W; Markham, Christine M

2015-03-01

64

Dyspareunia: Painful Sex for Women  

MedlinePLUS

... part of the genitals can cause pain during sex. Some conditions affect the skin around the vagina. ... types of birth control) does not fit correctly, sex may also be painful. Vaginismus (say: "vag-in- ...

65

Sexually transmissible infections among female sex workers: an international review with an emphasis on hard-to-access populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Women who work commercially in sex work (female sex workers (FSW)) are considered a high-risk group for sexually transmissible infections (STI), yet the level of reported pathogens varies in studies around the world. This study reviewed STI rates reported in 42 studies of FSW around the world published between 1995 and 2006 and analysed the trends and types of

66

Health-seeking strategies and sexual health among female sex workers in urban India: Implications for research and service provision  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and discusses selected findings from a study of health-seeking strategies in relation to sexual health among a group of female sex workers in Calcutta, India. Background information on sex work and sexually transmitted disease in Calcutta is followed by the presentation of findings pertaining to women's understandings of (sexual) health, treatment-seeking and service utilisation. In the urban

Catrin Evans; Helen Lambert

1997-01-01

67

Sex workers and the cost of safe sex: the compensating differential for condom use among Calcutta prostitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anecdotal evidence suggests that sex workers who use condoms face large income losses because clients have a preference for condom-free sex. This has important implications for AIDS policy. We estimate the compensating differential for condom use employing data from a random sample of sex workers in Calcutta. We rely on a natural experiment—the nonsystematic placement of sex workers in a

Vijayendra Rao; Indrani Gupta; Michael Lokshin; Smarajit Jana

2003-01-01

68

'It's Just Acting': Sex Workers' Strategies for Capitalizing on Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on an ethnographic study of female sex workers in Britain who work in the indoor prostitution markets. The empirical find- ings contribute to the sex-as-labour debate and add to the sociological lit- erature regarding the gendered and sexualized nature of employment, particularly the aesthetic and emotional labour of service work. Ground- ing the empirical findings in the

Teela Sanders

2005-01-01

69

Battered women: Sex roles and clinical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines how sex role biases contribute to the origins of spousal violence, compound its psychological effects, and interfere with effective treatment for battered women. Issues that commonly arise during psychotherapy with battered women and their batterers are discussed, such as self-esteem, denial, manipulation, body integration and sexuality, and familial relationships. Clinical impressions are supported with preliminary results of data collected

Lenore E. Walker

1981-01-01

70

Drug sharing with clients as a risk marker for increased violence and sexual and drug-related harms among survival sex workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have described links between violence, decreased condom use and drug sharing among intimate partners, though limited information exists about the predictors of drug sharing among female sex workers and their clients. The following analysis explored the association between sharing illicit drugs with clients and sexual and drug-related harms among survival sex workers. A total of 198 women participated

K. Shannon; T. Kerr; V. Bright; K. Gibson; M. W. Tyndall

2008-01-01

71

Sexual relationship power and intimate partner violence among sex workers with non-commercial intimate partners in a Canadian setting.  

PubMed

There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, "An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access" (AESHA), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence against Women Scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI: 0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for innovation and inclusive programming tailored to sex workers and their non-commercial intimate partnerships. PMID:25402720

Muldoon, Katherine A; Deering, Kathleen N; Feng, Cindy X; Shoveller, Jean A; Shannon, Kate

2015-04-01

72

Sex workers and the control of sexually transmitted disease.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe and assess measures to control sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among sex workers and their partners. METHODS: A review of medical, historical and social literature, focusing on selected cases. RESULTS: Measures to control disease in sex workers today are often prompted by concerns about HIV transmission. However, the literature shows that prostitution varies from one place and time to another, together with the risk of sexually transmitted disease. A broad social definition of prostitution rather than a narrow reference to levels of sexual activity is important for effective disease control, as an understanding of the relation between social disadvantage and sexual activity enables the provision of occupational services that sex workers actually want and use. Social prejudice and legal sanctions cause some sex workers and their partners to avoid even the most appropriate and accessible specialist services. Therefore targeted programmes can only complement, and not replace, general measures to control STDs, which are developed for other social groups or the local population as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: Sex workers and sex work differ from one place to another and so a single model for STD control is inappropriate. None the less, occupational health risks suggest a general need for specialist services. Where these do not compound the disadvantages that sex workers already suffer, medical services are likely to offer significant benefits in prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of STDs. As the stigma of prostitution leads many people to remain invisible to services, a general health infrastructure and anti-discriminatory measures will be equally important to effective disease control. PMID:9306894

Day, S; Ward, H

1997-01-01

73

Sex trafficking of women and girls.  

PubMed

Sex trafficking involves some form of forced or coerced sexual exploitation that is not limited to prostitution, and has become a significant and growing problem in both the United States and the larger global community. The costs to society include the degradation of human and women's rights, poor public health, disrupted communities, and diminished social development. Victims of sex trafficking acquire adverse physical and psychological health conditions and social disadvantages. Thus, sex trafficking is a critical health issue with broader social implications that requires both medical and legal attention. Healthcare professionals can work to improve the screening, identification, and assistance of victims of sex trafficking in a clinical setting and help these women and girls access legal and social services. PMID:23687554

Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M

2013-01-01

74

Criminalisation of clients: reproducing vulnerabilities for violence and poor health among street-based sex workers in Canada—a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore how criminalisation and policing of sex buyers (clients) rather than sex workers shapes sex workers’ working conditions and sexual transactions including risk of violence and HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Design Qualitative and ethnographic study triangulated with sex work-related violence prevalence data and publicly available police statistics. Setting Vancouver, Canada, provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of policies that criminalise clients as the local police department adopted a sex work enforcement policy in January 2013 that prioritises sex workers’ safety over arrest, while continuing to target clients. Participants 26 cisgender and 5 transgender women who were street-based sex workers (n=31) participated in semistructured interviews about their working conditions. All had exchanged sex for money in the previous 30?days in Vancouver. Outcome measures Thematic analysis of interview transcripts and ethnographic field notes focused on how police enforcement of clients shaped sex workers’ working conditions and sexual transactions, including risk of violence and HIV/STIs, over an 11-month period postpolicy implementation (January–November 2013). Results Sex workers’ narratives and ethnographic observations indicated that while police sustained a high level of visibility, they eased charging or arresting sex workers and showed increased concern for their safety. However, participants’ accounts and police statistics indicated continued police enforcement of clients. This profoundly impacted the safety strategies sex workers employed. Sex workers continued to mistrust police, had to rush screening clients and were displaced to outlying areas with increased risks of violence, including being forced to engage in unprotected sex. Conclusions These findings suggest that criminalisation and policing strategies that target clients reproduce the harms created by the criminalisation of sex work, in particular, vulnerability to violence and HIV/STIs. The current findings support decriminalisation of sex work to ensure work conditions that support the health and safety of sex workers in Canada and globally. PMID:24889853

Krüsi, A; Pacey, K; Bird, L; Taylor, C; Chettiar, J; Allan, S; Bennett, D; Montaner, J S; Kerr, T; Shannon, K

2014-01-01

75

vol. 158, no. 2 the american naturalist august 2001 Sex Ratio Conflict and Worker Production in  

E-print Network

party to manipulate sex allocation in its favor. Queens are selected to force workers to raise allvol. 158, no. 2 the american naturalist august 2001 Sex Ratio Conflict and Worker Production of the conflicts occurring in eusocial Hymenoptera is queen-worker conflict over sex ratio. So far, sex ratio

Alvarez, Nadir

76

The Price of Sex: Condom Use and the Determinants of the Price of Sex Among Female Sex Workers in Eastern Zimbabwe  

PubMed Central

Background.?Higher prices for unprotected sex threaten the high levels of condom use that contributed to the decline in Zimbabwe's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. To improve understanding of financial pressures competing against safer sex, we explore factors associated with the price of commercial sex in rural eastern Zimbabwe. Methods.?We collected and analyzed cross-sectional data on 311 women, recruited during October–December 2010, who reported that they received payment for their most-recent or second-most-recent sex acts in the past year. Zero-inflated negative binomial models with robust standard errors clustered on female sex worker (FSW) were used to explore social and behavioral determinants of price. Results.?The median price of sex was $10 (interquartile range [IQR], $5–$20) per night and $10 (IQR, $5–$15) per act. Amounts paid in cash and commodities did not differ significantly. At the most-recent sex act, more-educated FSWs received 30%–74% higher payments. Client requests for condom use significantly predicted protected sex (P < .01), but clients paid on average 42.9% more for unprotected sex. Conclusions.?Within a work environment where clients' preferences determine condom use, FSWs effectively use their individual capital to negotiate the terms of condom use. Strengthening FSWs' preferences for protected sex could help maintain high levels of condom use. PMID:25381377

Elmes, Jocelyn; Nhongo, Kundai; Ward, Helen; Hallett, Timothy; Nyamukapa, Constance; White, Peter J.; Gregson, Simon

2014-01-01

77

Advancing sex and gender competency in medicine: sex & gender women’s health collaborative  

PubMed Central

Research conducted to date has deepened our understanding of sex and gender differences in the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes for many conditions that affect both women and men. The Sex and Gender Women’s Health Collaborative (SGWHC) is supported by the coordinated efforts of our founding partners: the American Medical Women’s Association, the American College of Women’s Health Physicians and Society for Women’s Health Research to address the gaps in medical education with regard to sex and gender competency in the care of women. The SGWHC initiated and continues to build a novel digital resource library of sex and gender specific materials to be adopted and adapted into medical education and clinical practice, residing @ http://www.sgwhc.org. This article presents a case for the inclusion of sex and gender focused content into medical curricula and describes a means for students, faculty, and practitioners to access a centralized, interactive repository for these resources. PMID:23724943

2013-01-01

78

Exploring the impact of underage sex work among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities  

PubMed Central

Although sex work and younger age increase HIV vulnerability, empirical data regarding the impacts of underage sex work are lacking. We explored associations between features of the risk environment, sex work and drug use history, and underage sex work entry among 624 female sex workers(FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Forty-one percent (n=253) of women began sex work as minors, among whom HIV and any STI/HIV prevalence were 5.2% and 60.7%. Factors independently associated with increased odds of underage sex work were inhalants as the first drug used, forced first injection, number of drug treatment attempts, and recent receptive syringe-sharing. Number of recent condom negotiation attempts with steady partners and depression as a reason for first injecting were negatively associated with underage entry. These results underscore the importance of efforts to prevent underage sex work and the wider factors contributing to HIV risk among vulnerable youth and underage FSWs. PMID:22012147

Goldenberg, Shira M; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Patterson, Thomas L; Abramovitz, Daniela; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Strathdee, Steffanie A

2011-01-01

79

Stigma to Sage: Learning and Teaching Safer Sex Practices Among Canadian Sex Trade Workers. NALL Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study interviewed 37 Canadian sex workers in 4 cities to determine how they acquire a working knowledge of safer sex practices and what that knowledge constituted. Findings indicated the vast majority exhibited high levels of knowledge and efficacy regarding safer sex practices; sex workers took the initiative to obtain information and engage in…

Meaghan, Diane

80

Designing a phone broadcasting system for urban sex workers in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the design, implementation, and deployment of a phone-based broadcasting system designed for reaching out to at-risk populations in urban India. We worked in collaboration with Pragati, a non-governmental organization dedicated to assisting Urban Sex Workers (USWs) in Bangalore, India, with the goal of improving Pragati's outreach to the women they serve. We conducted ethnographic action

Nithya Sambasivan; Julie Weber; Edward Cutrell

2011-01-01

81

Race and sex differences in quits by young workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of young men and women to analyze race and sex differences in the probability and consequences of quitting. The authors find that overall quit rates in this group are higher for women than for men and about the same for blacks and whites. When several personal and job characteristics are held

Francine D. Blau; Lawrence Kahn

1981-01-01

82

Multiple risks among male and transgender sex workers in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Using data from a qualitative study and a subsequent quantitative survey among 918 male and transgender sex workers (MTSW), we explore the context of multiple risks they face. We show that over one-fifth of MTSW have sex with IDU clients. Combined with high levels of risk behavior and very low levels of risk reduction and knowledge, the extent of sexual networking with men who inject drugs contributes further to the sex workers' health risks. Our findings suggest that isolated interventions with single-risk groups are unlikely to be sufficient to control the spread of the epidemic in Pakistan. We highlight the need for integrated approaches to risk reduction programs among MTSW and IDUs. PMID:19856740

Collumbien, Martine; Chow, Jaime; Qureshi, Ayaz Ahmed; Rabbani, Aliya; Hawkes, Sarah

2008-01-01

83

Assessment of Respondent Driven Sampling for Recruiting Female Sex Workers in Two Vietnamese Cities: Reaching the Unseen Sex Worker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respondent driven sampling (RDS) is a relatively new method to sample hard-to-reach populations. Until this study, female sex workers (FSWs) in Vietnam were sampled using a variety of methods, including time location sampling (TLS), which may not access the more hidden types of FSWs. This paper presents an analysis from an HIV biological and behavioral surveillance survey to assess the

Lisa Grazina; Keith Sabin Johnston; Mai Thu Hien; Pham Thi Huong

84

“You are wasting our drugs”: health service barriers to HIV treatment for sex workers in Zimbabwe  

PubMed Central

Background Although disproportionately affected by HIV, sex workers (SWs) remain neglected by efforts to expand access to antiretroviral treatment (ART). In Zimbabwe, despite the existence of well-attended services targeted to female SWs, fewer than half of women diagnosed with HIV took up referrals for assessment and ART initiation; just 14% attended more than one appointment. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the reasons for non-attendance and the high rate of attrition. Methods Three focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted in Harare with HIV-positive SWs referred from the ‘Sisters with a Voice’ programme to a public HIV clinic for ART eligibility screening and enrolment. Focus groups explored SWs’ experiences and perceptions of seeking care, with a focus on how managing HIV interacted with challenges specific to being a sex worker. FGD transcripts were analyzed by identifying emerging and recurring themes that were specifically related to interactions with health services and how these affected decision-making around HIV treatment uptake and retention in care. Results SWs emphasised supply-side barriers, such as being demeaned and humiliated by health workers, reflecting broader social stigma surrounding their work. Sex workers were particularly sensitive to being identified and belittled within the health care environment. Demand-side barriers also featured, including competing time commitments and costs of transport and some treatment, reflecting SWs’ marginalised socio-economic position. Conclusion Improving treatment access for SWs is critical for their own health, programme equity, and public health benefit. Programmes working to reduce SW attrition from HIV care need to proactively address the quality and environment of public services. Sensitising health workers through specialised training, refining referral systems from sex-worker friendly clinics into the national system, and providing opportunities for SW to collectively organise for improved treatment and rights might help alleviate the barriers to treatment initiation and attention currently faced by SW. PMID:23898942

2013-01-01

85

Individual, Interpersonal, and Social-Structural Correlates of Involuntary Sex Exchange Among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico–U.S. Border Cities  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate individual, interpersonal, and social-structural factors associated with involuntary sex exchange among female sex workers (FSWs) along the Mexico–U.S. border. Methods In 2010–2011, 214 FSWs from Tijuana (n=106) and Ciudad Juarez (n=108) aged ?18 who reported lifetime use of heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine, having a stable partner, and having sold/traded sex in the past month completed quantitative surveys and HIV/STI testing. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of involuntary sex exchange among FSWs. Results Of 214 FSWs, 31 (14.5%) reported involuntary sex exchange. These women were younger at sex work entry (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.84/1 year increase, 95% CI: 0.72–0.97) and were significantly more likely to service clients whom they perceived to be HIV/STI-infected (AOR: 12.41, 95% CI: 3.15–48.91). Additionally, they were more likely to have clients who used drugs (AOR: 7.88, 95% CI: 1.52–41.00), report poor working conditions (AOR: 3.27, 95% CI: 1.03–10.31), and report a history of rape (AOR: 4.46, 1.43–13.91).] Conclusions Involuntary sex exchange is disproportionate among FSWs who begin to exchange sex at a younger age, and these women experience elevated risk of violence and HIV/STIs related to their clients’ behaviors and their working conditions. These data suggest the critical need for evidence-based approaches to preventing sexual exploitation of women and girls and to reducing harm among current sex workers. Multi-level interventions for sex workers and their clients that target interpersonal and social-structural risks (e.g., measures to improve safety and reduce exploitation within the workplace) are needed. PMID:23614997

Goldenberg, S.M.; Rangel, G.; Staines, H.; Vera, A.; Lozada, R.; Nguyen, L.; Silverman, J.G.; Strathdee, S.A.

2013-01-01

86

Male sex workers: practices, contexts, and vulnerabilities for HIV acquisition and transmission.  

PubMed

Male sex workers who sell or exchange sex for money or goods encompass a very diverse population across and within countries worldwide. Information characterising their practices, contexts where they live, and their needs is limited, because these individuals are generally included as a subset of larger studies focused on gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) or even female sex workers. Male sex workers, irrespective of their sexual orientation, mostly offer sex to men and rarely identify as sex workers, using local or international terms instead. Growing evidence indicates a sustained or increasing burden of HIV among some male sex workers within the context of the slowing global HIV pandemic. Several synergistic facilitators could be potentiating HIV acquisition and transmission among male sex workers, including biological, behavioural, and structural determinants. Criminalisation and intersectional stigmas of same-sex practices, commercial sex, and HIV all augment risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among male sex workers and reduce the likelihood of these people accessing essential services. These contexts, taken together with complex sexual networks among male sex workers, define this group as a key population underserved by current HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Dedicated efforts are needed to make those services available for the sake of both public health and human rights. Evidence-based and human rights-affirming services dedicated specifically to male sex workers are needed to improve health outcomes for these men and the people within their sexual networks. PMID:25059939

Baral, Stefan David; Friedman, M Reuel; Geibel, Scott; Rebe, Kevin; Bozhinov, Borche; Diouf, Daouda; Sabin, Keith; Holland, Claire E; Chan, Roy; Cáceres, Carlos F

2015-01-17

87

Infection with high-risk HPV types among female sex workers in northern Vietnam.  

PubMed

Vaccines against two high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV-16, and HPV-18, are in use currently, with high efficacy for preventing infections with these HPV types and consequent cervical cancers. However, circulating HPV types can vary with geography and ethnicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV types and the association between HPV types and abnormal cervical cytology among female sex workers in Northern Vietnam. Cervical swabs and plasma samples were collected from 281 female sex workers at two health centers in Hanoi and Hai Phong in 2009. The HPV L1 gene was amplified by PCR using original and modified GP5(+)/6(+) primers. Amplified PCR products were genotyped by the microarray system GeneSquare (KURABO) and/or clonal sequencing. Of the 281 women, 139 (49.5%) were positive for HPV DNA. Among the HPV-positive samples, 339 strains and 29 different types were identified. Multiple-type and high risk-type HPV infections were found in 85 (61.2%) and 124 (89.2%) women, respectively. The most common genotype was HPV-52, followed by HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-58. Abnormal cervical cytology was detected in 3.2% (9/281) of the women, and all of these samples were positive for HPV-DNA. Age ?25 years and infection with human immunodeficiency virus were associated positively with HPV infection among the women while ever smoking was associated negatively. These results show that HPV-52 is most prevalent among female sex workers in Northern Vietnam, most of whom had normal cervical cytology. This information may be important for designing vaccination strategies in Vietnam. PMID:23161344

Hoang, Huyen Thi Thanh; Ishizaki, Azumi; Nguyen, Cuong Hung; Tran, Vuong Thi; Matsushita, Kaori; Saikawa, Kunikazu; Hosaka, Norimitsu; Pham, Hung Viet; Bi, Xiuqiong; Ta, Van Thanh; Van Pham, Thuc; Ichimura, Hiroshi

2013-02-01

88

Motivational Influences on the Safer Sex Behavior of Agency-based Male Sex Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although indoor male sex workers (MSWs) have been found to engage in lower rates of HIV risk behavior with clients than street-based\\u000a MSWs, few studies have examined the motivations behind such practices. We interviewed 30 MSWs working for the same escort\\u000a agency regarding their safer sex practices with clients and their reasons for these. As in other research, MSWs reported

Michael D. Smith; David W. Seal

2008-01-01

89

The ‘Stolen Generations' of Mothers and Daughters: Child Apprehension and Enhanced HIV Vulnerabilities for Sex Workers of Aboriginal Ancestry  

PubMed Central

Objectives The number of children in care of the state continues to grow in BC, Canada with a historical legacy of child apprehension among criminalized and marginalized populations, particularly women of Aboriginal ancestry and sex workers. However, there is a paucity of research investigating child apprehension experiences among marginalized mothers. The objective of the current analysis is to examine the prevalence and correlates of child apprehensions among female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Analyses were drawn from the AESHA (An Evaluation of Sex Workers Health Access, 2010-present), a prospective cohort of street and off-street SWs, through outreach and semi-annual visits to the research office. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine correlates of child apprehension. Results Of a total of 510 SWs, 350 women who had given birth to at least one child were included in the analyses (median age?=?37 yrs: IQR: 31–44 yrs). The prevalence of child apprehension among mothers was 38.3%, with 37.4% reporting having been apprehended themselves by child welfare services. In multivariable analysis, servicing clients in outdoor public spaces (versus formal sex work establishments or informal indoor settings) (adjusted odds ratio, (aOR)?=?2.73; 95%CI 1.27–5.90), history of injecting drugs (aOR?=?2.53; 95%CI 1.42–4.49), Aboriginal ancestry (aOR?=?1.66; 95%CI 1.01–2.74) were associated with increased odds of child apprehension. Discussion/Conclusions Child apprehension rates are high, particularly among the most marginalized sex workers, including sex workers who use drugs and sex workers of Aboriginal ancestry. Structural reforms to child protection are urgently needed, that support family-based care address the historical legacy of colonization affecting Aboriginal peoples. PMID:24927324

Duff, Putu; Bingham, Brittany; Simo, Annick; Jury, Delores; Reading, Charlotte; Shannon, Kate

2014-01-01

90

Migrant Domestic Workers and the Rights of Women and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'care' economy and women's gender role Housework is not generally considered as 'work' but an extension of women's role as wives, mothers and daughters, and domestic\\/household workers are there to 'help' them to carry out these responsibilities. Domestic service in private homes continues to be one of the principal means for poor women and girls in developing countries to

Marilyn Thomson

91

Reducing Intimate and Paying Partner Violence against Women Who Exchange Sex in Mongolia: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women who exchange sex for money or other goods, that is, female sex workers, are at increased risk of experiencing physical and sexual violence from both paying and intimate partners. Exposure to violence can be exacerbated by alcohol use and HIV/STI risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a HIV/STI risk reduction and…

Carlson, Catherine E.; Chen, Jiehua; Chang, Mingway; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Toivgoo, Aira; Riedel, Marion; Witte, Susan S.

2012-01-01

92

Sex Education Attitudes and Outcomes among North American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…

Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura

2006-01-01

93

Sex affects health: women are different than men  

E-print Network

in relieving pain in women than in men Diseases other than those of the reproductive system affect both sexes1 Sex affects health: women are different than men I. Different patterns of Melanoma occurrence II. Autoimmune conditions Sex affects health Males & females have different patterns of illness & health Cancer

Dever, Jennifer A.

94

Unprotected Sex with Injecting Drug Users among Iranian Female Sex Workers: Unhide HIV Risk Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of unprotected sex with injecting drug users (IDUs) among a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in Iran. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 144 FSWs who were interviewed as a part of Unhide HIV Risk Study, a national behavioral survey focusing on various high-risk populations, including IDUs, FSWs, and Men who have Sex with Men (MSMs) in 2009. The survey was conducted in eight provinces in Iran using respondent-driven sampling. Participants' sociodemographic status, HIV knowledge, and HIV attitude were analyzed via logistic regression to determine the predictors of unprotected sex with IDU(s) during the past month. Results. Nineteen percent of FSWs reported at least one occasion of unprotected sex with IDU(s) in the month preceding the study. Higher educational level (OR = ?0.653, 95%CI = ?1.192 to ?0.115), perceived HIV risk (OR = ?1.047, 95%CI = ?2.076 to ?0.019), and perceived family intimacy during childhood (OR = ?1.104, 95%CI = ?1.957 to ?0.251) were all independently associated with lower odds of having unprotected sex with IDU(s) in the month preceding the study. Age, marital status, living condition, HIV knowledge, and perceived behavioral control did not affect the odds of FSWs having sex with IDUs. Conclusion. Perceived HIV risk, which is a modifiable factor, seems to be a promising target for harm reduction interventions amongst Iranian female sex workers. Data presented here may aid in reducing or eliminating the role of sex workers as a bridge for HIV transmission from IDUs to the general population in Iran. PMID:22506107

Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Rezazade, Majid; Nafarie, Mohammad; Moazen, Babak; Yarmohmmadi Vasel, Mosaieb; Assari, Shervin

2012-01-01

95

An Effective HIV Risk-Reduction Protocol for Drug-Using Female Sex Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female sex workers are especially vulnerable to HIV infection, particularly those who use drugs and engage in street-based sex exchange. This study examines the risk behaviors and HIV serostatus of 806 drug-using female sex workers in Miami and assesses the relative impact of two HIV and hepatitis prevention interventions on changes in risk behavior. Drug-using sex workers were recruited using

Hilary L. Surratt; James A. Inciardi

2010-01-01

96

Sex affects health: women are different I. Body composition & metabolism  

E-print Network

1 Sex affects health: women are different than men I. Body composition & metabolism II Sex affects health Overview: n Males & females have different patterns of illness & health q Longevity serotonin q Smoking has a more negative effect on cardiovascular health in women than men. q Women are 2x

Dever, Jennifer A.

97

The female condom: a promising but unavailable method for Dominican sex workers, their clients, and their partners.  

PubMed

Despite evidence of the potential of the female condom as a method that effectively protects against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and pregnancy, it is still not widely available. We conducted in-depth interviews with 18 sex workers, 15 male clients, and seven partners in the Dominican Republic to assess the acceptability of the female condom. The majority of the sex workers found the female condom acceptable and welcomed the option of a female-controlled method. Clients and partners of the sex workers were also positive about the female condom and, particularly with regard to pleasure; almost all preferred it to the male condom. These findings suggest that the female condom offers an acceptable option for protection against HIV, STIs, and pregnancy. The positive attitudes of women and men could be developed into messages in marketing campaigns for the female condom, targeting not only vulnerable groups but also the general population. PMID:23465398

van Dijk, Marieke G; Pineda, Diana Lara; Grossman, Daniel; Sorhaindo, Annik; García, Sandra G

2013-01-01

98

Assessment of Respondent Driven Sampling for Recruiting Female Sex Workers in Two Vietnamese Cities: Reaching the Unseen Sex Worker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respondent driven sampling (RDS) is a relatively new method to sample hard-to-reach populations. Until this study, female\\u000a sex workers (FSWs) in Vietnam were sampled using a variety of methods, including time location sampling (TLS), which may not\\u000a access the more hidden types of FSWs. This paper presents an analysis from an HIV biological and behavioral surveillance survey\\u000a to assess the

Lisa Grazina Johnston; Keith Sabin; Mai Thu Hien; Pham Thi Huong

2006-01-01

99

Female sex workers' experiences with intended pregnancy and antenatal care services in southern Tanzania.  

PubMed

Understanding the pregnancy experiences of female sex workers (FSWs), especially in the context of high rates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), is essential to tailoring services to meet their needs. This study explores FSWs' experiences with intended pregnancy and access to antenatal care and HIV testing in two regions of Tanzania. Thirty in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted. FSWs sought to become pregnant to gain respect as mothers, to avoid stigma, and/or to solidify relationships, sometimes posing risks to their own and their partners' health. Pregnant FSWs generally sought antenatal care (ANC) services but rarely disclosed their occupation, complicating provision of appropriate care. Accessing ANC services presented particular challenges, with health care workers sometimes denying all clinic services to women who were not accompanied by husbands. Several participants reported being denied care until delivery. The difficulties participants reported in accessing health care services as both sex workers and unmarried women have potential social and health consequences in light of the high levels of HIV and STIs among FSWs in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25753059

Beckham, Sarah W; Shembilu, Catherine R; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Winch, Peter J; Beyrer, Chris; Kerrigan, Deanna L

2015-03-01

100

Sex Workers Perspectives on Strategies to Reduce Sexual Exploitation and HIV Risk: A Qualitative Study in Tijuana, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Globally, female sex workers are a population at greatly elevated risk of HIV infection, and the reasons for and context of sex industry involvement have key implications for HIV risk and prevention. Evidence suggests that experiences of sexual exploitation (i.e., forced/coerced sex exchange) contribute to health-related harms. However, public health interventions that address HIV vulnerability and sexual exploitation are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to elicit recommendations for interventions to prevent sexual exploitation and reduce HIV risk from current female sex workers with a history of sexual exploitation or youth sex work. From 2010–2011, we conducted in-depth interviews with sex workers (n?=?31) in Tijuana, Mexico who reported having previously experienced sexual exploitation or youth sex work. Participants recommended that interventions aim to (1) reduce susceptibility to sexual exploitation by providing social support and peer-based education; (2) mitigate harms by improving access to HIV prevention resources and psychological support, and reducing gender-based violence; and (3) provide opportunities to exit the sex industry via vocational supports and improved access to effective drug treatment. Structural interventions incorporating these strategies are recommended to reduce susceptibility to sexual exploitation and enhance capacities to prevent HIV infection among marginalized women and girls in Mexico and across international settings. PMID:24023661

Goldenberg, Shira M.; Engstrom, David; Rolon, Maria Luisa; Silverman, Jay G.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2013-01-01

101

Police violence and sexual risk among female and transvestite sex workers in Serbia: qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To explore female and transvestite sex workers’ perceptions of risk in the sex work environment in Serbia.Design Qualitative interview study.Setting Street based locations for sex work in Belgrade and Pancevo, Serbia.Participants 31 female and transvestite sex workers.Results Violence, including police violence, was reported as a primary concern in relation to risk. Violence was linked to unprotected sex and the

Tim Rhodes; Milena Simi?; Sladjana Baroš; Lucy Platt; Bojan Žiki?

2008-01-01

102

Factors associated with establishment-based female sex workers accessing health care services in Shanghai.  

PubMed

Female sex workers are a priority population for HIV prevention and health promotion in China. This paper examines the patterns of and factors associated with the utilisation of HIV-related and general health services by establishment-based sex workers in Hongkou District, Shanghai. Participants were recruited through a three-stage sampling strategy and invited to self-complete a brief survey in 2012. The median age of the 400 participants included in the analyses was 33 years (range = 18-52 years old), with over three-quarters being married at the time of the survey. Participants were mostly internal migrants, more than half had lived in Shanghai for six months or longer and nearly two-thirds were working in an establishment with a total of less than five female sex workers. Routine physical examination and HIV testing were the most commonly accessed health services in the previous 12 months. Altogether, 347 women (86.8%) had actively sought, including 157 women had obtained, free health services mainly from local Community Health Service Centres (CHSCs) in the previous 12 months. The active seeking of free, largely CHSC-provided health services was associated with a longer duration of residence in Shanghai (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.32-4.93; p < 0.01) and having tested for HIV in the previous 12 months (AOR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.84-7.38; p < 0.001). Conversely, a higher annual income (AOR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.21-0.80; p < 0.01), working in a larger establishment (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.20-0.79; p < 0.01) and knowing that HIV can be transmitted through blood transfusion with unscreened blood (AOR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.05-0.91; p < 0.05) were associated with not actively seeking such services. Free, community-based health services are highly demanded by establishment-based female sex workers in Shanghai. Scaling-up of free and integrated health services provided by community-based health service providers in metropolitan areas in China and beyond holds promise for promoting health and well-being of female sex workers. PMID:25634590

Pan, Rong; Mao, Limin; He, Na; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Kun; Liao, Cuiqin; Tang, Xian; Gong, Xiangzhen; Blaxland, Megan; de Wit, John

2015-06-01

103

Sexual health and use of condoms among local and international sex workers in Sydney  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To compare indicators of sexual health and predictors of condom use for commercial sex among local and international female sex workers first attending an STD clinic. SETTING: A public STD clinic in Sydney, Australia. SUBJECTS: All sex workers first attending between June 1991 and May 1993. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of demographic, behavioural and morbidity data from proforma medical records.

C C OConnor; G Berry; R Rohrsheim; B Donovan

1996-01-01

104

How stigma affects healthcare access for transgender sex workers.  

PubMed

Stigmatisation of transgender sex workers (TSWs) has been recognised as contributing to illness and poorer health outcomes for this population. It could be argued that part of this stigma comes from nurses. With their frequent face-to-face interactions with their clients, nurses come from a unique place of power to influence the health outcomes and the feelings and thoughts that transgender sex workers have about the healthcare system in general, and whether or not they feel safe accessing it. Because there is very limited literature that explores stigmatisation of TSWs on the part of nurses, the needs of TSWs are scarcely being addressed. This article addresses why a higher proportion of transgender people participate in sex work compared with people in the general population; how stigmatisation by nurses affects access to healthcare resources for TSWs; why nurses experience stigmatising thoughts and beliefs; and how nurses can create a positive impact on TSW clients. The authors have found that, although there are a number of complex reasons for bias and stigma, it is extremely important for the health of these clients that nurses put empathy, sensitivity and compassion at the forefront of their practice. PMID:25426530

Roche, Kirsten; Keith, Corey

105

Women as Sex Objects and Victims in Print Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content analysis examined the depiction of women in 1,988 advertisements from 58 popular U.S. magazines. Advertisements\\u000a were coded with respect to whether women were presented as sex objects and\\/or as victims using a scheme developed by the researchers.\\u000a On average across magazines, one of two advertisements that featured women portrayed them as sex objects. Women appeared as\\u000a victims in

Julie M. Stankiewicz; Francine Rosselli

2008-01-01

106

HIV testing behaviors among female sex workers in Southwest China.  

PubMed

Despite the recognized importance of HIV testing in prevention, care and treatment, HIV testing remains low in China. Millions of female sex workers (FSW) play a critical role in China's escalating HIV epidemic. Limited data are available regarding HIV testing behavior among this at-risk population. This study, based on a cross-sectional survey of 1,022 FSW recruited from communities in Southwest China, attempted to address the literature gap. Our data revealed that 48% of FSW ever took HIV testing; older age, less education, working in higher-income commercial sex venues and better HIV knowledge were associated with HIV testing. Those who never took HIV testing were more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors including inconsistent condom use with clients and stable partners. A number of psychological and structural barriers to testing were also reported. We call for culturally appropriate interventions to reduce HIV risks and promote HIV testing for vulnerable FSW in China. PMID:21538081

Hong, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei

2012-01-01

107

WOMEN WORKERS IN THE MONDRAGON SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL COOPERATIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feminist analysis of the Basque Mondragon system of industrial cooperatives suggests that women fare somewhat better in cooperatives than in private firms in employment, earnings, and job security. Market phenomena and the family as basic economic unit affect women workers negatively, as does increasing professionalism in the technical core of the system. Similarities in gender stratification and segregation in

SALLY L. HACKER; CLARA ELCOROBAIRUTIA

1987-01-01

108

Psychological Stressors in the Context of Commercial Sex Among Female Sex Workers in China  

PubMed Central

Because of the illegality and stigma associated with female sex workers (FSW) in China, data were limited regarding their psychological stressors examined through the lens of occupational health. Analyzing qualitative data from 16 gatekeepers and 38 FSW, we explored these stressors in the context of commercial sex in China. We found that FSW faced a continuum of stressors that resulted from poverty, limited employment, lack of social protection, violence perpetrated by clients, and limited social support from peers and stable partners. We call for empowerment and a structural approach to address the needs of FSW to improve their psychological well-being. PMID:24180467

Zhang, Chen; Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Su, Shaobing

2014-01-01

109

"What makes you think you have special privileges because you are a police officer?" A qualitative exploration of police's role in the risk environment of female sex workers.  

PubMed

Worldwide, female sex workers (FSWs) have high rates of HIV. Many factors that escalate their risk lay outside of their control, primarily in the environments in which they practice sex. An understudied yet powerful risk environment is that of police. We qualitatively explored sex workers' interactions with police in their personal and professional lives. Thirty-five FSWs were purposively sampled in Baltimore, MD, in 2012. Women discussed experiences of police verbal harassment, sexual exploitation, extortion, and a lack of police responsiveness to 911 calls in emergencies, largely partner violence. Women's mistrust of police was often developed at an early age and further reinforced by interactions in their personal and professional lives. The study underscores the need for targeting police in reducing sex workers' HIV and other risks. The case for police's role in generating risk is evident, which could be addressed through structural interventions targeting both police practices and policies. PMID:25360822

Sherman, Susan G; Footer, Katherine; Illangasekare, Samantha; Clark, Erin; Pearson, Erin; Decker, Michele R

2015-04-01

110

"He can be good and still have AIDS". Peer education prevents AIDS in Thai women workers.  

PubMed

Focus group discussions and interviews with 240 single adolescent women who had migrated to northern Thailand to work in the garment industry revealed a high incidence of unprotected premarital sex and widespread misinformation about the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many believed that "good people" could not get AIDS and that condoms were men's concern, for use with prostitutes rather than girlfriends. In response, an educational program was designed for these young factory workers with the aim of providing accurate information and encouraging women to insist on protected sex. Peer education was selected as the strategy most likely to promote participatory learning, skill acquisition, and emotional support. Educational materials were interactive and based on problem-solving. A comic book featured an invisible flying condom that instructed young women how to negotiate condom use; a romantic novel about a young migrant factory worker addressed the false notion that "good men" cannot become infected with AIDS. The peer education program lasted for 3 months, after which participants received a certificate. Post-program evaluation indicated widespread acceptance of condoms as a contraceptive option for women and enhanced relational skills in negotiating for safe sex. PMID:12345370

Cash, K

1993-01-01

111

Correlates of partner violence among female street-based sex workers: substance abuse, history of childhood abuse, and HIV risks.  

PubMed

This study examines the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse by intimate and commercial sexual partners among street-based sex workers and explores correlates of partner abuse by commercial partners using the following factors: sociodemographics, substance abuse, sexual behavior, and physical and sexual childhood abuse. One hundred thirteen street sex workers were recruited from December 1996 through May 1997 while receiving services from the Foundations for Research on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (FROST'D), a nonprofit organization based in New York City. Partner abuse is a common occurrence among street sex workers. Two of three street prostitutes have experienced lifetime physical or sexual abuse by either an intimate or commercial partner. In addition, one of eight reported physical and sexual abuse by both intimate and commercial partners during her lifetime. Women who were homeless in the last year, those who reported exchanging for drugs and money as their main source of income, used injection drugs in the past year and had sex in crack houses, and who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive were more likely to be report combined physical and sexual abuse. Understanding the relationship between partner violence, victim's substance abuse, and HIV-risk behavior is important for the development of public policies and treatment and prevention strategies to address the constellation of problems that drug-using female street sex workers face. PMID:11177587

El-Bassel, N; Witte, S S; Wada, T; Gilbert, L; Wallace, J

2001-01-01

112

The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983;

J. A. Cauley; L. H. Kuller; D. LeDonne; J. P. Gutai; J. G. Powell

1989-01-01

113

University Student Beliefs about Sex: Men vs. Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of survey data from 326 undergraduates at a large southeastern university revealed significant differences between men and women in their sexual beliefs. Specifically, men were more likely to think that oral sex is not sex; that cybersex is not cheating, that men can't tell if a woman is faking orgasm and that sex frequency drops in…

Knox, David; Zusman, Marty; McNeely, Andrea

2008-01-01

114

Sexual Health Knowledge and Health Practices of Female Sex Workers in Liuzhou, China, Differ by Size of Venue  

PubMed Central

We conducted qualitative interviews with 48 female sex workers (FSW) recruited from entertainment venues in Liuzhou, China. Analyses found that HIV knowledge and sexual health seeking strategies differed by size of venue: (1) Women in smaller venues said they douched before/after sex and used condoms with all but their regular partners and clients. Most found the brochures distributed by Chinese CDC workers “irrelevant” or “boring” and relied on friends for health advice. (2) FSW in middle and large venues were less concerned about prevention, claiming their clients were “healthy.” They relied more on the Internet for health information and were less concerned about the cost of seeing a doctor. (3) Pregnancies and abortions were frequent, especially among the younger women in large venues. This research documents the need to develop tailored HIV-related messages and prevention strategies with the help of FSW to address differences among FSW working in venues of different sizes. PMID:23612941

Brown, Jane D.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Xianxiang, Feng; Wenzhen, He

2013-01-01

115

Sex work in the Caribbean Basin: patterns of substance use and HIV risk among migrant sex workers in the US Virgin Islands.  

PubMed

Drug use, commercial sex work, and migration each play a role in the spread of HIV in the Caribbean, yet the intersection of these factors in the region is not well understood. This paper explores the connections between substance use and HIV risk among migrant female sex workers in the US Virgin Islands. Participants were located through targeted sampling techniques in Christiansted and Frederiksted, St. Croix, and Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas where 101 women were interviewed regarding their drug use, sexual behaviours, migration patterns and health status. In the month prior to interview, 25.7% reported no substance use, 57.4% reported alcohol use only and 16.8% indicated use of an illicit drug. Drug using sex workers reported a significantly greater number of past-month sexual partners than alcohol-only and non-drug users. In logistic regression analyses, illicit drug users were significantly more likely to report unprotected sexual activity, client violence and sexually transmitted infections as well. In addition, illicit drug users engaged in sex work in a significantly greater number of countries and were more likely to work in locations outside the US Virgin Islands. The intersection of multiple risk factors for HIV identified among drug-involved sex workers in the region, including unprotected sexual activity with multiple partners, violent victimization and migration between high and low HIV-prevalence areas, suggests that illicit drug use may play an important role in driving the growing heterosexual HIV epidemic in the Caribbean. PMID:18071971

Surratt, H

2007-11-01

116

A study on female sex workers in southern China (Shenzhen): HIV-related knowledge, condom use and STD history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to investigate the perspective relations between HIV\\/AIDS and condom-related knowledge, condom use, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and predictive factors of condom use by female sex workers (FSW) who were sent to the Women Re-education Center (WRC) in Shenzhen, People's Republic of China. Seven hundred and one FSW were interviewed. Whereas respondents had attained certain

J. T. F. Lau; H. Y. Tsui; P. C. Siah; K. L. Zhang

2002-01-01

117

Anal sex, vaginal practices, and HIV incidence in female sex workers in urban Kenya: implications for the development of intravaginal HIV prevention methods.  

PubMed

Multiple intravaginal HIV prevention methods, including microbicide gels, barriers, and intravaginal rings, are in clinical development in Africa. Development of intravaginal HIV prevention products requires an understanding of sexual behavior, sexually transmitted infection (STI), and vaginitis prevalences, and sexual and vaginal practices in potential target populations. We assessed these factors in a cohort of Kenyan female sex workers (FSW). Women who reported exchanging sex for money/gifts at least three times in the past month and who were HIV uninfected were enrolled and followed for 6 months. STI prevalence and HIV incidence were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis, controlling for demographic and behavioral factors. Thirty-seven percent (74/200) reported having had anal sex. Frequency of anal sex was higher with regular and casual partners than with primary partners. Women were less likely to use condoms for anal sex than for vaginal sex with regular or casual partners. Vaginal washing was universal (100%). HIV incidence was 5.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI 1.62, 11.67). HIV incidence was not associated with any demographic or risk behavior. The relatively high rate of anal sex and universal vaginal washing may complicate both safety and efficacy evaluation of intravaginal products and should be taken into account in trial design. This FSW population had significant HIV incidence and needs continued HIV prevention interventions. PMID:21406032

Priddy, Frances H; Wakasiaka, Sabina; Hoang, Tina D; Smith, Donna J; Farah, Bashir; del Rio, Carlos; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah

2011-10-01

118

Withholding of sex and forced sex: Dimensions of violence against Zimbabwean women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1995 and 1997, the Musasa Project in Harare conducted research to document the magnitude and health consequences of violence against women by their sexual partner in Zimbabwe. An unforeseen issue that emerged was the extent that women's husbands\\/regular partners not only forced them to have sex (25 per cent), but would also sometimes stop having sex with them (17

Charlotte Watts; Erica Keogh; Mavis Ndlovu; Rudo Kwaramba

1998-01-01

119

Rape, sex partnership, and substance use consequences in women veterans.  

PubMed

The association of rape history and sexual partnership with alcohol and drug use consequences in women veterans is unknown. Midwestern women veterans (N = 1,004) completed a retrospective telephone interview assessing demographics, rape history, substance abuse and dependence, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One third met lifetime criteria for substance use disorder (SUD), half reported lifetime completed rape, a third childhood rape, one quarter in-military rape, 11% sex with women. Lifetime SUD was higher for women with rape history (64% vs. 44%). Women with women as sex partners had significantly higher rates of all measures of rape, and also lifetime substance use disorder. Postmilitary rape, sex partnership, and current depression were significantly associated with lifetime SUD in multivariate models (odds ratio = 2.3, 3.6, 2.1, respectively). Many women veterans have a high need for comprehensive mental health services. PMID:21567476

Booth, Brenda M; Mengeling, Michelle; Torner, James; Sadler, Anne G

2011-06-01

120

Heterosexual Anal Sex among Female Sex Workers in High HIV Prevalence States of India: Need for Comprehensive Intervention  

PubMed Central

Introduction Role of vaginal sex in heterosexual transmission of HIV has been investigated but that of heterosexual anal sex (HAS) is not fully understood. This paper examines practice of HAS among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) and its correlates in India where the HIV epidemic is being primarily driven by core groups like FSWs. Methods Data for this paper are drawn from Round I survey of 9667 FSWs in the Integrated Biological and Behavioral Assessment (IBBA) from 23 districts of 4 high HIV prevalent states of India. Bivariate and multivariate analysis identified factors associated with HAS. Results Ever having anal sex was reported by 11.9% FSWs (95% CI: 11.3%–12.6%). Typology (AOR 2.20, 95% CI 1.64–2.95) and literacy (AOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10–1.49) were positively associated with practice of HAS. Longer duration in sex trade (AOR 1.69, 95% CI 1.44–1.99), entertaining larger number of clients the previous week (AOR 1.78, 95% CI 1.47–2.15), alcohol consumption (AOR 1.21, 95% CI 1.03–1.42) and inability to negotiate condom use (AOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.28–1.83) were also correlated with HAS. Self-risk perception for HIV (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.25–1.71) did not impede HAS. Although symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the last 12 months were associated with anal sex (AOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.13–1.72) there was no significant association between laboratory confirmed HIV and other STIs with HAS. Conclusion Practice of HAS by FSWs might significantly contribute to HIV transmission in India. This study also shows that despite self-risk perception for HIV, even literate FSWs with longer duration in sex work report HAS. General messages on condom use may not influence safe HAS. FSWs need to be targeted with specific messages on HIV transmission during anal sex. Women controlled prevention methods, such as rectal microbicides and vaginal microbicides are needed. PMID:24586416

Alexander, Mallika; Mainkar, Mandar; Deshpande, Sucheta; Chidrawar, Shweta; Sane, Suvarna; Mehendale, Sanjay

2014-01-01

121

Puerto Rican Women as Workers and Writers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of the "Centro Bulletin" highlights recent studies by and about employed Puerto Rican and Latina women. "La mujer en el Puerto Rico del siglo XIX" (O. Jimenez de Wagenheim), in Spanish, reviews the contributions of women to Puerto Rican economic, political, and social life during the nineteenth century. "Notas sobre el desarrollo…

Vazquez, Blanca, Ed.

1989-01-01

122

Women and the Future: Changing Sex Roles in Modern America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book identifies, analyzes, and evaluates the changes in the status of women in government, work, the family, and the cultural system. It is intended for persons interested in any aspect of women's studies or sex roles. American women today have a greater voice in politics than at any earlier point in history. But signs of inequality in actual…

Giele, Janet Zollinger

123

What money buys: clients of street sex workers in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

An econometric model that explores the effect of personal characteristics and attitudes of clients on their demand for prostitution is estimated on data from a survey of clients of street sex workers in the US. The results reveal that clients of street sex workers in our sample have two diametrically opposite profiles: one for clients who declared never to have

Marina Della Giusta; Maria Laura Di Tommaso; Isilda Shima; Steinar Strøm

2006-01-01

124

Resource abundance and sex allocation by queen and workers in the harvester ant, Messor pergandei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree to which queens and workers control how limiting resources are split between reproductive males and females is central to the study of sex allocation in the eusocial Hymenoptera. We investigated the effect of resource availability on sex allocation decisions by both queens and workers in the ant Messor pergandei. We conducted the following field manipulations of resource availability:

Paul J. Ode; Steven W. Rissing

2002-01-01

125

Correlates of Inconsistent Refusal of Unprotected Sex among Armenian Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs' demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n = 62) of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for participants' age and education revealed that perceiving more barriers toward condom use (AOR = 1.1; P < 0.01), reporting more types of abuse (AOR = 2.1; P < 0.01), and setting lower fees for service (AOR = 0.9; P = 0.02) significantly predicted inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex. HIV-risk-reduction behavioral interventions tailored to FSWs working in Yerevan Armenia should address the factors identified in this study toward the goal of enhancing refusal of unprotected sex and ultimately preventing acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. PMID:25349727

Markosyan, Karine; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

2014-01-01

126

Freire's Lessons for Liberating Women Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women working in export processing zones in the Dominican Republic organized a union using a gendered approach and undertook organizational literacy strategies based on Freire's ideas. They developed community support services to combat oppression. (SK)

Dunn, Leith L.

1998-01-01

127

When can ants discriminate the sex of brood? A new aspect of queen-worker conflict.  

PubMed Central

The stage in preimaginal ontogeny at which the sexes can first be distinguished has important implications for queen-worker conflict in social insects. If workers are unable to sex larvae at an early instar, their opportunity to control colony reproductive strategies may be limited. In addition, by concealing the sex of her sons for some portion of development, the queen could protect them from the workers' attempts to substitute their own sons or to skew the numerical sex ratio. In a series of choice experiments, workers of the carpenter ant, Camponotus floridanus, failed to discriminate the sex of several stages of larvae but did retrieve female pupae significantly more rapidly than male pupae. Our results suggest that in this species, sex may not become detectable until pupation, which is consistent with sexual deception as an aspect of queen control. Images PMID:11607136

Nonacs, P; Carlin, N F

1990-01-01

128

Subjectivity, hygiene, and STI prevention: a normalization paradox in the cleanliness practices of female sex workers in post-socialist China.  

PubMed

This article illuminates the principal mechanisms that increase the risk of STIs for female sex workers in China. It draws primarily on my 26 months of ethnographic fieldwork (2006-2009) in red-light district neighborhoods in Haikou that have become centers of internal migration in post-reform southern China. Chinese sex workers here challenge dominant representations of them as illegal, immoral, and unclean subordinates and understand themselves also as sacrificing, capable, and modern women. I show how the women's conflicted subjectivity, continuously shaped through social networks, affects their personal health decisions and, significantly, leads them to adopt clinically risky practices. I conclude by arguing that public health interventions in southern China in and around certain red-light districts should take these conflicted subjectivities into account in working to improve sex workers' health. PMID:24123232

Yu, Yeon Jung

2013-09-01

129

Relationships Between Teenage Smoking and Attitudes Toward Women's Rights, Sex Roles, Marriage, Sex and Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the relationships of cigarette smoking to attitudes toward equal opportunities for women, attitudes toward appropriate roles for women and men, and attitudes toward marriage, sex and family. Our analyses utilize data for white high school seniors from the 1985 Monitoring the Future national survey. Smoking was not related to attitudes toward equal opportunities for women, attitudes toward

Ingrid Waldron; Diane Lye

1990-01-01

130

Amphetamine-type stimulant use and HIV/STI risk behaviour among young female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Use of amphetamine-type substances (ATS) has been linked to increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) worldwide. In Cambodia, recent ATS use is independently associated with incident STI infection among young female sex workers (FSW). Methods We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with women (15–29 years old) engaged in sex work to explore ATS use and vulnerability to HIV/STI. Results Participants reported that ATS, primarily methamphetamine in pill and crystalline forms (yama), were cheap, widely available and commonly used. Yama was described as a “power drug” (thnam kamlang) which enabled women to work long hours and serve more customers. Use of ATS by clients was also common, with some providing drugs for women and/or encouraging their use, often resulting in prolonged sexual activity. Requests for unprotected sex were also more common among intoxicated clients and strategies typically employed to negotiate condom use were less effective. Conclusion ATS use was highly functional for young women engaged in sex work, facilitating a sense of power and agency and highlighting the occupational significance and normalization of ATS in this setting. This highly gendered dynamic supports the limited but emerging literature on women’s use of ATS, which to date has been heavily focused on men. Results indicate an urgent need to increase awareness of the risks associated with ATS use, to provide women with alternative and sustainable options for income generation, to better regulate the conditions of sex work, and to work with FSWs and their clients to develop and promote culturally appropriate harm reduction interventions. PMID:21316935

Maher, L; Phlong, P; Mooney-Somers, J; Keo, S; Stein, E; Page, K

2011-01-01

131

The Use of Female Commercial Sex Workers' Services by Latino Day Laborers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the characteristics of Latino day laborers who have sex with female commercial sex workers (CSWs). A sample of 450 day laborers in Los Angeles was used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association of independent variables with the likelihood of having sex with a CSW. Overall, 26% of the 450 day…

Galvan, Frank H.; Ortiz, Daniel J.; Martinez, Victor; Bing, Eric G.

2009-01-01

132

Sex workers and their clients among Australian gay and bisexual men.  

PubMed

The prevalence and factors associated with being paid and paying for sex were explored in an online sample of Australian gay men. Sexual risk behavior among male sex workers and their clients was mainly related to being more sexually adventurous in general rather than male-to-male sex work specifically. PMID:24659361

Prestage, Garrett; Jin, Fengyi; Bavinton, Benjamin; Hurley, Michael

2014-07-01

133

Social and structural violence and power relations in mitigating HIV risk of drug-using women in survival sex work.  

PubMed

High rates of violence among street-level sex workers have been described across the globe, while in cities across Canada the disappearance and victimization of drug-using women in survival sex work is ongoing. Given the pervasive levels of violence faced by sex workers over the last decades, and extensive harm reduction and HIV prevention efforts operating in Vancouver, Canada, this research aimed to explore the role of social and structural violence and power relations in shaping the HIV risk environment and prevention practices of women in survival sex work. Through a participatory-action research project, a series of focus group discussions were conceptualized and co-facilitated by sex workers, community and research partners with a total of 46 women in early 2006. Based on thematic, content and theoretical analysis, the following key factors were seen to both directly and indirectly mediate women's agency and access to resources, and ability to practice HIV prevention and harm reduction: at the micro-level, boyfriends as pimps and the 'everyday violence' of bad dates; at the meso-level, a lack of safe places to take dates, and adverse impacts of local policing; and at the macro-level, dopesickness and the need to sell sex for drugs. Analysis of the narratives and daily lived experiences of women sex workers highlight the urgent need for a renewed HIV prevention strategy that moves beyond a solely individual-level focus to structural and environmental interventions, including legal reforms, that facilitate 'enabling environments' for HIV prevention. PMID:18155336

Shannon, Kate; Kerr, Thomas; Allinott, Shari; Chettiar, Jill; Shoveller, Jean; Tyndall, Mark W

2008-02-01

134

Social Cohesion, Social Participation, and HIV Related Risk among Female Sex Workers in Swaziland  

PubMed Central

Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] ?=?2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR?=?2.39, 95% CI: 1.36–4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR?=?1.99, 95% CI: 1.13–3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR?=?0.55, 95% CI: 0.33–0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland. PMID:24498125

Fonner, Virginia A.; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Baral, Stefan

2014-01-01

135

Human rights abuses and collective resilience among sex workers in four African countries: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Sex work is a criminal offence, virtually throughout Africa. This criminalisation and the intense stigma attached to the profession shapes interactions between sex workers and their clients, family, fellow community members, and societal structures such as the police and social services. Methods We explore the impact of violence and related human rights abuses on the lives of sex workers, and how they have responded to these conditions, as individuals and within small collectives. These analyses are based on data from 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with female, male and transgender sex workers in Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected by sex worker outreach workers trained to conduct qualitative research among their peers. Results In describing their experiences of unlawful arrests and detention, violence, extortion, vilification and exclusions, participants present a picture of profound exploitation and repeated human rights violations. This situation has had an extreme impact on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of this population. Overall, the article details the multiple effects of sex work criminalisation on the everyday lives of sex workers and on their social interactions and relationships. Underlying their stories, however, are narratives of resilience and resistance. Sex workers in our study draw on their own individual survival strategies and informal forms of support and very occasionally opt to seek recourse through formal channels. They generally recognize the benefits of unified actions in assisting them to counter risks in their environment and mobilise against human rights violations, but note how the fluctuant and stigmatised nature of their profession often undermines collective action. Conclusions While criminal laws urgently need reform, supporting sex work self-organisation and community-building are key interim strategies for safeguarding sex workers’ human rights and improving health outcomes in these communities. If developed at sufficient scale and intensity, sex work organisations could play a critical role in reducing the present harms caused by criminalisation and stigma. PMID:23889941

2013-01-01

136

Estimating the number of sex workers in South Africa: rapid population size estimation.  

PubMed

Although recognized as a vulnerable population, there is no national population size estimate for sex workers in South Africa. A rapid sex worker enumeration exercise was undertaken in twelve locations across the country based on principles of participatory mapping and Wisdom of the Crowd. Sites with a range of characteristics were selected, focusing on level of urbanisation, trucking, mining and borders. At each site, sex worker focus groups mapped local hotspots. Interviews with sex workers at identified hotspots were used to estimate the numbers and genders of sex workers working in each. Estimates provided in the literature were combined with enumeration exercise results to define assumptions that could be applied to a national extrapolation. A working estimate was reached of between 131,000 and 182,000 sex worker in South Africa, or between 0.76 and 1 % of the adult female population. The success of the exercise depended on integral involvement of sex worker peer educators and strong ethical considerations. PMID:25582921

Konstant, Tracey L; Rangasami, Jerushah; Stacey, Maria J; Stewart, Michelle L; Nogoduka, Coceka

2015-02-01

137

Pilot study assessing HIV vaccine trial readiness among female sex workers, injection and non-injection drug users, and men who have sex with men in Spain.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess HIV risk and willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials in three high risk populations in Spain. Eight hundred and forty-four participants, comprising female sex workers, injection and non-injection drug users (IDUs and NIDUs, respectively), and men who have sex with men were tested for HIV and surveyed for risk and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. HIV seroprevalence was 3.8% (95% CI: 2-11). HIV infection was associated with transgender identification, IDU in the past year, and sex with an IDU or other drug-using partner. The majority (82%) expressed their willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials. Substantial sexual and parenteral risk in all groups and concomitant willingness to participate in vaccine trials was found, particularly among women and IDUs. Additional longitudinal cohort studies in Spain are needed to plan future vaccine efficacy trials. PMID:19037720

Etcheverry, María Florencia; de Lazzari, Elisa; Fuchs, Jonathan D; Meroño, Mercé; Sierra, Ernesto; Del Romero, Jorge; Evans, Jennifer L; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Jacques, Constanza; Rojas, Daniela; Segú, Marta; Gatell, José María; Joseph, Joan

2010-06-01

138

Combination HIV prevention for female sex workers: what is the evidence?  

PubMed

Sex work occurs in many forms and sex workers of all genders have been affected by HIV epidemics worldwide. The determinants of HIV risk associated with sex work occur at several levels, including individual biological and behavioural, dyadic and network, and community and social environmental levels. Evidence indicates that effective HIV prevention packages for sex workers should include combinations of biomedical, behavioural, and structural interventions tailored to local contexts, and be led and implemented by sex worker communities. A model simulation based on the South African heterosexual epidemic suggests that condom promotion and distribution programmes in South Africa have already reduced HIV incidence in sex workers and their clients by more than 70%. Under optimistic model assumptions, oral pre-exposure prophylaxis together with test and treat programmes could further reduce HIV incidence in South African sex workers and their clients by up to 40% over a 10-year period. Combining these biomedical approaches with a prevention package, including behavioural and structural components as part of a community-driven approach, will help to reduce HIV infection in sex workers in different settings worldwide. PMID:25059942

Bekker, Linda-Gail; Johnson, Leigh; Cowan, Frances; Overs, Cheryl; Besada, Donela; Hillier, Sharon; Cates, Willard

2015-01-01

139

Pragati: an empowerment programme for female sex workers in Bangalore, India  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the effects of a broad empowerment programme among female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangalore, India, which seeks to develop the capacities of these women to address the issues that threaten their lives and livelihoods. Design This study is based on a comprehensive, on-going HIV-prevention and empowering programme, known as Pragati, which reaches out to approximately 10,000–12,000 FSWs in Bangalore each year. The programme has been designed in collaboration with the sex worker community and provides a personalised set of services, which include STI prevention and treatment services, crisis-response facilities, de-addiction services, and microfinance support all of which have been tailored to adequately fulfil each woman's needs. During the period examined by this study, the programme reached out to 20,330 individual FSWs [median (IQR) age 28 (24–35) years]. The programme's personal records of the participating FSWs were used for this descriptive study. Results Between 2005 and 2010, the number of participating FSWs increased from 2,307 to 13,392. These women intensified their contact with the programme over time: the number of programme contacts increased from 10,351 in 2005 to 167,709 in 2010. Furthermore, data on the effects of crisis-response facilities, de-addiction and microfinance services, condom distribution schemes, and STI diagnosis and treatment showed an accumulating involvement of the participating FSWs in these programme services. Conclusion This programme, which focuses on social and economic empowerment among FSWs, is successful in reaching and involving the target population. PMID:23195516

Euser, Sjoerd M.; Souverein, Dennis; Rama Narayana Gowda, Pushpalatha; Shekhar Gowda, Chandra; Grootendorst, Diana; Ramaiah, Rajendra; Barot, Snehal; Kumar, Sunil; Jenniskens, Françoise; Kumar, Shiv; Den Boer, Jeroen W.

2012-01-01

140

Partner Status Influences Women's Interest in the Opposite Sex  

E-print Network

status did not predict men's response times. These findings may reveal that relationship commitment). Another study demonstrated that women found men who were in relationships less attractive then single menPartner Status Influences Women's Interest in the Opposite Sex Heather Rupp & Giliah R. Librach

141

Sex-Role Stereotypes of Women in Australian Magazine Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a survey of the sex-role stereotypes portrayed by women in Australian magazine advertising are presented so that a profile of the interface between women and print media advertising can be documented. With recourse to such actual survey findings advertisers, management, public policy makers, and social commentators are then in a better position to create informed opinions regarding the

Grahame R. Dowling

1978-01-01

142

Childhood Forced Sex and Cervical Dysplasia Among Women Prison Inmates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study is one of the first to investigate an association between childhood forced sex and cervical dysplasia. Cervical dysplasia can be identified through Pap smear screening and indicates precancerous cervical lesions, which if not treated, could become cervical cancer. Of 123 women confined under medium security in a women's correctional facility and surveyed for this study, 31.7% (n

Ann L. Coker; Nilam J. Patel; Shanthi Krishnaswami; Wendy Schmidt; Donna L. Richter

1998-01-01

143

Alcohol Consumption Patterns and Sexual Risk Behavior among Female Sex Workers in two South Indian Communities  

PubMed Central

Background HIV transmission in India is primarily heterosexual and there is a concentrated HIV epidemic among female sex workers (FSWs). Earlier reports demonstrate that many FSWs consume alcohol regularly before sexual encounters. This qualitative study is part of a larger quantitative study designed to assess alcohol consumption patterns among female sex workers and their association with sexual risk taking. Here we investigate the environmental influence, reasons for and consequences of consuming alcohol in the FSW population. Methods Trained staff from two Non-Governmental Organizations in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala conducted semi-structured interviews with 63 FSWs in Chirala, Andhra Pradesh (n=35) and Calicut, Kerala (n=28) following extensive formative research, including social mapping and key informant interviews, to assess drinking patterns and sexual risk behaviors. Results FSWs reported consuming alcohol in multiple contexts: sexual, social, mental health and self-medication. Alcohol consumption during sexual encounters with clients was usually forced, but some women drank voluntarily. Social drinking took place in public locations such as bars and in private locations including deserted buildings, roads and inside autorickshaws (motorcycle taxis). Consequences of alcohol consumption included failure to use condoms and to collect payments from clients, violence, legal problems, gastrointestinal side effects, economic loss and interference with family responsibilities. Conclusion FSWs consume alcohol in multilevel contexts. Alcohol consumption during transactional sex is often forced and can lead to failure to use condoms. Social drinkers consume alcohol with other trusted FSWs for entertainment and to help cope with psychosocial stressors. There are multiple reasons for and consequences of alcohol consumption in this population and future interventions should target each specific aspect of alcohol use. PMID:22608567

Heravian, Anisa; Solomon, Raja; Krishnan, Gopal; Vasudevan, CK; Krishnan, AK; Osmand, Thomas; Ekstrand, Maria L.

2012-01-01

144

Sex trafficking and initiation-related violence, alcohol use, and HIV risk among HIV-infected female sex workers in Mumbai, India.  

PubMed

Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5 participants (41.7%) reported being forced or coerced into sex work. During the first month in sex work, such FSWs had higher odds of sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-6.1), ? 7 clients per day (AOR, 3.3; 1.8-6.1), no use of condoms (AOR, 3.8, 2.1-7.1), and frequent alcohol use (AOR, 1.9; 1.0-3.4) than HIV-infected FSWs not entering involuntarily. Those trafficked into sex work were also at higher odds for alcohol use at first sex work episode (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). These results suggest that having been trafficked into sex work is prevalent among this population and that such FSWs may face high levels of sexual violence, alcohol use, and exposure to HIV infection in the first month of sex work. Findings call into question harm reduction approaches to HIV prevention that rely primarily on FSW autonomy. PMID:22043037

Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Decker, Michele R; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H

2011-12-01

145

Joining and leaving sex work: experiences of women in Kigali, Rwanda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sex work can bring significant economic benefit there are serious downsides, not least vulnerability to adverse sexual health outcomes. Focus-groups discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with 70 female sex workers to explore the context in which they started sex work, their motivations to leave, and their experiences of trying to leave. The pathway to becoming a sex worker

Marie Chantal Ingabire; Kirstin Mitchell; Nienke Veldhuijzen; Marie Michelle Umulisa; Jeanine Nyinawabega; Evelyne Kestelyn; Minouk Van Steijn; Janneke Van De Wijgert; Robert Pool

2012-01-01

146

Health-seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted infections and HIV testing among female sex workers in Vietnam.  

PubMed

This qualitative study was conducted to explore health-seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV testing among female sex workers (FSWs) in the cities of Hanoi and Da Nang, Vietnam. Data were gathered from in-depth interviews, focus groups and participant observation. Results suggest that women's decision to seek STI treatment and HIV testing is influenced by the complex interplay of personal risk perceptions, social relationships and community discourse. The women exhibited adequate knowledge of HIV while their knowledge of STIs was limited. They demonstrated high-risk perceptions of HIV, but they showed little concern for STIs. Most women sought treatment at pharmacies when they noticed symptoms of the genital tract. Their decision to seek care in health facilities and HIV testing was hampered by the high costs of treatment, judgmental attitudes of service providers, and a lack of information on testing services. Future interventions need to focus on strengthening knowledge of STIs and the STI-HIV association, and increasing awareness of HIV counselling and testing services. Training for STI service providers including pharmacies and private practitioners on sex-worker friendly and non-judgmental services and counselling skills should be emphasized to provide timely diagnosis and treatment of STIs, and to refer women to HIV testing. PMID:17712691

Ngo, A D; Ratliff, E A; McCurdy, S A; Ross, M W; Markham, C; Pham, H T B

2007-08-01

147

Cohort-level sex ratio effects on women’s labor force participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It follows from a number of theoretical models of marriage that the scarcer women are relative to men, i.e., the higher the\\u000a sex ratio, the less married women are likely to participate in the labor force. Such sex ratio effects may be stronger among\\u000a less educated women. These predictions are tested using individual data from Current Population Surveys for four

Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes; Shoshana Grossbard

2007-01-01

148

The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women  

SciTech Connect

Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Gutai, J.P. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA)); Powell, J.G. (East Carolina School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (USA))

1989-06-01

149

Young women selling sex online – narratives on regulating feelings  

PubMed Central

The current study concerns young women’s life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women’s perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: “Entering – adverse life experiences”; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. “Immersion – using the body as a tool for regulating feelings”; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. “Exiting – change or die”; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting. PMID:25733944

Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

2015-01-01

150

Estimates of the number of female sex workers in different regions of the world  

PubMed Central

Objectives To collect estimated numbers of female sex workers (FSW) and present proportions of FSW in the female population (FSW prevalence) in different regions of the world. Methods Subnational and national estimated numbers of FSW reported in published and unpublished literature, as well as from field investigators involved in research or interventions targeted at FSW, were collected. The proportion of FSW in the adult female population was calculated. Subnational estimates were extrapolated to national estimates if appropriate. Population surveys were scanned for proportions of adult women having sex in exchange for money or goods. Results In sub?Saharan Africa, the FSW prevalence in the capitals ranged between 0.7% and 4.3% and in other urban areas between 0.4% and 4.3%. Population surveys from this same region yielded even higher proportions of women involved in transactional sex. The national FSW prevalence in Asia ranged between 0.2% and 2.6%; in the ex?Russian Federation between 0.1% and 1.5%; in East Europe between 0.4% and 1.4%; in West Europe between 0.1% and 1.4%; and in Latin America between 0.2% and 7.4%. Estimates from rural areas were only available from one country. Conclusions Although it is well known and accepted that FSW are a highly vulnerable group in the scope of the HIV epidemic, most countries in the world do not know the size of this population group. The estimates of the prevalence of FSW presented in this paper show how important this hard?to?reach population group is in all parts of the world. PMID:16735288

Vandepitte, J; Lyerla, R; Dallabetta, G; Crabbé, F; Alary, M; Buvé, A

2006-01-01

151

Is the partnership gap closing for women? Cohort differences in the sex gap in partnership chances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper test predictions from three social science explanations as to how sex differences in attainment of partnership and how women’s perceptions of sex discrimination should have changed as women have been integrated into law. Men’s and women’s partnership rates 15years after graduation and women’s reports of sex discrimination are compared for two cohorts of University of Michigan Law School

Mary C. Noonan; Mary E. Corcoran; Paul N. Courant

2008-01-01

152

The Zimbabwe HIV prevention program for truck drivers and commercial sex workers: a behaviour change intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Zimbabwe National Employment Council for the Transport Operating Industry (NECTOI) began an AIDS education program in 1992 targeting transport workers though their companies. An outreach program was designed for long-distance truck drivers and their assistants through their contacts with sex workers, to stabilize or reduce incidence of STDs including HIV among truckers and their sexual partners along three major

Karen Mupemba

153

Medical, demographical and social aspects of syphilis: the case of infected sex workers in Greece during Interwar.  

PubMed

The aim of this research is to present syphilis among women described as "indecent" according to the records of the Venereal Diseases Hospital "Andreas Syggros", which is located in Athens, during the period 1931-1935. In impoverished Greece of the Interwar period, factors such as criminal ignorance, or lack of information on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) along with inadequate health controls of sex workers, resulted in a dramatic spread of syphilis, whereas "Andreas Syggros" hospital accommodated thousands of patients. The inflow of 1.300.000 Greek refugees from Asia Minor, after the Greek defeat by the Turkish army in the war of 1922, resulted in a notable change in the demographics of the country, while the combination of miserable living conditions, unemployment, economic crisis of the Interwar period, political instability and dysfunction of the State led to an increased number of illegal sex workers and syphilis outbreaks. Despite the introduction of an ad hoc Act to control STDs since 1923, the State was unable to limit the transmissibility of syphilis and to control prostitution. Unfortunately, the value of this historical paradigm is borne out by a contemporary example, i.e. the scandal of HIV seropositive sex workers in -beset by economic crisis- Greece in May 2012. It turns out that ignorance, failure to comply with the law, change in the mentality of the citizens in an economically ruined society, and most notably dysfunction of public services during periods of crisis, are all risk factors for the spread of serious infectious diseases. PMID:25068236

Pagratis, N; Tsiamis, C; Mandyla, M; Bampounis, C; Anoyatis-Pele, D

2014-08-01

154

Differentiated Typology of Sex Work and Implication for HIV Prevention Programs among Female Sex Workers in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background: Sex work in exchange for kind and cash has long been practiced in Nepal. The HIV prevention program in Nepal is focused mainly on these two typologies of sex work. There might be more typologies of sex work beyond streets and establishments seeking research and programmatic attention. The objective of the study is to explore the differentiated typologies of sex work. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted using a qualitative technique. Researchers carried out eight Focus Group Discussions with female sex workers (FSWs) (n?=?50) in different places of Tanahu district. Data were analyzed using a deductive thematic analysis approach. Results: We identified a more differentiated typology of sex work. Private contact-based sex work and the covert sex work on the cruising areas along the major highways were common. Sex work has become easier to operate with the advent of new technologies such as cell phone. With limited role of facilitation by brokers and pimps, now FSWs are better off and have longer duration of relationship with clients. Soft prostitution was common, as FSWs complemented their income through sex work. Conclusion: The conventional mode of peer and outreach educational approach needs to be further strengthened and modified according to the changing typology of sex work. HIV testing sites need to be further expanded to cruising areas along the highways. PMID:25785259

Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Sanjeev Raj

2015-01-01

155

Poz-itively Transformational: Sex Workers and HIV/AIDS Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

HIV and AIDS are complex events that offer numerous opportunities for adult education. However, mainstream education on this issue has often not been relevant to a number of subpopulations, including sex workers. This chapter explores sources and content of HIV/AIDS education in the sex work industry (including art and the Internet) and suggests…

Hill, Robert J.

2005-01-01

156

Acceptability of Hypothetical Microbicides among Women in Sex Establishments in Rural Areas in Southern China  

PubMed Central

Objectives and Goal The objectives of this study were to measure the potential acceptability of a hypothetical microbicide among women in sex establishments in rural areas of Southern China, and demographic, behavioral and social context factors likely to affect microbicide acceptability. Study Design This was a cross-sectional survey, using a quota sampling, among 300 women from sex establishments in three rural towns. An interviewer-administered standardized questionnaire was used to measure the acceptability score of hypothetical microbicides’ characteristics, as well as sexual relationships and behaviors, and other contextual factors. Results Findings showed a generally positive response to microbicides, indicated by an acceptability index score of 2.89 (SD, 0.56, scale of 1–4) in the overall sample. Multivariate analysis shows the acceptability score varied significantly by study sites, type of sex-work establishments, marital status, sex partner type, vaginal product experience, locus of control by partners and locus of control by chance. Conclusions Microbicides may be acceptable among sex workers in rural settings in China; however, contextual factors should be carefully considered in education and promotion of microbicides in the future. PMID:17767093

Wang, Yu; Liao, Su-Su; Weeks, Margaret R.; Jiang, Jing-Mei; Abbott, Maryann; Zhou, Yue-Jiao; He, Bin; Liu, Wei; Mosack, Katie E.

2010-01-01

157

'We are despised in the hospitals': sex workers' experiences of accessing health care in four African countries.  

PubMed

Sex workers in east and southern Africa are exposed to multiple occupational health and safety risks. Detailed understanding of barriers to accessing care would optimise design of improved services for this population. In this study, trained sex workers conducted 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with 106 female, 26 male and 4 transgender sex workers across 6 urban sites in Kenya, Zimbabwe, Uganda and South Africa. Data were analysed thematically, following an interpretive framework. Participants cited numerous unmet health needs, including diagnosis and treatment for sexually transmitted infections and insufficient access to condoms and lubricant. Denial of treatment for injuries following physical assault or rape and general hostility from public-sector providers was common. Resources permitting, many sex workers attended private services, citing higher quality and respect for dignity and confidentiality. Sex workers in southern Africa accessed specialised sex worker clinics, reporting mostly positive experiences. Across sites, participants called for additional targeted services, but also sensitisation and training of public-sector providers. Criminalisation of sex workers and associated stigmatisation, particularly of transgender and male sex workers, hinder HIV-prevention efforts and render access to mainstream healthcare precarious. Alongside law reform, sex worker-led peer outreach work should be strengthened and calls by sex workers for additional targeted services heeded. PMID:23414116

Scorgie, Fiona; Nakato, Daisy; Harper, Eric; Richter, Marlise; Maseko, Sian; Nare, Prince; Smit, Jenni; Chersich, Matthew

2013-01-01

158

Contraception and condom use among Bolivian female sex workers: relationship-specific associations between disease prevention and family planning behaviors.  

PubMed

We examined data from a clinic-based survey of 1,222 Bolivian female sex workers (FSWs) to assess whether use of nonbarrier modern contraception is associated with less consistent condom use with clients and noncommercial partners. Women who were using nonbarrier modern contraception were less likely than nonusers to consistently use condoms with noncommercial partners (AOR 0.393, 95% CI 0.203-0.759, p = .005). With clients, this inverse association did not hold. Public health professionals must consider both disease prevention and pregnancy prevention needs in this vulnerable population, and messages should be tailored to encourage dual method use with all partners. PMID:23394324

Yam, Eileen A; Tinajeros, Freddy; Revollo, Rita; Richmond, Kara; Kerrigan, Deanna L; Garcia, Sandra G

2013-01-01

159

Characterizing sexual histories of women before formal sex-work in south India from a cross-sectional survey: implications for HIV/STI prevention  

PubMed Central

Background Interventions designed to prevent HIV and STIs in female sex-workers (FSWs) reach women after they formally enter the sex-trade. We aimed to characterize the pattern of sexual behaviour among FSWs from first-sex to when they identify as sex-workers (transition period) in a region with traditional (historically characterized by dedication into sex-work at first-sex) and non-traditional forms of sex-work. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 246 traditional and 765 non-traditional FSWs across three districts in Karnataka, India. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression to profile FSWs most likely to engage in a commercial first-sex before identifying as a sex-worker. Sexual life-course patterns were distinguished using univariate and multivariate linear regression based on key events associated with length of transition period. Results Overall, 266 FSWs experienced a commercial first-sex, of whom 45.9% (95% CI: 38.2,53.7) continued a long-term relationship with the first partner. In adjusted analysis, traditional FSWs were more likely to experience a commercial first-sex (AOR 52.5, 95% CI: 27.4,100.7). The average transition time was 8.8 years (SD 3.9), but there was considerable variability between respondents. Among women who experienced a commercial first-sex, a slower transition was independently associated with non-traditional sex-work, the presence of long-term partnerships during the transition period, and ongoing partnerships at time of entry into sex-work. In the absence of a commercial first-sex, a faster transition was associated with traditional sex-work and the dissolution of long-term partnerships, while a slower transition was associated with the presence of long-term partnerships and widowhood. Only 18.5% (95% CI: 12.7,26.2) and 47.3% (95% CI: 32.7,62.3) of women reported ‘always’ condom use with their long-term and occasional partners during the transition period, respectively. Conclusions FSWs identify as sex-workers several years after becoming sexually active, even when the first-sex is commercial in nature. Long-term partnerships are common after a commercial first-sex, and are associated with a delay in formally entering the sex-trade. The findings call for a better understanding of HIV/STI risk before FSWs identify as sex-workers, and an adaptive programme to reach this period of vulnerability. PMID:23020789

2012-01-01

160

Government crackdown of sex work in China: Responses from female sex workers and implications for their health  

PubMed Central

The Chinese Government periodically enforces anti-prostitution laws through regular police presence in red light districts and through the arrests of brothel managers and sex workers. One of the most intense crackdowns on prostitution occurred throughout China in 2010. Using the ‘structure-agency’ framework and ethnographic approach, this paper examines the influence of the 2010 government anti-prostitution crackdown on female sex workers (FSWs). We observed 10 red light districts (6 cities and 2 counties) and interviewed 107 FSWs, 26 managers and 37 outreach workers working with FSWs. The findings describe variations in police practices and diverse strategies adopted by FSWs in response to police actions. The strategies include: soliciting sex outside of establishments in less visible channels, increasing the mobility and flexibility of sex work, changing sexual practices, sharing knowledge of how to identify policemen disguised as male clients and building personal relationships with local police. Our study suggests that, rather than disappearing as a result of crackdowns, the terms and content of sex work changed as a result of the FSWs’ responses to police practices. Some of these responses potentially increased the health risks associated with sex work, but others laid the foundation for an effective response to police practices. PMID:25226069

Huang, Yingying; Pan, Suiming

2015-01-01

161

Behavioral Studies of Female Sex Workers in China: A Literature Review and Recommendation for Future Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial sex plays a critical role in the heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. This study reviews behavioral studies\\u000a in English literature on female sex workers (FSWs) in China from 1990 to 2006. Existing studies indicate that FSWs in China\\u000a are young, mobile, most of them have both commercial and non-commercial sex partners; they have low rates of consistent condom

Yan Hong; Xiaoming Li

2008-01-01

162

Prevalence and Levels of Severity of Childhood Trauma among Mexican Female Sex Workers: A Comparison of Two Mexico Border Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of childhood trauma in a sample of female sex workers in Mexico. One hundred and nine female sex workers were recruited from Nuevo Laredo and Ciudad Juarez and administered the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Findings reveal a high prevalence rate of childhood trauma among the total sample (94%). Nuevo Laredo sex

Alice Cepeda

2011-01-01

163

Reconceptualizing the HIV Epidemiology and Prevention Needs of Female Sex Workers (FSW) in Swaziland  

PubMed Central

Background HIV is hyperendemic in Swaziland with a prevalence of over 25% among those between the ages of 15 and 49 years old. The HIV response in Swaziland has traditionally focused on decreasing HIV acquisition and transmission risks in the general population through interventions such as male circumcision, increasing treatment uptake and adherence, and risk-reduction counseling. There is emerging data from Southern Africa that key populations such as female sex workers (FSW) carry a disproportionate burden of HIV even in generalized epidemics such as Swaziland. The burden of HIV and prevention needs among FSW remains unstudied in Swaziland. Methods A respondent-driven-sampling survey was completed between August-October, 2011 of 328 FSW in Swaziland. Each participant completed a structured survey instrument and biological HIV and syphilis testing according to Swazi Guidelines. Results Unadjusted HIV prevalence was 70.3% (n?=?223/317) among a sample of women predominantly from Swaziland (95.2%, n?=?300/316) with a mean age of 21(median 25) which was significantly higher than the general population of women. Approximately one-half of the FSW(53.4%, n?=?167/313) had received HIV prevention information related to sex work in the previous year, and about one-in-ten had been part of a previous research project(n?=?38/313). Rape was common with nearly 40% (n?=?123/314) reporting at least one rape; 17.4% (n?=?23/314)reported being raped 6 or more times. Reporting blackmail (34.8%, n?=?113/314) and torture(53.2%, n?=?173/314) was prevalent. Conclusions While Swaziland has a highly generalized HIV epidemic, reconceptualizing the needs of key populations such as FSW suggests that these women represent a distinct population with specific vulnerabilities and a high burden of HIV compared to other women. These women are understudied and underserved resulting in a limited characterization of their HIV prevention, treatment, and care needs and only sparse specific and competent programming. FSW are an important population for further investigation and rapid scale-up of combination HIV prevention including biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions. PMID:25531771

Baral, Stefan; Ketende, Sosthenes; Green, Jessie L.; Chen, Ping-An; Grosso, Ashley; Sithole, Bhekie; Ntshangase, Cebisile; Yam, Eileen; Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Adams, Darrin

2014-01-01

164

Partners and Clients of Female Sex Workers in an Informal Urban Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

This paper compares and contrasts number of partners and condom use behaviour for female sex workers (FSWs) and a sample of women working in other economic activities, with both samples drawn from the large informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya. As expected, univariate analysis revealed much higher numbers of overall sexual partners and higher levels of condom use among FSWs compared to Kibera women in other occupations. An unexpected finding, however, was that FSWs with a romantic partner had significantly fewer sexual partners per unit time than FSWs without such a partner. This finding held for multivariate analysis, with negative binomial regression analyses showing that having a romantic partner was significantly associated with reductions in total number of both sexual partners overall and with sexual partners who did not use condoms. In contrast, HIV status, education, number of immediate family members, and levels of alcohol consumption were non-significant factors for both regression analyses. Results suggest that FSWs’ romantic partners act as more than sources of possible HIV infection; rather, romantic partners appear to also have an important positive impact on health. We discuss this finding in light of possible harm reduction programmes focusing on FSWs and their romantic partners. PMID:21936649

Ngugi, Elizabeth; Benoit, Cecilia; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga; Jansson, Mikael; Roth, Eric Abella

2013-01-01

165

Mental Health and Sexual Identity in a Sample of Male Sex Workers in the Czech Republic  

PubMed Central

Background Previous qualitative research has examined male sex workers in the Czech Republic, but this mapping study is the first to investigate male sex work in a quantitative research design and focus on the mental health of these sex workers. This study also examines male sex workers’ mental health problems in relation to their sexual identity or orientation. Material/Methods A sample of Czech male sex workers (N=40) were examined on a range of sexual and psychological variables using a quantitative survey administered face-to-face. The study employed locally validated versions of Beck’s Depression Inventory and Zung’s Self-Report Anxiety Scale. Results The results indicate that for homosexuals, working as a male sex worker is not related to any serious mental health problems. However, those identifying as heterosexual and bisexual more frequently reported symptoms of depression and bisexuals showed significantly more anxiety. Conclusions These findings suggest sexual identity is an important issue to consider when addressing the mental health needs of this population. PMID:25239091

Bar-Johnson, Michael; Weiss, Petr

2014-01-01

166

Human rights violations against sex workers: burden and effect on HIV.  

PubMed

We reviewed evidence from more than 800 studies and reports on the burden and HIV implications of human rights violations against sex workers. Published research documents widespread abuses of human rights perpetrated by both state and non-state actors. Such violations directly and indirectly increase HIV susceptibility, and undermine effective HIV-prevention and intervention efforts. Violations include homicide; physical and sexual violence, from law enforcement, clients, and intimate partners; unlawful arrest and detention; discrimination in accessing health services; and forced HIV testing. Abuses occur across all policy regimes, although most profoundly where sex work is criminalised through punitive law. Protection of sex workers is essential to respect, protect, and meet their human rights, and to improve their health and wellbeing. Research findings affirm the value of rights-based HIV responses for sex workers, and underscore the obligation of states to uphold the rights of this marginalised population. PMID:25059943

Decker, Michele R; Crago, Anna-Louise; Chu, Sandra K H; Sherman, Susan G; Seshu, Meena S; Buthelezi, Kholi; Dhaliwal, Mandeep; Beyrer, Chris

2015-01-10

167

Truck drivers, middlemen and commercial sex workers: AIDS and the mediation of sex in south west Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although long distance truck drivers have been implicated in the spread of HIV in Africa, there is a paucity of studies of their sexual cultures. This paper reports on a study of the sexual culture of drivers, mediators and commercial sex workers (CSWs) in a roadside truck stop on the Trans-Africa highway in south west Uganda. Sixty-nine truck drivers, six

M. Gysels; R. Pool; K. Bwanika

2001-01-01

168

DON'T SEX, JUVIE! : The policing of 'covert' sex workers in urban spaces in Toyama prefecture, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to explain gender and youth problems concerning the policing of 'covert' sex workers in a local area. In particular, this paper focus on social problems concerning the regulation of Telephone Dating Services, which were seen as 'New harmful environment for juvenile' by neighbourhoods in Toyama prefecture, Japan during 1993-1998. It became necessary for the

Kazuaki Sugiyama

169

Men's and women's responses to sex role portrayals in advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the emotions evoked with the audience by advertisements featuring female and male models in different sex roles? Do women and men differ in their emotional and attitudinal response? And how do consumer a priori attitudes towards stereotyped portrayals affect advertising effectiveness? These and related questions are addressed in this paper by examining consumer response to magazine advertisements for

Ulrich R Orth; Denisa Holancova

2004-01-01

170

The deregulated global economy: women workers and strategies of resistance.  

PubMed

This article discusses the lack of input from women in international debates about the global economy. Women in the South are the most vulnerable to exploitation and most ignored in international discussions of how to protect fair labor standards. Restructuring has led to loss of secure jobs in the public sector and the expansion of female employment in low-paid, insecure, unskilled jobs. Businesses desire a cheap and flexible workforce. Declines in social services, the elimination of subsidies on basic goods, and the introduction of user fees puts pressure on women to supplement family income. A parallel outcome is reduced employment rights, neglect of health and safety standards, and increased disregard among women for their domestic responsibilities. There is a need for alternative models of development. The Self-Employed Women's Organization in India serves as a model for resisting exploitation among self-employed and home-based employees. Female industrial strikers are demanding attention to excessive hours of work, enforced overtime, bullying, and lack of sanitary and medical facilities. There is always fear that organized resistance will lead to industrial relocation or loss of jobs. The International Labor Organization has had a code for 20 years, but the threat of exposure to the press is sometimes more effective. There must be regulation throughout subcontracting chains of transnational companies. International alliances should revolve around issues/strategies identified by workers. International alliances are needed for influencing multinational companies and national governments and lobbying global economic and financial institutions. Standards that are included in social clause discussions are minimum requirements that do not address gender-specific issues. Women Working Worldwide is developing a position statement of social clauses that incorporates a women's perspective. PMID:12347718

Hale, A

1996-10-01

171

Characterization of Vaginal Flora and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women Who Have Sex with Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) may be common among women who report having sex with women (WSW) and frequently occurs in both members of monogamous couples. The results of Gram staining of a vaginal smear were consistent with BV in 81 (25%) and intermediate in 37 (11%) of 326 WSW included in this study. Lactobacilli were detected in 64% of subjects, and

Kathy Agnew; Kathleen Stine

2002-01-01

172

Street smarts and urban myths: women, sex work, and the role of storytelling in risk reduction and rationalization.  

PubMed

Storytelling has a strong tradition in inner-city American communities. In this article, we examine patterns of storytelling among a sample of drug-using women from New York City who engage in street-based sex work. We consider two particular formats of storytelling for analysis: "street smarts" and "urban myths." Street smarts are stories of survival, and urban myths are compilations of street legends spread by word of mouth. The narratives are filled with tales of extreme risk across situations. The women used the stories to delineate the boundaries of risk as well as to rationalize risks they deemed to be inevitable but temporary in their lives. Few of the women capitalized on the greater instructive quality of the stories toward increased risk reduction, which may relate to the women's distance from an identity of "sex worker." If properly harnessed, the strength of storytelling suggests new avenues for risk-reduction interventions. PMID:15974325

Roche, Brenda; Neaigus, Alan; Miller, Maureen

2005-06-01

173

Social and behavioural factors associated with condom use among direct sex workers in Siem Reap, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Methods: Using a structured behavioural questionnaire, interviews were conducted with 140 direct sex workers attending a health centre in Siem Reap for HIV screening. Results: Consistent condom use with their clients was reported by 78% of sex workers compared to only 20% with their non-paying partners. Consistent condom use with clients was significantly higher among higher income than lower income sex workers (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.15 to 3.18) and those with good rather than poor negotiation skills (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.26), after adjustment for age, educational level, marital status, number of sexual encounters per week, and knowledge of AIDS/HIV and sexually transmitted infections. The most frequently reported reason for not using condoms with clients was not being able to persuade them (66.7%), while for non-paying partners, the reason was that they loved them (60.0%). Conclusion: To complement the government's current programme of client education, 100% condom policy and brothel administrative measures, additional strategies to increase condom use among clients and non-paying partners should be directed at (i) the social policy and community levels to address sex workers' economic and cultural barriers to condom use, and (ii) personal level empowerment through developing sex workers' condom negotiation skills. PMID:12690144

Wong, M; Lubek, I; Dy, B; Pen, S; Kros, S; Chhit, M

2003-01-01

174

The Use of Female Commercial Sex Workers’ Services by Latino Day Laborers  

PubMed Central

This article reports the characteristics of Latino day laborers who have sex with female commercial sex workers (CSWs). A sample of 450 day laborers in Los Angeles was utilized. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association of independent variables with the likelihood of having sex with a CSW. Overall, 26% of the 450 day laborers reported having had sex with a CSW in the previous 12 months. A lower likelihood of having sex with a CSW was found for those with more than six years of education and for those who were married and living with their spouses. A higher likelihood of having sex with a CSW was found for those who met the criteria for harmful drinking or drug dependence. Commercial sex work has been associated with sexually transmitted infections and other problems among clients of CSWs and warrants further attention by providers working with day laborers. PMID:20354572

Galván, Frank H.; Ortiz, Daniel J.; Martinez, Victor; Bing, Eric G.

2010-01-01

175

Reducing sexual HIV/STI risk and harmful alcohol use among female sex workers in Mongolia: a randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed

This study examined the efficacy of an enhanced intervention to reduce sexual risk of HIV/STI and harmful alcohol use among female sex workers in Mongolia. Women (n = 166) were recruited and randomized to either (1) a relationship-based HIV sexual risk reduction intervention; (2) the same sexual risk reduction intervention plus motivational interviewing; or (3) a control condition focused on wellness promotion. At three and six month follow-up, both treatment interventions and the wellness promotion condition were effective in reducing the percentage and the number of unprotected acts of vaginal sex with paying partners in the past 90 days. All three conditions demonstrated efficacy in reducing harmful alcohol use. No significant differences in effects were observed between conditions. Findings suggest that even low impact behavioral interventions can achieve considerable reductions of HIV/STI risk and harmful alcohol use with a highly vulnerable population in a low resourced setting. PMID:21739290

Witte, Susan S; Altantsetseg, Batsukh; Aira, Toivgoo; Riedel, Marion; Chen, Jiehua; Potocnik, Katie; El-Bassel, Nabila; Wu, Elwin; Gilbert, Louisa; Carlson, Catherine; Yao, Hanfei

2011-11-01

176

A border context of violence: Mexican female sex workers on the U.S.-Mexico border.  

PubMed

Female sex workers (FSW) represent a population confronted with an array of intersecting social problems. We explore the case of FSW in Nuevo Laredo and Ciudad Juarez to understand the everyday violence associated with sex work within the unique context of Mexico. Life history interviews were conducted with 109 FSW revealing violent acts by clients and other sex industry employees (bar owners, police, other FSW). The risk of violence by different types of persons associated with the sex work industry varied by venue and geographic area. Moreover, the violence was shaped by the social structural constraints of dominant gender ideologies. PMID:25409891

Cepeda, Alice; Nowotny, Kathryn M

2014-12-01

177

Partner Status Influences Women’s Interest in the Opposite Sex  

PubMed Central

Previous research has demonstrated that hormones, relationship goals, and social context influence interest in the opposite sex. It has not been previously reported, however, whether having a current sexual partner also influences interest in members of the opposite sex. To test this, we obtained explicit and implicit measures of interest by measuring men’s and women’s subjective ratings and response times while they evaluated photos of opposite-sex faces. Fifty-nine men and 56 women rated 510 photos of opposite-sex faces for realism, masculinity, attractiveness, or affect. We found that these subjective ratings were not influenced by partner status in either men or women. However, women who did not report having a current sexual partner spent more time evaluating the photos than women who did have partners, demonstrating greater interest in the photos. Sexual partner status did not predict men’s response times. These findings may reveal that relationship commitment in women suppresses interest in alternative partners. PMID:20161078

Rupp, Heather; Librach, Giliah R.; Feipel, Nick C.; Ketterson, Ellen D.; Sengelaub, Dale R.; Heiman, Julia R.

2009-01-01

178

Resilience in work-related stress among female sex workers in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

The literature on positive psychology and resilience demonstrates that individuals utilize their personal strengths and environmental resources to facilitate positive adaptation. Using a qualitative approach, we investigated how these frameworks operated as self-protective strategies for female sex workers to maintain their psychological and physical well-being under stressful socioeconomic and work-related conditions. Twenty-three female sex workers in Hong Kong participated in in-depth interviews. We used the grounded theory approach for data analysis. The informants reported negative feelings in response to financial burden, clients' demands, threats to physical health, and stigma. Some female sex workers showed their resilience by being able to rationalize their role, believe their ability to make a change in life, and stay optimistic. They adopted strategies including emotional regulation and acceptance of their responsibility and limits to cope with stressful life events. The results help us understand the role of positive psychology and resilience in this vulnerable population. PMID:25082156

Yuen, Winnie Wing-Yan; Wong, William Chi-Wai; Holroyd, Eleanor; Tang, Catherine So-Kum

2014-09-01

179

Sex with Women Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: Prevalence and Sexual Practices  

PubMed Central

Abstract Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are a potential bridge population for transmitting HIV to heterosexual women. This study assessed key characteristics of this subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Of 1141 eligible MSM, 45.6% reported bisexual behaviors. Besides marriage as a strong predictor (odds ratio: 23.90, 95% confidence interval: 14.29–39.98), older age (1.12, 1.10–1.15) and lower education (or no college education) (1.98, 1.52–2.59) were also independently associated with having ever had sex with women. MSMW reported higher proportions of alcohol drinking, heterosexual/bisexual orientation, and preference for an insertive role in anal sex than men who had sex with men only; but there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and in history of sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention intervention programs should break the bridging role of HIV transmission in MSMW population. PMID:23931683

Tao, Jun; Ruan, Yuhua; Yin, Lu; Vermund, Sten H.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Shao, Yiming

2013-01-01

180

Sex with women among men who have sex with men in China: prevalence and sexual practices.  

PubMed

Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are a potential bridge population for transmitting HIV to heterosexual women. This study assessed key characteristics of this subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Of 1141 eligible MSM, 45.6% reported bisexual behaviors. Besides marriage as a strong predictor (odds ratio: 23.90, 95% confidence interval: 14.29-39.98), older age (1.12, 1.10-1.15) and lower education (or no college education) (1.98, 1.52-2.59) were also independently associated with having ever had sex with women. MSMW reported higher proportions of alcohol drinking, heterosexual/bisexual orientation, and preference for an insertive role in anal sex than men who had sex with men only; but there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and in history of sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention intervention programs should break the bridging role of HIV transmission in MSMW population. PMID:23931683

Tao, Jun; Ruan, Yuhua; Yin, Lu; Vermund, Sten H; Shepherd, Bryan E; Shao, Yiming; Qian, Han-Zhu

2013-09-01

181

Publication by men and women with same-sex and cross-sex PhD supervision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates at which men and women published during and after PhD training in psychology were compared for samples experiencing same-sex and cross-sex supervision. When allowance was made for the research productivity and impact of the supervisor, women supervised by women published at similar rates to women supervised by men. Similarly, men supervised by men did not publish on average

Ray Over; Jane Over; Ingrid Meuwissen; Sandra Lancaster

1990-01-01

182

Have sex will travel: romantic ‘sex tourism’ and women negotiating modernity in the Sinai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1970s, studies on western women's ethnosexual tourist–local relationships have tended to focus on the beaches of the Caribbean and have come to one of two main conclusions – either they are no different from the overtly exploitative relationships of heterosexual male sex tourists or they are different because they involve a softer, caring element of romance. This article

Jessica Jacobs

2009-01-01

183

Dual Testing Algorithm of BED-CEIA and AxSYM Avidity Index Assays Performs Best in Identifying Recent HIV Infection in a Sample of Rwandan Sex Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo assess the performance of BED-CEIA (BED) and AxSYM Avidity Index (Ax-AI) assays in estimating HIV incidence among female sex workers (FSW) in Kigali, Rwanda.Methodology and FindingsEight hundred FSW of unknown HIV status were HIV tested; HIV-positive women had BED and Ax-AI testing at baseline and ?12 months later to estimate assay false-recent rates (FRR). STARHS-based HIV incidence was estimated

Sarah L. Braunstein; Denis Nash; Andrea A. Kim; Ken Ford; Lambert Mwambarangwe; Chantal M. Ingabire; Joseph Vyankandondera; Janneke H. H. M. van de Wijgert; Nitika Pant Pai

2011-01-01

184

HIV and Sexual Risk Behavior among Commercial Sex Workers in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002–2005, a cross-sectional study to assess the potential for HIV transmission was carried out among 557 female and male-to-female\\u000a transgender commercial sex workers (CSW) in three cities in the Netherlands. Female CSW (F-CSW), drug-using female CSW (DU),\\u000a and transgender sex workers were recruited in street-based and establishment-based sites. An anonymous questionnaire was administrated\\u000a by interviewers and a saliva sample

Maaike G. van Veen; Hannelore M. Götz; Petra A. van Leeuwen; Maria Prins; Marita J. W. van de Laar

2010-01-01

185

A Profile of HIV Risk Factors in the Context of Sex Work Environments among Migrant Female Sex Workers in Beijing, China  

PubMed Central

Migrant female sex workers (FSWs) are one of the most at-risk populations for HIV in China. This study demonstrates how multiple risk factors are situated and vary by types of sex work environments in a sample of 348 migrant FSWs in Beijing. Participants reported high rates of clients' refusal to use condoms (76%), unsafe sex with both clients (32%), non-paid regular partners (e.g., boyfriend or husband) (76%), and a STI symptom (79%) last year. Only 22% of FSWs had been tested for HIV. Risk factors were compared by three types of sex work environments: (1) entertainment establishments, (2) personal services sectors, and (3) street-based venues, including roadside brothels. Street-based FSWs, compared to the other FSWs, were more likely to be older, married with children, migrate from rural areas, and be arrested by police, and less likely to be educated, have contact with prevention services, be knowledgeable about HIV, and be tested for HIV. The FSWs in entertainment establishments were more likely than street-based FSWs to have reported being physically, verbally, and/or sexually abused by clients. Multiple discriminant analysis distinguished a profile of two different groups of risk factors: (1) police arrest, lack of protection from violence, access to prevention and health care, and HIV knowledge, and (2) verbal and physical abuse and clients' refusal of condom use. In the massive internal migration in China, disadvantages in economic sectors drive women to become involved in sex work. HIV prevention strategies must target socio-structural factors embedded in sex work environments. PMID:20391235

Yi, Huso; Mantell, Joanne E.; Wu, Rongrong; Lu, Zhao; Zeng, Jing; Wan, Yanhai

2010-01-01

186

Garment workers in California: health outcomes of the Asian Immigrant Women Workers Clinic.  

PubMed

In this cross sectional descriptive study, the demographics, risk factors, and health outcomes of a volunteer, symptomatic sample of monolingual Cantonese garment workers in the Oakland, California Chinatown area are documented. Methods included a questionnaire and clinical examination and treatment at the Asian Immigrant Women Workers Clinic, a free clinic providing culturally focused occupational health consultation and treatment for painful musculoskeletal disorders. Because garment work involves highly repetitious, sustained awkward postures, focused education on stretching and ergonomics also was provided. Results from the first 100 clients revealed a highly symptomatic sample, with an average age of 48.7 years. Sixty-six percent rated their health status as fair or poor. Sixteen percent of the sample had nerve entrapments, and 99% had a diagnosed strain or sprain of the spine or upper extremities. This population did not file workers' compensation claims because of a lack of knowledge and a fear of reprisal. This study documented the barriers to seeking care for this low wage, immigrant population. PMID:15587459

Burgel, Barbara J; Lashuay, Nan; Israel, Leslie; Harrison, Robert

2004-11-01

187

The Struggles of Women Industrial Workers To Improve Work Conditions in the Progressive Era.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a lesson plan that addresses the working conditions endured by women in the Progressive Era and their struggles for womens rights in the workplace. Strives to demonstrate the similarities between the plights of the Progressive Era women to those of women workers in the 1990s. (CMK)

Barrett, Nancy J.

1999-01-01

188

Violence, HIV risk behaviour and depression among female sex workers of eastern Nepal  

PubMed Central

Objectives The primary objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of depression among female sex workers (FSWs) of eastern Nepal. The secondary objective was to search for an association between depression, violence and HIV risk behaviour. Design Cross-sectional/observational study. Study setting This study was carried out in five cities of eastern Nepal (Dharan, Itahari, Biratnagar, Damak and Birtamode). Both restaurant-based and street-based FSWs were recruited in the study. Participants Women who had been involved in commercial sex activity in the past 6?months and gave informed consent were included in the study. Primary outcome measure A score of more than or equal to 16 on the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) scale was considered as depression. Methodology Face-to-face interviews were conducted with respondents who were sought through a snowball sampling technique. Information regarding their depression status, HIV high-risk behaviour and violence was recorded. The estimated sample size was 210. Results We interviewed 210 FSWs (both restaurant-based and street-based). The prevalence of depression among respondents was 82.4%. FSWs who had experienced violence were five times more likely to be depressed than those who were not victims of violence. The odds of depression were six times higher among respondents who were involved in any HIV risk behaviour compared with those who were not involved. Conclusions The present study reports a high prevalence of depression, HIV risk behaviours and violence among FSWs of eastern Nepal. The mental health of FSWs should also be regarded as an important aspect of HIV prevention efforts which can help to promote the overall health of this population. PMID:23794589

Sagtani, Reshu Agrawal; Bhattarai, Sailesh; Adhikari, Baikuntha Raj; Baral, Dharanidhar; Yadav, Deepak Kumar; Pokharel, Paras Kumar

2013-01-01

189

HIV Risk and Social Networks Among Male-to-Female Transgender Sex Workers in Boston, Massachusetts  

PubMed Central

Male-to-female transgender individuals who engage in sex work constitute a group at high risk for HIV infection in the United States. This mixed-methods formative study examined sexual risk among preoperative transgender male-to-female sex workers (N = 11) in Boston. More than one third of the participants were HIV-infected and reported a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Participants had a mean of 36 (SD = 72) transactional male sex partners in the past 12 months, and a majority reported at least one episode of unprotected anal sex. Qualitative themes included (a) sexual risk, (b) motivations for engaging in sex work, (c) consequences of sex work, (d) social networks (i.e., “trans mothers,” who played a pivotal role in initiation into sex work), and (e) potential intervention strategies. Results suggest that interventions with transgender male-to-female sex workers must be at multiple levels and address the psychosocial and environmental contexts in which sexual risk behavior occurs. PMID:19732696

Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Bland, Sean; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Perkovich, Brandon; Safren, Steven A.

2013-01-01

190

Survival times of pre-1950 US women radium dial workers  

SciTech Connect

Survival times of US women radium dial workers to the end of 1989 were examined by life table methods. Included were 1301 women rust employed before 1930 and 1242 first employed in 1930-1949. Expected numbers of deaths were estimated from age- and time-specific death rates for US white females. In the early group, 85 deaths from the well-known radium-induced cancers - bone sarcomas and head carcinomas - were observed, but only 724 deaths from aH other causes were observed vs 755 expected. Life shortening ({plus_minus}S.E.) of 1.8 {plus_minus}0.5 y compared to the general population of US white females was calculated from the time distribution of all deaths in the pre-1930 group. In the 1930--1949 group, 350 deaths were observed vs 343 expected and no bone sarcomas or head carcinomas occurred. Among women who survived at least 2 y after rust measurement of body radium, a significant excess of observed vs expected deaths was found only for radium intakes greater than 1.85 MBq of {sup 226}Ra + {sup 228}Ra, and no trend of deaths or reduction of life expectancy was found with length of employment.

Stehney, A.F.

1994-05-01

191

Behavioral and psychosocial correlates of anal sex among male clients of female sex workers in tijuana, Mexico.  

PubMed

Most studies of heterosexual sex risk practices have focused on condomless vaginal sex despite evidence that condomless anal sex has a significantly higher risk of HIV transmission. The present study focused on male clients' anal sex practices with female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico, where an HIV epidemic is growing among high-risk groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify psychosocial and behavioral correlates of anal sex among male clients. Our sample of HIV-negative men (N = 400) was predominantly Latino (87.5 %), born in Mexico (78.8 %), never married (36.8 %) or in a regular or common-law marriage (31.5 %), and employed (62.8 %), with an average age and education of 37.8 and 9.2 years, respectively. Eighty-nine percent identified as heterosexual and 11 % as bisexual. By design, 50 % of the sample resided in Tijuana and the other 50 % in San Diego County. Nearly half (49 %) reported at least one incident of anal sex with a FSW in Tijuana in the past 4 months; of those participants, 85 % reported that one or more of their anal sex acts with FSWs had been without a condom. In a multivariate model, anal sex with a FSW in the past 4 months was associated with bisexual identification, methamphetamine use with FSWs, repeat visits to the same FSW, higher scores on perceived stigma about being a client of FSWs, and sexual compulsivity. Prevention programs are needed that address the behavioral and psychosocial correlates of heterosexual anal sex in order to reduce HIV/STI transmission risk among male clients, FSWs, and their sexual network members. PMID:25795530

Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia; Patterson, Thomas L

2015-05-01

192

Are mistakes inevitable? Sex allocation specialization by workers can reduce the genetic information needed to assess queen mating frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect workers can increase their inclusive fitness by biasing colony sex allocation towards males when their mother queen is mated to multiple males and females when she is singly mated. Workers need heritable variation in odour diversity to assess queen mating frequency. Here we present a simple one-locus two-allele model, which shows that the sex ratio specialization itself will often

Francis L. W. Ratnieks; Heikki Helanterä; Kevin R. Foster

2007-01-01

193

Prospective cohort study of female sex workers and the risk of HIV infection in Alicante, Spain (1986-96)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To measure the incidence of HIV infection over a 10 year follow up in a cohort of female commercial sex workers in Alicante (Spain), and to determine factors associated with high risk of infection. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried in an AIDS information and prevention centre in Alicante, Spain. Of the 1388 female sex workers who initially

J. Vioque; I. Hernandez-Aguado; E. Fernandez Garcia; M. Garcia de la Hera; C. Alvarez-Dardet

1998-01-01

194

Clinical Characteristics Associated with Mycoplasma genitalium among Female Sex Workers in Nairobi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium is high in vulnerable populations of women in low-resource settings. However, the epidemiology of infection in these populations is not well established. To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and its association with cervical cytology and other correlates, we recruited 350 female sex workers (FSW) who were 18 to 50 years old in Nairobi, Kenya, for a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was administered at baseline to obtain information on sociodemographics and sexual behaviors. Women underwent a pelvic exam, during which a physician collected cervical-exfoliation samples for conventional cytology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Samples were tested for M. genitalium and other STI organisms (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis) and the E6/E7 mRNA of human papillomavirus (HPV) by Aptima nucleic amplification assays. The prevalence of M. genitalium was 12.9%. FSW who engaged in sexual intercourse during menses were less likely to have M. genitalium infection than those who did not (odds ratio [OR], 0.3; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.1, 0.9). M. genitalium was also less prevalent among FSW who had worked in prostitution for >5 years (6.2%) than among those who had worked for <3 years (17.6%) (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1, 0.8). FSW who reported more frequent condom use were more likely to be infected with M. genitalium than those who reported less frequent use (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.2, 11.6). These correlates differ from those found in M. genitalium studies conducted with FSW from West Africa and China. Further longitudinal analyses assessing associations with persistent M. genitalium infection are needed. PMID:25100823

Gomih-Alakija, Ayodele; Ting, Jie; Mugo, Nelly; Kwatampora, Jessie; Getman, Damon; Chitwa, Michael; Patel, Suha; Gokhale, Mugdha; Kimani, Joshua; Behets, Frieda S.

2014-01-01

195

Results of a randomised trial of male condom promotion among Madagascar sex workers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To test the effect of supplementing peer promotion of male condom use with clinic based counselling, measured in terms of STI prevalence and reported male condom use. Methods: 1000 female sex workers in Madagascar were randomised to two study arms: peer education supplemented by individual risk reduction counselling by a clinician (peer + clinic) versus condom promotion by peer educators only (peer only). STI testing was conducted at baseline and 6 months. Behavioural interviews were administered at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 months. Results: At baseline, women in the peer only arm had prevalences of 16.0%, 23.6%, and 12.1% for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and trichomoniasis respectively, with an aggregate prevalence of 38.2%. Baseline STI prevalences for the peer + clinic arm were slightly lower and 34.1% in aggregate. At 6 months, aggregate STI prevalence increased in the peer only arm to 41.4%, whereas the aggregate prevalence diminished slightly to 32.1% in the peer + clinic arm. In logistic regression analyses, the estimated odds ratios (ORs) for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, and aggregate STI were 0.7 (95% confidence interval 0.4 to 1.0), 0.7 (0.5 to 1.0), 0.8 (0.6 to 1.2), and 0.7 (0.5 to 0.9) respectively, comparing the peer + clinic arm with the peer only arm. The logistic regression OR for reported condom use with clients in the past 30 days increased from 1.1 at 2 months to 1.8 at 6 months, comparing the peer + clinic arm with the peer only arm, and was 1.4 overall (1.1 to 1.8). Adjustment for baseline factors changed the regression results little. Conclusions: The impact of male condom promotion on behaviour can be heightened through more concentrated counselling on risk reduction. Persistently high STI prevalence despite increases in reported condom use by sex workers supports the need for multidimensional control programmes. PMID:15800098

Feldblum, P; Hatzell, T; Van Damme, K; Nasution, M; Rasamindrakotroka, A; Grey, T

2005-01-01

196

Seductive father-daughter relationships and sex roles in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the relationship of three variables reportedly characteristic of families in which father-daughter incest occurs to women's sex-role functioning and attitudes toward heterosexual interactions. The results showed that a sexualized father-daughter relationship was correlated with negative male traits (e.g., arrogance), low levels of positive female traits (emotionality), and negative attitudes toward male sexuality and female competitiveness. Discord

Joseph D. LaBarbera

1984-01-01

197

Women and Sex at Midlife: Desire, Dysfunction, and Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arewomen likely to experience more sexual and relationship satisfaction in midlife than in earlier periods of their lives?\\u000a Which women are, and why? Does a woman experience heterosexual partner sex more positively when she is no longer responsible\\u000a for birth control or parenting? In what ways, if any, do the sexual relations of aging lesbians improve over time? Arewomen\\u000a who

Maureen C. McHugh

198

Violence against women in war: rape, AIDS, sex slavery. International.  

PubMed

At an international conference attended by 2000 delegates, violence against women in Rwanda, former Yugoslavia, and Kurdistan was discussed. Kalliope Migirou, of the United Nations Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda, described the slaughter of between 500,000 and 1.5 million Tutsis and moderate Hutus in 1994; estimates of the number of rapes ranged from 15,700 (Rwandan government) to 250,000-500,000 (UN special representative). Women were gang-raped and sexually mutilated; fathers were forced to rape their daughters, and sons, their mothers. The transmission of HIV was used as a weapon to murder women and their communities. Women were taken to refugee camps as sex slaves and have written their families about their "new marriages" to Hutu militia men. No rape charge is found among the more than 4000 cases prepared for the Rwandan war crimes trial. 80,000 Rwandans are in prison on suspicion of participating in the genocide; 8% are women. Violete Krasnic, of the Autonomous Women's Center Against Sexual Violence in Belgrade, spoke about the war in former Yugoslavia, which increased all forms of violence against women: 1) domestic violence, particularly in inter-ethnic marriages; 2) death threats against women (up 30-50%); 3) rape (up 30%); and 4) threats with weapons (40%). Men, upon exposure to nationalistic propaganda, used violence against their wives. Nazaneen Rasheed, a London-based representative of the Women's Union of Kurdistan, stated that women in northern Iraq had no power or land. While some turned to prostitution to survive, hundreds were killed by male relatives because of shame to the family. PMID:12347566

199

Cognitive function in association with sex hormones in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Several studies have suggested gender differences in cognitive function, but data on the association between sex hormones and cognitive function are contradictory. The aim of our randomized double-blind study was to explore the possible relations between cognitive function and serum levels of sex hormones, oxytocin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in postmenopausal women. Two-hundred healthy postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to receive estrogen, testosterone or placebo treatment for 1 month. The associations of spatial ability, verbal fluency and verbal memory with serum levels of estradiol, testosterone, estradiol/testosterone ratio, androstanediol, oxytocin and IGF-I were analyzed. Spatial ability showed a negative correlation with serum estradiol, estradiol/testosterone ratio, oxytocin levels and a positive association with androstanediol levels. Verbal fluency displayed a negative relationship with serum levels of testosterone, IGF-I and a positive with estradiol/testosterone ratio. Verbal memory displayed a positive correlation to androstanediol. Data suggest that not only absolute levels of sex hormones but also the balance between estrogen and testosterone and their metabolites may be important for cognitive function in women. PMID:22967437

Kocoska-Maras, Ljiljana; Rådestad, Angelique Flöter; Carlström, Kjell; Bäckström, Torbjörn; von Schoultz, Bo; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

2013-01-01

200

"Who Is Helsinki" Sex Workers Advise Improving Communication for Good Participatory Practice in Clinical Trials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After premature closures in 2004 of biomedical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention trials involving sex workers in Africa and Asia, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and Global Advocacy for HIV Prevention (AVAC) undertook consultations to establish better participatory guidelines for such trials in order to address…

Ditmore, Melissa Hope; Allman, Dan

2011-01-01

201

Sex workers’ non-commercial male partners who inject drugs report higher risk sexual behaviors  

PubMed Central

Female sex workers (FSWs) are less likely to use condoms with non-commercial male partners than clients. We compare non-commercial male partners who do and do not inject drugs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. Sexual risk behaviors were more prevalent among injectors, who could promote HIV/STI transmission in this region. PMID:24275732

Robertson, Angela M.; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

2014-01-01

202

Age Differences among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Sexual Risk Negotiations and Perceived Manager Advice  

PubMed Central

Consistent condom use among high risk groups such as female sex workers (FSWs) remains low. Adolescent female sex workers are especially at higher risk for HIV/STI infections. However, few published studies have compared the sexual risk negotiations among adolescent, emerging adult, and older age groups or the extent a manager's advice about condom use is associated with an FSW's age. Of 1,388 female bar/spa workers surveyed in the southern Philippines, 791 FSW who traded sex in the past 6 months were included in multivariable logistic regression models. The oldest FSWs (aged 36–48) compared to adolescent FSWs (aged 14–17) were 3.3 times more likely to negotiate condoms when clients refused condom use. However, adolescent FSWs received more advice from their managers to convince clients to use condoms or else to refuse sex, compared to older FSWs. Both adolescent and the oldest FSWs had elevated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and inconsistent condom use compared to other groups. Having a condom rule at the establishment was positively associated with condom negotiation. Factors such as age, the advice managers give to their workers, and the influence of a condom use rule at the establishment need to be considered when delivering HIV/STI prevention interventions. PMID:22848800

Urada, Lianne A.; Malow, Robert M.; Santos, Nina C.; Morisky, Donald E.

2012-01-01

203

Young Sex-Workers in Ho Chi Minh City Telling Their Life Stories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study the life stories of 22 sex-workers (age 15-18 years) in Vietnam are organized into three thematic narratives depicting how the girls presented their lives. Poverty, lack of job alternatives and the responsibility to share in the support of their families led the girls into prostitution. Strong family ties gave many girls…

Rubenson, Birgitta; Hanh, Le Thi; Hojer, Bengt; Johansson, Eva

2005-01-01

204

Sex Workers, Stigma and Self-Belief: Evidence from a Psychological Training Program  

E-print Network

, happiness and self-esteem. We also find evidence of higher effort towards improving future outcomes a randomized field experiment, we study the impact of a training program designed to raise self-esteem, D87 Key words: social exclusion, agency building, self-esteem, future- orientation, sex workers

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

205

Age Differences among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Sexual Risk Negotiations and Perceived Manager Advice.  

PubMed

Consistent condom use among high risk groups such as female sex workers (FSWs) remains low. Adolescent female sex workers are especially at higher risk for HIV/STI infections. However, few published studies have compared the sexual risk negotiations among adolescent, emerging adult, and older age groups or the extent a manager's advice about condom use is associated with an FSW's age. Of 1,388 female bar/spa workers surveyed in the southern Philippines, 791 FSW who traded sex in the past 6 months were included in multivariable logistic regression models. The oldest FSWs (aged 36-48) compared to adolescent FSWs (aged 14-17) were 3.3 times more likely to negotiate condoms when clients refused condom use. However, adolescent FSWs received more advice from their managers to convince clients to use condoms or else to refuse sex, compared to older FSWs. Both adolescent and the oldest FSWs had elevated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and inconsistent condom use compared to other groups. Having a condom rule at the establishment was positively associated with condom negotiation. Factors such as age, the advice managers give to their workers, and the influence of a condom use rule at the establishment need to be considered when delivering HIV/STI prevention interventions. PMID:22848800

Urada, Lianne A; Malow, Robert M; Santos, Nina C; Morisky, Donald E

2012-01-01

206

A pilot study for an HIV prevention programme among commercial sex workers in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a health education pilot study for a programme to reduce HIV transmission among commercial sex workers (CSWs), 113 CSWs were interviewed and observed in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe during 1989. The educational level of the sample was low and less than a quarter had another job, either as a self-employed vendor\\/hawker or a domestic servant. Inability to earn income in other

David Wilson; Babusi Sibanda; Lilian Mboyi; Sheila Msimanga; Godwin Dube

1990-01-01

207

Transactional Sex Risk across a Typology of Rural and Urban Female Sex Workers in Indonesia: A Mixed Methods Study  

PubMed Central

Context-specific typologies of female sex workers (FSWs) are essential for the design of HIV intervention programming. This study develops a novel FSW typology for the analysis of transactional sex risk in rural and urban settings in Indonesia. Mixed methods include a survey of rural and urban FSWs (n?=?310), in-depth interviews (n?=?11), key informant interviews (n?=?5) and ethnographic assessments. Thematic analysis categorises FSWs into 5 distinct groups based on geographical location of their sex work settings, place of solicitation, and whether sex work is their primary occupation. Multiple regression analysis shows that the likelihood of consistent condom use was higher among urban venue-based FSWs for whom sex work is not the only source of income than for any of the other rural and urban FSW groups. This effect was explained by the significantly lower likelihood of consistent condom use by rural venue-based FSWs (adjusted OR: 0.34 95% CI 0.13–0.90, p?=?0.029). The FSW typology and differences in organisational features and social dynamics are more closely related to the risk of unprotected transactional sex, than levels of condom awareness and availability. Interventions need context-specific strategies to reach the different FSWs identified by this study's typology. PMID:23285205

Puradiredja, Dewi Ismajani; Coast, Ernestina

2012-01-01

208

Perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino and non-Latino male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.  

PubMed

HIV prevention efforts must be comprehensive in their understanding of the factors involved in HIV risk. Male clients, who have received less research attention than female sex workers (FSWs), may experience stigma as a function of purchasing sex. Perceived stigma may be related to poor psychological outcomes, risky psychosexual characteristics, and higher drug and sexual risk behavior among male clients of FSWs. However, perceived stigma of purchasing sex may differ between clients of different ethnic groups. In the present study, we examine the correlates of perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino versus non-Latino male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Using time-location sampling, we recruited 375 male clients (323 Latino, 52 non-Latino) in Tijuana who completed a computerized survey on various measures. We measured perceived stigma of purchasing sex using three items we developed for this study. Using linear regression analyses we found that perceived stigma was associated with greater guilt, a greater feeling of escape from everyday life, and more negative condom attitudes among Latino clients. This was not found among non-Latino clients. Features of Latino culture, like machismo, and how they may relate to stigma of purchasing sex are discussed. PMID:23979714

Pitpitan, Eileen V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Patterson, Thomas L

2015-02-01

209

The Role of Sex Guilt in the Relationship Between Culture and Women’s Sexual Desire  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of literature demonstrates that East Asian women report lower sexual desire than Caucasian women. Although most\\u000a studies have explained these differences by referring to general culture-linked differences in sexual conservatism, none have\\u000a examined the potential role of specific constructs such as sex guilt. The goals of the current study were to examine the supposition\\u000a that sexual conservatism

Jane S. T. Woo; Lori A. Brotto; Boris B. Gorzalka

2011-01-01

210

Concurrent sexual partnerships among female sex workers and their non-commercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the prevalence and correlates of concurrent (overlapping) sexual partnerships among female sex workers (FSWs) and their non-commercial male partners in two Mexico-U.S. border cities. Methods A cross-sectional survey of FSWs and their non-commercial male partners was conducted in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico (2010–2011). Eligible FSWs and verified non-commercial partners were aged ?18 years; FSWs had ever used hard drugs (lifetime) and recently exchanged sex for money, drugs, or other goods (past month). Participants underwent baseline questionnaires obtaining dates of sex and condom use with ?5 other recurring partners, including FSWs’ regular clients. These dates were compared to dates of sex with enrolled study partners to determine overlap (i.e., “recurring” concurrency). Bivariate probit regression identified recurring concurrency correlates. Results Among 428 individuals (214 couples), past-year recurring concurrency prevalence was 16% and was higher among women than their non-commercial male partners (26% vs. 6%). In 10 couples (5%), both partners reported recurring concurrency. The majority of couples (64%) always had unprotected sex, and most of the individuals (70%) with recurring concurrency “sometimes” or “never” used condoms with their concurrent partners. Recurring concurrency was positively associated with FSWs’ income, men’s caballerismo (a form of traditional masculinity), and men’s belief that their FSW-partners had STIs. Conclusions Recurring concurrency, representing sustained periods of overlapping partnerships in which unprotected sex was common, should be addressed by couple-based STI prevention interventions. PMID:23172036

Robertson, Angela M.; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Staines, Hugo S.; Morris, Martina; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2013-01-01

211

Managing the public health risk of a 'sex worker' with hepatitis B infection: legal and ethical considerations.  

PubMed

This paper examines the ethical issues faced by health workers managing a fictional case of a female sex worker who is hepatitis B positive with a high level of virus but is asymptomatic. According to guidelines she does not require treatment herself, but is potentially highly infectious to others. Recent legal cases in the UK show it can be criminal to pass on HIV or hepatitis B infection sexually if the risk is known and the partner has not been informed. However, there is no statute or case law showing that health workers are required to intervene to prevent such a potential 'crime', particularly when the partners are unknown, as in this case. The health workers could respond in various ways. They could do nothing, thus making further infection probable. They could advise the sex worker to use condoms and to inform her clients. They could treat the sex worker to reduce her level of infectivity, although there is no benefit to her. They could disclose the sex worker's status, although breaking confidentiality is a serious matter ethically and may be of no benefit to the unknown client group. Regulating prostitution might help; but sex workers with infection may work off licence. This paper discusses the clinical, moral and ethical issues associated with such a scenario and concludes that the most beneficial course is to target clients, through health education, to recognise the potential risks of infection from a sex worker and to take suitable precautions including immunisation against hepatitis B. PMID:21546521

Poll, Ray

2011-10-01

212

Opening Pathways to Cancer Screening for Vietnamese-American Women: Lay Health Workers Hold a Key  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose.We describe a controlled trial of a community outreach intervention to promote recognition, receipt, and screening-interval maintenance of clinical breast examinations (CBE), mammograms, and Pap smears among Vietnamese-American women.Methods.Over a 3-year period, indigenous lay health workers conducted small-group sessions of Vietnamese women in a low-income district of San Francisco, California. Women in Sacramento, California, served as controls. Lay workers conducted

Joyce Adair Bird; Stephen J. McPhee; Ngoc-The Ha; Bich Le; Thomas Davis; Christopher N. H. Jenkins

1998-01-01

213

HIV and STI prevalence and risk factors among male sex workers and other men who have sex with men in Nairobi, Kenya.  

PubMed

: Previous surveys of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa have not adequately profiled HIV status and risk factors by sex work status. MSM in Nairobi, Kenya, were recruited using respondent-driven sampling, completed a behavioral interview, and were tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Overlapping recruitment among 273 male sex workers and 290 other MSM was common. Sex workers were more likely to report receptive anal sex with multiple partners (65.7% versus 18.0%, P < 0.001) and unprotected receptive anal intercourse (40.0% versus 22.8%, P = 0.005). Male sex workers were also more likely to be HIV infected (26.3% versus 12.2%, P = 0.007). PMID:25501346

Muraguri, Nicholas; Tun, Waimar; Okal, Jerry; Broz, Dita; Raymond, H Fisher; Kellogg, Timothy; Dadabhai, Sufia; Musyoki, Helgar; Sheehy, Meredith; Kuria, David; Kaiser, Reinhard; Geibel, Scott

2015-01-01

214

Female sex workers incarcerated in New York City jails: prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and associated risk behaviors  

PubMed Central

Objectives Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are an important cause of morbidity among incarcerated women and female sex workers (FSW). Little is known about FSW incarcerated in New York City (NYC) jails. We reviewed jail health records to identify the STI and HIV prevalence among newly incarcerated FSW in NYC jails. We also examined the relationship of demographics and self-reported clinical and risk behaviour history with FSW status and compared FSW with non-FSW incarcerated women to identify FSW predictors and, guide NYC jail programme planning and policy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed routinely collected jail health record data to identify the prevalence of chlamydia (Ct), gonorrhoea (Ng) and HIV infection among women newly incarcerated in NYC jails in 2009–2010 (study period) and studied the relationship of STIs, demographics and self-reported clinical and risk behaviour history with FSW status. Results During the study period, 10?828 women were newly incarcerated in NYC jails. Of these, 10?115 (93%) women were tested for Ct and Ng; positivity was 6.2% (95% CI 5.7% to 6.7%) and 1.7% (95% CI 1.4% to 1.9%), respectively. Nine percent had HIV infection. Seven hundred (6.5%) were defined as FSW. FSW were more likely to have Ct (adjusted OR (AOR): 1.55; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.05; p<0.0001) but not Ng or HIV. FSW were more likely to report age 20–24?years, reside in boroughs other than Manhattan, ?6 prior incarcerations, ?2 incarcerations during the study period, condom use with current sex partners, multiple sex partners and current drug use. Conclusions Women incarcerated in NYC jails had high rates of Ct, Ng, and HIV infection. FSW were at higher risk for Ct than non-FSW incarcerated women. These findings are being used to design targeted interventions to identify FSW, provide clinical and preventive services in jail and coordinate care with community partners. PMID:23687128

Parvez, Farah; Katyal, Monica; Alper, Howard; Leibowitz, Ruth; Venters, Homer

2013-01-01

215

Predictors of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in a City of Northern India  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and Reproductive tract infections RTIs are important public health problems in India. The prevalence of these infections is considerably higher among high risk groups (HRGs) ranging from 20-30%. It is high time that a study should be conducted to explore different factors and conditions responsible for the practice of unsafe sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Uttar Pradesh (UP) and the impact of this on social life and health of FSWs. As Lucknow provides a comprehensive opportunity in terms of tourism, occupation, and economy, it becomes a potential hub for sex work. Studying FSW in Lucknow can thus be considered as a yardstick for the entire FSW population of UP population. The present study was thus planned with the objective of knowing the STI prevalence and its determinants among FSWs. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on FSWs registered with Targeted Intervention-Non-government Organization (TI-NGO), registered with Uttar Pradesh State Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Control Society (UPSACS) of Lucknow city. Total 288 subjects were studied. Results: The average age of FSWs was 31 years. FSWs were mostly Hindus and illiterate. The overall prevalence of STI as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. However, the percentage of FSWs with STI was higher in street-based (50.6%) than home-based (29.8%). Majority (42.7%) of sex workers with STI had non-regular partners only while majority (52.4%) of sex workers without any STI had only regular partners. Condom usage with regular partners was poor. However, with the non-regular partners the condom usage was better. On multivariate analysis being single, having sex work as a sole means of earning, duration of sex work > 2 years, having pallor, and giving in to client's demand for unsafe sex were found to be significant in causing STI. Conclusions: Prevalence of STI among the female sex workers as per Syndromic diagnosis was found to be 35.8%. Unemployment, anemia, and having sex without condom for extra money, failure to persuade the client and not doing anything were found to be important predictors for presence of STI.

Shukla, Pallavi; Masood, Jamal; Singh, J. V.; Singh, V. K.; Gupta, Abhishek; Krishna, Asuri

2015-01-01

216

Sexual Debut of Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women: Implications for STI/HIV Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young Black women continue to be at high risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, little is known about the risks specifically to young Black women who primarily have sex with women (YWSW). As part of a larger sexual health project, in-depth qualitative interviews were completed with 14 Black women ages 16-24, who…

Timm, Tina M.; Reed, Sarah J.; Miller, Robin Lin; Valenti, Maria T.

2013-01-01

217

Degrading Content and Character Sex: Accounting for Men and Women’s Differential Reactions to Pornography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines sex differences in arousal to non?violent sexually explicit videos and viewers’ perceptions of the character traits that distinguish degrading from non?degrading content. Men and women were exposed to either neutral, erotic or nonviolent pornographic video clips then administered a questionnaire assessing subjective arousal and perceptions of male and female characters. Nonviolent pornographic videos were characterized by perceptions

Jack Glascock

2005-01-01

218

Nontraditional sex role aspirations, gender identity conflict, and disordered eating among college women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies point directly to the role played by sex roles and indirectly to the role played by gender identity in the onset of disordered eating. In this study, women who report adhering to nontraditional sex role aspirations are almost twice as likely as other women to report purging or frequent bingeing. Women who exhibit gender identity conflict by drawing

Brett Silverstein; Shari Carpman; Deborah Perlick; Lauren Perdue

1990-01-01

219

Is Scale-Up of Community Mobilisation among Sex Workers Really Possible in Complex Urban Environments? The Case of Mumbai, India  

PubMed Central

Background In the last decade, community mobilisation (CM) interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs) have been scaled-up in India’s national response to the HIV epidemic. This included the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation’s Avahan programme which adopted a business approach to plan and manage implementation at scale. With the focus of evaluation efforts on measuring effectiveness and health impacts there has been little analysis thus far of the interaction of the CM interventions with the sex work industry in complex urban environments. Methods and Findings Between March and July 2012 semi-structured, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 63 HIV intervention implementers, to explore challenges of HIV prevention among FSWs in Mumbai. A thematic analysis identified contextual factors that impact CM implementation. Large-scale interventions are not only impacted by, but were shown to shape the dynamic social context. Registration practices and programme monitoring were experienced as stigmatising, reflected in shifting client preferences towards women not disclosing as ‘sex workers’. This combined with urban redevelopment and gentrification of traditional red light areas, forcing dispersal and more ‘hidden’ ways of solicitation, further challenging outreach and collectivisation. Participants reported that brothel owners and ‘pimps’ continued to restrict access to sex workers and the heterogeneous ‘community’ of FSWs remains fragmented with high levels of mobility. Stakeholder engagement was poor and mobilising around HIV prevention not compelling. Interventions largely failed to respond to community needs as strong target-orientation skewed activities towards those most easily measured and reported. Conclusion Large-scale interventions have been impacted by and contributed to an increasingly complex sex work environment in Mumbai, challenging outreach and mobilisation efforts. Sex workers remain a vulnerable and disempowered group needing continued support and more comprehensive services. PMID:25811484

Kongelf, Anine; Bandewar, Sunita V. S.; Bharat, Shalini; Collumbien, Martine

2015-01-01

220

Preventing HIV Transmission Among Partners of HIV-Positive Male Sex Workers in Mexico City: A Modeling Study.  

PubMed

Mexico has a concentrated HIV epidemic, with male sex workers constituting a key affected population. We estimated annual HIV cumulative incidence among male sex workers' partners, and then compared incidence under three hypothetical intervention scenarios: improving condom use; and scaling up HIV treatment as prevention, considering current viral suppression rates (CVS, 60.7 %) or full viral suppression among those treated (FVS, 100 %). Clinical and behavioral data to inform model parameterization were derived from a sample (n = 79) of male sex workers recruited from street locations and Clínica Condesa, an HIV clinic in Mexico City. We estimated annual HIV incidence among male sex workers' partners to be 8.0 % (95 % CI: 7.3-8.7). Simulation models demonstrated that increasing condom use by 10 %, and scaling up HIV treatment initiation by 50 % (from baseline values) would decrease the male sex workers-attributable annual incidence to 5.2, 4.4 % (CVS) and 3.2 % (FVS), respectively. Scaling up the number of male sex workers on ART and implementing interventions to ensure adherence is urgently required to decrease HIV incidence among male sex workers' partners in Mexico City. PMID:25307025

Monteiro, João Filipe G; Marshall, Brandon D L; Escudero, Daniel; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; González, Andrea; Flanigan, Timothy; Operario, Don; Mayer, Kenneth H; Lurie, Mark N; Galárraga, Omar

2014-10-12

221

Prevalence and correlates of HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers (FSWs) in Shanghai, China.  

PubMed

In 2009, we examined HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in 750 female sex workers (FSWs) in Shanghai using a cross-sectional survey. Participants (mean age 27 years) were interviewed and tested for HIV and selected STIs. Prevalence was: HIV 0·13%, chlamydia 14·7%, gonorrhoea 3·5% and syphilis 1·3%. In a demographic multivariate model, younger age, higher income and originating from provinces other than Zhejiang and Shanghai were independently associated with STI. In a social and sexual behavioural model, women working in small venues with fewer clients per week, use of drugs, and higher price charged per sex act indicated a greater risk for STI. Although HIV appears rare in Shanghai FSWs, chlamydial infection is common, especially in women aged <25 years (prevalence 19·6%). Since STI and HIV share similar risk factors, preventive intervention measures should be implemented immediately based on the venues and characteristics of FSWs to prevent future spread of HIV. PMID:24759515

Remis, R S; Kang, L; Calzavara, L; Pan, Q; Liu, J; Myers, T; Ren, J; Tang, X

2015-01-01

222

Sex Roles and Career Decision-Making Process in Young Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the heightened self-consciousness of adolescence, reevaluation and modifications in self-perceptions and sex-role orientations generally take place. Therefore, a developmental perspective is needed to investigate the adoption of sex-typed, cross sex-typed, or non sex-typed attitudes and behaviors. Young women (N=226) responded to a…

Sola, Janet L.

223

Cues to the sex ratio of the local population influence women's preferences for facial symmetry  

E-print Network

Cues to the sex ratio of the local population influence women's preferences for facial symmetry-00762 Keywords: attraction dominance fluctuating asymmetry mate preference sex ratio within-sex competition intensifies within-sex competition. In two experiments, we tested for analogous effects in humans

Little, Tony

224

A pragmatic intervention to promote condom use by female sex workers in Thailand.  

PubMed

An overview is presented of a multifaceted intervention to promote consistent condom use by female commercial sex workers in Thailand, in the context of the government's 100% condom use policy for preventing spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The project is described with reference to a succession of stages including pre-programme needs assessment, intervention design, implementation and evaluation. The key elements of the intervention were video scenarios and discussions coordinated by health personnel, and video-depicted open-ended narratives aimed at helping sex workers to explore their personal and work-related dilemmas and concerns. A core objective was to enhance sex workers' self-esteem and perceived future with a view to strengthening their motivation to take preventive action against HIV infection. The intervention was evaluated using a combination of qualitative (process evaluation) and quantitative (outcome) methods. The outcome evaluation was undertaken using a pretest, post-test intervention and control group quasi-experimental design. There were significant increases in consistent condom use among the intervention groups but not among the controls. Pragmatic stability is advocated for the Thai sex industry and recommendations are offered for good quality HIV prevention activities. PMID:10612884

Ford, N; Koetsawang, S

1999-01-01

225

Setting Occupational Sex Segregation in Motion: Demand-Side Explanations of Sex Traditional Employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The employment of women in female-dominated occupations and men in male-dominated occu- pations (sex traditional employment) is a fundamental source of economic sex inequality. Despite this, we know little about how organizational practices and policies link workers to sex traditional jobs. The author tests theoretically hypothesized determinants of sex traditional employment using data on the sex of the last hire

JULIE A. KMEC

2005-01-01

226

PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES OF CLIENT-PERPETRATED ABUSE AMONG FEMALE SEX WORKERS IN TWO MEXICO-U.S. BORDER CITIES  

PubMed Central

History of abuse has been associated with greater HIV risk among women. This study examined client-perpetrated abuse among female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Among 924 FSWs, prevalence of client-perpetrated abuse was 31%. In multivariate logistic regression models, intimate partner violence, psychological distress and having drug-using clients were associated with experiencing client-perpetrated abuse. FSWs along the Mexico-U.S. border report frequently experiencing abuse from both clients and intimate partners, which may have serious mental health consequences. Our findings suggest the need for screening and gender-based violence prevention services for Mexican FSWs. PMID:24686125

Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L.

2011-01-01

227

Prevalence and correlates of client-perpetrated abuse among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities.  

PubMed

History of abuse has been associated with greater HIV risk among women. This study examined client-perpetrated abuse among female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Among 924 FSWs, prevalence of client-perpetrated abuse was 31%. In multivariate logistic regression models, intimate partner violence (IPV), psychological distress, and having drug-using clients were associated with experiencing client-perpetrated abuse. FSWs along the Mexico-U.S. border report frequently experiencing abuse from both clients and intimate partners, which may have serious mental health consequences. Our findings suggest the need for screening and gender-based violence prevention services for Mexican FSWs. PMID:24686125

Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L

2014-04-01

228

Who are the Preferential Targets for Intervention Programs Related to the Female Condom among Sex Workers in Southern China?  

PubMed Central

We used a cluster analysis approach to investigate which female sex workers (FSW) are preferential targets for female condom (FC) intervention programs in southern China. Cross-sectional 6-month (N=316) and 12-month (N=217) post-intervention surveys of FSW were analyzed. Based on FC attitudes and beliefs, initially suggesting FC use to a partner, practicing insertion, total times ever used, and willingness to use in the future, cluster analysis apportioned women into two clusters, with 50.6% and 58.1% of participants in the likely future FC users group at 6-months and 12-months, respectively. Likely future FC users tended to be from boarding houses, older, currently or previously married, experienced with childbirth, with current multiple sex partners, longer history of sex work, and more unprotected sexual encounters. Focusing FC programs on sectors of the community with more FSW who are likely to use FC may be more cost-effective for enhancing FC acceptability and usage. PMID:23837812

Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei; Weeks, Margaret R.; Nie, Li; Li, Jianghong; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiao; Li, Fei; Dunn, Jennifer; Zhang, Qingning

2015-01-01

229

The Relationships among Sex Role Orientations, General Attitudes toward Women, and Specific Attitudes toward Women in Managerial Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined potential sources of support for women educational leaders in the work setting. Found that the relationship between one's sex role orientation and attitudes toward women generally and in a managerial role is tempered by how comfortable one feels performing cross sex-typed activities and whether one perceives androgyny positively.…

Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan; Robinson, Charlotte

1982-01-01

230

Violence, condom breakage and HIV infection among female sex workers in Benin, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationship between violence, condom breakage and HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). Methods Data were obtained from the 2012 cross-sectional integrated biological and behavioural survey conducted in Benin. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) of HIV infection and condom breakage in relation to violence towards FSWs. A score was created to examine the relationship between the number of violence types reported and HIV infection. Results Among the 981 women who provided a blood sample, HIV prevalence was 20.4%. During the last month, 17.2%, 13.5% and 33.5% of them had experienced physical, sexual and psychological violence, respectively. In addition, 15.9% reported at least one condom breakage during the previous week. There was a significant association between all types of violence and HIV prevalence. The APRs of HIV were 1.45 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.05 – 2.00), 1.42 (95%CI: 1.02 – 1.98), and 1.41 (95%CI: 1.08 – 1.41) among those who had ever experienced physical, sexual and psychological violence, respectively. HIV prevalence increased with the violence score (p=0.002, test for trend), and physical and sexual violence were independently associated with condom breakage (p values 0.010 and 0.003, respectively). Conclusion The results show that violence is associated with a higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and that condom breakage is a potential mediator for this association. Longitudinal studies designed to analyse this relationship and specific interventions integrated to current HIV prevention strategies are needed to reduce the burden of violence among FSWs. PMID:24722385

Tounkara, Fatoumata K.; Diabaté, Souleymane; Guédou, Fernand A.; Ahoussinou, Clément; Kintin, Frédéric; Zannou, Djimon M.; Kpatchavi, Adolphe; Bédard, Emmanuelle; Bietra, Raphaël; Alary, Michel

2014-01-01

231

Vulnerabilities, health needs and predictors of high-risk sexual behaviour among female adolescent sex workers in Kunming, China  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study assessed social and behavioural predictors for sexual risk taking and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among adolescent female sex workers (FSWs) from Kunming, China. Additionally, health services needs and use were assessed. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010. Using snowball and convenience sampling, self-identified FSWs were recruited from four urban areas in Kunming. Women consenting to participate were administered a semi-structured questionnaire by trained interviewers identified from local peer-support organisations. Following interview, a gynaecological examination and biological sampling to identify potential STIs were undertaken. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Adolescent FSWs had a mean age of 18.2?years and reported numerous non-paying sexual partners with very low rate of consistent condom use (22.2%). Half (50.3%) the respondents had sex while feeling drunk at least once in the past week, of whom 56.4% did not use condom protection. STI prevalence was high overall (30.4%) among this group. Younger age, early sexual debut, being isolated from schools and family, short duration in sex work, and use of illicit drugs were found to be strong predictors for unprotected sex and presence of an STI. Conversely, having access to condom promotion, free HIV counselling and testing, and peer education were associated with less unprotected sex. The majority reported a need for health knowledge, free condoms and low-cost STI diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions There is an urgent need to improve coverage, accessibility and efficiency of existing interventions targeting adolescent FSWs. PMID:23220781

Zhang, Xu-Dong; Temmerman, Marleen; Li, Yan; Luo, Wei; Luchters, Stanley

2013-01-01

232

A Comparison of Male Sex Workers in Prague: Internet Escorts versus Men Who Work in Specialized Bars and Clubs.  

PubMed

Prague, the Czech Republic, is a popular sex tourism destination where sex work is decriminalized and young men offer sexual services at low prices relative to countries in Western Europe. This quantitative survey aimed to identify some of the demographic characteristics of these young men and their experiences in the sex industry. Internet escorts (N = 20) and sex workers in bars and clubs (N = 20) completed the survey anonymously in spring 2011. The results showed that sex workers in clubs often had troubled pasts and were forced into sex work to survive. They also reported incidents of violence, serious alcohol and drug use, as well as frequent gambling. The larger group of sex workers in Prague is made up of Internet escorts who have backgrounds that are not atypical for the average Czech youth. They had fewer problems with drugs and alcohol but were twice as likely as sex workers in bars and clubs to be victims of violent crime. Plans for interventions to help those who would change their line of work, as well as the importance of sociocultural context in understanding sex workers, are discussed. PMID:24423089

Bar-Johnson, Michael David; Weiss, Petr

2015-01-01

233

Substance Use, Sexual Risk, and Violence: HIV Prevention Intervention with Sex Workers in Pretoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an HIV prevention intervention designed in the US that was adapted and implemented in South Africa. Using an experimental design, 93 women who reported recent substance use and sex trading were randomly assigned to a modified Standard HIV intervention or to a Woman-Focused HIV prevention intervention. Eighty women completed the one-month follow-up interview. Participants reported high rates

Wendee M. Wechsberg; Winnie K. Luseno; Wendy K. K. Lam; Charles D. H. Parry; Neo K. Morojele

2006-01-01

234

Reducing Intimate and Paying Partner Violence Against Women Who Exchange Sex in Mongolia: Results From a Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Women who exchange sex for money or other goods, that is, female sex workers, are at increased risk of experiencing physical and sexual violence from both paying and intimate partners. Exposure to violence can be exacerbated by alcohol use and HIV/STI risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a HIV/STI risk reduction and enhanced HIV/ STI risk reduction intervention at decreasing paying and intimate partner violence against Mongolian women who exchange sex and engage in harmful alcohol use. Women are recruited and randomized to either (a) four sessions of a relationship-based HIV/STI risk reduction intervention (n = 49), (b) the same HIV/STI risk reduction intervention plus two additional motivational interviewing sessions (n = 58), or (c) a four session control condition focused on wellness promotion (n = 59). All the respondents complete assessments at baseline (preintervention) as well as at immediate posttest, 3 and 6 months postintervention. A multilevel logistic model finds that women who participated in the HIV/STI risk reduction group (OR = 0.14, p < .00), HIV/STI risk reduction and motivational interview group (OR = 0.46, p = .02), and wellness (OR = 0.20, p < .00) group reduced their exposure to physical and sexual violence in the past 90 days. No significant differences in effects are observed between conditions. This study demonstrates the efficacy of a relationship-based HIV/STI risk reduction intervention, a relationship-based HIV/STI risk reduction intervention combined with motivational interviewing, and a wellness promotion intervention in reducing intimate and paying partner violence against women who exchange sex in Mongolia. The findings have significant implications for the impact of minimal intervention and the potential role of peer networks and social support in reducing women’s experiences of violence in resource poor settings. PMID:22366477

Carlson, Catherine E.; Chen, Jiehua; Chang, Mingway; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Toivgoo, Aira; Riedel, Marion; Witte, Susan S.

2014-01-01

235

Sex-for-Crack-Cocaine Exchange, Poor Black Women, and Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 34 poor Black women who exchanged sex for crack was screened to discover if sex-for-crack exchanges resulted in pregnancies. Ethnographic interviews were conducted with women who became pregnant this way. Out of the 34 women, 18 reported sex-for-crack pregnancies, and more than half of that number became pregnant this way more than once. Twenty-nine pregnancies were reported.

Tanya Telfair Sharpe

2001-01-01

236

Effects of hazardous and harmful alcohol use on HIV incidence and sexual behaviour: a cohort study of Kenyan female sex workers  

PubMed Central

Aims To investigate putative links between alcohol use, and unsafe sex and incident HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A cohort of 400 HIV-negative female sex workers was established in Mombasa, Kenya. Associations between categories of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the incidence at one year of unsafe sex, HIV and pregnancy were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Violence or STIs other than HIV measured at one year was compared across AUDIT categories using multivariate logistic regression. Results Participants had high levels of hazardous (17.3%, 69/399) and harmful drinking (9.5%, 38/399), while 36.1% abstained from alcohol. Hazardous and harmful drinkers had more unprotected sex and higher partner numbers than abstainers. Sex while feeling drunk was frequent and associated with lower condom use. Occurrence of condom accidents rose step-wise with each increase in AUDIT category. Compared with non-drinkers, women with harmful drinking had 4.1-fold higher sexual violence (95% CI adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?1.9-8.9) and 8.4 higher odds of physical violence (95% CI AOR?=?3.9-18.0), while hazardous drinkers had 3.1-fold higher physical violence (95% CI AOR?=?1.7-5.6). No association was detected between AUDIT category and pregnancy, or infection with Syphilis or Trichomonas vaginalis. The adjusted hazard ratio of HIV incidence was 9.6 comparing women with hazardous drinking to non-drinkers (95% CI?=?1.1-87.9). Conclusions Unsafe sex, partner violence and HIV incidence were higher in women with alcohol use disorders. This prospective study, using validated alcohol measures, indicates that harmful or hazardous alcohol can influence sexual behaviour. Possible mechanisms include increased unprotected sex, condom accidents and exposure to sexual violence. Experimental evidence is required demonstrating that interventions to reduce alcohol use can avert unsafe sex. PMID:24708844

2014-01-01

237

SEX-RATIO CONFLICT BETWEEN QUEENS AND WORKERS IN EUSOCIAL HYMENOPTERA: MECHANISMS, COSTS, AND THE EVOLUTION OF SPLIT COLONY SEX RATIOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because workers in the eusocial Hymenoptera are more closely related to sisters than to brothers, theory predicts that natural selection should act on them to bias (change) sex allocation to favor reproductive females over males. However, selection should also act on queens to prevent worker bias. We use a simulation approach to analyze the coevolution of this conflict in colonies

Ken R. Helms; Max Reuter; Laurent Keller

2005-01-01

238

"I do what I have to do to survive": An investigation into the perceptions, experiences and economic considerations of women engaged in sex work in Northern Namibia  

PubMed Central

Background There is little published research investigating sex work in Namibia, particularly in rural areas. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to determine the views of women engaged in sex work in the Oshakati area of Namibia concerning the main factors influencing their use, or non-use, of male condoms during transactional sexual exchanges. Methods Qualitative interviews were used to better understand the perceptions, experiences and economic considerations of female sex workers in Namibia who were involved in a Behavior Change Communication Program encouraging safer sex practices among high-risk populations in 2006 and 2007. Results While the Behavior Change Communication Program has made significant strides in educating and empowering young women to negotiate more consistent condom use with sexual partners, the gendered economic inequalities and power imbalances within rural and semi-urban Namibian society that favor men hinder further advancement towards positive behavioral change for HIV prevention and also hinder the development of the loving relationships sought by some sex workers. Conclusion This study found that sex workers and transactional sex encounters are heterogeneous entities dependent upon the characteristics of the man (known, stranger, wealthy, attractive to the woman) and the woman (in financial need, desiring love). These features all influence condom use. The 3 E's 'education, empowerment and economic independence' are critical factors needed to encourage and facilitate consistent condom use to prevent HIV transmission. Without financial independence and occupational alternatives building on their health education and empowerment, women who engage in sex work-and transactional sex more generally-will remain largely marginalized from Namibian society, and will continue engaging in risky sexual practices that facilitate HIV acquisition and transmission throughout the community. PMID:21813006

2011-01-01

239

Predictors of workplace violence among female sex workers in tijuana, Mexico.  

PubMed

For sex workers, differences in rates of exposure to workplace violence are likely influenced by a variety of risk factors, including where one works and under what circumstances. Economic stressors, such as housing insecurity, may also increase the likelihood of exposure. Bivariate analyses demonstrate statistically significant associations between workplace violence and selected predictor variables, including age, drug use, exchanging sex for goods, soliciting clients outdoors, and experiencing housing insecurity. Multivariate regression analysis shows that after controlling for each of these variables in one model, only soliciting clients outdoors and housing insecurity emerge as statistically significant predictors for workplace violence. PMID:25091980

Katsulis, Yasmina; Durfee, Alesha; Lopez, Vera; Robillard, Alyssa

2015-05-01

240

Association between exposure to rotating night shift versus day shift using levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and cortisol and other sex hormones in women.  

PubMed

The present study aims to compare 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) secretion patterns and levels of cortisol and sex hormones (estradiol, progesterone, DHEA, DHEAS, and testosterone) among rotating night-shift workers and day-shift workers. We performed a cross-sectional study in Cantabria (northern Spain) including 136 women (73 day-shift workers and 63 rotating night-shift workers). Blood and urine samples were obtained after two consecutive working days. Differences in means were estimated using ANCOVA, stratified by menopausal status, ovulation phase, and adjusted for season, age, body mass index, consumption of cigarettes in the last 24?h. aMT6s circadian rhythm was analyzed using the cosinor analysis. The present study showed that rotating night-shift workers had lower excretion of aMT6s than day-shift workers (mesor?=?50.26?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in women with rotating night shift versus 88.79?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in women with day shift), lower fluctuation (amplitude?=?45.24?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in rotating night-shift workers versus 79.71?ng aMT6s/mg creatinine in day-shift workers), and a later acrophase (aMT6s peak time: 08:31 in rotating night-shift workers versus 07:13?h in day-shift workers). Additionally, women with rotating night shift had higher estradiol and progesterone levels, compared to day workers, especially in the follicular phase on the menstrual cycle. PMID:25216206

Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Papantoniou, Kyriaki; García-Unzueta, María Teresa; Santos-Benito, María Francisca; Llorca, Javier

2015-02-01

241

Understanding STI Risk and Condom Use Patterns by Partner Type Among Female Sex Workers in Peru  

PubMed Central

While brothel-based sex work is regulated by the Peruvian government, there is little data on STI risk factors reported by female sex workers (FSW). This study compared high risk behaviors among 120 Peruvian FSW from government regulated brothels with both clients and non-commercial partners. Our study found that 12% of FSW reported unprotected vaginal sex with clients (compared to 75% with non-commercial partners), and 42% reported unprotected anal sex with clients (compared to 87% with non-commercial partners). Group differences were observed in the expectation to have oral sex (32% for partners vs 60% for clients; p<0.01), and a history of anal sex (65% for partners vs 32% for clients; p<0.01) and both vaginal and anal sex with the same partners (46% for partners vs 25% for clients; p<0.001). These findings suggest that FSW constitute an important bridge population for STI/HIV transmission in Peru. PMID:24949112

Kinsler, Janni J; Blas, Magaly M; Cabral, Alejandra; Carcamo, Cesar; Halsey, Neal; Brown, Brandon

2014-01-01

242

Use of barrier protection for sexual activity among women who have sex with women  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the frequency and associations of barrier protection use during sexual activity in a population of women who have sex with women (WSW). Methods WSW were invited to participate in an international internet-based survey. Information regarding ethnodemographics, sexual health, and barrier use during sexual activities was collected. Results The study cohort comprised 1557 participants. Barrier use was least prevalent during digital genital stimulation (11.3% ever used barriers) and most prevalent during stimulation with a sex toy (34.4% ever used barriers). Univariate analysis revealed that women in non-monogamous relationships were more likely than monogamous women to always use barrier protection for sexual activity (14.3% vs 3.5%). On multivariate analysis, there was no association between barrier use and frequency of casual sexual activity or history of sexually transmitted infection. Small associations were noted between barrier use and certain sexual activities, age, race, and number of partners. Conclusion Many WSW do not use barrier protection during sexual activity, even in the context of potentially risky sexual behaviors. Safer-sex practices among WSW merit increased attention from healthcare providers and public health researchers. PMID:23106842

Rowen, Tami S.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Lin, Tzu-Chin; Li, Chin-Shang; Robertson, Patricia A.; Shindel, Alan W.

2013-01-01

243

Sexual function of women practicing sex in nonconventional settings.  

PubMed

The quality of sexual intercourse in the context of conjugal visits by women to their jailed partners is unknown. This study aimed to assess the quality of the sex lives and psychological conditions of women attending conjugal visits with their jailed inmate partners. This controlled study involved 124 women between the ages of 18 to 40 years who engaged in sexual relations with their inmate partners (conjugal visit group) or with their partners at home (control group). Sexual function was assessed using a semi-structured questionnaire and the Female Sexual Function Index, and psychological parameters were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. The total Female Sexual Function Index scores was similar in the 2 groups. The percentage of women reporting good quality of the relationship was significantly higher in the conjugal visit group. Also, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale scores were higher in the conjugal visit group. Depression was a risk factor for sexual dysfunction and had a negative effect on scores in the desire, excitement, lubrication, and sexual satisfaction domains, whereas anxiety was associated with lower sexual desire scores. A regular + poor quality of the relationship and being religious were factors associated with sexual dysfunction. Sexual practices in jail were not a risk for sexual dysfunction in this sample. PMID:24512136

Silveira, Liliam Renata; Romão, Adriana Peterson Mariano Salata; Vieira, Carolina Sales; de Sá Rosa E Silva, Ana Carolina Japur; Reis, Rosana Maria; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea de Albuquerque Salles; Lara, Lúcia Alves da Silva

2015-01-01

244

HIV prevalence among female sex workers, drug users and men who have sex with men in Brazil: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Brazilian response towards AIDS epidemic is well known, but the absence of a systematic review of vulnerable populations ? men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW), and drug users (DU) remains a main gap in the available literature. Our goal was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing HIV prevalence among

Monica Malta; Monica MF Magnanini; Maeve B Mello; Ana Roberta P Pascom; Yohana Linhares; Francisco I Bastos

2010-01-01

245

Unprotected intercourse for extra money among commercial sex workers in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the extent and correlates of the practice of engaging in unprotected intercourse for extra money among commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire among a convenience sample of 136 CSWs. More than one-quarter of CSWs (26.5%) engaged in unprotected intercourse for extra money.

M. Ntumbanzondo; R. Dubrow; L. M. Niccolai; K. Mwandagalirwa; M. H. Merson

2006-01-01

246

HIV Infection and Risk Characteristics Among Female Sex Workers in Hanoi, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The prevalence of HIV\\/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was determined, the risk characteristics examined, and factors associated with HIV infection identified among noninstitutionalized female sex workers (FSWs), using a cross-sectional survey with 2-stage cluster sampling. Four hundred FSWs were interviewed face to face using a structured questionnaire and tested for HIV, syphilis, Chlamydia infection, and gonorrhea. HIV seroprevalence was 12%,

Trung Nam Tran; Roger Detels; Hoang Thuy Long; Le Van Phung; Hoang Phuong Lan

247

Health care seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted diseases among commercial sex workers in Morogoro, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative study was conducted in a community of 100 female, self-employed commercial sex workers (CSWs), in Morogoro township, Tanzania. Data was gathered through key informant interviews and open-ended questionnaires. Respondents had extensive experiential knowledge of STDs and HIV\\/AIDS. They pursued several different avenues in attempting to prevent STDs including eating nutritiously to enhance immunologic status, using condoms, and vaginal

Anne Outwater; Lucy Nkya; Eligius Lyamuya; George Lwihula; Edward C. Green; Jan Hogle; Susan E. Hassig; Gina Dallabetta

2001-01-01

248

HIV prevention needs among street-based male sex workers in Providence, Rhode Island.  

PubMed

We examined data derived from a needs assessment of the personal and social characteristics and HIV risk behavior of street-based male sex workers, in Providence, Rhode Island, who engage in transactional sexual intercourse with other men. Substance use, injected drugs, needle sharing, and psychosocial distress were highly prevalent among the sample. History of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse was associated with increased risk of condomless anal sexual intercourse with paying male clients. PMID:25211761

Landers, Stewart; Closson, Elizabeth F; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Holcomb, Richard; Spurlock, Shannon; Mimiaga, Matthew J

2014-11-01

249

Correlates of Condom Use among Sex Workers and Their Boyfriends in Three West African Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify correlates associated with condom use at last intercourse between sex workers (SW) and\\u000a their boyfriends (BF). The sample was derived as a convenience sample recruited through existing HIV prevention organizations\\u000a in Benin, Guinea and Senegal. The Theory of Planned Behavior served as the conceptual framework. A total of 406 individuals\\u000a (220 SW

Gaston Godin; Aissatou Tinka Bah; Amadou Sow; Isaac Minani; Diane Morin; Michel Alary

2008-01-01

250

Women are Victims, Men Make Choices: The Invisibility of Men and Boys in the Global Sex Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invisibility of men and boys in scholarly discussions of the global sex trade was analyzed through a sample of 166 recent\\u000a articles published in social science journals. Most failed to acknowledge the existence of male sex workers at all. When male\\u000a sex workers were discussed, they were assigned considerably more agency than female sex workers, the chief danger ascribed

Jeffery P. Dennis

2008-01-01

251

Induced abortion among Brazilian female sex workers: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Prostitutes are vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and abortions. In Brazil, abortion is a crime and there is no data about unsafe abortions for this population. The study describes how prostitutes perform illegal abortions and the health consequences thereof. Semi-structured interviews with 39 prostitutes from three cities in Brazil with previous induced abortion experience were conducted. Sixty-six abortions, with between one and eight occurrences per woman, were recorded. The majority of the cases resulted from sexual activity with clients. The inconsistent use of condoms with regular clients and the consumption of alcohol during work were indicated as the main causes of unplanned pregnancies. The main method to perform abortion was the intravaginal and oral use of misoprostol, acquired in pharmacies or on the black market. Invasive measures were less frequently reported, however with more serious health complications. The fear of complaint to the police meant that most women do not inform the health team regarding induced abortion. The majority of prostitutes aborted with the use of illegally-acquired misoprostol, ending abortion in a public hospital with infection and hemorrhagic complications. The data indicate the need for a public policy focusing on the reproductive health of prostitutes. PMID:25715152

Madeiro, Alberto Pereira; Diniz, Debora

2015-02-01

252

Can rights stop the wrongs? Exploring the connections between framings of sex workers’ rights and sexual and reproductive health  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing interest in the ways in which legal and human rights issues related to sex work affect sex workers’ vulnerability to HIV and abuses including human trafficking and sexual exploitation. International agencies, such as UNAIDS, have called for decriminalisation of sex work because the delivery of sexual and reproductive health services is affected by criminalisation and social exclusion as experienced by sex workers. The paper reflects on the connections in various actors’ framings between sex workers sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and the ways that international law is interpreted in policing and regulatory practices. Methods The literature review that informs this paper was carried out by the authors in the course of their work within the Paulo Longo Research Initiative. The review covered academic and grey literature such as resources generated by sex worker rights activists, UN policy positions and print and online media. The argument in this paper has been developed reflectively through long term involvement with key actors in the field of sex workers’ rights. Results International legislation characterises sex work in various ways which do not always accord with moves toward decriminalisation. Law, policy and regulation at national level and law enforcement vary between settings. The demands of sex worker rights activists do relate to sexual and reproductive health but they place greater emphasis on efforts to remove the structural barriers that limit sex workers’ ability to participate in society on an equal footing with other citizens. Discussion and conclusion There is a tension between those who wish to uphold the rights of sex workers in order to reduce vulnerability to ill-health and those who insist that sex work is itself a violation of rights. This is reflected in contemporary narratives about sex workers’ rights and the ways in which different actors interpret human rights law. The creation of regulatory frameworks around sex work that support health, safety and freedom from abuse requires a better understanding of the broad scope of laws, policies and enforcement practices in different cultural contexts and economic settings, alongside reviews of UN policies and human rights conventions. PMID:22376152

2011-01-01

253

Auxiliary Women Workers in the Legal Sector: Traversing Subjectivities and "Self" to Learn through Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is about female auxiliary workers in the Australian legal sector. The purpose is to explore the impact of subjectivities on women workers and how they negotiate their positionality to participate in meaningful work and learning. The study is grounded in theories of identity and socio-cultural perspectives of subjectivity, agentic action…

Cavanagh, Jillian Maria

2012-01-01

254

Does scale matter? The costs of HIV-prevention interventions for commercial sex workers in India.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To explore how the scale of a project affects both the total costs and average costs of HIV prevention in India. METHODS: Economic cost data and measures of scale (coverage and service volume indicators for number of cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) referred, number of STIs treated, condoms distributed and contacts made with target groups) were collected from 17 interventions run by nongovernmental organizations aimed at commercial sex workers in southern India. Nonparametric methods and regression analyses were used to look at the relationship between total costs, unit costs and scale. FINDINGS: Coverage varied from 250 to 2008 sex workers. Annual costs ranged from US$ 11 274 to US$ 52 793. The median cost per sex worker reached was US$ 19.21 (range = US$ 10.00-51.00). The scale variables explain more than 50% of the variation in unit costs for all of the unit cost measures except cost per contact. Total costs and unit costs have non-linear relationships to scale. CONCLUSION: Average costs vary with the scale of the project. Estimates of resource requirements based on a constant average cost could underestimate or overestimate total costs. The results highlight the importance of improving scale-specific cost information for planning. PMID:16283051

Guinness, Lorna; Kumaranayake, Lilani; Rajaraman, Bhuvaneswari; Sankaranarayanan, Girija; Vannela, Gangadhar; Raghupathi, P.; George, Alex

2005-01-01

255

Occupational safety and HIV risk among female sex workers in China: A mixed-methods analysis of sex-work harms and mommies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female sex workers (FSWs) in China are exposed to multiple work-related harms that increase HIV vulnerability. Using mixed-methods, we explored the social-ecological aspects of sexual risk among 348 FSWs in Beijing. Sex-work harms were assessed by property stolen, being underpaid or not paid at all, verbal and sexual abuse, forced drinking; and forced sex more than once. The majority (90%)

Huso Yi; Tiantian Zheng; Yanhai Wan; Joanne E. Mantell; Minah Park; Joanne Csete

2012-01-01

256

Risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers in the three main urban areas of  

E-print Network

respondent-driven sampling (RDS) between September 2011 and March 2012. A standardized questionnaire. H. M. Van de Wijgert. High Burden of Prevalence and Recently Acquired HIV among Female Sex Workers

Klein, Ophir

257

Peer Outreach Work as Economic Activity: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions among Female Sex Workers.  

PubMed

Female sex workers (FSWs) who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers' economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers' relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers. PMID:25775122

George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M

2015-01-01

258

Peer Outreach Work as Economic Activity: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions among Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

Female sex workers (FSWs) who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers’ economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers’ relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers. PMID:25775122

George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M.

2015-01-01

259

Diversity among Clients of Female Sex Workers in India: Comparing Risk Profiles and Intervention Impact by Site of Solicitation. Implications for the Vulnerability of Less Visible Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

Background It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. Methods The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040). The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT) of intervention messages on clients’ consistent condom use with FSW. Results Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%). Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%), and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%). Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001) and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001). In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. Conclusion Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks. PMID:24023877

Suryawanshi, Dipak; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Deshpande, Sucheta; Zhou, Weiwei; Singh, Pankaj; Collumbien, Martine

2013-01-01

260

Reducing intimate and paying partner violence against women who exchange sex in Mongolia: results from a randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed

Women who exchange sex for money or other goods, that is, female sex workers, are at increased risk of experiencing physical and sexual violence from both paying and intimate partners. Exposure to violence can be exacerbated by alcohol use and HIV/STI risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a HIV/STI risk reduction and enhanced HIV/STI risk reduction intervention at decreasing paying and intimate partner violence against Mongolian women who exchange sex and engage in harmful alcohol use. Women are recruited and randomized to either (a) four sessions of a relationship-based HIV/STI risk reduction intervention (n = 49), (b) the same HIV/STI risk reduction intervention plus two additional motivational interviewing sessions (n = 58), or (c) a four session control condition focused on wellness promotion (n = 59). All the respondents complete assessments at baseline (preintervention) as well as at immediate posttest, 3 and 6 months postintervention. A multilevel logistic model finds that women who participated in the HIV/STI risk reduction group (OR = 0.14, p < .00), HIV/STI risk reduction and motivational interview group (OR = 0.46, p = .02), and wellness (OR = 0.20, p < .00) group reduced their exposure to physical and sexual violence in the past 90 days. No significant differences in effects are observed between conditions. This study demonstrates the efficacy of a relationship-based HIV/STI risk reduction intervention, a relationship-based HIV/STI risk reduction intervention combined with motivational interviewing, and a wellness promotion intervention in reducing intimate and paying partner violence against women who exchange sex in Mongolia. The findings have significant implications for the impact of minimal intervention and the potential role of peer networks and social support in reducing women's experiences of violence in resource poor settings. PMID:22366477

Carlson, Catherine E; Chen, Jiehua; Chang, Mingway; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Toivgoo, Aira; Riedel, Marion; Witte, Susan S

2012-07-01

261

Body image, dieting tendencies, and sex role traits in urban black women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined body image satisfaction, dieting tendencies, and sex role traits among a sample of black urban women. While women who felt “too fat” were more likely than other women to engage in both restrictive and nonrestrictive dieting tendencies, in general, the women's body weight and body image did not compel them to utilize extremely restrictive dieting practices.

Veronica G. Thomas; Michelle D. James

1988-01-01

262

HIV, HBV, and HCV Infections Among Drug-Involved, Inner-City, Street Sex Workers in Miami, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the rates of HIV, HBV, and HCV seropositivity among drug-involved, female street sex workers in low-income, inner-city sections of Miami, Florida; further, their sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, and sexual risk behaviors were assessed; and predictors of infection were reported. A sample of 586 sex workers was recruited through targeted sampling methods, interviewed, and counseled and tested for

James A. Inciardi; Hilary L. Surratt; Steven P. Kurtz

2006-01-01

263

A Psychosocial Study of Male-to-Female Transgendered and Male Hustler Sex Workers in São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined sociodemographic variables, personality characteristics, and alcohol and drug misuse among male sex workers\\u000a in the city of Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 45 male-to-female transgender sex workers and 41 male hustlers were\\u000a evaluated in face-to-face interviews at their place of work from 2008 to 2010. A “snowball” sampling procedure was used to\\u000a access this

Fernanda Cestaro Prado Cortez; Douglas Pieter Boer; Danilo Antonio Baltieri

264

Measuring the impact of a behaviour change intervention for commercial sex workers and their potential clients in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

A peer-education HIV\\/AIDS prevention pro- gramme for bar-based sex workers and their potential clients (long-distance truck drivers) in Malawi was evaluated for impact. A mixed method approach was used, the tools being structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. The results showed that in the active districts, the presence of sex worker peer educators led to a increase in condom use

Vivien Margaret Walden; Kondwani Mwangulube; Paul Makhumula-Nkhoma

1999-01-01

265

Vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities: a retrospective study on sexual violence, substance use and HIV risk.  

PubMed

Most studies of female sex workers (FSWs) conducted in the Mexico-US border region have focused on individual HIV risk, centered on sexual behaviors and substance abuse patterns. Little attention has been drawn to the reality that sex workers are often parents whose children potentially face vulnerabilities unique to their family situation. The objective of the present study was to identify the vulnerabilities faced by the children of FSWs in two Mexican-US border cities. From 2008 to 2010, 628 FSW-injection drug users underwent interviewer-administered surveys and HIV/STI testing. Approximately one in five participants (20%) reported having a parent involved in sex work and majority referred it was their mother (88%). Close to one-third of participants (31%) reported first injecting drugs <18 years of age, and 33% reported they began working regularly as a prostitute <18 years of age. First drinking alcohol <18 years old (AOR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.13-3.08), lifetime cocaine use (AOR = 1.76, 95%CI: 1.09-2.84), ever being forced or coerced into non-consensual sex as a minor (<18 years of age; AOR = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.01-2.35), and injecting drugs with used syringes in the prior month (AOR = 1.63, 95%CI: 1.07-2.49) were the factors associated with having had a parent involved in sex work. These findings begin to lay the groundwork for understanding the potential vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers. Understanding these potential needs is necessary for creating relevant, evidence-based interventions focused on supporting these women. PMID:25117749

Servin, Argentina E; Strathdee, Steffanie; Muñoz, Fatima A; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Silverman, Jay G

2015-01-01

266

Prevalence and Risks for Bacterial Vaginosis in Women Who Have Sex With Women  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common cause of vaginitis and, for unknown reasons, is common in lesbian and bisexual women. We defined risks for prevalent BV in lesbian and bisexual women with attention to detailed sexual risk history. Methods Women 16 to 35 years reporting sex with ?1 woman in prior year underwent computer-assisted self-interview with extensive sexual and medical history. BV was defined by Amsel criteria, and associations with subject characteristics were estimated by Poisson regression and generalized estimating equation to adjust for potential coenrollment of current sexual partners. Results Of 335 participants (median age, 25 years; 22% nonwhite race), 6% reported douching, 24% sex with men, and 91% any sex in the prior 3 months. 96 (29%) had BV, 40% of whom reported corresponding symptoms. BV was associated with reporting a partner with BV (39% vs. 12%; multivariate relative risk [MRR], 4.53 [2.59 –7.93]), vaginal lubricant use (59% vs. 21%; MRR, 1.86 [0.94 –3.68]), or sharing vaginal sex toys in prior 3 months (33% vs. 21%; MRR, 1.70 [0.96 –3.01]). No association was seen for age, race, smoking, hormone use, douching, vaginal, anal or oral sex, or numbers of new partners. Lubricant use and shared vaginal toys were correlated (Spearman 0.29). Conclusions BV is associated with practices that efficiently transmit vaginal fluid and with use of vaginal lubricant; since these are correlated, assessing independent effects will require further analysis. More research is required to understand relationships between role of transmission of BV-associated bacteria and vaginal lubricant on BV pathogenesis. PMID:20429087

Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Thomas, Katherine K.; Agnew, Kathy; Ringwood, Kathleen

2012-01-01

267

Correlates of suicidal ideation and attempt among female sex workers in China.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempt among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. A cross-sectional survey was administered among 454 FSWs in a rural county of Guangxi, China. About 14% of FSWs had thought of suicide and 8% had attempted suicide in the past 6 months. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that those FSWs who were dissatisfied with life, abused alcohol, were deceived or forced into commercial sex, and had stable sexual partners were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Female sex workers who had multiple stable partners, experienced sexual coercion, and worried about an inability to make enough money were more likely to report a suicide attempt. These FSWs who entered commercial sex because of financial needs or who were influenced by the peers were less likely to report a suicide attempt. Our data suggested that the rates of suicidal ideation and attempts were high among FSWs in China, and there were multiple factors associated with their suicidality. Future health education and promotion efforts among FSWs need to take into consideration substance abuse, interpartner conflict, and psychological stress. PMID:17469002

Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Ran

2007-05-01

268

An exploration of elevated HIV and STI risk among male sex workers from India  

PubMed Central

Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) who also report transactional sex (male sex workers or MSWs) are known to be at higher risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The study aimed to profile socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors associated with high HIV prevalence among MSWs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008–9 among 483 high-risk MSM who attended STI clinics at Mumbai and Hyderabad, two large cities in India. Results About 70% of the MSM reported transactional sex. As compared to other MSM, MSWs had more male partners (8.9 versus 2.5, p?sex (96% versus 72%, p?sex work (increased by 8% for every additional year). Conclusion The study showed that MSWs are at high risk for HIV acquisition/transmission, which highlights the need for intensified interventions for personalized risk-reduction counselling and STI screening. Newer biomedical interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention could also be considered. PMID:24209579

2013-01-01

269

Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers and Male Clients: An Integrative Review of Global Literature  

PubMed Central

Aims: To review the patterns, contexts and impacts of alcohol use associated with commercial sex reported in the global literature. Methods: We identified peer-reviewed English-language articles from 1980 to 2008 reporting alcohol consumption among female sex workers (FSWs) or male clients. We retrieved 70 articles describing 76 studies, in which 64 were quantitative (52 for FSWs, 12 for male clients) and 12 qualitative. Results: Studies increased over the past three decades, with geographic concentration of the research in Asia and North America. Alcohol use was prevalent among FSWs and clients. Integrating quantitative and qualitative studies, multilevel contexts of alcohol use in the sex work environment were identified, including workplace and occupation-related use, the use of alcohol to facilitate the transition into and practice of commercial sex among both FSWs and male clients, and self-medication among FSWs. Alcohol use was associated with adverse physical health, illicit drug use, mental health problems, and victimization of sexual violence, although its associations with HIV/sexually transmitted infections and unprotected sex among FSWs were inconclusive. Conclusions: Alcohol use in the context of commercial sex is prevalent, harmful among FSWs and male clients, but under-researched. Research in this area in more diverse settings and with standardized measures is required. The review underscores the importance of integrated intervention for alcohol use and related problems in multilevel contexts and with multiple components in order to effectively reduce alcohol use and its harmful effects among FSWs and their clients. PMID:20089544

Li, Qing; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

2010-01-01

270

A prospective study assessing the effects of introducing the female condom in a sex worker population in Mombasa, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the impact and costs of adding female condoms to a male condom promotion and distribution peer education programme for sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Design A 12?month, prospective study of 210 female sex workers. Methods We interviewed participants about their sexual behaviour every 2?months for a total of seven times and introduced female condoms after the third interview. We also collected cost data and calculated the cost and cost effectiveness of adding the female condom component to the existing programme. Results Introduction of the female condom in an HIV/AIDS prevention project targeting sex workers led to small, but significant, increases in consistent condom use with all sexual partners. However, there was a high degree of substitution of the female condom for male condoms. The cost per additional consistent condom user at a programme level is estimated to be $2160 (£1169, €1711) (95% CI: 1338 to 11?179). Conclusions The female condom has some potential for reducing unprotected sex among sex workers. However, given its high cost, and the marginal improvements seen here, governments should limit promotion of the female condom in populations that are already successfully using the male condom. More research is needed to identify effective methods of encouraging sex workers to practise safer sex with their boyfriends. PMID:16854997

Thomsen, S C; Ombidi, W; Toroitich?Ruto, C; Wong, E L; Tucker, H O; Homan, R; Kingola, N; Luchters, S

2006-01-01

271

Testing Commercial Sex Workers for Sexually Transmitted Infections in Victoria, Australia: An Evaluation of the Impact of Reducing the Frequency of Testing  

PubMed Central

Background The frequency of testing sex workers for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Victoria, Australia, was changed from monthly to quarterly on 6 October 2012. Our aim was to determine the impact of this change to the clients seen at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MHSC). Methods Computerised medical records of all clients attending at MHSC from 7 October 2011 to 7 October 2013 were analysed. Results Comparing between the monthly and quarterly testing periods, the number of consultations at MSHC with female sex workers (FSW) halved from 6146 to 3453 (p<0.001) and the consultation time spent on FSW reduced by 40.6% (1942 h to 1153 h). More heterosexual men (p<0.001), and women (p<0.001) were seen in the quarterly testing period. The number of STIs diagnosed in the clinic increased from 2243 to 2589 from the monthly to quarterly period, respectively [15.4% increase (p<0.001)]. Up to AU$247,000 was saved on FSW testing after the shift to quarterly testing. Conclusions The change to STIs screening frequency for sex workers from monthly to quarterly resulted in a 15% increase in STI diagnoses in the clinic and approximate a quarter of a million dollars was diverted from FSW testing to other clients. Overall the change in frequency is likely to have had a beneficial effect on STI control in Victoria. PMID:25048817

Chow, Eric P. F.; Fehler, Glenda; Chen, Marcus Y.; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Denham, Ian; Law, Matthew G.; Fairley, Christopher K.

2014-01-01

272

Women's Motivations to Have Sex in Casual and Committed Relationships with Male and Female Partners.  

PubMed

Women report a wide variety of reasons to have sex (e.g., Meston & Buss, 2010), and while it is reasonable to assume that those reasons may vary based on the context of the relationship, this assumption has not yet been tested. The purpose of this study was to explore how relationship type, sexual attraction, and the gender of one's partner interact and affect the sexual motivations of women. A total of 510 women (361 who reported exclusively other-sex attraction and 149 who reported same-sex/bisexual attraction) completed the YSEX? questionnaire. Participants rated their sexual motivations for casual sex and sex in a committed relationship with male and/or female partners, depending on reported sexual attraction. Results showed that relationship type affected reported motivation for sex: physical motivations were more strongly endorsed for casual sex, whereas emotional motivations were more strongly endorsed for sex in committed relationships. No significant differences in motivation were reported between women who reported same-sex attraction and those who did not. Women who reported bisexual attraction and identified as being lesbian, bisexual, or another sexual minority reported no significant differences in motivation for sex with male or female partners. The results of this study highlight the importance of relationship context when discussing sexual motivation and suggest a high degree of similarity in motivation for women, regardless of sexual orientation or gender of partner. PMID:25567073

Armstrong, Heather L; Reissing, Elke D

2015-05-01

273

Safer sex negotiation and its association with condom use among clients of female sex workers in bangladesh.  

PubMed

This study examines safer sex negotiation and its association with condom use among clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 484 FSWs living in Dhaka city following a convenient sampling procedure. Overall, 47% of the clients were suggested to use condom during last sexual intercourse and 21% did so. Both bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses yielded significantly increased risk of negotiation for safer sex with clients among FSWs with higher education. The power bargaining significantly (P < .001) increased the risk of condom use by 2.15 times (95% confidence interval = 1.28-3.59). The odds of condom use were significantly higher among the FSWs with higher education, unmarried, hotel-based, and among those with higher level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. The Bangladeshi FSWs have little control over their profession. HIV prevention programs should aim to encourage FSWs through information, education, and communication program to insist on condom use among clients. PMID:24345848

Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Salikon, Roslan Hj

2015-03-01

274

Type II Diabetes Abrogates Sex Differences in Endothelial Function in Premenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Obesity is a more potent cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) in men than in women. Because traditional CVRFs cannot fully account for this sex difference, we tested the hypothesis that compared with men, women exhibit more robust endothelial function independent of obesity and that this sex difference is abrogated by diabetes. Methods and Results—We studied leg blood flow (LBF) responses to

Helmut O. Steinberg; Giancarlo Paradisi; Jessica Cronin; Kristin Crowde; Annette Hempfling; Ginger Hook; Alain D. Baron

2010-01-01

275

Erasing Sex Bias Through Staff Training: Education of Women. Unit II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, one of four staff training units in a series designed to attack problems of sex bias in the counseling of women and girls, is intended to help counselor educators consider their knowledge of and attitudes toward the sex-limited status of women. In this unit, two staff training workshop strategies are provided. The first workshop is…

Soldwedel, Bette J.

276

Is Military Sexual Trauma Associated with Trading Sex Among Women Veterans Seeking Outpatient Mental Health Care?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust association between sexual trauma and trading sex has been documented in civilian samples but has not been examined in veterans. Women veterans experience high rates of sexual victimization across the lifespan, including during military service (military sexual trauma [MST]). Associations between MST and trading sex were examined in 200 women enrolled in a crosssectional study of HIV risks

Jennifer L. Strauss; Christine E. Marx; Julie C. Weitlauf; Karen M. Stechuchak; Kristy Straits-Tröster; Ayaba W. Worjoloh; Christina B. Sherrod; Maren K. Olsen; Marian I. Butterfield; Patrick S. Calhoun

2011-01-01

277

Human Relations Training Program Handbook for Employers and Social Workers. Transitional Black Women's Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook provides seven hours of training in human relations skills for employers and social workers dealing with transitional black women (the population of women who are underemployed, unemployed, undereducated, poor, or unaware of educational or occupational opportunities available to them). The workshops are designed to allow employers…

Atlanta Univ., GA. Women's Inst. for the Southeast.

278

Varicose Veins in Women Cotton Workers. An Epidemiological Study in England and Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of varicose veins was studied in 504 women cotton workers in England and 467 in Egypt, by a standardized questionary and a specially developed method of examination. The English mill population showed a much higher prevalence of varicose veins than the Egyptian, probably owing to environmental rather than ethnic reasons.Among the European women the prevalence of varicose veins

Siza Mekky; R. S. F. Schilling; Joan Walford

1969-01-01

279

Non-consensual sex within pre-marital relationships: experiences of young women in India.  

PubMed

In India, little is known about the prevalence of non-consensual sex within pre-marital relationships and factors correlated with such experience, although a sizeable proportion of young people engage in pre-marital relationships. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data from a representative study of youth in six Indian states, this paper examines the extent to which young women who had had pre-marital sex had experienced non-consensual sex, that is, sex by persuasion or force, and factors associated with it. Analysis is restricted to 821 young women who reported pre-marital sex. Of those who had had pre-marital sex, 33% reported that they were either persuaded (14%) or forced (19%) to engage in sex. Young women residing in urban areas and in communities reportedly characterised by physical fights among youth were more likely than their respective counterparts to have experienced sex by persuasion. Young women who had delayed sexual initiation and those who displayed self-efficacy were less likely than others to experience forced sex. Young women who had experienced geographic mobility in adolescence and who had witnessed parental violence were more likely than others to report forced sex. Finally, those in southern states were less likely than their northern counterparts to experience forced sex. PMID:24261824

Santhya, K G; Francis Zavier, A J

2014-01-01

280

Condom Negotiations among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Environmental Influences  

PubMed Central

Background Social and structural influences of condom negotiation among female sex workers (FSWs) remain understudied. This study assesses environmental and individual factors associated with condom negotiation among FSWs at high risk for acquiring HIV in a large urban setting of Metro Manila, Philippines. Methods Female bar/spa workers (N?=?498), aged 18 and over, underwent interview-led surveys examining their sexual health practices in the context of their risk environments. Data were collected from April 2009-January 2010 from 54 venues. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to assess socio-behavioral factors (e.g., age, education, length of time employed as an entertainer, and alcohol/drug use) and socio-structural factors (e.g., venue-level peer/manager support, condom rule/availability, and sex trafficking) associated with condom negotiation, adjusting for individuals nested within venues. Results Of 142 FSWs who traded sex in the previous 6 months (included in the analysis), 24% did not typically negotiate condom use with venue patrons. Factors in the physical environment - trafficked/coerced into work (AOR?=?12.92, 95% CI?=?3.34–49.90), economic environment - sex without a condom to make more money (AOR?=?1.52, 95% CI 1.01–2.30), policy environment - sex without a condom because none was available (AOR?=?2.58, 95% CI?=?1.49–4.48), and individual risk - substance use (AOR?=?2.36, 95% CI?=?1.28–4.35) were independently associated with FSWs' lack of condom negotiation with venue patrons. Conclusions Factors in the physical, economic, and policy environments, over individual (excepting substance use) and social level factors, were significantly associated with these FSWs' condom negotiations in the Philippines. Drawing upon Rhodes' risk environment framework, these results highlight the need for policies that support safer sex negotiations among sex workers in the context of their risk environments. Interventions should reduce barriers to condom negotiation for FSWs trafficked/coerced into their work, substance using, and impacted by economic conditions and policies that do not support condom availability. PMID:22448241

Urada, Lianne A.; Morisky, Donald E.; Pimentel-Simbulan, Nymia; Silverman, Jay G.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2012-01-01

281

Condom access: Associations with consistent condom use among female sex workers in two northern border cities of Mexico.  

PubMed

To determine whether condom access is associated with consistent condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, between 2004 and 2006 we administered a questionnaire to 924 FSWs who reported unprotected sex with a client in the past 2 months. Of these women, 43% reported consistent ("often" or "always") condom use, 74% said condoms were available, and 38% reported having access to free condoms. In a logistic regression, factors positively associated with consistent condom use were condom availability (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32-3.03), condom affordability (AOR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.25-2.38) and self-efficacy (AOR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.54-3.04). Factors inversely associated with consistent condom use included poor financial status (AOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47-0.90), methamphetamine use (AOR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.40-0.83), alcohol use (AOR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.96), and recent injection drug use (AOR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39-0.97). While increased condom availability may improve condom use among FSWs in general, interventions to broaden condom use among lower income and drug-using FSWs are critically needed. PMID:20973665

Muñoz, Fátima A; Pollini, Robin A; Zúñiga, María Luisa; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Martínez, Gustavo A; Valles-Medina, Ana M; Sirotin, Nicole; Patterson, Thomas L

2010-10-01

282

Assessment of the Utilization of HIV Interventions by Sex Workers in Selected Brothels in Bangladesh: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative study of brothel-based Female Sex Workers (FSWs), the authors explored factors that influence safe sex practices of FSWs within an integrated HIV intervention. Qualitative methods, including focus group discussions (FGDs), in-depth interviews and key informant interviews were applied in four brothels in Bangladesh. Young and…

Huq, Nafisa Lira; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi

2012-01-01

283

Sex-role self-concepts and life style plans of young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the relations between sex-role self-concepts and various life-style plans in 65 single college women. Results indicate that plans for innovative sex-role enactment, at least in the spheres of education, childbearing, and employment, were associated with nonstereotypic sex-role self-concepts.

Susan R Vogel

1975-01-01

284

Neural activation during anticipation of opposite-sex and same-sex faces in heterosexual men and women.  

PubMed

Psychobiological accounts of face processing predict that greater salience is attributed to faces matching a viewer's sexual preference than to faces that do not. However, behaviorally, this effect could only be demonstrated in tasks assessing reward 'wanting' (e.g. work-per-view-tasks) but not in tasks assessing 'liking' (e.g. facial attractiveness ratings), and has been found to be more pronounced in heterosexual men than women, especially with regard to very attractive faces. Here, we addressed the question if sex differences at the level of 'wanting' persist if participants are uninformed about the attractiveness of an anticipated male or female face. Seventeen heterosexual men and 13 heterosexual women (all single) participated in a social incentive delay task (SID). Participants were required to react on simple graphical cues in order to view a smiling face. Cues provided a priori information on the level of smile intensity (low/medium/high) as well as sex of the face (male/ female). A significant interaction of sex-of-face and sex-of-participant was observed in a priori defined regions of interest in the brain reward system (including ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex), reflecting enhanced activation to cues signaling opposite-sex faces relative to same-sex faces in both, men and women. Women additionally recruited the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during processing of opposite- vs. same-sex cues, suggesting stronger incorporation of social cognition processes in women than men. The findings speak against a general male bias for opposite-sex faces. Instead they provide preliminary evidence that men and women recruit different brain circuits during reward value assessment of facial stimuli. PMID:23128082

Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Rademacher, Lena; Paulus, Frieder M; Gründer, Gerhard

2013-02-01

285

Sex differences in cardiovascular health: does sexism influence women's health?  

PubMed

This commentary provides a brief overview of theory and research that supports the idea that sexism may be related to the disproportionate negative cardiovascular health outcomes in women. It describes sexism as a stressor and outlines its association with a variety of health outcomes as evidence for why sex disparities should be examined within the context of pervasive inequities. To date, population-based studies have not explicitly examined the relationship between sexism and cardiovascular disease, but smaller studies have yielded fairly consistent results. It is suggested that future research should aim to examine the influence of 2 types of sexism (ie, hostile and benevolent) and that daily or within-day designs be used to assess cognitive, behavioral and physiological responses to everyday sexist experiences. PMID:25054736

Molix, Lisa

2014-08-01

286

Invisible man and invisible women: the sex\\/race analogy of the 1970s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary feminists take a dismissive attitude toward the sex\\/race analogy of the 1970s. However flawed as an analysis of sex, race, and the relations between them, not least for its erasure of women of color, the sex\\/race analogy was a founding rhetorical strategy of the women's Liberation Movement. A history of the analogy is traced, focusing on its use as

Lisa Maria Hogeland

1996-01-01

287

Grant Title: DRUG ABUSE DISSERTATION RESEARCH: EPIDEMIOLOGY, PREVENTION, TREATMENT, SERVICES AND WOMEN AND SEX/GENDER DIFFERENCES (R36)  

E-print Network

AND WOMEN AND SEX/GENDER DIFFERENCES (R36) Funding Opportunity Number: PAR-10-020. CFDA Number(s):93/or women and sex/gender differences. Grant support is designed to encourage doctoral candidates from

Farritor, Shane

288

The Contribution of Emotional Partners to Sexual Risk Taking and Violence among Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess sexual risk-taking of female sex workers (FSWs) with emotional partners (boyfriends and husbands), compared to regular and casual clients. Experiences of violence and the degree of relationship control that FSWs have with emotional partners are also described. Design Cohort study with quarterly follow-up visit over 12-months. Methods Four hundred HIV-uninfected FSWs older than 16 years were recruited from their homes and guesthouses in Mombasa, Kenya. A structured questionnaire assessed participant characteristics and study outcomes at each visit, and women received risk-reduction counselling, male and female condoms, and HIV testing. Results Four or more unprotected sex acts in the past week were reported by 21.3% of women during sex with emotional partners, compared to 5.8% with regular and 4.8% with casual clients (P<0.001). Total number of unprotected sex acts per week was 5–6-fold higher with emotional partners (603 acts with 259 partners) than with regular or casual clients (125 acts with 456, and 98 acts with 632 clients, respectively; P<0.001). Mostly, perceptions of “trust” underscored unprotected sex with emotional partners. Low control over these relationships, common to many women (36.9%), was linked with higher partner numbers, inconsistent condom use, and being physically forced to have sex by their emotional partners. Half experienced sexual or physical violence in the past year, similarly associated with partner numbers and inconsistent condom use. Conclusions High-risk sexual behaviour, low control and frequent violence in relationships with emotional partners heighten FSWs' vulnerability and high HIV risk, requiring targeted interventions that also encompass emotional partners. PMID:23950879

Bosire, Wilkister; Nelson, Gill; Kingola, Nzioki; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Temmerman, Marleen; Chersich, Matthew F.

2013-01-01

289

Vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers: a cross-sectional study in three provinces in China.  

PubMed

Though vaginal douching is a common practice among female sex workers that could increase the risk of HIV and adverse reproductive health outcomes, it has drawn limited attention. From November 2010 to January 2011, a convenience sample of female sex workers was recruited in three cities in China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to gather socio-demographic and behavioural information. Blood samples were collected for syphilis serological tests. Endo-cervical swabs were collected and tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with vaginal douching and the association between vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infection. A total of 1032 eligible female sex workers were enrolled. The overall prevalence of any sexually transmitted infection (syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and vaginal douching with disinfectant were 23.4% and 23.1%, respectively. Factors independently associated with douching practice included study sites, venue types, ethnicity, having regular partner and sexually transmitted infection history. No significant association was found between vaginal douching and current sexually transmitted infection. Vaginal douching with disinfectant after sex with clients seemed to be a prevalent practice among female sex workers in China. Prevention programmes targeting female sex workers should incorporate components about the adverse health outcomes associated with vaginal douching. PMID:25015933

Li, Jing; Jiang, Ning; Yue, Xiaoli; Gong, Xiangdong

2015-05-01

290

The Syndemic Condition of Psychosocial Problems and HIV Risk Among Male Sex Workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

In Vietnam, the co-occurrence (i.e., “syndemic”) of psychosocial factors (e.g., depression and substance use) may disproportionately burden male sex workers and increase their HIV risk. A comprehensive survey was conducted among 300 male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in 2010. We performed logistic regression to examine the association between the syndemic variable – a count score of the number of 5 psychosocial conditions endorsed – and unprotected anal sex (UAS) in the past. One-third of participants reported any UAS, and 42% reported ? 2 psychosocial health problems. In multivariable models, experiencing ? 4 psychosocial health problems was significantly associated with UAS. Every unit increase in number of psychosocial health problems was associated with a 25%–30% increase in odds of UAS. Understanding the syndemic condition and its association with HIV risk among male sex workers in Vietnam may lead to the development of more effective, comprehensive interventions. PMID:24081899

Biello, Katie; Colby, Donn; Closson, Elizabeth; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

2015-01-01

291

The syndemic condition of psychosocial problems and HIV risk among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.  

PubMed

In Vietnam, the co-occurrence (i.e., "syndemic") of psychosocial factors (e.g., depression and substance use) may disproportionately burden male sex workers and increase their HIV risk. A comprehensive survey was conducted among 300 male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in 2010. We performed logistic regression to examine the association between the syndemic variable-a count score of the number of five psychosocial conditions endorsed-and unprotected anal sex (UAS) in the past. One-third of participants reported any UAS, and 42 % reported ?2 psychosocial health problems. In multivariable models, experiencing ?4 psychosocial health problems was significantly associated with UAS. Every unit increase in number of psychosocial health problems was associated with a 25-30 % increase in odds of UAS. Understanding the syndemic condition and its association with HIV risk among male sex workers in Vietnam may lead to the development of more effective, comprehensive interventions. PMID:24081899

Biello, Katie B; Colby, Donn; Closson, Elizabeth; Mimiaga, Matthew J

2014-07-01

292

The Power of Prestige: Why Young Men Report Having more Sex Partners than Young Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a survey of 48 men and 61 women from a southwestern US college, the gender difference in reported number of sex partners\\u000a was mediated by the degree to which individuals felt that men and women who had many sexual partners were prestigious. In\\u000a addition, men cared about the quantity and quality of their sex partners more than women did

Peter K. Jonason; Terri D. Fisher

2009-01-01

293

Type of Work Matters: Women's Labor Force Participation and the Child Sex Ratio in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Province-level census data for 1985 and 1990 from Turkey are used to examine the effect of the economic value of women on the 0–9 cohort population sex ratio. The sex ratio is interpreted as an indicator of the relative life chances of girls, reflecting their relative neglect in the household. We test two hypotheses: women’s labor force participation lowers the

GÜnseli Berik; Cihan Bilginsoy

2000-01-01

294

Winners and losers in health insurance: access and type of coverage for women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships.  

PubMed

Using data from the American Community Survey, 2009 (N=580,754), we compared rates of health insurance coverage and types of coverage used between women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships. This large, national dataset also allowed us to investigate regional variation in insurance coverage for women in same-sex partnerships by comparing "gay-tolerant" states versus other states. Multivariate analyses revealed that women in same-sex partnerships consistently had lower rates of health insurance coverage than married women in opposite-sex partnerships, but always more than unmarried women in opposite-sex partnerships. We also found that state-level variation in gay tolerance did not contribute to the access or type of coverage used by women in same-sex partnerships. PMID:24400654

Pals, Heili; Waren, Warren

2014-01-01

295

Sex workers in HIV prevention: From Social Change Agents to Peer Educators.  

PubMed

We utilised a comparative ethnographic approach to study the implementation of a community mobilisation intervention addressing HIV risk among female sex workers (FSWs) in India, as implemented first by an non-governmental organisation and after oversight of the intervention was transitioned to the government. We demonstrate that the work of peer outreach workers changed from Social Change Agents within a community-led structural intervention (CLSI) to Peer Educators within a targeted intervention (TI). In the CLSI approach, built on the assumption that FSW risk for HIV is rooted in power inequality and structural vulnerability, peer outreach workers mobilised their peers through community-based organisations to address underlying conditions of inequality and vulnerability. In contrast, the TI approach, which views FSW risk as a function of limited knowledge and barriers to services, addressed peers' access to information and health services. Analysis of changes in the function of peer outreach workers reveals critical differences of which we discuss four: assumptions about conditions that produce HIV risk; degree of emphasis placed on collective mobilising and building collective power; extent to which community mobilisation and HIV prevention goals are linked; and the intervention's use of peer input. We discuss the implications of these findings for HIV prevention programming. PMID:25359518

George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M; Biradavolu, Monica R; Dhungana, Nimesh; Tankasala, Nehanda

2015-01-01

296

High prevalence of syphilis among street-based female sex workers in Nanchang, China  

PubMed Central

Background: Female sex workers (FSWs) play a critical role in the heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in China. Several studies reported that street-based FSWs have higher risk behaviors than establishment-based FSWs. Therefore, street-based FSWs should be specifically targeted for HIV and STIs intervention programs. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the prevalence rates and risk factors of HIV and syphilis among FSWs in Nanchang, China. Materials and Methods: Using convenience sampling methods, 361 street-based FSWs were recruited from August 2011 to February 2012. All participants completed an anonymous questionnaire on socioeconomic and sex behavioral information and were tested for HIV and syphilis. Risk for HIV and syphilis infection was assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: No HIV infections were found. The prevalence rate of syphilis was 43.5%. Nearly 46.1% of street-based FSWs reported having education for no more than 6 years. Having reproductive tract infections at current visit, duration of sex work more than 5 years, indulgence in unprotected sex trade in the last time, unprotected sex trade in the last month, and unprotected sex with boyfriend or spouse in the last month were reported by 35.2%, 43.5%, 33.8%, 60.4%, and 93.1% street-based FSWs, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, having reproductive tract infections at current visit [odds ratio (OR), 12.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.01-24.37], duration of sex work more than five years (OR, 4.26; 95% CI, 2.40-7.54), and unprotected sex trade in the last month (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.06-3.22) were independently associated with syphilis infection. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of syphilis among street-based FSWs is very high. Most street-based FSWs in our survey had low education, long experience of commercial sex, and high rate of inconsistent condom use. Comprehensive interventions targeting this high-risk group, especially scaling up screening and ensuring consistent use of condoms during sex are needed. PMID:25396127

Tao, Xiao Hua; Jiang, Tao; Shao, Dan; Xue, Wei; Ye, Fa Shun; Wang, Ming; He, Mei Hua

2014-01-01

297

Exploring HIV Prevention Strategies among Street-Based Female Sex Workers in Chongqing, China  

PubMed Central

Background: Commercial sex plays an increasingly important role in China’s growing HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics. In China, street-based sex workers (SSWs) are a subgroup of female sex workers with a particularly high risk of HIV/STI infections but are neglected in responses to HIV. This study assesses changes in HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) utilization and high-risk sexual behaviors following a three-month HIV preventive intervention among SSWs in Chongqing, China. Methods: A three-month intervention was conducted by a team of peer educators, outreach workers from community-based organizations and health professionals. It mainly included distribution of free pamphlets and condoms and delivery of onsite and clinic-based VCT. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted prior to (n = 100) and immediately following (n = 112) the intervention to assess its impact. In-depth interviews were conducted among 12 SSWs after the intervention to further explore potential barriers to HIV prevention. Results: The intervention significantly increased SSWs’ participation in VCT (from 2.0%–15.2%, P < 0.001). Despite participants’ improved HIV-related knowledge level (from 24.0%–73.2%, P < 0.001), there were minimal changes in the levels of condom use with clients. Qualitative research revealed that fear of police arrest and stigma were the main barriers to VCT utilization. Low condom use was associated with family financial constraints, inadequate power in condom negotiation, low awareness and misconceptions of HIV infection risks. Conclusion: HIV intervention improved VCT utilization and knowledge but we did not observe an increase in condom use after this short intervention. SSWs faced substantial economic, social and environmental barriers to VCT utilization and condom use. PMID:25602971

Zeng, Huan; Zhao, Yong; Meng, Siying; Tang, Xiaojun; Guo, Hang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Lei

2015-01-01

298

Complexities of short-term mobility for sex work and migration among sex workers: violence and sexual risks, barriers to care, and enhanced social and economic opportunities.  

PubMed

Despite research on the health and safety of mobile and migrant populations in the formal and informal sectors globally, limited information is available regarding the working conditions, health, and safety of sex workers who engage in short-term mobility and migration. The objective of this study was to longitudinally examine work environment, health, and safety experiences linked to short-term mobility/migration (i.e., worked or lived in another city, province, or country) among sex workers in Vancouver, Canada, over a 2.5-year study period (2010-2012). We examined longitudinal correlates of short-term mobility/migration (i.e., worked or lived in another city, province, or country over the 3-year follow-up period) among 646 street and off-street sex workers in a longitudinal community-based study (AESHA). Of 646 sex workers, 10.84 % (n?=?70) worked or lived in another city, province, or country during the study. In a multivariate generalized estimating equations (GEE) model, short-term mobility/migration was independently correlated with older age (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.95, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.98), soliciting clients in indoor (in-call) establishments (AOR 2.25, 95 % CI 1.27-3.96), intimate partner condom refusal (AOR 3.00, 1.02-8.84), and barriers to health care (AOR 1.77, 95 % CI 1.08-2.89). In a second multivariate GEE model, short-term mobility for sex work (i.e., worked in another city, province, or country) was correlated with client physical/sexual violence (AOR 1.92, 95 % CI 1.02-3.61). In this study, mobile/migrant sex workers were more likely to be younger, work in indoor sex work establishments, and earn higher income, suggesting that short-term mobility for sex work and migration increase social and economic opportunities. However, mobility and migration also correlated with reduced control over sexual negotiation with intimate partners and reduced health care access, and mobility for sex work was associated with enhanced workplace sexual/physical violence, suggesting that mobility/migration may confer risks through less control over work environment and isolation from health services. Structural and community-led interventions, including policy support to allow for more formal organizing of sex work collectives and access to workplace safety standards, remain critical to supporting health, safety, and access to care for mobile and migrant sex workers. PMID:25055750

Goldenberg, Shira M; Chettiar, Jill; Nguyen, Paul; Dobrer, Sabina; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate

2014-08-01

299

An exploration of contextual factors that influence HIV risk in female sex workers in Mexico: The Social Ecological Model applied to HIV risk behaviors  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the applicability of the Social Ecological Model for explaining condom use in a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) (N=435) participating in a behavioral intervention to increase condom use in Tijuana, Mexico. Using a multi-group path analysis, we compared women who work in bar settings (n=233) to those who worked on the street (n=202) with regard to an individual factor (self efficacy), an interpersonal factor (client financial incentives), and a structural factor (condom access). Competing models showed differential impacts of these factors in the two venue-based groups. Having access to condoms was associated with greater self-efficacy and less unprotected sex in women who worked in bars. Among street-based FSWs, having clients offer monetary incentives for unprotected sex was related to greater unprotected sex while having access to condoms was not. Understanding the contextual factors associated with condom use among subgroups of FSWs has important implications for the development of HIV prevention interventions. PMID:19370470

Larios, Sandra E.; Lozada, Remedios; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Semple, Shirley J.; Roesch, Scott; Staines, Hugo; Orozovich, Prisci; Fraga, Miguel; Amaro, Hortensia; de la Torre, Adela; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.

2010-01-01

300

Analysis by sex of low back pain among workers from small companies in the Paris area: severity and occupational consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To describe workers with low back symptoms, to identify risk factors and to assess the occupational consequences separately in men and women. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted between 1 October 1996 and 31 December 1996 in a sample of workers selected at random from all types of small companies in the Paris area. A group of 202 occupational

J. Alcouffe; P. Manillier; M. Brehier; C. Fabin; F. Faupin

1999-01-01

301

HIV Risk Perception and Behavior among Sex Workers in Three Major Urban Centers of Mozambique  

PubMed Central

HIV risk perceptions and behaviors of 236 commercial sex workers from three major Mozambican urban centers were studied using the International Rapid Assessment, Response and Evaluation (I-RARE) methodology. All were offered HIV testing and, in Maputo, syphilis testing was offered as well. Sixty-three of the 236 opted for HIV testing, with 30 (48%) testing positive for HIV. In Maputo, all 30 receiving HIV tests also had syphilis testing, with 6 (20%) found to be positive. Results include interview excerpts and qualitative results using I-RARE methodology and AnSWR-assisted analyses of the interviews and focus group sessions. PMID:24736653

Langa, Judite; Sousa, César; Sidat, Mohsin; Kroeger, Karen; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Belani, Hrishikesh; Patel, Shama; Shodell, Daniel; Shodell, Michael; Benech, Irene; Needle, Richard

2014-01-01

302

Depicting Women as Sex Objects in Television Advertising: Effects on Body Dissatisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether exposure to TV ads that portray women as sex objects causes increased body dissatisfaction among women and men. Participants were exposed to 15 sexist and 5 nonsexist ads, 20 nonsexist ads, or a no ad control condi- tion. Results revealed that women exposed to sexist ads judged their current body size as larger and revealed a

Howard Lavine; D. Sweeney; S. H. Wagner

1999-01-01

303

Ambivalent sexism and attitudes toward women who engage in premarital sex in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship of ambivalent sexism, political conservatism, demographic variables (age, education, and gender), and prior sexual experience to Turkish men's and women's attitudes toward women who engage in premarital sex. Participants included 124 Turkish undergraduate students and 60 nonstudent Turkish adults. Benevolent but not hostile sexism uniquely predicted more negative views of women who engage in premarital

Peter Glick

2003-01-01

304

FEDERALLY EMPLOYED WOMEN In October 1967, Executive Order 11375 added sex to other prohibited forms of  

E-print Network

for the Federal Women's Program. In March 1972, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was amended to apply equalFEDERALLY EMPLOYED WOMEN In October 1967, Executive Order 11375 added sex to other prohibited forms opportunity protection in employment to the Federal government. The designation of a Federal Women's Program

305

Coming of age on the streets: survival sex among homeless young women in Hollywood.  

PubMed

This study examined childhood physical or sexual abuse, involvement in dependency or delinquency systems, psychiatric hospitalization, and suicide as possible risk factors for survival sex among homeless young women. Homeless young women were found to have similarly high rates of childhood sexual abuse, dependency and delinquency systems involvement, and psychiatric hospitalization. Homeless young women involved in survival sex disclosed higher rates of attempted suicide and reported marginally higher rates of childhood physical abuse. Analysis of qualitative data showed that those engaged in survival sex were motivated primarily by desperation to meet basic needs including a place to stay, food and money, and one third mentioned that peers commonly were influential in decisions to engage in survival sex. Others were influenced by coercion (10%) or pursuit of drugs (10%). Young women engaged in survival sex generally experienced regret and shame about their experience. PMID:24215967

Warf, Curren W; Clark, Leslie F; Desai, Mona; Rabinovitz, Susan J; Agahi, Golnaz; Calvo, Richard; Hoffmann, Jenny

2013-12-01

306

Risks, benefits and survival strategies-views from female sex workers in Savannakhet, Laos  

PubMed Central

Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Savannakhet province in Laos. Methods Five focus group discussions (FGDs) and seven interviews were conducted with FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Laos. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed text. Results The results revealed that the FSWs were aware of risks but they also talked about benefits related to their work. The risks were grouped into six categories: STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, stigma, violence, being cheated, and social and economic insecurity. The reported benefits were financial security, fulfilling social obligations, and sexual pleasure. The FSWs reported using a number of strategies to reduce risks and increase benefits. Conclusions The desire to be self-sufficient and earn as much money as possible put the FSWs in disadvantaged and vulnerable situations. Fear of financial insecurity, obligations to support one’s family and the need to secure the future influenced FSWs’ decisions to have safe or unsafe sex. The FSWs were, however, not only victims. They also had some control over their lives and working environment, with most viewing their work as an easy and good way of earning money. PMID:23164407

2012-01-01

307

Occupational safety and HIV risk among female sex workers in China: A mixed-methods analysis of sex-work harms and mommies  

PubMed Central

Female sex workers (FSWs) in China are exposed to multiple work-related harms that increase HIV vulnerability. Using mixed-methods, we explored the social-ecological aspects of sexual risk among 348 FSWs in Beijing. Sex-work harms were assessed by property stolen, being underpaid or not paid at all, verbal and sexual abuse, forced drinking; and forced sex more than once. The majority (90%) reported at least one type of harm, 38% received harm protection from ‘mommies’ (i.e., managers) and 32% reported unprotected sex with clients. In multivariate models, unprotected sex was significantly associated with longer involvement in sex work, greater exposure to harms, and no protection from mommies. Mommies’ protection moderated the effect of sex-work harms on unprotected sex with clients. Our ethnography indicated that mommies played a core role in sex-work networks. Such networks provide a basis for social capital; they are not only profitable economically, but also protect FSWs from sex-work harms. Effective HIV prevention interventions for FSWs in China must address the occupational safety and health of FSWs by facilitating social capital and protection agency (e.g., mommies) in the sex-work industry. PMID:22375698

Yi, Huso; Zheng, Tiantian; Wan, Yanhai; Mantell, Joanne E.; Park, Minah; Csete, Joanne

2013-01-01

308

Sex-for-crack-cocaine exchange, poor black women, and pregnancy.  

PubMed

A sample of 34 poor Black women who exchanged sex for crack was screened to discover if sex-for-crack exchanges resulted in pregnancies. Ethnographic interviews were conducted with women who became pregnant this way. Out of the 34 women, 18 reported sex-for-crack pregnancies, and more than half of that number became pregnant this way more than once. Twenty-nine pregnancies were reported. Only 2 women chose to have abortions. Interview transcripts were analyzed using qualitative data analytical procedures. The following three issues shaped the women's responses to sex-for-crack pregnancies: (a) severity of crack use, (b) religious beliefs, and (c) social organization patterns within poor Black communities. The findings have implications for drug treatment and child welfare policy. PMID:11554191

Sharpe, T T

2001-09-01

309

Endogenous sex hormones, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes in men and women.  

PubMed

Endogenous sex hormones predict impairments of glucose regulation. Cross-sectional studies suggest that lower levels of testosterone in men and higher levels in women increase risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, whereas lower levels of sex hormone binding globulin in both men and women increase risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In a systematic review, we summarize existing longitudinal studies, which suggest similar patterns. However, these studies are often limited to a single sex steroid measure. Whether these associations are primarily a marker of adiposity, and whether these associations differ between younger eugonadal vs older hypogonadal adults is also uncertain. The impact of exogenous sex steroid therapy may not reflect relationships between sex hormones and impaired glucose regulation that occur without supplementation. Therefore, examination of endogenous sex steroid trajectories and obesity trajectories within individuals might aid our understanding of how sex steroids contribute to glucose regulation. PMID:24585109

Kim, Catherine; Halter, Jeffrey B

2014-04-01

310

Women's Sexual Satisfaction as a Predictor of Well-Being in Same-Sex Versus Mixed-Sex Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural equation modelling was used to assess the strengths of the links between sexual satisfaction and self-reported (a) relationship well-being, (b) mental health, and (c) physical health for women in same-sex (i.e., homosexual, n = 114) versus mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual, n = 208) relationships. Participants came from a large-scale Internet study. Sexual satisfaction was found to be an extremely strong predictor of relational well-being,

Diane Holmberg; Karen L. Blair; Maggie Phillips

2010-01-01

311

Sexual Desire, Communication, Satisfaction, and Preferences of Men and Women in Same-Sex Versus Mixed-Sex Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an online study, measures of subjective sexual experiences in one's current relationship were compared across four groups: Men and women in mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual) and same-sex (i.e., homosexual) relationships. Results indicated far more similarities than differences across the four groups, with groups reporting almost identical sexual repertoires, and levels of sexual communcation with partner. Men reported experiencing somewhat more

Diane Holmberg; Karen L. Blair

2009-01-01

312

Female sex workers and access to social and health services in Catalonia: Influence of region of origin and place of work.  

PubMed

The objectives of the study were to describe the use of social and health services (SHS) of female sex workers (FSW) in Catalonia according to place of work and region of origin, and explore the barriers these women encountered when accessing these services. Quantitative and qualitative methods were combined. A questionnaire-based survey (n = 400) was conducted from October 2009 to January 2010, and complemented by focus group discussions technique (n = 23). More than 60% of FSW had used health services (HS) in the last 6 months (no differences by context of work and region of origin). Nevertheless, there were differences in the characteristics of health resources used. Although all women in clubs contracted the private HS provided by the club itself, they were those who least benefited from social services (SS), in particular Eastern-Europe women (24.6% in the last 6 months). The stigma and discrimination that FSW women suffer were one of the main barriers to access SHS. Women from Eastern Europe who worked in clubs were the most isolated and vulnerable women. Access to the public health system must continue to be provided for all FSW, assuring confidentiality and diminishing the burden associated with discrimination which they generally feel. PMID:23216369

Folch, C; Lazar, C; Ferrer, L; Sanclemente, C; Casabona, J

2013-08-01

313

Transactional sex amongst young people in rural northern Tanzania: an ethnography of young women's motivations and negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Material exchange for sex (transactional sex) may be important to sexual relationships and health in certain cultures, yet the motivations for transactional sex, its scale and consequences are still little understood. The aim of this paper is to examine young women's motivations to exchange sex for gifts or money, the way in which they negotiate transactional sex throughout their

Joyce Wamoyi; Daniel Wight; Mary Plummer; Gerry Hilary Mshana; David Ross

2010-01-01

314

Benefits and constraints of intimate partnerships for HIV positive sex workers in Kibera, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Introduction Research on the intimate partnerships of female sex workers (FSWs) tends to focus on the risks associated with these relationships. This paper takes as its starting point that the situation of FSWs is better understood by including knowledge of the benefits of their intimate partnerships. Specifically, we employ the conceptual framework provided by emergent research examining intimacy as a complex fusion of affective and instrumental dimensions among sex workers. This perspective allows us to frame information about FSWs’ intimate partnerships within a behaviour-structural approach that is helpful for identifying how intimate partnerships can be a source of both benefit as well as increased risk to FSWs. Methods Our results are based on a mixed-methods study carried out in the summer of 2011 in Kibera, Kenya. We conducted face-to-face interviews (n=30) with a non-probability sample of FSWs stratified by age who self-identified as Human Immune Virus positive (HIV+). We asked about participants’ involvement in current and past intimate partnerships, and whether these relationships had a positive or negative impact on their health and well?being. Results Participants currently in intimate partnerships had fewer clients and thus lower incomes than those without intimate partnerships. Participants presently with partners were also more likely to receive some financial support from partners, to report lower intimate partner violence, and to narrate higher partner emotional support and greater assistance with medications. These participants were also more likely to have disclosed their sex work and HIV+ statuses to their partners. Intimate partnerships, on the other hand, showed increased risk of economic vulnerability and emotional dependence for FSWs. This became especially problematic for those participants in fragile relationships. Despite these variations, none of the differences between the two groups were statistically significant. Conclusions Intimacy and transactional relations are bound up with one another and intersect with the structural realities and vulnerabilities; this is the case for sex workers in well-resourced and resourced-constrained countries alike. Rather than treating intimate partnerships as distinct from transactional relationships, FSWs’ relationships should be viewed on a continuum of risk and support. PMID:24006868

2013-01-01

315

Characteristics of Female Sex Workers With US Clients in Two Mexico-US Border Cities  

PubMed Central

Background HIV prevalence is increasing among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, 2 Mexican cities on the US border. Quasilegal prostitution in both cities attracts large numbers of sex tourists. We compared FSWs with and without US clients in both cities. Methods FSWs aged ?18 years reporting unprotected sex with ?1 client within the last 2 months, who were not knowingly HIV-infected, were enrolled in a behavioral intervention study. At baseline, participants underwent interviews, antibody testing for HIV and syphilis, and vaginal swabs for detecting gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Logistic regression identified factors associated with reporting >1 US client. Results Of 924 FSWs, 69% had US clients. Median age and duration in sex work were 32 and 4 years. Prevalence of HIV, infectious syphilis (titer ?1:8), gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and any STI was 6%, 14%, 6%, 13%, and 27%, respectively. Compared with other FSWs, FSWs with US clients were more likely to have syphilis titers ?1:8 (16% vs. 10%, P = 0.01), gonorrhea (8% vs. 2%, P <0.001) or any STI, including HIV (30% vs. 20%, P = 0.002). Factors independently associated with having US clients were: living in Tijuana, being younger, speaking English, being paid more for having sex without a condom, having >250 clients in the last 6 months, having syphilis titers ?1:8, and injecting drugs. Conclusions In these border cities, FSWs reporting US clients were more likely to have current STIs and to engage in higher-risk behaviors. Intensified binational prevention efforts involving both FSWs and their clients are urgently needed. PMID:18032996

STRATHDEE, STEFFANIE A.; LOZADA, REMEDIOS; SEMPLE, SHIRLEY J.; OROZOVICH, PRISCI; PU, MINYA; STAINES-OROZCO, HUGO; FRAGA-VALLEJO, MIGUEL; AMARO, HORTENSIA; DELATORRE, ADELA; MAGIS-RODRíGUEZ, CARLOS; PATTERSON, THOMAS L.

2009-01-01

316

Negotiating safe sex among women of Afro-Surinamese and Dutch Antillean descent in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Safe sex negotiation and communication about sexual risks with partners is important for women to ensure sexual risk reduction. This paper describes the results of a survey on safer sex and negotiation behavior, and the correlates of negotiation with partners among 128 women from Surinamese and Dutch Antillean descent in the Netherlands. The key findings are that 50% of the participants had negotiated sexual risk reduction with their partner, yet only 40% of the women who negotiated safer sex actually claimed practicing safe sex. Participants defined safe sex with steady partners primarily as negotiated safety and monogamy, and safe sex with casual partners primarily as condom use. Intentions to negotiate safer sex with steady partners were related to positive attitudes and perceived injunctive norms towards safe sex negotiation, and educational background. Intention to discuss safe sex with casual partners were primarily related to attitudes and perceived self-efficacy. STI/HIV prevention interventions targeting these women should incorporate awareness-raising of safety in different types of relationships, deciding on the appropriateness of relation-specific sexual risk reduction strategies, and building negotiation skills to accomplish the realization of these strategies. PMID:19012082

Bertens, Madelief G B C; Wolfers, Mireille E G; van den Borne, Bart; Schaalma, Herman P

2008-11-01

317

Criminalization of Off-Street Sex Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research presented in this article examines women's perceptions of how the criminal laws relating to prostitution affect the experience of working in the off-street Canadian sex industry. The results of interviews with ten women indicate that the criminalization of prostitution has numerous impacts on the health and safety of indoor workers: indoor workers are alienated from the protective services

Tamara O'Doherty

318

Global epidemiology of HIV among female sex workers: influence of structural determinants.  

PubMed

Female sex workers (FSWs) bear a disproportionately large burden of HIV infection worldwide. Despite decades of research and programme activity, the epidemiology of HIV and the role that structural determinants have in mitigating or potentiating HIV epidemics and access to care for FSWs is poorly understood. We reviewed available published data for HIV prevalence and incidence, condom use, and structural determinants among this group. Only 87 (43%) of 204 unique studies reviewed explicitly examined structural determinants of HIV. Most studies were from Asia, with few from areas with a heavy burden of HIV such as sub-Saharan Africa, Russia, and eastern Europe. To further explore the potential effect of structural determinants on the course of epidemics, we used a deterministic transmission model to simulate potential HIV infections averted through structural changes in regions with concentrated and generalised epidemics, and high HIV prevalence among FSWs. This modelling suggested that elimination of sexual violence alone could avert 17% of HIV infections in Kenya (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1-31) and 20% in Canada (95% UI 3-39) through its immediate and sustained effect on non-condom use) among FSWs and their clients in the next decade. In Kenya, scaling up of access to antiretroviral therapy among FSWs and their clients to meet WHO eligibility of a CD4 cell count of less than 500 cells per ?L could avert 34% (95% UI 25-42) of infections and even modest coverage of sex worker-led outreach could avert 20% (95% UI 8-36) of infections in the next decade. Decriminalisation of sex work would have the greatest effect on the course of HIV epidemics across all settings, averting 33-46% of HIV infections in the next decade. Multipronged structural and community-led interventions are crucial to increase access to prevention and treatment and to promote human rights for FSWs worldwide. PMID:25059947

Shannon, Kate; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldenberg, Shira M; Duff, Putu; Mwangi, Peninah; Rusakova, Maia; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lau, Joseph; Deering, Kathleen; Pickles, Michael R; Boily, Marie-Claude

2015-01-01

319

Women and the Economy: A Bibliography and a Review of the Literature on Sex Differentiation in the Labor Market.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first two-thirds of the document is a bibliography on women in the labor market which is divided into 27 categories and sub-categories, the major headings of which are: historical perspective, the supply of female labor in the labor market, earnings of women workers, occupations of women workers (covers occupational distribution, academic and…

Kohen, Andrew I.; And Others

320

Condom negotiation across different relationship types by young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded. PMID:23432108

Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Kien, Serey Phal; Stein, Ellen; Bates, Anna Juong; Sansothy, Neth; Page, Kimberly

2013-01-01

321

The effects of childhood trauma on sex trading in substance using women.  

PubMed

This article presents a model developed to understand the relationship between childhood victimization, perpetration of violence, and later cocaine dependence and adult sex trading among drug using women. A cohort of heavy drinking and drug using women (N=594) recruited for two on-going community based HIV prevention studies in St. Louis City was analyzed to evaluate this association using path analysis. The women were stratified into two groups: sex traders and non-sex traders. Sex traders were more likely than non-sex traders to report being forced to kiss or touch someone in a sexual way before age 15 (35% vs. 22%), being kissed or touched in a sexual way by others when they did not want to be (42% vs. 31%), and being forced to have sexual intercourse (30% vs. 21%). Sex traders were more likely than non-sex traders to use a weapon or threaten someone with a weapon (29% vs. 18%) and physically hurt others on purpose before age 15 (9% vs. 5%). Path analysis confirmed that childhood victimization had a significant and direct association with both adult cocaine dependence and sex trading. However, the association between childhood perpetration and adult sex trading was mediated by cocaine dependence. This analysis concludes that childhood victimization was the strongest predictor of cocaine dependence and sex trading in adulthood. PMID:16900413

Vaddiparti, Krishna; Bogetto, Jane; Callahan, Catina; Abdallah, Arbi B; Spitznagel, Edward L; Cottler, Linda B

2006-08-01

322

HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among male clients of female sex workers in Yunnan, China  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the prevalence and risk factors of HIV among male clients of female sex workers in China. Methods Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit 315 clients using FSW-client and client-client networks. Subjects provided information on socio-demographic characteristics and sexual and drug behavior patterns. Blood samples were collected for HIV testing and urine samples for opiate testing. Results Overall HIV prevalence was 6.0%; among drug users it was 30.8%. 33.7% of respondents reported that they always use condoms in commercial sex and 63.5% that they used a condom in the last commercial sex episode. Drug use (OR: 6.1; 95% CI: 1.7–21.4) and lack of a regular sexual partner (OR: 6.3; 95% CI: 1.8–21.9) were significantly associated with HIV infection. Conclusions Clients of FSWs serve as potential bridges for HIV transmission from the high-risk FSWs to the low-risk general population, making them a key target for intervention. High HIV prevalence rates among clients in Kaiyuan is particularly alarming given their risk behavior patterns including high rates of partner exchange, low condom use rates, and drug using behaviors. Innovative interventions are needed to reduce the risk of HIV among clients and reduce the bridge of transmission to the general population. PMID:19730110

Jin, Xia; Smith, Kumi; Chen, Ray Y.; Ding, Guowei; Yao, Yan; Wang, Haibo; Qian, Han-Zhu; Chang, Dongfang; Wang, Guixiang; Wang, Ning

2009-01-01

323

Hombre Seguro (Safe Men): a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of female sex workers  

PubMed Central

Background Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods/Design Male clients of FSWs who were at least 18, were HIV-negative at baseline, and reported recent unprotected sex with FSWs were randomized to the Hombre Seguro sexual risk reduction intervention, or a time-attention didactic control condition. Each condition lasted approximately one hour. Participants underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV and other STIs at baseline, and at 4, 8, and 12 month follow-ups. Combined HIV/STI incidence and unprotected vaginal and anal sex acts with FSWs were the primary outcomes. Discussion A total of 400 participants were randomized to one of the two conditions. Analyses indicated that randomization was successful; there were no significant differences between the participants in the two conditions at baseline. Average follow-up was 84% across both conditions. This is the first study to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs using the rigor of a randomized controlled trial. Trial registration NCT01280838, Date of registration: January 19, 2011. PMID:24885949

2014-01-01

324

Prevalence and Characteristics of Abuse Experiences and Depression Symptoms among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Mexico  

PubMed Central

This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors—ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work—were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico. PMID:23737808

Ulibarri, Monica D.; Hiller, Sarah P.; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Stockman, Jamila K.; Silverman, Jay G.; Ojeda, Victoria D.

2013-01-01

325

Safety and Adherence to Intermittent Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-1 in African Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about safety of and adherence to intermittent HIV PrEP regimens, which may be more feasible than daily dosing in some settings. We present safety and adherence data from the first trial of an intermittent PrEP regimen among Kenyan men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). Methods/Principal Findings MSM and FSW were randomized to daily oral FTC/TDF or placebo, or intermittent (Monday, Friday and within 2 hours after sex, not to exceed one dose per day) oral FTC/TDF or placebo in a 2?1?2?1 ratio; volunteers were followed monthly for 4 months. Adherence was assessed with the medication event monitoring system (MEMS). Sexual activity data were collected via daily text message (SMS) queries and timeline followback interviews with a one-month recall period. Sixty-seven men and 5 women were randomized into the study. Safety was similar among all groups. Median MEMS adherence rates were 83% [IQR: 63–92] for daily dosing and 55% [IQR:28–78] for fixed intermittent dosing (p?=?0.003), while adherence to any post-coital doses was 26% [IQR:14–50]. SMS response rates were low, which may have impaired measurement of post-coital dosing adherence. Acceptability of PrEP was high, regardless of dosing regimen. Conclusions/Significance Adherence to intermittent dosing regimens, fixed doses, and in particular coitally-dependent doses, may be more difficult than adherence to daily dosing. However, intermittent dosing may still be appropriate for PrEP if intracellular drug levels, which correlate with prevention of HIV acquisition, can be attained with less than daily dosing and if barriers to adherence can be addressed. Additional drug level data, qualitative data on adherence barriers, and better methods to measure sexual activity are necessary to determine whether adherence to post-coital PrEP could be comparable to more standard regimens. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00971230 PMID:22511916

Mugo, Peter; Anzala, Omu; Haberer, Jessica E.; Bangsberg, David; Barin, Burc; Rooney, James F.; Mark, David; Chetty, Paramesh; Fast, Patricia; Priddy, Frances H.

2012-01-01

326

Oncogenic human papilloma virus and cervical pre-cancerous lesions in brothel-based sex workers in India.  

PubMed

A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in brothel-based sex workers of West Bengal, Eastern India, to determine their oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) status and the presence of pre-cancerous lesions. A total of 229 sex workers from three districts of West Bengal participated in the study. All the study participants were interviewed with the aid of a pre-tested questionnaire to determine their sociodemographics, risk behaviour and risk perceptions after obtaining informed verbal consent. The interview was followed by collection of cervical cells from all participants using a disposable vaginal speculum and cervical cytobrush. Oncogenic HPV DNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A simultaneous Papanicolaou test ('Pap smear') was performed to detect cervical cytological abnormalities. Overall, the prevalence of oncogenic HPV was found to be 25% (58/229) among the studied population. A subset (n=112) of the sample was tested separately to determine the existence and magnitude of HPV genotypes 16 and 18. The results showed that genotype 16 was prevalent in 10% (11/112), genotype 18 in 7% (8/112) and both genotype 16 and 18 in 7% (8/112). The HPV prevalence rate showed a decreasing trend with age, being 71.4% in the 10-19 years age group, 32.3% in the 20-29 years age group, 18.3% in the 30-39 years age group and 2.5% in the >or=40 years age group (statistically significant differences, Psex work, oncogenic HPV prevalence was found to be 55% (n=21) and 19% (n=35) in sex workers with a sex working duration of 1 year, respectively. This difference was found to be statistically significant both by univariate and multivariate analysis. In this study, it was observed that sex workers with an average number of daily clients of six or more had an HPV prevalence of 67% (n=6), those with four to five clients had a prevalence of 45% (n=9), those with two to three clients had a prevalence of 30% (n=34) and those with one or less clients had a prevalence of 10% (n=9) (statistically significant differences, P=0.00003). Multivariate analysis showed a statistical association only with a duration of sex work of or=101 (OR=2.5; 95% CI 1.3-5). Regarding pre-cancerous lesions, 2 of 229 sex workers showed the presence of a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion along with high-risk HPV. Thus, 1% of the studied population suffer from a pre-cancerous lesion caused by high-risk HPV. This study concludes that young sex workers are particularly vulnerable to high-risk HPV, similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The observation of older sex workers relatively free from HPV supports the view of acquired immunity against HPV, which needs to be studied in-depth further. There is a need for a suitable community-based intervention programme targeted towards sex workers, with special reference to younger sex workers, for control and prevention of HPV and cervical cancer. Vaccination against HPV for newly entrant sex workers may be an important component for a successful intervention programme. PMID:20701853

Sarkar, Kamalesh; Bhattacharya, Swati; Bhattacharyya, Subhasish; Chatterjee, Soma; Mallick, Aiyel Haque; Chakraborti, Sekhar; Chatterjee, Debashree; Bal, Baishali

2008-01-01

327

Association between CYP19A1 polymorphisms and sex hormones in postmenopausal Japanese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In postmenopausal women, extraovarian sex hormone production plays an important role in hormone-related diseases, such as breast and endometrial cancers. Aromatase, an enzyme encoded by CYP19A1, is a key enzyme involved in estrogen biosynthesis. The impact of CYP19A1 polymorphisms on serum sex hormone levels in the Japanese population has never been investigated. This study enrolled 100 postmenopausal Japanese women found

Kumiko Kidokoro; Kazuhiko Ino; Kaoru Hirose; Hiroaki Kajiyama; Satoyo Hosono; Takeshi Suzuki; Takakazu Kawase; Akio Hiraki; Nobuyuki Hamajima; Hideo Tanaka; Kazuo Tajima; Fumitaka Kikkawa; Keitaro Matsuo

2009-01-01

328

Adolescents’ Exposure to a Sexualized Media Environment and Their Notions of Women as Sex Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate whether adolescents’ exposure to a sexualized media environment is associated with\\u000a stronger beliefs that women are sex objects. More specifically, we studied whether the association between notions of women\\u000a as sex objects and exposure to sexual content of varied explicitness (i.e., sexually non-explicit, semi-explicit, or explicit)\\u000a and in different formats (i.e., visual and audio-visual)

Jochen Peter; Patti M. Valkenburg

2007-01-01

329

The balancing act: Exploring stigma, economic need and disclosure among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.  

PubMed

In Vietnam, there is an emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Male sex workers engage in high-risk sexual behaviours that make them particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. In 2010, 23 MSM in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) who recently received payment for sex with another man completed in-depth qualitative interviews exploring motivations for sex work, patterns of sex work disclosure and experiences of social stigma. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated into English and analysed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Low wages, unstable employment and family remittances were motivating factors for MSM in HCMC to sell sex. Participants described experiences of enacted and felt social stigma related to their involvement in sex work. In response, they utilised stigma management techniques aimed at concealment of involvement in sex work. Such strategies restricted sexual communication with non-paying sex partners and potentially limited their ability to seek social support from family and friends. Departing from decontextualized depictions of sex work disclosure, our findings describe how decisions to reveal involvement in sex work are shaped by social and structural factors such as social stigma, techniques to minimise exposure to stigma, economic imperatives and familial responsibilities. PMID:25555192

Closson, Elizabeth F; Colby, Donn J; Nguyen, Thi; Cohen, Samuel S; Biello, Katie; Mimiaga, Matthew J

2015-04-01

330

Circular migration by Mexican female sex workers who are injection drug users: implications for HIV in Mexican sending communities.  

PubMed

Circular migration and injection drug use increase the risk of HIV transmission in sending communities. We describe female sex workers who are injection drug users' (FSW-IDUs) circular migration and drug use behaviors. Between 2008-2010, 258 migrant FSW-IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico responded to questionnaires. 24% of FSW-IDUs were circular migrants. HIV prevalence was 3.2% in circular migrants and 6.1% in non-circular migrants; 50% of circular and 75% of non-circular migrants were unaware of their HIV infection. Among circular migrants, 44% (n = 27) consumed illicit drugs in their birthplace; 74% of these (n = 20) injected drugs and one-half of injectors shared injection equipment in their birthplace. Women reporting active social relationships were significantly more likely to return home. Circular migrant FSW-IDUs exhibit multiple HIV risks and opportunities for bridging populations. Regular HIV testing and treatment and access to substance use services is critical for FSW-IDUs and their sexual/drug-using contacts. PMID:21833727

Ojeda, Victoria D; Burgos, José Luis; Hiller, Sarah P; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Artamonova, Irina; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos

2012-02-01

331

The Cost of Providing Combined Prevention and Treatment Services, Including ART, to Female Sex Workers in Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Background Female Sex workers (FSW) are important in driving HIV transmission in West Africa. The Yerelon clinic in Burkina Faso has provided combined preventative and therapeutic services, including anti-retroviral therapy (ART), for FSWs since 1998, with evidence suggesting it has decreased HIV prevalence and incidence in this group. No data exists on the costs of such a combined prevention and treatment intervention for FSW. This study aims to determine the mean cost of service provision per patient year for FSWs attending the Yerelon clinic, and identifies differences in costs between patient groups. Methods Field-based retrospective cost analyses were undertaken using top-down and bottom-up costing approaches for 2010. Expenditure and service utilisation data was collated from primary sources. Patients were divided into groups according to full-time or occasional sex-work, HIV status and ART duration. Patient specific service use data was extracted. Costs were converted to 2012 US$. Sensitivity analyses considered removal of all research costs, different discount rates and use of different ART treatment regimens and follow-up schedules. Results Using the top-down costing approach, the mean annual cost of service provision for FSWs on or off ART was US$1098 and US$882, respectively. The cost for FSWs on ART reduced by 29%, to US$781, if all research-related costs were removed and national ART monitoring guidelines were followed. The bottom-up patient-level costing showed the cost of the service varied greatly across patient groups (US$505–US$1117), primarily due to large differences in the costs of different ART regimens. HIV-negative women had the lowest annual cost at US$505. Conclusion Whilst FSWs may require specialised services to optimise their care and hence, the public health benefits, our study shows that the cost of ART provision within a combined prevention and treatment intervention setting is comparable to providing ART to other population groups in Africa. PMID:24950185

Cianci, Fiona; Sweeney, Sedona; Konate, Issouf; Nagot, Nicolas; Low, Andrea; Mayaud, Philippe; Vickerman, Peter

2014-01-01

332

HIV risk behaviors among young drug using women who have sex with women (WSWs) in New York City.  

PubMed

Previous research has suggested that multiple stressors may work in tandem to affect the health of women who have sex with women (WSWs). WSWs have been a part of the HIV epidemic in New York City since the beginning, making it an ideal setting to further explore these women's risk. Among a sample of 375 heroin, crack and/or cocaine using women recruited from economically disadvantaged communities in New York City, we examined HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors among WSWs as compared to women who have sex with men only (WSMOs). We also explore differences between WSWs and WSMOs with respect to potential stressors (i.e., decreased access to resources and health care utilization and violence victimization) that might contribute overall HIV risk. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:21303247

Ompad, Danielle C; Friedman, Samuel R; Hwahng, Sel J; Nandi, Vijay; Fuller, Crystal M; Vlahov, David

2011-01-01

333

Factors associated with awareness and utilisation of a community mobilisation intervention for female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesExamine factors associated with awareness and active utilisation of a community mobilisation intervention (CMI) to address HIV risk in female sex workers (FSWs) in a context characterised by multiple forms of sex work.DesignData came from two rounds, conducted in Spring 2006 and Spring 2007, of a serial cross-sectional survey of FSWs (n=812 in round 1, n=673 in round 2) recruited

Kim M Blankenship; Rebekah Burroway; Elizabeth Reed

2010-01-01

334

Sex-trafficking, Violence, Negotiating Skill, and HIV Infection in Brothel-based Sex Workers of Eastern India, Adjoining Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based sex workers of West Bengal, eastern India, to understand sex-trafficking, violence, negotiating skills, and HIV infection in them. In total, 580 sex workers from brothels of four districts participated in the study. A pretested questionnaire was introduced to study their sociodemography, sex-trafficking, violence, and negotiating skills. Blood sample of 4–5 mL was collected from each sex worker using an unlinked anonymous method to study their HIV status. Data were edited and entered into a computer using the Epi Info software (6.04d version). Both univariate and multivariate analyses were done to find out any association between HIV and relevant risk factors. Results of the study revealed that a sizeable number of the participants were from Nepal (9%) and Bangladesh (7%). The seroprevalence of HIV was strikingly higher among Nepalese (43%) than among Bangladeshis (7%) and Indians (9%). Almost one in every four sex workers (24%) had joined the profession by being trafficked. Violence at the beginning of this profession was more among the trafficked victims, including those sold by their family members (57%) compared to those who joined the profession voluntarily (15%). The overall condom negotiation rate with most recent two clients was 38%. By multivariate analysis, HIV was significantly associated with sexual violence (odds ratio=2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2–4.5). The study has documented that the trafficked victims faced violence, including sexual violence, to a greater magnitude, and sexual violence was associated with acquiring HIV in them. There is a need for an in-depth study to understand the problem of trafficking and its consequences. PMID:18686555

Sarkar, Kamalesh; Bal, Baishali; Mukherjee, Rita; Chakraborty, Sekhar; Saha, Suman; Ghosh, Arundhuti; Parsons, Scott

2008-01-01

335

The Relationships Among Sex Role Orientation, Egalitarianism, Attitudes Toward Sexuality, and Attitudes Toward Violence Against Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships among U.S. college students' (N = 618) attitudes toward rape myths and their sex role orientation, affective responses to sexuality, sex role egalitarianism, and attitudes toward violence against women were investigated. Results indicated that men were more tolerant of rape, more likely to attribute blame for rape to the victim, and less negative in their views of rapists than

Sandra L. Caron; D. Bruce Carter

1997-01-01

336

Sex differences in viewing sexual stimuli: An eye-tracking study in men and women  

E-print Network

, subjective, and physiological arousal. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Sexual stimuliSex differences in viewing sexual stimuli: An eye-tracking study in men and women Heather A. Rupp a, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA b The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction, Indiana

337

Violence against women in sex work and HIV risk implications differ qualitatively by perpetrator  

PubMed Central

Background Physical and sexual violence heighten STI/HIV risk for women in sex work. Against this backdrop, we describe the nature of abuse against women in sex work, and its STI/HIV implications, across perpetrators. Methods Adult women involved in sex work (n?=?35) in Baltimore, MD participated in an in-depth interview and brief survey. Results Physical and sexual violence were prevalent, with 43% reporting past-month abuse. Clients were the primary perpetrators; their violence was severe, compromised women’s condom and sexual negotiation, and included forced and coerced anal intercourse. Sex work was a factor in intimate partner violence. Police abuse was largely an exploitation of power imbalances for coerced sex. Conclusions Findings affirm the need to address physical and sexual violence, particularly that perpetrated by clients, as a social determinant of health for women in sex work, as well as a threat to safety and wellbeing, and a contextual barrier to HIV risk reduction. PMID:24060235

2013-01-01

338

Appropriating social citizenship: women's labour, poverty, and entrepreneurship in the manual workers union of Botswana.  

PubMed

Interrogating critiques of the 'African labour aristocracy' thesis, the article proposes that public service industrial-class manual workers in Botswana form, if not a labour 'aristocracy' in the sense first defined by Saul and Arrighi, then a marginal worker 'elite'. They are privileged in having a regular salary above minimum pay, augmented by periodic lump-sum gratuity payments. This sets them apart from the other low-paid workers in the private sector, casual workers in the informal economy and a vast army of unemployed job seekers. In the absence of a national unemployment benefit scheme in Botswana, the article explores some of the strategies deployed by women members of the Manual Workers Union in their attempts to contend with the spectre of future unemployment and impoverishment. In gender terms, the article highlights the independence, autonomy and decision-making capacity of women trade unionist leaders, who straddle the worlds of workers' rights and citizens' rights, and manoeuvre their way through the maze of rules and regulations they encounter in both. PMID:20879188

Werbner, Pnina

2010-01-01

339

Women and Reproductive Loss: Client-Worker Dialogues Designed to Break the Silence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An estimated one in four women experiences a pregnancy loss during her lifetime. Despite the pervasiveness of fetal mortality reflected by these numbers, social workers rarely initiate dialogues regarding reproductive loss history. Reproductive loss experiences are interwoven with typical themes emerging in everyday social work practice, including…

Price, Sarah Kye

2008-01-01

340

Educated Immigrant Women Workers Doing Well with Change: Helping and Hindering Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the strategies that helped or hindered 10 immigrant women workers to do well with change that affected their work. A total of 182 incidents were extracted and grouped into 9 categories: personal beliefs/traits/values, taking action, skills/education, personal challenges, self-care, relationships/support,…

Koert, Emily; Borgen, William A.; Amundson, Norman E.

2011-01-01

341

Women's Page/Lifestyle Editors: Does Sex Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports that male editors of women's/lifestyle pages cover more male-oriented subjects than female editors; that men favor coverage of entertainment while women favor coverage of club and social news and the women's movement; and that nontraditional men editors choose a leisure focus while nontraditional women editors choose a social change…

Merritt, Sharyne; Gross, Harriet

1978-01-01

342

Sex Work and Its Associations With Alcohol and Methamphetamine Use Among Female Bar and Spa Workers in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

To assess the prevalence of sex work and its associations with substance use among female bar/spa workers in the Philippines (N = 498), workers from 54 bar or spa venues in Metro Manila (2009–2010) were surveyed on demographics, drug/alcohol use, abuse history, and sex work. Their median age was 23 years and 35% engaged in sex work. Sex work was independently associated with methamphetamine use (19% vs 4%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3–6.2), alcohol use with patrons (49% vs. 27%;AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1–3.4), and alcohol intoxication during sex (50% vs. 24%; AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2–3.5), but inversely associated with daily alcohol use (13% vs. 16%;AOR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1–0.5). Additional significant covariates included sexual abuse history, younger age, and not having a higher education. Findings suggest that interventions with sex workers in bars and spas should focus on methamphetamine use, alcohol use contexts, and violence victimization, to better meet the needs of this population. PMID:23343641

Urada, Lianne A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Morisky, Donald E.; Schilling, Robert F.; Simbulan, Nymia P.; Estacio, Leonardo R.; Raj, Anita

2014-01-01

343

An international comparative public health analysis of sex trafficking of women and girls in eight cities: achieving a more effective health sector response.  

PubMed

Sex trafficking, trafficking for the purpose of forced sexual exploitation, is a widespread form of human trafficking that occurs in all regions of the world, affects mostly women and girls, and has far-reaching health implications. Studies suggest that up to 50 % of sex trafficking victims in the USA seek medical attention while in their trafficking situation, yet it is unclear how the healthcare system responds to the needs of victims of sex trafficking. To understand the intersection of sex trafficking and public health, we performed in-depth qualitative interviews among 277 antitrafficking stakeholders across eight metropolitan areas in five countries to examine the local context of sex trafficking. We sought to gain a new perspective on this form of gender-based violence from those who have a unique vantage point and intimate knowledge of push-and-pull factors, victim health needs, current available resources and practices in the health system, and barriers to care. Through comparative analysis across these contexts, we found that multiple sociocultural and economic factors facilitate sex trafficking, including child sexual abuse, the objectification of women and girls, and lack of income. Although there are numerous physical and psychological health problems associated with sex trafficking, health services for victims are patchy and poorly coordinated, particularly in the realm of mental health. Various factors function as barriers to a greater health response, including low awareness of sex trafficking and attitudinal biases among health workers. A more comprehensive and coordinated health system response to sex trafficking may help alleviate its devastating effects on vulnerable women and girls. There are numerous opportunities for local health systems to engage in antitrafficking efforts while partnering across sectors with relevant stakeholders. PMID:24151086

Macias Konstantopoulos, Wendy; Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Cafferty, Elizabeth; McGahan, Anita; Williams, Timothy P; Castor, Judith Palmer; Wolferstan, Nadya; Purcell, Genevieve; Burke, Thomas F

2013-12-01

344

Addressing Poverty, Unemployment and Gender Inequality in Southern Africa: An Alternative Strategy for HIV/AIDS Prevention with Sex Workers in Botswana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the results of a study that was conducted as an effort to identify the needs of sex workers as potential beneficiaries of future HIV prevention and empowerment activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the situation and needs of sex workers in the context of HIV/AIDS. Data were collected from one of the small…

Ntseane, Peggy Gabo

2004-01-01

345

Prevalence of forced sex and associated factors among women and men in Kisumu, Kenya.  

PubMed

Sexual violence is a well-recognized global health problem, albeit with limited population-based data available from sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to measure the prevalence of forced sex in Kisumu, Kenya, and identify its associated factors. The data were drawn from a population-based cross-sectional survey. A two-stage sampling design was used: 40 clusters within Kisumu municipality were enumerated and households within each cluster selected by systematic random sampling. Demographic and sexual histories, including questions on forced sex, were collected privately using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of forced sex was 13% (women) and 4.5% (men). After adjusting for age and cluster, forced sex among women was associated with transactional sex (OR 2.33; 95%CI 1.38-3.95), having more than two lifetime partners (OR 1.9; 95%CI 1.20-3.30), having postprimary education (OR 1.49; 95%CI 1.04-2.14) and a high economic status (OR 1.87; 95%CI 1.2-2.9). No factors were significantly associated with forced sex among the male respondents. Intimate partners were the most common perpetrators of forced sex among both women (50%) and men (62.1%). Forced sex prevention programs need to target the identified associated factors, and educate the public on the high rate of forced sex perpetrated by intimate partners. PMID:22571110

Adudans, Maureen K; Montandon, Michele; Kwena, Zachary; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R

2011-12-01

346

Adolescents and Young Women's Use of a Microbicide Surrogate Product When Receiving Oral Sex  

PubMed Central

Study Objective Genital herpes, which can be spread through oral sex, is an important target for microbicides. We examined episode-specific predictors of young women's receptive oral sex and of microbicide surrogate use. Design Longitudinal study Setting Participants were recruited to participate in a microbicide acceptability study from adolescent clinics and local colleges and through snowballing. Participants Young women (ages 14 to 21 years) who reported sexual contact on at least one weekly phone interview (n = 181) were included from the larger sample of 208 young women. Main Outcome Measures On weekly diary phone interviews, participants reported whether or not their last sexual contact included receptive oral sex and whether or not their last sexual contact included use of a microbicide surrogate. Results and Conclusions Participants reported a total of 1042 episodes of sexual contact; 311 included receptive oral sex and 354 included microbicide surrogate use. Being older, having sex for the first time with a partner, and having given oral sex were associated with having received oral sex during a sexual episode. Being older, being African American, and having discussed the microbicide surrogate with their partner were associated with having used the microbicide surrogate use during a sexual episode. These results indicate that oral sex should be considered in the design of clinical trials. Future studies need to evaluate ways to promote consistent microbicide use in the context of receiving oral sex as well as those factors (e.g., taste, pleasure) which may serve as a barrier. PMID:24315715

Auslander, Beth; Catallozzi, Marina; Davis, Gray; Succop, Paul A.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

2015-01-01

347

Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers living in Barcelona: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are a serious global public health issue. These diseases are largely preventable, as they are directly and indirectly associated with potentially modifiable factors, including socioeconomic conditions. Sexual transmission is responsible for over 75% of new HIV infections worldwide. Moreover, commercial sex workers and their clients are two of the groups at the highest risk of acquiring and transmitting these infectious diseases, due to an extensive number of sexual encounters and the various factors related to commercial sex situations. This qualitative study aims to deepen the understanding of the risk perception of STIs and HIV and their associated factors in Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Methods and analysis This is a qualitative, descriptive, interpretive study based on a social constructivist and phenomenological perspective conducted on a saturated sample of Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Data will be collected through semistructured individual and triangular group interviews. Information will be examined using a sociological discourse analysis, allowing us to understand the social and individual factors related to the risk perception of STIs and HIV in commercial sex workers. Discussion Qualitative studies are an important element in identifying individual, social and contextual factors directly or indirectly related to the health/disease process. This qualitative study will provide essential knowledge to improve health promotion, prevention strategies and effective management of STIs both for commercial sex workers and their clients. Ethics This study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee (CEIC) of IDIAP Jordi Gol in Barcelona, 2012. PMID:23901029

Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Mayans, Martí Vall; Lasagabaster, Maider Arando; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

2013-01-01

348

SEED GRANTS for Biological/Medical Research on Sex Differences and/or Women's Health The Stanford WSDM* (Women and Sex Differences in Medicine) Center aims to promote basic &  

E-print Network

SEED GRANTS for Biological/Medical Research on Sex Differences and/or Women's Health The Stanford, and population health research on sex differences and women's health at Stanford University School of Medicine/or in women's health. This year, we are particularly eager for School of Medicine faculty to collaborate

Bogyo, Matthew

349

Feasibility and Acceptability of Cell Phone Diaries to Measure HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

Individual, social, and structural factors affecting HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) are difficult to assess using retrospective surveys methods. To test the feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to collect information about sexual events, we recruited 26 FSWs in Indianapolis, Indiana (US). Over 4 weeks, FSWs completed twice daily digital diaries about their mood, drug use, sexual interactions, and daily activities. Feasibility was assessed using repeated measures general linear modeling and descriptive statistics examined event-level contextual information and acceptability. Of 1,420 diaries expected, 90.3 % were completed by participants and compliance was stable over time (p > .05 for linear trend). Sexual behavior was captured in 22 % of diaries and participant satisfaction with diary data collection was high. These data provide insight into event-level factors impacting HIV risk among FSWs. We discuss implications for models of sexual behavior and individually tailored interventions to prevent HIV in this high-risk group. PMID:24643312

Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Garfein, Richard S.; Gunn, Jayleen K. L.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

2015-01-01

350

A medico-social appraisal of commercial sex workers in a metropolitan city from eastern India.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study of 146 commercial sex workers (CSWs) selected by stratified sampling, in a red light area of Kolkata, showed that 25.3% were teenagers and 37.0% were forced into the profession due to poverty. White discharge was present in 42.5% of the CSWs. Only 65.1% had the proper knowledge of the causes of disease, but 49.3% preferred to go to "quacks" for treatment, while 42.5% preferred traditional medicine. Knowledge of the prevention of sexually transmitted infections by condom use was correct in 44.2% of the CSWs, but 17.8% used condoms regularly. One fourth of the CSWs having 5 or more clients per day used condoms regularly. PMID:16438166

Mundle, Malay; Chatterjee, Sita; Haldar, Anima; Dobe, Madhumita

2005-09-01

351

Exploring stigma by association among front-line care providers serving sex workers.  

PubMed

Stigma by association, also referred to as "courtesy stigma," involves public disapproval evoked as a consequence of associating with stigmatized persons. While a small number of sociological studies have shown how stigma by association limits the social support and social opportunities available to family members, there is a paucity of research examining this phenomenon among the large network of persons who provide health and social services to stigmatized groups. This paper presents results from a primarily qualitative study of the work-place experiences of a purposive sample of staff from an organization providing services to sex workers. The findings suggest that stigma by association has an impact on staff health because it shapes both the workplace environment as well as staff perceptions of others' support. At the same time, it is evident that some staff, owing to their more advantaged social location, are better able to manage courtesy stigma than others. PMID:24289946

Phillips, Rachel; Benoit, Cecilia

2013-10-01

352

Strategies for Recruiting Steady Male Partners of Female Sex Workers for HIV Research.  

PubMed

Steady male partners of female sex workers (FSW) are a key population for HIV prevention, but researchers face challenges finding and recruiting this population. We conducted 40 in-depth interviews with FSW and steady male partners of FSW in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic about how to engage steady male partners in HIV research. Participants cautioned that male partners might be unwilling to participate because of discomfort disclosing intimate information and cultural norms of masculinity. They recommended inviting male partners to research offices, instead of venue-based recruitment, because it was more private and trust-promoting. Most participants suggested that FSW could refer their partners or men could refer their friends who have FSW partners. Participants emphasized that referrals could break down trust-related barriers that prevent male partners from participating. Establishing an environment of respect and trust in the research setting can aid referral processes as individuals who participate communicate their positive experiences to their networks. PMID:25192901

Fleming, Paul J; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

2015-02-01

353

Social support and recovery among Mexican female sex workers who inject drugs  

PubMed Central

This qualitative study describes social support that female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) receive and recovery efforts in the context of relationships with family and intimate partners. We conducted thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with 47 FSW-IDUs enrolled in an intervention study to reduce injection/sexual risk behaviors in Tijuana, Mexico. FSW-IDUs received instrumental and emotional social support, which positively and negatively influenced recovery efforts. Participants reported how some intimate partners provided conflicting positive and negative support during recovery attempts. Problematic support (i.e., well-intended support with unintended consequences) occurred in strained family relationships, limiting the positive effects of support. Mexican drug treatment programs should consider addressing social support in recovery curricula through evidence-based interventions that engage intimate partners, children and family to better reflect socio-cultural and contextual determinants of substance abuse. PMID:23375570

Hiller, Sarah; Syvertsen, Jennifer; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.

2013-01-01

354

Coverage of HIV prevention services for female sex workers in seven cities of Myanmar.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional surveys of female sex workers using time-location sampling in seven cities of Myanmar gauged coverage of HIV prevention programs. HIV testing in last year ranged from 28 to 73 %; attending peer educator talks ranged from 15 to 50 %; exposure to media campaigns varied by city and materials (e.g., lower for TV and radio, higher for printed materials). Consistent condom use with clients in last week was high (88-99 %) across all cities. The largest city, Yangon, lagged behind others in coverage of most programs. Such data are necessary for planning, targeting, and evaluating the prevention response for this key population disproportionately affected by HIV. PMID:23695521

Aung, Tin; Paw, Ethi; Aye, Nyo Me; McFarland, Willi

2014-01-01

355

Sex and relationships for HIV positive women since HAART: a quantitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate current levels of sexual activity, enjoyment, condom use, and other factors affecting sexual behaviour in a sample of women living with HIV.Method: Participants were self selected. A cross sectional design using semi-structured questionnaires was employed. 82 HIV positive women completed questionnaires asking about demographics, relationships, sexual behaviour, and safer sex practices. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

S Lambert; A Keegan; J Petrak

2005-01-01

356

Racial Disparities in Metabolism, Central Obesity, and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin in Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased total and intraabdominal fat (IAF) obesity as well as other metabolic conditions associated with the insulin resistance syn- drome (IRS) are related to low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in young and older Caucasian (CAU) and young African- American (AA) women. We examined whether postmenopausal AA women, a population with a high incidence of obesity and IRS despite

DORA M. BERMAN; LORI M. RODRIGUES; BARBARA J. NICKLAS; ALICE S. RYAN; KAREN E. DENNIS; ANDREW P. GOLDBERG

2010-01-01

357

Will Japanese Women Ever Achieve Equality? Sex-Role Differentiations Related to Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Controversy exists concerning whether or not sex discrimination is the norm in Japan and what will happen with the status of Japanese women. One U.S. scholar was surprised after talking to female students at a Japanese college that only a few of them had a view of their future. It is fair to say that Japanese women are not taught to become…

Inoue, Yukiko

358

Midlife Education, Career, and Family Outcomes of Women Educated at Two Single-Sex Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined midlife educational, career, and family outcomes of women who attended women's colleges in the 1960s, one with a coed learning environment (CLE) and one with a single-sex environment (SLE). Overall, graduates of both colleges were very accomplished 30 years later. However, those who had experienced a CLE reported more sexism and active…

Duncan, Lauren E.; Wentworth Phyllis A.; Owen-Smith, Ashli; LaFavor, Theresa

2002-01-01

359

Male Sex Roles and Epithets for Ethnic Women in American Slang.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that derogatory names used for women of ethnic outgroups (1) are aimed disproportionately at women of racial minorities; (2) stereotype physical differences between ethnic groups; (3) make derogatory sexual allusions, often using food and animal metaphors; and (4) display the strains of traditional male sex roles in ethnic and…

Allen, Irving Lewis

1984-01-01

360

Seriously Mentally Ill Women's Safer Sex Behaviors and the Theory of Reasoned Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seriously mentally ill women at risk for HIV infection (n = 96) participated in structured interviews assessing sexual and substance-use behavior over a 3-month period. The majority of the women (63.5%) did not use condoms. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, attitudes toward condom use and perceived social norms about safer sex were…

Randolph, Mary E.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; Somlai, Anton M.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Gibson, Richard H.; Hackl, Kristin

2009-01-01

361

The Changing Role of Women in Business: A Study of Sex-Role Stereotyping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics indicate that women are steadily moving into formerly male-dominated professional and managerial jobs. Overall, women are making progress into professional jobs for which education is a major prerequisite. Traditionally, sex roles in society have been socially constructed. According to the perceived stereotypical response, males and…

Clovis, Annette

362

Empowered Positions? Listening to Sexually Experienced Young Women Talking about Sex, Disappointments, and Compromise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to discuss how sex and relationship education (SRE) could benefit from considering current levels of young women's empowerment in (hetero)sexual relationships and challenge popular notions of twenty-first century young women "having it all" and occupying powerful relational and sexual positions.…

Sieg, Ellen

2008-01-01

363

Factors mediating HIV risk among female sex workers in Europe: a systematic review and ecological analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives We reviewed the epidemiology of HIV and selected sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in WHO-defined Europe. There were three objectives: (1) to assess the prevalence of HIV and STIs (chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoea); (2) to describe structural and individual-level risk factors associated with prevalence and (3) to examine the relationship between structural-level factors and national estimates of HIV prevalence among FSWs. Design A systematic search of published and unpublished literature measuring HIV/STIs and risk factors among FSWs, identified through electronic databases published since 2005. ‘Best’ estimates of HIV prevalence were calculated from the systematic review to provide national level estimates of HIV. Associations between HIV prevalence and selected structural-level indicators were assessed using linear regression models. Studies reviewed Of the 1993 papers identified in the search, 73 peer-reviewed and grey literature documents were identified as meeting our criteria of which 63 papers provided unique estimates of HIV and STI prevalence and nine reported multivariate risk factors for HIV/STI among FSWs. Results HIV in Europe remains low among FSWs who do not inject drugs (<1%), but STIs are high, particularly syphilis in the East and gonorrhoea. FSWs experience high levels of violence and structural risk factors associated with HIV, including lack of access to services and working on the street. Linear regression models showed HIV among FSWs to link with injecting drug use and imprisonment. Conclusions Findings show that HIV prevention interventions should be nested inside strategies that address the social welfare of sex workers, highlighting in turn the need to target the social determinants of health and inequality, including regarding access to services, experience of violence and migration. Future epidemiological and intervention studies of HIV among vulnerable populations need to better systematically delineate how microenvironmental and macroenvironmental factors combine to increase or reduce HIV/STI risk. PMID:23883879

Platt, Lucy; Jolley, Emma; Rhodes, Tim; Hope, Vivian; Latypov, Alisher; Reynolds, Lucy; Wilson, David

2013-01-01

364

Randomised controlled trial of alternative male and female condom promotion strategies targeting sex workers in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess whether individual clinic?based counselling as a supplement to peer education for male and female condom promotion leads to greater use of protection and lower STI prevalence among sex workers in Madagascar already exposed to intensive male condom promotion. Methods In two public dispensaries in Madagascar, a total of 901 sex workers were randomly allocated between two alternative male and female condom promotion interventions: peer education only, or peer education supplemented with individual clinic?based counselling. Participants were followed for 12?months. Every 2?months they made clinic visits, where they were interviewed on condom use. Peer educators counselled all participants on condom use as they accompanied their assigned participants to study visits. Participants assigned to receive the supplemental intervention were counselled by a trained clinician following study interviews. Participants were tested and treated for chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomoniasis every 6?months. We used logistic regression to assess whether the more intensive intervention was associated with reduced STI prevalence. Use of protection with clients and non?paying partners was assessed by study arm, site, and visit. Results There was no statistically significant association between study arm and aggregated STI prevalence. No substantial differences in levels of reported protection were noted between study groups. Conclusions This study found little evidence for gains from more thorough clinical counselling on male and female condom use. These findings suggest that less clinically intensive interventions such as peer education could be suitable for male and female condom promotion in populations already exposed to barrier method promotion. PMID:17591662

Hoke, Theresa H; Feldblum, Paul J; Van Damme, Kathleen; Nasution, Marlina D; Grey, Thomas W; Wong, Emelita L; Ralimamonjy, Louisette; Raharimalala, Leonardine; Rasamindrakotroka, Andry

2007-01-01

365

Gender and sexual economics: do women view sex as a female commodity?  

PubMed

In the study reported here, data from implicit and behavioral choice measures did not support sexual economics theory's (SET's) central tenet that women view female sexuality as a commodity. Instead, men endorsed sexual exchange more than women did, which supports the idea that SET is a vestige of patriarchy. Further, men's sexual advice, more than women's, enforced the sexual double standard (i.e., men encouraged men more than women to have casual sex)-a gender difference that was mediated by hostile sexism, but also by men's greater implicit investment in sexual economics. That is, men were more likely to suppress female sexuality because they resisted female empowerment and automatically associated sex with money more than women did. It appears that women are not invested in sexual economics, but rather, men are invested in patriarchy, even when it means raising the price of sexual relations. PMID:24855018

Rudman, Laurie A; Fetterolf, Janell C

2014-07-01

366

Differences in HIV Risk Behaviors Among Women Who Exchange Sex for Drugs, Money, or Both Drugs and Money  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in drug use and HIV risk behaviors among women who exchanged sex for drugs only, for money only, or for both drugs and money. Structured interview responses from 2,042 drug-using women in 23 cities who reported having exchanged sex in the prior 30 days were analyzed. Results indicated that women who

Carol F. Kwiatkowski; Robert E. Booth

2000-01-01

367

Blood lead survey of children, pregnant women, professional drivers, street workers, and office workers in Trujillo, Peru.  

PubMed

In this pilot study, conducted in summer 2002, the authors measured blood lead levels (BLLs) for 118 subjects in the city of Trujillo, Peru, where leaded gasoline is in the process of being phased out. Subjects included bus drivers, combi (minivan) drivers, street vendors, newspaper vendors, traffic police, taxi drivers, gas station attendants, children living both near and distant from gas stations, pregnant women, and office workers (controls). The highest BLLs were 9.2 microg/dl and 9.3 microg/dl from a child who lived near a gas station and from a traffic policeman, respectively; however, all BLLs were below the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's advisory level of concern (10 microg/dl). Office workers (n = 8) and pregnant women (n = 36) had significantly lower BLLs (geometric mean +/- standard deviation = 2.1 +/- 0.7 microg/dl, p < 0.022; and 2.5 +/- 1.1 microg/dl, p < 0.008, respectively) than total traffic-exposed workers (n = 48; 3.2 +/- 1.8 microg/dl). BLLs of children living near gas stations (n = 17; 3.7 +/- 2.2 microg/dl) were marginally higher (p = 0.07) than for children not living near gas stations (n = 9; 2.9 +/- 1.1 microg/dl). The study was limited by small sample size and the fact that the data were based on a convenience sample not fully representative of the cohorts studied. Nevertheless, the authors' findings suggest that leaded gasoline use in Trujillo continues to affect BLLs in traffic-exposed populations. PMID:16241040

Naeher, Luke P; Aguilar-Villalobos, Manuel; Miller, Todd

2004-07-01

368

Alcohol Use and Sexual Risks: Use of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) Among Female Sex Workers in China  

PubMed Central

The association between alcohol use and sexual risks among female sex workers (FSWs) has been insufficiently studied. This article reports a cross-sectional study of the relationship between alcohol use risk, measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and sexual risk behaviors among 1,022 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Bivariate analysis showed that FSWs at higher AUDIT levels tended to have earlier sexual initiation, younger age of involvement in the sex trade and were more vulnerable to sex under the influence of alcohol. Multivariate analysis revealed an independent association of problem drinking with both unprotected sex and a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Alcohol use in commercial sex shall be considered as an occupational hazard that requires immediate intervention. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the association between alcohol use and sexual risks among this most-at-risk population. PMID:23311906

Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chen; Hong, Yan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei

2012-01-01

369

Transgender women and the sex work industry: roots in systemic, institutional, and interpersonal discrimination.  

PubMed

Because transgender people face discrimination on systemic, institutional, and interpersonal levels, the previous literature has supported that many transgender women view the sex work industry as their only viable career option. The current article reviews the literature on discrimination against transgender people, explores how discrimination influences their participation in sex work, and discusses how institutional discrimination against transgender women manifests within the criminal justice system. Furthermore, recommendations are provided for advocating for the rights of transgender people while promoting healthy behaviors and higher quality of life. Throughout the article, quotes from previous qualitative research are used to illustrate the experiences of transgender women through their own voices and perspectives. PMID:24313294

Nadal, Kevin L; Davidoff, Kristin C; Fujii-Doe, Whitney

2014-01-01

370

Determinant of coalitional behavior of men and women: Sex roles or situational requirements?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenges W. E. Vinacke, J. R. Bond, and T. T. Vesgi's (see PA, Vol. 36:1GE61B, and Vol. 38:2592) hypothesis that women adopt an accommodative or anticompetitive strategy related to sex role. A Coalition Expected Utility (CEU) theory of coalition formation explains the coalition formation of women; no differences are found in strategies adopted between men and women that are related

Sidney I. Lirtzman; Mahmoud A. Wahba

1972-01-01

371

Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers in China: Role of Gatekeepers  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to assess the potential role of gatekeepers of establishments in promoting condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. Goals The goals of this study were to explore FSWs’ perceptions of gatekeeper attitudes and support for condom use, and to assess their association with FSWs’ practice, communication, intention, proper use, knowledge of correct use, and perceptions related to condom use. Study The authors conducted a cross-sectional study among 454 establishment-based FSWs in one Chinese county. Results Perceived gatekeeper support for condom use was low among FSWs. Perceived support was positively associated with condom use communication with sexual partners, condom use frequency and intention, but not associated with proper condom use among FSWs. Perceived support was significantly associated with most condom use-related perceptions (e.g., self-efficacy of condom use, barriers to condom use, and perceived peer condom use) among FSWs. Conclusions Healthcare professionals should work with gatekeepers to create a supportive local environment for condom use in sex work establishments. Gatekeepers need to clearly articulate their support for condom use to the FSWs. Training and skill acquisition regarding correct use of condoms among FSWs will be necessary. PMID:16118607

YANG, HONGMEI; LI, XIAOMING; STANTON, BONITA; FANG, XIAOYI; ZHAO, RAN; DONG, BAIQING; LIU, WEI; LIANG, SHAOLING; ZHOU, YUEJIAO; HONG, YAN

2007-01-01

372

Factors associated with condom use negotiation by female sex workers in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Summary Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers (FSWs) with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 FSWs; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the seven days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street based FSWs respectively. Overall, 28.1% of FSWs negotiated for condom use with their clients. Participation in behaviour change communication (BCC) programmes (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2.–2.0), and self-perceived risk of HIV infection (AOR, 1.8 95% CI, 1.6–2.1) were positive predictors for condom negotiation. Compared to the hotel based FSWs, street (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4–0.9), and brothel based FSWs (AOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5–0.9) were less likely to negotiate for condom use. FSWs in Bangladesh are at high risk for STI/HIV infection because of low overall negotiation for condom use. Participation in BCC programmes had positive effect on condom negotiation by FSWs, and should be strengthened in commercial sex venues. PMID:23970599

Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Mridha, Malay K.; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J.; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim

2013-01-01

373

Fighting Women: The Military, Sex, and Extrajudicial Constitutional Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Supreme Court in Rostker v. Goldberg (1981) upheld male-only military registration, and endorsed male-only conscription and combat positions. Few cases have challenged restrictions on women's military service since Rostker, and none have reached the Supreme Court. Federal statutes continue to exclude women from military registration and draft eligibility, and military regulations still ban women from some combat positions. Yet

Jill Elaine Hasday

2008-01-01

374

Risk Behaviours among Female Sex Workers in China: A Systematic Review and Data Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Background Commercial sex is one of the major modes of HIV transmission in China. Understanding HIV risk behaviours in female sex workers (FSW) is of great importance for prevention. This study aims to assess the magnitude and temporal changes of risk behaviours in Chinese FSW. Method Five electronic databases were searched to identify peer-reviewed English and Chinese language articles published between January 2000 and December 2012 that reported risk behaviours among FSW in China, including condom use, HIV testing, and drug use. Linear regression and Spearman's rank correlation were used to examine temporal trends in these risk factors. The study followed PRISMA guidelines for meta-analyses and was registered in the PROSPERO database for systematic reviews. Results A total of 583 articles (44 English, 539 Chinese) investigating 594,583 Chinese FSW were included in this review. At last sex, condom use was highest with commercial partners (clients), increasing from 53.7% in 2000 to 84.9% in 2011. During this same time period, condom use increased with regular partners from 15.2% to 40.4% and with unspecified partners from 38.6% to 82.5%. Increasing trends were also found in the proportion of sampled FSW who reported testing for HIV in the past 12 months (from 3.2% in 2000 to 48.0% in 2011), while drug use behaviours decreased significantly from 10.9% to 2.6%. Conclusion During the first decade of 2000, Chinese FSWs’ self-reported risk behaviours have decreased significantly while HIV testing has increased. Further outreach and intervention efforts are needed to encourage condom use with regular partners, continue promotion of HIV testing, and provide resources for the most vulnerable FSW, particularly low tier FSW, who may have limited access to sexual health and prevention programs. PMID:25815481

Chow, Eric P. F.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Yuan, Lei; Wang, Yanjie; Zhang, Xiaohu; Zhao, Rui; Sun, Peng; Sun, Xiaoshu; Tucker, Joseph D.; Jing, Jun; Zhang, Lei

2015-01-01

375

Men’s and women’s evaluations of communication skills in personal relationships: When sex differences make a difference—and when they don’t  

E-print Network

research has assessed both similarities and differences in men and women's communication to determine whether the sexes are more alike or different. The present paper provides such assessments with respect to men's and women's evaluations of the importance...

Kunkel, Adrianne; Burleson, Brant R.; Samter, Wendy

1996-05-01

376

Relationship between selected health problems and exposures among women semiconductor workers in Malaysia.  

PubMed

A study conducted between 1998-2001 on the semiconductor industry in Penang and Selangor found that irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea and stress were identified as the three leading health problems by women workers from a checklist of 16 health problems. After adjusting for confounding factors, including age, working duration in current factory, and marital status, in a multiple logistic regression model, wafer polishing workers were found to experience significantly higher odds of experiencing irregular menstruation. Dysmenorrhea was found to be significantly associated with chemical usage and poor ventilation, while stress was found to be related to poor ventilation, noise and low temperatures. PMID:14750379

Chee, H L; Rampal, K G

2003-08-01

377

Epidemiology of HIV among female sex workers, their clients, men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs in West and Central Africa  

PubMed Central

Introduction The West and Central Africa (WCA) sub-region is the most populous region of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with an estimated population of 356 million living in 24 countries. The HIV epidemic in WCA appears to have distinct dynamics compared to the rest of SSA, being more concentrated among key populations such as female sex workers (FSWs), men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID) and clients of FSWs. To explore the epidemiology of HIV in the region, a systematic review of HIV literature among key populations in WCA was conducted since the onset of the HIV epidemic. Methods We searched the databases PubMed, CINAHL and others for peer-reviewed articles regarding FSWs, MSM and PWID in 24 countries with no date restriction. Inclusion criteria were sensitive and focused on inclusion of any HIV prevalence data among key populations. HIV prevalence was pooled, and in each country key themes were extracted from the literature. Results The search generated 885 titles, 214 abstracts and 122 full articles, of which 76 met inclusion and exclusion criteria providing HIV prevalence data. There were 60 articles characterizing the burden of disease among FSWs, eight for their clients, one for both, six for MSM and one for PWID. The pooled HIV prevalence among FSWs was 34.9% (n=14,388/41,270), among their clients was 7.3% (n=435/5986), among MSM was 17.7% (n=656/3714) and among PWID from one study in Nigeria was 3.8% (n=56/1459). Conclusions The disproportionate burden of HIV among FSWs appears to be consistent from the beginning of the HIV epidemic in WCA. While there are less data for other key populations such as clients of FSWs and MSM, the prevalence of HIV is higher among these men compared to other men in the region. There have been sporadic reports among PWID, but limited research on the burden of HIV among these men and women. These data affirm that the HIV epidemic in WCA appears to be far more concentrated among key populations than the epidemics in Southern and Eastern Africa. Evidence-based HIV prevention, treatment and care programmes in WCA should focus on engaging populations with the greatest burden of disease in the continuum of HIV care. PMID:24321113

Papworth, Erin; Ceesay, Nuha; An, Louis; Thiam-Niangoin, Marguerite; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Holland, Claire; Dramé, Fatou Maria; Grosso, Ashley; Diouf, Daouda; Baral, Stefan D

2013-01-01

378

Sex trading and psychological distress among women recruited from the streets of Harlem.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study examines the relationship between sex trading and psychological distress and the implications of that relationship for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus among a sample of young women recruited from the streets of Harlem. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 346 predominantly drug-using women, aged 18 to 29 years, of whom 176 had exchanged sex for money or drugs in the previous 30 days and were categorized as "sex traders." Psychological distress was measured by using the Brief Symptom Inventory. RESULTS: Sex traders scored significantly higher than non-sex traders on the General Severity Index and on eight of the nine subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory. Multivariate analysis indicated that after adjustments were made for age; ethnicity; pregnancy; recent rape; perceived risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; current, regular crack use; and current, regular alcohol use, sex traders scored 0.240 units higher on the General Severity Index than non-sex traders. CONCLUSIONS: Poor mental health and drug dependence may under-mine the motivation and ability of these sex traders to adopt safer sex behavior. Therefore, interventions need to be integrated with mental health services and drug treatment to reduce risk behavior in this population. PMID:9065229

el-Bassel, N; Schilling, R F; Irwin, K L; Faruque, S; Gilbert, L; Von Bargen, J; Serrano, Y; Edlin, B R

1997-01-01

379

Tricks of the Trade: Sexual Health Behaviors, the Context of HIV Risk, and Potential Prevention Intervention Strategies for Male Sex Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex work is a significant risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM); however, there is a dearth of knowledge about how to reduce risk in this group. MSM sex workers (N = 32) completed a semistructured qualitative interview and a close-ended quantitative assessment. Analyses focused on themes relevant to intervention development.

Sari L. Reisner; Matthew J. Mimiaga; Kenneth H. Mayer; Jake P. Tinsley; Steven A. Safren

2009-01-01

380

Correlates and Predictors of Women’s Sex Trading Over Time among a Sample of Out-of-treatment Drugs Abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research addressed two research questions: (a) controlling for crack use, what are the factors associated with women’s\\u000a engagement in ever having traded sex? and (b) controlling for crack use, what are the factors associated with women’s engagement\\u000a in sex trading in the past 90 days? The sample included 149 sexually active, crack using women selected from a subsample of\\u000a participants

Seana Golder; TK Logan

2007-01-01

381

Reasons for non- use of condoms and self- efficacy among female sex workers: a qualitative study in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Nepal and it is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work with intimate sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs) and the associated self-efficacy to inform the planning of STI/HIV prevention programmes in the general population. Methods This paper is based on a qualitative study of Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in Nepal. In-depth interviews and extended field observation were conducted with 15 FSWs in order to explore issues of safe sex and risk management in relation to their work place, health and individual behaviours. Results The main risk factor identified for the non-use of condoms with intimate partners and regular clients was low self efficacy. Non-use of condoms with husband and boyfriends placed them at risk of STIs including HIV. In addition to intimidation and violence from the police, clients and intimate partners, clients' resistance and lack of negotiation capacity were identified as barriers in using condoms by the FSWs. Conclusion This study sheds light on the live and work of FSWs in Nepal. This information is relevant for both the Government of Nepal and Non Governmental Organisations (NGO) to help improve the position of FSWs in the community, their general well-being and to reduce their risks at work. PMID:21943102

2011-01-01

382

Prevalence of HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Risk Behaviours Among Female Sex Workers in Nairobi, Kenya: Results of a Respondent Driven Sampling Study.  

PubMed

We conducted a respondent driven sampling survey to estimate HIV prevalence and risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya. Women aged 18 years and older who reported selling sex to a man at least once in the past 3 months were eligible to participate. Consenting FSWs completed a behavioral questionnaire and were tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adjusted population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS analysis tool. Factors significantly associated with HIV infection were assessed using log-binomial regression analysis. A total of 596 eligible participants were included in the analysis. Overall HIV prevalence was 29.5 % (95 % CI 24.7-34.9). Median age was 30 years (IQR 25-38 years); median duration of sex work was 12 years (IQR 8-17 years). The most frequent client-seeking venues were bars (76.6 %) and roadsides (29.3 %). The median number of clients per week was seven (IQR 4-18 clients). HIV testing was high with 86.6 % reported ever been tested for HIV and, of these, 63.1 % testing within the past 12 months. Of all women, 59.7 % perceived themselves at 'great risk' for HIV infection. Of HIV-positive women, 51.0 % were aware of their infection. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, inconsistent condom use with paying clients, and use of a male condom as a method of contraception were independently associated with unrecognized HIV infection. Prevalence among STIs was low, ranging from 0.9 % for syphilis, 1.1 % for gonorrhea, and 3.1 % for Chlamydia. The data suggest high prevalence of HIV among FSWs in Nairobi. Targeted and routine HIV and STI combination prevention strategies need to be scaled up or established to meet the needs of this population. PMID:25428282

Musyoki, Helgar; Kellogg, Timothy A; Geibel, Scott; Muraguri, Nicholas; Okal, Jerry; Tun, Waimar; Fisher Raymond, H; Dadabhai, Sufia; Sheehy, Meredith; Kim, Andrea A

2015-02-01

383

Women’s Preference of Therapist Based on Sex of Therapist and Presenting Problem: An Analogue Study  

PubMed Central

An analogue study was conducted to examine differences in women’s preference for and anticipated comfort self-disclosing to hypothetical therapists of different sexes based on the type of hypothetical presenting problem. The impact of general level of self-disclosure was also examined. Participants included female college students (n=187). Anticipated comfort self-disclosing to male or female therapist was rated by subjects when presented with therapists of each sex with the same qualifications. Women preferred and reported higher levels of anticipated comfort self-disclosing to a female therapist. Type of hypothetical presenting problem and general level of self-disclosure also impacted anticipated comfort self-disclosing. There was an interaction between general level self-disclosure and the sex of therapist on anticipated comfort self-disclosing. General level of self-disclosure only impacted anticipated comfort self-disclosing when the therapist was male. This information is relevant for therapists or organizations that provide psycho-social services to women. Organizations may want to inquire about a client’s preferences about sex of therapist beforehand and, if possible, cater to the client’s preference. PMID:24578592

Landes, Sara J.; Burton, Jessica R.; King, Kevin M.; Sullivan, Bryce F.

2013-01-01

384

Where Sex Ends and Emotions Begin: Love and HIV Risk among Female Sex Workers and their Intimate, Non-Commercial Partners along the Mexico-U.S. Border  

PubMed Central

This study explores the affective dimensions of female sex workers’ relationships with their intimate, non-commercial partners and assesses how emotions shape each partner’s sexual and drug-related risk within their relationship. We draw on qualitative data from a study of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and high risk behaviours among female sex workers and their non-commercial partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, to illustrate that these couples share relationships based on love, trust, respect, and emotional and material support. These relationships ranged in emotional intensity, which shaped partners’ decisions not to use condoms with each other. Drugs were important in most couples’ relationships. Among injectors, syringe sharing was common and represented both a sign of care and a pragmatic reaction to conditions of material scarcity. Our findings suggest that couple-based HIV interventions to address dual sexual and drug-related risks should be tailored to the emotional dynamics of sex workers’ intimate relationships. PMID:23473586

Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Robertson, Angela M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2013-01-01

385

The organization of sex work in low and high-priced venues with a focus on the experiences of ethnic minority women working in these venues  

PubMed Central

Prior research on female sex workers (FSW) in China, and their risk for HIV and STI, neglects the nuanced experiences of ethnic minority FSW. We conducted participant observations and in-depth interviews with 33 FSW and six venue bosses to describe the experiences of FSW and management structures in high and low-priced sex work venues in Liuzhou, China. In low-priced venues, FSW had more autonomy and stronger relationships with their ethnic minority peers. Mid and high-priced venues had more formal management structures. Ethnic minority FSW working in higher priced venues experienced less support and kinship with their peers. HIV/STI prevention outreach activities occurred in all of the venues, but they were not tailored for different venue types or for ethnic minority FSW. Our findings provide guidance for tailoring public health programs that meet the needs of ethnic minority women working in different types of sex work venues. PMID:23912337

Qian, Liu; Zhuang, Kongshao; Henderson, Gail E.; Shenglong, Quzhen; Fang, Jingwen; Yao, Huiqin; Qin, Jingxin; Yang, Yanzhen; Abler, Laurie

2013-01-01

386

The organization of sex work in low- and high-priced venues with a focus on the experiences of ethnic minority women working in these venues.  

PubMed

Prior research on female sex workers (FSW) in China, and their risk for HIV and STI, neglects the nuanced experiences of ethnic minority FSW. We conducted participant observations and in-depth interviews with 33 FSW and six venue bosses to describe the experiences of FSW and management structures in low and high-priced sex work venues in Liuzhou, China. In low-priced venues, FSW had more autonomy and stronger relationships with their ethnic minority peers. Mid- and high-priced venues had more formal management structures. Ethnic minority FSW working in higher priced venues experienced less support and kinship with their peers. HIV/STI prevention outreach activities occurred in all of the venues, but they were not tailored for different venue types or for ethnic minority FSW. Our findings provide guidance for tailoring public health programs that meet the needs of ethnic minority women working in different types of sex work venues. PMID:23912337

Liu, Qian; Zhuang, Kongshao; Henderson, Gail E; Shenglong, Quzhen; Fang, Jingwen; Yao, Huiqin; Qin, Jingxin; Yang, Yanzhen; Abler, Laurie

2014-02-01

387

Sex Work and Drug Use in a Subculture of Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the subculture of violence thesis as it relates to female street sex workers in Miami. Interview and focus group methods were used to study the intersections of childhood trauma, drug use, and violent victimization among 325 women. Using targeted sampling, crack- and heroin-using sex workers were recruited through street outreach into an HIV-prevention research program. Interviews used

Hilary L. Surratt; James A. Inciardi; Steven P. Kurtz; Marion C. Kiley

2004-01-01

388

Sex Work and Drug Use in a Subculture of Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the subculture of violence thesis as it relates to female street sex workers in Miami. Interview and focus group methods were used to study the intersections of childhood trauma, drug use, and violent victimization among 325 women. Using targeted sampling, crack- and heroin-using sex workers were recruited through street…

Surratt, Hilary L.; Inciardi, James A.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Kiley, Marion C.

2004-01-01

389

Reducing harm from HIV/AIDS misconceptions among female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico: A cross sectional analysis  

PubMed Central

Background HIV prevalence is increasing among female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexico’s Northern border region, who experience multiple occupational risks. Improving vulnerable populations’ education, empowerment, and access to preventive services are important components of harm reduction strategies. Given the increasing interest in adapting harm reduction principles from drug use to sex work and other public health responses to the HIV epidemic, we used a sex work harm reduction framework to guide our investigation of FSWs’ HIV knowledge. Methods From 2004–2006, FSWs aged ?18?years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez participated in a behavioral intervention study and completed structured interviews. Measures included HIV knowledge assessment and factors within each domain of our theoretical framework for sex work harms: (1) socio-demographic factors that may lead to sex work, (2) sex work characteristics and behaviors that may lead to harm, and (3) mutually reinforcing harms that lead to sex work and result from it (e.g., drug abuse). Negative binomial regression identified factors independently associated with suboptimal HIV knowledge (i.e., incorrect responses during the HIV knowledge assessment). Results Among 924 FSWs, the median proportion of incorrect responses was nearly one third (28% incorrect). Examination of item responses revealed misconceptions regarding specific transmission and prevention mechanisms, including prevention of mother to child transmission. Suboptimal HIV knowledge was independently associated with older age, lower education, living in Tijuana (vs. Ciudad Juarez), inconsistent condom use for vaginal sex with male clients, and lacking prior HIV testing. Conclusions Our application of a sex work harm reduction framework to the study of FSWs’ HIV knowledge is an important first step in enhancing HIV prevention efforts in Northern Mexican border cities. Our findings imply that interventions should identify and discredit local HIV misconceptions to improve knowledge of specific HIV transmission routes and self-protective strategies (e.g., condom negotiation). Interventions will require materials appropriate for women from diverse socio-economic backgrounds and may benefit from innovative harm reduction approaches such as peer education and outreach. PMID:22867427

2012-01-01

390

Dietary and other factors associated with overweight among women workers in two electronics factories in selangor.  

PubMed

This study was a cross-sectional survey conducted among 122 women workers employed in the electronics factories in the Ulu Klang Free Trade Zone (FTZ) and the Bangi FTZ, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. The purpose of the study was to examine the problem of overweight (>25.0 kg/m2) among this group of women, and factors (socio-demographic, work, exercise, and dietary) associated with overweight, and, to study the food intake pattern of the women in both the overweight and non-overweight groups. Data was collected using a set of questionnaires, while anthropometric measurements were obtained to calculate body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR). The results of the study indicated that 64.0% of the women were overweight (29.5% pre-obese, 34.5% obese). About one-tenth of the women (11.5%) had a WHR of above 0.85. From the bivariate analysis, it was found that women who were older, ever married, had lower educational level, had higher salary, not living in the hostel, involved in shiftwork, and trying to lose weight were more likely to be overweight. After adjusting for age, each of the above factors, except for educational level, remained significantly associated with overweight. Women's diet was found to be monotonous and lacking in variety as accessibility to and availability of a variety of food was a problem for them due to the nature of their work. They also had a sedentary lifestyle. Therefore, further research focusing on changing the poor dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle of the women workers is necessary to address the problem of overweight. PMID:22691732

Lim, Hwei Mian; Chee, Hengleng; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Jamaluddin, Jamilah; Nordin, Noranitamegat; Shuib, Rashidah

2003-09-01

391

The Interrelationships Among Sex Hormone Concentrations, Motoneuron Excitability, and Anterior Tibial Displacement in Women and Men  

PubMed Central

Context: Sex hormone fluctuations have been implicated as a contributing factor to the high rates of noncontact injury to the anterior cruciate ligament in females. Objective: To determine the strength of the relationships among variables of sex hormone concentrations, motoneuron excitability, and anterior tibial displacement (ATD) in women and men and to determine if these relationships differ between the sexes. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Sports medicine laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-eight regularly menstruating women (age ?=? 22.4 ± 3.4 years) and 15 men (age ?=? 22.3 ± 3.7 years) participated in the study. Intervention(s): Fluctuations in sex hormones were determined for the participants. Female participants were tested every other day of their menstrual cycles, whereas male participants were tested every fourth day during the 28-day period. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured Hoffmann reflexes (maximum Hoffmann reflex [Hmax] to maximum M-wave [Mmax] ratio in the soleus), ATD under a 134-N load, and saliva concentrations of estrogen and progesterone. The independent variable was sex. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated for each participant by pairing measurements made on the same day. Two-tailed independent-samples t tests were used to determine the difference between the male and female correlations for each variable. Results: Over the course of the study, the relationships between Hmax?Mmax and estrogen, Hmax?Mmax and progesterone, ATD and estrogen, and ATD and progesterone were not different between the sexes. However, the relationship between ATD and progesterone was different between the sexes (P ?=? .036). Conclusions: The observed correlations did not support our hypothesis that the relationships between sex hormone levels and reflex activity or between sex hormone levels and ATD would be different for women compared with men. If sex hormone concentrations significantly contribute to anterior cruciate ligament ruptures because of changes in laxity or in motoneuron excitability, their mechanism of action is likely multifactorial and complex. PMID:18668169

Hoffman, Mark; Harter, Rod A; Hayes, Bradley T; Wojtys, Edward M; Murtaugh, Paul

2008-01-01

392

Impact of a Social Influence Intervention on Condom Use and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Establishment-Based Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: A Multilevel Analysis  

PubMed Central

The authors assessed the relative impact of structural and social influence interventions on reducing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV risk behavior among female sex workers in the Philippines (N = 897). Four conditions included manager influence, peer influence, combined manager–peer influence, and control. Intervention effects were assessed at the establishment level in multilevel models because of statistical dependencies among women employed within the same establishments. Control group membership predicted greater perceived risk, less condom use, less HIV/AIDS knowledge, and more negative condom attitudes. Combination participants reported more positive condom attitudes, more establishment policies favoring condom use, and fewer STIs. Manager-only participants reported fewer STIs, lower condom attitudes, less knowledge, and higher perceived risk than peer-only participants. Because interventions were implemented at the city level, baseline and follow-up city differences were analyzed to rule out intervention effects due to preexisting differences. PMID:17014277

Morisky, Donald E.; Stein, Judith A.; Chiao, Chi; Ksobiech, Kate; Malow, Robert

2008-01-01

393

Client demands for unsafe sex: the socio-economic risk environment for HIV among street and off-street sex workers  

PubMed Central

Objective Among sex workers (SWs) in Vancouver, Canada, this study identified social, drug use, sex work, environmental-structural and client-related factors associated with being offered and accepting more money after clients' demand for sex without a condom. Design Cross-sectional study using baseline (February/10-October/11) data from a longitudinal cohort of 510 SWs. Methods A two-part multivariable regression model was used to identify factors associated with two separate outcomes: (1) being offered and (2) accepting more money for sex without a condom in the last six months, among those who had been offered more money. Results The sample included 490 SWs. In multivariable analysis, being offered more money for sex without a condom was more likely for SWs who used speedballs, had higher average numbers of clients per week, had difficulty accessing condoms and had clients who visited other SWs. Accepting more money for sex without a condom was more likely for SWs self-reporting as a sexual minority and who had experienced client violence and used crystal methamphetamine use less than daily (vs. none), and less likely for SWs who solicited for clients mainly indoors (vs. outdoor/public places). Conclusions These results highlight the high demand for sex without a condom by clients of SWs. HIV prevention efforts should shift responsibility toward clients to reduce offers of more money for unsafe sex. Programs that mitigate the social and economic risk environments of SWs alongside the removal of criminal sanctions on sex work to enable condom use within safer indoor work spaces are urgently required. PMID:23614990

DEERING, Kathleen N; LYONS, Tara; FENG, Cindy X; NOSYK, Bohdan; STRATHDEE, Steffanie A; MONTANER, Julio SG; SHANNON, Kate

2013-01-01

394

Women with Intellectual Disabilities Talk about Their Perceptions of Sex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Sexuality is learned through sexual socialisation that women with intellectual disabilities (IDs) understand and express. Rules of sexual engagement for these women can include barriers for their socialisation, intimate partner selection, and sexual expression. These rules can become more limiting when coupled with rules of femininity…

Bernert, D. J.; Ogletree, R. J.

2013-01-01

395

Mobile phones and sex work in South India: the emerging role of mobile phones in condom use by female sex workers in two Indian states.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine female sex workers' solicitation of clients using mobile phones and the association between this and condom use with clients. Cross-sectional data were utilised to address the study's aim, drawing on data collected from female sex workers in Calicut, Kerala, and Chirala, Andhra Pradesh. Use of mobile phone solicitation was reported by 46.3% (n = 255) of Kerala participants and 78.7% (n = 464) of those in Andhra Pradesh. Kerala participants reporting exclusive solicitation using mobile phones demonstrated 1.67 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.01-2.79) of inconsistent condom use than those reporting non-use of mobile phones for solicitation. However, those reporting exclusive solicitation through mobile phones in Andhra Pradesh reported lower odds of inconsistent condom use (OR: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01-0.26) than those not using mobile phones for solicitation. Findings indicate that solicitation of clients using mobile phones facilitates or hampers consistency in condom use with clients depending on the context, and how mobile phones are incorporated into solicitation practices. Variations in sex work environments, including economic dependence on sex work or lack thereof may partially account for the different effects found. PMID:25301669

Navani-Vazirani, Sonia; Solomon, Davidson; Gopalakrishnan; Heylen, Elsa; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Ekstrand, Maria L

2015-01-01

396

Sexual behavior of female sex workers and access to condoms in Kenya and Uganda on the Trans-Africa highway.  

PubMed

Female sex workers and their clients remain a high risk core group for HIV in Africa. We measured sexual behavior of a snowball sample of female sex workers (FSW) along the Trans Africa highway from Mombasa, Kenya to Kampala, Uganda and surveyed the availability of male condoms at 1,007 bars and lodgings in Kenya along the highway trucking stops where transactional sex occurs. There were 578 FSW one month sex diaries analyzed, 403 from Kenya and 175 from Uganda. Kenyan FSW had a median of 45 sexual acts per 28 days compared to 39 sex acts per 28 days by Ugandan FSW (P < 0.05). Condom use by FSW for all sexual liaisons was 79% in Kenya compared to 74% in Uganda. In multivariate analysis, adjusting for repeated measures, Kenyan FSW were more likely to use a condom by an adjusted odds ratio of 2.54 (95% confidence interval 1.89-3.41) compared to Ugandan FSW. Condom use with regular clients was 50.8% in Uganda compared with 68.7% in Kenya (P < 0.01). The number of sex workers reporting 100% condom use was 26.8% in Kenya and 18.9% in Uganda (P < 0.01). Bars and lodges in Kenya compared to Uganda were more likely to: have condom dispensers, 25% versus 1%, respectively (P < 0.01); distribute or sell condoms, 73.9% versus 47.6% (P < 0.01); and have more weekly condom distribution, 4.92 versus 1.27 condoms per seating capacity (P < 0.01). Our data indicate that in both countries condom use for FSW is suboptimal, particularly with regular partners, and greater condom use by Trans African highway FSW in Kenya compared to Uganda may be related to availability. Targeted interventions are warranted for FSW and truck drivers to prevent transmission in this important core group. PMID:18665445

Morris, Chester N; Morris, Sheldon R; Ferguson, Alan G

2009-10-01

397

Perceived Risks and Benefits of Sex Work among Transgender Women of Color in San Francisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has shown that male-to-female (MTF) transgender women of color in the United States have a high rate of HIV\\u000a infection and often engage in sex work for economic survival. With the exception of studies on HIV prevalence and behavioral\\u000a risk, little research exists to elucidate the social context and determinants of sex work and related health risks among

Lydia A. Sausa; JoAnne Keatley; Don Operario

2007-01-01

398

Sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviour among youth clients of hotel-based female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted among youth clients of hotel-based female sex workers (YCHBFSWs) in nine randomly selected hotels in Bangladesh to examine sexual-risk behaviour, condom use and determinants of condom use in last sex, knowledge of HIV, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and STI care-seeking behaviour. A prestructured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, behavioural, clinical information; urine specimens (before sex) and blood were collected for diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) infection. One thousand and thirteen participants were enroled in the study. Approximately half of them reported visiting female sex workers (FSWs) at least once a month and 25% visited FSWs at least once a week. Only 12% of participants reported regular condom use. The prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, syphilis and HSV2 was 2.2%, 3.9%, 7.2%, 2.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Only 15.3% of the YCHBFSW sought STI care in the past year. Negotiation of condom use with FSWs was the main determinant (odds ratio = 17.95) for condom use at last sex. Male clients of FSWs, including YCHBFSW, are an important bridge population for HIV transmission in Bangladesh and HIV interventions should be designed and implemented for them. PMID:22930291

Haseen, F; Chawdhury, F A H; Hossain, M E; Huq, M; Bhuiyan, M U; Imam, H; Rahman, D M M; Gazi, R; Khan, S I; Kelly, R; Ahmed, J; Rahman, M

2012-08-01

399

Psychological fears among low-paid female sex workers in southwest China and their implications for HIV prevention.  

PubMed

Commercial sex plays a critical role in rapidly increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. Low-paid female sex workers (FSWs) are especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Because of the illegality and stigma associated with sex work, FSWs may constantly live with fears in their daily life. Based on cross-sectional study of 794 low-paid FSWs in China we described their psychological fears related to commercial sex and examined the associations between fears and HIV-related behaviors. Fear of HIV infection was significantly associated with consistent use of condoms with clients. However, fear of breaching sex worker identity significantly prevented the FSWs from consistently using condoms with clients and taking HIV tests. Fear of being arrested by the police was positively associated with consistent use of condoms but negatively associated with accessing HIV prevention services. Our findings underlined the importance of examining the triadic interaction of behavioral, psychological and environmental factors in HIV prevention interventions among low-paid FSWs. PMID:25330242

Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

2014-01-01

400

Psychological Fears among Low-Paid Female Sex Workers in Southwest China and Their Implications for HIV Prevention  

PubMed Central

Commercial sex plays a critical role in rapidly increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. Low-paid female sex workers (FSWs) are especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Because of the illegality and stigma associated with sex work, FSWs may constantly live with fears in their daily life. Based on cross-sectional study of 794 low-paid FSWs in China we described their psychological fears related to commercial sex and examined the associations between fears and HIV-related behaviors. Fear of HIV infection was significantly associated with consistent use of condoms with clients. However, fear of breaching sex worker identity significantly prevented the FSWs from consistently using condoms with clients and taking HIV tests. Fear of being arrested by the police was positively associated with consistent use of condoms but negatively associated with accessing HIV prevention services. Our findings underlined the importance of examining the triadic interaction of behavioral, psychological and environmental factors in HIV prevention interventions among low-paid FSWs. PMID:25330242

Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

2014-01-01

401

Systematic review of facility-based sexual and reproductive health services for female sex workers in Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Several biological, behavioural, and structural risk factors place female sex workers (FSWs) at heightened risk of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and other adverse sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. FSW projects in many settings have demonstrated effective ways of altering this risk, improving the health and wellbeing of these women. Yet the optimum delivery model of FSW projects in Africa is unclear. This systematic review describes intervention packages, service-delivery models, and extent of government involvement in these services in Africa. Methods On 22 November 2012, we searched Web of Science and MEDLINE, without date restrictions, for studies describing clinical and non-clinical facility-based SRH prevention and care services for FSWs in low- and middle-income countries in Africa. We also identified articles in key non-indexed journals and on websites of international organizations. A single reviewer screened titles and abstracts, and extracted data from articles using standardised tools. Results We located 149 articles, which described 54 projects. Most were localised and small-scale; focused on research activities (rather than on large-scale service delivery); operated with little coordination, either nationally or regionally; and had scanty government support (instead a range of international donors generally funded services). Almost all sites only addressed HIV prevention and STIs. Most services distributed male condoms, but only 10% provided female condoms. HIV services mainly encompassed HIV counselling and testing; few offered HIV care and treatment such as CD4 testing or antiretroviral therapy (ART). While STI services were more comprehensive, periodic presumptive treatment was only provided in 11 instances. Services often ignored broader SRH needs such as family planning, cervical cancer screening, and gender-based violence services. Conclusions Sex work programmes in Africa have limited coverage and a narrow scope of services and are poorly coordinated with broader HIV and SRH services. To improve FSWs’ health and reduce onward HIV transmission, access to ART needs to be addressed urgently. Nevertheless, HIV prevention should remain the mainstay of services. Service delivery models that integrate broader SRH services and address structural risk factors are much needed. Government-led FSW services of high quality and scale would markedly reduce SRH vulnerabilities of FSWs in Africa. PMID:24916010

2014-01-01

402

Reductions in HIV/STI Incidence and Sharing of Injection Equipment among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background We evaluated brief combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico during 2008–2010, when harm reduction coverage was expanding rapidly in Tijuana, but less so in Juarez. Methods FSW-IDUs ?18 years reporting sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients within the last month participated in a randomized factorial trial comparing four brief, single-session conditions combining either an interactive or didactic version of a sexual risk intervention to promote safer sex in the context of drug use, and an injection risk intervention to reduce sharing of needles/injection paraphernalia. Women underwent quarterly interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas, blinding interviewers and assessors to assignment. Poisson regression with robust variance estimation and repeated measures ordinal logistic regression examined effects on combined HIV/STI incidence and receptive needle sharing frequency. Findings Of 584 initially HIV-negative FSW-IDUs, retention was ?90%. After 12 months, HIV/STI incidence decreased >50% in the interactive vs. didactic sex intervention (Tijuana:AdjRR:0.38,95% CI:0.16–0.89; Juarez: AdjRR:0.44,95% CI:0.19–0.99). In Juarez, women receiving interactive vs. didactic injection risk interventions decreased receptive needle-sharing by 85% vs. 71%, respectively (p?=?0.04); in Tijuana, receptive needle sharing declined by 95%, but was similar in active versus didactic groups. Tijuana women reported significant increases in access to syringes and condoms, but Juarez women did not. Interpretation After 12 months in both cities, the interactive sexual risk intervention significantly reduced HIV/STI incidence. Expanding free access to sterile syringes coupled with brief, didactic education on safer injection was necessary and sufficient for achieving robust, sustained injection risk reductions in Tijuana. In the absence of expanding syringe access in Juarez, the injection risk intervention achieved significant, albeit more modest reductions, suggesting that community-level interventions incorporating harm reduction are more powerful than individual-level interventions. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00840658 PMID:23785451

Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Abramovitz, Daniela; Lozada, Remedios; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Staines, Hugo; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.

2013-01-01

403

Risky Behaviors among HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Northern Karnataka, India.  

PubMed

Purpose. Little is known about the risky sexual behaviors of HIV-positive female sex workers (FSWs) in the developing world, which is critical for programmatic purposes. This study aims to shed light on their condom use with regular clients as well as husband/cohabiting partner, a first in India. Methods. Multivariate logistic regression analyses for consistent condom use with regular clients and husband/cohabiting partner are conducted for the sample of 606 HIV-positive FSWs. Results. Older FSWs are 90% less likely and nonmobile FSWs are 70% less likely to consistently use condoms. FSWs on ART are 3.84 times more likely to use condoms. Additionally, FSWs who changed their occupation after HIV diagnosis are 70% less likely to use condoms. FSWs who are currently cohabiting are more likely to consistently use condoms with repeat clients and are 3.22 times more likely to do so if they have felt stigma associated with being HIV-positive. FSWs who have multiple repeat clients, and who do not know the sexual behavior of these clients, are more likely to use condoms consistently. Conclusion. This study would help inform programs to target the following particularly vulnerable HIV-positive FSWs: those who are older, those who changed their occupation post-HIV diagnosis, and those who are nonmobile. PMID:23365728

Jadhav, Apoorva; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Raghavendra, T; Blanchard, James; Moses, Stephen; Isac, Shajy; Halli, Shiva S

2013-01-01

404

Outcomes of a Behavioral Intervention to Reduce HIV Risk among Drug-involved Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

Although street-based female sex workers (FSWs) are highly vulnerable to HIV, they often lack access to needed health services and medical care. This paper reports the results of a recently completed randomized intervention trial for FSWs in Miami, Florida, which tested the relative efficacy of two case management interventions that aimed to link underserved FSWs with health services and to reduce risk behaviors for HIV. Participants were recruited using targeted sampling strategies and were randomly assigned to: a Strengths-Based/Professional Only (PO) or a Strengths-Based/Professional-Peer condition (PP). Follow-up data were collected 3 and 6 months post-baseline. Outcome analyses indicated that both intervention groups displayed significant reductions in HIV risk behaviors and significant increases in services utilization; the Professional-Peer condition provided no added benefit. HIV seropositive FSWs responded particularly well to the interventions, suggesting the utility of brief strengths-based case management interventions for this population in future initiatives. PMID:24558098

Surratt, Hilary L.; O’Grady, Catherine; Kurtz, Steven P.; Levi-Minzi, Maria A.; Chen, Minxing

2014-01-01

405

Prevalence of human papillomavirus and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in Korean commercial sex workers.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the prevalence of sexually transmitted viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in Korean commercial sex workers (CSWs), we selected 188 CSWs (age range 20-44 years, median age 24 years) who regularly visited one public health center in Seoul, Korea. HPV genotypes were analyzed by using a HPV DNA chip, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect type-specific IgG against HSV2 antibody identifying seropositivity for HSV2 infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with specific primers to detect HPV and HSV1/2 in cervical swabs from the CSWs. The prevalence of HPV infection was 83.5% in 188 cervical swab specimens and the main high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV16, 18, 56, and 58. The principal low-risk HPV genotypes were HPV6 and 11. The prevalence of HSV1/2 DNA was 13.8% and HSV2 seroprevalence was 86.2%. These results suggest that high frequencies of HPV and HSV2 infection might contribute to the rapid spread of STD viruses in CSWs in Korea. Additionally, an understanding of why high-risk HPV genotypes are so prevalent could provide guidelines for prophylactic vaccine development in Korea. PMID:18309283

Yun, Haesun; Park, Jeongjoo; Choi, Inkyung; Kee, Meekyung; Choi, Byeongsun; Kim, Sungsoon

2008-02-01

406

Risky Behaviors among HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Northern Karnataka, India  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Little is known about the risky sexual behaviors of HIV-positive female sex workers (FSWs) in the developing world, which is critical for programmatic purposes. This study aims to shed light on their condom use with regular clients as well as husband/cohabiting partner, a first in India. Methods. Multivariate logistic regression analyses for consistent condom use with regular clients and husband/cohabiting partner are conducted for the sample of 606 HIV-positive FSWs. Results. Older FSWs are 90% less likely and nonmobile FSWs are 70% less likely to consistently use condoms. FSWs on ART are 3.84 times more likely to use condoms. Additionally, FSWs who changed their occupation after HIV diagnosis are 70% less likely to use condoms. FSWs who are currently cohabiting are more likely to consistently use condoms with repeat clients and are 3.22 times more likely to do so if they have felt stigma associated with being HIV-positive. FSWs who have multiple repeat clients, and who do not know the sexual behavior of these clients, are more likely to use condoms consistently. Conclusion. This study would help inform programs to target the following particularly vulnerable HIV-positive FSWs: those who are older, those who changed their occupation post-HIV diagnosis, and those who are nonmobile. PMID:23365728

Jadhav, Apoorva; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Raghavendra, T.; Blanchard, James; Moses, Stephen; Isac, Shajy; Halli, Shiva S.

2013-01-01

407

Grassroots Participation, Peer Education, and HIV Prevention by Sex Workers in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This microqualitative case study of a community-based peer education program led by sex workers at a South African mine examined the role of grassroots participation in sexual health promotion. Methods. The study involved in-depth interviews with 30 members of the target community. The interviews were analyzed in terms of social capital, empowerment, and identity. Results. The study yielded a detailed analysis of the way in which community dynamics have shaped the peer education program's development in a deprived, violent community where existing norms and networks are inconsistent with ideal criteria for participatory health promotion. Conclusions. Much remains to be learned about the complexities of translating theoretically and politically vital notions of “community participation” into practice among hard-to-reach groups. The fabric of local community life is shaped by nonlocal structural conditions of poverty and sexual inequality in ways that challenge those seeking to theorize the role of social capital in community development in general and in sexual health promotion in particular. PMID:11726380

Campbell, Catherine; Mzaidume, Zodwa

2001-01-01

408

Vulnerability to sexual violence and participation in sex work among high-end entertainment centre workers in Hunan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Background China has seen a proliferation of entertainment centres that are frequented by business people. Employees at these centres often are young, female rural-to-urban migrants who may be vulnerable to sexual violence and exploitation. Methods Data for this study were collected using a self-administered survey among male and female employees in two high-end entertainment centres in Changsha, Hunan Province, China. We used logistic regression to examine predictors of violent and potentially exploitative experiences (partner violence, forced sex and transactional sex). Predictors included gender, ever having a same-sex partner, migration variables and employment characteristics. Results Participants reported high levels of partner violence (16.0% ever and 9.0% in the past 3 months) and forced sex (13.9% ever and 5.5% in the past 3 months). Nineteen percent reported sex work in the past 3 months. In the multivariate regressions, ever having had a same-sex partner was associated with higher odds of ever having experienced partner violence (odds ratio (OR) = 7.8, P < 0.001), partner violence in the past 3 months (OR = 9.0, P < 0.001), ever having had transactional sex (OR = 6.0, P < 0.001) and transactional sex in the past 3 months (OR = 5.2, P = 0.001). After adjusting for transactional sex, the association between having had a same-sex partner and partner violence remained significant. Neither gender nor migration status was associated with any of the outcomes. Conclusion High-end entertainment centre workers in China are at risk for sexual violence and should be targeted with employment-based interventions. PMID:23809910

Kelvin, Elizabeth A.; Sun, Xiaoming; Mantell, Joanne E.; Zhou, Jianfang; Mao, Jingshu; Peng, Yanhui

2013-01-01

409

Low prevalences of HIV infection and sexually transmitted disease among female commercial sex workers in Mexico City.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study tried to determine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalences among female commercial sex workers in Mexico City. METHODS: A sampling frame was constructed that included bars, massage parlors, and street corners. RESULTS: Prevalences for Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus type 2, HIV, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Chlamydia trachomatis were 6.4%, 65%, 0.6%, 3.7%, and 11.1%, respectively. A significant association was found between higher STD frequencies and working at street sites. CONCLUSIONS: Most STD frequencies were lower in comparison with rates found for female sex workers in other countries. However, preventive programs against STD/ HIV are needed in this population. PMID:9224186

Uribe-Salas, F; Hernández-Avila, M; Conde-González, C J; Juárez-Figueroa, L; Allen, B; Anaya-Ocampo, R; Del Río-Chiriboga, C; Uribe-Zúñiga, P; de Zalduondo, B

1997-01-01

410

Randomized trial of HPV4 vaccine assessing the response to HPV4 vaccine in two schedules among Peruvian female sex workers  

PubMed Central

Two hundred female sex workers (FSWs) in Lima, Peru were randomized to receive HPV4 vaccine in the standard (0, 2, 6 months) or a modified schedule (0, 3, 6 months). One hundred and eighty four (92%) participants completed 3 doses of vaccine. Baseline seropositive rates were 58% for HPV6, 22.5% for HPV11, 41.5% for HPV16, and 13% for HPV18. The final geometric mean antibody titer (GMT) following vaccination was significantly greater for women who were seropositive at baseline compared to seronegative women: HPV6 (GMT ratio=2.3, p<0.01), HPV11 (GMT ratio=2.7, p<0.01), HPV16 (GMT ratio=1.3, p=0.04), and HPV18 (GMT ratio=2.4, p<0.01)). Antibody titers in the modified schedule were not inferior to those in the standard schedule, suggesting the modified schedule may be paired with required STD visits. Although all women benefit from vaccination, administration at a younger age and before sexual debut is needed to achieve maximum protection from vaccine. PMID:22306855

Brown, Brandon; Blas, Magaly; Cabral, Alejandra; Carcamo, Cesar; Gravitt, Patti; Halsey, Neal

2012-01-01

411

Sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases in street-based female sex workers in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of street-based female sex workers (SFSWs) of Rajshahi city and examined their socio-demographic profiles. Among the SFSWs attending three drop- in centers (DIC) named PIACT, PROVA, and Suraksha Madhumita in Rajshahi, 150 self-motivated and willing individuals were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to obtain obstetric histories and socio-demographic information. Among

Nazrul Islam Mondal; Kamal Hossain; Rafiqul Islam; Abul Bashar Mian

2008-01-01

412

Factors Associated with Utilization of a Free HIV VCT Clinic by Female Sex Workers in Jinan City, Northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on our previous qualitative exploration, this research presents the second phase in our study of factors associated\\u000a with utilization of a free HIV VCT clinic in Jinan City, Northern China, by female sex workers (FSWs). A total of 970 FSWs\\u000a from entertainment venues were interviewed and prospectively followed to determine who ultimately sought and received VCT\\u000a at the clinic,

Ying Wang; Bing Li; Jingbin Pan; Sohini Sengupta; Catherine Boland Emrick; Myron S. Cohen; Gail E. Henderson

2011-01-01

413

Circular Migration by Mexican Female Sex Workers Who are Injection Drug Users: Implications for HIV in Mexican Sending Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circular migration and injection drug use increase the risk of HIV transmission in sending communities. We describe female\\u000a sex workers who are injection drug users’ (FSW-IDUs) circular migration and drug use behaviors. Between 2008-2010, 258 migrant\\u000a FSW-IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico responded to questionnaires. 24% of FSW-IDUs were circular migrants.\\u000a HIV prevalence was 3.2% in circular migrants

Victoria D. Ojeda; José Luis Burgos; Sarah P. Hiller; Remedios Lozada; Gudelia Rangel; Alicia Vera; Irina Artamonova; Carlos Magis-Rodriguez

414

Relation between sick leave and selected exposure variables among women semiconductor workers in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine the relation between sick leave and selected exposure variables among women semiconductor workers. Methods: This was a cross sectional survey of production workers from 18 semiconductor factories. Those selected had to be women, direct production operators up to the level of line leader, and Malaysian citizens. Sick leave and exposure to physical and chemical hazards were determined by self reporting. Three sick leave variables were used; number of sick leave days taken in the past year was the variable of interest in logistic regression models where the effects of age, marital status, work task, work schedule, work section, and duration of work in factory and work section were also explored. Results: Marital status was strongly linked to the taking of sick leave. Age, work schedule, and duration of work in the factory were significant confounders only in certain cases. After adjusting for these confounders, chemical and physical exposures, with the exception of poor ventilation and smelling chemicals, showed no significant relation to the taking of sick leave within the past year. Work section was a good predictor for taking sick leave, as wafer polishing workers faced higher odds of taking sick leave for each of the three cut off points of seven days, three days, and not at all, while parts assembly workers also faced significantly higher odds of taking sick leave. Conclusion: In Malaysia, the wafer fabrication factories only carry out a limited portion of the work processes, in particular, wafer polishing and the processes immediately prior to and following it. This study, in showing higher illness rates for workers in wafer polishing compared to semiconductor assembly, has implications for the governmental policy of encouraging the setting up of wafer fabrication plants with the full range of work processes. PMID:12660374

Chee, H; Rampal, K

2003-01-01

415

Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: Study design, ethics, and methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trafficking of women and children for work in the globalized sex industry is a global social problem. Quality data is needed to provide a basis for legislation, policy, and programs, but first, numerous research design, ethical, and methodological problems must be addressed. Research design issues in studying women trafficked for sex work (WTSW) include how to (a) develop coalitions

Julie Cwikel; Elizabeth Hoban

2005-01-01

416