Sample records for women sex workers

  1. An Effective HIV Risk Reduction Protocol for Drug-Using Women Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Surratt, Hilary L.; Inciardi, James A.

    2010-01-01

    HIV prevention is an especially salient issue for women, given the ongoing feminization of the epidemic. Female sex workers are especially vulnerable to HIV infection, particularly those who are drug-using and engage in street-based sex exchange. This paper examines risk behaviors and HIV serostatus of 806 drug-using women sex workers in Miami, Florida, and assesses the relative impact of two HIV and hepatitis prevention interventions on changes in risk behavior. Drug-using sex workers were recruited using targeted sampling strategies and were randomly assigned to one of two intervention conditions – the NIDA Standard, or an innovative Sex-Worker Focused (SWF) intervention. Interview data were collected pre-intervention and 3 and 6 months post-intervention, and blood samples were collected for HIV and hepatitis B and C testing. Overall, 21% of the sample tested HIV positive. Outcome analyses indicate that both groups benefited from participation in the intervention trial. However, the SWF intervention was found to be more efficacious with reductions in unprotected oral sex, and sexual violence. These data support the importance of HIV testing and intervention programs for drug-using women sex workers. PMID:20391059

  2. Living the reality of forced sex work: perspectives from young migrant women sex workers in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rushing, Rosanne; Watts, Charlotte; Rushing, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Young women are often lured or forced into selling sex as a result of migrating from rural to urban areas to find work. In this setting, they are exposed to high-risk situations, which may leave them vulnerable to exploitation. Using interviews with young migrant women currently working as sex workers in northern Vietnam, we recorded the perspectives of their initiation into sex work and life as a sex worker. The study found that high levels of forced sex and sexual exploitation were experienced by the majority of the young women interviewed. The young women describe their entry into sex work, first sexual experience (intercourse), violence, and condom negotiation and use. Although access to health care was available, the young women perceived the stigma attached to sex work as a barrier to receiving health care, and thus, preferred health education and care from peers. Health education programs focusing on peer education and support are essential for protecting and empowering these young women. In addition, policies and programs must work toward effective strategies to protect young migrant women. PMID:15973256

  3. Comparison of Abnormal Cervical Cytology from HIV Positive Women, Female Sex Workers and General Population

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Homeira; Asadi, Nasrin; Foroughinia, Leila; Salehi, Alireza; Kuhnavard, Safieh; Akbarzadeh, Mojgan; Ravanbod, Hamid Reza; Mohamadalian, Ferdos; Kasraeian, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background Sex workers and HIV seropositive women are at high risk of abnormal cervical cytology. The objective of this study was to compare the cervical cytology among three groups of women: active sex workers, HIV-infected women, and general population in Iran. Methods This was a cross-sectional study performed in Hazrat Zeinab, Lavan clinics and drop in center (DIC) in Shiraz, Iran. This study was performed from October 2009 to October 2011. A total of 266 patients were assigned into three groups: sex-workers (85), HIV positive patients (100), and general population (81). Pap smear was performed for all participants from the exocervix and endocervix, using a plastic Ayres’s spatula and cytobrush. The samples were sent to a pathology center, using a liquid-based media.  Results The risk of cervical infection in sex workers and HIV positive women was greater than the general population (OR=5.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]:2.24, 13.40), (OR=3.71, 95% CI:1.52, 9.09), respectively. The frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in the HIV positive and sex worker groups was higher than the general population (OR=6. 76, 95% CI:2.25, 20.32), (OR=3. 80, 95% CI:1.19, 12.07), respectively. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were associated with CD4 cell count<200Í106/L, P=0.021 and P<0.001, respectively. Conclusion Vaginal infections were seen more often in the sex worker group, and abnormal cervical cytology was greater in the HIV positive group. PMID:26005687

  4. When Street Sex Workers Are Mothers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine M. Sloss; Gary W. Harper

    2004-01-01

    Many women who engage in street sex work experience pregnancies and become mothers. Unfortunately, little research has examined how their pregnancies and parenting impact themselves as street sex workers and their street sex work. In this qualitative research study, 16 mothers who were currently involved in street sex work in a Midwestern city of the United States participated in semistructured

  5. Sex workers self-organizing and empowerment : the experience of Women’s Network for Unity (WNU) in Cambodia : article produced as part of the KIC Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Womyn's Agenda for Change

    2007-01-01

    Many organizations that are working with sex workers have learned that it is ineffective to provide HIV and other health services to them if they do not consider – and address – sex workers’ work environments, where many cases of human rights violations can be found. Thus, they gradually move into rights-based activities. By reframing sex workers’ health as a

  6. Women of courage: commercial sex workers mobilize for HIV / AIDS prevention in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Williams, E E

    1994-05-01

    The Calabar Project in Nigeria, which seeks to reduce the vulnerability of prostitutes to HIV infection, began informally in 1987. By 1988, a formal, community-based intervention was created to promote condom use, provide health education as well as literacy and vocational training, and seek better working and living conditions for the prostitutes. The first task of the Calabar Project was to overcome the resistance of the hotel owners and managers where the prostitutes work and to win the confidence of the women. The owners and managers had to be convinced that it was in their best interest for the women to insist on condom use by their clients. The women had to be informed about the nature of HIV/AIDS and to be convinced that the project sought improvements in their general welfare. This was accomplished by helping the prostitutes improve both their relationship with the local police and their access to health services. Negotiations with hotel owners stabilized the prostitutes' rent for a year to enable the women to increase their charges for services and reduce the number of clients they needed so they could insist on condom use. Peer educators were trained to provide health education and to teach prostitutes techniques to get clients to use condoms. Clients were reached through the prostitutes and by providing information to small groups in hotel bars. Condoms were initially distributed for free and eventually were sold through a social marketing program. Peer educators also encouraged prostitutes and their clients to use a clinic the project established to diagnose and treat sexually transmitted diseases. In 1993, the Calabar Project helped create a vocational and literacy training center to improve the women's ability to understand the complex issues related to HIV/AIDS and to give the women a way to supplement their income and improve their self-esteem. By this time, more than 60% of the women reported using condoms for all sex acts. PMID:12345902

  7. RISKY HEALTH ENVIRONMENTS:WOMEN SEX WORKERS’ STRUGGLES TO FIND SAFE, SECURE AND NON-EXPLOITATIVE HOUSING IN CANADA’S POOREST POSTAL CODE

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, L; Chettiar, J; Deering, K; Nabess, R; Shannon, K

    2011-01-01

    This study explored low-income and transitional housing environments of women sex workers and their role in shaping agency and power in negotiating safety and sexual risk reduction in Vancouver, Canada. A series of 12 focus group discussions were conducted with 73 women currently involved in street-based sex work. These women were purposively sampled for a range of experiences living in low-income housing environments, including homeless shelters, transitional housing, and co-ed and women-only single room occupancy (SRO) hotels. Drawing on the risk environment framework and theoretical constructs of gender, agency and power, analyses demonstrate that women continue to be vulnerable to violence and sexual and economic exploitation and have reduced ability to negotiate risk reduction resulting from the physical, structural and social environments of current dominant male-centred housing models. Within the physical environment, women described inhabitable housing conditions in SROs with infestations of bedbugs and rats, leading women to even more transitional housing options such as shelters and couch-surfing. In many cases, this resulted in their economic exploitation and increased sexual risk. Within the structural environment, enforcement of curfews and guest policies forced women to accept risky clients to meet curfew, or work outdoors where their ability to negotiate safety and condom use were limited. Certain policies promoted women’s agency and mitigated their ability to reduce risks when selling sex. These included flexible curfews and being able to bring clients home. The social environments of co-ed single-room occupancy hotels resulted in repeated violence by male residents and discrimination by male building staff. Women-only shelters and SROs facilitated ‘enabling environments’ where women developed support systems with other working women that resulted in safer work practices. The narratives expressed in this study reveal the critical need for public health interventions and safer supportive housing to account for the daily lived experiences of women sex workers. PMID:22018526

  8. Vulnerability on the streets: Female sex workers and HIV risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. PYETT; D. J. WARR

    1997-01-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 purposively selected female sex workers who were perceived to be vulnerable to risks associated with their lifestyle and occupation. Brothel workers were found to be considerably less exposed to risk than the women working on the streets. Client resistance was the major obstacle to women maintaining safe sex practices. Physical threats and coercion from

  9. Governing sex workers in Timor Leste.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that international security forces in Timor Leste depend upon civilian partners in HIV/AIDs "knowledge networks" to monitor prostitutes' disease status. These networks produce mobile expertise, techniques of government and forms of personhood that facilitate international government of distant populations without overt coercion. HIV/AIDs experts promote techniques of peer education, empowerment and community mobilisation to construct women who sell sex as health conscious sex workers. Such techniques make impoverished women responsible for their disease status, obscuring the political and economic contexts that produced that status. In the militarised context of Timor Leste, knowledge of the sexual conduct of sub-populations labelled high risk circulates among global HIV/AIDs knowledge networks, confirming their expert status while obscuring the sexual harm produced by military intervention. HIV/AIDs knowledge networks have recently begun to build Timorese sex worker organisations by contracting an Australian sex worker NGO to train a Timorese NGO tasked with building sex worker identity and community. Such efforts fail to address the needs and priorities of the women supposedly empowered. The paper engages theories of global knowledge networks, mobile technologies of government, and governmentality to analyse policy documents, reports, programmes, official statements, speeches, and journalistic accounts regarding prostitution in Timor Leste. PMID:21847829

  10. Enhancing benefits or increasing harms: community responses for HIV among men who have sex with men, transgender women, female sex workers, and people who inject drugs.

    PubMed

    Baral, Stefan; Holland, Claire E; Shannon, Kate; Logie, Carmen; Semugoma, Paul; Sithole, Bhekie; Papworth, Erin; Drame, Fatou; Beyrer, Chris

    2014-08-15

    Studies completed over the past 15 years have consistently demonstrated the importance of community-level determinants in potentiating or mitigating risks for the acquisition and transmission of HIV. Structural determinants are especially important in mediating HIV risk among key populations, including men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, sex workers of all genders, and transgender women. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidence characterizing the community-level determinants that potentiate or mitigate HIV-related outcomes for key populations. The results of the review suggest that although health communication programs represent community-level strategies that have demonstrated the effectiveness in increasing the uptake of HIV testing and decreasing the experienced stigma among people living with HIV, there are limited studies focused on key populations in low- and middle-income settings. Moreover, interpretation from the 22 studies that met inclusion and exclusion criteria reinforce the importance of the continued measurement of community-level determinants of HIV risks and of the innovation in tools to effectively address these risks as components of the next generation of the HIV response. Consequently, the next generation of effective HIV prevention science research must improve our understanding of the multiple levels of HIV risk factors, while programming for key populations must address each of these risk levels. Failure to do so will cost lives, harm communities, and undermine the gains of the HIV response. PMID:25007203

  11. Male Sex Workers in Three Australian Cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Minichiello; Rodrigo Marino; Jan Browne; Maggie Jamieson; Kirk Peterson; Brad Reuter; Kenn Robinson

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic and sex work characteristics of sex workers in Sydney, Melbourne, and Brisbane. A total of 185 male sex workers completed the questionnaire component of the study. The results of this study serve to debunk many of the myths surrounding the popular view of the male sex worker (MS W). The respondents in this study were

  12. Drug-Using Sex Workers in the Streets of Valencia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carme Ripoll Alantes; José Salazar Fraile; J. Bryan Page

    2002-01-01

    In order to characterize factors that affect sex work and their influence on risk practices, this ethnographic study carried out in a barrio in Valencia describes female sex workers who use illegal drugs, some who inject drugs and some who do not. A study conducted ten years earlier had shown that women in this setting who injected drugs had more

  13. Linking female sex workers with substance abuse treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry A. Nuttbrock; Andrew Rosenblum; Stephen Magura; Cherie Villano; Joyce Wallace

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated mobile street-based outreach as a modality for linking street-walking female sex workers with substance abuse treatment in New York City. Sex workers (N = 179) approaching an existing outreach facility were randomly assigned to receive usually provided services, or to receive an enhanced version of these services. Among the 144 women successfully followed for 6 months, 35.0% were

  14. Criminalization, legalization or decriminalization of sex work: what female sex workers say in San Francisco, USA.

    PubMed

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Cohan, Deborah

    2009-11-01

    Sex work is a criminal offence in San Francisco, USA, and sex work advocates have so far unsuccessfully campaigned for decriminalizing it. Some groups argue that the decriminalization movement does not represent the voices of marginalized sex workers. Using qualitative and quantitative data from the Sex Worker Environmental Assessment Team Study, we investigated the perspectives and experiences of a range of female sex workers regarding the legal status of sex work and the impact of criminal law on their work experiences. Forty women were enrolled in the qualitative phase in 2004 and 247 women in the quantitative phase in 2006-07. Overall, the women in this study seemed to prefer a hybrid of legalization and decriminalization. The majority voiced a preference for removing statutes that criminalize sex work in order to facilitate a social and political environment where they had legal rights and could seek help when they were victims of violence. Advocacy groups need to explore the compromises sex workers are willing to make to ensure safe working conditions and the same legal protections afforded to other workers, and with those who are most marginalized to better understand their immediate needs and how these can be met through decriminalization. PMID:19962636

  15. UNDERUTILIZATION OF WOMEN WORKERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    INFORMATION ABOUT THE STATUS OF WORKING WOMEN AND THEIR UNDERUTILIZATION IN THE NATIONAL WORK FORCE IS PRESENTED IN SUMMARY AND GRAPH FORM. ALTHOUGH PROGRESS HAS BEEN MADE IN ASSURING WOMEN EQUALITY OF PAY AND NONDISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT, MUCH NEEDS TO BE DONE TO IMPROVE THE UTILIZATION OF THEIR ABILITIES. MOST WOMEN WORK TO SUPPORT THEMSELVES…

  16. Automation and Women Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Jean A.

    To determine the repercussions of scientific and technological progress on the employment of women and their conditions of work, the Women's Bureau used available statistical data from 1958-68 to study: (1) Employment and Unemployment, (2) Vocational Guidance and Training, (3) Training and Retraining of Older Women, (4) Remuneration, (5) Hours of…

  17. Sex work among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Bogotá.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Fernanda T; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Vidal-Ortiz, Salvador; Gonzales, Felisa A; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    This qualitative study examined sex work among internally displaced male and transgender female sex workers in Bogotá, Colombia. Internal displacement has occurred in Colombia as a result of decades of conflict among armed groups and has created large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Informed by the polymorphous model of sex work, which posits that contextual conditions shape the experience of sex work, we examined three main research questions. The first dealt with how internal displacement was related to the initiation of sex work; the second concerned the effect of agency on sex worker satisfaction; and the third examined how sex work in this context was related to HIV and other risks. Life history interviews were conducted with 26 displaced individuals who had done sex work: 14 were men who have sex with men and 12 were transgender women (natal males). Findings revealed that many participants began doing sex work in the period immediately after displacement, because of a lack of money, housing, and social support. HIV risk was greater during this time due to limited knowledge of HIV and inexperience negotiating safer sex with clients. Other findings indicated that sex workers who exerted more control and choice in the circumstances of their work reported greater satisfaction. In addition, we found that although many sex workers insisted on condom use with clients, several noted that they would sometimes have unprotected sex for additional money. Specific characteristics affecting the experience of sex work among the transgender women were also discussed. PMID:24464550

  18. Acceptability of a Microenterprise Intervention Among Female Sex Workers in Chennai, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan G. ShermanA; A. K. Srikrishnan; Katharine A. Rivett; Su-Hsun Liu; Suniti Solomon; David D. Celentano

    2010-01-01

    Female sex workers have been central in India’s HIV epidemic since it was first diagnosed among them in 1989. Female sex workers’\\u000a risk of HIV is primarily economically motivated. The Pi pilot study examined the feasibility and association of a microenterprise\\u000a intervention, the tailoring of canvas bags, on sexual risk behaviors among female sex workers (N = 100) in Chennai. Women were

  19. Health care of female commercial sex workers.

    PubMed

    Mårdh, P A; Shoubnikova, M; Genç, M; Chaplinkas, S; Unzeitig, V

    1999-09-01

    This article highlights health issues related to prostitution, with special reference to the situation in Europe. Strategies aimed at improving the health care of commercial sex workers, including programs for screening for sexually transmitted infections, are discussed. Problems related to failure to follow-up, particularly of mobile (migratory, international) commercial sex workers, are considered. Other topics covered include counselling on sexual risk reduction, including medical hotline telephone services and clinical outreach work. Counselling commercial sex workers on contraception, desired termination of pregnancy and hazards of illicit drug use are also highlighted. The public-health consequences of delivering poor health care to commercial sex workers are generally severely underestimated, particularly in societies where prostitution is illegal. PMID:10574642

  20. Abortion services for sex workers in Uganda: successful strategies in an urban clinic.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Heather M; Shellenberg, Kristen; Yegon, Erick

    2014-01-01

    Sex workers' need for safe abortion services in Uganda is greater than that of the population of women of reproductive age because of their number of sexual contacts, the inconsistent use of contraception and their increased risk of forced sex, rape or other forms of physical and sexual violence. We sought to understand sex workers' experiences with induced abortion services or post-abortion care (PAC) at an urban clinic in Uganda. We conducted nine in-depth interviews with sex workers. All in-depth interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, computer recorded and coded for analysis. We identified several important programmatic considerations for safe abortion services for sex workers. Most important is creating community-level interventions in which women can speak openly about abortion, creating a support network among sex workers, training peer educators, and making available a community outreach educator and community outreach workshops on abortion. At the health facility, it is important for service providers to treat sex workers with care and respect, allow sex workers to be accompanied to the health facility and guarantee confidentiality. These programmatic elements help sex workers to access safe abortion services and should be tried with all women of reproductive age to improve women's access to safe abortion in Uganda. PMID:24945605

  1. Can sex workers regulate police? Learning from an HIV prevention project for sex workers in southern India.

    PubMed

    Biradavolu, Monica Rao; Burris, Scott; George, Annie; Jena, Asima; Blankenship, Kim M

    2009-04-01

    There is an argument that policing practices exacerbate HIV risk, particularly for female sex workers. Interventions that mobilize sex workers to seek changes in laws and law enforcement practices have been prominent in India and have received considerable scholarly attention. Yet, there are few studies on the strategies sex worker advocates use to modify police behavior or the struggles they face in challenging state institutions. This paper draws upon contemporary theories of governance and non-state regulation to analyze the evolving strategies of an HIV prevention non-governmental organization (NGO) and female sex worker community-based organizations (CBOs) to reform police practices in southern India. Using detailed ethnographic observations of NGO and CBO activities over a two year period, and key informant interviews with various actors in the sex trade, this paper shows how a powerless group of marginalized and stigmatized women were able to leverage the combined forces of community empowerment, collective action and network-based governance to regulate a powerful state actor, and considers the impact of the advocacy strategies on sex worker well-being. PMID:19261364

  2. Access to HIV testing for sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand: a high prevalence of HIV among street-based sex workers.

    PubMed

    Nhurod, P; Bollen, L J M; Smutraprapoot, P; Suksripanich, O; Siangphoe, U; Lolekha, R; Manomaipiboon, P; Nandavisai, C; Anekvorapong, R; Supawitkul, S; Subhachaturas, W; Akarasewi, P; Fox, K K

    2010-01-01

    We offered voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for HIV and syphilis to women attending three public sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Bangkok, Thailand from May 2004 to June 2006. The testing was performed at either one of three STI clinics in Bangkok or at mobile VCT in the same area as the outreach activity. Six-hundred eighty-four women were tested. The HIV prevalences among the street-based sex workers, brothel-based sex workers and other women in these areas not reporting sex work who tested in the clinics were 45.8% (38/83), 4.2% (10/236) and 9.9% (28/284), respectively. The prevalences of syphilis in these groups were 13.3%, 2.1%, and 2.6%, respectively. Street-based sex work and longer duration of sex work were independent risk factors for HIV in-fection (p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). HIV and syphilis prevalences were 21.0% and 3.7% among 81 street-based sex workers accepting mobile VCT, The street-based sex workers in Bangkok had substantially higher HIV and syphilis prevalences than other sex workers. Street-based sex workers should be sampled during routine surveillance to obtain systematic information on disease preva-lence and risk behaviors in this group. PMID:20578494

  3. Social Support and Sexual Risk Among Establishment-Based Female Sex Workers in Tijuana.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Shonali Mona; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Park, Kyuwon; Anglade, Debbie

    2015-08-01

    Social support can affect health outcomes of female sex workers. In this inductive feminist grounded theory study based on 20 in-depth interviews, we explore how establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana perceive the impact of the connections among women on their lives and health. Participants elected to discuss the importance of social support from mothers, sisters, friends, and co-workers, and the empowering and disempowering aspects of these relationships. In previous studies, scholars demonstrated the efficacy of formal organization of female sex workers in promoting the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. We show the importance of informal ties with other women. Some participants mentioned competitive relationships, others talked about cooperation and the desire for a venue to learn from one another. Social interactions with other women are especially empowering when female sex workers can openly engage in "woman talk" that may contribute to the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. PMID:25991735

  4. Risky Business: Sex-work and Young Southeast Asian American Women in Oakland

    E-print Network

    U, Nicol

    2008-01-01

    youth sex-workers (Hoyt, Ryan and Cauce 1999; Flowers 2001a), most of these youngYoung SEA American women were initially recruited through pre-existing relationships with youth-serving providers such as school counselors, social workers,

  5. Womanhood first: sex workers & infertility in Pune city

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Apte; L. Mali; M. Navle; S. Revle

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study is based on interviews and group discussions with 107 sex workers from the red?light district of Pune city, Maharashtra, India. Data were collected on the stigma of infertility and how sex workers deal with it. It was found that because sex workers have sex outside marriage, they are stigmatized for not fitting the ‘ideal’ image of womanhood.

  6. HIV Prevention Among Sex Workers in India

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Ishika; Jana, Smarajit; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Lee, Sung-Jae; Newman, Peter; Weiss, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Summary To test the efficacy of a sustainable community-level HIV intervention among sex workers, the Sonagachi Project was replicated, including community organizing and advocacy, peer education, condom social marketing, and establishment of a health clinic. Sex workers were randomly selected in 2 small urban communities in northeastern India (n = 100 each) and assessed every 5–6 months over 15 months (85% retention). Overall condom use increased significantly in the intervention community (39%) compared with the control community (11%), and the proportion of consistent condom users increased 25% in the intervention community compared with a 16% decrease in the control community. This study supports the efficacy of the Sonagachi model intervention in increasing condom use and maintaining low HIV prevalence among sex workers. PMID:15213569

  7. Prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence among a prospective cohort of female sex workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate Shannon; T Kerr; S A Strathdee; J Shoveller; J S Montaner; M W Tyndall

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence against female sex workers in an environment of criminalised prostitution.Design Prospective observational study.Setting Vancouver, Canada during 2006-8.Participants Female sex workers 14 years of age or older (inclusive of transgender women) who used illicit drugs (excluding marijuana) and engaged in street level sex work. Main outcome measure Self reported

  8. Women Migrant Workers: Embracing Empowerment Over Victimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill Borak

    This paper focuses on women migrant workers - women who leave their countries, whether taking their families or leaving them behind, in search of employment and economic opportunity abroad. After a discussion of the recent globalization of migration, this paper continues with an examination of the feminization of migration. Part II then discusses how men and women workers experience migration

  9. A Descriptive Profile of Abused Female Sex Workers in India

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sethulakshmi C.; Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, A.K.; Zelaya, Carla; Solomon, Suniti; Go, Vivian F.; Celentano, David

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study presents the profiles of abused female sex workers (FSWs) in Chennai, India. Of 100 abused FSWs surveyed using a structured questionnaire, severe forms of violence by intimate partners were reported by most (98%) respondents. Of the total sample, 76% experienced violence by clients. Sexual coercion experiences of the FSWs included verbal threats (77%) and physical force (87%) by intimate partners and forced unwanted sexual acts (73%) by clients. While 39% of the women consumed alcohol before meeting a client, 26% reported that their drunkenness was a trigger for violence by clients. The findings suggest that there is an urgent need to integrate services, along with public-health interventions among FSWs to protect them from violence. Recognition of multiple identities of women in the contexts of intimate relationships versus sex work is vital in helping women to stay safe from adverse effects on health. PMID:20635631

  10. Never innocent victims: street sex workers in Canadian print media.

    PubMed

    Strega, Susan; Janzen, Caitlin; Morgan, Jeannie; Brown, Leslie; Thomas, Robina; Carriére, Jeannine

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, street sex workers and their families garnered considerable media attention through extensive coverage of disappeared and murdered women in Western Canada. The research presented here examines whether recent media accounts differ from past coverage given that families and friends of disappeared and unaccounted for women inserted themselves into media discussions and circulated alternative readings of their stories. We found that coverage was dominated by two discourses: Vermin-victim discourse demonstrates the tensions between historically dominant conceptualizations and more recent ideas promulgated by families; and risky lifestyle discourse is related to neo-liberal ideologies about personal choice and responsibility. PMID:24476757

  11. Women brothel workers and occupational health risks

    PubMed Central

    Cwikel, J; Ilan, K; Chudakov, B

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: This study examined working conditions, reported morbidity, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression and their relation to an index of occupational health risk among women working in brothels in Israel. Design: Personal structured interviews with a scale of occupational risk that included seven self report items reflecting past and present morbidity and symptoms. Participants and setting: A purposive sample of 55 women in three cities in Israel, between the ages of 18–38. Main results: Most (82%) women were trafficked into Israel to work illegally in prostitution, effectively deriving them of access to discretionary health care. A third of the sample (32%) had a high score (between 3 to 6) on the index of occupational risk factors. A high score was not related to recent physician or gynaecological visits and was more common among illegal workers than those with residence status. A set of regression analyses showed that the most significant predictors of reporting a high level of occupational risk symptoms were starting sex work at an early age, the number of hours worked in a day, a history of suicide attempts and PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: High occupational risk was found to be unrelated to recent physician or gynaecological visits, indicating that these visits were most probably controlled by the brothel owners and not by medical need as perceived by the women themselves. Furthermore, occupational risk factors were associated with some of the working and background conditions reported by women brothel workers. There is an urgent need for medical care for this high risk group. PMID:14573588

  12. Alcohol Use, Unprotected Sex, and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Zhang, Lei; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective Alcohol use has been suggested to interfere with condom use and to increase sexual risk behaviors. However, data on the prevalence of this practice among female sex workers and its association with condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are limited. Methods Data were collected through the baseline survey of an HIV prevention project among 454 establishment-based female sex workers in Guangxi, China, in 2004. Both global association and situational analysis were performed using 2 measures of alcohol use (alcohol intoxication and drinking alcohol before having sex with a client). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association of alcohol use with women's condom use and STIs. Results One-third of women reported being intoxicated with alcohol at least once a month during the previous 6 months, and about 30% reported using alcohol before having sex with clients. In comparison with women who did not use alcohol before engaging in sex with clients, women who did so reported significantly less consistent condom use and higher rates of both current STIs and a history of STI. However, alcohol intoxication was not associated with condom use and STIs. These findings indicate event-specific rather than global associations of alcohol use with inconsistent condom use and STIs. Conclusion Alcohol use before commercial sex is associated with unprotected sex and increased risk for STIs. Interventions that address both alcohol use and HIV risk behaviors in the context of commercial sex may have a great impact in preventing the spread of HIV in China. PMID:20601927

  13. Sex workers, unite! (Litigating for sex workers' freedom of association in Russia).

    PubMed

    Arps, F S E Freddie; Golichenko, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The existing legal framework in Russia makes sex work and related activities punishable offenses, leaving sex workers stigmatized, vulnerable to violence, and disproportionally affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. In 2013, the Ministry of Justice, supported by the courts, refused registration and official recognition to the first all-Russia association of sex workers, referring to the fact that sex work is under administrative and criminal punitive bans and therefore the right of association for sex workers is unjustified. In light of international human rights standards, in particular the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, we examine in this paper whether the overall punitive legal ban on sex work in Russia is discriminatory. The government's positive obligations concerning discrimination against sex workers whose activities are consensual and between adults, and whose working conditions leave them among society's most vulnerable, should outweigh their punitive laws and policies around sex work. The scope of legal criminalization is narrow: it should apply only in exceptional cases where it is clearly justified. PMID:25569722

  14. Effects of government registration on unprotected sex among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sirotin, Nicole; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Abramovitz, Daniela; Semple, Shirley J.; Bucardo, Jesús; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Sex work is partially regulated in Tijuana, but little is known of its health effects. A recent behavioral intervention among female sex workers (FSWs) decreased incidence of HIV/STIs by 40%. We evaluated effects of sex worker regulation on condom use among FSWs randomized to this intervention. Methods FSWs aged ?18 years who reported unprotected sex with ?1 client in the last 2 months and whether they were registered with Tijuana’s Municipal Health Department underwent a brief, theory-based behavioral intervention to increase condom use. At baseline and 6 months, women underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the effect of registration on numbers of unprotected sex acts and cumulative HIV/STI incidence. Results Of 187 women, 83 (44%) were registered. Lack of registration was associated with higher rates of unprotected sex (rate ratio: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3), compared to FSWs who were registered, after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions Registration predicted increased condom use among FSWs enrolled in a behavioral intervention. Public health programs designed to improve condom use among FSWs may benefit from understanding the impact of existing regulation systems on HIV risk behaviors. PMID:20956076

  15. Reframing the Interpretation of Sex Worker Health: A Behavioral–Structural Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tuminez, Astrid S.

    2011-01-01

    Expanding sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics in many parts of Asia increase the importance of effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/STI prevention programs for female sex workers. Designing sex worker health research and programs demands a well-stated conceptual approach, especially when one is interpreting the relationship between local policy environments and sex worker health. However, the core principles of the 2 most common conceptual approaches used in sex worker health programs—abolitionism and empowerment—have frequently divergent assumptions and implications. The abolitionist approach sees major aspects of the sex industry as fundamentally coercive and exploitative of women and supports dismantling all or parts of the sex sector. The empowerment approach strengthens sex workers’ agency and rights in order to build collective self-efficacy and have women invested in implementing their own HIV/STI prevention programs. This review compares these approaches using implication analysis and empirical cases from Asia. The misperception of an unresolvable gap between the 2 approaches ignores common ground that forms the basis of a new behavioral–structural conceptual framework. Explicitly accounting for the interaction between female sex worker behaviors and larger structures and policies, a behavioral–structural approach may provide a solid foundation for sex work research and programs. PMID:22043033

  16. Sexual health and use of condoms among local and international sex workers in Sydney.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, C C; Berry, G; Rohrsheim, R; Donovan, B

    1996-02-01

    This study analyzes data on all female sex workers who attended the Sydney Sexual Health Center for a first visit for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening during June 1, 1991, and May 31, 1993. International sex workers were identified as women who do not speak English at home and were born outside Australia. Diseases were confirmed clinically, by specimen or culture or by antibody or serological tests. Results apply to 91 local and 123 international prostitutes. 47% of international prostitutes and 34% of local prostitutes were aged 21-25 years. Most international sex workers spoke Thai or a Chinese dialect. 10% of local prostitutes were born in Asia. 90% of international prostitutes were born in Thailand, Malaysia, or China. Local prostitutes were better educated. 7% of the local prostitutes and none of the international sex workers had a history of injectable drug use. Local prostitutes tended to use condoms for birth control, and international prostitutes tended to use oral contraceptives. One international prostitute tested HIV positive. 1 in 7 international prostitutes had gonorrhea and the same proportion had chlamydia. Viral STDs (chronic hepatitis B, HIV infection, and genital warts) were more prevalent, but uncommon among international prostitutes. More international prostitutes had multiple STDs. 79 international sex workers and only 9 local sex workers had an STD. 47% of international sex workers and only 10% of local sex workers had worked overseas as a prostitute in the preceding 12 months. Over half of local sex workers and only 8% of international sex workers consistently used condoms. Failure to use condoms was associated with being an international sex worker. Inconsistent use of condoms among local prostitutes was related to increased age. PMID:8655167

  17. Typology of older female sex workers and sexual risks for HIV infection in China: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Chun; Sherman, Susan G.; Jiang, Baofa; Li, Xiaojing; Xu, Yongfang; Jiang, Zhenxia; Zang, Chunpeng

    2013-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to develop among older adults in China, including older female sex workers. Yet, few studies have been conducted among this relatively hidden population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the reasons for women's entry into sex work during their thirties and to develop typology of older women sex workers. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with sixty-three older women sex workers and six focus groups interviews with stakeholders were conducted in three cities in China in 2012. Data were analysed inductively using constant comparative method. The mean age of participants was 43 years old and the mean age of entry into sex work was 39 years old. The primary reasons for entry into sex work include heavy economic burdens, limited employment opportunities, and the appealing nature of sex work. Street-based and venue-based older sex workers were identified based on where they solicited clients. Street-based older sex workers were more likely to engage in unsafe commercial sex due to financial incentives, whereas those in entertainment venues were unlikely to use condoms with regular clients. The development of effective HIV interventions needs to consider older women sex workers unique characteristics and target factors that impede safer sex practices. PMID:23998493

  18. Posttraumatic stress disorder among female street-based sex workers in the greater Sydney area, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Roxburgh; Louisa Degenhardt; Jan Copeland

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper examines rates of exposure to work-related violence and other trauma, and the prevalence of lifetime and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among female street-based sex workers. It also investigates associations between current PTSD symptoms and: demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, injecting and sex risk behaviours, and trauma history. METHODS: Cross sectional data collected from 72 women via face

  19. Female Sex Worker Social Networks and STI/HIV Prevention in South China

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joseph D.; Peng, Hua; Wang, Kaidi; Chang, Helena; Zhang, Sen-Miao; Yang, Li-Gang; Yang, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Background Reducing harm associated with selling and purchasing sex is an important public health priority in China, yet there are few examples of sustainable, successful programs to promote sexual health among female sex workers. The limited civil society and scope of nongovernmental organizations circumscribe the local capacity of female sex workers to collectively organize, advocate for their rights, and implement STI/HIV prevention programs. The purpose of this study was to examine social networks among low-income female sex workers in South China to determine their potential for sexual health promotion. Methods/Principal Findings Semi-structured interviews with 34 low-income female sex workers and 28 health outreach members were used to examine how social relationships affected condom use and negotiation, STI/HIV testing and health-seeking behaviors, and dealing with violent clients. These data suggested that sex worker's laoxiang (hometown social connections) were more powerful than relationships between women selling sex at the same venue in establishing the terms and risk of commercial sex. Female sex workers from the same hometown often migrated to the city with their laoxiang and these social connections fulfilled many of the functions of nongovernmental organizations, including collective mobilization, condom promotion, violence mitigation, and promotion of health-seeking behaviors. Outreach members observed that sex workers accompanied by their laoxiang were often more willing to accept STI/HIV testing and trust local sexual health services. Conclusions/Significance Organizing STI/HIV prevention services around an explicitly defined laoxiang social network may provide a strong foundation for sex worker health programs. Further research on dyadic interpersonal relationships between female sex workers, group dynamics and norm establishment, and the social network characteristics are needed. PMID:21931856

  20. Generational Sex And HIV Risk Among Indigenous Women In A Street-Based Urban Canadian Setting

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Brittany; Leo, Diane; Zhang, Ruth; Montaner, Julio

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, indigenous women are overrepresented among new HIV infections and street-based sex workers. Scholars suggest that Aboriginal women’s HIV risk stems from intergenerational effects of colonisation and racial policies. This research examined generational sex work involvement among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women and the effect on risk for HIV acquisition. The sample included 225 women in street-based sex work and enrolled in a community-based prospective cohort, in partnership with local sex work and Aboriginal community partners. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression modeled an independent relationship between Aboriginal ancestry and generational sex work; and the impact of generational sex work on HIV infection among Aboriginal sex workers. Aboriginal women (48%) were more likely to be HIV-positive, with 34% living with HIV compared to 24% non-Aboriginal. In multivariate logistic regression model, Aboriginal women remained 3 times more likely to experience generational sex work (aOR:2.97; 95%CI:1.5,5.8). Generational sex work was significantly associated with HIV (aOR=3.01, 95%CI: 1.67–4.58) in a confounder model restricted to Aboriginal women. High prevalence of generational sex work among Aboriginal women and 3-fold increased risk for HIV infection are concerning. Policy reforms and community-based, culturally safe and trauma informed HIV prevention initiatives are required for Indigenous sex workers. PMID:24654881

  1. Sex workers in Calcutta organize themselves to become agents for change.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, N; Banerjee, B

    1999-01-01

    A small-scale intervention program for sex workers employed in brothels in Calcutta, India, grew into a powerful association of men and women fighting for their rights. In 1992, 4000 brothel-based sex workers joined a program with the All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health (AIIH&PH), as well as with government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The Sonagachi Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)/HIV Intervention Program (SHIP) was designed to control and prevent HIV infections and STDs among the sex workers through various health services, condom promotion and information, education and communication programs and activities. To ensure sustainability of the program in the target community, AII&PH turned over the SHIP to a registered organization constituted by workers of SHIP, sex workers forums and representatives from government and NGOs. PMID:12295568

  2. Salesmen, Saleswomen, or Sales Workers? Determinants of the Sex Composition of Sales Occupations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia L. Bellas; Barbara Thomas Coventry

    2001-01-01

    This study examines determinants of occupational sex composition in an expanding area of the economy—sales occupations. We used census data to determine which worker and occupational characteristics predicted the percentage of women in sales occupations in 1980 and in 1990, and which variables contributed to changes in the percentage of women in sales occupations over time. Although sales occupations experienced

  3. From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

  4. Female sex workers as health educators with men who buy sex: Utilising narratives of rationalisations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teela Sanders

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an ethnographic study of female sex workers who work in the indoor sex markets in a British city. An unexpected finding was the collective narratives that sex workers construct to rationalise their involvement in the sex industry. Fifty-five respondents who took part in in-depth interviews maintained that prostitution is a useful occupation and function

  5. “Over here, it’s just drugs, women and all the madness”: The HIV risk environment of clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Shira; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Gallardo, Manuel; Rhodes, Tim; Wagner, Karla D.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    HIV vulnerability depends upon social context. Based in broader debates in social epidemiology, political economy, and sociology of health, Rhodes’ (2002) “risk environment” framework provides one heuristic for understanding how contextual features influence HIV risk, through different types of environmental factors (social, economic, policy, and physical) which interact at different levels of influence (micro, macro). Few data are available on the “risk environment” of male clients of female sex workers (FSWs); such men represent a potential “bridge” for transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from high- to low-prevalence populations. Using in-depth interviews (n=30), we describe the HIV risk environment of male clients in Tijuana, Mexico, where disproportionately high HIV prevalence has been reported among FSWs and their clients. A number of environmental themes influence risky sex with FSWs and the interplay between individual agency and structural forces: social isolation and the search for intimacy; meanings and identities ascribed to Tijuana’s Zona Roja (red light district) as a risky place; social relationships in the Zona Roja; and economic roles. Our findings suggest that clients’ behaviors are deeply embedded in the local context. Using the HIV “risk environment” as our analytic lens, we illustrate how clients’ HIV risks are shaped by physical, social, economic, and political factors. The linkages between these and the interplay between structural- and individual-level experiences support theories that view structure as both enabling as well as constraining. We discuss how the “embeddedness” of clients’ experiences warrants the use of environmental interventions that address the circumstances contributing to HIV risk at multiple levels. PMID:21414702

  6. Alcohol consumption and high risk sexual behaviour among female sex workers in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, Martin; Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Weiss, Helen; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of Kampala city. We conducted 3 in-depth interviews with 40 female sex workers between 2010 and 2011. Data were analysed thematically, focusing on alcohol use within the context of sex work. Alcohol consumption was very high with only seven women reporting that they did not drink. Alcohol consumption was driven by the emotional and economic needs of the participants, but also promoted by clients who encouraged consumption. Many sex workers only started drinking alcohol when they joined sex work on the advice of more experienced peers, as a way to cope with the job. Alcohol was blamed for unsafe sex, acts of violence and poor decision making which increased sexual and physical violence. Alcohol was reported to affect medication adherence for HIV-positive women who forgot to take medicine. The findings suggest that the drivers of alcohol consumption are multifaceted in this group and require both individual and structural interventions. Alcohol reduction counselling can be supportive at the individual level and should be an integral part of HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers and others such as patrons in bars. The counselling should be addressed in a sensitive manner to bar owners and managers. PMID:25174631

  7. Opportunities for Woman-Initiated HIV Prevention Methods among Female Sex Workers in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Liao, Susu; Abbott, Maryann; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiang; Jiang, Jingmei; Wei, Liu; Yu, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Rapid changes in China over the past two decades have led to significant problems associated with population migration and changing social attitudes, including a growing sex industry and concurrent increases in STIs and HIV. This article reports results of an exploratory study of microbicide acceptability and readiness and current HIV prevention efforts among female sex workers in two rural and one urban town in Hainan and Guangxi Provinces in southern China. The study focused on these women’s knowledge and cultural understandings of options for protecting themselves from exposure to STIs and HIV, and the potential viability and acceptability of woman-initiated prevention methods. We report on ethnographic elicitation interviews conducted with women working within informal sex-work establishments (hotels, massage and beauty parlors, roadside restaurants, boarding houses). We discuss implications of these findings for further promotion of woman-initiated prevention methods such as microbicides and female condoms among female sex workers in China. PMID:17599276

  8. Social and structural violence and power relations in mitigating HIV risk of drug-using women in survival sex work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate Shannon; Thomas Kerr; Shari Allinott; Jill Chettiar; Jean Shoveller; Mark W. Tyndall

    2008-01-01

    High rates of violence among street-level sex workers have been described across the globe, while in cities across Canada the disappearance and victimization of drug-using women in survival sex work is ongoing. Given the pervasive levels of violence faced by sex workers over the last decades, and extensive harm reduction and HIV prevention efforts operating in Vancouver, Canada, this research

  9. Sex workers and the control of sexually transmitted disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Day; H Ward

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe and assess measures to control sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among sex workers and their partners. METHODS: A review of medical, historical and social literature, focusing on selected cases. RESULTS: Measures to control disease in sex workers today are often prompted by concerns about HIV transmission. However, the literature shows that prostitution varies from one place and time

  10. The sexual health of female sex workers compared with other women in England: analysis of cross-sectional data from genitourinary medicine clinics

    PubMed Central

    Mc Grath-Lone, Louise; Marsh, Kimberly; Hughes, Gwenda; Ward, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Background While female sex workers (FSWs) are assumed to be at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), there are limited comparative data with other population groups available. Using routine STI surveillance data, we investigated differences in sexual health between FSWs and other female attendees at genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in England. Methods Demographic characteristics, STI prevalence and service usage among FSWs and other attendees in 2011 were compared using logistic regression. Results In 2011, 2704 FSWs made 8411 recorded visits to 131/208 GUM clinics, (primarily large, FSW-specialist centres in London). FSWs used a variety of services, however, 10% did not have an STI/HIV test at presentation. By comparison with other female attendees, FSWs travelled further for their care and had increased risk of certain STIs (eg, gonorrhoea ORadj: 2.76, 95% CI 2.16 to 3.54, p<0.001). Migrant FSWs had better sexual health outcomes than UK-born FSWs (eg, period prevalence of chlamydia among those tested: 8.5% vs 13.5%, p<0.001) but were more likely to experience non-STI outcomes (eg, pelvic inflammatory disease ORadj: 2.92, 95% CI 1.57 to 5.41, p<0.001). Conclusions FSWs in England have access to high-quality care through the GUM clinic network, but there is evidence of geographical inequality in access to these services. A minority do not appear to access STI/HIV testing through clinics, and some STIs are more prevalent among FSWs than other female attendees. Targeted interventions aimed at improving uptake of testing in FSWs should be developed, and need to be culturally sensitive to the needs of this predominantly migrant population. PMID:24493858

  11. The Experiences of Violence and Occupational Health Risks of Sex Workers Working in Brothels in Ankara

    PubMed Central

    Odaba??, Aysun Balseven; ?ahinoglu, Serap; Genç, Yasemin; Bilge, Ya?ar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to reveal and discuss occupational health risks, violence against sex workers working in brothels and their working conditions in Ankara. Materials and Methods: The study included 138 sex workers. Data were collected at face to face interviews with a questionnaire composed of 40 questions about socio-demographic features, familial characteristics, reasons for becoming a sex worker, experiences of violence and occupational health risks. Results: Twenty-two point five percent of the women were aged 21–30 years and 39.9% were aged 31–40 years. The mean time of education was 5.9±3.5 (0–14) years. Forty-eight point five percent of the women were exposed to physical abuse and 13% of the women had been exposed to sexual abuse in their childhood. Fifty-five point eight percent of the women reported that their clients always used condoms, but 97.1% of the women noted that their clients insisted on not using a condom. Fourteen point five percent and 70.3% of the women were exposed to physical and verbal violence respectively from their clients. Ten point one percent of the women suffered sexual assault while working. Conclusion: Sex workers, like other people, should have human rights, all types of violence that they face should be eliminated and the social conditions they are exposed to should be improved. Sexually transmitted diseases, the most important health risk of sex workers, should be considered as occupational diseases in the new regulations. PMID:25206986

  12. Sex workers' perspectives on condom use for oral sex with clients: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lian, W M; Chan, R; Wee, S

    2000-08-01

    The authors conducted in-depth interviews with 46 female brothel-based sex workers to explore their perceived barriers and approaches in getting clients to use condoms for oral sex. Reasons given by sex workers for not using condoms for oral sex as compared to vaginal sex included self-perception of low vulnerability to AIDS and sexually transmitted infections, misconceptions on transmission of the HIV virus, lack of negotiation skills, lack of support from brothel keepers and peers, and unpleasant taste and smell of condoms. Some sex workers could get all their clients to use condoms for oral sex by using negotiation skills, including the positive approach, the fear approach, the emotional appeal approach, and the assertive approach. Findings from this study would help design more appropriate messages and improve negotiation skills of sex workers to increase consistent condom use for oral sex. PMID:10929756

  13. Women Who Have Sex with Other Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Joan Shotsky

    1996-01-01

    This report provides HIV seroprevalence data for women who are sexually active with women (WSW) choosing to access services in four of New York State's counseling and testing programs from January 1993 to June 1994. During that period, these programs tested 27,370 women. When questioned about sexual activity since 1978, 3.7% of these women reported sexual activity exclusivelv with women.

  14. Sex with sex workers among latino day laborers in Suburban Maryland.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Fernanda T; Reisen, Carol A; Gonzales, Felisa A; Arroyo, Juan C; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J

    2013-07-01

    Using the structural-environmental conceptual framework, this study employed mixed methods to address the question of whether sex with female sex workers contributes to HIV risk among male immigrant Latino day laborers in suburban Maryland. Because contextual factors can greatly affect HIV risk for both sex workers and their clients, this study investigated the organizational structure of sex work, factors that predicted men's hiring of sex workers, sexual behaviors performed with sex workers, and the use of condoms. Qualitative research was conducted to inform the development of a quantitative survey, but also provided crucial descriptions about the motivations, locations, arrangements, and sexual activities related to sex work. Key informant interviews (N = 10), in-depth interviews with day laborers (N = 10) and Latina female sex workers (N = 4), and two focus groups with day laborers (N = 11) were conducted, and a quantitative survey administered via Audio-enhanced Computer-assisted Self-interviewing (N = 174). Condom use was nearly universal in encounters with female sex workers, thus indicating that the sex workers were not an important source of HIV transmission in this context. Logistic regression was performed to test a model predicting sex with sex workers. Latino day laborers who reported more immigrant stress and who did not have a partner in the U.S. were more likely to have had sex with a sex worker, as were men who reported binge drinking. Structural and social conditions influenced the hiring of sex workers. Further research is warranted to better understand the interrelationships among these circumstances and to inform the development of programs to address them. PMID:23070528

  15. Prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence among a prospective cohort of female sex workers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence against female sex workers in an environment of criminalised prostitution. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Vancouver, Canada during 2006-8. Participants Female sex workers 14 years of age or older (inclusive of transgender women) who used illicit drugs (excluding marijuana) and engaged in street level sex work. Main outcome measure Self reported gender based violence. Results Of 267 female sex workers invited to participate, 251 women returned to the study office and consented to participate (response rate of 94%). Analyses were based on 237 female sex workers who completed a baseline visit and at least one follow-up visit. Of these 237 female sex workers, 57% experienced gender based violence over an 18 month follow-up period. In multivariate models adjusted for individual and interpersonal risk practices, the following structural factors were independently correlated with violence against female sex workers: homelessness (adjusted odds ratio for physical violence (aORphysicalviolence) 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.34 to 3.43; adjusted odds ratio for rape (aORrape) 1.73, 1.09 to 3.12); inability to access drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio for client violence (aORclientviolence) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62; aORphysicalviolence 1.96, 1.03 to 3.43); servicing clients in cars or public spaces (aORclientviolence 1.50, 1.08 to 2.57); prior assault by police (aORclientviolence 3.45, 1.98 to 6.02; aORrape 2.61, 1.32 to 5.16); confiscation of drug use paraphernalia by police without arrest (aORphysicalviolence 1.50, 1.02 to 2.41); and moving working areas away from main streets owing to policing (aORclientviolence 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62). Conclusions Our results demonstrate an alarming prevalence of gender based violence against female sex workers. The structural factors of criminalisation, homelessness, and poor availability of drug treatment independently correlated with gender based violence against street based female sex workers. Socio-legal policy reforms, improved access to housing and drug treatment, and scale up of violence prevention efforts, including police-sex worker partnerships, will be crucial to stemming violence against female sex workers. PMID:19671935

  16. Sex worker activism, feminist discourse and HIV in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Habiba

    2015-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship between sex worker activism and HIV-related discourse in Bangladesh, relating recent developments in activism to the influence of feminist thought. Following their eviction in 1991 from brothels from red light areas, Bangladeshi sex workers started a social movement, at just about the same time that programmes started to work with sex workers to reduce the transmission of HIV. This paper argues that both sex worker activism and HIV-prevention initiatives find impetus in feminist pro-sex-work perspectives, which place emphasis on individual and collective agency. However, by participating in these programmes, sex workers failed to contest the imagery of themselves as 'vectors' of HIV. In this way, they were unwittingly complicit in reproducing their identity as 'polluting others'. Moreover, by focusing on individual behaviour and the agency of sex workers, HIV programmes ignored the fact that the 'choices' made by sex workers are influenced by a wide range of structural and discursive factors, including gender norms and notions of bodily purity, which in turn have implications for the construction of HIV-related risk. PMID:25588539

  17. An Assessment of the Mental Health of Street-Based Sex Workers in Chennai, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geetha Suresh; L. Allen Furr; Aylur Kailasom Srikrishnan

    2009-01-01

    Prostitution, which is considered a public-order crime in India, is a way of life and employment for a large number of Indian women. Most choose prostitution for a living, in the absence of other opportunities for employment. The psychological costs of prostitution, however, are high. Violence against sex workers is common and is believed to affect their psychological well-being in

  18. Circumstances, experiences and processes surrounding women's entry into sex work in India.

    PubMed

    McClarty, Leigh M; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Blanchard, James F; Lorway, Robert R; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Mishra, Sharmistha; Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, B M; Washington, Reynold; Moses, Stephen; Becker, Marissa L

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that in India, the early stages of a woman's career as a sex worker may be an important period to target for HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention. Before such an intervention is designed and implemented, it is necessary to first understand the life circumstances of women at the start of their sex work careers. We performed a review to bring together available literature pertaining to entry into sex work in India and to highlight knowledge gaps. We found that historical traditions of dedication into sex work, financial insecurity, family discord, violence and coercion, and desire for financial independence are commonly reported reasons for entering into sex work. We also found that families and the broader sex worker community play an important role in the early stages of a woman's sex work career. We suggest that HIV-prevention programmes in India would substantially benefit from a deeper understanding of the life circumstances of new and young women sex workers. Further research should be conducted focusing on family and community involvement in women's entry into sex work, and on the important period of time after a woman's first commercial sex encounter, but before self-identification as a sex worker. PMID:24236895

  19. From violence to sex work: agency, escaping violence, and HIV risk among establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Shonali M; Anglade, Debbie; Park, Kyuwon

    2013-01-01

    Violence experienced by female sex workers has been found to affect the HIV risk and quality of life of these women. Research on this topic has dealt with female sex workers and current experiences of violence with partners, clients, and in the workplace. In this study, we used feminist constructivist grounded theory to explore perceptions of violence among establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico. A key concept that emerged from 20 semi-structured in-depth interviews was "escaping violence with a romantic partner by becoming independent through sex work." The women also emphasized the negative impact of violence in the workplace but felt that achieving separation from a violent partner gave them strength to protect their lives and health. Interventions to help these women protect themselves from HIV infection and improve their quality of life should aim to build upon their strengths and the agency they have already achieved. PMID:23790279

  20. An untold story in labor health: Korean women workers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Hyun-joo

    2007-01-01

    Very little is known about labor health among Korean women workers, who have been left behind by the occupational safety and health institutions. In this article, we examine, from a gender perspective, the occupational safety and health (OSH) statistics, institutions, and the struggles of women workers, and discuss how to make a society where women workers become and stay healthy. The problems Korean women workers face have both universal and unique aspects. On the one hand, they tend to be exposed to "invisible hazards" and to disproportionately suffer from neo-liberal policies, as do women workers in other countries. On the other hand, Korean women workers are still positioned under the strong patriarchy found in pre-modern societies. The examples of struggle presented here come out of this condition; those struggles by women workers and support from concerned specialists have played an important role in overcoming patriarchy and protecting health rights for women workers. PMID:18184625

  1. Female migrant sex workers in Moscow: gender and power factors and HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Weine, Stevan; Golobof, Alexandra; Bahromov, Mahbat; Kashuba, Adrianna; Kalandarov, Tohir; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Loue, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding HIV risks in female migrant sex workers in Moscow, focusing on gender and power. This was a collaborative ethnographic study, informed by the theory of gender and power, in which researchers conducted minimally structured interviews with 24 female sex workers who were migrants to Moscow and who provided sexual services to male migrant laborers. Overall, the female migrant sex workers engaged in HIV risk behaviors and practiced inadequate HIV protection with their clients. These behaviors were shaped by gender and power factors in the realms of labor, behavior, and cathexis. In the labor realm, because some female migrants were unable to earn enough money to support their families, they were pushed or pulled into sex work providing service to male migrants. In the behavior realm, many female migrant sex workers were intimidated by their male clients, feared violence, and lacked access to women's health care and prevention. In the cathexis realm, many had a sense of shame, social isolation, emotional distress, and lacked basic HIV knowledge and prevention skills. To prevent HIV transmission requires addressing the gender and power factors that shape HIV/AIDS risks among female migrant sex workers through multilevel intervention strategies. PMID:23421339

  2. Factors related to condom use among four groups of female sex workers in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ford, K; Wirawan, D N; Fajans, P

    1998-02-01

    This article tests a behavioral model of condom use for four groups of female commercial sex workers. Data were drawn from a study of 614 female sex workers conducted in Bali, Indonesia. AIDS knowledge, risk behaviors, and factors related to condom use varied substantially among the four groups of women and reflect the social context of their work. Interventions for each group need to reflect these differences. Important factors to consider include the level of AIDS and STD knowledge in their environment, the characteristics of the clients served, and the degree of supervision that they receive. PMID:9505097

  3. Foster Care History and HIV Infection among Drug-Using African American Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Surratt, Hilary L.; Kurtz, Steven P.

    2011-01-01

    Foster care has been associated with increased HIV risk behaviors among youth, yet long-term association with HIV infection has not been examined. This study explored the associations between foster placement, victimization, mental health, onset of sex work and HIV infection among highly vulnerable female sex workers. 562 drug-involved African American women were enrolled into an intervention study to increase health services utilization and reduce HIV risk. Seventeen percent reported a history of foster placement. Foster history was associated with significantly lower educational attainment, higher victimization, and more severe mental health problems. Women with foster histories reported significantly earlier entry into paid sex work, with some 62% active in the sex trade before age 18. Multivariate analyses found that foster care was independently associated with HIV seropositivity, and that early sex work partially mediated this association. The potential long-term health vulnerabilities associated with foster placement are understudied and warrant additional research. PMID:21818654

  4. Douching practices among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly T H; Ross, Michael W; Markham, Christine M

    2015-03-01

    Several studies indicate that douching has few benefits but numerous adverse health outcomes, including increased risk for sexually transmitted infections and HIV. No published study explores douching practices among Cambodian female sex workers. This report provides preliminary data about the prevalence and frequency of douching among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Survey data were obtained from 81 female sex workers who were taken into custody due to engagement in commercial sex from March to June 2011. Results showed that 91% of participants douched. The mean numbers of times douched before sex and after sex per 10 sex episodes were 4.43 (SD?=?3.87) and 4.63 (SD?=?3.94), respectively. Half of the participants thought that douching could help to prevent sexually transmitted infections including HIV; 24% were unsure about this. Usually, douching after sex was associated with ever obtaining an HIV test (p?=?.012) and was marginally associated (although not statistically significant) with a higher average number of clients per week (p?=.?063) and consistent condom use with clients (p?=?.053). This suggests that these practices may be related to individual perceptions of sexually transmitted infections/HIV risk or susceptibility. Given the commonness of douching and related misperceptions among Cambodian female sex workers, future studies and interventions are needed to prevent adverse health problems. PMID:24810219

  5. Women who sell sex in a Ugandan trading town: life histories, survival strategies and risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjolein Gysels; Robert Pool; Betty Nnalusiba

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the background of commercial sex workers in Africa. This study investigated how women in a trading town on the trans-Africa highway in southwest Uganda become involved in commercial sex work, which factors contribute to their economic success or lack of success, and what effect life trajectories and economic success have on negotiating power and risk behaviour.

  6. Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M

    2013-01-01

    Sex trafficking involves some form of forced or coerced sexual exploitation that is not limited to prostitution, and has become a significant and growing problem in both the United States and the larger global community. The costs to society include the degradation of human and women’s rights, poor public health, disrupted communities, and diminished social development. Victims of sex trafficking acquire adverse physical and psychological health conditions and social disadvantages. Thus, sex trafficking is a critical health issue with broader social implications that requires both medical and legal attention. Healthcare professionals can work to improve the screening, identification, and assistance of victims of sex trafficking in a clinical setting and help these women and girls access legal and social services. PMID:23687554

  7. Barriers to health and social services for street-based sex workers.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Steven P; Surratt, Hilary L; Kiley, Marion C; Inciardi, James A

    2005-05-01

    Homelessness, poverty, drug abuse and violent victimization faced by street-based women sex workers create needs for a variety of health and social services, yet simultaneously serve as barriers to accessing these very services. The present study utilized interview (n = 586) and focus group (n = 25) data to examine the service needs and associated barriers to access among women sex workers in Miami, Florida. Women most often reported acute service needs for shelter, fresh water, transportation, crisis intervention, and drug detoxification, as well as long-term needs for mental and physical health care, drug treatment, and legal and employment services. Barriers included both structural (e.g., program target population, travel costs, office hours, and social stigma) and individual (e.g., drug use, mental stability, and fear) factors. Bridging these gaps is tremendously important from a public health perspective given the disease burden among this population. Recommendations include service staff training, outreach, and promising research directions. PMID:15937397

  8. Queens versus workers: sex-ratio conflict in eusocial Hymenoptera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natasha J. Mehdiabadi; Hudson Kern Reeve; Ulrich G. Mueller

    2003-01-01

    Studies of sex-ratio conflict in the eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps) have provided the most rigorous tests of kin selection theory. The hymenopteran haplodiploid system of sex determination generally renders workers more closely related to their sisters than to their brothers, whereas queens are equally related to their sons and daughters. Kin selection theory therefore predicts that resource allocation

  9. 'It's Just Acting': Sex Workers' Strategies for Capitalizing on Sexuality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teela Sanders

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on an ethnographic study of female sex workers in Britain who work in the indoor prostitution markets. The empirical find- ings contribute to the sex-as-labour debate and add to the sociological lit- erature regarding the gendered and sexualized nature of employment, particularly the aesthetic and emotional labour of service work. Ground- ing the empirical findings in the

  10. Risk profile of female sex workers who participate in a routine penicillin prophylaxis programme in Surabaya, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Joesoef, M R; Valleroy, L A; Kuntjoro, T M; Kamboji, A; Linnan, M; Barakbah, Y; Idajadi, A; St Louis, M E

    1998-12-01

    We conducted a sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence survey of 1867 female sex workers in Surabaya, Indonesia, some of whom reported participation in a routine penicillin prophylaxis programme. In Surabaya, 34% of female sex workers had received a prophylactic penicillin injection programme from the government within 28 days. Sex workers who had received routine prophylaxis injection were more likely to be less educated, to work in brothel complexes, and to have more customers per week than other sex workers. The prevalence rates of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis were higher among sex workers who received the routine penicillin treatment than among those who had not received antibiotic treatment in the last 28 days. However, after adjustment for age, education, fee per sex act, number of customers, and condom use in the previous 7 days, only trichomoniasis was still significantly different (adjusted odds ratio of 3.2). High-risk women were more likely to participate in the routine penicillin prophylaxis programme. The lack of a demonstrable individual-level protection from this prophylaxis treatment programme in this cross-sectional study appears due to differential uptake of penicillin prophylaxis by women at higher presumptive risk for STD. Randomized clinical trials and mathematical modelling, together with observational data such as presented here, all can contribute to optimal understanding of a complex intervention like mass chemoprophylaxis for STD among female sex workers. PMID:9874124

  11. Sexually transmitted infections in women who have sex with women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J V Bailey; C Farquhar; C Owen; P Mangtani

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STIs) in a sample of women who have sex with women (WSW) and to identify risk factors for the acquisition of STI.Method: Cross sectional survey. Questionnaire for demographic, sexual history, and sexual practice data linked with the results of genitourinary examination. 708 new patients attending two sexual health clinics for lesbians

  12. Do women use dental dams? Safer sex practices of lesbians and other women who have sex with women.

    PubMed

    Richters, Juliet; Prestage, Garrett; Schneider, Karen; Clayton, Stevie

    2010-06-01

    Dental dams are distributed and promoted in some safer sex campaigns for use in oral sex. However, whether and how often dams are used for sex between Australian women remains unknown. We investigated the use of dental dams for sex by lesbians and other women who have sex with women, and the relationship between dam use and sexual risk for this group. In 2004, a self-completion questionnaire was distributed to women attending the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras Fair Day and lesbian community venues and health services in Sydney (n = 543). Among the 330 women who had had oral sex with a woman in the previous 6 months, 9.7% had used a dental dam and 2.1% had used one 'often'. There was little evidence of dam use for prevention of sexually transmissible infections. Although women who practised rimming (oral-anal contact) or had fetish sex involving blood were more likely to have used a dam, dam use was not significantly more common among women who had more partners, or had casual or group sex. Some women avoided oral sex during menstruation or had oral sex with a tampon in place. Latex gloves and condoms were used by more women and more often than dams. PMID:20465981

  13. HIV Programs for Sex Workers: Lessons and Challenges for Developing and Delivering Programs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David

    2015-06-01

    There is evidence that HIV prevention programs for sex workers, especially female sex workers, are cost-effective in several contexts, including many western countries, Thailand, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. The evidence that sex worker HIV prevention programs work must not inspire complacency but rather a renewed effort to expand, intensify, and maximize their impact. The PLOS Collection "Focus on Delivery and Scale: Achieving HIV Impact with Sex Workers" highlights major challenges to scaling-up sex worker HIV prevention programs, noting the following: sex worker HIV prevention programs are insufficiently guided by understanding of epidemic transmission dynamics, situation analyses, and programmatic mapping; sex worker HIV and sexually transmitted infection services receive limited domestic financing in many countries; many sex worker HIV prevention programs are inadequately codified to ensure consistency and quality; and many sex worker HIV prevention programs have not evolved adequately to address informal sex workers, male and transgender sex workers, and mobile- and internet-based sex workers. Based on the wider collection of papers, this article presents three major clusters of recommendations: (i) HIV programs focused on sex workers should be prioritized, developed, and implemented based on robust evidence; (ii) national political will and increased funding are needed to increase coverage of effective sex worker HIV prevention programs in low and middle income countries; and (iii) comprehensive, integrated, and rapidly evolving HIV programs are needed to ensure equitable access to health services for individuals involved in all forms of sex work. PMID:26079267

  14. HIV Programs for Sex Workers: Lessons and Challenges for Developing and Delivering Programs

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that HIV prevention programs for sex workers, especially female sex workers, are cost-effective in several contexts, including many western countries, Thailand, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. The evidence that sex worker HIV prevention programs work must not inspire complacency but rather a renewed effort to expand, intensify, and maximize their impact. The PLOS Collection “Focus on Delivery and Scale: Achieving HIV Impact with Sex Workers” highlights major challenges to scaling-up sex worker HIV prevention programs, noting the following: sex worker HIV prevention programs are insufficiently guided by understanding of epidemic transmission dynamics, situation analyses, and programmatic mapping; sex worker HIV and sexually transmitted infection services receive limited domestic financing in many countries; many sex worker HIV prevention programs are inadequately codified to ensure consistency and quality; and many sex worker HIV prevention programs have not evolved adequately to address informal sex workers, male and transgender sex workers, and mobile- and internet-based sex workers. Based on the wider collection of papers, this article presents three major clusters of recommendations: (i) HIV programs focused on sex workers should be prioritized, developed, and implemented based on robust evidence; (ii) national political will and increased funding are needed to increase coverage of effective sex worker HIV prevention programs in low and middle income countries; and (iii) comprehensive, integrated, and rapidly evolving HIV programs are needed to ensure equitable access to health services for individuals involved in all forms of sex work. PMID:26079267

  15. Interviews with senegalese commercial sex trade workers and implications for social programming.

    PubMed

    Homaifar, Nazaneen; Wasik, Suzan Zuljani

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the efficacy of the Senegalese pubic policy toward registered sex workers through an interview process examining their backgrounds and evaluating their knowledge of sexual health. Sixty registered sex workers in Dakar, Senegal, were interviews at the Institute d'Hygiene Social (IHS) to investigate patient knowledge of contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Ninety-eight percent of the women reported that, as a result of their visits to the clinic, they had increased precaution in their trade by demanding their clients use condoms and refusing clients who did not comply. Nearly 96% of the women were able to define the three main ways by which HIV is contracted, while 100% of the women reported that they used male condoms with their clients and would refuse clients who rejected the use of condoms. Senegal's proactive policy toward the safeguarding of women's health and the containment of HIV/AIDS through the legalization and monitoring of sex workers can serve as an example for successful strategies in the fight against the global spread of HIV/AIDS. PMID:15804912

  16. The Price of Sex: Condom Use and the Determinants of the Price of Sex Among Female Sex Workers in Eastern Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Elmes, Jocelyn; Nhongo, Kundai; Ward, Helen; Hallett, Timothy; Nyamukapa, Constance; White, Peter J.; Gregson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Higher prices for unprotected sex threaten the high levels of condom use that contributed to the decline in Zimbabwe's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. To improve understanding of financial pressures competing against safer sex, we explore factors associated with the price of commercial sex in rural eastern Zimbabwe. Methods.?We collected and analyzed cross-sectional data on 311 women, recruited during October–December 2010, who reported that they received payment for their most-recent or second-most-recent sex acts in the past year. Zero-inflated negative binomial models with robust standard errors clustered on female sex worker (FSW) were used to explore social and behavioral determinants of price. Results.?The median price of sex was $10 (interquartile range [IQR], $5–$20) per night and $10 (IQR, $5–$15) per act. Amounts paid in cash and commodities did not differ significantly. At the most-recent sex act, more-educated FSWs received 30%–74% higher payments. Client requests for condom use significantly predicted protected sex (P < .01), but clients paid on average 42.9% more for unprotected sex. Conclusions.?Within a work environment where clients' preferences determine condom use, FSWs effectively use their individual capital to negotiate the terms of condom use. Strengthening FSWs' preferences for protected sex could help maintain high levels of condom use. PMID:25381377

  17. Exploring the impact of underage sex work among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Patterson, Thomas L; Abramovitz, Daniela; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2011-01-01

    Although sex work and younger age increase HIV vulnerability, empirical data regarding the impacts of underage sex work are lacking. We explored associations between features of the risk environment, sex work and drug use history, and underage sex work entry among 624 female sex workers(FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Forty-one percent (n=253) of women began sex work as minors, among whom HIV and any STI/HIV prevalence were 5.2% and 60.7%. Factors independently associated with increased odds of underage sex work were inhalants as the first drug used, forced first injection, number of drug treatment attempts, and recent receptive syringe-sharing. Number of recent condom negotiation attempts with steady partners and depression as a reason for first injecting were negatively associated with underage entry. These results underscore the importance of efforts to prevent underage sex work and the wider factors contributing to HIV risk among vulnerable youth and underage FSWs. PMID:22012147

  18. Empowering sex workers in India to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dallas Swendeman; Ishika Basu; Sankari Das; Smarajit Jana; Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus

    2009-01-01

    The Sonagachi Project was initiated in Kolkata, India in 1992 as a STD\\/HIV intervention for sex workers. The project evolved to adopt strategies common to women's empowerment programs globally (i.e., community mobilization, rights-based framing, advocacy, micro-finance) to address common factors that support effective, evidence-based HIV\\/STD prevention. The Sonagachi model is now a broadly diffused evidence-based empowerment program.We previously demonstrated significant

  19. Dyspareunia: Painful Sex for Women

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Dyspareunia Overview What is dyspareunia? Dyspareunia (say: "dis-par-oon-ya") is painful sexual intercourse for women. The pain can be in the genital area or deep inside the pelvis. The pain is often described as sharp, burning or similar to menstrual cramps. It can have ...

  20. 20 Facts on Women Workers. Facts on Working Women No. 90-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This information sheet presents 20 facts on women workers in 1989: (1) 56 million women 16 years of age and over are working or looking for work; (2) 69 percent of all women 18 to 64 years of age are in the civilian labor force; (3) most women workers are employed full time; (4) the average women worker spends 29.3 years of her life in the labor…

  1. Partner Status Influences Women's Interest in the Opposite Sex

    E-print Network

    in the opposite sex is whether or not the men and women already have a sexual partner. In their evaluations of men's and women's subjective ratings and response times while they evaluated photos of opposite-sex faces. Fifty-nine men and 56 women rated 510 photos of opposite-sex faces for realism, masculinity, attractiveness

  2. Preference for Sex of Child Among Primiparous Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta Steinbacher; Faith D. Gilroy

    1985-01-01

    Primiparous American women (N = 140) were questioned during their third trimester concerning their choice of sex of offspring and their willingness to use sex preselection techniques (if available). Eighty-two women expressed no preference for sex of offspring; of the remaining 58, 33 chose girls and 25 chose boys. Of the 26 women who indicated they would have used preselection

  3. Anal sex, vaginal sex and HIV risk among female sex workers in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Rawstorne, Patrick; Kupul, Martha; Worth, Heather; Shih, Patti; Man, Wing Young Nicola

    2014-03-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) are considered one of the key affected populations in Papua New Guinea at risk of acquiring HIV. An integrated bio-behavioral survey of sex workers in Port Moresby was conducted to determine the nature and extent of this risk. About half (51.1 %) of the 411 FSW who reported having any sexual intercourse with clients had engaged in both anal and vaginal intercourse with clients in the last 6 months. In spite of having poorer HIV knowledge (OR95 % CI = 0.14-0.34), FSW who had anal intercourse with clients were significantly more likely to have used a condom at the last vaginal intercourse with a client (OR95 % CI = 1.04-2.87). Similarly, FSW who had anal intercourse with regular and casual partners were significantly more likely to have used a condom at the last vaginal intercourse. Those who engaged in both anal and vaginal intercourse with clients had similar condom use for both vaginal and anal intercourse, with the majority (78.1 %) using a condom at the last occasion for both vaginal and anal intercourse. These FSW may have different risk and protective factors that affect their use of condom during sexual intercourse. Further research is needed to investigate this difference between those who practice anal intercourse and those who do not in order to provide evidence for better programming. PMID:24264727

  4. Drug use among female sex workers in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trung Nam Tran; Roger Detels; Hoang Thuy Long; Hoang Phuong Lan

    2005-01-01

    Aims To describe the drug use practices among female sex workers (FSWs) in Hanoi and to identify factors associated with their drug injecting. Design, setting and particicipants A two-stage cluster survey of 400 FSWs was conducted from June to September, 2002. Participating FSWs were both establishment- (160) and street-based (240), who were practising in seven urban and one suburban districts

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder among female street-based sex workers in the greater Sydney area, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Roxburgh, Amanda; Degenhardt, Louisa; Copeland, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper examines rates of exposure to work-related violence and other trauma, and the prevalence of lifetime and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among female street-based sex workers. It also investigates associations between current PTSD symptoms and: demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, injecting and sex risk behaviours, and trauma history. Methods Cross sectional data collected from 72 women via face to face structured interviews. The interview included structured diagnostic assessment of DSM-IV PTSD; drug dependence; depression; experience of childhood trauma; and an assessment of sex working history. Results All but one of the women interviewed reported experiencing trauma, with the majority reporting multiple traumas that typically began in early childhood. Child sexual abuse, adult sexual assault and work related violence were commonly reported. Just under half of the women met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and approximately one-third reported current PTSD symptoms. Adult sexual assault was associated with current PTSD symptoms. Depression and drug dependence were also highly prevalent; cocaine dependence in particular was associated with elevated rates of injecting risk and sexual risk behaviours. Conclusion These women reported complex trauma histories and despite ongoing opportunities for clinical intervention, they continued to experience problems, suggesting that current models of treatment may not be appropriate. More targeted interventions, and integrated mental health and drug treatment services are needed to address the problems these women are experiencing. Outreach services to these women remain a priority. Education strategies to reduce risky injecting and sexual behaviours among sex workers should also remain a priority. PMID:16719928

  6. Individual, Interpersonal, and Social-Structural Correlates of Involuntary Sex Exchange Among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico–U.S. Border Cities

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, S.M.; Rangel, G.; Staines, H.; Vera, A.; Lozada, R.; Nguyen, L.; Silverman, J.G.; Strathdee, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate individual, interpersonal, and social-structural factors associated with involuntary sex exchange among female sex workers (FSWs) along the Mexico–U.S. border. Methods In 2010–2011, 214 FSWs from Tijuana (n=106) and Ciudad Juarez (n=108) aged ?18 who reported lifetime use of heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine, having a stable partner, and having sold/traded sex in the past month completed quantitative surveys and HIV/STI testing. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of involuntary sex exchange among FSWs. Results Of 214 FSWs, 31 (14.5%) reported involuntary sex exchange. These women were younger at sex work entry (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.84/1 year increase, 95% CI: 0.72–0.97) and were significantly more likely to service clients whom they perceived to be HIV/STI-infected (AOR: 12.41, 95% CI: 3.15–48.91). Additionally, they were more likely to have clients who used drugs (AOR: 7.88, 95% CI: 1.52–41.00), report poor working conditions (AOR: 3.27, 95% CI: 1.03–10.31), and report a history of rape (AOR: 4.46, 1.43–13.91).] Conclusions Involuntary sex exchange is disproportionate among FSWs who begin to exchange sex at a younger age, and these women experience elevated risk of violence and HIV/STIs related to their clients’ behaviors and their working conditions. These data suggest the critical need for evidence-based approaches to preventing sexual exploitation of women and girls and to reducing harm among current sex workers. Multi-level interventions for sex workers and their clients that target interpersonal and social-structural risks (e.g., measures to improve safety and reduce exploitation within the workplace) are needed. PMID:23614997

  7. Assessment of Respondent Driven Sampling for Recruiting Female Sex Workers in Two Vietnamese Cities: Reaching the Unseen Sex Worker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Grazina; Keith Sabin Johnston; Mai Thu Hien; Pham Thi Huong

    Respondent driven sampling (RDS) is a relatively new method to sample hard-to-reach populations. Until this study, female sex workers (FSWs) in Vietnam were sampled using a variety of methods, including time location sampling (TLS), which may not access the more hidden types of FSWs. This paper presents an analysis from an HIV biological and behavioral surveillance survey to assess the

  8. Sex workers' accounts of condom use: implications for condom production, promotion and health policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Free; Ian Roberts; Megan McGuire

    2007-01-01

    ObjectivesTo explore sex workers' accounts of condom use and their recommendations about how condoms might be improved.MethodsIn-depth interviews were conducted with 22 female sex workers in sex work premises in London, UK and Amsterdam, The Netherlands.ResultsThe consistent and effective use of condoms was dependent upon client selection, sex worker control of the condom, communication skills and on condom- and sex-related

  9. HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Sex Workers in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, in 2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith M. Vandepitte; Faustin Malele; Samuel Edidi; Said Abdellati; Joelle Kabamba; Catherine Van Overloop

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the preva- lence and risk factors of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, in 2002. Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among FSWs presenting for the first time at the STI clinic of Matonge, Kinshasa. The women

  10. Contraceptive practices, sexual and reproductive health needs of HIV-positive and negative female sex workers in Goa, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonali Wayal; Frances Cowan; Pamela Warner; Andrew Copas; David Mabey; Maryam Shahmanesh

    2010-01-01

    ObjectivesIn India, female sex workers (FSWs), suffer from high HIV prevalence and abortions. Contraceptive use among general population women is well understood. However, FSWs contraceptives practices and reproductive health needs are under-researched. We investigated contraceptive practices among HIV-positive and negative FSWs in Goa, India and explored its association with socio-demographic and sex work related factors.MethodsCross-sectional study using respondent driven sampling

  11. Sexual practices, identities and health among women who have sex with women in Lesotho - a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Poteat, Tonia; Logie, Carmen; Adams, Darrin; Lebona, Judith; Letsie, Puleng; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of HIV and STIs among women in Africa and the growing literature on HIV and STIs among women who have sex with women, research on the sexual health of women who have sex with women in Africa is scant. This study used mixed methods to describe sexual identity, practices and health among women who have sex with women in Lesotho. Most respondents (48%) described themselves as lesbian, 29% as bisexual and 23% as heterosexual. Almost half (45%) had disclosed their same-sex attraction to family, but only 25% had done so with healthcare workers. A total of 8% reported having HIV. Self-reported HIV was associated with having three or more male partners, having male and female partners at the same time and having a history of STIs. Gender norms, the criminalisation of homosexuality, varied knowledge of, and access to, safer-sex strategies, and mixed experiences of HIV/STI testing and sexual healthcare provided social and structural contexts for HIV- and STI-related vulnerability. PMID:24237008

  12. Male sex workers: practices, contexts, and vulnerabilities for HIV acquisition and transmission.

    PubMed

    Baral, Stefan David; Friedman, M Reuel; Geibel, Scott; Rebe, Kevin; Bozhinov, Borche; Diouf, Daouda; Sabin, Keith; Holland, Claire E; Chan, Roy; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2015-01-17

    Male sex workers who sell or exchange sex for money or goods encompass a very diverse population across and within countries worldwide. Information characterising their practices, contexts where they live, and their needs is limited, because these individuals are generally included as a subset of larger studies focused on gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) or even female sex workers. Male sex workers, irrespective of their sexual orientation, mostly offer sex to men and rarely identify as sex workers, using local or international terms instead. Growing evidence indicates a sustained or increasing burden of HIV among some male sex workers within the context of the slowing global HIV pandemic. Several synergistic facilitators could be potentiating HIV acquisition and transmission among male sex workers, including biological, behavioural, and structural determinants. Criminalisation and intersectional stigmas of same-sex practices, commercial sex, and HIV all augment risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among male sex workers and reduce the likelihood of these people accessing essential services. These contexts, taken together with complex sexual networks among male sex workers, define this group as a key population underserved by current HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Dedicated efforts are needed to make those services available for the sake of both public health and human rights. Evidence-based and human rights-affirming services dedicated specifically to male sex workers are needed to improve health outcomes for these men and the people within their sexual networks. PMID:25059939

  13. Understanding survival sex: young women, homelessness and intimate relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliet Watson

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to explore gendered experiences of homelessness through an examination of survival sex. Survival sex is usually understood to be the exchange of sex for material support, however, this research found a greater complexity in the intimate relationships being undertaken by young women experiencing homelessness. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young women aged 18–25 years living in

  14. Sex Education Attitudes and Outcomes among North American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…

  15. Occupational Stigma as a Primary Barrier To Health Care For Street-Based Sex Workers in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Lisa; Deering, Kathleen N; Nabess, Rose; Gibson, Kate; Tyndall, Mark W; Shannon, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Individuals working in the sex industry continue to experience many negative health outcomes. As such, disentangling the factors shaping poor health access remains a critical public health priority. Within a quasi-criminalised prostitution environment, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of occupational stigma associated with sex work and its relationship to barriers to accessing health services. Analyses draw on baseline questionnaire data from a community-based cohort of women in street-based sex work in Vancouver, Canada (2006–8). Of a total of 252 women, 141 (58.5%) reported occupational sex work stigma (defined as hiding occupational sex work status from family, friends and/or home community), while 125 (49.6%) reported barriers to accessing health services in the previous six months. In multivariable analysis, adjusting for socio-demographic, interpersonal and work environment risks, occupational sex work stigma remained independently associated with an elevated likelihood of experiencing barriers to health access. Study findings indicate the critical need for policy and societal shifts in views of sex work as a legitimate occupation, combined with improved access to innovative, accessible and non-judgmental health care delivery models for street-based sex workers that include the direct involvement of sex workers in development and implementation. PMID:22084992

  16. Reducing Intimate and Paying Partner Violence against Women Who Exchange Sex in Mongolia: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Catherine E.; Chen, Jiehua; Chang, Mingway; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Toivgoo, Aira; Riedel, Marion; Witte, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    Women who exchange sex for money or other goods, that is, female sex workers, are at increased risk of experiencing physical and sexual violence from both paying and intimate partners. Exposure to violence can be exacerbated by alcohol use and HIV/STI risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a HIV/STI risk reduction and…

  17. Motivational Influences on the Safer Sex Behavior of Agency-based Male Sex Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Smith; David W. Seal

    2008-01-01

    Although indoor male sex workers (MSWs) have been found to engage in lower rates of HIV risk behavior with clients than street-based\\u000a MSWs, few studies have examined the motivations behind such practices. We interviewed 30 MSWs working for the same escort\\u000a agency regarding their safer sex practices with clients and their reasons for these. As in other research, MSWs reported

  18. Commercial sex venues, syphilis and methamphetamine use among female sex workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianming Kang; Meizhen Liao; Zhenxia Jiang; Xijiang Zhang; Wenwen Mao; Ning Zhang; Xiaorun Tao; Tao Huang; Zhenqiang Bi; Muktar Aliyu; Pingsheng Wu; Baofa Jiang; Yujiang Jia

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with methamphetamine (MA) use, syphilis, and unprotected sex among female sex workers from different type of venues in Qingdao City, Shandong Province of China. Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys provided information on demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, and HIV-related services. Of 1187 participants, 3.0% were infected with syphilis; 30.2%

  19. The ‘Stolen Generations' of Mothers and Daughters: Child Apprehension and Enhanced HIV Vulnerabilities for Sex Workers of Aboriginal Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Putu; Bingham, Brittany; Simo, Annick; Jury, Delores; Reading, Charlotte; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The number of children in care of the state continues to grow in BC, Canada with a historical legacy of child apprehension among criminalized and marginalized populations, particularly women of Aboriginal ancestry and sex workers. However, there is a paucity of research investigating child apprehension experiences among marginalized mothers. The objective of the current analysis is to examine the prevalence and correlates of child apprehensions among female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Analyses were drawn from the AESHA (An Evaluation of Sex Workers Health Access, 2010-present), a prospective cohort of street and off-street SWs, through outreach and semi-annual visits to the research office. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine correlates of child apprehension. Results Of a total of 510 SWs, 350 women who had given birth to at least one child were included in the analyses (median age?=?37 yrs: IQR: 31–44 yrs). The prevalence of child apprehension among mothers was 38.3%, with 37.4% reporting having been apprehended themselves by child welfare services. In multivariable analysis, servicing clients in outdoor public spaces (versus formal sex work establishments or informal indoor settings) (adjusted odds ratio, (aOR)?=?2.73; 95%CI 1.27–5.90), history of injecting drugs (aOR?=?2.53; 95%CI 1.42–4.49), Aboriginal ancestry (aOR?=?1.66; 95%CI 1.01–2.74) were associated with increased odds of child apprehension. Discussion/Conclusions Child apprehension rates are high, particularly among the most marginalized sex workers, including sex workers who use drugs and sex workers of Aboriginal ancestry. Structural reforms to child protection are urgently needed, that support family-based care address the historical legacy of colonization affecting Aboriginal peoples. PMID:24927324

  20. Vaginal Douching, Condom Use, and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Chinese Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    WANG, BO; LI, XIAOMING; STANTON, BONITA; YANG, HONGMEI; FANG, XIAOYI; ZHAO, RAN; DONG, BAIQING; ZHOU, YUEJIAO; LIU, WEI; LIANG, SHAOLING

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objective Vaginal douching has been hypothesized to increase a woman’s risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, data on the prevalence of this practice and its association with condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are limited. Study A cross-sectional survey among 454 female sex workers (FSWs) in a Chinese county. Results Vaginal douching was reported by 64.7% of the women. The prevalence of self-reported history of STI and that of current STI was 19.4% and 41.5%, respectively. Fifteen percent of the women reported consistent use of condoms with their clients and 8.4% with their regular partners. Vaginal douching was significantly associated with decreased use of condoms (with clients: OR = 0.31; with regular partner(s): OR = 0.22) and increased rate of self-reported STI history (OR = 1.95). However, there was no direct relation between douching and current STI. Over one third of the women believed that douching can prevent STI/HIV. Conclusion Vaginal douching exposes FSWs to a high risk of STI/HIV. Medical professional and public health workers should correct women’s misconception about the effectiveness of douching and discourage women from douching through educational activities. PMID:16254545

  1. Racial Disparities in HIV Seroprevalence Among Male Street Sex Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Morton

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examined whether racial disparities in HIV\\/AIDS between African American and Caucasian male street sex workers (MSSWs) existed and, if so, what were the possible reasons for these disparities. African American MSSWs were significantly more likely to report being HIV\\/AIDS-positive. However, when included in binary logistic models, the relationship between HIV risk factors (of syphilis and sexual assault) and

  2. Syphilis Infection Among Female Sex Workers in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfredo Mejia; Christian T. Bautista; Luis Leal; Claudia Ayala; Franklyn Prieto; Fernando de la Hoz; Martha L. Alzate; Jacqueline Acosta; Jose L. Sanchez

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the epidemiology of Treponema pallidum (syphilis) among female sex workers (FSW) in Santa Fe de Bogotá, Colombia. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted. Participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire, which collected\\u000a socio-demographic characteristics and risk behavior information. Blood samples were screened for syphilis using the VDRL test\\u000a and the MHATP assay. Results The prevalence of syphilis

  3. Human papillomavirus infections among Hungarian female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Marek, E; Dergez, T; D'cruz, G; Bozsa, S; Cseh, A; Szilard, I; Benczik, M; Kiss, I; Varszegi, D; Vilagi, S; Ember, I; Gocze, P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in cervical, oropharyngeal and anal samples of the high-risk population of Hungarian female sex workers (FSWs). HPV testing of swab specimens from FSWs (n = 34) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology was performed. Results were compared with control group (n = 52) matched for age. Questionnaires were used to obtain data regarding participants' sexual behaviour. Data were analysed using SPSS. HPV DNA was detected in at least one location in a great majority of FSWs (82.4%), compared with 46.2% of the general female population (P < 0.05). Both the cervical and the anal samples of sex workers showed higher infection rates than those of controls (64.7% vs. 34.6% and 50.0% vs. 15.4%, respectively, P < 0.05). High-risk HPV prevalence was also significantly higher in sex workers (55.9% vs. 25.0%, P < 0.05). A significantly higher proportion of FSWs had a history of genital warts (26.5% vs. 3.8%, P < 0.05). The results suggest that condom use may not result in adequate protection from HPV infection. The high infection rates among FSWs should be viewed as a priority group for HPV and cervical cancer prevention programmes since they are sources of HPV infection for the general population. PMID:23957436

  4. Sexual and Drug Risk Behaviors Among Women Who Have Sex With Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann V. Bell; Danielle Ompad; Susan G. Sherman

    Objectives. We examined risk behaviors of female drug users, comparing those who reported recently having had sex with women (recent WSW), those who re- ported previously having had sex with women (former WSW), and those who reported never having had sex with women (never WSW). Methods. We used data from the Risk Evaluation and Assessment of Commu- nity Health III

  5. An Effective HIV Risk-Reduction Protocol for Drug-Using Female Sex Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilary L. Surratt; James A. Inciardi

    2010-01-01

    Female sex workers are especially vulnerable to HIV infection, particularly those who use drugs and engage in street-based sex exchange. This study examines the risk behaviors and HIV serostatus of 806 drug-using female sex workers in Miami and assesses the relative impact of two HIV and hepatitis prevention interventions on changes in risk behavior. Drug-using sex workers were recruited using

  6. Examining predictors of sex guilt in multiethnic samples of women.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, G E; Dunn, K M

    1991-10-01

    Previous research has shown that attitudes, including sex guilt, may influence the nature and type of sexual practices in which a person engages. This study examined the relationship of socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity, and religiosity to sex guilt and aspects of sexual permissiveness that relate to sexual attitudes. Subjects were random samples of 126 African American women and 122 white American women in Los Angeles County. They were interviewed face-to-face and completed the Mosher Forced Choice Sex Guilt subscale. Results indicated that while the association between church attendance and sex guilt was stronger for white than for black women, no significant differences in sex guilt across attendance levels was found for black women. Overall, contrary to previous reports, black women had higher levels of sex guilt than their white peers. The importance of understanding factors including SES and religiosity as they relate to African American and white American women's sexual attitudes and behaviors is discussed. PMID:1747042

  7. Substance Use and HIV Among Female Sex Workers and Female Prisoners: Risk Environments and Implications for Prevention, Treatment, and Policies

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; West, Brooke S.; Reed, Elizabeth; Moazan, Babak; Azim, Tasnim; Dolan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) and female prisoners experience elevated HIV prevalence relative to the general population because of unprotected sex and unsafe drug use practices, but the antecedents of these behaviors are often structural in nature. We review the literature on HIV risk environments for FSWs and female prisoners, highlighting similarities and differences in the physical, social, economic, and policy/legal environments that need to be understood to optimize HIV prevention, treatment, and policy responses. Sex work venues, mobility, gender norms, stigma, debt, and the laws and policies governing sex work are important influences in the HIV risk environment among FSWs, affecting their exposure to violence and ability to practice safer sex and safer drug use behaviors. Female prisoners are much more likely to have a drug problem than do male prisoners and have higher HIV prevalence, yet are much less likely to have access to HIV prevention and treatment and access to drug treatment in prison. Women who trade sex or are imprisoned and engage in substance use should not be considered in separate silos because sex workers have high rates of incarceration and many female prisoners have a history of sex work. Repeated cycles of arrest, incarceration, and release can be socially and economically destabilizing for women, exacerbating their HIV risk. This dynamic interplay requires a multisectoral approach to HIV prevention and treatment that appreciates and respects that not all women are willing, able, or want to stop sex work or drug use. Women who engage in sex work, use drugs, or are imprisoned come from all communities and deserve sustained access to HIV prevention and treatment for substance use and HIV, helping them and their families to lead healthy and satisfying lives. PMID:25978477

  8. Sex Workers Perspectives on Strategies to Reduce Sexual Exploitation and HIV Risk: A Qualitative Study in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Shira M.; Engstrom, David; Rolon, Maria Luisa; Silverman, Jay G.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, female sex workers are a population at greatly elevated risk of HIV infection, and the reasons for and context of sex industry involvement have key implications for HIV risk and prevention. Evidence suggests that experiences of sexual exploitation (i.e., forced/coerced sex exchange) contribute to health-related harms. However, public health interventions that address HIV vulnerability and sexual exploitation are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to elicit recommendations for interventions to prevent sexual exploitation and reduce HIV risk from current female sex workers with a history of sexual exploitation or youth sex work. From 2010–2011, we conducted in-depth interviews with sex workers (n?=?31) in Tijuana, Mexico who reported having previously experienced sexual exploitation or youth sex work. Participants recommended that interventions aim to (1) reduce susceptibility to sexual exploitation by providing social support and peer-based education; (2) mitigate harms by improving access to HIV prevention resources and psychological support, and reducing gender-based violence; and (3) provide opportunities to exit the sex industry via vocational supports and improved access to effective drug treatment. Structural interventions incorporating these strategies are recommended to reduce susceptibility to sexual exploitation and enhance capacities to prevent HIV infection among marginalized women and girls in Mexico and across international settings. PMID:24023661

  9. Assessment of Respondent Driven Sampling for Recruiting Female Sex Workers in Two Vietnamese Cities: Reaching the Unseen Sex Worker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Grazina Johnston; Keith Sabin; Mai Thu Hien; Pham Thi Huong

    2006-01-01

    Respondent driven sampling (RDS) is a relatively new method to sample hard-to-reach populations. Until this study, female\\u000a sex workers (FSWs) in Vietnam were sampled using a variety of methods, including time location sampling (TLS), which may not\\u000a access the more hidden types of FSWs. This paper presents an analysis from an HIV biological and behavioral surveillance survey\\u000a to assess the

  10. “Bridge population”: sex workers or their clients? – STI prevalence and risk behaviors of clients of female sex workers in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. J. Huang; W. Wang; M. C. Martin; E. J. Nehl; B. D. Smith; F. Y. Wong

    2011-01-01

    As the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic and the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in China has come to the forefront of public health attention, female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients (CFSWs) are becoming increasingly important to HIV\\/STI prevention efforts. This secondary analysis uses data abstracted from the Chinese Health and Family Life Survey 1999–2000 to report prevalence rates of two

  11. Sexual health and use of condoms among local and international sex workers in Sydney.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, C C; Berry, G; Rohrsheim, R; Donovan, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare indicators of sexual health and predictors of condom use for commercial sex among local and international female sex workers first attending an STD clinic. SETTING: A public STD clinic in Sydney, Australia. SUBJECTS: All sex workers first attending between June 1991 and May 1993. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of demographic, behavioural and morbidity data from proforma medical records. RESULTS: 91 local sex workers and 123 international sex workers (predominantly from Thailand, Malaysia and China) first presented during the study period. There were significantly higher prevalences of chlamydia (0 v. 15%, p = 0.0002), gonorrhoea (0 v. 14%, p = 0.0006), syphilis (0 v. 10%, p = 0.006) and clinical genital herpes (0 v. 5%, p = 0.04) among international sex workers. The only case of HIV infection was in an international sex worker. Inconsistent condom use for commercial sex was significantly more common among international sex workers (RR = 4.5; 95% CI 3.1-6.5). On multivariate analysis, inconsistent condom use in international sex workers was associated with a recent history of prostitution outside Australia (p = 0.04), while inconsistent condom usage among local sex workers was associated with increasing age (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: These data illustrate the efficacy of condoms and the success of targeted education programmes in local sex workers in Sydney. By contrast, international sex workers continued to be at high risk of STDs. The international sex industry in Sydney requires enhanced culture-specific interventions. Immigration laws as they affect sex workers should also be reviewed. PMID:8655167

  12. "This area has been declared a prostitution free zone": discursive formations of space, the state, and trans "sex worker" bodies.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Elijah Adiv

    2011-01-01

    The mayorally instituted and police-enforced Prostitution Free Zones in Washington, DC, serve as a tool of nation-state disciplinarity, wherein many transgender women of color, viewed as ideologically suspect, are profiled as "sex workers," facing police harassment and arrest. This article explores here how this process is not merely about sex work but rather about discourses that are evoked in the displacement of the always-already displaced-racial, sexed, and gendered "others" through interviews with activists and trans community members, as well as District of Columbia government publications. PMID:21740214

  13. Police violence and sexual risk among female and transvestite sex workers in Serbia: qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Rhodes; Milena Simi?; Sladjana Baroš; Lucy Platt; Bojan Žiki?

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore female and transvestite sex workers’ perceptions of risk in the sex work environment in Serbia.Design Qualitative interview study.Setting Street based locations for sex work in Belgrade and Pancevo, Serbia.Participants 31 female and transvestite sex workers.Results Violence, including police violence, was reported as a primary concern in relation to risk. Violence was linked to unprotected sex and the

  14. Relationship of sex guilt and moral reasoning to premarital sex in college women and in couples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith F. DAugelli; Herbert J. Cross

    1975-01-01

    Used the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory, the Sex Experience Inventory, and Kohlberg's Moral Dilemmas Questionnaire in Exp I to assess 119 unmarried college women with regard to sex behavior, sex guilt, and moral reasoning. Categories of sexual expression were developed which were useful in predicting behavior. Guilt was a better predictor of sex than morality. Maintaining virginity and losing it

  15. Violence as a Barrier for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pando, María A.; Coloccini, Romina S.; Reynaga, Elena; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Montano, Silvia M.; Avila, María M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been increasingly reported as an important determinant of HIV infection risk. This study explores the frequency of different violent experiences (sexual abuse, rejection, beating and imprisonment) among FSWs in Argentina and its association with condom use and HIV and T. pallidum prevalence. Methods A convenience sample of 1255 FSWs was included in a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2006 and November 2009. Results Sexual abuse was reported by 24.1% (219/907) of women. A total of 34.7% (42/1234) reported rejection experiences, 21.9% (267/1215) reported having been beaten and 45.4% (561/1236) stated having been arrested because of their sex work activity. There was a higher frequency of inconsistent condom use with clients among FSWs who had experienced sexual abuse, rejection, and police detention. A higher frequency of HIV and T. pallidum infection was detected among FSWs who reported having been arrested by the police. Conclusion The study shows for the first time the frequency of different violent situations among FSWs in Argentina. The association between violence against sex workers, condom use and STI prevalence demonstrated here calls for measures to reduce stigma and violence against FSWs. Such violent experiences may increase vulnerability to STI through coerced unprotected sex. PMID:23342092

  16. How stigma affects healthcare access for transgender sex workers.

    PubMed

    Roche, Kirsten; Keith, Corey

    Stigmatisation of transgender sex workers (TSWs) has been recognised as contributing to illness and poorer health outcomes for this population. It could be argued that part of this stigma comes from nurses. With their frequent face-to-face interactions with their clients, nurses come from a unique place of power to influence the health outcomes and the feelings and thoughts that transgender sex workers have about the healthcare system in general, and whether or not they feel safe accessing it. Because there is very limited literature that explores stigmatisation of TSWs on the part of nurses, the needs of TSWs are scarcely being addressed. This article addresses why a higher proportion of transgender people participate in sex work compared with people in the general population; how stigmatisation by nurses affects access to healthcare resources for TSWs; why nurses experience stigmatising thoughts and beliefs; and how nurses can create a positive impact on TSW clients. The authors have found that, although there are a number of complex reasons for bias and stigma, it is extremely important for the health of these clients that nurses put empathy, sensitivity and compassion at the forefront of their practice. PMID:25426530

  17. Gender relations and risks of HIV transmission in South India: the discourse of female sex workers' clients.

    PubMed

    Aubé-Maurice, Joanne; Clément, Michèle; Bradley, Janet; Lowndes, Catherine M; Gurav, Kaveri; Alary, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In South India, where the majority of the country's cases of HIV are concentrated, transmission of infection occurs mainly within networks composed of female sex workers, their clients and the other sexual partners of the latter. This study aims to determine how gender relations affect the risks of HIV transmission in this region. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 30 clients and analysed qualitatively. Results show that clients perceive sexual relations with female sex workers as a vice involving loss of control and contact with women at the bottom of the social ladder. Paradoxically, this sometimes allows them to conform to the masculine ideal, in giving sexual satisfaction to a woman, in a context of incompatibility between the idealised and actual masculine and feminine archetypes. Attitudes to condoms, affected by various facets of the client-female sex worker relationship, are indicators of the link between this relationship and the risks of contracting HIV. The results suggest that there is a need for expanding targeted HIV prevention towards clients and female sex workers alongside more general interventions on gender issues, particularly among young people, focusing on the structural elements moulding current relations between men and women, with particular consideration of local cultural characteristics. PMID:22574910

  18. Commercial sex venues, syphilis and methamphetamine use among female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dianming; Liao, Meizhen; Jiang, Zhenxia; Zhang, Xijiang; Mao, Wenwen; Zhang, Ning; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Bi, Zhenqiang; Aliyu, Muktar; Wu, Pingsheng; Jiang, Baofa; Jia, Yujiang

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with methamphetamine (MA) use, syphilis, and unprotected sex among female sex workers from different type of venues in Qingdao City, Shandong Province of China. Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys provided information on demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, and HIV-related services. Of 1187 participants, 3.0% were infected with syphilis; 30.2% ever used MA; 58.3% ever had unprotected commercial sex in the past month. The prevalence rates of syphilis and MA use were 2.5% and 33.0% for participants recruited from saunas, night clubs, bars or hotels; 2.7% and 28.3% for hair/beauty salon-based participants; and 4.5% and 15.8% for street-based participants. Street-based MA users were more likely to be single, non-Shandong residents, have first lifetime sex act at younger age, and recruited in 2008 (vs. 2006). Saunas, night clubs, bars, or hotels-based MA users were more likely to be younger, sex debut at younger age, have longer duration of sex work, have unprotected commercial sex, and be syphilis-infected. Hair/beauty salon-based MA users were more likely to be non-Shandong residents, younger, and to have unprotected commercial sex. Syphilis among the sauna-, night club-, bar-, or hotel-based participants was associated with MA use and ever receipt of HIV testing. Syphilis among the hair/beauty salon-based participants was associated with longer duration of sex work. MA users who frequent commercial sex venues are engaging in high-risk behaviors and are at risk for syphilis/other sexually transmitted diseases. Better-targeted intervention efforts to curtail the epidemics of MA use and HIV/syphilis should therefore take cognizance of the role of commercial sex venues as focal points of MA use and syphilis/sexually transmitted disease transmission. PMID:21660748

  19. Factors associated with condom use for oral sex among female brothel-based sex workers in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, M L; Chan, R K; Koh, D; Wee, S

    2000-01-01

    Oral sex, which was once considered an uncommon sexual behavior, has become a relatively common practice. Its prevalence increased from 27.1% in 1992 to 81.1% in 1997, with a concomitant increase in pharyngeal gonorrhea among female sex workers in Singapore. The extent of condom use for oral sex among them is unknown. This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of, and factors associated with, consistent condom use for oral sex among 225 female brothel-based sex workers, with paying clients in Singapore. Results indicated that slightly more than half (56.9%) consistently used condoms for oral sex compared to 97% for vaginal sex. Condom use was significantly associated with class of sex workers and negotiation skills. Significantly higher rates of condom use were found among high-class sex workers (adjusted rate ratio: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.01-2.29) and those with negotiation skills (adjusted rate ratio: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.32-2.07). In light of these findings, it is suggested that future interventions provide training to sex workers, particularly high-class ones, on negotiation concerning oral sex. PMID:10654867

  20. WOMEN WORKERS IN THE MONDRAGON SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL COOPERATIVES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SALLY L. HACKER; CLARA ELCOROBAIRUTIA

    1987-01-01

    A feminist analysis of the Basque Mondragon system of industrial cooperatives suggests that women fare somewhat better in cooperatives than in private firms in employment, earnings, and job security. Market phenomena and the family as basic economic unit affect women workers negatively, as does increasing professionalism in the technical core of the system. Similarities in gender stratification and segregation in

  1. Sex Differences in Relationship between Stress Responses and Lifestyle in Japanese Workers

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Akiko; Akamatsu, Rie

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined the relationships between stress responses and lifestyle, including sleeping and eating behaviors, in Japanese workers according to sex. Methods Questionnaires about stress responses and lifestyle were completed by 3,017 workers in a financial enterprise (41.5% men, 58.5% women). Data were collected in Japan in August 2011. Participants were classified into stress and nonstress groups. Relationships between stress responses and lifestyle were investigated using logistic regression analysis with stress response as a dependent variable. Results There were 254 (8.4%) participants in the stress group and 2,763 (91.6%) in the nonstress group. The results showed that sleeping for shorter periods [odds ratio (OR) = 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58–5.60] was associated with stress responses in women, whereas we found no relationship between stress responses and lifestyle among men. However, working overtime was associated with stress responses in men (OR = 2.71, 95% CI: 1.43–5.15). Eating at night was associated with stress responses in the univariate analysis (men: OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.16–3.80; women: OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.09–2.39). Conclusion This study showed that stress responses were related to lifestyle among women but not among men. Among women, stress responses were related to sleeping for shorter periods, whereas they were related to working long hours among men. In addition, stress responses were related to eating at night in the univariate analysis, although this relationship was not seen in the multivariate analysis, in either sex. PMID:24932418

  2. Psychological Stressors in the Context of Commercial Sex Among Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen; Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Su, Shaobing

    2014-01-01

    Because of the illegality and stigma associated with female sex workers (FSW) in China, data were limited regarding their psychological stressors examined through the lens of occupational health. Analyzing qualitative data from 16 gatekeepers and 38 FSW, we explored these stressors in the context of commercial sex in China. We found that FSW faced a continuum of stressors that resulted from poverty, limited employment, lack of social protection, violence perpetrated by clients, and limited social support from peers and stable partners. We call for empowerment and a structural approach to address the needs of FSW to improve their psychological well-being. PMID:24180467

  3. Psychological Stressors in the Context of Commercial Sex Among Female Sex Workers in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Su, Shaobing

    2015-07-01

    Because of the illegality and stigma associated with female sex workers (FSWs) in China, data were limited regarding their psychological stressors examined through the lens of occupational health. Analyzing qualitative data from 16 gatekeepers and 38 FSWs, we explored these stressors in the context of commercial sex in China. We found that FSWs faced a continuum of stressors that resulted from poverty, limited employment, lack of social protection, violence perpetrated by clients, and limited social support from peers and stable partners. We call for empowerment and a structural approach to address the needs of FSWs to improve their psychological well-being. PMID:24180467

  4. "What makes you think you have special privileges because you are a police officer?" A qualitative exploration of police's role in the risk environment of female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Susan G; Footer, Katherine; Illangasekare, Samantha; Clark, Erin; Pearson, Erin; Decker, Michele R

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, female sex workers (FSWs) have high rates of HIV. Many factors that escalate their risk lay outside of their control, primarily in the environments in which they practice sex. An understudied yet powerful risk environment is that of police. We qualitatively explored sex workers' interactions with police in their personal and professional lives. Thirty-five FSWs were purposively sampled in Baltimore, MD, in 2012. Women discussed experiences of police verbal harassment, sexual exploitation, extortion, and a lack of police responsiveness to 911 calls in emergencies, largely partner violence. Women's mistrust of police was often developed at an early age and further reinforced by interactions in their personal and professional lives. The study underscores the need for targeting police in reducing sex workers' HIV and other risks. The case for police's role in generating risk is evident, which could be addressed through structural interventions targeting both police practices and policies. PMID:25360822

  5. University Student Beliefs about Sex: Men vs. Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, David; Zusman, Marty; McNeely, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of survey data from 326 undergraduates at a large southeastern university revealed significant differences between men and women in their sexual beliefs. Specifically, men were more likely to think that oral sex is not sex; that cybersex is not cheating, that men can't tell if a woman is faking orgasm and that sex frequency drops in…

  6. Women who sell sex in a Ugandan trading town: life histories, survival strategies and risk.

    PubMed

    Gysels, Marjolein; Pool, Robert; Nnalusiba, Betty

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the background of commercial sex workers in Africa. This study investigated how women in a trading town on the trans-Africa highway in southwest Uganda become involved in commercial sex work, which factors contribute to their economic success or lack of success, and what effect life trajectories and economic success have on negotiating power and risk behaviour. Over the course of two years detailed life histories of 34 women were collected through recording open, in-depth interviews, the collection of sexual and income and expenditure diaries, visits to the women's native villages, and participant observation. The women share similar disadvantaged backgrounds and this has played a role in their move into commercial sex. They have divergent experiences, however, in their utilisation of opportunities and in the level of success they achieve. They have developed different life styles and a variety of ways of dealing with sexual relationships. Three groups of women were identified: (1) women who work in the back-street bars, have no capital of their own and are almost entirely dependent on selling sex for their livelihood; (2) waitresses in the bars along the main road who engage in a more institutionalised kind of commercial sex, often mediated by middlemen and (3) the more successful entrepreneurs who earn money from their own bars as well as from commercial sex. The three groups had different risk profiles. Due partly to their financial independence from men, women in the latter group have taken control of sexual relationships and can negotiate good sexual deals for themselves, both financially and in terms of safe sex. The poorer women were more vulnerable and less able to negotiate safer sex. A disadvantaged background and restricted access to economic resources are the major reasons for women gravitating to commercial sex work. Various aspects of personality play a role in utilising income from commercial sex to set up an economic basis that then makes the selling of sex unnecessary. This has implications for interventions, and part of the longer-term solution should lie in improving the economic position of women vis-à-vis men. PMID:11824924

  7. Advancing sex and gender competency in medicine: sex & gender women's health collaborative.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Alyson J; Templeton, Kimberly; Kleinman, Mary Rojek; Jenkins, Marjorie R

    2013-01-01

    Research conducted to date has deepened our understanding of sex and gender differences in the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes for many conditions that affect both women and men. The Sex and Gender Women's Health Collaborative (SGWHC) is supported by the coordinated efforts of our founding partners: the American Medical Women's Association, the American College of Women's Health Physicians and Society for Women's Health Research to address the gaps in medical education with regard to sex and gender competency in the care of women. The SGWHC initiated and continues to build a novel digital resource library of sex and gender specific materials to be adopted and adapted into medical education and clinical practice, residing @ http://www.sgwhc.org. This article presents a case for the inclusion of sex and gender focused content into medical curricula and describes a means for students, faculty, and practitioners to access a centralized, interactive repository for these resources. PMID:23724943

  8. HIV-related risk perception among female sex workers in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ankomah, Augustine; Omoregie, Godpower; Akinyemi, Zacch; Anyanti, Jennifer; Ladipo, Olaronke; Adebayo, Samson

    2011-01-01

    Background Over one-third of sex workers in Nigeria are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet there is a lack of understanding of sex workers’ own perception of sexual risk-taking. Applying the theory of cognitive dissonance, this paper examined the personal HIV risk perception of brothel-based sex workers. Methods The study is based on 24 focus group discussions held among brothel-based sex workers in four geographically and culturally dispersed cities in Nigeria. Results It was found that sex workers underestimated their risk of infection and rationalized, defended, or justified their behaviors, a typical psychological response to worry, threat, and anxiety arising from the apparent discrepancies between beliefs and behaviors. To reduce dissonance, many sex workers had a strong belief in fatalism, predestination, and faith-based invulnerability to HIV infection. Many believed that one will not die of acquired immune deficiency syndrome if it is not ordained by God. The sex workers also had a high level of HIV-related stigma. Conclusion From these findings, most sex workers considered risk reduction and in particular condom use as far beyond their control or even unnecessary, as a result of their strong beliefs in fatalism and predestination. Therefore, one critical area of intervention is the need to assist sex workers to develop accurate means of assessing their personal vulnerability and self-appraisal of HIV-related risk. PMID:22096411

  9. The use of the Internet by gay and bisexual male escorts: sex workers as sex educators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Parsons; J. A. Koken; D. S. Bimbi

    2004-01-01

    While prior studies have targeted street-based male sex workers as potential vectors of disease transmission, the number of men who work independently through Internet chat-rooms and other online endeavors has steadily increased. It is likely that these men differ substantially from their street-based counterparts in terms of sexual risk behaviors with their clients. The purpose of this study was to

  10. Risks and prevention of sexually transmissible infections among women who have sex with women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth McNair; MINNIS COMMUNICATIONS

    2005-01-01

    Health care providers working with women who have sex with women (WSW) have been ill-informed about a range of sexual health issues for these women. Pertinent issues include sexual behaviours that carry risks of sexually transmissible infection (STI), prevention strategies for safer sex and understanding experiences of abuse. A relative silence continues in all of these areas within the mainstream

  11. Efficacy of a Brief Behavioral Intervention to Promote Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent; Lozada, Remedios; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Semple, Shirley J.; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel; Orozovich, Prisci; Abramovitz, Daniela; de la Torre, Adela; Amaro, Hortensia; Martinez, Gustavo; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the efficacy of a brief behavioral intervention to promote condom use among female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Methods. We randomized 924 female sex workers 18 years or older without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recently had unprotected sex with clients to a 30-minute behavioral intervention or a didactic control condition. At baseline and 6 months, women underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Results. We observed a 40% decline in cumulative sexually transmitted illness incidence (P = .049) in the intervention group. Incidence density for the intervention versus control groups was 13.8 versus 24.92 per 100 person-years for sexually transmitted illnesses combined (P = .034) and 0 versus 2.01 per 100 person-years for HIV (P < .001). There were concomitant increases in the number and percentage of protected sex acts and decreases in the number of unprotected sex acts with clients (P < .05). Conclusions. This brief behavioral intervention shows promise in reducing HIV and sexually transmitted illness risk behaviors among female sex workers and may be transferable to other resource-constrained settings. PMID:18799768

  12. Risk reduction as an accepted framework for safer-sex promotion among women who have sex with women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Background: Safer-sex information for women who have sex with women (WSW) is often very difficult to locate. Girl2girl.info is one of the only websites focussed on safer sex for WSW. The present article describes the predevelopment consultation and evaluation of girl2girl.info. A risk-reduction framework was used to develop the website. Methods:Girl2girl.info was developedin2004 using questionnaires andfocus groups with 36consumers who

  13. The use of the Internet by gay and bisexual male escorts: sex workers as sex educators.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J T; Koken, J A; Bimbi, D S

    2004-11-01

    While prior studies have targeted street-based male sex workers as potential vectors of disease transmission, the number of men who work independently through Internet chat-rooms and other online endeavors has steadily increased. It is likely that these men differ substantially from their street-based counterparts in terms of sexual risk behaviors with their clients. The purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which the Internet has impacted the work of male escorts and their sexual practices with clients. Semi-structured qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys were administered to 46 such men. Less than half the men reported unprotected anal sex with clients. The qualitative data lend support to this finding, in that the majority talked about refusing any unsafe sex with clients, and many reported taking the extra step of educating their clients about the dangers of risky sex. Some of the escorts described the methods used to incorporate safer sex practices into sessions with their clients. Internet-based male escorts can play an important role as potential sex educators on the front lines of the fight against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:15511734

  14. A Venue Analysis of Predictors of Alcohol Use Prior to Sexual Intercourse among Female Sex Workers in Senggigi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Safika, Iko; Johnson, Timothy P.; Levy, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Female sex workers' (FSWs') use of alcohol, a known disinhibitor to risk behavior, has been largely understudied. Knowledge of how various sex work venues influence FSW's alcohol consumption before engaging in commercial sex is even rarer. Our analysis identifies those factors across three types of sex-work venues that predict alcohol use among FSWs prior to paid sexual intercourse with clients. Our data were collected through structured interviews with FSWs engaging in commercial sex in Senggigi Beach, Lombok Island in the eastern Indonesian province of West Nusa Tenggara. Methods Employing a cross sectional and multilevel design, three categories of venues where FSWs meet clients in Senggigi were sampled: (1) discotheques and bars (freelance), (2) brothels, and (3) recreational enterprises such as karaoke establishments and massage parlors. The sample consisted of 115 women “nested” within 16 sex work venues. The FSWs reported on 326 clients interactions. Results Results show that FSWs consumed alcohol before commercial sex with 157 (48%) of the 326 clients interactions. Alcohol use varied by differences in HIV policies and services offered at the sex work venue, the FSW's educational level and age, and client characteristics. Conclusion Alcohol use is common prior to sexual intercourse among FSWs and their clients in Senggigi, and the venue where FSWs meet their clients influences the women's alcohol use. Freelancers were likelier to use alcohol than those who work at brothels and recreational enterprises. Given the recognized links between alcohol use prior to sex and high risk behavior, HIV prevention programs that discourage alcohol use should be introduced to both women who engage in commercial sex and also sex-work venue managers, owners, and clients. PMID:20956075

  15. Factors associated with condom use negotiation by female sex workers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Mridha, Malay K; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-10-01

    Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 female sex workers; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the 7 days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street-based female sex workers, respectively. Overall, 28.1% of female sex workers negotiated for condom use with their clients. Participation in behaviour change communication (BCC) programmes (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0) and self-perceived risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection (AOR, 1.8 95% CI, 1.6-2.1) were positive predictors for condom negotiation. Compared to the hotel-based female sex workers, street (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9) and brothel-based female sex workers (AOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9) were less likely to negotiate for condom use. Female sex workers in Bangladesh are at high risk for sexually transmitted infection / human immunodeficiency virus infection because of low overall negotiation for condom use. Participation in BCC programmes had positive effect on condom negotiation by female sex workers, and should be strengthened in commercial sex venues. PMID:23970599

  16. Women and the Future: Changing Sex Roles in Modern America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giele, Janet Zollinger

    This book identifies, analyzes, and evaluates the changes in the status of women in government, work, the family, and the cultural system. It is intended for persons interested in any aspect of women's studies or sex roles. American women today have a greater voice in politics than at any earlier point in history. But signs of inequality in actual…

  17. Women’s sex-toy parties: Technology, orgasm, and commodification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha McCaughey; Christina French

    2001-01-01

    This article presents participant-observation research from five female-only sex-toy parties. We situate the sale of sex toys\\u000a in the context of in-home marketing to women, the explosion of a sex industry, and the emergence of lifestyle and body politics.\\u000a We explore the significance of sex toys for women as marketed in female-only contexts, paying particular attention to the\\u000a similarities and

  18. Social-Environmental Factors and Protective Sexual Behavior Among Sex Workers: The Encontros Intervention in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Donini, Angela; Díaz, Juan; Chinaglia, Magda; Reingold, Arthur; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the association of social–environmental factors with condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 420 sex workers participating in an STI/HIV prevention study in Corumbá, Brazil, to inform future intervention efforts. Methods. Participants provided urine samples for polymerase chain reaction testing of chlamydia and gonorrhea and responded to multi-item scales addressing perceived social cohesion, participation in networks, and access to and management of resources. We conducted multivariate log-linear and negative binomial regression analyses of these data. Results. Increased social cohesion was inversely associated with number of unprotected sex acts in the preceding week among women (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.80; P < .01), and there was a marginal association among men (adjusted IRR = 0.41; P = .08). Women's increased participation in social networks was associated with a decrease in frequency of unprotected sex acts (adjusted IRR = 0.83; P = .04), as was men's access to and management of social and material resources (IRR = 0.15; P = .01). Social–environmental factors were not associated with STIs. Conclusions. The social context within which populations negotiate sexual behaviors is associated with condom use. Future efforts to prevent STI/HIV should incorporate strategies to modify the social environment. PMID:19762673

  19. Puerto Rican Women as Workers and Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Blanca, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Centro Bulletin" highlights recent studies by and about employed Puerto Rican and Latina women. "La mujer en el Puerto Rico del siglo XIX" (O. Jimenez de Wagenheim), in Spanish, reviews the contributions of women to Puerto Rican economic, political, and social life during the nineteenth century. "Notas sobre el desarrollo…

  20. Prevalence and correlates of sexual risk among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasmina Katsulis; Alesha Durfee

    2012-01-01

    We investigated prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviours among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, the busiest border crossing area on the US – Mexico border, analysing survey data from a purposive, cross-sectional sample of male and female sex workers who worked in a range of indoor and outdoor settings. Logistic regression was used to determine factors

  1. The health and welfare needs of female and transgender street sex workers in New South Wales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Harcourt; Ingrid van Beek; Jenny Heslop; Maria McMahon; Basil Donovan

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the health and welfare status of female and transgender street sex workers and their work-related experiences. Also to estimate population numbers, determine work locations, and identify the most appropriate education, health and welfare services for this group. Methods: Forty-eight street sex workers completed a questionnaire, mainly at their place of work. Demographic and sexual health profiles of

  2. What money buys: clients of street sex workers in the US

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Della Giusta; Maria Laura Di Tommaso; Isilda Shima; Steinar Strøm

    2006-01-01

    An econometric model that explores the effect of personal characteristics and attitudes of clients on their demand for prostitution is estimated on data from a survey of clients of street sex workers in the US. The results reveal that clients of street sex workers in our sample have two diametrically opposite profiles: one for clients who declared never to have

  3. Sex Workers and Condom Use-the Political Economy of HIV\\/AIDS in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raihana Karim; Nasheeba Selim; Sabina Faiz Rashid

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken in Madaripur brothel to understand condom use reality within the social context of the commercial sex workers' (CSW) lives in brothel and to critically analyze BRAC's HIV\\/AIDS programme's effectiveness in condom promotion. It was found that the chukris (bonded sex workers) were controlled by the sardarnis (madam) and the sardarnis did not promote condom use among

  4. Correlates of Inconsistent Refusal of Unprotected Sex among Armenian Female Sex Workers.

    PubMed

    Markosyan, Karine; Lang, Delia L; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs' demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n = 62) of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for participants' age and education revealed that perceiving more barriers toward condom use (AOR = 1.1; P < 0.01), reporting more types of abuse (AOR = 2.1; P < 0.01), and setting lower fees for service (AOR = 0.9; P = 0.02) significantly predicted inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex. HIV-risk-reduction behavioral interventions tailored to FSWs working in Yerevan Armenia should address the factors identified in this study toward the goal of enhancing refusal of unprotected sex and ultimately preventing acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. PMID:25349727

  5. Correlates of Inconsistent Refusal of Unprotected Sex among Armenian Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Markosyan, Karine; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs' demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n = 62) of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for participants' age and education revealed that perceiving more barriers toward condom use (AOR = 1.1; P < 0.01), reporting more types of abuse (AOR = 2.1; P < 0.01), and setting lower fees for service (AOR = 0.9; P = 0.02) significantly predicted inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex. HIV-risk-reduction behavioral interventions tailored to FSWs working in Yerevan Armenia should address the factors identified in this study toward the goal of enhancing refusal of unprotected sex and ultimately preventing acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. PMID:25349727

  6. 20 Facts on Women Workers. Facts on Working Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Of the 108 million women age 16 or over who were part of the 1999 civilian noninstitutional U.S. population, 65 million (about 60%) were either employed or actively looking for work. In 1999, black, white, and Hispanic women participated in the labor force at rates of 63.5%, 59.6%, and 55.9%, respectively. According to projections, women will…

  7. Freire's Lessons for Liberating Women Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Leith L.

    1998-01-01

    Women working in export processing zones in the Dominican Republic organized a union using a gendered approach and undertook organizational literacy strategies based on Freire's ideas. They developed community support services to combat oppression. (SK)

  8. An effective HIV risk-reduction protocol for drug-using female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Surratt, Hilary L; Inciardi, James A

    2010-04-01

    Female sex workers are especially vulnerable to HIV infection, particularly those who use drugs and engage in street-based sex exchange. This study examines the risk behaviors and HIV serostatus of 806 drug-using female sex workers in Miami and assesses the relative impact of two HIV and hepatitis prevention interventions on changes in risk behavior. Drug-using sex workers were recruited using targeted sampling strategies and were randomly assigned to the NIDA Standard Intervention or an innovative Sex Worker Focused (SWF) Intervention. Outcome analyses indicate that both groups benefited from participation in the intervention trial. However, the SWF Intervention was found to be more efficacious in regard to reductions in unprotected oral sex and sexual violence. PMID:20391059

  9. HIV prevention among male clients of female sex workers in Kaolack, Senegal: results of a peer education program.

    PubMed

    Leonard, L; Ndiaye, I; Kapadia, A; Eisen, G; Diop, O; Mboup, S; Kanki, P

    2000-02-01

    This article reports the results of a peer-led HIV prevention education and condom promotion program among transport workers in Kaolack, Senegal. As part of a 2-year longitudinal follow-up study, changes in men's AIDS-related knowledge, sexual behavior, condom use, and perceived barriers to condom use were evaluated by self-reports obtained from a systematic sample of transport workers interviewed before and after intervention. In addition to men's self-reports, preintervention and postintervention data on men's sexual and condom use behavior were gathered from a sample of licensed, commercial sex workers, who cited transport workers as their primary source of clients. Significant increases in men's HIV-related knowledge, previous use of condoms (from 30.4% to 53.5%), and consistent condom use with regular sex partners were documented over the study period, as were significant declines in perceived barriers to condom use. Though men reported significantly fewer sexual encounters with casual and commercial partners at follow-up compared to baseline, these data were unreliable. Women's postintervention reports indicate that a greater proportion of clients (including, but not limited to transport workers) "always" agree to use condoms (p < .01) compared with baseline and that fewer men offer more money for unprotected sex (p < .01). However, women also report taking greater initiative in the mechanics of condom use (supplying the condom, putting it on, and taking it off) than they did prior to the intervention, and significantly (p < .05) fewer women think that most of their clients know how to use a condom. The findings indicate that the peer-mediated intervention had a positive impact on several important outcomes measured and suggest that HIV prevention efforts need to focus on male client groups despite the logistical and methodological challenges. PMID:10749384

  10. Social and structural violence and power relations in mitigating HIV risk of drug-using women in survival sex work.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Kate; Kerr, Thomas; Allinott, Shari; Chettiar, Jill; Shoveller, Jean; Tyndall, Mark W

    2008-02-01

    High rates of violence among street-level sex workers have been described across the globe, while in cities across Canada the disappearance and victimization of drug-using women in survival sex work is ongoing. Given the pervasive levels of violence faced by sex workers over the last decades, and extensive harm reduction and HIV prevention efforts operating in Vancouver, Canada, this research aimed to explore the role of social and structural violence and power relations in shaping the HIV risk environment and prevention practices of women in survival sex work. Through a participatory-action research project, a series of focus group discussions were conceptualized and co-facilitated by sex workers, community and research partners with a total of 46 women in early 2006. Based on thematic, content and theoretical analysis, the following key factors were seen to both directly and indirectly mediate women's agency and access to resources, and ability to practice HIV prevention and harm reduction: at the micro-level, boyfriends as pimps and the 'everyday violence' of bad dates; at the meso-level, a lack of safe places to take dates, and adverse impacts of local policing; and at the macro-level, dopesickness and the need to sell sex for drugs. Analysis of the narratives and daily lived experiences of women sex workers highlight the urgent need for a renewed HIV prevention strategy that moves beyond a solely individual-level focus to structural and environmental interventions, including legal reforms, that facilitate 'enabling environments' for HIV prevention. PMID:18155336

  11. HIV vulnerabilities of sex-trafficked Indian women and girls

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Jhumka; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To qualitatively explore potential mechanisms that may confer heightened risk for HIV infection among survivors of sex trafficking in India. Methods Case narratives of 61 repatriated women and girls who reported being trafficked into sex work and were receiving services at an NGO in Mysore, India, were reviewed. Narratives were analyzed to examine potential sources of HIV risk related to sex trafficking. Results Participants were aged 14–30 years. Among the 48 women and girls tested for HIV, 45.8% were HIV positive. Narratives described very low levels of autonomy, with control exacted by brothel managers and traffickers. Lack of control appeared to heighten trafficked women and girls’ vulnerability to HIV infection in the following ways: use of violent rape as a means of coercing initiation into sex work, inability to refuse sex, inability to use condoms or negotiate use, substance use as a coping strategy, and inadequate access to health care. Conclusion Sex trafficked women and girls lack autonomy and are rendered vulnerable to HIV infection through several means. Development of HIV prevention strategies specifically designed to deal with lack of autonomy and reach sex-trafficked women and girls is imperative. PMID:19625022

  12. Sex, gender, and pain: Women and men really are different

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger B. Fillingim

    2000-01-01

    Sex-related differences in the experience of both clinical and experimentally induced pain have been widely reported. Specifically,\\u000a females are at greater risk for developing several chronic pain disorders, and women exhibit greater sensitivity to noxious\\u000a stimuli in the laboratory compared with men. Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for these sex differences. Psychosocial\\u000a factors such as sex role beliefs,

  13. What money buys: clients of street sex workers in the US

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Della Giusta; Maria Laura Di Tommaso; Isilda Shima; Steinar Strøm

    2009-01-01

    The article presents a review of current theoretical and empirical approaches to sex work, followed by the presentation of an original theoretical framework (Della Giusta et al., 2006), which is tested with an econometric model of the characteristics of demand for sex services by a sample of clients of street sex workers in the US. We present findings in relation

  14. Alcohol and drug use in Australian male sex workers: Its relationship to the safety outcome of the sex encounter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Minichiello; R. Mariño; M. A. Khan; J. Browne

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the self-reporting patterns of alcohol and drug consumption among male sex workers (MSWs) in three Australian cities during commercial sex encounters, and examines to what extent alcohol and drugs are used and whether this is related to the safe\\/unsafe outcome of the commercial sex encounter. One hundred and eighty-six MSWs from Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne completed a

  15. Relationship between female sex workers and gatekeeper: the impact on female sex worker's mental health in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Hong, Yan; Su, Shaobing; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2014-01-01

    Global literature suggests that gatekeepers exert enormous influences on lives of female sex workers (FSWs). However, virtually no available studies have examined the FSW-gatekeeper relationship (F-G relationship) and its impact on FSW's mental health. The current study was conducted in 2008-2009 in two cities of southwest China. A total of 1022 FSW were recruited through community outreach from nine different types of commercial sex establishments. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were employed to depict the association between F-G relationship and measures of FSW's mental health. Findings of the current study revealed that FSW with a close relationship with their gatekeepers reported a better mental health status. After adjusting for demographics and potential confounders of mental health, F-G relationship was positively associated with hopefulness (?? = .09, 95% CI = .01, .16), but negatively associated with perceived stigma (?? = -.25, 95% CI = -.44, -.07), suicidal intention or attempt (aOR = .90, 95% CI = .83, .99), and loneliness (?? = -.29, 95% CI = -.47, -.12). F-G relationship is an independent predictor of mental health of FSW over and above potential confounders including partner violence and substance use. Future health promotion programs targeting FSW need to recognize the role of gatekeepers in the life of FSW and engage them in a socially and legally acceptable way in safeguarding or improving mental health status of FSW in China. PMID:24345341

  16. Faculty Sex Composition and Job Satisfaction Among Academic Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Malcolm D.

    The connection between faculty sex composition and job satisfaction among women academics in selected institutions of higher education in Pennsylvania was examined. Responses to a mailed questionnaire were received from 1,089 respondents, including 214 women. Biographical data and demographic information were collected, and job satisfaction was…

  17. Sex affects health: women are different I. Body composition & metabolism

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    Sex affects health Overview: n Males & females have different patterns of illness & health q Longevity Gap: 5.1 years (2007); highly dependent upon income: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/16/business/income-gap-meet-the-longevity serotonin q Smoking has a more negative effect on cardiovascular health in women than men. q Women are 2x

  18. Estimating the number of sex workers in South Africa: rapid population size estimation.

    PubMed

    Konstant, Tracey L; Rangasami, Jerushah; Stacey, Maria J; Stewart, Michelle L; Nogoduka, Coceka

    2015-02-01

    Although recognized as a vulnerable population, there is no national population size estimate for sex workers in South Africa. A rapid sex worker enumeration exercise was undertaken in twelve locations across the country based on principles of participatory mapping and Wisdom of the Crowd. Sites with a range of characteristics were selected, focusing on level of urbanisation, trucking, mining and borders. At each site, sex worker focus groups mapped local hotspots. Interviews with sex workers at identified hotspots were used to estimate the numbers and genders of sex workers working in each. Estimates provided in the literature were combined with enumeration exercise results to define assumptions that could be applied to a national extrapolation. A working estimate was reached of between 131,000 and 182,000 sex worker in South Africa, or between 0.76 and 1 % of the adult female population. The success of the exercise depended on integral involvement of sex worker peer educators and strong ethical considerations. PMID:25582921

  19. Non-Cationic Proteins Are Associated with HIV Neutralizing Activity in Genital Secretions of Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Birse, Kenzie D. M.; Cole, Amy L.; Hirbod, Taha; McKinnon, Lyle; Ball, Terry B.; Westmacott, Garrett R.; Kimani, Joshua; Plummer, Frank; Cole, Alexander M.; Burgener, Adam; Broliden, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cationic proteins found in cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) are known to contribute to the early antiviral immune response against HIV-infection in vitro. We here aimed to define additional antiviral factors that are over-expressed in CVS from female sex workers at high risk of infection. Methods CVS were collected from Kenyan HIV-seronegative (n = 34) and HIV-seropositive (n = 12) female sex workers, and were compared with those from HIV-seronegative low-risk women (n = 12). The highly exposed seronegative (HESN) sex workers were further divided into those with less (n = 22) or more (n = 12) than three years of documented sex work. Cationic protein-depleted CVS were assessed for HIV-neutralizing activity by a PBMC-based HIV-neutralizing assay, and then characterized by proteomics. Results HIV neutralizing activity was detected in all unprocessed CVS, however only CVS from the female sex worker groups maintained its HIV neutralizing activity after cationic protein-depletion. Differentially abundant proteins were identified in the cationic protein-depleted secretions including 26, 42, and 11 in the HESN>3yr, HESN<3yr, and HIV-positive groups, respectively. Gene ontology placed these proteins into functional categories including proteolysis, oxidation-reduction, and epidermal development. The proteins identified in this study include proteins previously associated with the HESN phenotype in other cohorts as well as novel proteins not yet associated with anti-HIV activities. Conclusion While cationic proteins appear to contribute to the majority of the intrinsic HIV neutralizing activity in the CVS of low-risk women, a broader range of non-cationic proteins were associated with HIV neutralizing activity in HESN and HIV-positive female sex workers. These results indicate that novel protein factors found in CVS of women with high-risk sexual practices may have inherent antiviral activity, or are involved in other aspects of anti-HIV host defense, and warrant further exploration into their mode of action. PMID:26090884

  20. Combination HIV prevention for female sex workers: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Bekker, Linda-Gail; Johnson, Leigh; Cowan, Frances; Overs, Cheryl; Besada, Donela; Hillier, Sharon; Cates, Willard

    2015-01-01

    Sex work occurs in many forms and sex workers of all genders have been affected by HIV epidemics worldwide. The determinants of HIV risk associated with sex work occur at several levels, including individual biological and behavioural, dyadic and network, and community and social environmental levels. Evidence indicates that effective HIV prevention packages for sex workers should include combinations of biomedical, behavioural, and structural interventions tailored to local contexts, and be led and implemented by sex worker communities. A model simulation based on the South African heterosexual epidemic suggests that condom promotion and distribution programmes in South Africa have already reduced HIV incidence in sex workers and their clients by more than 70%. Under optimistic model assumptions, oral pre-exposure prophylaxis together with test and treat programmes could further reduce HIV incidence in South African sex workers and their clients by up to 40% over a 10-year period. Combining these biomedical approaches with a prevention package, including behavioural and structural components as part of a community-driven approach, will help to reduce HIV infection in sex workers in different settings worldwide. PMID:25059942

  1. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Jaime E; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability. PMID:17653395

  2. Condom use among female sex workers in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bukenya, Justine; Vandepitte, Judith; Kwikiriza, Maureen; Weiss, Helen A; Hayes, Richard; Grosskurth, Heiner

    2013-01-01

    Consistent condom use can prevent HIV infection, yet levels of condom use are low in many settings. This paper examines determinants of inconsistent condom use among 905 women enrolled in a high-risk cohort in Kampala, Uganda, who reported sexual intercourse with paying clients in the last month. Among these, 40% participants reported using condoms inconsistently with paying clients in the past month. The most common reason for inconsistent condom use was client preference. Factors independently associated with inconsistent condom use included: sex work not being the sole source of income [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-2.09], sexual debut before 14 years (aOR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.09-1.96), daily consumption of alcohol (aOR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.26-2.88) and being currently pregnant (aOR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.25-3.57). Being currently married (aOR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.18-0.73) and a higher number of sexual partners per month (p-trend = 0.001) were associated with a lower risk of inconsistent condom use. Targeted programmes should be developed to promote consistent condom use in high-risk women, alongside interventions to reduce alcohol use. PMID:23216336

  3. Genital human papillomavirus infection in women who have sex with women: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne M. Marrazzo; Kathleen Stine; Laura A. Koutsky

    2000-01-01

    Sexual transmission of human papillomavirus between women has been postulated on the basis of reports of abnormal Papanicolaou smears in women who reported no prior sex with men and by studies using amplified deoxyribonucleic acid technology for human papillomavirus detection. To review the current knowledge of the epidemiology of human papillomavirus and the Papanicolaou smear screening practices among women who

  4. 20 Facts on Women Workers. Fact Sheet No. 88-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet lists 20 interpreted statistics on women workers. The facts cover the following data: number of women workers and their percentage in the labor force; length of time women are expected to stay in the labor force; racial and ethnic groups in the labor force; part-time and full-time employment; types of occupations in which women are…

  5. [Results of HIV sentinel epidemiological surveillance among sex workers in Osh City of Kyrgyz Republic].

    PubMed

    Mamaev, T

    2007-01-01

    Results of HIV sentinel epidemiological surveillance among sex workers in Osh city in 2005 are presented. Prevalence of HIV-infection, HCV-infection and syphilis among sex workers was 2%, 5.5%, and 15.5% respectively. The reasons of high prevalence of HIV-infection were: unprotected sex (17.9 - 53.5%), presence of sex transmitted diseases (43%) and injecting drug users (7%). The level of awareness about modes of HIV transmission and measures for protection is relatively low (54.8% and 42% respectively) and not enough for the change of behavior. PMID:17672136

  6. Violence against Chinese female sex workers in Hong Kong: from understanding to prevention.

    PubMed

    Li, Jessica C M

    2013-05-01

    Violence against sex workers is considered a global phenomenon. Despite this, very little is known about the patterns and nature of this form of violence. This article is concerned with violence against Chinese female sex workers in Hong Kong. Based on a systematic analysis of 75 police case files, it was found that violent attacks on sex workers display clear temporal and spatial patterns, and that perpetrators share certain characteristics. The article concludes that violence against female sex workers in the Chinese context is largely opportunity driven and goes on to argue that situational measures offer the greatest potential for preventive gains. Barriers to effective implementation such as the inappropriate or unfavourable responses of the government, the police, community leaders, and local residents toward commercial sexual activity are also discussed. PMID:22419521

  7. Food insecurity, HIV/AIDS pandemic and sexual behaviour of female commercial sex workers in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyefara, J L

    2007-08-01

    This study examined the role of hunger and food insecurity in the sexual behaviour of female commercial sex workers in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria within the context of HIV/AIDS. In addition, the study investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and induced abortion among the respondents. Cross-sectional survey and in-depth interview research methods were adopted to generate both quantitative and qualitative data from the respondents. Findings of the study showed that 35.0% of the respondents joined the sex industry because of poverty and lack of other means of getting daily food. While all the respondents had knowledge about the existence of HIV/AIDS, 82.0% of them identified sexual intercourse as a major route of HIV transmission. There was a significant relationship between poverty, food insecurity and consistent use of condoms by female sex workers at P<0.01. Specifically, only 24.7% of the respondents used condoms regularly in every sexual act. Consequently, 51.6% had previous cases of STIs. The most prevalent STI among the respondents was gonorrhea, with 76.4% prevalence among ever infected female sex workers. This was followed by syphilis with a prevalence of 21.1%. In addition, 59.1% of the sample had become pregnant while on the job and 93.1% of these pregnancies were aborted through induced abortion. In conclusion, hunger and malnutrition were the factors that pushed young women into prostitution in Nigeria and these same factors hindered them from practicing safe sex within the sex industry. Thus, it is recommended that the Nigerian government should develop programmes that will reduce hunger and food insecurity, in order to reduce rapid transmission of HIV infection in the country. PMID:18071614

  8. Health outcomes among women trafficked for sex in the United States: a closer look.

    PubMed

    Muftic, Lisa R; Finn, Mary A

    2013-06-01

    Human trafficking is recognized as a major public health problem and a tragic transnational crime. Little is known about the health outcomes of victims of human trafficking. This study identifies the relationship of risk factors to physical, sexual, and mental health outcomes in three groups of women (N = 38) exploited for sex in the United States: international trafficking victims, domestic trafficking victims, and nontrafficked sex workers. To date this is the first study to examine the impact of risk factors on health outcomes using a sample of women trafficked for sex in the United States that includes both domestic and international victims. Overall, findings suggest that the experiences in sex work of domestic trafficking victims were dissimilar to those of international trafficking victims. Moreover, domestic trafficking victims displayed poorer health outcomes compared to international trafficking victims. In terms of risk factors, a higher percentage of women involved in street prostitution reported sexual health problems, co-occurring health issues, and addiction. Childhood physical/sexual victimization was related to poor physical health. PMID:23295378

  9. The tide cannot be turned without us: sex workers and the global response to HIV.

    PubMed

    Overs, Cheryl; Loff, Bebe

    2013-01-01

    Improved knowledge, better programmes and policies, effective treatment and other scientific developments have reduced levels of new HIV infections globally. Evidence shows that programmes that prevent HIV among sex workers and their clients are most successful when all aspects of vulnerability are addressed and when they are underpinned by policy that advances human rights. This is particularly important in the context of the introduction of antiretroviral-based HIV prevention, which could have harmful consequences if not well planned. In this context, law and policy on sex work should not be limited to aiming to deliver medicine and services to sex workers in dangerous working conditions. A high-priority aim should be to ensure that the law enables commercial sex to take place in the safest possible conditions. To achieve this, the meaningful involvement of sex workers at all levels of the response is crucial. However, although that has been recognized in theory, it has not been achieved in practice. PMID:23993060

  10. Acceptability of Hypothetical Microbicides among Women in Sex Establishments in Rural Areas in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Liao, Su-Su; Weeks, Margaret R.; Jiang, Jing-Mei; Abbott, Maryann; Zhou, Yue-Jiao; He, Bin; Liu, Wei; Mosack, Katie E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Goal The objectives of this study were to measure the potential acceptability of a hypothetical microbicide among women in sex establishments in rural areas of Southern China, and demographic, behavioral and social context factors likely to affect microbicide acceptability. Study Design This was a cross-sectional survey, using a quota sampling, among 300 women from sex establishments in three rural towns. An interviewer-administered standardized questionnaire was used to measure the acceptability score of hypothetical microbicides’ characteristics, as well as sexual relationships and behaviors, and other contextual factors. Results Findings showed a generally positive response to microbicides, indicated by an acceptability index score of 2.89 (SD, 0.56, scale of 1–4) in the overall sample. Multivariate analysis shows the acceptability score varied significantly by study sites, type of sex-work establishments, marital status, sex partner type, vaginal product experience, locus of control by partners and locus of control by chance. Conclusions Microbicides may be acceptable among sex workers in rural settings in China; however, contextual factors should be carefully considered in education and promotion of microbicides in the future. PMID:17767093

  11. The Zimbabwe HIV prevention program for truck drivers and commercial sex workers: a behaviour change intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Mupemba

    The Zimbabwe National Employment Council for the Transport Operating Industry (NECTOI) began an AIDS education program in 1992 targeting transport workers though their companies. An outreach program was designed for long-distance truck drivers and their assistants through their contacts with sex workers, to stabilize or reduce incidence of STDs including HIV among truckers and their sexual partners along three major

  12. Young women selling sex online - narratives on regulating feelings.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women's life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women's perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: "Entering - adverse life experiences"; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. "Immersion - using the body as a tool for regulating feelings"; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. "Exiting - change or die"; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting. PMID:25733944

  13. Partner Violence and Psychosocial Distress among Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite recognized vulnerability of female sex workers (FSW), most data on this population are focused on their HIV and STI prevalence; studies on their experience of partner violence and psychosocial distress are limited, especially FSW in China. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey was administered among 1,022 FSW recruited from 9 different types of commercial sex venues in Southwest China. Partner violence scales were adapted from WHO's Women's Health and Domestic Violence scale and psychosocial distress was measured by five indicators, including alcohol intoxication, drug use, suicidal behavior, depression, and loneliness. Random effects modeling was used to control for cluster effects. Findings: About 58% of FSW ever experienced violence from their stable partners, and 45% suffered it from their clients. Partner violence was strongly associated with each of the five measures of psychosocial distress, even after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion This study is one of the first to examine the association between partner violence and psychosocial distress among FSW in China. The high prevalence of violence experience and distress in this population suggests urgency for intervention. The public health programs targeting FSW should go beyond the focus on HIV/STI prevention and care for the fundamental health and human rights of millions of FSW in China. PMID:23626798

  14. Sex workers in Chennai, India: negotiating gender and sexuality in the time of AIDS 

    E-print Network

    Sariola, Salla

    Risk of HIV and illness are the dominant context in which sex work is discussed in India and there is a lacuna of social scientific analysis of sex workers’ lives. HIV interventions negotiated between global actors such as UNAIDS, World Bank, USAID...

  15. Opportunities for Woman-Initiated HIV Prevention Methods among Female Sex Workers in Southern China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryann Abbott; Susu Liao; Wang Yu; Bin He; Yuejiang Zhou; Liu Wei; Jingmei Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Rapid changes in China over the past two decades have led to significant problems associated with population migration and changing social attitudes, including a growing sex industry and concurrent increases in STIs and HIV. This article reports results of an exploratory study of microbicide acceptability and readiness and current HIV prevention efforts among female sex workers in two rural and

  16. Consultations for women's health problems: factors influencing women's choice of sex of general practitioner.

    PubMed Central

    van den Brink-Muinen, A; de Bakker, D H; Bensing, J M

    1994-01-01

    AIM. This study set out to examine the degree to which women choose to visit a woman doctor for women's health problems and the determinants of this choice. The differences between women and men doctors with regard to treating women's health problems were also studied. METHOD. Data from the Dutch national survey of general practice were used. All group practices with both women and men general practitioners were selected. Analyses were restricted to consultations among women aged 15-65 years about menstruation, the menopause, vaginal discharge, breast examination and cervical smear tests. RESULts. Given the size of their female practice population, women doctors saw considerably more women with women's health problems than did their male colleagues. Women were more likely to consult a woman general practitioner if she was more available (that is, working longer hours), and younger women were more likely than older women to choose women general practitioners. Sex differences in the treatment of women's health problems were small and mainly related to the verbal part of the consultation: counselling and providing information. The doctors' availability and their certainty about the working diagnosis explained differences in the verbal aspects of consultations. Women general practitioners had longer consultations than their male colleagues mainly because more health problems were presented per consultation. CONCLUSION. In order to increase the possibility of patients choosing women general practitioners, policy should be directed towards the education of more women general practitioners and women general practitioners should be encouraged to work more days a week. PMID:8204333

  17. Violence against women and suicide risk: The neglected impact of same-sex sexual behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigitte Lhomond; Marie-Josèphe Saurel-Cubizolles

    2006-01-01

    We used data from the National Survey on Violence against Women in France carried out in 2000 on a representative sample of 6970 women to compare the social characteristics of women who had sex with women (WSW) and women who had sex only with men (WSM). The WSW were more likely to be of a high socio-economic level and living

  18. Cervical human papillomavirus infection among female sex workers in southern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Vu Nguyen, Thuong

    2008-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women in southern Vietnam where its incidence is one of the highest observed worldwide. Results Cervical HPV DNA infection was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 282 female sex workers (FSW) in Soc Trang province in southern Vietnam. HPV DNA was detected in 85% of FSW and prevalence did not vary by age. Thirty-five HPV genotypes were detected; HPV 52 was the most common type. Half of HPV-positive women were infected with oncogenic types and 37% were infected with multiple genotypes. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection was lower among FSW with more formal education (adj. prevalence ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.93), those servicing 25 or more clients per month (adj. PR = 0.66 95% CI 0.48–0.92), and those engaging in withdrawal prior to ejaculation (adj. PR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.53–0.87). Oncogenic HPV prevalence was higher among FSW with regular male partners who had other female partners (adj. PR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.34–2.28) and FSW who were HIV+ (adj. PR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08–1.88). Conclusion Our results demonstrate that although cervical HPV infection is extremely common among FSW in southern Vietnam, prevalence varies by education level, sexual activity, habits of regular partners, and HIV status. PMID:18433504

  19. Prevalence and correlates of HIV unsafe sex and STIs among women working in China's entertainment industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiushi Yang

    2011-01-01

    Female entertainment workers in China are at risk of sexually acquiring HIV, but risk factors of their unsafe sex remain understudied. Using information from a venue-based sample of 724 female entertainment workers in Shanghai, this paper examines the prevalence and risk factors of unsafe sex and STIs. While both measures of unsafe sex and history of common STIs suggest that

  20. Sexual and reproductive health needs of sex workers: two feminist projects in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chacham, Alessandra S; Diniz, Simone G; Maia, Mônica B; Galati, Ana F; Mirim, Liz A

    2007-05-01

    The sexual and reproductive health needs of sex workers have been neglected both in research and public health interventions, which have almost exclusively focused on STI/HIV prevention. Among the reasons for this are the condemnation, stigma and ambiguous legal status of sex work. This paper describes work carried out by two feminist NGOs in Brazil, Mulher e Saúde (MUSA) in Belo Horizonte and Coletivo Feminista Sexualidade e Saúde in São Paulo, to promote sexual and reproductive health for sex workers. MUSA's project "In the Battle for Health", was begun in 1992; sex workers were trained as peer educators and workshops were offered on self-care for sex workers and their clients. In São Paulo, the Coletivo project "Get Friendly with Her", begun in 2002, offers clinic consultations and self-care workshops on sexuality, contraception, STI/HIV prevention and self-examination. Health care needs during menstruation and unhealthy vaginal practices led to promotion of the diaphragm as a contraceptive, for prevention of reproductive tract infection and to catch menstrual blood. Meeting the sexual and reproductive health needs of sex workers depends on the promotion of their human rights, access to health care without discrimination, and attention to psychosocial health issues, alcohol and drug abuse, and violence from clients, partners, pimps and police. PMID:17512382

  1. Mental Health and Sexual Identity in a Sample of Male Sex Workers in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Johnson, Michael; Weiss, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous qualitative research has examined male sex workers in the Czech Republic, but this mapping study is the first to investigate male sex work in a quantitative research design and focus on the mental health of these sex workers. This study also examines male sex workers’ mental health problems in relation to their sexual identity or orientation. Material/Methods A sample of Czech male sex workers (N=40) were examined on a range of sexual and psychological variables using a quantitative survey administered face-to-face. The study employed locally validated versions of Beck’s Depression Inventory and Zung’s Self-Report Anxiety Scale. Results The results indicate that for homosexuals, working as a male sex worker is not related to any serious mental health problems. However, those identifying as heterosexual and bisexual more frequently reported symptoms of depression and bisexuals showed significantly more anxiety. Conclusions These findings suggest sexual identity is an important issue to consider when addressing the mental health needs of this population. PMID:25239091

  2. A systematic review of the correlates of violence against sex workers.

    PubMed

    Deering, Kathleen N; Amin, Avni; Shoveller, Jean; Nesbitt, Ariel; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Duff, Putu; Argento, Elena; Shannon, Kate

    2014-05-01

    We conducted a systematic review in June 2012 (updated September 2013) to examine the prevalence and factors shaping sexual or physical violence against sex workers globally. We identified 1536 (update?=?340) unique articles. We included 28 studies, with 14 more contributing to violence prevalence estimates. Lifetime prevalence of any or combined workplace violence ranged from 45% to 75% and over the past year, 32% to 55%. Growing research links contextual factors with violence against sex workers, alongside known interpersonal and individual risks. This high burden of violence against sex workers globally and large gaps in epidemiological data support the need for research and structural interventions to better document and respond to the contextual factors shaping this violence. Measurement and methodological innovation, in partnership with sex work communities, are critical. PMID:24625169

  3. Socio-demographic characteristics and sex practices related to herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in Mexican and Central American female sex workers.

    PubMed Central

    Uribe-Salas, F.; Conde-Glez, C. J.; Juarez-Figueroa, L.; Hernandez-Castellanos, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between HSV-2 infection and several socio-demographic and sexual practices of Mexican and Central American female sex workers (FSWs) in the Soconusco region in the State of Chiapas, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was carried out based on a sample frame of bars where FSWs were active in the Soconusco region. FSWs consented to investigations and answered a questionnaire and provided a blood sample for specific HSV-2 antibody analysis. One hundred and sixteen bars were studied and 484 women were interviewed. The overall frequency of HSV-2 infected women was 85.7%. Variables that reflected exposure to HSV-2 were significantly associated with the frequency of the infection. Additionally, variables such as education and country of origin were significantly associated with HSV-2 infection. These results suggest that this infection is highly endemic in the Soconusco, posing a health risk for the study population. PMID:14596526

  4. Sex hormone therapy and functional brain plasticity in postmenopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Bayer; M. Hausmann

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have shown that fluctuating levels of sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone) can affect fundamental principles of brain organization, including functional cerebral asymmetries (FCAs) and interhemispheric interactions. The majority of findings come from studies investigating younger women tested during distinct hormonal phases of the menstrual cycle, an approach that does not necessarily allow for conclusions about the causal relationship

  5. Characterization of Vaginal Flora and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women Who Have Sex with Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy Agnew; Kathleen Stine

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) may be common among women who report having sex with women (WSW) and frequently occurs in both members of monogamous couples. The results of Gram staining of a vaginal smear were consistent with BV in 81 (25%) and intermediate in 37 (11%) of 326 WSW included in this study. Lactobacilli were detected in 64% of subjects, and

  6. Truck drivers, middlemen and commercial sex workers: AIDS and the mediation of sex in south west Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gysels; R. Pool; K. Bwanika

    2001-01-01

    Although long distance truck drivers have been implicated in the spread of HIV in Africa, there is a paucity of studies of their sexual cultures. This paper reports on a study of the sexual culture of drivers, mediators and commercial sex workers (CSWs) in a roadside truck stop on the Trans-Africa highway in south west Uganda. Sixty-nine truck drivers, six

  7. Indian men's use of commercial sex workers: prevalence, condom use, and related gender attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Donta, Balaiah; Silverman, Jay G.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Commercial sex represents a critical context for HIV transmission within India and elsewhere. Despite research and programmatic attention to commercial sex workers (CSWs), less is known concerning the male CSW clients considered a bridge population for HIV transmission to the general population and thought to drive demand for the sex trafficking of women and girls. The current study assesses the prevalence of past-year CSW contact, condom non-use therein, and associations with demographic characteristics and gendered attitudes among a national sample of Indian men. Methods The nationally representative Indian National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) was conducted across all Indian states in 2005-2006; the current sample was limited to 46,961 sexually active men. Analyses calculated the prevalence of past-year CSW contact and inconsistent condom use; adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations of demographic characteristics, sexual entitlement and justification of wife abuse with past-year CSW contact and inconsistent condom use. Results Approximately 1 in 100 ( 0.9%) Indian men reported past-year CSW contact; over half of such men reported inconsistent condom use with CSWs. CSW contact was most common among men ages 15-24 (3.6%) and never-married men (9.9%). Men's CSW contact related to higher levels of sexual entitlement (AOR=1.64; 95% CI 1.24, 2.17) and justification of violence against wives (AOR=1.41; 95% CI 1.03, 1.93). Conclusions Men's past-year CSW contact was concentrated among young and unmarried Indian men; condom non-use with CSWs was common. Traditional gender ideologies appeared to support men's CSW contact, bolstering consideration of this behavior as a gendered form of HIV risk. Findings provide direction for interventions to reduce men's CSW contact in the Indian context by describing high-risk sub-populations and indicating that gender ideologies should be addressed. PMID:19904213

  8. Drug use and syphilis. Co-factors for HIV transmission among commercial sex workers in Guyana.

    PubMed

    Persaud, N E; Klaskala, W; Tewari, T; Shultz, J; Baum, M

    1999-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 124 street- and brothel-based female commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Georgetown in January and February 1997 to determine the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and describe the sexual practices and drug use patterns. Their median age was 30 years (range 17 to 52 years). 119 (88%) reported regular alcohol consumption while looking for clients, 27 (22%) said they smoked cocaine and 51 (42%) reported use of marijuana. Street-based CSWs were significantly more likely to report marijuana use (p = 0.033). 72% reported that they never used condoms with regular sex partners and 35% reported that they never used condoms with clients. Brothel-based women were significantly more likely to report consistent condom use with their clients (p = 0.05). 46% (54/118) tested HIV positive and 28% (33/118) had a positive serological test for syphilis. Factors that were significantly associated with HIV infection included a positive serological test for syphilis (OR = 7.56; 95% CI = 2.7-21.97; p < 0.01) and a history of having received treatment for syphilis (OR = 2.93; 95% CI = 1.12-7.8). Weak associations were also found between HIV infection and a history of cocaine use (OR = 2.57; 95% CI = 0.95-7.11; p = 0.039); having more than four clients per night (OR = 5.14; 95% CI = 1.65-16.74; p = 0.04); and a history of receiving treatment for salpingitis (OR = 2.31; 95% CI = .93-5.75; p = 0.0035). No statistically significant association was found between HIV infection and marijuana use nor any sociodemographic variables (age, place of work, and duration of sex work). There is an urgent need for a community based behavioural intervention programme targetting this high risk population. PMID:10492602

  9. [Sex education of pregnant women and its relationship with their knowledge and attitude to sex].

    PubMed

    Ishimatsu, N; Fujita, Y

    1982-06-01

    Pregnant women's knowledge and awareness of sex in connection with their sex education were examined. There were 403 pregnant women of ages 19-40, who were obstetric outpatients at 2 general hospitals in Fukuoka and Yokohama. A questionnaire was administered between November 20 and December 19 in 1979. Main findings were as follows. 69% received their sex education in elementary school; 47.5%, in hospital; less than 5%, at local health clinic. They received sex education an average of 2.4 times. 46.6% obtained sex information via mass media; 34.1%, via relatives; 19.3%, via sex specialists. In the area of reproduction, 34% had accurate knowledge of menstruation; 32.8%, of basal body temperature; 14%, of family planning. Those who received formal sex education had much better understanding of reproduction. In the area of morals, 48.3% recognized a great decline in moral standards; 19.3% strongly objected to premarital sex; 29.5% regarded sex between engaged couples as exception. Women in their 20's tended to support sex between 2 people in love regardless of marital status. 19% unconditionally disapproved of abortion, while 75% approved of it with some conditions. Sources of information on morals, premarital sex, and abortion were mass media (23.8%) and sex education (10.3%). In the area of marriage, 62.3% got married for love; 51.8% listed love between husband and wife as the most important element in marriage; 56.5% thought child care belonged to both parents. 91.5% were thrilled about pregnancy; 88.5% thought expectant mothers' class very important; 57% were determined to nurse their babies. The majority learned about marriage from friends, marital life from husbands, infant care from parents and sisters. Only 5% learned about the same in sex education. 84.8% recognized the great necessity of sex education which would include social and psychological aspects as well as the physical aspects. PMID:6921276

  10. Health Care Access and Utilization among Women Who Have Sex with Women: Sexual Behavior and Identity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie D. Kerker; Farzad Mostashari; Lorna Thorpe

    2006-01-01

    Past research has shown that women who either have sex with women or who identify as lesbian access less preventive health care than other women. However, previous studies have generally relied on convenience samples and have not examined the multiple associations of sexual identity, behavior and health care access\\/utilization. Unlike other studies, we used a multi-lingual population-based survey in New

  11. Impact of fear of success and sex-role attitudes on women’s competitive achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Letitia A. Peplau

    1976-01-01

    Employed 91 college-aged dating couples who were participating in a study on dating relationships to compare the impact of sex-role attitudes, as determined by responses to measures used in the larger investigation and a measure of fear of success, on women’s achievement. As predicted, women with traditional attitudes performed significantly better on a verbal task when working as a team

  12. The deregulated global economy: women workers and strategies of resistance.

    PubMed

    Hale, A

    1996-10-01

    This article discusses the lack of input from women in international debates about the global economy. Women in the South are the most vulnerable to exploitation and most ignored in international discussions of how to protect fair labor standards. Restructuring has led to loss of secure jobs in the public sector and the expansion of female employment in low-paid, insecure, unskilled jobs. Businesses desire a cheap and flexible workforce. Declines in social services, the elimination of subsidies on basic goods, and the introduction of user fees puts pressure on women to supplement family income. A parallel outcome is reduced employment rights, neglect of health and safety standards, and increased disregard among women for their domestic responsibilities. There is a need for alternative models of development. The Self-Employed Women's Organization in India serves as a model for resisting exploitation among self-employed and home-based employees. Female industrial strikers are demanding attention to excessive hours of work, enforced overtime, bullying, and lack of sanitary and medical facilities. There is always fear that organized resistance will lead to industrial relocation or loss of jobs. The International Labor Organization has had a code for 20 years, but the threat of exposure to the press is sometimes more effective. There must be regulation throughout subcontracting chains of transnational companies. International alliances should revolve around issues/strategies identified by workers. International alliances are needed for influencing multinational companies and national governments and lobbying global economic and financial institutions. Standards that are included in social clause discussions are minimum requirements that do not address gender-specific issues. Women Working Worldwide is developing a position statement of social clauses that incorporates a women's perspective. PMID:12347718

  13. Women and Lung Disease. Sex Differences and Global Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, Kent E; Harbaugh, Mary; Han, MeiLan K; Jourdan Le Saux, Claude; Van Winkle, Laura S; Martin, William J; Kosgei, Rose J; Carter, E Jane; Sitkin, Nicole; Smiley-Jewell, Suzette M; George, Maureen

    2015-07-01

    There is growing evidence that a number of pulmonary diseases affect women differently and with a greater degree of severity than men. The causes for such sex disparity is the focus of this Blue Conference Perspective review, which explores basic cellular and molecular mechanisms, life stages, and clinical outcomes based on environmental, sociocultural, occupational, and infectious scenarios, as well as medical health beliefs. Owing to the breadth of issues related to women and lung disease, we present examples of both basic and clinical concepts that may be the cause for pulmonary disease disparity in women. These examples include those diseases that predominantly affect women, as well as the rising incidence among women for diseases traditionally occurring in men, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sociocultural implications of pulmonary disease attributable to biomass burning and infectious diseases among women in low- to middle-income countries are reviewed, as are disparities in respiratory health among sexual minority women in high-income countries. The implications of the use of complementary and alternative medicine by women to influence respiratory disease are examined, and future directions for research on women and respiratory health are provided. PMID:25945507

  14. Partner Status Influences Women’s Interest in the Opposite Sex

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Heather; Librach, Giliah R.; Feipel, Nick C.; Ketterson, Ellen D.; Sengelaub, Dale R.; Heiman, Julia R.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that hormones, relationship goals, and social context influence interest in the opposite sex. It has not been previously reported, however, whether having a current sexual partner also influences interest in members of the opposite sex. To test this, we obtained explicit and implicit measures of interest by measuring men’s and women’s subjective ratings and response times while they evaluated photos of opposite-sex faces. Fifty-nine men and 56 women rated 510 photos of opposite-sex faces for realism, masculinity, attractiveness, or affect. We found that these subjective ratings were not influenced by partner status in either men or women. However, women who did not report having a current sexual partner spent more time evaluating the photos than women who did have partners, demonstrating greater interest in the photos. Sexual partner status did not predict men’s response times. These findings may reveal that relationship commitment in women suppresses interest in alternative partners. PMID:20161078

  15. Reducing Sexual HIV/STI Risk and Harmful Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers in Mongolia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Altantsetseg, Batsukh; Aira, Toivgoo; Riedel, Marion; Chen, Jiehua; Potocnik, Katie; El-Bassel, Nabila; Wu, Elwin; Gilbert, Louisa; Carlson, Catherine; Yao, Hanfei

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of an enhanced intervention to reduce sexual risk of HIV/STI and harmful alcohol use among female sex workers in Mongolia. Women (n = 166) were recruited and randomized to either (1) a relationship-based HIV sexual risk reduction intervention; (2) the same sexual risk reduction intervention plus motivational interviewing; or (3) a control condition focused on wellness promotion. At three and six month follow-up, both treatment interventions and the wellness promotion condition were effective in reducing the percentage and the number of unprotected acts of vaginal sex with paying partners in the past 90 days. All three conditions demonstrated efficacy in reducing harmful alcohol use. No significant differences in effects were observed between conditions. Findings suggest that even low impact behavioral interventions can achieve considerable reductions of HIV/STI risk and harmful alcohol use with a highly vulnerable population in a low resourced setting. PMID:21739290

  16. Sex with Women Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: Prevalence and Sexual Practices

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jun; Ruan, Yuhua; Yin, Lu; Vermund, Sten H.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Shao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are a potential bridge population for transmitting HIV to heterosexual women. This study assessed key characteristics of this subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Of 1141 eligible MSM, 45.6% reported bisexual behaviors. Besides marriage as a strong predictor (odds ratio: 23.90, 95% confidence interval: 14.29–39.98), older age (1.12, 1.10–1.15) and lower education (or no college education) (1.98, 1.52–2.59) were also independently associated with having ever had sex with women. MSMW reported higher proportions of alcohol drinking, heterosexual/bisexual orientation, and preference for an insertive role in anal sex than men who had sex with men only; but there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and in history of sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention intervention programs should break the bridging role of HIV transmission in MSMW population. PMID:23931683

  17. Sex with women among men who have sex with men in China: prevalence and sexual practices.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jun; Ruan, Yuhua; Yin, Lu; Vermund, Sten H; Shepherd, Bryan E; Shao, Yiming; Qian, Han-Zhu

    2013-09-01

    Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are a potential bridge population for transmitting HIV to heterosexual women. This study assessed key characteristics of this subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Of 1141 eligible MSM, 45.6% reported bisexual behaviors. Besides marriage as a strong predictor (odds ratio: 23.90, 95% confidence interval: 14.29-39.98), older age (1.12, 1.10-1.15) and lower education (or no college education) (1.98, 1.52-2.59) were also independently associated with having ever had sex with women. MSMW reported higher proportions of alcohol drinking, heterosexual/bisexual orientation, and preference for an insertive role in anal sex than men who had sex with men only; but there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and in history of sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention intervention programs should break the bridging role of HIV transmission in MSMW population. PMID:23931683

  18. Alcohol Use and Sex Risk Behaviors Among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers (FSWs) and HIV-Infected Male Clients of FSWs in India

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Christine A.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardesi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Unprotected heterosexual transactional sex plays a central role in the spread of HIV in India. Given alcohol’s association with risky sex in other populations and alcohol’s role in HIV disease progression, we investigated patterns of alcohol use in HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs) and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs in Mumbai. Analyses identified factors associated with heavy alcohol use and evaluated the relationship between alcohol use and risky sex. We surveyed 211 female and 205 male individuals; 80/211 FSWs (38%) and 127/205 male clients (62%) drank alcohol in the last 30 days. Among females, 32 and 11% drank heavily and were alcohol-dependent, respectively; among males the respective proportions were 44 and 29%. Men’s heavy alcohol use was significantly associated with inconsistent condom use over the last year (AOR 2.40, 95% CI 1.21–4.77, P = 0.01); a comparable association was not seen in women. These findings suggest a need to address alcohol use both to avoid the medical complications of its heavy use in this population and to mitigate inconsistent condom use, the latter issue possibly requiring gender specific approaches. Such efforts to reduce drinking will be an important dimension to secondary HIV prevention in India. PMID:20544381

  19. Do Androgynous Women Reject Femininity? An Investigation of Sex Role and Magazine Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Alice; Gange, Julie

    The mass magazine industry offers new role images for women in contemporary magazines, assuming that they reflect the psychological needs of women's changing sex-role identities. To determine whether women classified as androgynous by the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) would prefer nontraditional models of femininity, 101 college women were asked…

  20. Sexual Safety and Sexual Security among Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kamila Anise; Fannin, Ehriel F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine sexuality narratives of Black women who have sex with women and men and explore factors that influence their sexual safety and sexual security. Design Secondary qualitative content analysis. Setting We recruited young self-identified Black women from beauty salons and community-based organizations. Participants Our sample included a subset of five sexually active, Black women age 19 to 25 who reported engaging in sexual relationships with women and men. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included sexuality narratives from 25 women. Methods We analyzed interview transcripts in which participants described sexual relationships. We used constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology. Results We uncovered three themes illustrating influences on sexual safety and sexual security: institutional expectations, emotional connectedness, and sexual behaviors. Conclusions From this analysis, we derive valuable insights into decision-making processes within sexual relationships from the perspectives of young Black women who have sex with women and men. Clinicians and investigators can use these findings to inform programs designed to improve the sexual health of this often invisible group of women. Nurses are uniquely positioned to support young women as they navigate societal institutions and emotional experiences that inform future sexual decisions and behaviors. PMID:24942676

  1. Intimate Partner Violence among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities: Partner Characteristics and HIV Risk-behaviors as Correlates of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O’Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with greater vulnerability to HIV infection among women. We examined prevalence and correlates of IPV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Participants were 300 FSWs with a current spouse or a steady partner. Participants’ mean age was 33 years, and mean number of years as a sex worker was 6 years. The prevalence of IPV in the past 6 months among participants was 35%. Using multivariate logistic regression, factors independently associated with IPV included having experienced abuse as a child, a partner who had sex with someone else, and lower sexual relationship power. Our findings suggest the need for previous abuse screening and violence prevention services for FSWs in the Mexico-U.S. border region. Careful consideration of relationship dynamics such as infidelity and relationship power is warranted when assessing for IPV risk. PMID:21532933

  2. CULTURE, SOCIAL CLASS, AND INCOME CONTROL IN THE LIVES OF WOMEN GARMENT WORKERS IN BANGLADESH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NAZLI KIBRIA

    1995-01-01

    This article looks at the income-related experiences of women workers in Bangladesh in the export garment industry, the first modern industry in the country to employ large numbers of women. The analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 34 female sewing machine operators at five factories. Despite the traditionally low economic autonomy of Bangladeshi women, the women's ability to control their

  3. Enumeration of Sex Workers in the Central Business District of Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kimani, Joshua; McKinnon, Lyle R.; Wachihi, Charles; Kusimba, Judith; Gakii, Gloria; Birir, Sarah; Muthui, Mercy; Kariri, Anthony; Muriuki, Festus K.; Muraguri, Nicholas; Musyoki, Helgar; Ball, T. Blake; Kaul, Rupert; Gelmon, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Accurate program planning for populations most at risk for HIV/STI acquisition requires knowledge of the size and location where these populations can best be reached. To obtain this information for sex workers operating at 137 hotspots in the central business district (CBD) in Nairobi, Kenya, we utilized a combined mapping and capture-recapture enumeration exercise. The majority of identified hotspots in this study were bars. Based on this exercise, we estimate that 6,904 male and female sex workers (95% confidence intervals, 6690 and 7118) were working nightly in the Nairobi CBD in April 2009. Wide ranges of captures per spot were obtained, suggesting that relatively few hot spots (18%) contain a relatively high proportion of the area's sex workers (65%). We provide geographic data including relatively short distances from hotspots to our dedicated sex worker outreach program in the CBD (mean<1 km), and clustering of hotspots within a relatively small area. Given the size covered and areas where sex work is likely taking place in Nairobi, the estimate is several times lower than what would be obtained if the entire metropolitan area was enumerated. These results have important practical and policy implications for enhancing HIV/STI prevention efforts. PMID:23372713

  4. HIV-1 infection among female commercial sex workers in rural Thailand.

    PubMed

    Gray, J A; Dore, G J; Li, Y; Supawitkul, S; Effler, P; Kaldor, J M

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective study of 821 commercial sex workers attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in northern Thailand's Chiang Rai Province from 1989 to 1993 revealed an explosive epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The overall seroprevalence among the 556 women for whom antibody tests were available was 52.3%. However, a dramatic increase in HIV-1 seroprevalence occurred from 1989 (29.3%) to 1990 (54.1%), followed by a leveling off through 1993. Among the 96 (36.2%) initial seronegatives who underwent subsequent testing, 64 seroconverted over a mean follow-up period of 5.9 months, yielding an incidence rate of 12.6/100 person-months. Incidence increased from 12.0/100 person-months in 1989 and 1990 to 17.0/100 person-months for 1991, and then declined to 9.3/100 person-months in 1992-93. The cumulative risk of seroconversion was 57% at 6 months after initial testing and 77% after 12 months. Diagnosis of chancroid during follow up was the only factor significantly associated with seroconversion. Although the retrospective nature of this study limits analysis of predictors of HIV infection in this population, the findings suggest a need for improved STD management. PMID:9110080

  5. Integrated bio-behavioural HIV surveillance surveys among female sex workers in Sudan, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Elhadi, Magda; Elbadawi, Abdulateef; Abdelrahman, Samira; Mohammed, Ibtisam; Bozicevic, Ivana; Hassan, Ehab A; Elmukhtar, Mohammed; Ahmed, Sally; Abdelraheem, Mohammed Sidahmed; Mubarak, Nazik; Elsanousi, Salwa; Setayesh, Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess HIV and syphilis prevalence, HIV-related behaviours and testing for HIV in female sex workers (FSW) in Sudan. Design Bio-behavioural surveys using respondent-driven sampling were carried out among FSW in the capital cities of 14 states in Sudan in 2011–2012. HIV and syphilis testing was done by rapid tests. Results 4220 FSW aged 15–49?years were recruited. The median age of recruited women varied from 21 to 28?years per site. The highest HIV prevalence was measured at two sites in the eastern zone (5.0% and 7.7%), while in the other zones it ranged from 0% to 1.5%. Syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.5% in the northern zone to 8.9% in the eastern zone. Ever having been tested for HIV was reported by 4.4%–23.9% of FSW across all sites. Condom use at last sex with a client varied from 4.7% to 55.1%, while consistent condom use with clients in the month preceding the surveys was reported by 0.7%–24.5% of FSW. The highest reporting of ever injecting drugs was measured at a site in the western zone (5.0%). Conclusions The surveys’ findings indicate that the highest burden of HIV in FSW is in the eastern states of the country. Condom use and HIV testing data demonstrate the need for HIV interventions that should focus on HIV testing and risk reduction strategies that include stronger condom promotion programmes in FSW and their clients. PMID:23996450

  6. Clients of Female Sex Workers as a Bridging Population in Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nhu T. Nguyen; Hien T. Nguyen; Huan Q. Trinh; Stephen J. Mills; Roger Detels

    2009-01-01

    Understanding bridging behaviors of clients of female sex workers (FSWs) is important for projecting and intervening in the\\u000a spread of sexually transmitted infections in Vietnam. The goals of the study were to determine HIV\\/STI prevalence amongst\\u000a different bridging groups, identify factors associated with being potential and active bridgers, and assess the association\\u000a of drug use and unsafe sex with HIV

  7. Assessment of Respondent Driven Sampling for Recruiting Female Sex Workers in Two Vietnamese Cities: Reaching the Unseen Sex Worker

    PubMed Central

    Sabin, Keith; Hien, Mai Thu; Huong, Pham Thi

    2006-01-01

    Respondent driven sampling (RDS) is a relatively new method to sample hard-to-reach populations. Until this study, female sex workers (FSWs) in Vietnam were sampled using a variety of methods, including time location sampling (TLS), which may not access the more hidden types of FSWs. This paper presents an analysis from an HIV biological and behavioral surveillance survey to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of RDS to sample FSWs, to determine if RDS can reach otherwise inaccessible FSWs in Vietnam and to compare RDS findings of HIV risk factors with a theoretical TLS. Through face-to-face interviews with FSWs in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) and Hai Phong (HP), data were collected about the venues where they most often solicit their clients. These data were used to create three variables to assess whether FSWs solicit their clients in locations that are visible, semi-visible and non-visible. For this analysis, the visible group simulates a sample captured using TLS. Survey results in HIV prevalence and related risk factors and service utilization, adjusted for sampling methodology, were compared across each of the three FSW visibility groups to assess potential bias in TLS relative to RDS. The number of self-reported visible FSWs (HCMC: n=311; HP: n=162) was much larger than those of the semi-visible (HCMC: n=65; HP: n=43) and non-visible (HCMC: n=37; HP: n=10) FSWs in HCMC and HP. Non-visible FSWs in both cities were just as likely as visible and semi-visible FSWs to be HIV positive (HCMC: visible 14.5%, semi-visible 13.8%, non-visible 13.5%, p value = 0.982; HP: visible 35.2%, semi-visible 30.2%, non-visible 30.0%, p value = 0.801), to practice behaviors that put them at risk for contracting and transmitting HIV (injecting drug use—HCMC: visible 13.8%, semi-visible 12.3%, non-visible 5.4%, p value = 0.347; HP: visible 38.9%, semi-visible 23.3%, non-visible 30.0%, p value = 0.378, to have no condom use in the past month —HCMC only: visible 52.7%, semi-visible 63.1%, non-visible 48.6%, p value = 0.249) and to have symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the past year (HCMC: visible 16.1%, semi-visible 12.3%, non-visible 16.2%, p value = 0.742; HP: visible 13.6%, semi-visible 18.6%, non-visible 20.0%, p value = 0.640). There was a difference found among the visible, semi-visible and non-visible groups in HP for no past month condom use (visible 53.1%, semi-visible 79.1%, non-visible 60.0%, p value = 0.009). This study found that RDS was successful at recruiting hidden types of FSWs in Vietnam. Past reports of FSWs in Vietnam have assessed the more visible FSWs as being the most vulnerable and at risk for HIV. Although the number of visible FSWs is much higher than those of the semi and non-visible groups, this study found that the non-visible FSWs are very vulnerable to HIV infection. If prevention programs are targeting and responding to those who are most likely to be assessed (e.g., more visible types of FSWs) then this analysis indicates that a significant proportion of the FSW population at risk for HIV may not be receiving optimal HIV information and services. PMID:17031567

  8. Violence against women in war: rape, AIDS, sex slavery. International.

    PubMed

    At an international conference attended by 2000 delegates, violence against women in Rwanda, former Yugoslavia, and Kurdistan was discussed. Kalliope Migirou, of the United Nations Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda, described the slaughter of between 500,000 and 1.5 million Tutsis and moderate Hutus in 1994; estimates of the number of rapes ranged from 15,700 (Rwandan government) to 250,000-500,000 (UN special representative). Women were gang-raped and sexually mutilated; fathers were forced to rape their daughters, and sons, their mothers. The transmission of HIV was used as a weapon to murder women and their communities. Women were taken to refugee camps as sex slaves and have written their families about their "new marriages" to Hutu militia men. No rape charge is found among the more than 4000 cases prepared for the Rwandan war crimes trial. 80,000 Rwandans are in prison on suspicion of participating in the genocide; 8% are women. Violete Krasnic, of the Autonomous Women's Center Against Sexual Violence in Belgrade, spoke about the war in former Yugoslavia, which increased all forms of violence against women: 1) domestic violence, particularly in inter-ethnic marriages; 2) death threats against women (up 30-50%); 3) rape (up 30%); and 4) threats with weapons (40%). Men, upon exposure to nationalistic propaganda, used violence against their wives. Nazaneen Rasheed, a London-based representative of the Women's Union of Kurdistan, stated that women in northern Iraq had no power or land. While some turned to prostitution to survive, hundreds were killed by male relatives because of shame to the family. PMID:12347566

  9. Behavioral and psychosocial correlates of anal sex among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-05-01

    Most studies of heterosexual sex risk practices have focused on condomless vaginal sex despite evidence that condomless anal sex has a significantly higher risk of HIV transmission. The present study focused on male clients' anal sex practices with female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico, where an HIV epidemic is growing among high-risk groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify psychosocial and behavioral correlates of anal sex among male clients. Our sample of HIV-negative men (N = 400) was predominantly Latino (87.5 %), born in Mexico (78.8 %), never married (36.8 %) or in a regular or common-law marriage (31.5 %), and employed (62.8 %), with an average age and education of 37.8 and 9.2 years, respectively. Eighty-nine percent identified as heterosexual and 11 % as bisexual. By design, 50 % of the sample resided in Tijuana and the other 50 % in San Diego County. Nearly half (49 %) reported at least one incident of anal sex with a FSW in Tijuana in the past 4 months; of those participants, 85 % reported that one or more of their anal sex acts with FSWs had been without a condom. In a multivariate model, anal sex with a FSW in the past 4 months was associated with bisexual identification, methamphetamine use with FSWs, repeat visits to the same FSW, higher scores on perceived stigma about being a client of FSWs, and sexual compulsivity. Prevention programs are needed that address the behavioral and psychosocial correlates of heterosexual anal sex in order to reduce HIV/STI transmission risk among male clients, FSWs, and their sexual network members. PMID:25795530

  10. A profile of HIV risk factors in the context of sex work environments among migrant female sex workers in Beijing, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huso Yi; Joanne E. Mantell; Rongrong Wu; Zhao Lu; Jing Zeng; Yanhai Wan

    2010-01-01

    Migrant female sex workers (FSWs) are one of the most at-risk populations for HIV in China. This study demonstrates how multiple risk factors are situated and vary by types of sex work environments in a sample of 348 migrant FSWs in Beijing. Participants reported high rates of clients' refusal to use condoms (76%), unsafe sex with both clients (32%), non-paid

  11. Sexy ladies sexing ladies: women as consumers in strip clubs.

    PubMed

    Wosick-Correa, Kassia R; Joseph, Lauren J

    2008-01-01

    Recent shifts in the consumer base of the sex industry have involved greater female attendance in strip clubs. This article examines how strip clubs and dancers incorporate female patrons into a sexualized space traditionally designed for men by identifying three interactional processes: passing over, sidestaging, and tailoring. We suggest dancers pass over women because they perceive female patron behavior to include resistance to "buying the game" and spending patterns that diverge from male customers. Drawing on Goffman's dramaturgical analysis, we suggest the dynamic relationship between dancer and female patron involves what we term sidestaging, which refers to both dancers' disclosure and how the club's spatial organization inhibits the construction of women as customers through sharing gendered spaces, such as the bathroom. We argue that when a dancer tailors her lap dance for a female patron, she succeeds in acknowledging the female customer's sexual subjectivity and potential same-sex desires by providing an individualized avenue for exploring an erotic experience. Finally, we discuss data implications for understanding how same-sex desire and sexual identity operate in an environment that eroticizes the female form, and how the strip club becomes a potential space for engaging in same-sex eroticism that includes elements of play. PMID:18686149

  12. Evaluating Competence of Women and Men: Effects of Marital and Parental Status and Occupational Sex-Typing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etaugh, Claire; Riley, Sue

    1983-01-01

    Results of study suggested that single female workers are evaluated favorably so long as they pursue sex-typical jobs, while female and single male workers are viewed much less favorably when they are in sex-atypical fields. (CMG)

  13. Sexually transmitted diseases and condom use among female freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, M L; Chan, R K; Chua, W L; Wee, S

    1999-11-01

    This study compares the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), condom use, and health-screening behavior between freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore. A total of 111 female freelance sex workers arrested from November 1996 to March 1997 for illicit prostitution were interviewed; 333 brothel-based sex workers served as the comparison group for the analysis. STD test results revealed that freelance sex workers (34.8%) have higher STD rates than brothel-based sex workers (24%). The two most common STDs in both groups were chlamydial cervicitis and syphilis. Moreover, condom use was significantly lower among freelance sex workers than brothel-based sex workers and was associated with younger age (25 years old), decreasing number of clients, and perception of non-condom use among peers. In addition, freelance workers were more educated and had equally high knowledge on STDs and AIDS. Since most of these freelance workers practice high-risk behaviors and poor health screening behaviors such as not going for regular medical check-ups, STD services and education programs should target this group. PMID:10560725

  14. Reduction of Health-Related Risks Among Female Commercial Sex Workers: Learning From Their Life and Working Experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayumi Ohnishi; Ermelinda NotiÇO

    2011-01-01

    We performed this study to determine both positive and negative impacts on the health of sex workers working on the street. We conducted this study using key informant and focus group interviews in bars and streets in Mozambique. The interviewed sex workers were aware about the risks and protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and they consistently used condoms. Most

  15. Drug use, sexual behaviours and practices among female sex workers in Hanoi, Viet Nam—a qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trung Nam Tran; Roger Detels; Nguyen Tran Hien; Hoang Thuy Long; Pham Thi Hoang Nga

    2004-01-01

    To examine the causes of a rapid increase of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Hanoi, Viet Nam, a qualitative study of sex workers was conducted there in June 2001 to study their risk characteristics, their relationships with drug users, and to identify potential factors playing a role in the recent rise of HIV. Thirty-seven FSWs in different

  16. HIV\\/AIDS and female street-based sex workers in Dhaka city: what about their clients?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice Bloem; Enamul Hoque; Lusy Khanam; Trisna Selina Mahbub; Moshfaqua Salehina; Shanaz Begum

    SATHI (Sex Workers and Associates Training and Health Initiatives) is a small participatory action research project funded by the Royal Netherlands Embassy in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and implemented by CARE Bangladesh in close co-operation with the members of Durjoy Nari Shanga, an organization of female street based sex workers. The goal of the project is to develop proper HIV\\/AIDS strategies for

  17. Clinical Characteristics Associated with Mycoplasma genitalium among Female Sex Workers in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gomih-Alakija, Ayodele; Ting, Jie; Mugo, Nelly; Kwatampora, Jessie; Getman, Damon; Chitwa, Michael; Patel, Suha; Gokhale, Mugdha; Kimani, Joshua; Behets, Frieda S.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium is high in vulnerable populations of women in low-resource settings. However, the epidemiology of infection in these populations is not well established. To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and its association with cervical cytology and other correlates, we recruited 350 female sex workers (FSW) who were 18 to 50 years old in Nairobi, Kenya, for a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was administered at baseline to obtain information on sociodemographics and sexual behaviors. Women underwent a pelvic exam, during which a physician collected cervical-exfoliation samples for conventional cytology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Samples were tested for M. genitalium and other STI organisms (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis) and the E6/E7 mRNA of human papillomavirus (HPV) by Aptima nucleic amplification assays. The prevalence of M. genitalium was 12.9%. FSW who engaged in sexual intercourse during menses were less likely to have M. genitalium infection than those who did not (odds ratio [OR], 0.3; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.1, 0.9). M. genitalium was also less prevalent among FSW who had worked in prostitution for >5 years (6.2%) than among those who had worked for <3 years (17.6%) (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1, 0.8). FSW who reported more frequent condom use were more likely to be infected with M. genitalium than those who reported less frequent use (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.2, 11.6). These correlates differ from those found in M. genitalium studies conducted with FSW from West Africa and China. Further longitudinal analyses assessing associations with persistent M. genitalium infection are needed. PMID:25100823

  18. Clinical characteristics associated with Mycoplasma genitalium among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gomih-Alakija, Ayodele; Ting, Jie; Mugo, Nelly; Kwatampora, Jessie; Getman, Damon; Chitwa, Michael; Patel, Suha; Gokhale, Mugdha; Kimani, Joshua; Behets, Frieda S; Smith, Jennifer S

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium is high in vulnerable populations of women in low-resource settings. However, the epidemiology of infection in these populations is not well established. To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and its association with cervical cytology and other correlates, we recruited 350 female sex workers (FSW) who were 18 to 50 years old in Nairobi, Kenya, for a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was administered at baseline to obtain information on sociodemographics and sexual behaviors. Women underwent a pelvic exam, during which a physician collected cervical-exfoliation samples for conventional cytology and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Samples were tested for M. genitalium and other STI organisms (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis) and the E6/E7 mRNA of human papillomavirus (HPV) by Aptima nucleic amplification assays. The prevalence of M. genitalium was 12.9%. FSW who engaged in sexual intercourse during menses were less likely to have M. genitalium infection than those who did not (odds ratio [OR], 0.3; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.1, 0.9). M. genitalium was also less prevalent among FSW who had worked in prostitution for >5 years (6.2%) than among those who had worked for <3 years (17.6%) (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1, 0.8). FSW who reported more frequent condom use were more likely to be infected with M. genitalium than those who reported less frequent use (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.2, 11.6). These correlates differ from those found in M. genitalium studies conducted with FSW from West Africa and China. Further longitudinal analyses assessing associations with persistent M. genitalium infection are needed. PMID:25100823

  19. Supervisors and accomplices: extra-marital sex among migrant construction workers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Thuy, Bui Thi Thanh; Kretchmar, Joshua

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the influence of social networks on the sexual relations of migrant construction workers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam. Research included observation and interviews with members of two different groups of workers. The first group, together with their employer (cai), came from the same village; the second group came from different villages. Of interest in the present study was how social relationships among workers and their employers influence extra-marital sexual activity. In the group where workers and their cai came from the same village of origin, fear of acquiring a bad reputation made these workers reluctant to seek sex services, since accounts of their behaviour were transmitted quickly home. In contrast, workers from the group who came from different villages often went out together to purchase sex. The absence of direct links to their villages of origin made it easier for these latter workers to conceal their activity. The implication of these findings for sexual safety and risk are discussed. PMID:18446563

  20. HIV, HBV, and HCV molecular epidemiology among trans (transvestites, transsexuals, and transgender) sex workers in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carobene, Mauricio; Bolcic, Federico; Farías, María Sol Dos Ramos; Quarleri, Jorge; Avila, María Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Commercial sex work is frequent among male-to-female transvestites, transsexuals and transgenders in Argentina, leading to high susceptibility to HIV, HBV, and HCV among other sexually transmitted infections. In a global context of scarce data on the trans sex workers population, this study was aimed to study the genomic characterization of these viruses. Plasma presence of HIV, HBV, and HCV genomic material was evaluated in samples from 273 trans sex workers. Genomic sequences of HIV-gag, pol, and vif-vpu genes, HBV-S gene, and HCV-5'UT and NS5B genes were obtained. Molecular characterization involved phylogenetic analysis and several in silico tools. Resistance-associated mutations in HIV and HBV pol genes were also analyzed. The HIV genomic characterization in 62 trans sex workers samples showed that 54.8% of the isolates corresponded to BF intersubtype recombinants, and 38.7% to subtype B. The remaining were classified as subtypes C (4.8%) and A (1.6%). HBV and HCV co-infection prevalence among HIV positive trans sex workers yielded rates of 3.2% and 6.5% respectively. Drug resistance-associated mutations were found in 12/62 (19%) HIV pol sequences, but none among HBV. Based on phylogenetic relationships, HIV isolates characterized as subtypes BF and B appeared intermingled with those from other high-risk groups. Despite trans sex workers declared not to have received antiviral treatment, complex drug resistance-associated mutation patterns were found in several HIV isolates. Planned prevention, screening, and treatment are needed to reduce further transmission and morbidity. PMID:24123155

  1. Results of a randomised trial of male condom promotion among Madagascar sex workers

    PubMed Central

    Feldblum, P; Hatzell, T; Van Damme, K; Nasution, M; Rasamindrakotroka, A; Grey, T

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To test the effect of supplementing peer promotion of male condom use with clinic based counselling, measured in terms of STI prevalence and reported male condom use. Methods: 1000 female sex workers in Madagascar were randomised to two study arms: peer education supplemented by individual risk reduction counselling by a clinician (peer + clinic) versus condom promotion by peer educators only (peer only). STI testing was conducted at baseline and 6 months. Behavioural interviews were administered at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 months. Results: At baseline, women in the peer only arm had prevalences of 16.0%, 23.6%, and 12.1% for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and trichomoniasis respectively, with an aggregate prevalence of 38.2%. Baseline STI prevalences for the peer + clinic arm were slightly lower and 34.1% in aggregate. At 6 months, aggregate STI prevalence increased in the peer only arm to 41.4%, whereas the aggregate prevalence diminished slightly to 32.1% in the peer + clinic arm. In logistic regression analyses, the estimated odds ratios (ORs) for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, and aggregate STI were 0.7 (95% confidence interval 0.4 to 1.0), 0.7 (0.5 to 1.0), 0.8 (0.6 to 1.2), and 0.7 (0.5 to 0.9) respectively, comparing the peer + clinic arm with the peer only arm. The logistic regression OR for reported condom use with clients in the past 30 days increased from 1.1 at 2 months to 1.8 at 6 months, comparing the peer + clinic arm with the peer only arm, and was 1.4 overall (1.1 to 1.8). Adjustment for baseline factors changed the regression results little. Conclusions: The impact of male condom promotion on behaviour can be heightened through more concentrated counselling on risk reduction. Persistently high STI prevalence despite increases in reported condom use by sex workers supports the need for multidimensional control programmes. PMID:15800098

  2. HIV risk profile of drug-using women who have sex with women in 19 United States cities.

    PubMed

    Kral, A H; Lorvick, J; Bluthenthal, R N; Watters, J K

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze HIV-related risks of women injection drug users (IDU) and crack cocaine users (CCU) who have sex with women (WSW). IDU and CCU women (N = 3856) were recruited from street settings in 19 U.S. cities between 1992 and 1994. For this study, we analyze data on 231 women who reported female sex partners in the 30 days before interview. In the 30 days before interview, 53% of IDUs had shared syringes, and 66% had shared injection supplies. Only 11 women (6%) always used barrier protection while giving oral sex to women and 5 (3%) while receiving oral sex from women in the 30 days before interview. Fifty percent had sex with men as well as women in the previous 30 days. Thirty percent of women who reported sex with men had used condoms for penile-vaginal sex, and 26% for penile-anal sex. In logistic regression analysis modeling sex with men in the previous 30 days, sex work was predictive, "lesbian" self-identification was protective, and the interaction between these two terms was predictive, while controlling for race and age. Differences in risk perception were significant between women who reported varying sexual risks, but not significant between women who reported varying injection-related risks. There is a high prevalence of risky sex and drug behaviors among drug-using WSWs. There is a need for epidemiological studies specifically geared toward studying risk behaviors among WSWs. Risk reduction activities need to focus on injection-related risks, as well as sex-related risks, among WSWs. PMID:9390574

  3. Studying alcohol use prior to sexual intercourse among female sex workers in eastern Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Safika, Iko; Johnson, Timothy P

    2013-12-01

    Researching female sex workers (FSWs) in Indonesia, where commercial sex tends to be hidden or undercover, is challenging but possible. This is even more challenging when it involves investigation of sensitive behaviors, such as their alcohol use, a known disinhibitor to risk behavior. The adoption of effective strategies is needed to increase response rates and improve data quality. This article describes procedures used to research FSWs' alcohol use during commercial sex in the Eastern part of Indonesia. Challenges, lessons learned, and recommendations for best practices are discussed. PMID:23819738

  4. Young Sex-Workers in Ho Chi Minh City Telling Their Life Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Birgitta; Hanh, Le Thi; Hojer, Bengt; Johansson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    In this study the life stories of 22 sex-workers (age 15-18 years) in Vietnam are organized into three thematic narratives depicting how the girls presented their lives. Poverty, lack of job alternatives and the responsibility to share in the support of their families led the girls into prostitution. Strong family ties gave many girls…

  5. Sex workers' noncommercial male partners who inject drugs report higher-risk sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-10-01

    Female sex workers are less likely to use condoms with noncommercial male partners than clients. We compare noncommercial male partners who do and do not inject drugs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. Sexual risk behaviors were more prevalent among injectors, who could promote HIV/sexually transmitted infection transmission in this region. PMID:24275732

  6. Sex Workers, Stigma and Self-Belief: Evidence from a Psychological Training Program

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    Sex Workers, Stigma and Self-Belief: Evidence from a Psychological Training Program in India mitigate biases in self-perception that are often imposed by social exclusion and stigma. Using and stigma is experienced by many groups of people across the world: the poor (especially in a rich society

  7. Review of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrienne N. Poon; Zhijun Li; Ning Wang; Yan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) are at greater risk for HIV and STIs. A systematic literature review of HIV and STI prevalence and incidence data for FSW in China was conducted to assess current trends. Studies between 1996 and 2010 detailing seroprevalence or incidence data, other laboratory-based tests, and clinical diagnoses of infections among FSW were reviewed. Select articles from Chinese

  8. Sociodemographic characteristics and HIV risk behaviour patterns of male sex workers in Madrid, Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Belza; A. Llácer; R. Mora; M. Morales; J. Castilla; L. de la Fuente

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the sociodemographic and work characteristics, prevalence of HIV infection and associated risk behaviours among male sex workers (MSWs) in Madrid (Spain). Using an anonymous semi-structured questionnaire, educators attached to a mobile unit under a street-based prostitution programme surveyed 84 MSWs from several Madrid areas. Of the total surveyed: 35% were immigrants, mean age was 23 years, mean

  9. Designing a Phone Broadcasting System for Urban Sex Workers in India

    E-print Network

    Rajamani, Sriram K.

    D, ICT4D, M4D, Urban Sex Workers, India. ACM Classification Keywords H5.m. Information interfaces of services such as health care, education, and business development [13]. Communication infrastructures, and emergency services during crises. Communications are also used for disseminating information about welfare

  10. Demographic Correlates of Constant Condom Use among Sex Workers in Tangail, Dhaka, Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eva, Nilufar Akter; Munakata, Tsunetsugu; Onuoha, Francis N.

    2007-01-01

    Consistent condom use, particularly by promiscuous individuals, is a major safeguard against sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. This study examines some demographic factors that may affect such use among Bangladeshi female commercial sex workers at a brothel in Tangail (n = 196; mean age = 23.44 years), and the streets of Dhaka (n…

  11. Low prevalence of hepatitis B markers among Mexican female sex workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Juarez-Figueroa; F. Uribe-Salas; C. Conde-Glez; M. Hernandez-Avila; M. Olamendi-Portugal; P. Uribe-Zuniga; E. Calderon

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers in female sex workers (FSW) in Mexico City. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1498 FSW who attended a detection centre for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Mexico City, between January and October 1992. Study participants responded to a standardised questionnaire and provided a

  12. An HIV-Prevention Intervention for Sex Workers in Tijuana, Mexico: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Thomas L.; Semple, Shirley J.; Fraga, Miguel; Bucardo, Jesus; Davila-Fraga, Wendy; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2005-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) are at high risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, and putting their clients and other partners at risk for infection. There is considerable evidence that Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)?based interventions are effective in reducing high-risk sexual behavior among at-risk populations in the…

  13. STD knowledge and behaviours among clients of female sex workers in bali, indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Fajans; D. N. Wirawan; K. Ford

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated knowledge, beliefs, and practices related to STDs and AIDS among clients of low price sex workers in Bali, Indonesia. These men are at high risk of STD and HIV transmission. They have poor knowledge of the basic concepts of STD and HIV transmission and prevention, and they practice a variety of ineffective prevention strategies including partner selection

  14. AIDS and STDs: Risk behaviour patterns among female sex workers in Bali, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. N. Wirawan; P. Fajans; K. Ford

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated AIDS and STD knowledge, risk behaviour patterns and condom use among three district groups of female commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Bali, Indonesia. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 71 female CSWs. These CSW groups differ in the prices they charge, their places and modes of employment, educational backgrounds, levels of AIDS and STD Knowledge, number of

  15. AIDS knowledge and risk behaviors among domestic clients of female sex workers in Bali, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Fajans; Kathleen Ford; Dewa Nyoman Wirawan

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated AIDS and STD knowledge, risk behaviors and condom use among clients of female commercial sex workers in Bali, Indonesia. Although these clients were varied in their socioeconomic status, they all tended to have low levels of knowledge concerning HIV and STD transmission and prevention, multiple sexual partners, low frequencies of condom use with these partners, and experienced

  16. Condom Use and Its Correlates Among Female Sex Workers in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trung Nam Tran; Roger Detels; Hoang Phuong Lan

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of female sex workers’ (FSW) condom use behaviors in Vietnam is important for predicting the epidemic and designing interventions. Four hundred FSWs in Hanoi were studied in 2002. Consistent condom use in the past month was higher with irregular clients (62%), less with regular clients (41%), and lowest with “love mates” (5%). Reasons for not using condoms were partner

  17. The role of sex worker clients in transmission of HIV in Cambodia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leng Bun Hor; Roger Detels; Sopheab Heng; Phalkun Mun

    2005-01-01

    Summary: The study investigated whether clients of sex workers are a bridge for transmission of HIV to the general population of Cambodia. We interviewed and collected blood from 468 clients attending 30 randomly selected brothels in three provinces of Cambodia. The levels of HIV knowledge and condom use, and prevalence of HIV (9.2%) were high. Almost 40% of those interviewed

  18. Epidemiology and Etiology of Sexually Transmitted Infection among Hotel-Based Sex Workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khairun Nessa; Shama-A Waris; Zafar Sultan; Shirajum Monira; Maqsud Hossain; Shamsun Nahar; Habibur Rahman; Mahbub Alam; Pam Baatsen; Motiur Rahman

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among hotel-based sex workers (HBSWs) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, was studied. A total of 400 HBSWs were enrolled in the study during April to July 2002. Endocervical swabs, high vaginal swabs, and blood samples from 400 HBSWs were examined for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (by culture), Chlamydia trachomatis (by PCR), Trichomonas

  19. Perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino and non-Latino male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-02-01

    HIV prevention efforts must be comprehensive in their understanding of the factors involved in HIV risk. Male clients, who have received less research attention than female sex workers (FSWs), may experience stigma as a function of purchasing sex. Perceived stigma may be related to poor psychological outcomes, risky psychosexual characteristics, and higher drug and sexual risk behavior among male clients of FSWs. However, perceived stigma of purchasing sex may differ between clients of different ethnic groups. In the present study, we examine the correlates of perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino versus non-Latino male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Using time-location sampling, we recruited 375 male clients (323 Latino, 52 non-Latino) in Tijuana who completed a computerized survey on various measures. We measured perceived stigma of purchasing sex using three items we developed for this study. Using linear regression analyses we found that perceived stigma was associated with greater guilt, a greater feeling of escape from everyday life, and more negative condom attitudes among Latino clients. This was not found among non-Latino clients. Features of Latino culture, like machismo, and how they may relate to stigma of purchasing sex are discussed. PMID:23979714

  20. Transactional Sex Risk across a Typology of Rural and Urban Female Sex Workers in Indonesia: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Puradiredja, Dewi Ismajani; Coast, Ernestina

    2012-01-01

    Context-specific typologies of female sex workers (FSWs) are essential for the design of HIV intervention programming. This study develops a novel FSW typology for the analysis of transactional sex risk in rural and urban settings in Indonesia. Mixed methods include a survey of rural and urban FSWs (n?=?310), in-depth interviews (n?=?11), key informant interviews (n?=?5) and ethnographic assessments. Thematic analysis categorises FSWs into 5 distinct groups based on geographical location of their sex work settings, place of solicitation, and whether sex work is their primary occupation. Multiple regression analysis shows that the likelihood of consistent condom use was higher among urban venue-based FSWs for whom sex work is not the only source of income than for any of the other rural and urban FSW groups. This effect was explained by the significantly lower likelihood of consistent condom use by rural venue-based FSWs (adjusted OR: 0.34 95% CI 0.13–0.90, p?=?0.029). The FSW typology and differences in organisational features and social dynamics are more closely related to the risk of unprotected transactional sex, than levels of condom awareness and availability. Interventions need context-specific strategies to reach the different FSWs identified by this study's typology. PMID:23285205

  1. Circulating sex hormones and mammographic breast density among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Brian L.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Buist, Diana S. M.; Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Aiello Bowles, Erin J.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Sisney, Gale S.

    2011-01-01

    The use of breast density as an intermediate or predictive marker of breast cancer risk is limited by an incomplete understanding of the etiology of breast density. High blood levels of endogenous estrogens and androgens are associated with increased risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women. We sought to examine whether these hormones are also associated with breast density. The Wisconsin Breast Density Study enrolled 257 postmenopausal women, ages 55–70 years, with no history of postmenopausal hormone use, from mammography clinics in Madison, Wisconsin. Subjects provided a blood sample for sex hormone analysis, and breast density was measured from subjects’ screening mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Numerous sex hormones were associated with breast density in age-adjusted analyses. However, further adjustment for body mass index and other potentially confounding factors substantially attenuated or eliminated these associations. In the fully adjusted model, there remained a positive association between percent breast density and serum progesterone (P=0.03), with percent density rising from 11.9% (95% CI: 9.8, 14.1%) among women in the lowest quartile of serum progesterone to 15.4% (12.9, 18.2%) among women in the highest quartile. There was also a positive association between sex hormone binding globulin and percent breast density (P=0.06). In contrast, there were no associations between percent breast density and estradiol (total, free, or bioavailable), estrone, estrone sulfate, or testosterone (total, free, or bioavailable). These results suggest that breast density has a hormonal etiology, however, it may differ in important ways from that of breast cancer risk. PMID:21318123

  2. Violence prevention and municipal licensing of indoor sex work venues in the Greater Vancouver Area: narratives of migrant sex workers, managers and business owners.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Solanna; Jia, Jessica Xi; Liu, Vivian; Chattier, Jill; Krüsi, Andrea; Allan, Sarah; Maher, Lisa; Shannon, Kate

    2015-08-01

    Using a socio-ecological, structural determinants framework, this study assesses the impact of municipal licensing policies and related policing practices across the Greater Vancouver Area (Canada) on the risk of violence within indoor sex work venues. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 46 migrant/immigrant sex workers, managers and owners of licensed indoor sex work establishments and micro-brothels. Findings indicate that policing practices and licensing requirements increase sex workers' risk of violence and conflict with clients and result in heightened stress, an inability to rely on police support, lost income and the displacement of sex workers to more hidden informal work venues. Prohibitive licensing and policing practices prevent sex workers, managers and owners from adopting safer workplace measures and exacerbate health and safety risks for sex workers. This study provides critical evidence of the negative public health implications of prohibitive municipal licensing in the context of a criminalised and enforcement-based approach to sex work. Workplace safety recommendations include the decriminalisation of sex work and the elimination of disproportionately high fees for licences, criminal record restrictions, door lock restrictions, employee registration requirements and the use of police as licensing inspectors. PMID:25686777

  3. Stigma, social inequality, and HIV risk disclosure among Dominican male sex workers?

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Mark; Castellanos, Daniel; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Sánchez Marte, Leonardo E.; Soriano, Martha Arredondo

    2010-01-01

    Some quantitative behavioral studies in the USA have concluded that bisexually behaving Latino men are less likely than White men to disclose to their female partners that they have engaged in same-sex risk behavior and/or are HIV-positive, presumably exposing female partners to elevated risk for HIV infection. Nevertheless, very little theoretical or empirical research has been conducted to understand the social factors that promote or inhibit sexual risk disclosure among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), and much of the existing literature has neglected to contextualize disclosure patterns within broader experiences of stigma and social inequality. This paper examines decisions about disclosure of sex work, same-sex behavior, and sexual risk for HIV among male sex workers in two cities in the Dominican Republic. Data derive from long-term ethnography and qualitative in-depth interviews with 72 male sex workers were used to analyze the relationships among experiences of stigma, social inequality, and patterns of sexual risk disclosure. Thematic analysis of interviews and ethnographic evidence revealed a wide range of stigma management techniques utilized by sex workers to minimize the effects of marginality due to their engagement in homosexuality and sex work. These techniques imposed severe constraints on men’s sexual risk disclosure, and potentially elevated their own and their female partners’ vulnerability to HIV infection. Based on the study’s findings, we conclude that future studies of sexual risk disclosure among ethnic minority MSM should avoid analyzing disclosure as a decontextualized variable, and should seek to examine sexual risk communication as a dynamic social process constrained by hierarchical systems of power and inequality. PMID:18410986

  4. Influence of GSTT1 null genotype on the offspring sex ratio of gasoline filling station workers

    PubMed Central

    Ansari-Lari, M; Saadat, M; Hadi, N

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the occupational exposure to gasoline of men employed at filling stations affects the sex of their children. Altogether 115 offspring (47 males, 68 females) were identified within families of 49 men working in filling stations in Shiraz (Fars province, south of Iran) and 345 offspring (178 males, 167 females) from 147 families of unexposed persons from the general population of Shiraz, which were matched by age of fathers (±2 years) and number of children as a control group. The offspring sex ratio at birth (male proportion) in the filling station workers was significantly lower than the ratio in control group (OR = 0.65; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.42 to 0.99). Genotypes of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1) were investigated on extracted genomic DNA of 37 exposed workers using the polymerase chain reaction based method. In exposed group with active GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes, offspring sex ratio was the same as the ratio in the control group (OR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.34 to 1.28). However, in the exposed group with active GSTM1 and null genotype of GSTT1, the offspring sex ratio statistically decreased (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.96). It seems that the GSTT1 null genotype has an effect on offspring sex ratio in the filling station workers. PMID:15082737

  5. HIV and STI prevalence and risk factors among male sex workers and other men who have sex with men in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muraguri, Nicholas; Tun, Waimar; Okal, Jerry; Broz, Dita; Raymond, H Fisher; Kellogg, Timothy; Dadabhai, Sufia; Musyoki, Helgar; Sheehy, Meredith; Kuria, David; Kaiser, Reinhard; Geibel, Scott

    2015-01-01

    : Previous surveys of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa have not adequately profiled HIV status and risk factors by sex work status. MSM in Nairobi, Kenya, were recruited using respondent-driven sampling, completed a behavioral interview, and were tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Overlapping recruitment among 273 male sex workers and 290 other MSM was common. Sex workers were more likely to report receptive anal sex with multiple partners (65.7% versus 18.0%, P < 0.001) and unprotected receptive anal intercourse (40.0% versus 22.8%, P = 0.005). Male sex workers were also more likely to be HIV infected (26.3% versus 12.2%, P = 0.007). PMID:25501346

  6. Opening Pathways to Cancer Screening for Vietnamese-American Women: Lay Health Workers Hold a Key

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyce Adair Bird; Stephen J. McPhee; Ngoc-The Ha; Bich Le; Thomas Davis; Christopher N. H. Jenkins

    1998-01-01

    Purpose.We describe a controlled trial of a community outreach intervention to promote recognition, receipt, and screening-interval maintenance of clinical breast examinations (CBE), mammograms, and Pap smears among Vietnamese-American women.Methods.Over a 3-year period, indigenous lay health workers conducted small-group sessions of Vietnamese women in a low-income district of San Francisco, California. Women in Sacramento, California, served as controls. Lay workers conducted

  7. Degrading Content and Character Sex: Accounting for Men and Women’s Differential Reactions to Pornography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Glascock

    2005-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in arousal to non?violent sexually explicit videos and viewers’ perceptions of the character traits that distinguish degrading from non?degrading content. Men and women were exposed to either neutral, erotic or nonviolent pornographic video clips then administered a questionnaire assessing subjective arousal and perceptions of male and female characters. Nonviolent pornographic videos were characterized by perceptions

  8. On the importance of being masculine: Sex role, attribution, and women's career achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. T. P. Wong; G. Kettlewell; C. F. Sproule

    1985-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation between sex-role identification and career achievement in working women. Women classified as feminine in Bem's Sex Role Inventory achieved less in their careers, attributed their career performance less to ability and effort, and had parents with lower educational expectations for them than women classified as masculine. Multiple regression analysis of a number of correlates

  9. Cues to the sex ratio of the local population influence women's preferences for facial symmetry

    E-print Network

    Little, Tony

    Cues to the sex ratio of the local population influence women's preferences for facial symmetry-00762 Keywords: attraction dominance fluctuating asymmetry mate preference sex ratio within-sex competition intensifies within-sex competition. In two experiments, we tested for analogous effects in humans

  10. Clients of sex workers in Switzerland: it makes sense to counsel and propose rapid test for HIV on the street, a preliminary report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther-Amélie Diserens; Patrick Bodenmann; Chantal N'Garambe; Anne Ansermet-Pagot; Marco Vannotti; Eric Masserey; Matthias Cavassini

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clients of street sex workers may be at higher risk for HIV infection than the general population. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge regarding HIV testing of clients of sex workers in developed countries. METHOD: This pilot study assessed the feasibility and acceptance of rapid HIV testing by the clients of street-based sex workers in Lausanne, Switzerland. For

  11. Is Scale-Up of Community Mobilisation among Sex Workers Really Possible in Complex Urban Environments? The Case of Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Kongelf, Anine; Bandewar, Sunita V. S.; Bharat, Shalini; Collumbien, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Background In the last decade, community mobilisation (CM) interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs) have been scaled-up in India’s national response to the HIV epidemic. This included the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation’s Avahan programme which adopted a business approach to plan and manage implementation at scale. With the focus of evaluation efforts on measuring effectiveness and health impacts there has been little analysis thus far of the interaction of the CM interventions with the sex work industry in complex urban environments. Methods and Findings Between March and July 2012 semi-structured, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 63 HIV intervention implementers, to explore challenges of HIV prevention among FSWs in Mumbai. A thematic analysis identified contextual factors that impact CM implementation. Large-scale interventions are not only impacted by, but were shown to shape the dynamic social context. Registration practices and programme monitoring were experienced as stigmatising, reflected in shifting client preferences towards women not disclosing as ‘sex workers’. This combined with urban redevelopment and gentrification of traditional red light areas, forcing dispersal and more ‘hidden’ ways of solicitation, further challenging outreach and collectivisation. Participants reported that brothel owners and ‘pimps’ continued to restrict access to sex workers and the heterogeneous ‘community’ of FSWs remains fragmented with high levels of mobility. Stakeholder engagement was poor and mobilising around HIV prevention not compelling. Interventions largely failed to respond to community needs as strong target-orientation skewed activities towards those most easily measured and reported. Conclusion Large-scale interventions have been impacted by and contributed to an increasingly complex sex work environment in Mumbai, challenging outreach and mobilisation efforts. Sex workers remain a vulnerable and disempowered group needing continued support and more comprehensive services. PMID:25811484

  12. Sex-for-Crack-Cocaine Exchange, Poor Black Women, and Pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanya Telfair Sharpe

    2001-01-01

    A sample of 34 poor Black women who exchanged sex for crack was screened to discover if sex-for-crack exchanges resulted in pregnancies. Ethnographic interviews were conducted with women who became pregnant this way. Out of the 34 women, 18 reported sex-for-crack pregnancies, and more than half of that number became pregnant this way more than once. Twenty-nine pregnancies were reported.

  13. Sex Hormone Binding Globulin and Sex Steroids Among Premenopausal Women in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Stentz, Frankie B.; Murphy, Mary Beth; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Kitabchi, Abbas E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: It is unknown whether intensive lifestyle modification (ILS) or metformin changes sex steroids among premenopausal women without a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Objectives: We examined 1-year intervention impact on sex steroids (estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione [A4]) and SHBG and differences by race/ethnicity. Participants: A subgroup of Diabetes Prevention Program participants who were premenopausal, not using estrogen, without a history of PCOS or irregular menses, and who reported non-Hispanic white (NHW), Hispanic, or African-American race/ethnicity (n = 301). Interventions: Randomization arms were 1) ILS with the goals of weight reduction of 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, 2) metformin 850 mg twice a day, or 3) placebo. Results: Neither intervention changed sex steroids compared to placebo. ILS, but not metformin, increased median SHBG by 3.1 nmol/L (?11%) compared to decreases of 1.1 nmol/L in the placebo arm (P < .05). This comparison remained significant after adjustment for changes in covariates including waist circumference. However, associations with glucose were not significant. Median baseline A4 was lower in Hispanics compared to NHWs (5.7 nmol/L vs 6.5 nmol/L, P < .05) and increases in A4 were greater in Hispanics compared to NHWs (3.0 nmol/ vs 1.2 nmol/L, P < .05), and these differences did not differ significantly by intervention arm. No other racial/ethnic differences were significant. Conclusions: Among premenopausal glucose-intolerant women, no intervention changed sex steroids. ILS increased SHBG, although associations with glucose were not significant. SHBG and sex steroids were similar by race/ethnicity, with the possible exception of lower baseline A4 levels in Hispanics compared to NHWs. PMID:23709655

  14. Psychotherapy with Women Who Have Worked in the “Sex Industry”

    PubMed Central

    Anklesaria, Ariz

    2012-01-01

    Psychotherapy is effective for a myriad of mental health symptoms, with the clinical situation dictating the most applicable method. For episodes of severe stress including acute depression and anxiety, supportive mechanisms (crisis interventions and shoring up existing coping skills and strategies) may be the best fit. During periods of relatively milder symptomatology a psychodynamic approach may be utilized with the same patient (focusing on self-reflection and a more in-depth exploration). This article focuses on the use of psychotherapy with women working in the sex industry, whether indoor (such as strip clubs and cabarets) or outdoor (such as prostitution and escort services). These women frequently experience violence in various forms, and most report multiple traumatic experiences, both during their developmental years and while working in the industry. A composite case is included that illustrates some of the supportive and psychodynamic psychotherapy techniques that can be applied when treating these individuals. PMID:23198274

  15. Vulnerabilities, health needs and predictors of high-risk sexual behaviour among female adolescent sex workers in Kunming, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu-Dong; Temmerman, Marleen; Li, Yan; Luo, Wei; Luchters, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed social and behavioural predictors for sexual risk taking and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among adolescent female sex workers (FSWs) from Kunming, China. Additionally, health services needs and use were assessed. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010. Using snowball and convenience sampling, self-identified FSWs were recruited from four urban areas in Kunming. Women consenting to participate were administered a semi-structured questionnaire by trained interviewers identified from local peer-support organisations. Following interview, a gynaecological examination and biological sampling to identify potential STIs were undertaken. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Adolescent FSWs had a mean age of 18.2?years and reported numerous non-paying sexual partners with very low rate of consistent condom use (22.2%). Half (50.3%) the respondents had sex while feeling drunk at least once in the past week, of whom 56.4% did not use condom protection. STI prevalence was high overall (30.4%) among this group. Younger age, early sexual debut, being isolated from schools and family, short duration in sex work, and use of illicit drugs were found to be strong predictors for unprotected sex and presence of an STI. Conversely, having access to condom promotion, free HIV counselling and testing, and peer education were associated with less unprotected sex. The majority reported a need for health knowledge, free condoms and low-cost STI diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions There is an urgent need to improve coverage, accessibility and efficiency of existing interventions targeting adolescent FSWs. PMID:23220781

  16. Use of barrier protection for sexual activity among women who have sex with women

    PubMed Central

    Rowen, Tami S.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Lin, Tzu-Chin; Li, Chin-Shang; Robertson, Patricia A.; Shindel, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the frequency and associations of barrier protection use during sexual activity in a population of women who have sex with women (WSW). Methods WSW were invited to participate in an international internet-based survey. Information regarding ethnodemographics, sexual health, and barrier use during sexual activities was collected. Results The study cohort comprised 1557 participants. Barrier use was least prevalent during digital genital stimulation (11.3% ever used barriers) and most prevalent during stimulation with a sex toy (34.4% ever used barriers). Univariate analysis revealed that women in non-monogamous relationships were more likely than monogamous women to always use barrier protection for sexual activity (14.3% vs 3.5%). On multivariate analysis, there was no association between barrier use and frequency of casual sexual activity or history of sexually transmitted infection. Small associations were noted between barrier use and certain sexual activities, age, race, and number of partners. Conclusion Many WSW do not use barrier protection during sexual activity, even in the context of potentially risky sexual behaviors. Safer-sex practices among WSW merit increased attention from healthcare providers and public health researchers. PMID:23106842

  17. Effects of hazardous and harmful alcohol use on HIV incidence and sexual behaviour: a cohort study of Kenyan female sex workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate putative links between alcohol use, and unsafe sex and incident HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A cohort of 400 HIV-negative female sex workers was established in Mombasa, Kenya. Associations between categories of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the incidence at one year of unsafe sex, HIV and pregnancy were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Violence or STIs other than HIV measured at one year was compared across AUDIT categories using multivariate logistic regression. Results Participants had high levels of hazardous (17.3%, 69/399) and harmful drinking (9.5%, 38/399), while 36.1% abstained from alcohol. Hazardous and harmful drinkers had more unprotected sex and higher partner numbers than abstainers. Sex while feeling drunk was frequent and associated with lower condom use. Occurrence of condom accidents rose step-wise with each increase in AUDIT category. Compared with non-drinkers, women with harmful drinking had 4.1-fold higher sexual violence (95% CI adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?1.9-8.9) and 8.4 higher odds of physical violence (95% CI AOR?=?3.9-18.0), while hazardous drinkers had 3.1-fold higher physical violence (95% CI AOR?=?1.7-5.6). No association was detected between AUDIT category and pregnancy, or infection with Syphilis or Trichomonas vaginalis. The adjusted hazard ratio of HIV incidence was 9.6 comparing women with hazardous drinking to non-drinkers (95% CI?=?1.1-87.9). Conclusions Unsafe sex, partner violence and HIV incidence were higher in women with alcohol use disorders. This prospective study, using validated alcohol measures, indicates that harmful or hazardous alcohol can influence sexual behaviour. Possible mechanisms include increased unprotected sex, condom accidents and exposure to sexual violence. Experimental evidence is required demonstrating that interventions to reduce alcohol use can avert unsafe sex. PMID:24708844

  18. Sexual function of women practicing sex in nonconventional settings.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Liliam Renata; Romão, Adriana Peterson Mariano Salata; Vieira, Carolina Sales; de Sá Rosa E Silva, Ana Carolina Japur; Reis, Rosana Maria; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea de Albuquerque Salles; Lara, Lúcia Alves da Silva

    2015-01-01

    The quality of sexual intercourse in the context of conjugal visits by women to their jailed partners is unknown. This study aimed to assess the quality of the sex lives and psychological conditions of women attending conjugal visits with their jailed inmate partners. This controlled study involved 124 women between the ages of 18 to 40 years who engaged in sexual relations with their inmate partners (conjugal visit group) or with their partners at home (control group). Sexual function was assessed using a semi-structured questionnaire and the Female Sexual Function Index, and psychological parameters were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. The total Female Sexual Function Index scores was similar in the 2 groups. The percentage of women reporting good quality of the relationship was significantly higher in the conjugal visit group. Also, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale scores were higher in the conjugal visit group. Depression was a risk factor for sexual dysfunction and had a negative effect on scores in the desire, excitement, lubrication, and sexual satisfaction domains, whereas anxiety was associated with lower sexual desire scores. A regular + poor quality of the relationship and being religious were factors associated with sexual dysfunction. Sexual practices in jail were not a risk for sexual dysfunction in this sample. PMID:24512136

  19. A comparison of male sex workers in Prague: Internet escorts versus men who work in specialized bars and clubs.

    PubMed

    Bar-Johnson, Michael David; Weiss, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Prague, the Czech Republic, is a popular sex tourism destination where sex work is decriminalized and young men offer sexual services at low prices relative to countries in Western Europe. This quantitative survey aimed to identify some of the demographic characteristics of these young men and their experiences in the sex industry. Internet escorts (N = 20) and sex workers in bars and clubs (N = 20) completed the survey anonymously in spring 2011. The results showed that sex workers in clubs often had troubled pasts and were forced into sex work to survive. They also reported incidents of violence, serious alcohol and drug use, as well as frequent gambling. The larger group of sex workers in Prague is made up of Internet escorts who have backgrounds that are not atypical for the average Czech youth. They had fewer problems with drugs and alcohol but were twice as likely as sex workers in bars and clubs to be victims of violent crime. Plans for interventions to help those who would change their line of work, as well as the importance of sociocultural context in understanding sex workers, are discussed. PMID:24423089

  20. Implementing for results: Program analysis of the HIV/STI interventions for sex workers in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Semini, Iris; Batona, Georges; Lafrance, Christian; Kessou, Léon; Gbedji, Eugène; Anani, Hubert; Alary, Michel

    2013-01-01

    HIV response has entered a new era shaped by evidence that the combination of interventions impacts the trajectory of the epidemic. Even proven interventions, however, can be ineffective if not to scale, appropriately implemented, and with the right combination. Benin is among the pioneering countries that prioritized HIV prevention for sex workers and clients early on. Effective implementation up to 2006 resulted in consistent condom use among sex workers increasing from 39% to 86.2% and a decline in prevalence of gonorrhea from 5.4% to 1.6%. This study responds to the growing concern that, although proven interventions for female sex workers (FSWs) were expanded in Benin since 2008, indicators of coverage and behaviors are far from satisfactory. The quest to better understand implementation and how to render service delivery efficient and effective resonates with increased emphasis in the international arena on return for investments. Quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized to collect data. The output measured is the number of sex workers seeking Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) care at user-friendly STI Clinics (SCs). Data were collected for 2010–2011 in nine regions of Benin. While recognizing that commitment to scale up is commendable, the study revealed deficiencies in program design and implementation that undermine outcomes. The selected mix of interventions is not optimal. Allocation of funds is not proportionate to the needs of FSW across regions. Only 5 of 41 SCs were fully functional at time of study. Free distribution of condoms covers only 10% of needs of FSWs. Funding and financing gaps resulted in extended interruptions of services. Successful HIV prevention in Benin will depend on the effective and efficient implementation of well-funded programs in sex work setting. Resources should be aligned to local sex work typology and presence in communities. A national framework defining an appropriate mix of interventions, management structure, referral mechanisms, and operational standards is required to guide rigorous implementation. Health services, in particular functional and user-friendly SCs coupled with mechanisms that link community-based work and health facilities should be strengthened to ensure STI care/anti-retroviral treatment expansion. Without leadership of sex workers, any attempt to end HIV will be unsuccessful. PMID:23745627

  1. Implementing for results: program analysis of the HIV/STI interventions for sex workers in Benin.

    PubMed

    Semini, Iris; Batona, Georges; Lafrance, Christian; Kessou, Léon; Gbedji, Eugène; Anani, Hubert; Alary, Michel

    2013-01-01

    HIV response has entered a new era shaped by evidence that the combination of interventions impacts the trajectory of the epidemic. Even proven interventions, however, can be ineffective if not to scale, appropriately implemented, and with the right combination. Benin is among the pioneering countries that prioritized HIV prevention for sex workers and clients early on. Effective implementation up to 2006 resulted in consistent condom use among sex workers increasing from 39% to 86.2% and a decline in prevalence of gonorrhea from 5.4% to 1.6%. This study responds to the growing concern that, although proven interventions for female sex workers (FSWs) were expanded in Benin since 2008, indicators of coverage and behaviors are far from satisfactory. The quest to better understand implementation and how to render service delivery efficient and effective resonates with increased emphasis in the international arena on return for investments. Quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized to collect data. The output measured is the number of sex workers seeking Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) care at user-friendly STI Clinics (SCs). Data were collected for 2010-2011 in nine regions of Benin. While recognizing that commitment to scale up is commendable, the study revealed deficiencies in program design and implementation that undermine outcomes. The selected mix of interventions is not optimal. Allocation of funds is not proportionate to the needs of FSW across regions. Only 5 of 41 SCs were fully functional at time of study. Free distribution of condoms covers only 10% of needs of FSWs. Funding and financing gaps resulted in extended interruptions of services. Successful HIV prevention in Benin will depend on the effective and efficient implementation of well-funded programs in sex work setting. Resources should be aligned to local sex work typology and presence in communities. A national framework defining an appropriate mix of interventions, management structure, referral mechanisms, and operational standards is required to guide rigorous implementation. Health services, in particular functional and user-friendly SCs coupled with mechanisms that link community-based work and health facilities should be strengthened to ensure STI care/anti-retroviral treatment expansion. Without leadership of sex workers, any attempt to end HIV will be unsuccessful. PMID:23745627

  2. Violence against substance-abusing South African sex workers: intersection with culture and HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Wechsberg, W M; Luseno, W K; Lam, W K

    2005-06-01

    The Republic of South Africa has become an epicentre of heterosexual HIV transmission among Black women, and the interface between violence against women, substance abuse, and HIV risk is becoming evident. This paper describes the characteristics of Black South African women who engage in sex work in Pretoria and examines their intersecting experiences of high-risk sexual behaviour, substance abuse, and victimization. Ninety-three women were recruited into the study. Field staff collected biological measures of drug use and administered a structured, self-report interview. Findings indicate that young South African women who engage in sex work and use drugs rely on this activity as their main source of income and are supporting other family members. The majority of sample women reported experiencing some victimization at the hand of men, either clients or boyfriends, with many reporting childhood abuse histories; young women also report great fear of future victimization. Findings also suggest that as a result of their decreased likelihood of using protection, women who reported any sexual or physical victimization are at increased risk for HIV and other STIs. Results support the critical need for targeted, comprehensive interventions that address substance abuse, sexual risk, and violence as interrelated phenomena. PMID:16096118

  3. Risks for Acquisition of Bacterial Vaginosis Among Women Who Report Sex with Women: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Thomas, Katherine K.; Fiedler, Tina L.; Ringwood, Kathleen; Fredricks, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in women who have sex with women. While cross-sectional data support a role for sexual transmission, risks for incident BV have not been prospectively studied in this group. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied risks for BV acquisition in a prospective cohort study of women (age 16–35 years) who reported sex with other women (?1 partner, prior year). Women were followed for one year with examinations at quarterly visits and for genital symptoms at any time. Species-specific 16S rRNA gene PCRs for BV-associated bacteria (BVAB) were applied to vaginal fluid obtained at enrollment. Sexual behaviors were ascertained by computer-assisted interview. Of 335 participants, 239 had no BV at baseline; 199 were seen in follow-up (median follow-up 355 days, 4.0 visits/subject). Forty women experienced ?1 BV episode. Risks for incident BV were presentation ?14 days since onset of menses (hazard ratio (HR) 2.3 (95% CI, 1.2–4.7), report of new sex partner with BV history (HR 3.63 (1.1–11.9)), change in vaginal discharge (HR 2.6 (1.3–5.2)) and detection of any of several BVAB in vaginal fluid at enrollment, including BVAB1 (HR 6.3 (1.4–28.1)), BVAB2 (HR 18.2 (6.4–51.8)), BVAB3 (HR 12.6 (2.7–58.4)), G. vaginalis (HR 3.9 (1.5–10.4)), Atopobium vaginae (HR 4.2 (1.9–9.3)), Leptotrichia spp (9.3 (3.0–24.4)), and Megasphaera-1 (HR 11.5 (5.0–26.6)). Detection of Lactobacillus crispatus at enrollment conferred reduced risk for subsequent BV (HR 0.18 (0.08–0.4)). Detailed analysis of behavioral data suggested a direct dose-response relationship with increasing number of episodes of receptive oral-vulvovaginal sex (HR 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00–1.04). Conclusions/Significance Vaginal detection of several BVAB in BV-negative women predicted subsequent BV, suggesting that changes in vaginal microbiota precede BV by weeks or months. BV acquisition was associated with report of new partner with BV; associations with sexual practices – specifically, receptive oral sex – require further investigation. PMID:20559445

  4. Predictors of workplace violence among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Katsulis, Yasmina; Durfee, Alesha; Lopez, Vera; Robillard, Alyssa

    2015-05-01

    For sex workers, differences in rates of exposure to workplace violence are likely influenced by a variety of risk factors, including where one works and under what circumstances. Economic stressors, such as housing insecurity, may also increase the likelihood of exposure. Bivariate analyses demonstrate statistically significant associations between workplace violence and selected predictor variables, including age, drug use, exchanging sex for goods, soliciting clients outdoors, and experiencing housing insecurity. Multivariate regression analysis shows that after controlling for each of these variables in one model, only soliciting clients outdoors and housing insecurity emerge as statistically significant predictors for workplace violence. PMID:25091980

  5. Women are Victims, Men Make Choices: The Invisibility of Men and Boys in the Global Sex Trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffery P. Dennis

    2008-01-01

    The invisibility of men and boys in scholarly discussions of the global sex trade was analyzed through a sample of 166 recent\\u000a articles published in social science journals. Most failed to acknowledge the existence of male sex workers at all. When male\\u000a sex workers were discussed, they were assigned considerably more agency than female sex workers, the chief danger ascribed

  6. Factors associated with drinking alcohol before visiting female sex workers among men in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use in commercial sex is highly prevalent globally and alcohol use in conjunction with sexual activity might increase the probability of risky behaviors, and. In the current study, we explored individual and contextual factors associated with drinking alcohol before visiting female sex workers (FSWs) among 560 male clients in Sichuan province, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Sichuan province, China. Over one-fifth (21.1%) of the participants reported always using alcohol before having sex with FSWs. As compared to those who reported not always drinking alcohol before having sex with FSWs, male clients who reported always drinking alcohol before having sex with FSWs had higher income, were more likely to have main sex partners, to drink alcohol daily, to report minor depressive symptoms and were more likely to visit FSWs with friends rather than by themselves. Results from this study highlight the importance of addressing alcohol use among men who pay for sex in China. Future interventions should promote alcohol-related norms in reducing the harms associated with consuming alcohol. PMID:22806054

  7. Understanding STI Risk and Condom Use Patterns by Partner Type Among Female Sex Workers in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Kinsler, Janni J; Blas, Magaly M; Cabral, Alejandra; Carcamo, Cesar; Halsey, Neal; Brown, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    While brothel-based sex work is regulated by the Peruvian government, there is little data on STI risk factors reported by female sex workers (FSW). This study compared high risk behaviors among 120 Peruvian FSW from government regulated brothels with both clients and non-commercial partners. Our study found that 12% of FSW reported unprotected vaginal sex with clients (compared to 75% with non-commercial partners), and 42% reported unprotected anal sex with clients (compared to 87% with non-commercial partners). Group differences were observed in the expectation to have oral sex (32% for partners vs 60% for clients; p<0.01), and a history of anal sex (65% for partners vs 32% for clients; p<0.01) and both vaginal and anal sex with the same partners (46% for partners vs 25% for clients; p<0.001). These findings suggest that FSW constitute an important bridge population for STI/HIV transmission in Peru. PMID:24949112

  8. When sex work becomes your everything: The complex linkages between economy and affection among male sex workers in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Angela M.; Garvich, Mijail; Díaz, David A.; Sánchez, Hugo; García, Patricia J.; Coates, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    In Peru, there are few studies on male sex workers (MSWs) and existing studies explore limited sub-groups or offer limited information about MSWs’ perspectives. This study provides in-depth perspectives from 40 MSWs who work in downtown Lima (Cercado) and in surrounding urban neighborhoods (non-Cercado) through interviews on their identities, lives and HIV/STI risks and vulnerabilities. Findings are that entry into sex work links economy and affection, particularly among Cercado MSWs. Continued sex work cements this link, making it difficult to exit sex work and establish goals. Ties between economics and affections influence MSWs’ perceived HIV/STI risks, vulnerabilities and prevention practices. Although Cercado MSWs report higher HIV/STI risks and vulnerabilities than non-Cercado peers, they report fewer prevention practices given inability to buy condoms and acceptance of client offers of higher payment, especially clients they feel affection for. MSWs need support to strengthen their self-perceptions and define and pursue their goals in order to improve their HIV/STI prevention practices, health and well-being. PMID:24368712

  9. Sex differences in face recognition—Women’s faces make the difference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catharina Lewin; Agneta Herlitz

    2002-01-01

    Sex differences favoring women have been found in face recognition tasks as well as in verbal episodic memory tasks. Women’s higher face recognition performance was hypothesized to be related to either their higher verbal ability or to their superiority in recognizing female faces, rather than faces in general. Results showed that whereas there were no differences between men and women

  10. HIV prevalence among female sex workers, drug users and men who have sex with men in Brazil: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Malta; Monica MF Magnanini; Maeve B Mello; Ana Roberta P Pascom; Yohana Linhares; Francisco I Bastos

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Brazilian response towards AIDS epidemic is well known, but the absence of a systematic review of vulnerable populations ? men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW), and drug users (DU) remains a main gap in the available literature. Our goal was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing HIV prevalence among

  11. Implications of PEPFAR's anti-prostitution pledge for HIV prevention among organizations working with sex workers.

    PubMed

    Ditmore, Melissa; Allman, Dan

    2010-10-01

    Even though the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has facilitated access to treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS across the planet, sex workers are not as fortunate. In this article, based on an oral abstract presentation at AIDS 2010, Melissa Ditmore and Dan Allman present a case-story analysis of the implementation of PEPFAR's anti-prostitution pledge. PMID:21413636

  12. Sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Tunisia: high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abir Znazen; Olfa Frikha-Gargouri; Lamia Berrajah; Sihem Bellalouna; Hela Hakim; Nabiha Gueddana; Adnene Hammami

    2010-01-01

    ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in female sex workers (FSW) in Tunisia.Methods188 prostitutes from three Tunisian towns were enrolled at their weekly medical visit. Demographic and sexual behaviour data were collected. C trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) were

  13. Reasons for not using condoms among female sex workers in Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Endang Basuki; Ivan Wolffers; W. Devillé; Noni Erlaini; Dorang Luhpuri; Rachmat Hargono; Nuning Maskuri; Nyoman Suesen; Nel van Beelen

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather data on condom use among brothel-based female sex workers in\\u000aIndonesia and to study the reasons for not using condoms in order to provide new and existing condom promotion programs with information to improve their performance. Quantitative data were gathered by KABP surveys (n = 1450) and a condom diary with a

  14. Associations between migrant status and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V D Ojeda; S A Strathdee; R Lozada; M L A Rusch; M Fraga; P Orozovich; C Magis-Rodriguez; A De La Torre; H Amaro; W Cornelius; T L Patterson

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To examine associations between migration and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among Mexican female sex workers (FSW).Methods:FSW aged 18 years and older in Tijuana, Baja California (BC) underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia. Multivariate logistic regressions identified correlates of STI.Results:Of 471 FSW, 79% were migrants to BC. Among migrant FSW, prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia

  15. PREVALENCE OF HIV INFECTION AND PREDICTORS FOR SYPHILIS INFECTION AMONG FEMALE SEX WORKERS IN SOUTHERN CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fan Lu; Yujiang Jia; Xinhua Sun; Lan Wang; Wei Liu; Yan Xiao; Gang Zeng; Chunmei Li; Jianbo Liu; Holly Cassell; Huey T Chen; Sten H Vermund

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for syphilis infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Liuzhou City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China. A cross-sectional study recruited FSWs using a venue-based method and subsequent snowball sampling with mapping strategies. Ques- tionnaire-based interviews were conducted to collect demographic and behavioral in- formation. Blood was

  16. Drug Resistance–Associated Mutations in Mycoplasma genitalium in Female Sex Workers, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Mitsuru; Horie, Kengo; Seike, Kensaku; Kikuchi, Mina; Mizutani, Kohsuke; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Hoshina, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium was detected in 21 (14.1%) of 149 vaginal swab samples and in 1 (0.7%) of 149 throat washing samples from female sex workers during 2013–2014 in Japan. Prevalences of M. genitalium with macrolide resistance–associated 23S rRNA mutations and fluoroquinolone resistance–associated parC alterations were 47.1% and 36.8%, respectively. PMID:25988775

  17. Can rights stop the wrongs? Exploring the connections between framings of sex workers’ rights and sexual and reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the ways in which legal and human rights issues related to sex work affect sex workers’ vulnerability to HIV and abuses including human trafficking and sexual exploitation. International agencies, such as UNAIDS, have called for decriminalisation of sex work because the delivery of sexual and reproductive health services is affected by criminalisation and social exclusion as experienced by sex workers. The paper reflects on the connections in various actors’ framings between sex workers sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and the ways that international law is interpreted in policing and regulatory practices. Methods The literature review that informs this paper was carried out by the authors in the course of their work within the Paulo Longo Research Initiative. The review covered academic and grey literature such as resources generated by sex worker rights activists, UN policy positions and print and online media. The argument in this paper has been developed reflectively through long term involvement with key actors in the field of sex workers’ rights. Results International legislation characterises sex work in various ways which do not always accord with moves toward decriminalisation. Law, policy and regulation at national level and law enforcement vary between settings. The demands of sex worker rights activists do relate to sexual and reproductive health but they place greater emphasis on efforts to remove the structural barriers that limit sex workers’ ability to participate in society on an equal footing with other citizens. Discussion and conclusion There is a tension between those who wish to uphold the rights of sex workers in order to reduce vulnerability to ill-health and those who insist that sex work is itself a violation of rights. This is reflected in contemporary narratives about sex workers’ rights and the ways in which different actors interpret human rights law. The creation of regulatory frameworks around sex work that support health, safety and freedom from abuse requires a better understanding of the broad scope of laws, policies and enforcement practices in different cultural contexts and economic settings, alongside reviews of UN policies and human rights conventions. PMID:22376152

  18. Auxiliary Women Workers in the Legal Sector: Traversing Subjectivities and "Self" to Learn through Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Jillian Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study is about female auxiliary workers in the Australian legal sector. The purpose is to explore the impact of subjectivities on women workers and how they negotiate their positionality to participate in meaningful work and learning. The study is grounded in theories of identity and socio-cultural perspectives of subjectivity, agentic action…

  19. Use of Community Health Workers in Research With Ethnic Minority Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeannette O. Andrews; Gwen Felton; Mary Ellen Wewers; Janie Heath

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To explore roles and effectiveness of community health workers in research with ethnic minority tvomen in the United States (US). Methods: Medline (1966-2002) and CINAHL (Cumulative hidex to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; 1982-2002) databases were used to locate puhlished research studies on the use of community health workers with ethnic minority women in the VS. Key words for

  20. "Not Everything That the Bourgeois World Created Is Bad": Aesthetics and Politics in Women Workers' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboukou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I look into the papers of Fannia Cohn, an immigrant labour organizer, who served the Education Department of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU) between 1918 and 1962 and became one of its few women vice-presidents. As an internationally recognized figure in the history of workers' education, Cohn left a rich…

  1. Diversity among Clients of Female Sex Workers in India: Comparing Risk Profiles and Intervention Impact by Site of Solicitation. Implications for the Vulnerability of Less Visible Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Suryawanshi, Dipak; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Deshpande, Sucheta; Zhou, Weiwei; Singh, Pankaj; Collumbien, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Background It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. Methods The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040). The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT) of intervention messages on clients’ consistent condom use with FSW. Results Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%). Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%), and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%). Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001) and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001). In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. Conclusion Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks. PMID:24023877

  2. Peer Outreach Work as Economic Activity: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers’ economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers’ relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers. PMID:25775122

  3. Predictive factors of unprotected sex for female sex workers: first study in French Guiana, the French territory with the highest HIV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Melle, Astrid Van; Gaubert-Maréchal, Emilie; Rogier, Stéphanie; Couppié, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-07-01

    French Guiana is the French territory that is most affected by HIV. AIDS incidence is much higher than in mainland France and sex work seems to be an important driver of the epidemic. The objective of this study was to describe consistent condom use among female sex workers with their clients and their intimate partners and to identify determinants of non-use of condoms. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices survey was conducted in 2009-2010 among sex workers in French Guiana. A total of 477 sex workers were interviewed. Female sex workers were more likely to use condoms with their clients (97%) than with their intimate partners (45%). The factors associated with non-consistent condom use with the intimate partner were having had an abortion, feeling at risk for HIV, not evaluating one's own risk for HIV, living as a couple, being Dominican, and not feeling comfortable asking intimate partners to use condoms. Although a high proportion of female sex workers declared using condoms with commercial partners, there is still room for improvement in the prevention of transmission with both commercial and intimate partners. PMID:25080287

  4. Vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities: a retrospective study on sexual violence, substance use and HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Servin, Argentina E; Strathdee, Steffanie; Muñoz, Fatima A; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Silverman, Jay G

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of female sex workers (FSWs) conducted in the Mexico-US border region have focused on individual HIV risk, centered on sexual behaviors and substance abuse patterns. Little attention has been drawn to the reality that sex workers are often parents whose children potentially face vulnerabilities unique to their family situation. The objective of the present study was to identify the vulnerabilities faced by the children of FSWs in two Mexican-US border cities. From 2008 to 2010, 628 FSW-injection drug users underwent interviewer-administered surveys and HIV/STI testing. Approximately one in five participants (20%) reported having a parent involved in sex work and majority referred it was their mother (88%). Close to one-third of participants (31%) reported first injecting drugs <18 years of age, and 33% reported they began working regularly as a prostitute <18 years of age. First drinking alcohol <18 years old (AOR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.13-3.08), lifetime cocaine use (AOR = 1.76, 95%CI: 1.09-2.84), ever being forced or coerced into non-consensual sex as a minor (<18 years of age; AOR = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.01-2.35), and injecting drugs with used syringes in the prior month (AOR = 1.63, 95%CI: 1.07-2.49) were the factors associated with having had a parent involved in sex work. These findings begin to lay the groundwork for understanding the potential vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers. Understanding these potential needs is necessary for creating relevant, evidence-based interventions focused on supporting these women. PMID:25117749

  5. Factors Associated with Risky Sexual Practices among Female Sex Workers in Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Lowndes, Catherine M.; Mohanty, Sanjay Kumar; Gurav, Kaveri; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Moses, Stephen; Washington, Reynold; Alary, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The objectives of this study are to develop a summary measure of risky sexual practice and examine the factors associated with this among female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods Data were drawn from special behavioral surveys (SBS) conducted in 2007 among 577 FSWs in two districts of Karnataka, India: Belgaum and Bangalore. FSWs were recruited using the two-stage probability sampling design. FSWs' sexual practice was considered risky if they reported inconsistent condom use with any sexual partner and reported experience of one of the following vulnerabilities to HIV risk: anal sex, alcohol consumption prior to sex and concurrent sexual relationships. Results About 51% of FSWs had engaged in risky sexual practice. The odds of engaging in risky sex were higher among FSWs who were older (35+ years) than younger (18–25 years) (58% vs. 45%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2–3.4), who were currently married than never married (61% vs. 51%, AOR: 4.8, 95% CI: 2.5–9.3), who were in sex work for 10+ years than those who were in sex work for less than five years (66% vs. 39%, AOR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.6–4.2), and who had sex with 3+ clients/day than those who had sex with fewer clients (67% vs. 38%, AOR: 3.7, 95% CI:2.5–5.5). Conclusion FSWs who are older, currently married, practicing sex work for longer duration and with higher clientele were more likely to engage in risky sexual practices. HIV prevention programs should develop strategies to reach these most-at risk group of FSWs to optimize the effectiveness of such programs. PMID:23637991

  6. Invasive pneumococcal disease in a cohort of predominantly HIV1 infected female sex-workers in Nairobi, Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. F Gilks; S. A Ojoo; J. C Ojoo; R. J Brindle; J Paul; B. I. F Batchelor; J. N Kimari; R Newnham; J Bwayo; F. A Plummer; D. A Warrell

    1996-01-01

    SummaryBackground HIV infection is a major risk factor for pneumococcal disease in industrialised countries. Although both are common infections in sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have investigated the importance of this interaction. We have followed up a cohort of female sex-workers in Nairobi and report here on the extent of invasive pneumococcal disease.Methods A well-established cohort of low-class female sex-workers, based

  7. Sexual Behavior of Female Sex Workers and Access to Condoms in Kenya and Uganda on the trans-Africa Highway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chester N. Morris; Sheldon R. Morris; Alan G. Ferguson

    2009-01-01

    Female sex workers and their clients remain a high risk core group for HIV in Africa. We measured sexual behavior of a snowball\\u000a sample of female sex workers (FSW) along the Trans Africa highway from Mombasa, Kenya to Kampala, Uganda and surveyed the\\u000a availability of male condoms at 1,007 bars and lodgings in Kenya along the highway trucking stops where

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Condom Use and HIV Testing Among Female Sex Workers in Tashkent, Uzbekistan: Implications for HIV Transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine S. Todd; Gulchaekra Alibayeva; Mumtaz M. Khakimov; Jose L. Sanchez; Christian T. Bautista; Kenneth C. Earhart

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about sex work in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, despite rapid increases in HIV infection. Consistent client condom\\u000a use and prior HIV testing are described among 448 female sex workers (FSW) completing a self-administered questionnaire, health\\u000a provider interview, and HIV testing between April 2003 and March 2004. Participants were recruited through outreach workers\\u000a using modified snowball sampling. Consistent client condom

  9. Measuring the impact of a behaviour change intervention for commercial sex workers and their potential clients in Malawi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivien Margaret Walden; Kondwani Mwangulube; Paul Makhumula-Nkhoma

    1999-01-01

    A peer-education HIV\\/AIDS prevention pro- gramme for bar-based sex workers and their potential clients (long-distance truck drivers) in Malawi was evaluated for impact. A mixed method approach was used, the tools being structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. The results showed that in the active districts, the presence of sex worker peer educators led to a increase in condom use

  10. HIV, HBV, and HCV Infections Among Drug-Involved, Inner-City, Street Sex Workers in Miami, Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Inciardi; Hilary L. Surratt; Steven P. Kurtz

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the rates of HIV, HBV, and HCV seropositivity among drug-involved, female street sex workers in low-income, inner-city sections of Miami, Florida; further, their sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, and sexual risk behaviors were assessed; and predictors of infection were reported. A sample of 586 sex workers was recruited through targeted sampling methods, interviewed, and counseled and tested for

  11. Is Military Sexual Trauma Associated with Trading Sex Among Women Veterans Seeking Outpatient Mental Health Care?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Strauss; Christine E. Marx; Julie C. Weitlauf; Karen M. Stechuchak; Kristy Straits-Tröster; Ayaba W. Worjoloh; Christina B. Sherrod; Maren K. Olsen; Marian I. Butterfield; Patrick S. Calhoun

    2011-01-01

    A robust association between sexual trauma and trading sex has been documented in civilian samples but has not been examined in veterans. Women veterans experience high rates of sexual victimization across the lifespan, including during military service (military sexual trauma [MST]). Associations between MST and trading sex were examined in 200 women enrolled in a crosssectional study of HIV risks

  12. Erasing Sex Bias Through Staff Training: Education of Women. Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soldwedel, Bette J.

    This document, one of four staff training units in a series designed to attack problems of sex bias in the counseling of women and girls, is intended to help counselor educators consider their knowledge of and attitudes toward the sex-limited status of women. In this unit, two staff training workshop strategies are provided. The first workshop is…

  13. Correlates of Suicidal Ideation and Attempt Among Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    HONG, YAN; LI, XIAOMING; FANG, XIAOYI; ZHAO, RAN

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempt among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. A cross-sectional survey was administered among 454 FSWs in a rural county of Guangxi, China. About 14% of FSWs had thought of suicide and 8% had attempted suicide in the past 6 months. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that those FSWs who were dissatisfied with life, abused alcohol, were deceived or forced into commercial sex, and had stable sexual partners were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Female sex workers who had multiple stable partners, experienced sexual coercion, and worried about an inability to make enough money were more likely to report a suicide attempt. These FSWs who entered commercial sex because of financial needs or who were influenced by the peers were less likely to report a suicide attempt. Our data suggested that the rates of suicidal ideation and attempts were high among FSWs in China, and there were multiple factors associated with their suicidality. Future health education and promotion efforts among FSWs need to take into consideration substance abuse, interpartner conflict, and psychological stress. PMID:17469002

  14. Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers and Male Clients: An Integrative Review of Global Literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To review the patterns, contexts and impacts of alcohol use associated with commercial sex reported in the global literature. Methods: We identified peer-reviewed English-language articles from 1980 to 2008 reporting alcohol consumption among female sex workers (FSWs) or male clients. We retrieved 70 articles describing 76 studies, in which 64 were quantitative (52 for FSWs, 12 for male clients) and 12 qualitative. Results: Studies increased over the past three decades, with geographic concentration of the research in Asia and North America. Alcohol use was prevalent among FSWs and clients. Integrating quantitative and qualitative studies, multilevel contexts of alcohol use in the sex work environment were identified, including workplace and occupation-related use, the use of alcohol to facilitate the transition into and practice of commercial sex among both FSWs and male clients, and self-medication among FSWs. Alcohol use was associated with adverse physical health, illicit drug use, mental health problems, and victimization of sexual violence, although its associations with HIV/sexually transmitted infections and unprotected sex among FSWs were inconclusive. Conclusions: Alcohol use in the context of commercial sex is prevalent, harmful among FSWs and male clients, but under-researched. Research in this area in more diverse settings and with standardized measures is required. The review underscores the importance of integrated intervention for alcohol use and related problems in multilevel contexts and with multiple components in order to effectively reduce alcohol use and its harmful effects among FSWs and their clients. PMID:20089544

  15. Rapid Syphilis Testing Uptake for Female Sex Workers at Sex Venues in Southern China: Implications for Expanding Syphilis Screening

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Yin, Yue-Ping; Shen, Crystal; Liu, Guo-Gu; Zhu, Zheng-Jun; Wei, Wan-Hui; Wang, Hong-Chun; Huang, Shui-Jie; Li, Jing; Tucker, Joseph D.; Mabey, David C.; Peeling, Rosanna W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Accessibility of syphilis testing services is critical in syphilis control programs for female sex workers (FSWs), but few FSWs attend public STI clinics or other testing sites. Introduction of free rapid syphilis testing (RST) into outreach programs for FSWs will help improve test uptake. Methods Commercial sex venues were identified in two cities in South China. In cooperation with health advocacy organizations, health outreach teams from local public health or medical facilities approached all types of sex venues in study areas to offer free RST. Acceptability and uptake of RST among FSWs were evaluated. Results A total of 2812 FSWs were offered RST and 2670 (95.0%) accepted syphilis testing. 182 (6.8%) FSWs had a positive RST result among whom 136 (74.7%) were willing to attend an STD clinic for confirmatory testing and treatment. More than half (89, 66.4%) of those with syphilis were not willing to notify their sex partners. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that syphilis test uptake was associated with residing in Jiangmen (AOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.15–2.77), older age (AOR, 2.11, 95% CI, 1.17–3.79 for age of 31 years or above), and not working at a service venue (AOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.10–2.34). Conclusions RST at sex venues is well accepted by FSWs when it is integrated into ongoing outreach services. Such programs provide excellent opportunities for expanding syphilis screening efforts among specific subgroups of FSW who are difficult to reach through clinic-based programs. PMID:23300709

  16. Collaborating for consensus: Considerations for convening Coalition stakeholders to promote a gender-based approach to addressing the health needs of sex workers.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Basha; Champney, Joanna; Steber, Sara-Ann; Zubritsky, Cynthia

    2015-08-01

    Women involved in sex work experience myriad challenges, such as poverty, illiteracy, low social status and gender inequity, as they struggle to access healthcare. These challenges place them at high risk for poor health outcomes. The purpose of this article is to describe the formation of a strong cross-system Coalition representing both the criminal justice and healthcare systems to address the health needs of sex workers in Delaware. The Delaware Coalition for Health and Justice implemented a Coalition-building strategy to design interventions and streamline systems to promote health and reduce criminal justice contact for sex workers. The sequential intercept model was utilized to organize Coalition membership and build consensus among varied stakeholders. The model assisted the Coalition in understanding differing primary objectives for key system programs, recognizing the limitations and barriers of each stakeholder group, sharing findings and discovering opportunities for partnership, and engaging stakeholders in designing and providing a comprehensive "systems" approach. This work suggests that aligning the criminal justice, healthcare, and community social services in a systemic process to build consensus can result in the implementation of effective systems change initiatives that address gender disparities and promote the health of justice-involved women. PMID:25559949

  17. Testing Commercial Sex Workers for Sexually Transmitted Infections in Victoria, Australia: An Evaluation of the Impact of Reducing the Frequency of Testing

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Eric P. F.; Fehler, Glenda; Chen, Marcus Y.; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Denham, Ian; Law, Matthew G.; Fairley, Christopher K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The frequency of testing sex workers for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Victoria, Australia, was changed from monthly to quarterly on 6 October 2012. Our aim was to determine the impact of this change to the clients seen at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MHSC). Methods Computerised medical records of all clients attending at MHSC from 7 October 2011 to 7 October 2013 were analysed. Results Comparing between the monthly and quarterly testing periods, the number of consultations at MSHC with female sex workers (FSW) halved from 6146 to 3453 (p<0.001) and the consultation time spent on FSW reduced by 40.6% (1942 h to 1153 h). More heterosexual men (p<0.001), and women (p<0.001) were seen in the quarterly testing period. The number of STIs diagnosed in the clinic increased from 2243 to 2589 from the monthly to quarterly period, respectively [15.4% increase (p<0.001)]. Up to AU$247,000 was saved on FSW testing after the shift to quarterly testing. Conclusions The change to STIs screening frequency for sex workers from monthly to quarterly resulted in a 15% increase in STI diagnoses in the clinic and approximate a quarter of a million dollars was diverted from FSW testing to other clients. Overall the change in frequency is likely to have had a beneficial effect on STI control in Victoria. PMID:25048817

  18. Prevalence and correlates of non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners among HIV-infected female sex workers and HIV-infected male clients of female sex workers in India.

    PubMed

    Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Cheng, Debbie M; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Battala, Madhusudana; Silverman, Jay G; Pardeshi, Manoj H; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2013-01-01

    This study examines non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners among HIV-infected adults involved with transactional sex in Mumbai, India. Surveys were conducted with HIV-infected female sex workers (n = 211) and infected male clients (n = 205) regarding HIV knowledge, awareness of sex partners' HIV serostatus, alcohol use, transactional sex involvement post-HIV diagnosis and non-disclosure of HIV serostatus. Gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models were used for analysis. Non-disclosure of one's serostatus to all sex partners was reported by almost three-fifths of females and two-fifths of males. Predictors of non-disclosure included lack of correct knowledge about HIV and no knowledge of sex partners' HIV serostatus. Among females, recent alcohol consumption also predicted non-disclosure. Among males, 10 + paid sexual partners in the year following HIV diagnosis predicted non-disclosure. Secondary HIV prevention efforts in India require greater focus on HIV disclosure communication and integrated alcohol and sexual risk reduction. PMID:22810892

  19. Safer sex negotiation and its association with condom use among clients of female sex workers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Salikon, Roslan Hj

    2015-03-01

    This study examines safer sex negotiation and its association with condom use among clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 484 FSWs living in Dhaka city following a convenient sampling procedure. Overall, 47% of the clients were suggested to use condom during last sexual intercourse and 21% did so. Both bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses yielded significantly increased risk of negotiation for safer sex with clients among FSWs with higher education. The power bargaining significantly (P < .001) increased the risk of condom use by 2.15 times (95% confidence interval = 1.28-3.59). The odds of condom use were significantly higher among the FSWs with higher education, unmarried, hotel-based, and among those with higher level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. The Bangladeshi FSWs have little control over their profession. HIV prevention programs should aim to encourage FSWs through information, education, and communication program to insist on condom use among clients. PMID:24345848

  20. Varicose Veins in Women Cotton Workers. An Epidemiological Study in England and Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siza Mekky; R. S. F. Schilling; Joan Walford

    1969-01-01

    The prevalence of varicose veins was studied in 504 women cotton workers in England and 467 in Egypt, by a standardized questionary and a specially developed method of examination. The English mill population showed a much higher prevalence of varicose veins than the Egyptian, probably owing to environmental rather than ethnic reasons.Among the European women the prevalence of varicose veins

  1. Retention in HIV care among female sex workers in the Dominican Republic: implications for research, policy and programming.

    PubMed

    Zulliger, Rose; Maulsby, Cathy; Barrington, Clare; Holtgrave, David; Donastorg, Yeycy; Perez, Martha; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2015-04-01

    There are clear benefits of retention in HIV care, yet millions of people living with HIV are sub-optimally retained. This study described factors from Andersen's behavioral model that were associated with retention in HIV care among 268 female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV in the Dominican Republic using two measures of retention: a 6-month measure of HIV clinic attendance and a measure that combined clinic attendance and missed visits. FSWs who ever attended HIV care reported high rates (92 %) of 6-month attendance, but 37 % reported missed visits. Using the combined retention measure, the odds of being retained in HIV care were higher among FSWs with more positive perceptions of HIV service providers [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.17; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 01.09, 1.25] and lower among women who reported recent alcohol consumption (AOR 0.50; 95 % CI 0.28, 0.92) and self-stigmatizing beliefs related to sex work (AOR 0.93; 95 % CI 0.88, 0.98). These findings support the hypothesis that retention in HIV care may be best determined through a combined measure as missed visits are an important mechanism to identify in-care patients who require additional support. PMID:25566761

  2. Assessment of the Utilization of HIV Interventions by Sex Workers in Selected Brothels in Bangladesh: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huq, Nafisa Lira; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi

    2012-01-01

    In this qualitative study of brothel-based Female Sex Workers (FSWs), the authors explored factors that influence safe sex practices of FSWs within an integrated HIV intervention. Qualitative methods, including focus group discussions (FGDs), in-depth interviews and key informant interviews were applied in four brothels in Bangladesh. Young and…

  3. Sex-role orientation, marital status and mental health in working women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mori; Y. Nakashima; Y. Yamazaki; H. Kurita

    2002-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a The objectives of this study were to make a men-women comparison as to the effects of job stress and sex-role orientation\\u000a on mental health and to determine if marital status modifies effects of job stress and sex-role orientation on mental health\\u000a in women. Subjects were 644 men and 301 women who were working at two private companies and one

  4. Type of Work Matters: Women's Labor Force Participation and the Child Sex Ratio in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GÜnseli Berik; Cihan Bilginsoy

    2000-01-01

    Province-level census data for 1985 and 1990 from Turkey are used to examine the effect of the economic value of women on the 0–9 cohort population sex ratio. The sex ratio is interpreted as an indicator of the relative life chances of girls, reflecting their relative neglect in the household. We test two hypotheses: women’s labor force participation lowers the

  5. Winners and losers in health insurance: access and type of coverage for women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships.

    PubMed

    Pals, Heili; Waren, Warren

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the American Community Survey, 2009 (N=580,754), we compared rates of health insurance coverage and types of coverage used between women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships. This large, national dataset also allowed us to investigate regional variation in insurance coverage for women in same-sex partnerships by comparing "gay-tolerant" states versus other states. Multivariate analyses revealed that women in same-sex partnerships consistently had lower rates of health insurance coverage than married women in opposite-sex partnerships, but always more than unmarried women in opposite-sex partnerships. We also found that state-level variation in gay tolerance did not contribute to the access or type of coverage used by women in same-sex partnerships. PMID:24400654

  6. Intimate relationships of Devadasi sex workers in South India: An exploration of risks of HIV/STI transmission.

    PubMed

    Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thompson, Laura H; du Plessis, Elsabé; Pelto, Pertti; Annigeri, Vinod; Doddamane, Mahesh; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Shaw, Souradet Y; Deering, Kathleen; Khan, Shamshad; Halli, Shiva S; Lorway, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Global literature on female sex workers suggests that being in an intimate relationship is associated with barriers to practising safe sex behaviours. Condom use within intimate relationships is often seen as a sign of infidelity and fosters mistrust which could affect longevity, trust and intimacy within partnerships. Using qualitative data from Devadasi sex workers and their intimate male partners in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India, we examined both partners' perspectives to understand the quality and dynamics of these relationships and the factors that influence condom use in intimate relationships. Our thematic analysis of individual interviews conducted in May 2011 with 20 couples suggests that many Devadasi sex workers and their intimate partners define their relationships as 'like marriage' which reduced their motivation to use condoms. Evidence from this study suggests that active participation in sex workers' collectives (sanghas) can increase condom use, education and family planning services, among other things, and could be helpful for both Devadasis and their intimate partners to better understand and accept safer sexual practices. Our work has direct implications for designing couple-based health interventions for traditional Devadasi sex workers and their intimate partners in India. PMID:25162730

  7. Lifestyle and the Depoliticisation of Agency: Sex as Power in Women's Magazines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Machin; Joanna Thornborrow

    2006-01-01

    Sex, due to its connotations of dangerousness and the non-traditional, has been used heavily in women's magazines and other mass media to signify core values of power and freedom as part of their brands. Through this process, other forms of agency for women have tended to be excluded. In these magazines women are shown to be assertive, powerful and independent,

  8. The syndemic condition of psychosocial problems and HIV risk among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Biello, Katie B; Colby, Donn; Closson, Elizabeth; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    In Vietnam, the co-occurrence (i.e., "syndemic") of psychosocial factors (e.g., depression and substance use) may disproportionately burden male sex workers and increase their HIV risk. A comprehensive survey was conducted among 300 male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in 2010. We performed logistic regression to examine the association between the syndemic variable-a count score of the number of five psychosocial conditions endorsed-and unprotected anal sex (UAS) in the past. One-third of participants reported any UAS, and 42 % reported ?2 psychosocial health problems. In multivariable models, experiencing ?4 psychosocial health problems was significantly associated with UAS. Every unit increase in number of psychosocial health problems was associated with a 25-30 % increase in odds of UAS. Understanding the syndemic condition and its association with HIV risk among male sex workers in Vietnam may lead to the development of more effective, comprehensive interventions. PMID:24081899

  9. The Syndemic Condition of Psychosocial Problems and HIV Risk Among Male Sex Workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Biello, Katie; Colby, Donn; Closson, Elizabeth; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    In Vietnam, the co-occurrence (i.e., “syndemic”) of psychosocial factors (e.g., depression and substance use) may disproportionately burden male sex workers and increase their HIV risk. A comprehensive survey was conducted among 300 male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in 2010. We performed logistic regression to examine the association between the syndemic variable – a count score of the number of 5 psychosocial conditions endorsed – and unprotected anal sex (UAS) in the past. One-third of participants reported any UAS, and 42% reported ? 2 psychosocial health problems. In multivariable models, experiencing ? 4 psychosocial health problems was significantly associated with UAS. Every unit increase in number of psychosocial health problems was associated with a 25%–30% increase in odds of UAS. Understanding the syndemic condition and its association with HIV risk among male sex workers in Vietnam may lead to the development of more effective, comprehensive interventions. PMID:24081899

  10. A cross-sectional evaluation of the prevalence and associations of HIV among female sex workers in the Gambia.

    PubMed

    Peitzmeier, Sarah; Mason, Krystal; Ceesay, Nuha; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou; Loum, Jaegan; Baral, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    To determine HIV prevalence among female sex workers in the Gambia and HIV risk factors, we accrued participants (n = 251) through peer-referral and venue-based recruitment. Blood samples were screened for HIV and participants were administered a questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression identified factors associated with HIV status. Forty respondents (15.9%) were HIV-positive: 20 (8.0%) were infected with HIV-1 only, 10 (4.0%) with HIV-2 only, and 10 (4.0%) with both HIV-1 and HIV-2; 12.5% (n = 5/40) knew their status. Condom usage at last sex was 97.1% (n = 170/175) with new clients and 44.2% (n = 53/120) with non-paying partners. Having a non-paying partner, living with relatives or friends, having felt scared to walk in public, selling sex in multiple locations, and recent depressive symptoms were positively associated with HIV under multivariate regression. Female sex workers have a higher prevalence of HIV compared to the general Gambian population. Interventions should be rights-based, promote safer sex practices and regular testing for female sex workers and linkage to HIV treatment and care with adherence support for those living with HIV. In addition, service providers should consider non-paying partners of female sex workers, improve knowledge and availability of condoms and lubricant, and address safety and mental health needs. PMID:23970652

  11. Complexities of short-term mobility for sex work and migration among sex workers: violence and sexual risks, barriers to care, and enhanced social and economic opportunities.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Chettiar, Jill; Nguyen, Paul; Dobrer, Sabina; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate

    2014-08-01

    Despite research on the health and safety of mobile and migrant populations in the formal and informal sectors globally, limited information is available regarding the working conditions, health, and safety of sex workers who engage in short-term mobility and migration. The objective of this study was to longitudinally examine work environment, health, and safety experiences linked to short-term mobility/migration (i.e., worked or lived in another city, province, or country) among sex workers in Vancouver, Canada, over a 2.5-year study period (2010-2012). We examined longitudinal correlates of short-term mobility/migration (i.e., worked or lived in another city, province, or country over the 3-year follow-up period) among 646 street and off-street sex workers in a longitudinal community-based study (AESHA). Of 646 sex workers, 10.84 % (n?=?70) worked or lived in another city, province, or country during the study. In a multivariate generalized estimating equations (GEE) model, short-term mobility/migration was independently correlated with older age (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.95, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.98), soliciting clients in indoor (in-call) establishments (AOR 2.25, 95 % CI 1.27-3.96), intimate partner condom refusal (AOR 3.00, 1.02-8.84), and barriers to health care (AOR 1.77, 95 % CI 1.08-2.89). In a second multivariate GEE model, short-term mobility for sex work (i.e., worked in another city, province, or country) was correlated with client physical/sexual violence (AOR 1.92, 95 % CI 1.02-3.61). In this study, mobile/migrant sex workers were more likely to be younger, work in indoor sex work establishments, and earn higher income, suggesting that short-term mobility for sex work and migration increase social and economic opportunities. However, mobility and migration also correlated with reduced control over sexual negotiation with intimate partners and reduced health care access, and mobility for sex work was associated with enhanced workplace sexual/physical violence, suggesting that mobility/migration may confer risks through less control over work environment and isolation from health services. Structural and community-led interventions, including policy support to allow for more formal organizing of sex work collectives and access to workplace safety standards, remain critical to supporting health, safety, and access to care for mobile and migrant sex workers. PMID:25055750

  12. Exploring HIV Prevention Strategies among Street-Based Female Sex Workers in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Huan; Zhao, Yong; Meng, Siying; Tang, Xiaojun; Guo, Hang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Commercial sex plays an increasingly important role in China’s growing HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics. In China, street-based sex workers (SSWs) are a subgroup of female sex workers with a particularly high risk of HIV/STI infections but are neglected in responses to HIV. This study assesses changes in HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) utilization and high-risk sexual behaviors following a three-month HIV preventive intervention among SSWs in Chongqing, China. Methods: A three-month intervention was conducted by a team of peer educators, outreach workers from community-based organizations and health professionals. It mainly included distribution of free pamphlets and condoms and delivery of onsite and clinic-based VCT. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted prior to (n = 100) and immediately following (n = 112) the intervention to assess its impact. In-depth interviews were conducted among 12 SSWs after the intervention to further explore potential barriers to HIV prevention. Results: The intervention significantly increased SSWs’ participation in VCT (from 2.0%–15.2%, P < 0.001). Despite participants’ improved HIV-related knowledge level (from 24.0%–73.2%, P < 0.001), there were minimal changes in the levels of condom use with clients. Qualitative research revealed that fear of police arrest and stigma were the main barriers to VCT utilization. Low condom use was associated with family financial constraints, inadequate power in condom negotiation, low awareness and misconceptions of HIV infection risks. Conclusion: HIV intervention improved VCT utilization and knowledge but we did not observe an increase in condom use after this short intervention. SSWs faced substantial economic, social and environmental barriers to VCT utilization and condom use. PMID:25602971

  13. Barriers to free antiretroviral treatment access for female sex workers in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Kurian, Abraham K; Dubrow, Robert

    2009-11-01

    India's National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) provides free first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) at government centers for people living with HIV. To assist in developing policies and programs to ensure equity in ART access, we explored barriers to ART access among female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV in Chennai. Between August and November 2007, we conducted three focus group discussions and two key informant interviews. Data were explored using framework analysis to identify categories and derive themes. We found interrelated barriers at the family/social, health care system/programmatic, and individual levels. Major barriers included fear of adverse consequences of disclosure of HIV status due to stigma and discrimination associated with HIV and sex work, lack of family support, negative experiences with health care providers, lack of adequate counseling services at government centers and by outreach workers employed by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), perceived biased treatment of FSWs who are not referred by NGOs, lack of adequate knowledge about ART, and fatalism. Barriers can be addressed by: creating effective measures to reduce stigma associated with HIV/AIDS and sex work at the familial, societal, and health care system levels; incorporating information about ART into targeted interventions among FSWs; training counselors at government hospitals and NGO outreach workers on treatment issues; improving infrastructure and staffing levels at government centers to allow adequate time and privacy for counseling; and implementing government mass media campaigns on ART availability. Finally, it is crucial that NACO begin monitoring ART coverage of FSWs and other marginalized populations to ensure equitable ART access. PMID:19821725

  14. The Influence of a Psychology of Women Course on Sex-Role Concept, Assertiveness, and Attitudes towards Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Agnes N.

    Recent research on the effects of women's studies courses has indicated that there are two general approaches to teaching: a concern for competence or mastery and a concern for personal change and advocacy. It was hypothesized that students taking a psychology of women course would become more androgynous and masculine in sex-role concept, more…

  15. Endogenous Sex Hormones, Metabolic Syndrome, and Diabetes in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Catherine; Halter, Jeffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous sex hormones predict impairments of glucose regulation. Cross-sectional studies suggest that lower levels of testosterone in men and higher levels in women increase risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, while lower levels of sex hormone binding globulin in both men and women increase risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In a systematic review, we summarize existing longitudinal studies, which suggest similar patterns. However, these studies are often limited to a single sex steroid measure. Whether these associations are primarily a marker of adiposity, and whether these associations differ between younger eugonadal vs. older hypogonadal adults is also uncertain. The impact of exogenous sex steroid therapy may not reflect relationships between sex hormones and impaired glucose regulation that occur without supplementation. Therefore, examination of endogenous sex steroid trajectories and obesity trajectories within individuals might aid our understanding of how sex steroids contribute to glucose regulation. PMID:24585109

  16. HIV Risk Perception and Behavior among Sex Workers in Three Major Urban Centers of Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Langa, Judite; Sousa, César; Sidat, Mohsin; Kroeger, Karen; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Belani, Hrishikesh; Patel, Shama; Shodell, Daniel; Shodell, Michael; Benech, Irene; Needle, Richard

    2014-01-01

    HIV risk perceptions and behaviors of 236 commercial sex workers from three major Mozambican urban centers were studied using the International Rapid Assessment, Response and Evaluation (I-RARE) methodology. All were offered HIV testing and, in Maputo, syphilis testing was offered as well. Sixty-three of the 236 opted for HIV testing, with 30 (48%) testing positive for HIV. In Maputo, all 30 receiving HIV tests also had syphilis testing, with 6 (20%) found to be positive. Results include interview excerpts and qualitative results using I-RARE methodology and AnSWR-assisted analyses of the interviews and focus group sessions. PMID:24736653

  17. HIV risk perception and behavior among sex workers in three major urban centers of Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Langa, Judite; Sousa, César; Sidat, Mohsin; Kroeger, Karen; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Belani, Hrishikesh; Patel, Shama; Shodell, Daniel; Shodell, Michael; Benech, Irene; Needle, Richard

    2014-01-01

    HIV risk perceptions and behaviors of 236 commercial sex workers from three major Mozambican urban centers were studied using the International Rapid Assessment, Response and Evaluation (I-RARE) methodology. All were offered HIV testing and, in Maputo, syphilis testing was offered as well. Sixty-three of the 236 opted for HIV testing, with 30 (48%) testing positive for HIV. In Maputo, all 30 receiving HIV tests also had syphilis testing, with 6 (20%) found to be positive. Results include interview excerpts and qualitative results using I-RARE methodology and AnSWR-assisted analyses of the interviews and focus group sessions. PMID:24736653

  18. Violence Against Chinese Female Sex Workers From Their Stable Partners: A Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Su, Shaobing; Hong, Yan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu; Shen, Zhiyong

    2015-07-01

    Limited data are available regarding risk factors that are related to intimate partner violence (IPV) against female sex workers (FSWs) in the context of stable partnerships. Out of the 1,022 FSWs, 743 reported ever having a stable partnership and 430 (more than half) of those reported experiencing IPV. Hierarchical multivariate regression revealed that some characteristics of stable partners (e.g., low education, alcohol use) and relationship stressors (e.g., frequent friction, concurrent partnerships) were independently predictive of IPV against FSWs. Public health professionals who design future violence prevention interventions targeting FSWs need to consider the influence of their stable partners. PMID:24730642

  19. Sexual Desire, Communication, Satisfaction, and Preferences of Men and Women in Same-Sex Versus Mixed-Sex Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Holmberg; Karen L. Blair

    2009-01-01

    In an online study, measures of subjective sexual experiences in one's current relationship were compared across four groups: Men and women in mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual) and same-sex (i.e., homosexual) relationships. Results indicated far more similarities than differences across the four groups, with groups reporting almost identical sexual repertoires, and levels of sexual communcation with partner. Men reported experiencing somewhat more

  20. Women's Sexual Satisfaction as a Predictor of Well-Being in Same-Sex Versus Mixed-Sex Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Holmberg; Karen L. Blair; Maggie Phillips

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation modelling was used to assess the strengths of the links between sexual satisfaction and self-reported (a) relationship well-being, (b) mental health, and (c) physical health for women in same-sex (i.e., homosexual, n = 114) versus mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual, n = 208) relationships. Participants came from a large-scale Internet study. Sexual satisfaction was found to be an extremely strong predictor of relational well-being,

  1. Risks, benefits and survival strategies-views from female sex workers in Savannakhet, Laos

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Savannakhet province in Laos. Methods Five focus group discussions (FGDs) and seven interviews were conducted with FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Laos. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed text. Results The results revealed that the FSWs were aware of risks but they also talked about benefits related to their work. The risks were grouped into six categories: STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, stigma, violence, being cheated, and social and economic insecurity. The reported benefits were financial security, fulfilling social obligations, and sexual pleasure. The FSWs reported using a number of strategies to reduce risks and increase benefits. Conclusions The desire to be self-sufficient and earn as much money as possible put the FSWs in disadvantaged and vulnerable situations. Fear of financial insecurity, obligations to support one’s family and the need to secure the future influenced FSWs’ decisions to have safe or unsafe sex. The FSWs were, however, not only victims. They also had some control over their lives and working environment, with most viewing their work as an easy and good way of earning money. PMID:23164407

  2. Epidemic Impacts of a Community Empowerment Intervention for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Generalized and Concentrated Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Andrea L.; Pretorius, Carel; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan; Decker, Michele R.; Sherman, Susan G.; Sweat, Michael; Poteat, Tonia; Butler, Jennifer; Oelrichs, Robert; Semini, Iris; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sex workers have endured a high burden of HIV infection in and across HIV epidemics. A comprehensive, community empowerment-based HIV prevention intervention emphasizes sex worker organization and mobilization to address HIV risk and often includes community-led peer education, condom distribution, and other activities. Meta-analysis of such interventions suggests a potential 51% reduction in inconsistent condom use. Mathematical modeling exercises provide theoretical insight into potential impacts of the intervention on HIV incidence and burden in settings where interventions have not yet been implemented. Methods We used a deterministic model, Goals, to project the impact on HIV infections when the community empowerment interventions were scaled up among female sex workers in Kenya, Thailand, Brazil, and Ukraine. Modeling scenarios included expansion of the comprehensive community empowerment-based HIV prevention intervention from baseline coverage over a 5-year period (5–65% in Kenya and Ukraine; 10–70% in Thailand and Brazil), while other interventions were held at baseline levels. A second exercise increased the intervention coverage simultaneously with equitable access to ART for sex workers. Impacts on HIV outcomes among sex workers and adults are observed from 2012–2016 and, compared to status quo when all interventions are held constant. Results Optimistic but feasible coverage (65%–70%) of the intervention demonstrated a range of impacts on HIV: 220 infections averted over 5 yrs. among sex workers in Thailand, 1,830 in Brazil, 2,220 in Ukraine, and 10,800 infections in Kenya. Impacts of the intervention for female sex workers extend to the adult population, cumulatively averting 730 infections in Thailand to 20,700 adult infections in Kenya. Impacts vary by country, influenced by HIV prevalence in risk groups, risk behaviors, intervention use, and population size. Discussion A community empowerment approach to HIV prevention and access to universal ART for female sex workers is a promising human rights-based solution to overcoming the persistent burden of HIV among female sex workers across epidemic settings. PMID:24516580

  3. Modeling the HIV/AIDS epidemic among injecting drug users and sex workers in Kunming, China.

    PubMed

    Bacaër, Nicolas; Abdurahman, Xamxinur; Ye, Jianli

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Kunming, the provincial capital of Yunnan, China. The population is divided into several groups, with individuals possibly changing group. Two transmission routes of HIV are considered: needle sharing between injecting drug users (IDUs) and commercial sex between female sex worker (FSWs) and clients. The model includes male IDUs who are also clients and female IDUs who are also FSWs. Groups are split in two--risky and safe--according to condom use and needle sharing. A system of partial differential equations is derived to describe the spread of the disease. For the simulation, parameters are chosen to fit as much as possible data publicly available for Kunming. Some mathematical properties of the model--in particular the epidemic threshold R0 which determines the goal of public health interventions--are also presented. Though the model couples two transmission routes of HIV, the approximation R0 approximately = max[R0(IDU), R0(sex)], with closed formulas for R0(IDU) and R0(sex), appears to be quite good. The critical levels of condom use and clean needle use necessary to stop both the sexual transmission and the transmission among IDUs can therefore be determined independently. PMID:16794944

  4. HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Colby, Donn; Witt, Samantha; Pishori, Alefiyah; Le, Mai Nhung; Vinh, Dang Thi Nhat; Giang, Le Truong

    2008-10-01

    This study quantitatively and qualitatively described HIV risk behaviors among Vietnamese female sex workers (FSWs) who work at three distinct venues in Ho Chi Minh City: street, massage parlors, and bars/clubs. Although 35% of the participants had never been tested for HIV, 18% of street and 7% of bar/club FSWs reported being positive. Almost all massage parlor FSWs had never used a condom for oral sex. Inconsistent condom use for vaginal sex with customers was more prevalent among bar/club FSWs (85%) than massage parlor (72%) and street FSWs (68%). Many participants reported difficulties in negotiating condom use with customers because of economic pressure, maintaining relationships, and lack of bargaining power. Bar/club FSWs revealed a difficult situation where drinking is part of their work. Thirty percent of street FSWs had injected drugs and reported addiction to heroin in relation to their helpless condition as FSWs. Street FSWs had the lowest levels of self-esteem and norms toward practicing safe sex and the highest levels of economic pressure. This study recommends future HIV prevention programs for FSWs in Vietnam that target their specific risk behaviors and work environments. PMID:18956984

  5. Venue-Mediated Weak Ties in Multiplex HIV Transmission Risk Networks Among Drug-Using Male Sex Workers and Associates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Ross, Michael W.; Williams, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the structural characteristics of a multiplex HIV transmission risk network of drug-using male sex workers and their associates. Methods. Using a sample of 387 drug-using male sex workers and their male and female associates in Houston, Texas, we estimated an exponential random graph model to examine the venue-mediated relationships between individuals, the structural characteristics of relationships not linked to social venues, and homophily. We collected data in 2003 to 2004. The network comprised social, sexual, and drug-using relationships and affiliations with social venues. Results. Individuals affiliated with the same social venues, bars, or street intersections were more likely to have nonreciprocated (weak) ties with others. Sex workers were less likely than were other associates to have reciprocated (strong) ties to other sex workers with the same venues. Individuals tended to have reciprocated ties not linked to venues. Partner choice tended to be predicated on homophily. Conclusions. Social venues may provide a milieu for forming weak ties in HIV transmission risk networks centered on male sex workers, which may foster the efficient diffusion of prevention messages as diverse information is obtained and information redundancy is avoided. PMID:25880956

  6. Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers in Barcelona: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine in detail the risk perception of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, and the contextual circumstances, in Nigerian commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Barcelona. Design A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Setting Raval area in Barcelona. Participants 8 CSWs working in Barcelona. Methods A phenomenological study was carried out with Nigerian CSWs in Barcelona. Sampling was theoretical, taking into account: different age ranges; women with and without a partner; women with and without children; and women participating or not in STI/HIV-prevention workshops. Information was obtained by means of eight semistructured individual interviews. An interpretative content analysis was conducted by four analysts. Results Illegal immigrant status, educational level, financial situation and work, and cultural context had mixed effects on CSW knowledge of, exposure to, and prevention and treatment of STI and HIV. CSWs were aware of the higher risk of STI associated with their occupation. They identified condoms as the best preventive method and used them during intercourse with clients. They also implemented other preventive behaviours such as personal hygiene after intercourse. Control of sexual services provided, health education and healthcare services had a positive effect on decreasing exposure and better management of STI/HIV. Conclusions Nigerian CSWs are a vulnerable group because of their poor socioeconomic status. The perception of risk in this group and their preventive behaviours are based on personal determinants, beliefs and experiences from their home country and influences from the host country. Interventions aimed at CSWs must address knowledge gaps, risk behaviours and structural elements. PMID:26078307

  7. Sex Differences in Beliefs Regarding Women's Employment in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Traditional Japanese values discourage women from working outside the home. This research describes and compares Japanese men's and women's beliefs regarding employment of women. Questionnaires were distributed to approximately 900 Japanese men and women, and t-tests were used to test for differences between the men's and women's groups. Results…

  8. Hey girlfriend: an evaluation of AIDS prevention among women in the sex industry.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, L E; Derish, P A; Cohen, J B

    1992-01-01

    Increasingly, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention programs have been developed to reach and influence street-based populations. Standard methods of evaluation do not fit the conditions of such programs. This article describes a process and outcome evaluation of an AIDS prevention program for sex workers in which qualitative and quantitative methods were combined in order to mediate research problems endemic to street-based populations. Methods included epidemiological questionnaires, open-ended interviews with participants, and ethnographic field notes. Process evaluation findings show that field staff who were indigenous to the neighborhood and population readily gained access to the community of sex workers and simultaneously became role models for positive behavior change. Outcome findings show that sex workers do feel at risk for AIDS, but usually from clients rather than from husbands or boyfriends. Accordingly, they use condoms more frequently with clients than with steady partners. Increasing condom use among sex workers with their steady partners remains an important challenge for AIDS prevention. Combining qualitative and quantitative research data provided a more comprehensive assessment of how to reach sex workers with effective AIDS risk reduction messages than either method could have provided alone. PMID:1568872

  9. Environmental–Structural Interventions to Reduce HIV/STI Risk Among Female Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Moreno, Luis; Rosario, Santo; Gomez, Bayardo; Jerez, Hector; Barrington, Clare; Weiss, Ellen; Sweat, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of 2 environmental–structural interventions in reducing risks of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers in the Dominican Republic. Methods. Two intervention models were implemented over a 1-year period: community solidarity in Santo Domingo and solidarity combined with government policy in Puerto Plata. Both were evaluated via preintervention–postintervention cross-sectional behavioral surveys, STI testing and participant observations, and serial cross-sectional STI screenings. Results. Significant increases in condom use with new clients (75.3%–93.8%; odds ratio [OR]=4.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.55, 11.43) were documented in Santo Domingo. In Puerto Plata, significant increases in condom use with regular partners (13.0%–28.8%; OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.33, 6.66) and reductions in STI prevalence (28.8%–16.3%; OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.78) were documented, as were significant increases in sex workers’ verbal rejections of unsafe sex (50.0%–79.4%; OR=3.86; 95% CI=1.96, 7.58) and participating sex establishments’ ability to achieve the goal of no STIs in routine monthly screenings of sex workers (OR=1.17; 95% CI=1.12, 1.22). Conclusions. Interventions that combine community solidarity and government policy show positive initial effects on HIV and STI risk reduction among female sex workers. PMID:16317215

  10. Sexually transmitted infections and risk behaviours in women who have sex with women

    PubMed Central

    Fethers, K.; Marks, C.; Mindel, A.; Estcourt, C.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and blood borne viruses, risk behaviours, and demographics in women who have sex with women (WSW). Methods: Retrospective cross sectional study using a multivariate model. Demographic, behavioural, and morbidity data were analysed from standardised medical records of patients attending a public STI and HIV service in Sydney between March 1991 and December 1998. All women with any history of sex with a woman were compared with women who denied ever having sex with another woman (controls). Results: 1408 WSW and 1423 controls were included in the study. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was significantly more common among WSW (OR 1.7, p<0.001). Abnormalities on cervical cytology were equally prevalent in both groups, except for the higher cytological BV detection rate in WSW (OR 5.3, p=0.003). Genital herpes and genital warts were common in both groups, although warts were significantly less common in WSW (OR 0.7, p=0.001). Prevalence of gonorrhoea and chlamydia were low and there were no differences between the groups. The prevalence of hepatitis C was significantly greater in WSW (OR 7.7, p<0.001), consistent with the more frequent history of injecting drug use in this group (OR 8.0, p<0.001). WSW were more likely to report previous sexual contact with a homo/bisexual man (OR 3.4, p<0.001), or with an injecting drug user (OR 4.2, p<0.001). Only 7% of the WSW reported never having had sexual contact with a male. Conclusion: We demonstrated a higher prevalence of BV, hepatitis C, and HIV risk behaviours in WSW compared with controls. A similar prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities was found in both groups. Measures are required to improve our understanding of STI/HIV transmission dynamics in WSW, to facilitate better health service provision and targeted education initiatives. Key Words: sexually transmitted infections; lesbians; HIV PMID:11141849

  11. Condom negotiation across different relationship types by young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Kien, Serey Phal; Stein, Ellen; Bates, Anna Juong; Sansothy, Neth; Page, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded. PMID:23432108

  12. A Comparison of Relationship Satisfaction, Social Support, and Stress Between Women with First and Prior Same-Sex Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa Reeves; Sharon G. Horne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Internet-based study was to determine differences between women in their first same-sex relationships and women who have had same-sex relationships prior to their current relationship. Participants included 754 women within the United States and Canada who were at least 18 years of age and were in an ongoing same-sex relationship of at least six months. Women

  13. HIV Risk Behaviours Differ by Workplace Stability Among Mexican Female Sex Workers With Truck Driver Clientele

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nadine E.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Rangel, Gudelia; Patterson, Thomas L.; Uribe-Salas, Felipe J.; Rosen, Perth; Villalobos, Jorge; Brouwer, Kimberly C.

    2012-01-01

    Background In a study of female sex workers (FSWs) servicing truck driver clients in Mexican border cities, we evaluated differences in HIV/STI risk behaviours determined by workplace. Design and Methods Our study was cross-sectional and its population comprised 100 FSWs from Nuevo Laredo (US border) and 100 FSWs from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border). The main outcome was primary place of sex work defined as unstable (street, vehicle, gas station, etc.) vs stable (bar, brothel, and hotel). Logistic regression was used to identify correlates associated with trading sex at unstable workplaces in the last month. Results Of the FSWs surveyed, 18% reported an unstable workplace. The majority of FSWs surveyed were young (<30 years), single, had <9th grade education, and had worked in the sex trade for a median of 4.9 years. After controlling for study site, FSWs with unstable vs stable workplaces were more likely to have a majority/all truck driver clientele, but were less likely to have visited a gynaecologist in the last year (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.03-0.4) or ever had an HIV test (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.06-0.3), and there was a trend towards lower condom use self-efficacy scores (OR 0.8 per unit increase, 95% CI 0.7-1.0). On multivariate regression, unstable workplace was associated with having majority/all truck driver clientele, being surveyed in Nuevo Laredo, and decreased odds of ever having an HIV test. Conclusions Among Mexican FSWs with truck driver clients, providing safe indoor spaces for sex work may help facilitate public health interventions that improve HIV/STI prevention and reproductive health outcomes. PMID:24724056

  14. Association of HIV infection with distribution and viral load of HPV types in Kenya: a survey with 820 female sex workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV are each responsible for a considerable burden of disease. Interactions between these infections pose substantial public health challenges, especially where HIV prevalence is high and HPV vaccine coverage low. Methods Between July 2005 and January 2006, a cross-sectional community-based survey in Mombasa, Kenya, enrolled female sex workers using snowball sampling. After interview and a gynaecological examination, blood and cervical cytology samples were taken. Quantitative real-time PCR detected HPV types and viral load measures. Prevalence of high-risk HPV was compared between HIV-infected and -uninfected women, and in women with abnormal cervical cytology, measured using conventional Pap smears. Results Median age of the 820 participants was 28 years (inter-quartile range [IQR] = 24-36 years). One third of women were HIV infected (283/803; 35.2%) and these women were y more likely to have abnormal cervical cytology than HIV-negative women (27%, 73/269, versus 8%, 42/503; P < 0.001). Of HIV-infected women, 73.3% had high-risk HPV (200/273) and 35.5% had HPV 16 and/or 18 (97/273). Corresponding figures for HIV-negative women were 45.5% (229/503) and 15.7% (79/503). After adjusting for age, number of children and condom use, high-risk HPV was 3.6 fold more common in HIV-infected women (95%CI = 2.6-5.1). Prevalence of all 15 of the high-risk HPV types measured was higher among HIV-infected women, between 1.4 and 5.5 fold. Median total HPV viral load was 881 copies/cell in HIV-infected women (IQR = 33-12,110 copies/cell) and 48 copies/cell in HIV-uninfected women (IQR = 6-756 copies/cell; P < 0.001). HPV 16 and/or HPV 18 were identified in 42.7% of LSIL (32/75) and 42.3% of HSIL (11/26) lesions (P = 0.98). High-risk HPV types other than 16 and 18 were common in LSIL (74.7%; 56/75) and HSIL (84.6%; 22/26); even higher among HIV-infected women. Conclusions HIV-infected sex workers had almost four-fold higher prevalence of high-risk HPV, raised viral load and more precancerous lesions. HPV 16 and HPV 18, preventable with current vaccines, were associated with cervical disease, though other high-risk types were commoner. HIV-infected sex workers likely contribute disproportionately to HPV transmission dynamics in the general population. Current efforts to prevent HIV and HPV are inadequate. New interventions are required and improved implementation of existing strategies. PMID:20102630

  15. Endogenous sex steroids and bone mineral density in healthy Greek postmenopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Lambrinoudaki; George Christodoulakos; Leon Aravantinos; Aristidis Antoniou; Demetrios Rizos; Constantinos Chondros; Apostolos Kountouris; Grigorios Chrysofakis; George Creatsas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association of endogenous sex steroids with bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy\\u000a postmenopausal women not on hormone therapy. A total of 884 postmenopausal women aged 42–71 years were studied in a cross-sectional\\u000a design. Parameters assessed were follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, total testosterone, sex hormone-binding\\u000a globulin, free estrogen index (FEI), free

  16. HIV risk behaviors among young drug using women who have sex with women (WSWs) in New York City.

    PubMed

    Ompad, Danielle C; Friedman, Samuel R; Hwahng, Sel J; Nandi, Vijay; Fuller, Crystal M; Vlahov, David

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that multiple stressors may work in tandem to affect the health of women who have sex with women (WSWs). WSWs have been a part of the HIV epidemic in New York City since the beginning, making it an ideal setting to further explore these women's risk. Among a sample of 375 heroin, crack and/or cocaine using women recruited from economically disadvantaged communities in New York City, we examined HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors among WSWs as compared to women who have sex with men only (WSMOs). We also explore differences between WSWs and WSMOs with respect to potential stressors (i.e., decreased access to resources and health care utilization and violence victimization) that might contribute overall HIV risk. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:21303247

  17. The Effect of Premarital Sex on Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and High Risk Behaviors in Women.

    PubMed

    Ghebremichael, Musie S; Finkelman, Matthew D

    2013-02-01

    This research aimed to study the effect of premarital sex on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and high risk behaviors among women in sub-Saharan Africa. It included 1393 women randomly selected from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participants' demographic and socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use, condom use, number of partners, symptoms of STIs and age at first sex and marriage were obtained. Moreover, blood and urine samples were tested for HIV-1, HSV-2, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas and Mycoplasma genitalium infections. The average duration of premarital sex in the study participants was 1.66 years (SD of 2.61 years). Women with longer duration of premarital sex had higher odds of HIV-1, HSV-2 and other STIs. Moreover, women with longer duration of premarital sex were more likely to report multiple sexual partners. These findings highlight the importance of a lengthy period of premarital sex as a public health issue. STIs prevention programs in sub-Saharan Africa should address factors leading to a longer period of premarital sex in women. PMID:23626920

  18. Global epidemiology of HIV among female sex workers: influence of structural determinants.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Kate; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldenberg, Shira M; Duff, Putu; Mwangi, Peninah; Rusakova, Maia; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lau, Joseph; Deering, Kathleen; Pickles, Michael R; Boily, Marie-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) bear a disproportionately large burden of HIV infection worldwide. Despite decades of research and programme activity, the epidemiology of HIV and the role that structural determinants have in mitigating or potentiating HIV epidemics and access to care for FSWs is poorly understood. We reviewed available published data for HIV prevalence and incidence, condom use, and structural determinants among this group. Only 87 (43%) of 204 unique studies reviewed explicitly examined structural determinants of HIV. Most studies were from Asia, with few from areas with a heavy burden of HIV such as sub-Saharan Africa, Russia, and eastern Europe. To further explore the potential effect of structural determinants on the course of epidemics, we used a deterministic transmission model to simulate potential HIV infections averted through structural changes in regions with concentrated and generalised epidemics, and high HIV prevalence among FSWs. This modelling suggested that elimination of sexual violence alone could avert 17% of HIV infections in Kenya (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1-31) and 20% in Canada (95% UI 3-39) through its immediate and sustained effect on non-condom use) among FSWs and their clients in the next decade. In Kenya, scaling up of access to antiretroviral therapy among FSWs and their clients to meet WHO eligibility of a CD4 cell count of less than 500 cells per ?L could avert 34% (95% UI 25-42) of infections and even modest coverage of sex worker-led outreach could avert 20% (95% UI 8-36) of infections in the next decade. Decriminalisation of sex work would have the greatest effect on the course of HIV epidemics across all settings, averting 33-46% of HIV infections in the next decade. Multipronged structural and community-led interventions are crucial to increase access to prevention and treatment and to promote human rights for FSWs worldwide. PMID:25059947

  19. Too Many Men? Sex Ratios and Women's Partnering Behavior in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Katherine; South, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    The relative numbers of women and men are changing dramatically in China, but the consequences of these imbalanced sex ratios have received little empirical attention. We merge data from the Chinese Health and Family Life Survey with community-level data from Chinese censuses to examine the relationship between cohort- and community-specific sex

  20. The Impact of Sibling Sex Composition on Women's Educational Achievements: A Unique Natural

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    size) created by a son's birth, in studies on sibling rivalry. Keywords: education, son preference, sibling rivalry, sibling spillover, sex selective abortion, within-family allocation of resources 2 #12#12;The Impact of Sibling Sex Composition on Women's Educational Achievements: A Unique Natural

  1. Sex differences in viewing sexual stimuli: An eye-tracking study in men and women

    E-print Network

    , subjective, and physiological arousal. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Sexual stimuli stimuli may reflect sex differences in viewing patterns to sexual stimuli. Our theoretical orientationSex differences in viewing sexual stimuli: An eye-tracking study in men and women Heather A. Rupp a

  2. Condom use within non-commercial partnerships of female sex workers in southern India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although female sex workers (FSWs) report high levels of condom use with commercial sex clients, particularly after targeted HIV preventive interventions have been implemented, condom use is often low with non-commercial partners. There is limited understanding regarding the factors that influence condom use with FSWs’ non-commercial partners, and of how programs can be designed to increase condom use with these partners. The main objectives of this study were therefore to describe FSWs’ self-reported non-commercial partners, along with interpersonal factors characterizing their non-commercial partnerships, and to examine the factors associated with consistent condom use (CCU) within non-commercial partnerships. Methods This study used data collected from cross-sectional questionnaires administered to 988 FSWs in four districts in Karnataka state in 2006-07. We used bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the relationship between CCU (i.e., ‘always’ compared to ‘never’, ‘sometimes’ or ‘frequently’) with non-commercial partners of FSWs (including the respondents’ husband or main cohabiting partner [if not married] and their most recent non-paying partner [who is neither a husband nor the main cohabiting partner, and with whom the FSW had sex within the previous year]) and interpersonal factors describing these partnerships, as well as social and environmental factors. Weighting and survey methods were used to account for the cluster sampling design. Results Overall, 511 (51.8%) FSWs reported having a husband or cohabiting partner and 247 (23.7%) reported having a non-paying partner. CCU with these partners was low (22.6% and 40.3% respectively). In multivariable analysis, the odds of CCU with FSWs’ husband or cohabiting partner were 1.8-fold higher for FSWs whose partner knew she was a sex worker (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.84, 95% confidence intervals[CI]: 1.02-3.32) and almost 6-fold higher if the FSW was unmarried (AOR: 5.73, 95%CI: 2.79-11.76]. CCU with FSWs’ non-paying partner decreased by 18% for each one-year increase in the duration of the relationship (AOR: 0.82, 95%CI: 0.68-0.97). Conclusions This study revealed important patterns and interpersonal determinants of condom use within non-commercial partnerships of FSWs. Integrated structural and community-driven HIV/STI prevention programs that focus on gender and reduce sex work stigma should be investigated to increase condom use in non-commercial partnerships. PMID:22376171

  3. HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among male clients of female sex workers in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xia; Smith, Kumi; Chen, Ray Y.; Ding, Guowei; Yao, Yan; Wang, Haibo; Qian, Han-Zhu; Chang, Dongfang; Wang, Guixiang; Wang, Ning

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence and risk factors of HIV among male clients of female sex workers in China. Methods Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit 315 clients using FSW-client and client-client networks. Subjects provided information on socio-demographic characteristics and sexual and drug behavior patterns. Blood samples were collected for HIV testing and urine samples for opiate testing. Results Overall HIV prevalence was 6.0%; among drug users it was 30.8%. 33.7% of respondents reported that they always use condoms in commercial sex and 63.5% that they used a condom in the last commercial sex episode. Drug use (OR: 6.1; 95% CI: 1.7–21.4) and lack of a regular sexual partner (OR: 6.3; 95% CI: 1.8–21.9) were significantly associated with HIV infection. Conclusions Clients of FSWs serve as potential bridges for HIV transmission from the high-risk FSWs to the low-risk general population, making them a key target for intervention. High HIV prevalence rates among clients in Kaiyuan is particularly alarming given their risk behavior patterns including high rates of partner exchange, low condom use rates, and drug using behaviors. Innovative interventions are needed to reduce the risk of HIV among clients and reduce the bridge of transmission to the general population. PMID:19730110

  4. HIV Infection and Risk Characteristics Among Female Sex Workers in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Trung Nam; Detels, Roger; Long, Hoang Thuy; Van Phung, Le; Lan, Hoang Phuong

    2010-01-01

    Summary The prevalence of HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was determined, the risk characteristics examined, and factors associated with HIV infection identified among noninstitutionalized female sex workers (FSWs), using a cross-sectional survey with 2-stage cluster sampling. Four hundred FSWs were interviewed face to face using a structured questionnaire and tested for HIV, syphilis, Chlamydia infection, and gonorrhea. HIV seroprevalence was 12%, syphilis 17% (using the treponemal pallidum hemagglutination assay), Chlamydia infection 3.8% (using polymerase chain reaction [PCR]), and gonorrhea 6.3% (PCR). Lower-class FSWs averaged 2 clients per day, and middle-class FSWs about 1.2. Median duration in sex work was 2.3 years. Consistent condom use was 63% with irregular clients, 41% with regular clients, and only 4.8% with “love mates.” Fifty-five percent had had sex with a drug user(s). Thirty-eight percent used drugs, of whom 83% injected. Factors associated with HIV included being young, having a low level of education, longer residence in Hanoi, being a lower-class FSW, having higher income compared with peers, perception of self being at low risk for HIV, poor knowledge of HIV, and sharing injecting equipment. Intervention strategies should include reduction of both stigmatization and sharing of drug paraphernalia, promotion of nonstigmatizing voluntary testing and counseling, and aggressive marketing and promotion of condoms. PMID:16044011

  5. Sex ratio variations among the offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, S. F.; Eskenazi, B.; Hedderson, M. M.; Ferrara, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims It has long been hypothesized that natural selection would favour a reproductive strategy biased towards females under adverse circumstances in order to maximize the number of surviving grandchildren. An excess of daughters in women with Type 1 diabetes and a greater likelihood of gestational diabetes in women carrying male fetuses have also been reported. This study aims to compare the sex ratio across categories of maternal glycaemia. Methods Among 288 009 mother–infant pairs delivering at Kaiser Permanente Northern California in 1996–2008, sex ratios were calculated for the following categories: pregravid diabetes, gestational diabetes, mild pregnancy hyperglycaemia (defined as an abnormal screening but normal diagnostic test for gestational diabetes) and normoglycaemia. Odds ratios for delivering a male were estimated with logistic regression; normoglycaemic pregnancies comprised the reference. Results Women with pregravid diabetes delivered the fewest males (ratio male/female = 1.01), followed by women with normoglycaemic pregnancies and those with an abnormal screening only (both sex ratios = 1.05); women with gestational diabetes delivered the most males (sex ratio = 1.07). Odds ratio estimates suggested the same pattern, but none attained statistical significance. Conclusions The crude sex ratios in this cohort suggest a possible gradient by category of maternal glycaemia. Women with gestational diabetes, a condition characterized by excessive fuel substrates, appear to deliver more males. Women with pregravid diabetes delivered the fewest males, possibly reflecting the unfavourable state of chronic disease. PMID:22443388

  6. Exploring Sex and Gender Differences in Sleep Health: A Society for Women's Health Research Report

    PubMed Central

    Mallampalli, Monica P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous attempts have been made to address sleep disorders in women; however, significant knowledge gaps in research and a lack of awareness among the research community continue to exist. There is a great need for scientists and clinicians to consider sex and gender differences in their sleep research to account for the unique biology of women. To understand the role of sex differences in sleep and the state of women's sleep health research, the Society for Women's Health Research convened an interdisciplinary expert panel of well-established sleep researchers and clinicians for a roundtable meeting. Focused discussions on basic and clinical research along with a focus on specific challenges facing women with sleep-related problems and effective therapies led to the identification of knowledge gaps and the development of research-related recommendations. Additionally, sex differences in sleep disorders were noted and discussed in the context of underlying hormonal differences. Differences in sleep behavior and sleep disorders may not only be driven by biological factors but also by gender differences in the way women and men report symptoms. Progress has been made in identifying sex and gender differences in many areas of sleep, but major research gaps in the areas of epidemiology, sleep regulation, sleep quality, diagnosis, and treatment need to be addressed. Identifying the underlying nature of sex and gender differences in sleep research has potential to accelerate improved care for both men and women facilitating better diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately prevention of sleep disorders and related comorbid conditions. PMID:24956068

  7. Exploring sex and gender differences in sleep health: a Society for Women's Health Research Report.

    PubMed

    Mallampalli, Monica P; Carter, Christine L

    2014-07-01

    Previous attempts have been made to address sleep disorders in women; however, significant knowledge gaps in research and a lack of awareness among the research community continue to exist. There is a great need for scientists and clinicians to consider sex and gender differences in their sleep research to account for the unique biology of women. To understand the role of sex differences in sleep and the state of women's sleep health research, the Society for Women's Health Research convened an interdisciplinary expert panel of well-established sleep researchers and clinicians for a roundtable meeting. Focused discussions on basic and clinical research along with a focus on specific challenges facing women with sleep-related problems and effective therapies led to the identification of knowledge gaps and the development of research-related recommendations. Additionally, sex differences in sleep disorders were noted and discussed in the context of underlying hormonal differences. Differences in sleep behavior and sleep disorders may not only be driven by biological factors but also by gender differences in the way women and men report symptoms. Progress has been made in identifying sex and gender differences in many areas of sleep, but major research gaps in the areas of epidemiology, sleep regulation, sleep quality, diagnosis, and treatment need to be addressed. Identifying the underlying nature of sex and gender differences in sleep research has potential to accelerate improved care for both men and women facilitating better diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately prevention of sleep disorders and related comorbid conditions. PMID:24956068

  8. SEED GRANTS for Biological/Medical Research on Sex Differences and/or Women's Health The Stanford WSDM* (Women and Sex Differences in Medicine) Center aims to promote basic &

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    SEED GRANTS for Biological/Medical Research on Sex Differences and/or Women's Health The Stanford, and population health research on sex differences and women's health at Stanford University School of Medicine/or in women's health. This year, we are particularly eager for School of Medicine faculty to collaborate

  9. Circular Migration by Mexican Female Sex Workers Who are Injection Drug Users: Implications for HIV in Mexican Sending Communities

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Victoria D.; Burgos, José Luis; Hiller, Sarah P.; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Artamonova, Irina; Rodriguez, Carlos Magis

    2013-01-01

    Background Circular migration and injection drug use increase the risk of HIV transmission in sending communities. We describe female sex workers who are injection drug users’ (FSW-IDUs) circular migration and drug use behaviors. Methods Between 2008-2010, 258 migrant FSW-IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico responded to questionnaires. Results 24% of FSW-IDUs were circular migrants. HIV prevalence was 3.3% in circular migrants and 6.1% in non-circular migrants; 50% of circular and 82% of non-circular migrants were unaware of their HIV infection. Among circular migrants, 44% (n=27) consumed illicit drugs in their birthplace; 70% of these (n=20) injected drugs and one-half of injectors shared injection equipment in their birthplace. Women reporting active social relationships were significantly more likely to return home. Discussion Circular migrant FSW-IDUs exhibit multiple HIV risks and opportunities for bridging populations. Regular HIV testing and treatment and access to substance use services is critical for FSW-IDUs and their sexual/drug-using contacts. PMID:21833727

  10. Circular migration by Mexican female sex workers who are injection drug users: implications for HIV in Mexican sending communities.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Victoria D; Burgos, José Luis; Hiller, Sarah P; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Artamonova, Irina; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos

    2012-02-01

    Circular migration and injection drug use increase the risk of HIV transmission in sending communities. We describe female sex workers who are injection drug users' (FSW-IDUs) circular migration and drug use behaviors. Between 2008-2010, 258 migrant FSW-IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico responded to questionnaires. 24% of FSW-IDUs were circular migrants. HIV prevalence was 3.2% in circular migrants and 6.1% in non-circular migrants; 50% of circular and 75% of non-circular migrants were unaware of their HIV infection. Among circular migrants, 44% (n = 27) consumed illicit drugs in their birthplace; 74% of these (n = 20) injected drugs and one-half of injectors shared injection equipment in their birthplace. Women reporting active social relationships were significantly more likely to return home. Circular migrant FSW-IDUs exhibit multiple HIV risks and opportunities for bridging populations. Regular HIV testing and treatment and access to substance use services is critical for FSW-IDUs and their sexual/drug-using contacts. PMID:21833727

  11. Youth, violence and non-injection drug use: nexus of vulnerabilities among lesbian and bisexual sex workers.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Tara; Kerr, Thomas; Duff, Putu; Feng, Cindy; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence of enhanced HIV risk among sexual minority populations, and sex workers (SWs) in particular, there remains a paucity of epidemiological data on the risk environments of SWs who identify as lesbian or bisexual. Therefore, this short report describes a study that examined the individual, interpersonal and structural associations with lesbian or bisexual identity among SWs in Vancouver, Canada. Analysis drew on data from an open prospective cohort of street and hidden off-street SWs in Vancouver. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the independent relationships between individual, interpersonal, work environment and structural factors and lesbian or bisexual identity. Of the 510 individuals in our sample, 95 (18.6%) identified as lesbian or bisexual. In multivariable analysis, reporting non-injection drug use in the last six months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.89; 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.42, 5.75), youth ?24 years of age (AOR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.24, 4.73) and experiencing client-perpetrated verbal, physical and/or sexual violence in the last six months (AOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.98) remained independently associated with lesbian/bisexual identity, after adjusting for potential confounders. The findings demonstrate an urgent need for evidence-based social and structural HIV prevention interventions. In particular, policies and programmes tailored to lesbian and bisexual youth and women working in sex work, including those that prevent violence and address issues of non-injection stimulant use are required. PMID:24382155

  12. Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Behavioral Risk Factors of Female Sex Workers in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiona ScorgieMatthew; Matthew F. Chersich; Innocent Ntaganira; Antonio Gerbase; Frank Lule; Ying-Ru Lo

    Sex work remains an important contributor to HIV transmission within early, advanced and regressing epidemics in sub-Saharan\\u000a Africa, but its social and behavioral underpinnings remain poorly understood, limiting the impact of HIV prevention initiatives.\\u000a This article systematically reviews the socio-demographics of female sex workers (FSW) in this region, their occupational\\u000a contexts and key behavioral risk factors for HIV. In total

  13. Intervention for the control of STDs including HIV among commercial sex workers, commercial drivers and students in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Oguntimehin

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Ondo State University-Australian National University collaborative research program on sexual networking, a survey of the commercial sex industry and the people engaged in it was undertaken in five major cities and large towns in Nigeria in 1992-93 (Orubuloye, Caldwell and Caldwell 1994). A total of 914 sex workers were interviewed and all participated in subsequent in-depth

  14. Occupation and Subclinical Carotid Artery Disease in Women: Are Clerical Workers at Greater Risk?

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    Occupation and Subclinical Carotid Artery Disease in Women: Are Clerical Workers at Greater Risk in clerical occupations were at higher risk for incident coronary heart disease (CHD; nearly 50% of the CHD increase cardiovascular risk. Key words: atherosclerosis, carotid arteries, occupation, risk factors

  15. The interaction of drug use, sex work, and HIV among transgender women.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Beth R

    2014-06-01

    Transgender women have a higher prevalence of drug use, HIV, drug use, and sex work than the general population. This article explores the interaction of these variables and discusses how sex work and drug use behaviors contribute to the high rates of HIV. A model predicting HIV rates with sex work and drug use as well as these behaviors in the transgender woman's social network is presented. Challenges to intervening with transgender women, as well as suggestions and criteria for successful interventions, are discussed. PMID:24779504

  16. Sex and relationships for HIV positive women since HAART: a quantitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Lambert; A Keegan; J Petrak

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate current levels of sexual activity, enjoyment, condom use, and other factors affecting sexual behaviour in a sample of women living with HIV.Method: Participants were self selected. A cross sectional design using semi-structured questionnaires was employed. 82 HIV positive women completed questionnaires asking about demographics, relationships, sexual behaviour, and safer sex practices. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

  17. Evaluation of the performance of women as a function of their sex, achievement, and personal history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail I. Pheterson; Sara B. Kiesler; Philip A. Goldberg

    1971-01-01

    Studied the conditions under which women are prejudiced against women. 120 female undergraduates evaluated 8 paintings in a 2 * 2 * 2 design varying (a) sex of painter, (b) status of the painting, and (c) personal odds faced by the artist. Results indicate that Ss judged the entry paintings by men to be significantly better than identical paintings by

  18. Seriously Mentally Ill Women's Safer Sex Behaviors and the Theory of Reasoned Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mary E.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; Somlai, Anton M.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Gibson, Richard H.; Hackl, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Seriously mentally ill women at risk for HIV infection (n = 96) participated in structured interviews assessing sexual and substance-use behavior over a 3-month period. The majority of the women (63.5%) did not use condoms. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, attitudes toward condom use and perceived social norms about safer sex were…

  19. Relationship between mobility, violence and HIV/STI among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Violence and mobility have been identified as critical factors contributing to the spread of HIV worldwide. This study aimed to assess the independent and combined associations of mobility and violence with sexual risk behaviors and HIV, STI prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in India. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, bio-behavioral survey conducted among 2042 FSWs across five districts of southern India in 2005–06. Regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sexual risk behaviors and HIV infection based on experience of violence and mobility after adjusting for socio-demographic and sex work related characteristics. Results One-fifth of FSWs (19%) reported experiencing violence; 68% reported travelling outside their current place of residence at least once in the past year and practicing sex work during their visit. Mobile FSWs were more likely to report violence compared to their counterparts (23% vs. 10%, p?sex with occasional (adjusted OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.76–4.65) and regular clients (adjusted OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.40–3.06). Conclusions The findings indicate that mobility and violence were independently associated with HIV infection. Notably, the combined effect of mobility and violence posed greater HIV risk than their independent effect. These results point to the need for the provision of an enabling environment and safe spaces for FSWs who are mobile, to augment existing efforts to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. PMID:22967276

  20. Migrant women domestic workers in Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S J

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the legal systems in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan and the protection of migrant domestic workers who are vulnerable to domestic violence and abuse. Migration in the last 10 years in Asia has increasingly included female migrants who are usually employed in domestic services, the entertainment industry, and health care services. This work places women migrants in a vulnerable position in the isolation of households, away from public oversight. Labor laws are not applied to domestic workers, who are considered of low societal value. In Hong Kong, domestic work is covered under the labor laws, but the societal perception is that housework is not really work. Employer-employee relationships are more clear cut in institutional settings. Most domestic workers live with their employers. They are outsiders to families and must maintain professional relationships within an intimate environment. The isolation within a household discourages development of support systems and contacts with women doing similar work. There is a power struggle between women of unequal stature concerning the operation of the household and the interrelationships with family members. The power dynamic, the nature of the family structure, and culture are all interrelated. The first year's income covers the cost of securing foreign employment, and workers are vulnerable in this first year due to their debts. Employers protect their investment by working them to capacity or using fear and physical confinement to secure obedience. Workers are humiliated and immobilized. The comparison between the three countries illustrates the potential for protecting migrant domestic workers. Singapore and Taiwan lack sufficient legal and social support for migrant women, and Hong Kong must use a more comprehensive approach for integrating power dynamics, employment, work regulations, and labor status. PMID:12291761

  1. Feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to measure HIV risk behavior among female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Roth, Alexis M; Hensel, Devon J; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Garfein, Richard S; Gunn, Jayleen K L; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2014-12-01

    Individual, social, and structural factors affecting HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) are difficult to assess using retrospective surveys methods. To test the feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to collect information about sexual events, we recruited 26 FSWs in Indianapolis, Indiana (US). Over 4 weeks, FSWs completed twice daily digital diaries about their mood, drug use, sexual interactions, and daily activities. Feasibility was assessed using repeated measures general linear modeling and descriptive statistics examined event-level contextual information and acceptability. Of 1,420 diaries expected, 90.3 % were completed by participants and compliance was stable over time (p > .05 for linear trend). Sexual behavior was captured in 22 % of diaries and participant satisfaction with diary data collection was high. These data provide insight into event-level factors impacting HIV risk among FSWs. We discuss implications for models of sexual behavior and individually tailored interventions to prevent HIV in this high-risk group. PMID:24643312

  2. Feasibility and Acceptability of Cell Phone Diaries to Measure HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Garfein, Richard S.; Gunn, Jayleen K. L.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Individual, social, and structural factors affecting HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) are difficult to assess using retrospective surveys methods. To test the feasibility and acceptability of cell phone diaries to collect information about sexual events, we recruited 26 FSWs in Indianapolis, Indiana (US). Over 4 weeks, FSWs completed twice daily digital diaries about their mood, drug use, sexual interactions, and daily activities. Feasibility was assessed using repeated measures general linear modeling and descriptive statistics examined event-level contextual information and acceptability. Of 1,420 diaries expected, 90.3 % were completed by participants and compliance was stable over time (p > .05 for linear trend). Sexual behavior was captured in 22 % of diaries and participant satisfaction with diary data collection was high. These data provide insight into event-level factors impacting HIV risk among FSWs. We discuss implications for models of sexual behavior and individually tailored interventions to prevent HIV in this high-risk group. PMID:24643312

  3. Social support and recovery among Mexican female sex workers who inject drugs.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Sarah P; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2013-07-01

    This qualitative study describes social support that female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) receive and recovery efforts in the context of relationships with family and intimate partners. We conducted thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with 47 FSW-IDUs enrolled in an intervention study to reduce injection/sexual risk behaviors in Tijuana, Mexico. FSW-IDUs received instrumental and emotional social support, which positively and negatively influenced recovery efforts. Participants reported how some intimate partners provided conflicting positive and negative support during recovery attempts. Problematic support (i.e., well-intended support with unintended consequences) occurred in strained family relationships, limiting the positive effects of support. Mexican drug treatment programs should consider addressing social support in recovery curricula through evidence-based interventions that engage intimate partners, children and family to better reflect socio-cultural and contextual determinants of substance abuse. PMID:23375570

  4. Social support and recovery among Mexican female sex workers who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Sarah; Syvertsen, Jennifer; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study describes social support that female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) receive and recovery efforts in the context of relationships with family and intimate partners. We conducted thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with 47 FSW-IDUs enrolled in an intervention study to reduce injection/sexual risk behaviors in Tijuana, Mexico. FSW-IDUs received instrumental and emotional social support, which positively and negatively influenced recovery efforts. Participants reported how some intimate partners provided conflicting positive and negative support during recovery attempts. Problematic support (i.e., well-intended support with unintended consequences) occurred in strained family relationships, limiting the positive effects of support. Mexican drug treatment programs should consider addressing social support in recovery curricula through evidence-based interventions that engage intimate partners, children and family to better reflect socio-cultural and contextual determinants of substance abuse. PMID:23375570

  5. Fighting Women: The Military, Sex, and Extrajudicial Constitutional Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill Elaine Hasday

    2008-01-01

    The Supreme Court in Rostker v. Goldberg (1981) upheld male-only military registration, and endorsed male-only conscription and combat positions. Few cases have challenged restrictions on women's military service since Rostker, and none have reached the Supreme Court. Federal statutes continue to exclude women from military registration and draft eligibility, and military regulations still ban women from some combat positions. Yet

  6. Blood pressure and water regulation: understanding sex hormone effects within and between men and women

    PubMed Central

    Wenner, Megan M; Stachenfeld, Nina S

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death for both men and women. Hypertension is less prevalent in young women compared with young men, but menopausal women are at greater risk for hypertension compared with men of similar age. Despite these risks, women do not consistently receive first line treatment for the early stages of hypertension, and the greater morbidity in menopause reflects this neglect. This review focuses on ovarian hormone effects on the cardiovascular and water regulatory systems that are associated with blood pressure control in women. The study of ovarian hormones within young women is complex because these hormones fluctuate across the menstrual cycle, and these fluctuations can complicate conclusions regarding sex differences. To better isolate the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on the cardiovascular and water regulation systems, we developed a model to transiently suppress reproductive function followed by controlled hormone administration. Sex differences in autonomic regulation of blood pressure appear related to ovarian hormone exposure, and these hormonal differences contribute to sex differences in hypertension and orthostatic tolerance. Oestrogen and progesterone exposure are also associated with plasma volume expansion, and a leftward shift in the osmotic operating point for body fluid regulation. In young, healthy women, the shift in osmoregulation appears to have only a minor effect on overall body water balance. Our overarching conclusion is that ovarian hormone exposure is the important underlying factor contributing to differences in blood pressure and water regulation between women and men, and within women throughout the lifespan. PMID:23027816

  7. Street Workers and Internet Escorts: Contextual and Psychosocial Factors Surrounding HIV Risk Behavior among Men Who Engage in Sex Work with Other Men

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Tinsley, Jake P.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Sex work has been associated with elevated risk for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in many settings. This mixed methods study examined sexual risk among MSM sex workers in Massachusetts, collecting formative data on HIV risk behavior by sex worker type in order to gain a better understanding of how to tailor prevention interventions to this unique and high-risk subgroup of MSM. Two groups of MSM sex workers were recruited between January and March 2008: street workers (n?=?19) and internet escorts (n?=?13). Participants completed a semistructured qualitative interview and quantitative psychosocial assessment battery; interviews were conducted until redundancy in responses was achieved. Almost one third (31%) were HIV-infected. The majority of participants (69%) reported at least one episode of unprotected serodiscordant anal sex (either insertive or receptive) with a mean of 10.7 (SD?=?42.2) male sex partners of an unknown or different HIV serostatus in the past 12 months. Salient findings included: (a) internet sex workers reported being paid substantially more for sex than street sex workers; (b) inconsistent condom use, high rates of unprotected sex, and low rates of HIV status disclosure with sex work partners for both internet and street workers; general perceptions of a lack of trust on the part of sex work partners (i.e., telling them what they want to hear), offers of more money for unprotected sex; (c) contextual differences in risk taking: internet sex workers reported that they are more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking with noncommercial sex partners than sex partners who pay; (d) HIV status and STI history: two street workers became infected in the context of sex work, and 25% of the entire sample had never been tested for sexually transmitted infections (STI); and (e) motivations and reasons for doing sex work, such as the “lucrativeness” of sex work, as a means to obtain drugs, excitement, power, “why not?” attitude, and because social norms modeled this behavior. Study findings can be used to generate hypotheses for designing and providing tailored primary and secondary prevention interventions for this at-risk subgroup of MSM. PMID:18780186

  8. Randomised controlled trial of alternative male and female condom promotion strategies targeting sex workers in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Hoke, Theresa H; Feldblum, Paul J; Van Damme, Kathleen; Nasution, Marlina D; Grey, Thomas W; Wong, Emelita L; Ralimamonjy, Louisette; Raharimalala, Leonardine; Rasamindrakotroka, Andry

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether individual clinic?based counselling as a supplement to peer education for male and female condom promotion leads to greater use of protection and lower STI prevalence among sex workers in Madagascar already exposed to intensive male condom promotion. Methods In two public dispensaries in Madagascar, a total of 901 sex workers were randomly allocated between two alternative male and female condom promotion interventions: peer education only, or peer education supplemented with individual clinic?based counselling. Participants were followed for 12?months. Every 2?months they made clinic visits, where they were interviewed on condom use. Peer educators counselled all participants on condom use as they accompanied their assigned participants to study visits. Participants assigned to receive the supplemental intervention were counselled by a trained clinician following study interviews. Participants were tested and treated for chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomoniasis every 6?months. We used logistic regression to assess whether the more intensive intervention was associated with reduced STI prevalence. Use of protection with clients and non?paying partners was assessed by study arm, site, and visit. Results There was no statistically significant association between study arm and aggregated STI prevalence. No substantial differences in levels of reported protection were noted between study groups. Conclusions This study found little evidence for gains from more thorough clinical counselling on male and female condom use. These findings suggest that less clinically intensive interventions such as peer education could be suitable for male and female condom promotion in populations already exposed to barrier method promotion. PMID:17591662

  9. Perceptions about HIV and Condoms and Consistent Condom Use among Male Clients of Commercial Sex Workers in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV…

  10. Children of female sex workers and drug users: a review of vulnerability, resilience and family-centred models of care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Beard; Godfrey Biemba; Mohamad I Brooks; Jill Costello; Mark Ommerborn; Megan Bresnahan; David Flynn; Jonathon L Simon

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injection drug users and female sex workers are two of the populations most at risk for becoming infected with HIV in countries with concentrated epidemics. Many of the adults who fall into these categories are also parents, but little is known about the vulnerabilities faced by their children, their children's sources of resilience, or programmes providing services to these

  11. The Effects of Space on Sex Worker Experience: A Study of Amsterdam’s Red Light District

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannah Koski

    2007-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a month-long exploratory study on the ways in which a space influences the experiences of the sex workers operating within it, using the Red Light District in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, as the site of focus. Data was obtained by way of qualitative methods including focused interviews and unstructured observation and analyzed with a pro-prostitute

  12. Alcohol Use and Sexual Risks: Use of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) Among Female Sex Workers in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiyun Chen; Xiaoming Li; Chen Zhang; Yan Hong; Yuejiao Zhou; Wei Liu

    2012-01-01

    The association between alcohol use and sexual risks among female sex workers (FSWs) has been insufficiently studied. This article reports a cross-sectional study of the relationship between alcohol use risk, measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and sexual risk behaviors among 1,022 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Bivariate analysis showed that FSWs at higher AUDIT levels tended to

  13. HIV1 and other sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of female sex workers in Chiang Rai, Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Limpakarnjanarat; T. D. Mastro; S. Saisorn; W. Uthaivoravit; J. Kaewkungwal; S. Korattana; N. L. Young; S. A. Morse; D. S. Schmid; B. G. Weniger; P. Nieburg

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine demographic and behavioural factors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) associated with prevalent HIV-1 infection among brothel based and other female sex workers (FSWs) in Chiang Rai, northern Thailand. METHODS: Data were collected from questionnaires, physical examinations, and laboratory evaluations on Thai FSWs enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Chiang Rai, Thailand, from 1991 to the end

  14. Sexual risk behaviours and barriers to HIV testing among clients of female sex workers in Guatemala: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lahuerta, Maria; Torrens, Míriam; Sabidó, Meritxell; Batres, Anabella; Casabona, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Few interventions have targeted clients of female sex workers in Central America, despite their potential role in HIV/STI prevention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 clients of female sex workers on attitudes towards prevention of HIV/STIs, barriers to condom use and behaviour towards HIV/STI testing and treatment in Escuintla, Guatemala. Despite high knowledge of condoms as an HIV/STI preventive measure, the decision to use them was often based on the client's social judgment of the woman's sexual conduct. Regular clients reported lower condom use. Clients' risk perception diminished with the awareness of the public HIV/STI clinic addressed to female sex workers. Most preferred private clinics to increase confidentiality and were reluctant to take the HIV test for fear of a positive result. Outreach programmes offering HIV/STI counselling and testing to clients of female sex workers could increase their test uptake and health-seeking behaviour and reduce potential transmission to the general population. PMID:23627770

  15. Alcohol Use and Sexual Risks: Use of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) Among Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chen; Hong, Yan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The association between alcohol use and sexual risks among female sex workers (FSWs) has been insufficiently studied. This article reports a cross-sectional study of the relationship between alcohol use risk, measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and sexual risk behaviors among 1,022 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Bivariate analysis showed that FSWs at higher AUDIT levels tended to have earlier sexual initiation, younger age of involvement in the sex trade and were more vulnerable to sex under the influence of alcohol. Multivariate analysis revealed an independent association of problem drinking with both unprotected sex and a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Alcohol use in commercial sex shall be considered as an occupational hazard that requires immediate intervention. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the association between alcohol use and sexual risks among this most-at-risk population. PMID:23311906

  16. Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers in China: Role of Gatekeepers

    PubMed Central

    YANG, HONGMEI; LI, XIAOMING; STANTON, BONITA; FANG, XIAOYI; ZHAO, RAN; DONG, BAIQING; LIU, WEI; LIANG, SHAOLING; ZHOU, YUEJIAO; HONG, YAN

    2007-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the potential role of gatekeepers of establishments in promoting condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. Goals The goals of this study were to explore FSWs’ perceptions of gatekeeper attitudes and support for condom use, and to assess their association with FSWs’ practice, communication, intention, proper use, knowledge of correct use, and perceptions related to condom use. Study The authors conducted a cross-sectional study among 454 establishment-based FSWs in one Chinese county. Results Perceived gatekeeper support for condom use was low among FSWs. Perceived support was positively associated with condom use communication with sexual partners, condom use frequency and intention, but not associated with proper condom use among FSWs. Perceived support was significantly associated with most condom use-related perceptions (e.g., self-efficacy of condom use, barriers to condom use, and perceived peer condom use) among FSWs. Conclusions Healthcare professionals should work with gatekeepers to create a supportive local environment for condom use in sex work establishments. Gatekeepers need to clearly articulate their support for condom use to the FSWs. Training and skill acquisition regarding correct use of condoms among FSWs will be necessary. PMID:16118607

  17. Clinic Appointment Attendance for Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening among Filipina Sex Workers: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    CHIAO, C; MORISKY, DE; KSOBIECH, K; MASSON, CL; MALOW, RM

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates putative individual- and contextual-level social risk factors that may influence the likelihood Filipina sex workers (FSWs) attend and utilize health services for STI screening. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1,004 FSWs and their 86 employers. Research staff also collected clinic appointment attendance data. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to estimate the simultaneous effects of individual- and workplace-level factors. Results showed that both individual- and contextual-level characteristics were associated with STI screening appointment attendance. Individual characteristics found to have significant effects on clinic attendance included occupation, income, length of work and commercial sex involvement. City of establishment was a workplace characteristic significantly associated with appointment attendance. In addition to cross-level interactions, the impact of individual-level occupation depended upon characteristics of the workplace. These findings suggest that individual health service utilization is contingent upon contextual-level risk factors in the workplace. Intervention implications aimed at increasing clinic attendance are discussed. PMID:18058401

  18. HIV-related Behavioral Risk Factors among Older Female Sex Workers in Guangxi China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Su, Shaobing; Cui, Yan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous literature suggests a high rate of HIV infections among older female sex workers (FSW) in China. However, limited data are available regarding HIV-related behavioral risk factors among this population. In the current study, we aim to examine the demographic and behavioral factors that place older FSW at a high risk of HIV infection. Methods We conducted secondary analysis of the 2010 National Sentinel Surveillance (NSS) data from Guangxi China. A self-administered, standard behavioral surveillance survey was completed by a total of 12,622 FSW in Guangxi, China. Findings The Guangxi 2010 NSS sample included 19.4% FSW aged 35 years or older (“older FSW”). The overall HIV prevalence was 1.0% for the entire sample with 2.0% among older FSW and 0.8% among younger ones. Older age was an independent predictor of unprotected sex, injection drug use, and a self-reported history of syphilis infection. Conclusion Future HIV prevention interventions targeting FSW should consider older FSW’s vulnerable status. Efforts are needed to address their financial needs and invest in skills for socio-economic empowerment. PMID:24766053

  19. The prevalences of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections among female sex workers in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have become a major public health problem among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. There have been many studies on prevalences of HIV and syphilis but the data about Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections are limited in this population in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed among FSWs recruited from different types of venues in 8 cities in China. An interview with questionnaire was conducted, followed by collection of a blood and cervical swab specimens for tests of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT infections. Results A total of 3,099 FSWs were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT were 0.26%, 6.45%, 5.91% and 17.30%, respectively. Being a FSW from low-tier venue (adjusted odds ratios [AOR]=1.39) had higher risk and being age of ? 21 years (AOR=0.60 for 21–25 years; AOR=0.29 for 26–30 years; AOR=0.35 for 31 years or above) had lower risk for CT infection; and having CT infection was significantly associated with NG infection. Conclusions The high STI prevalence rates found among FSWs, especially among FSWs in low-tier sex work venues, suggest that the comprehensive prevention and control programs including not only behavioral interventions but also screening and medical care are needed to meet the needs of this population. PMID:23390952

  20. Outreach Syphilis Testing Services by Different Health Providers to Female Sex Workers in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Yin, Yue-Ping; Liu, Guo-Gu; Wei, Wan-Hui; Wang, Hong-Chun; Yu, Yuan-Lin; Mabey, David C.; Peeling, Rosanna W.

    2013-01-01

    Health providers have played important roles on delivering prevention and care services to control syphilis in China. The current study was aimed to evaluate the performance of different health providers in providing outreach syphilis testing services to female sex workers (FSWs). The current study carried out during April to August 2009 in Liuzhou was aimed to investigate the services delivered by two different types of clinics in China. A total of 1,808 FSWs recruited from sex work venues were included in the study. Prevalence of positive syphilis test (6.4%) among FSWs accessed by the local center for disease control outreach teams (CDC teams) was significantly lower than that (9.3%) among FSWs accessed by the local reproductive health hospital outreach teams (RHH teams). As compared with CDC teams, RHH teams had more FSWs to be successfully referred to the designated STD clinics for further syphilis confirmation and intervention (85.7% vs. 26.7%, P<0.001). These findings indicate that RHH teams may be more efficient than CDC teams to provide outreach-based services to FSWs. Participation of the reproductive health providers or other medical facilities in outreach services to FSWs should be considered in developing intervention programs in China. PMID:23637755

  1. Factors associated with condom use negotiation by female sex workers in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Mridha, Malay K.; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J.; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim

    2013-01-01

    Summary Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers (FSWs) with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 FSWs; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the seven days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street based FSWs respectively. Overall, 28.1% of FSWs negotiated for condom use with their clients. Participation in behaviour change communication (BCC) programmes (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2.–2.0), and self-perceived risk of HIV infection (AOR, 1.8 95% CI, 1.6–2.1) were positive predictors for condom negotiation. Compared to the hotel based FSWs, street (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4–0.9), and brothel based FSWs (AOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5–0.9) were less likely to negotiate for condom use. FSWs in Bangladesh are at high risk for STI/HIV infection because of low overall negotiation for condom use. Participation in BCC programmes had positive effect on condom negotiation by FSWs, and should be strengthened in commercial sex venues. PMID:23970599

  2. Prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance among female sex workers and men who have sex with men in El Salvador, Central America.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Wendy; Lorenzana de Rivera, Ivette; Albert, Jan; Guardado, María Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2012-10-01

    Transmitted drug resistance has important implications for the successful use and management of therapy among persons infected with HIV. We estimated the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance in 145 samples from female sex workers (n = 47) and men who have sex with men (n = 98) in El Salvador. Samples were collected during March to September 2008, using a respondent driven sampling. The HIV-1 pol gene was sequenced to identify drug resistance mutations and transmitted drug resistance was scored as recommended by World Health Organization. Specimens were classified as recent or established infections using the Immunoglobulin G-Capture BED-Enzyme Immunoassay. The overall prevalence of transmitted drug resistance was 9.4% (95% CI: 4.7-16.1%), and was 5.9% for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 4.2% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and 0.8% for protease inhibitors. Transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 10.3% (95% CI: 2.8-24.2%) among female sex workers, and 9.0% (95% CI: 3.6-17.6%) among men who have sex with men. Nineteen patients were classified as having recent infection (16.2%, 95% CI: 10.1-24.2%), while 98 patients (83.8%, 95% CI: 75.8-89.9%) were classified as having established infections. Transmitted drug resistance among recent and established infections was similar at 10.5% and 9.2%, respectively. This study shows that the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance is moderate among female sex workers and men who have sex with men in El Salvador. These results highlight the importance of transmitted drug resistance surveillance in a representative sample of recently infected patients following the World Health Organization guidelines. PMID:22930496

  3. Is Substance Use a Barrier to Protected Sex Among Homeless Women? Results From Between- and Within-Subjects Event Analyses*

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Ryan, Gery; Zhou, Annie; Beckman, Robin; Kennedy, David P.; Green, Harold D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study used event-based analyses to examine how alcohol and drug use are associated with protected sex among women residing in temporary shelters in Los Angeles County. Method: Participants were 445 sexually active women age 18 and older who were sampled from 52 shelters serving homeless individuals. Data were collected through individual computer-assisted face-to-face structured interviews. Both between-subjects analyses (n = 445) and within-subjects analyses (n = 87) were used to examine the association between substance use and protected sex. Results: In both within- and between-subjects analyses, women who drank alcohol before sex were significantly more likely to engage in protected sex compared with women who did not drink alcohol. However, there was no association between women's drug use, or their male partner's alcohol or drug use, and whether they engaged in protected sex. The higher likelihood of protected sex during events when women drank alcohol could be explained by partner choice (both analyses) and discussing condom use before sex (within-subjects analyses only). Conclusions: These findings challenge the common belief that women's alcohol use before sex necessarily increases the likelihood of unprotected sex but are consistent with several previous studies suggesting that alcohol use may be associated with protected sex under certain conditions. Results from this study highlight the need to better understand the complexities of how alcohol use may influence the sexual behavior of impoverished women. PMID:20105418

  4. Organizational Policy Recommendations for Control of STI/HIV among Female Sex Workers in China: Regular Examination of Workers in Social Hygiene Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Morisky, Donald E.; Urada, Lianne A.

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to address female sex workers at high risk for contracting HIV in China by recommending evidence-based socio-structural interventions and policies at the national level that have yielded effective outcomes in other countries. National governments such as the Philippines and Hong Kong have utilized the Social Hygiene Clinic (SHC) model. A similar national policy can be highly effective in China. Evidence-based research study results indicate significant reductions in STI and consistent condom use among female sex workers in both China and the Philippines. Consistent condom use in both countries continues to be significantly associated with interpersonal- and venue-level factors. Individuals who had higher appointment-keeping ratios in the Philippines had higher rates of consistent condom use (OR 2.7 95% CI=1.6 – 3.7) and significantly lower rates of STI (OR= .43, 95% CI= .26 – .57). By beginning with provinces, which already have a good relationship between establishment venues and the local Health Department, China can develop city ordinances and establishment regulations that begin to require regular examinations of female sex workers and entertainers in the local STI clinic. PMID:21660754

  5. Inequalities in Advice Provided by Public Health Workers to Women during Antenatal Sessions in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhishek; Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Ram, Faujdar; Ogollah, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Studies have widely documented the socioeconomic inequalities in maternal and child health related outcomes in developing countries including India. However, there is limited research on the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers on maternal and child health during antenatal visits. This paper investigates the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal visits in rural India. Methods and Findings The District Level Household Survey (2007–08) was used to compute rich-poor ratios and concentration indices. Binary logistic regressions were used to investigate inequalities in advice provided by public health workers. The dependent variables comprised the advice provided on seven essential components of maternal and child health care. A significant proportion of pregnant women who attended at least four ANC sessions were not advised on these components during their antenatal sessions. Only 51%–72% of the pregnant women were advised on at least one of the components. Moreover, socioeconomic inequalities in providing advice were significant and the provision of advice concentrated disproportionately among the rich. Inequalities were highest in the case of advice on family planning methods. Advice on breastfeeding was least unequal. Public health workers working in lower level health facilities were significantly less likely than their counterparts in the higher level health facilities to provide specific advice. Conclusion A significant proportion of women were not advised on recommended components of maternal and child health in rural India. Moreover, there were enormous socioeconomic inequalities. The findings of this study raise questions about the capacity of the public health care system in providing equitable services in India. The Government of India must focus on training and capacity building of the public health workers in communication skills so that they can deliver appropriate and recommended advice to all clients, irrespective of their socioeconomic status. PMID:23028688

  6. Factors associated with HIV among female sex workers in a high HIV prevalent state of India.

    PubMed

    Medhi, Gajendra Kumar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Laskar, Nabjyoti; Ngully, P

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur, Nagaland, a high HIV prevalence state of India. A total of 426 FSWs were recruited into the study using respondent driven sampling (RDS). Data on demographic characteristics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours were collected from them and were tested for HIV, Syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. RDS-weighted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity. Consistent condom use with regular and occasional sexual clients was 9% and 16.4%, respectively. About 25% of the participants ever used and 5.7% ever injected illicit drugs. RDS adjusted HIV prevalence was 11.6%. In the univariate analysis, factors associated with HIV were initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, ?2 years duration of sex work, serving clients at lodge/hotel, positive test result for one or more sexually transmitted infections (STIs), lifetime history of injecting drug use, lifetime history of consuming illicit drugs, ever having exchanged sex for drugs, having sexual partners who engaged in risky injecting practices and having been widowed or divorced. In multivariate analysis, factors found to be independently associated with HIV included lifetime injecting drug use, initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, positive test result for one or more STIs and having been widowed. Injecting drug use was found to be most potent independent risk factor for HIV (OR: 3.17, CI: 1.02-9.89). Because of lower consistent condom use among them, FSWs may act as bridge for HIV transmission to general population from injecting drug users (IDU) through their sexual clients. The informations from this study may be useful for enriching the HIV preventions effort for FSWs in this region. PMID:21902571

  7. The mothering experiences of sex-trafficked women: between here and there.

    PubMed

    Peled, Einat; Parker, Ayelet

    2013-10-01

    This qualitative study focuses on the mothering experiences of women from the former Soviet Union (FSU) who were sex-trafficked to Israel. In-depth interviews were conducted with 8 women who gave birth either in the FSU or in Israel. The women's stories reflect 3 experiential spheres, those of "the good mother," "the sacrificing mother," and "the mother who wants for herself." These mothering spheres were found to exist against the backdrop of a life between 2 countries, where the women's mothering is split between "here" and "there." Furthermore, it was found that the women's sex-trafficking experience continually threatened to invade the 3 mothering spheres and destabilize the balance among them. The splits and conflicts among the mothering spheres are examined from a gendered perspective with emphasis on mother-daughter relationships and on the social constructions of mothering and prostitution. PMID:24164529

  8. Sex trade among young women attending family-planning clinics in Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and nature of sex trade in a clinic-based sample of young women and to evaluate associations with sexual and reproductive health. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with women aged 16–29 years (n=1277) presenting to family-planning clinics in Northern California, USA. Results Overall, 8.1% of respondents indicated a lifetime history of trading sex for money or other resources. Sex trade was associated with unintended pregnancy (adjusted risk ratio [ARR] 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–1.48), multiple abortions (ARR 1.63; 95% CI, 1.19–2.23), STI diagnosis (ARR 1.46; 95% CI, 1.27–1.68), and unwanted sex (vaginal ARR 3.64; 95% CI, 2.39–5.56; anal ARR 4.99; 95% CI, 2.17–11.50). Of the women ever involved in sex trade, 12 (37.3%) reported that their first such experience was before they were 18 years of age. Conclusion Approximately 1 in 12 participants had been involved in sex trade, illustrating the presence of patients with this history within the family-planning clinical setting. Sex trade was associated with multiple indicators of poor sexual and reproductive health. Family-planning clinics may represent an underused mechanism for engaging this high-risk population. PMID:22356762

  9. Tricks of the Trade: Sexual Health Behaviors, the Context of HIV Risk, and Potential Prevention Intervention Strategies for Male Sex Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sari L. Reisner; Matthew J. Mimiaga; Kenneth H. Mayer; Jake P. Tinsley; Steven A. Safren

    2009-01-01

    Sex work is a significant risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM); however, there is a dearth of knowledge about how to reduce risk in this group. MSM sex workers (N = 32) completed a semistructured qualitative interview and a close-ended quantitative assessment. Analyses focused on themes relevant to intervention development.

  10. Identifying the HIV Transmission Bridge: Which Men Are Having Unsafe Sex with Female Sex Workers and with Their Own Wives or Steady Partners?

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Thomas L.; Volkmann, Tyson; Gallardo, Manuel; Goldenberg, Shira; Lozada, Remedios; Semple, Shirley J.; Anderson, Christy M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To gain insights into bridging behaviors and their correlates among male clients of female sex workers (FSWs). Methods Men aged ?18 years who recently paid or traded for sex with FSWs were recruited in Tijuana in 2008–2009. Participants underwent interviews and testing for HIV, chlamydia, syphilis, and gonorrhea. Logistic regression compared “bridgers” (clients who had unprotected sex with FSWs and with a wife or steady partner) with men who did not. Results Of 383 men, 134 (35%) had a steady partner. Half (n = 70) of those had unprotected sex with both FSWs and the steady partner. Prevalence of any STI or HIV was 16.5% among bridgers and 2.3% among non-bridgers. Compared to other clients, bridgers were more likely to use drugs during sex with FSWs (81.4% versus 46.9%, p < 0.0001), had higher sensation-seeking (p < 0.0001) and misogyny scores (p = 0.05), and were more likely to offer FSWs extra money for unprotected sex (34.4% versus 1.6%, p < 0.0001). Factors independently associated with bridging were: using drugs during sex with FSWs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.4, p = 0.007), sensation-seeking (AOR: 4.3 per unit increase, p = 0.05), and offering FSWs more money for unprotected sex (AOR: 24.5, p = 0.003). Conclusion Sensation-seeking clients who use drugs during sex and coerce FSWs into unprotected sex may be less responsive to standard risk reduction interventions. Interventions are needed that target clients rather than rely on FSWs to change behaviors that may not be under their control. PMID:22481603

  11. The organization of sex work in low- and high-priced venues with a focus on the experiences of ethnic minority women working in these venues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Zhuang, Kongshao; Henderson, Gail E; Shenglong, Quzhen; Fang, Jingwen; Yao, Huiqin; Qin, Jingxin; Yang, Yanzhen; Abler, Laurie

    2014-02-01

    Prior research on female sex workers (FSW) in China, and their risk for HIV and STI, neglects the nuanced experiences of ethnic minority FSW. We conducted participant observations and in-depth interviews with 33 FSW and six venue bosses to describe the experiences of FSW and management structures in low and high-priced sex work venues in Liuzhou, China. In low-priced venues, FSW had more autonomy and stronger relationships with their ethnic minority peers. Mid- and high-priced venues had more formal management structures. Ethnic minority FSW working in higher priced venues experienced less support and kinship with their peers. HIV/STI prevention outreach activities occurred in all of the venues, but they were not tailored for different venue types or for ethnic minority FSW. Our findings provide guidance for tailoring public health programs that meet the needs of ethnic minority women working in different types of sex work venues. PMID:23912337

  12. Prevalence and correlates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers and their non-commercial male partners in two Mexico-USA border cities.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Ulibarri, Monica D; Rangel, M Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-08-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) acquire HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) through unprotected sex with commercial and non-commercial (intimate) male partners. Little research has focused on FSWs' intimate relationships, within which condom use is rare. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV/STIs within FSWs' intimate relationships in Northern Mexico. From 2010 to 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of FSWs and their non-commercial male partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. Eligible FSWs and their verified male partners were aged ?18 years; FSWs reported lifetime use of heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine and recently exchanged sex (past month). Participants completed baseline questionnaires and testing for HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. We determined the prevalence and correlates of individuals' HIV/STI positivity using bivariate probit regression. Among 212 couples (n?=?424), prevalence of HIV was 2.6 % (n?=?11). Forty-two (9.9 %) tested positive for any HIV/STIs, which was more prevalent among women than men (12.7 % vs. 7.1 %, p?sex work clients were less likely to test positive for HIV/STIs than those without regular clients. Similarly, male partners of FSWs who had regular clients were 9 % less likely to have HIV/STIs. Higher sexual decision-making power was protective against HIV/STIs for women. Men who recently used methamphetamine or reported perpetrating any conflict within steady relationships were more likely to test positive for HIV/STIs. Within FSWs' intimate relationships in two Mexican-US border cities, nearly one in ten partners tested positive for HIV/STIs. Couple-based prevention interventions should recognize how intimate relationship factors and social contexts influence HIV/STI vulnerability. PMID:24488651

  13. Prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and risk behaviours among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya: results of a respondent driven sampling study.

    PubMed

    Musyoki, Helgar; Kellogg, Timothy A; Geibel, Scott; Muraguri, Nicholas; Okal, Jerry; Tun, Waimar; Fisher Raymond, H; Dadabhai, Sufia; Sheehy, Meredith; Kim, Andrea A

    2015-02-01

    We conducted a respondent driven sampling survey to estimate HIV prevalence and risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya. Women aged 18 years and older who reported selling sex to a man at least once in the past 3 months were eligible to participate. Consenting FSWs completed a behavioral questionnaire and were tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adjusted population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS analysis tool. Factors significantly associated with HIV infection were assessed using log-binomial regression analysis. A total of 596 eligible participants were included in the analysis. Overall HIV prevalence was 29.5 % (95 % CI 24.7-34.9). Median age was 30 years (IQR 25-38 years); median duration of sex work was 12 years (IQR 8-17 years). The most frequent client-seeking venues were bars (76.6 %) and roadsides (29.3 %). The median number of clients per week was seven (IQR 4-18 clients). HIV testing was high with 86.6 % reported ever been tested for HIV and, of these, 63.1 % testing within the past 12 months. Of all women, 59.7 % perceived themselves at 'great risk' for HIV infection. Of HIV-positive women, 51.0 % were aware of their infection. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, inconsistent condom use with paying clients, and use of a male condom as a method of contraception were independently associated with unrecognized HIV infection. Prevalence among STIs was low, ranging from 0.9 % for syphilis, 1.1 % for gonorrhea, and 3.1 % for Chlamydia. The data suggest high prevalence of HIV among FSWs in Nairobi. Targeted and routine HIV and STI combination prevention strategies need to be scaled up or established to meet the needs of this population. PMID:25428282

  14. HLA class I associations with rates of HIV-1 seroconversion and disease progression in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort.

    PubMed

    Peterson, T A; Kimani, J; Wachihi, C; Bielawny, T; Mendoza, L; Thavaneswaran, S; Narayansingh, M J; Kariri, T; Liang, B; Ball, T B; Ngugi, E N; Plummer, F A; Luo, M

    2013-02-01

    Class I human leukocyte antigens (HLA) play an important role in the adaptive immune response by presenting antigens to CD8+ T cells. Studies have reported that several HLA class I alleles are associated with differential disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, however, few class I associations with resistance or susceptibility to HIV-1 infection have been reported. We typed HLA-A, -B and -C of >1000 women enrolled in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort using a sequence-based typing method. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to identify alleles influencing seroconversion and disease progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (CD4?Women with any of these alleles are less likely to seroconvert [P?=?0.00001, odds ratio (OR): 0.503, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.320-0.790]. Conversely, A*23:01 (P?=?0.004), B*07:02 (P?=?0.003) and B*42:01 (P?=?0.025) are independently associated with rapid seroconversion. Women with any of these alleles are twice as likely to seroconvert (P?=?0.002, OR: 2.059, 95% CI: 1.290-3.285). The beneficial alleles confer threefold protection from seroconversion when compared with the susceptible alleles (P?=?0.000001, OR: 0.268, 95% CI: 0.132-0.544). B*07:02 is the contributing allele, within the B7 supertype, to the rapid seroconversion. A*74:01 (P?=?0.04/P?=?0.006), B*14 (P?=?0.003/P?=?0.003) and B*57:03 (P?=?0.012/P?=?0.038) are independently associated with slower CD4+ decline and LTNP phenotype, while B*07:02 (P?=?0.020), B*15:10 (P?=?0.022) and B*53:01 (P?=?0.007) are independently associated with rapid CD4+ T-cell decline. B7 supertype (P?=?0.00006), B*35*-Py (P?=?0.028) and B*35-Px (P?=?0.001) were also significantly associated with rapid CD4+ T-cell decline. Understanding why these HLA class I alleles are associated with protection/susceptibility to HIV-1 acquisition and disease progression could contribute to the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for HIV-1. PMID:23330720

  15. Sex Work and Drug Use in a Subculture of Violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilary L. Surratt; James A. Inciardi; Steven P. Kurtz; Marion C. Kiley

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the subculture of violence thesis as it relates to female street sex workers in Miami. Interview and focus group methods were used to study the intersections of childhood trauma, drug use, and violent victimization among 325 women. Using targeted sampling, crack- and heroin-using sex workers were recruited through street outreach into an HIV-prevention research program. Interviews used

  16. Sex Work and Drug Use in a Subculture of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surratt, Hilary L.; Inciardi, James A.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Kiley, Marion C.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the subculture of violence thesis as it relates to female street sex workers in Miami. Interview and focus group methods were used to study the intersections of childhood trauma, drug use, and violent victimization among 325 women. Using targeted sampling, crack- and heroin-using sex workers were recruited through street…

  17. [Negotiating safer sex].

    PubMed

    Gordon, G; Charnock, D

    1991-01-01

    Women have generally assumed responsibility for contraception since the appearance of oral contraceptives and IUDs. But AIDS prevention programs are now asking women to assume responsibility for safer sex through use of condoms, a male method. Women are being asked to carry condoms, to negotiate their use each time they have sex, and to insist if the partner resists. The problem with this strategy is that frequently it is the male partner who makes sexual decisions, and women have less negotiating power. Women are considered feminine if they assume a passive role in sexual activity. This work suggests strategies to improve the negotiating power of women. Options and problems of speaking about safer sex vary in accordance with the nature of the relationship. A woman with a new partner can try to ascertain his sexual history, but may gain no information on his probable health even if he tells her the truth. It may be easier to convince him to use a condom at least in the beginning of the romance. Women working in the sex industry often have greater trouble convincing their friends and lovers to use a condom than their clients. Some family planning workers have begun to speak of safer sex with all their clients. Role playing and workshops or discussions with small groups of women having similar problems may help women overcome their reticence about discussing sexual topics. Some general suggestions to help women negotiate safer sex include choosing an opportune moment and planning in advance what to say; daring to speak directly without beating around the bush (the partner may also be gathering courage to speak); practicing placing condoms on objects and if necessary placing one on the partner without speaking; being honest with the partner about sex, love, and fidelity; and remembering that protection from condoms is mutual given that it is not possible to know who is infected. Until now, programs to help women practice safer sex have concentrated on sex industry workers or family planning clients. Adolescents are a particularly vulnerable group because of their usual lack of knowledge when the initiate their sex lives. Some sex education classes are beginning to include materials instructing young girls in how to negotiate with boys seeking sexual favors. Printed materials such as simple pamphlets made available by family planning programs to young people can help to raise the topics of HIV infection and safer sex. Greater societal awareness of the problem and improvements in the opportunities for women to exercise their basic rights will be needed to ensure all women the power to protect their own health. PMID:12285215

  18. Women with Intellectual Disabilities Talk about Their Perceptions of Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernert, D. J.; Ogletree, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sexuality is learned through sexual socialisation that women with intellectual disabilities (IDs) understand and express. Rules of sexual engagement for these women can include barriers for their socialisation, intimate partner selection, and sexual expression. These rules can become more limiting when coupled with rules of femininity…

  19. Where Sex Ends and Emotions Begin: Love and HIV Risk among Female Sex Workers and their Intimate, Non-Commercial Partners along the Mexico-U.S. Border

    PubMed Central

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Robertson, Angela M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the affective dimensions of female sex workers’ relationships with their intimate, non-commercial partners and assesses how emotions shape each partner’s sexual and drug-related risk within their relationship. We draw on qualitative data from a study of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and high risk behaviours among female sex workers and their non-commercial partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, to illustrate that these couples share relationships based on love, trust, respect, and emotional and material support. These relationships ranged in emotional intensity, which shaped partners’ decisions not to use condoms with each other. Drugs were important in most couples’ relationships. Among injectors, syringe sharing was common and represented both a sign of care and a pragmatic reaction to conditions of material scarcity. Our findings suggest that couple-based HIV interventions to address dual sexual and drug-related risks should be tailored to the emotional dynamics of sex workers’ intimate relationships. PMID:23473586

  20. Sex-Role Identity, Sex-Role Attitudes, and Women's Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Sheryl F.

    Results from comparable studies on the experimental arousal of achievement motivation with female subjects are often inconsistent and contradictory with the findings for males. The sex-role identity, sex-role attitudes, and experimental arousal of achievement motivation were investigated for 180 female undergraduate subjects. Experimental and…

  1. Men (and women) as "sellers" of sex in alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Watt, Melissa H; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria

    2014-06-01

    The relationship between transactional sex, HIV risk, and partner violence has been well documented in South Africa, but research has focused primarily on women and has not been conducted in high-risk social contexts. The aim of this study was to examine associations between transactional sex and HIV risk among women and men in alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa. We surveyed 1,989 women and 2,468 men attending alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa to assess transactional sex behavior (i.e., receiving money or goods in exchange for sex), alcohol and drug use, history of childhood abuse, current relationship violence, and sexual risk behaviors. Among both women and men, trading sex was related to higher alcohol use, greater likelihood of drug use, substance use in sexual contexts, and a greater likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Compared to other women, women who traded sex reported a greater proportion of condom-unprotected sex; this relationship was not found for men. Analyses showed that men were almost twice as more likely to report trading sex for items, including money or alcohol, than women (9.7 vs. 5.8 %). Overall, men who traded sex were similar to their female counterparts. Similar associations between trading sex and different risk behaviors were found among women and men with limited economic means and substance use problems. Future research should more closely study transactional sex in high-risk venues as it relates to violence and should examine men who trade sex as a potential bridge population between heterosexual women and men who have sex with men. PMID:23494405

  2. Gender inequity in the lives of women involved in sex work in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mbonye, Martin; Nalukenge, Winifred; Nakamanya, Sarah; Nalusiba, Betty; King, Rachel; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Background Gender inequity is manifested in the social and economic burden women carry in relation to men. We investigate women's experiences of gender relations from childhood to adult life and how these may have led to and kept women in sex work. Methods Participants were drawn from an ongoing epidemiological cohort study of women working in high HIV/STI risk environments in Kampala. From over 1000 enrolled women, we selected 101 for a qualitative sub-study. This analysis focuses on 58 women who engaged in sex work either as a main job or as a side job. In-depth life history interviews were conducted to capture points of vulnerability that enhance gender inequity throughout their lives. Results Most participants were young, single parents, poorly educated, who occupied low skilled and poorly paying jobs. All women knew their HIV status and they disclosed this in the interview; 31 were uninfected while 27 said they were infected. Parental neglect in childhood was reported by many. Participants described experiences of violence while growing up sometimes perpetuated by relatives and teachers. Early unwanted pregnancies were common and for many led to leaving school. Some women stated a preference for multiple and short-term money-driven sexual relationships. Needing to earn money for child care was often the main reason for starting and persisting with sex work. Violence perpetrated by clients and the police was commonly reported. Alcohol and drug use was described as a necessary “evil” for courage and warmth, but sometimes this affected clear decision making. Many felt powerless to bargain for and maintain condom use. Leaving sex work was considered but rarely implemented. Conclusions Inequities in gender and power relations reduce economic and social opportunities for better lives among women and increase risky sexual behaviour. Interventions focused on these inequities that also target men are crucial in improving safer practices and reducing risk. PMID:22713353

  3. Perceived Risks and Benefits of Sex Work among Transgender Women of Color in San Francisco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lydia A. Sausa; JoAnne Keatley; Don Operario

    2007-01-01

    Prior research has shown that male-to-female (MTF) transgender women of color in the United States have a high rate of HIV\\u000a infection and often engage in sex work for economic survival. With the exception of studies on HIV prevalence and behavioral\\u000a risk, little research exists to elucidate the social context and determinants of sex work and related health risks among

  4. A Qualitative Assessment of the Sex Education Needs of Married Iranian Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khosro Refaie Shirpak; Maryam Chinichian; Eleanor Maticka-Tyndale; Hassan Eftekhar Ardebili; Abolghasem Pourreza; Ali Ramenzankhani

    2008-01-01

    Despite a comprehensive reproductive health program there is little sex education available in Iran. In this article we present\\u000a results of a study conducted to identify content area for a proposed sex education program for married Iranian women. Twenty-one\\u000a married female clients (23–45 years) and 18 reproductive health providers, recruited from urban health clinics in Tehran using\\u000a non-probability sampling, participated in

  5. Ischaemic heart disease in women: are there sex differences in pathophysiology and risk factors?

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarino, Viola; Badimon, Lina; Corti, Roberto; de Wit, Cor; Dorobantu, Maria; Hall, Alistair; Koller, Akos; Marzilli, Mario; Pries, Axel; Bugiardini, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women, and knowledge of the clinical consequences of atherosclerosis and CVD in women has grown tremendously over the past 20 years. Research efforts have increased and many reports on various aspects of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in women have been published highlighting sex differences in pathophysiology, presentation, and treatment of IHD. Data, however, remain limited. A description of the state of the science, with recognition of the shortcomings of current data, is necessary to guide future research and move the field forward. In this report, we identify gaps in existing literature and make recommendations for future research. Women largely share similar cardiovascular risk factors for IHD with men; however, women with suspected or confirmed IHD have less coronary atherosclerosis than men, even though they are older and have more cardiovascular risk factors than men. Coronary endothelial dysfunction and microvascular disease have been proposed as important determinants in the aetiology and prognosis of IHD in women, but research is limited on whether sex differences in these mechanisms truly exist. Differences in the epidemiology of IHD between women and men remain largely unexplained, as we are still unable to explain why women are protected towards IHD until older age compared with men. Eventually, a better understanding of these processes and mechanisms may improve the prevention and the clinical management of IHD in women. PMID:21159671

  6. Condom use among female sex workers in Catalonia: why do they use a condom, why don't they use it?

    PubMed

    Lazar, Catalina; Sanclemente, Cristina; Ferrer, Laia; Folch, Cinta; Casabona, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    The present study, based on social representation theory (Moscovici, 1961), aimed to identify the social representation of condom use (CU) in a collective of female sex workers (FSW) in Catalonia, considering both their work and private life. It involved 124 FSW and combined both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Results suggest that both CU and non-CU represent strategies that FSW use mainly when confronted by threats to things they consider important. In work life, where CU is widespread, the most important thing is health protection, and the threat is represented by sexually transmitted infections. In private life, where non-CU is widespread, the most important thing is that their relationships adhere to an idealized relationship model, based on love, trust, and sexual gratification; this model lies in contrast to the status of the women as FSW. The threats are represented by both partner infidelity and their FSW status (symbolic threats). PMID:25915702

  7. Impact of a Social Influence Intervention on Condom Use and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Establishment-Based Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morisky, Donald E.; Stein, Judith A.; Chiao, Chi; Ksobiech, Kate; Malow, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the relative impact of structural and social influence interventions on reducing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV risk behavior among female sex workers in the Philippines (N = 897). Four conditions included manager influence, peer influence, combined manager–peer influence, and control. Intervention effects were assessed at the establishment level in multilevel models because of statistical dependencies among women employed within the same establishments. Control group membership predicted greater perceived risk, less condom use, less HIV/AIDS knowledge, and more negative condom attitudes. Combination participants reported more positive condom attitudes, more establishment policies favoring condom use, and fewer STIs. Manager-only participants reported fewer STIs, lower condom attitudes, less knowledge, and higher perceived risk than peer-only participants. Because interventions were implemented at the city level, baseline and follow-up city differences were analyzed to rule out intervention effects due to preexisting differences. PMID:17014277

  8. Sexual assertiveness in low-income African American women: unwanted sex, survival, and HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Whyte Iv, James

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of social variables related to sexual relationships in African American women. The study used a quantitative descriptive design to gather data from a convenience sample of 524 African American women aged 18 to 49 who dwelled in the southeastern United States. The study utilized the HIV Risk Behavior Questionnaire to determine the participant's level of HIV risk. Results indicated substantial levels of sex in the women due to violence or fear of violence, relationship loss, lost shelter, and high levels of unwanted sex. There was a positive correlation between level of survival sex and high-risk behavior (R = .651, p < .01). Multiple correlations indicated associations between history of forced sex and sex due to fear of violence (R = .604, p < .01). Further correlations indicated a pattern of association between poverty, age, and sex out of fear of relationship loss or shelter loss. The study indicates a need for a broader definition of HIV-related risk in high-risk populations. PMID:17064233

  9. Occupation and Subclinical Carotid Artery Disease in Women: Are Clerical Workers at Greater Risk?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda C. Gallo; Wendy M. Troxel; Karen A. Matthews; Linda Jansen-McWilliams; Lewis H. Kuller; Kim Sutton-Tyrrell

    2003-01-01

    The current study examined cardiovascular risk factors and carotid atherosclerosis in 362 women (ages 42–50 years) who were working in clerical, blue-collar, or white-collar jobs or who were not employed. Risk factors were measured premenopausally and ultrasound measures of carotid atherosclerosis were obtained approximately 11 years later. Clerical and blue-collar workers had more atherogenic profiles on physical, behavioral, and psychosocial

  10. Abnormal Pap tests and human papillomavirus infections among HIV infected and uninfected women who have sex with women

    PubMed Central

    Massad, L. Stewart; Xie, Xianhong; Minkoff, Howard; Darragh, Teresa M.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Sanchez-Keeland, Lorraine; Watts, D. Heather; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the frequency of abnormal Pap and human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity among HIV seropositive and seronegative women who have sex with women (WSW). Methods Pap and HPV DNA PCR tests were obtained every six months from women in a U.S. cohort of HIV seropositive and seronegative women. WSW were women reporting no male and at least one female sex partner over five years. WSW were frequency matched 1:5 to women reporting sex only with men (WSM) and assessed using multivariable generalized estimating equation logistic regression models. Results Paps at study entry were abnormal in 12 (21%) of 49 HIV seropositive WSW, 151 (64%) of 245 HIV seropositive WSM, 3 (9%) of 24 HIV seronegative WSW, and 16 (11%) of 120 seronegative WSM. HPV was found at entry in 18 (42%) HIV seropositive WSW, 109 (52%) HIV seropositive WSM, 6 (27%) HIV seronegative WSW and 13 (13%) HIV seronegative WSM. After controlling for HIV serostatus and CD4 count, WSW had marginally lower odds than WSM of Pap abnormality (O.R. 0.59, 95% C.I. 0.33, 1.03) and of HPV (O.R. 0.53, 95% C.I. 0.32, 0.89). After controlling for partner gender, HIV seropositivity and lower CD4 count were associated with any HPV, oncogenic HPV, any abnormal Pap result, and HSIL or worse (P < 0.0001 for all). Conclusion While risks for abnormal Pap and HPV are modestly lower in WSW than WSM, both are common in HIV seropositive women regardless of sexual preference. WSW and WSM should be screened similarly. PMID:23959300

  11. Knowledge, attitude, and preventive practice survey regarding AIDS comparing registered to freelance commercial sex workers in Iloilo City, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Liu, T I; So, R

    1996-12-01

    A survey of female commercial sex workers (CSW) in Iloilo City, Philipines, was conducted in October and November 1995 to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding HIV/AIDS to guide future education programs. CSWs in the Philippines were categorized as registered or freelance. Registered CSWs included "hospitality girls" from licensed bars, night clubs, and massage parlors who have registered with the local social hygiene clinic (SHC). Freelance CSWs are not registered. 110 registered and 46 freelance CSWs were surveyed. We compared demographic data, scores from a basic knowledge test, and preventive practices between registered and freelance CSWs. Demographic data indicate that registered CSWs often originate from provinces outside of the Visayan Islands (25%) and most have never been married (93%). Freelance CSWs included more married (11%) and separated (11%) women from nearby cities. Knowledge test scores of registered and freelance CSWs were not significantly different. 90-96% of CSWs correctly answered questions regarding modes of transmission. However, 25% still believed it is possible to contract AIDS from using a public restroom. Registered and freelance CSWs believed their risks for AIDS to be equally great. However, 38% of freelance CSWs admit to never or almost never using condoms compared to 15% of registered CSWs. Licensed establishments and a support staff at the social hygiene clinic may provide a relatively structured working environment, giving registered CSWs security and confidence to insist on condom use. In most cases, condom use seems to depend on male customer compliance, and CSWs, especially freelancers, cannot afford to insist on condom use. The CSWs indicated that they learned most about AIDS through health personnel and television. PMID:9253869

  12. Navigating the Risk Environment: Structural Vulnerability, Sex, and Reciprocity Among Women Who Use Meth

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Stacey A.

    2013-01-01

    Drug users’ risky sexual practices contribute to their increased risk for contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Use of methamphetamine has been associated with a number of high-risk sexual practices such as frequent sexual contacts, multiple sex partners, unprotected sex, and exchange sex. The media construct women who use meth as engaging in exchange sex to support their drug habit. Despite an abundance of data on exchange sex among heroin and crack users that suggest the importance of examining these practices in context, they remain understudied among female methamphetamine users. This article draws on preliminary findings from ongoing ethnography with female meth users to highlight the risk environment(s) that contribute to structural vulnerability and shape behaviour. While their sexual practices may be deemed transactional and risky, understanding their embeddedness in structural context and networks of reciprocity is essential to understanding implications for policy and harm reduction. PMID:24140170

  13. Contraceptive Utilization and Pregnancy Termination Among Female Sex Workers in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Abdul; Raza Stanekzai, Mohammad; Scott, Paul T.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Botros, Boulos A.; Tjaden, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background To determine the prevalence and correlates of prior pregnancy termination and unmet need for contraception among female sex workers (FSWs) in Afghanistan. Methods FSWs in Jalalabad, Kabul, and Mazar-i-Sharif were recruited between June 2006 and December 2007 through outreach programs. Participants completed an interviewer-administered survey describing demographics, behaviors associated with risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancy, and medical history. Correlates of prior pregnancy termination and current unmet need for contraception were assessed with logistic regression analysis, controlling for site. Results Of 520 FSWs, most (82.3%) had been pregnant at least once (mean 4.9?±?2.7, range 1–17), among whom unplanned pregnancy (36.9%) and termination (33.2%) were common. Jalalabad participants were more likely to report both prior unplanned pregnancy (60.6% vs. 48.3% in Kabul or 20.7% in Mazar, p?sex outside their city of residence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-2.77) and inversely associated with illicit drug use (AOR 0.41, 95% CI 0.31-0.53). Conclusions Although FSWs in Afghanistan report high rates of contraceptive use, unplanned pregnancy is common. Reproductive health services should be included in programming for FSWs to reduce unplanned pregnancies and to reduce HIV/STI risks. PMID:20879869

  14. Sexuality Information Seeking and Sexual Function Among Women Attending In-Home Sex Toy Parties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristen N. Jozkowski; Vanessa Schick; Debby Herbenick; Michael Reece

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Outside traditional risk-oriented public health campaigns, few sexuality education opportunities exist for adult women, particularly those in partnered relationships, that address issues related to sexual desire and pleasure. Data were collected from 677 women attending in-home sex toy parties to assess whether they sought sexuality-related information at a recent party they attended. Participants reported asking 765 questions at parties.

  15. Biomarker validation of recent unprotected sexual intercourse in a prospective study of young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jennifer L.; Couture, Marie-Claude; Stein, Ellen S.; Sansothy, Neth; Maher, Lisa; Page, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Summary A study of female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia found self-reported condom use to be of questionable validity, particularly among amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) users and those with multiple partners. Background Accurate measurement of unprotected sex is essential in HIV prevention research. Since 2001, the 100% Condom Use Program targeting female sex workers (FSW) has been a central element of the Cambodian National HIV/AIDS Strategy. We sought to assess the validity of self-reported condom use using the rapid prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test among Cambodian FSW. Methods From 2009 to 2010 we enrolled 183 FSW in Phnom Penh in a prospective study of HIV risk behavior. PSA test results from the OneStep ABAcard® were compared to self-reported condom use in the past 48 hours at quarterly follow-up visits. Results Among women positive for seminal fluid at the first follow-up visit, 42% reported only protected sex or no sex in the detection period. Discordant results were more likely among brothel and street-based FSW vs. entertainment (56% vs. 17%), recent (last 3 months) ATS users (53% vs. 20%), and those with >5 partners in the past month (58% vs. 13%). In multivariable regression models, positive PSA results were associated with recent ATS use (Adjusted Risk Ratio (ARR) = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.1 – 2.2), having a non-paying last sex partner (ARR=1.7; CI:1.2 – 2.5), and sex work venue (ARR=3.0; CI:1.4 – 6.5). Correspondingly, women with a non-paying last sex partner were more likely to report unprotected sex (ARR=1.5; CI:1.1 – 2.2), but no associations were found with sex work venue or ATS use. Conclusions Results confirm the questionable validity of self-reported condom use among FSW. The PSA biomarker assay is an important monitoring tool in HIV/STI research including prevention trials. PMID:23680902

  16. Psychological fears among low-paid female sex workers in southwest China and their implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    Commercial sex plays a critical role in rapidly increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. Low-paid female sex workers (FSWs) are especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Because of the illegality and stigma associated with sex work, FSWs may constantly live with fears in their daily life. Based on cross-sectional study of 794 low-paid FSWs in China we described their psychological fears related to commercial sex and examined the associations between fears and HIV-related behaviors. Fear of HIV infection was significantly associated with consistent use of condoms with clients. However, fear of breaching sex worker identity significantly prevented the FSWs from consistently using condoms with clients and taking HIV tests. Fear of being arrested by the police was positively associated with consistent use of condoms but negatively associated with accessing HIV prevention services. Our findings underlined the importance of examining the triadic interaction of behavioral, psychological and environmental factors in HIV prevention interventions among low-paid FSWs. PMID:25330242

  17. Sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviour among youth clients of hotel-based female sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Haseen, F; Chawdhury, F A H; Hossain, M E; Huq, M; Bhuiyan, M U; Imam, H; Rahman, D M M; Gazi, R; Khan, S I; Kelly, R; Ahmed, J; Rahman, M

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among youth clients of hotel-based female sex workers (YCHBFSWs) in nine randomly selected hotels in Bangladesh to examine sexual-risk behaviour, condom use and determinants of condom use in last sex, knowledge of HIV, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and STI care-seeking behaviour. A prestructured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, behavioural, clinical information; urine specimens (before sex) and blood were collected for diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) infection. One thousand and thirteen participants were enroled in the study. Approximately half of them reported visiting female sex workers (FSWs) at least once a month and 25% visited FSWs at least once a week. Only 12% of participants reported regular condom use. The prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, syphilis and HSV2 was 2.2%, 3.9%, 7.2%, 2.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Only 15.3% of the YCHBFSW sought STI care in the past year. Negotiation of condom use with FSWs was the main determinant (odds ratio = 17.95) for condom use at last sex. Male clients of FSWs, including YCHBFSW, are an important bridge population for HIV transmission in Bangladesh and HIV interventions should be designed and implemented for them. PMID:22930291

  18. The politics of invisibility: homophobia and low-income HIV-positive women who have sex with women.

    PubMed

    Arend, Elizabeth D

    2005-01-01

    HIV-positive women who have sex with women (WSW) have been overlooked by government researchers, health care providers and the AIDS service community. In addition to stigmas against homosexuality and HIV in larger society, low-income, African-American and Latina HIV-positive WSWs face culturally-based stigmas and are disproportionately affected by poverty, drug addiction, homelessness, sex work and abuse. Through an analysis of sixteen intensive interviews with low-income HIV-positive WSWs of color, I critically examine the physical, emotional and psychological needs of this population and their methods of coping with HIV. I also examine the participants' percepHIV-positive women who have sex with women (WSW) have been overlooked by government researchers, health care providers and the AIDS service community. In addition to stigmas against homosexuality and HIV in larger society, low-income, African-American and Latina HIV-positive WSWs face culturally-based stigmas and are disproportionately affected by poverty, drug addiction, homelessness, sex work and abuse. Through an analysis of sixteen intensive interviews with low-income HIV-positive WSWs of color, I critically examine the physical, emotional and psychological needs of this population and their methods of coping with HIV. I also examine the participants' percepHIV-positive women who have sex with women (WSW) have been overlooked by government researchers, health care providers and the AIDS service community. In addition to stigmas against homosexuality and HIV in larger society, low-income, African-American and Latina HIV-positive WSWs face culturally-based stigmas and are disproportionately affected by poverty, drug addiction, homelessness, sex work and abuse. Through an analysis of sixteen intensive interviews with low-income HIV-positive WSWs of color, I critically examine the physical, emotional and psychological needs of this population and their methods of coping with HIV. I also examine the participants' perceptions of available support networks and patterns of disclosure in order to raise awareness of their struggle against HIV and homophobia and to assist in empowering the low-income HIV-positive WSW community. PMID:16048887

  19. Systematic review of facility-based sexual and reproductive health services for female sex workers in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several biological, behavioural, and structural risk factors place female sex workers (FSWs) at heightened risk of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and other adverse sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. FSW projects in many settings have demonstrated effective ways of altering this risk, improving the health and wellbeing of these women. Yet the optimum delivery model of FSW projects in Africa is unclear. This systematic review describes intervention packages, service-delivery models, and extent of government involvement in these services in Africa. Methods On 22 November 2012, we searched Web of Science and MEDLINE, without date restrictions, for studies describing clinical and non-clinical facility-based SRH prevention and care services for FSWs in low- and middle-income countries in Africa. We also identified articles in key non-indexed journals and on websites of international organizations. A single reviewer screened titles and abstracts, and extracted data from articles using standardised tools. Results We located 149 articles, which described 54 projects. Most were localised and small-scale; focused on research activities (rather than on large-scale service delivery); operated with little coordination, either nationally or regionally; and had scanty government support (instead a range of international donors generally funded services). Almost all sites only addressed HIV prevention and STIs. Most services distributed male condoms, but only 10% provided female condoms. HIV services mainly encompassed HIV counselling and testing; few offered HIV care and treatment such as CD4 testing or antiretroviral therapy (ART). While STI services were more comprehensive, periodic presumptive treatment was only provided in 11 instances. Services often ignored broader SRH needs such as family planning, cervical cancer screening, and gender-based violence services. Conclusions Sex work programmes in Africa have limited coverage and a narrow scope of services and are poorly coordinated with broader HIV and SRH services. To improve FSWs’ health and reduce onward HIV transmission, access to ART needs to be addressed urgently. Nevertheless, HIV prevention should remain the mainstay of services. Service delivery models that integrate broader SRH services and address structural risk factors are much needed. Government-led FSW services of high quality and scale would markedly reduce SRH vulnerabilities of FSWs in Africa. PMID:24916010

  20. Working Girls: Abuse or Choice in Street-Level Sex Work? A Study of Homeless Women in Nottingham

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Harding; Paul Hamilton

    2009-01-01

    SummaryThis paper uses fifteen indices of abuse and a definition of ‘coercion’ as ‘constraint, restraint, compulsion; the application of force to control the action of a voluntary agent’ (OED Online, 2006) to explore how homeless women understand their choice to sex work. Twenty-six homeless women were interviewed, nine of whom had sex worked. A structured, qualitative questionnaire was used in

  1. Reductions in HIV/STI Incidence and Sharing of Injection Equipment among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Abramovitz, Daniela; Lozada, Remedios; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Staines, Hugo; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluated brief combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico during 2008–2010, when harm reduction coverage was expanding rapidly in Tijuana, but less so in Juarez. Methods FSW-IDUs ?18 years reporting sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients within the last month participated in a randomized factorial trial comparing four brief, single-session conditions combining either an interactive or didactic version of a sexual risk intervention to promote safer sex in the context of drug use, and an injection risk intervention to reduce sharing of needles/injection paraphernalia. Women underwent quarterly interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas, blinding interviewers and assessors to assignment. Poisson regression with robust variance estimation and repeated measures ordinal logistic regression examined effects on combined HIV/STI incidence and receptive needle sharing frequency. Findings Of 584 initially HIV-negative FSW-IDUs, retention was ?90%. After 12 months, HIV/STI incidence decreased >50% in the interactive vs. didactic sex intervention (Tijuana:AdjRR:0.38,95% CI:0.16–0.89; Juarez: AdjRR:0.44,95% CI:0.19–0.99). In Juarez, women receiving interactive vs. didactic injection risk interventions decreased receptive needle-sharing by 85% vs. 71%, respectively (p?=?0.04); in Tijuana, receptive needle sharing declined by 95%, but was similar in active versus didactic groups. Tijuana women reported significant increases in access to syringes and condoms, but Juarez women did not. Interpretation After 12 months in both cities, the interactive sexual risk intervention significantly reduced HIV/STI incidence. Expanding free access to sterile syringes coupled with brief, didactic education on safer injection was necessary and sufficient for achieving robust, sustained injection risk reductions in Tijuana. In the absence of expanding syringe access in Juarez, the injection risk intervention achieved significant, albeit more modest reductions, suggesting that community-level interventions incorporating harm reduction are more powerful than individual-level interventions. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00840658 PMID:23785451

  2. Sex, desire and pleasure: considering the experiences of older Australian women

    PubMed Central

    Fileborn, Bianca; Thorpe, Rachel; Hawkes, Gail; Minichiello, Victor; Pitts, Marian; Dune, Tinashe

    2015-01-01

    Older age is often associated with asexuality. That is, older individuals are not viewed as desiring of sex, nor as sexually desirable to others. Broader social and cultural norms that downplay women's sexual desire and agency further compound these phenomena. Whether this popular image accurately reflects older women's sexual desires, behaviour and capacity to experience pleasure is unclear. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 43 partnered Australian women aged 55–81, this article considers women's sexual experiences and desires in older age. The findings of our research confirm that older women's experiences of sex and sexual desire are diverse and fluid. Some of the factors that influenced participants’ sexual behaviour and desire will be considered in this article, as will their understandings of what “counts” as sexual satisfaction and “successful sex”. The factors affecting sexual behaviour and desire also influence the way in which women are able to negotiate sexual interaction with their partners. Participants expressed a need for education and resources in order to gain greater control and to make autonomous choices over their sexual experiences, desire and ability to give and receive pleasure. The implications of these findings for practitioners are also considered. PMID:25544829

  3. Working to Prevent HIV\\/STIs Among Women in the Sex Industry in a Rural Town of Hainan, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Su-Su Liao; Qi-Ya He; Kyung-Hee Choi; Esther S. Hudes; Jin-Fang Liao; Xiao-Chun Wang; Min Liu; Wen-Li Pan; Jeffrey S. Mandel

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated a two-phase HIV\\/STIs prevention intervention for female sex workers in a resource-limited rural town in Hainan\\u000a Province, China. The primary intervention strategy, conducted from 1997 to 2000, was a condom promotion campaign conducted\\u000a through outreach to sex workers. Four serial cross-sectional surveys were carried out before and after the intervention. Over\\u000a a period of 2 years, reported condom use

  4. Unruly women and invisible workers: the shrimp traders of Mazatlán, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Torres, María L

    2012-01-01

    During the 1980s, a group of women from rural communities in the Mexican state of Sinaloa organized a grassroots social movement in order to gain legal access to the sale of shrimp. The movement reached its peak in 1984, with the formation of a shrimp traders union and the establishment of a shrimp marketplace in the tourist city of Mazatlán. Despite the long trajectory of the movement and the success of the shrimp market, these women and their work have been completely ignored by government agencies in charge of the development and management of the fishing industry. For the most part, one gets to read about the shrimp traders only in tourist-oriented brochures depicting them as a “local attraction,” something to be seen while one is touring the city on a private charter bus en route to the Archaeological Museum or to the upscale jewelry shops in the Golden Zone. In this article, I examine how women used their gender and their identity as rural workers to defy the state and its policies, overcome poverty, and take control of the local marketing of shrimp. Another objective of this article is to show why and how women engaged in collective action so they could be legitimized as workers and how gender shaped their individual experiences. PMID:22545273

  5. Unprotected sex of homeless women living in Los Angeles county: an investigation of the multiple levels of risk.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David P; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; Golinelli, Daniela; Ryan, Gery W; Beckman, Robin; Zhou, Annie

    2010-08-01

    This research uses multi-level modeling to investigate the context of unprotected sex of homeless women. Based on interviews with 429 randomly selected women living in temporary shelter settings in Los Angeles, this project investigates multiple levels of influence on unprotected sex with particular partners. Previous studies have investigated condom use of homeless women primarily at the individual level. This project investigates unprotected sex at the level of the partnership, the individual woman, and her social network. Homeless women who believe in the efficacy of condoms to prevent HIV infection, believe that they have low susceptibility to HIV and have a greater proportion of their non-sex partner social network ties with whom they speak about HIV are less likely to engage in unprotected sex. Women are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior in relationships in which they have high commitment to their partner and experience physical violence. PMID:19876728

  6. Application of condoms on male clients by female sex workers in Yerevan, Armenia: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Darbinyan, Nelli; Lang, Delia L; Diclemente, Ralph J; Joseph, Jesse B; Markosyan, Karine

    2011-09-01

    This study sought to assess the prevalence of consistent condom application on male clients by female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia and its association with demographic, psychosocial and behavioural factors. In this cross-sectional study, 120 street-based FSWs aged 20-52 completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The primary outcome measure was consistent application of condoms by FSWs on their male clients. A total of 21.7% of participants reported consistently applying condoms on clients. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that higher condom use self-efficacy (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR=1.1; p=0.01), lower perceived condom use barriers (AOR=0.9; p=0.04) and not using douching as a method to prevent STI/HIV (AOR=4.8; p=0.04) significantly predicted consistent condom application. Higher HIV/AIDS knowledge was a marginally significant predictor of condom application (AOR=1.3; p=0.05). Future interventions should address these modifiable factors to encourage FSWs to apply condoms on clients themselves, which may reduce condom failure and exposure to HIV transmission. PMID:21535906

  7. Challenges to recruiting population representative samples of female sex workers in China using Respondent Driven Sampling.

    PubMed

    Merli, M Giovanna; Moody, James; Smith, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Weir, Sharon; Chen, Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    We explore the network coverage of a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in China recruited through Respondent Drive Sampling (RDS) as part of an effort to evaluate the claim of RDS of population representation with empirical data. We take advantage of unique information on the social networks of FSWs obtained from two overlapping studies--RDS and a venue-based sampling approach (PLACE)--and use an exponential random graph modeling (ERGM) framework from local networks to construct a likely network from which our observed RDS sample is drawn. We then run recruitment chains over this simulated network to assess the assumption that the RDS chain referral process samples participants in proportion to their degree and the extent to which RDS satisfactorily covers certain parts of the network. We find evidence that, contrary to assumptions, RDS oversamples low degree nodes and geographically central areas of the network. Unlike previous evaluations of RDS which have explored the performance of RDS sampling chains on a non-hidden population, or the performance of simulated chains over previously mapped realistic social networks, our study provides a robust, empirically grounded evaluation of the performance of RDS chains on a real-world hidden population. PMID:24834869

  8. Bridging Sexual Boundaries: Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women in a Street-Based Sample in Los Angeles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamina M. Gorbach; Ryan Murphy; Robert E. Weiss; Christopher Hucks-Ortiz; Steven Shoptaw

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the potential contribution of bisexual men to the spread of HIV in Los Angeles.\\u000a We compare the characteristics and behaviors of men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) to men who have sex with only women\\u000a (MSW) and men who have sex with only men (MSM) in Los Angeles. Men

  9. New Research on Women & Sex Roles at the Univeristy of Michigan. Papers on Changing Sex Roles; Work, Family and Change; Status, Power and Politics; Women and Men: In Marriage and Out; Women in Higher Education; Women in Literature; Women in Media; Directions and Needs of New Research on Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, Dorothy G., Ed.

    These papers written by University of Michigan scholars, represent a culling of the rich and diverse research recently completed or underway that deals in some way with the broad topic of women and sex roles in society. The papers were presented at a conference sponsored in the spring of 1975 by the Center for Continuing Education of Women, which…

  10. Circular Migration by Mexican Female Sex Workers Who are Injection Drug Users: Implications for HIV in Mexican Sending Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria D. Ojeda; José Luis Burgos; Sarah P. Hiller; Remedios Lozada; Gudelia Rangel; Alicia Vera; Irina Artamonova; Carlos Magis-Rodriguez

    Circular migration and injection drug use increase the risk of HIV transmission in sending communities. We describe female\\u000a sex workers who are injection drug users’ (FSW-IDUs) circular migration and drug use behaviors. Between 2008-2010, 258 migrant\\u000a FSW-IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico responded to questionnaires. 24% of FSW-IDUs were circular migrants.\\u000a HIV prevalence was 3.2% in circular migrants

  11. Interventions among male clients of female sex workers in Benin, West Africa: an essential component of targeted HIV preventive interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C M Lowndes; M Alary; A-C Labbe?; C Gnintoungbe?; M Belleau; L Mukenge; H Meda; M Ndour; S Anagonou; A Gbaguidi

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of interventions targeted towards female sex workers (FSWs) and their male clients on client HIV\\/STI prevalence and sexual behaviour.Methods: From 1993 to 2006, an HIV\\/STI preventive intervention focusing on condom promotion and STI care was implemented among FSWs in Cotonou, Benin, and then expanded to cover their male sexual partners in 2000. The interventions were

  12. Sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases in street-based female sex workers in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazrul Islam Mondal; Kamal Hossain; Rafiqul Islam; Abul Bashar Mian

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of street-based female sex workers (SFSWs) of Rajshahi city and examined their socio-demographic profiles. Among the SFSWs attending three drop- in centers (DIC) named PIACT, PROVA, and Suraksha Madhumita in Rajshahi, 150 self-motivated and willing individuals were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to obtain obstetric histories and socio-demographic information. Among

  13. Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies Among African American Women Attending an Urban STI Clinic.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Heidi E; McCaul, Mary E; Norris, Jeanette; Valliant, Julia D; Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Chander, Geetanjali

    2015-06-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Alcohol use is a significant risk factor for HIV/STI acquisition. Sex-related alcohol expectancies (SRAEs) may partially account for alcohol-related risky sexual behaviors. Using qualitative interviews we explored the link between alcohol use and risky sex among 20 African American women attending an STI clinic who had consumed four or more alcoholic drinks per drinking day (binge drinking) and/or reported vaginal or anal sex while under the influence of alcohol. Four SRAEs emerged, which we named drink for sexual desire, drink for sexual power, drink for sexual excuse, and drink for anal sex. While the desire SRAE has been documented, this study identified three additional SRAEs not currently assessed by expectancy questionnaires. These SRAEs may contribute to high-risk sex when under the influence of alcohol and suggests the importance of developing integrated alcohol-sexual risk reduction interventions for high-risk women. PMID:25110958

  14. Relationship Quality and Domestic Violence in Women's Same-Sex Relationships: The Role of Minority Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature addressing relationship quality and domestic violence in women's same-sex relationships, few studies have empirically examined how stress specific to living as a lesbian or bisexual woman might correlate with these relationship variables. Degree of outness, internalized homophobia, lifetime and recent experiences…

  15. Invisible Victims: Same-Sex IPV in the National Violence against Women Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    With intimate partner violence (IPV) among same-sex couples largely ignored by policy makers and researchers alike, accurately estimating the size of the problem is important in determining whether this minimal response is justified. As such, the present study is a secondary data analysis of the National Violence Against Women Survey and…

  16. Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Women and Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2010-01-01

    Background Circulating sex hormone-binding globulin levels are inversely associated with in- sulin resistance, but whether these levels can predict the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is uncertain. Methods We performed a nested case-control study of postmenopausal women in the Wom- en's Health Study who were not using hormone therapy (359 with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 359 controls).

  17. Comparative views of the public, sex workers, businesses and residents on establishing managed zones for prostitution: analysis of a consultation in Liverpool.

    PubMed

    Bellis, Mark A; Watson, Fay L D; Hughes, Sara; Cook, Penny A; Downing, Jennifer; Clark, Peter; Thomson, Rod

    2007-09-01

    Drug addiction, violence and anti-social behaviour are characteristics of street prostitution. An alternative approach to zero tolerance is establishing a managed zone where sex workers operate according to regulations and can access health services. Using a consultation with sex workers (n=50), businesses (n=51), residents (n=179) and the public (n=789) we examined where a zone might be established in a UK city (Liverpool) and characteristics of the zone required by these stakeholders. All groups believed a zone would improve sex workers' safety and reduce prostitution elsewhere. Sex workers (96%) agreed to work in a zone. Location criteria from all groups were used to identify two potential business areas to host a zone but businesses in or near these areas rejected plans through fear for staff safety and reduced business. We discuss the consultation process, difficulties in locating services for marginalised groups in cities and the implications for health and judicial policy relating to prostitution. PMID:17029923

  18. HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among African American Women Who Trade Sex for Drugs Versus Economic Resources.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Eugene M; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Khan, Maria R; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Melnikov, Alex; Latimer, William W

    2014-07-01

    Trading sex for money, drugs, goods, services, or a place to stay is prevalent among women who use drugs and has been associated with women's risk of HIV acquisition. There is evidence that trading sex for drugs only may be associated with elevated risk of HIV compared with trading sex for money. The purpose of this study was to assess whether HIV risk behaviors and HIV prevalence differ among African American drug using women (N = 92) who traded sex for drugs only, traded sex for economic resources (defined as money, shelter, or other resources) only, or traded sex for both economic resources and drugs. In this study, lower rates of condom use and higher rates of HIV were found among women who traded sex for drugs only compared to women who traded sex for economic resources or for economic resources and drugs. These findings suggest that African American women who trade sex for drugs only represent an understudied yet highly vulnerable group. PMID:24496649

  19. The second sex: Women's place in polling language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharlene J. Hesse-Biber; Ina Burstein

    1981-01-01

    Recent research suggests that gender nouns such as “man,” and pronouns such as “he,· are not generic forms referring to humanity, but often refer exclusively to males. The use of male terms in a variety of role contexts serves to deny females identification with these contexts, and thereby stereotypes the roles of men and women. Public opinion polling, through its

  20. Unprotected Sex of Homeless Women Living in Los Angeles County: An Investigation of the Multiple Levels of Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Kennedy; Suzanne L. Wenzel; Joan S. Tucker; Harold D. Green; Daniela Golinelli; Gery W. Ryan; Robin Beckman; Annie Zhou

    2010-01-01

    This research uses multi-level modeling to investigate the context of unprotected sex of homeless women. Based on interviews\\u000a with 429 randomly selected women living in temporary shelter settings in Los Angeles, this project investigates multiple levels\\u000a of influence on unprotected sex with particular partners. Previous studies have investigated condom use of homeless women\\u000a primarily at the individual level. This project

  1. The Relationship Between HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk and Alcohol Use During Commercial Sex Episodes: Results From the Study of Female Commercial Sex Workers in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    CHIAO, CHI; MORISKY, DONALD E.; ROSENBERG, RHONDA; KSOBIECH, KATE; MALOW, ROBERT

    2011-01-01

    The HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) risk associated with alcohol use between female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) and their customers has been understudied. We examined this relationship for 1,114 FCSWs aged 15–54 with data collected during the baseline study period (1994 to 1998) in four southern provinces of the Philippines. Two alcohol-related risk situations during commercial sex episodes were examined: prior alcohol use by an FCSW and perceived intoxication in a customer. The influence of sociodemographic variables on sexual risk behaviors was also studied. Multiple sexual risk behaviors were observed with more frequency for FCSWs if alcohol was used before commercial sex or if the episode involved a customer perceived to be intoxicated. Forty-two percent of FCSWs who had sex with an intoxicated customer were STI positive, significantly more than FCSWs who did not have sex with an intoxicated customer (28%, p < .01). Similar significant differences were found for FCSWs who did not consume alcohol before having sex and were STI positive (29%) versus FCSW who did consume alcohol before sex and were STI positive (33%, p < .01). Our analyses reinforce accumulating evidence in the field that sexual risk reduction interventions need to go beyond the behaviors of individual FCSWs to meet the layering of risks such as observed in this study. Multilevel strategies targeting customer substance use and other situational and structural factors have proven to be pivotal mediators in our other research with this population. These experiences and the limitations of this study are discussed. PMID:17002991

  2. Safer sex knowledge, behavior, and attitudes of inner-city women.

    PubMed

    Hobfoll, S E; Jackson, A P; Lavin, J; Britton, P J; Shepherd, J B

    1993-11-01

    Sexual behavior, knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention, perceived risk of AIDS, and safer sex behavior were studied in a sample of 289 single, pregnant, inner-city women. African-American and European-American women were equally represented. Women had poor AIDS knowledge. Sexual behavior placed women at risk for HIV infection due to the lack of condom or spermicide use. Women did not perceive themselves at risk for the AIDS virus, although they did recognize that heterosexuals were at risk. Their lack of risk perception was partly based on their having a single sexual partner. They did not regard their partner's current or past behavior as placing them at risk. Recommendations for intervention and cultural differences were discussed. PMID:8293732

  3. Association between alcohol use and sexually transmitted infection incidence among kenyan women engaged in transactional sex.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kate S; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Shafi, Juma; Kashonga, Francis; Wanje, George; Masese, Linnet; Mandaliya, Kishor; Jaoko, Walter; McClelland, R Scott

    2014-07-01

    Few prospective studies have evaluated the association between alcohol use and STI acquisition among African women. We examined the association between baseline drinking frequency and STIs in a cohort of Kenyan women reporting transactional sex. The association between alcohol use and STI differed significantly by HIV status. Among 139 HIV-positive women, STI acquisition was significantly associated with consuming 1-7 drinks/week and marginally associated with ?8 drinks/week in unadjusted analyses. However, no association between alcohol use and STIs was observed among 335 HIV-negative women. Addressing alcohol use within comprehensive HIV care may also reduce the burden of STIs among high-risk women. PMID:24179037

  4. Correlates of Self-efficacy for Condom Use among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Semple, Shirley J.; Ompad, Danielle C.; Chavarin, Claudia V.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past four months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior. PMID:23842786

  5. Trends in risk behaviors among female sex workers in south India: priorities for sustaining the reversal of HIV epidemic.

    PubMed

    Charles, Bimal; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Edwin Sam, Asirvatham; Kumar Pandian, Arvind; Thenmozhi, Mani; Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi

    2013-01-01

    HIV epidemic in India is predominantly concentrated in subgroups of population, such as female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients, whose behavior exposes them to a higher risk of acquiring HIV infection. This paper aims to present the changing patterns of socio-demographic characteristics, behaviors, reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and associated factors among FSWs over 11 years. Multistage cluster sampling with probability-proportional-to-size (PPS) method was used in the surveys. A sample of 400 FSWs was studied every year. The mean age and literacy at the baseline level increased significantly over the years. House-based sex increased by 40% from 43.3% in 1997 to 83% in 2008 (p<0.001). Condom use at last sex with one-time clients; consistent condom use (CCU) with one-time and regular clients indicated increasing trends. FSWs reported low levels of condom use at last sex (14.5% in 1997 to 5% in 2008; p<0.001) and CCU (12.6% in 2004 to 3.6% in 2008; p<0.01) with regular partners. FSWs who used condom with one-time clients at last sex reported significantly less STI symptoms. A two-third reduction in genital ulcers was found from 13.1% in 1997 to 4.5% in 2008 (p<0.001). Nonliterate and hotel-based sex workers were 1.6 (1.0-2.5; 95% CI) and 2.2(1.3-3.7; 95% CI) times more likely to have reported STI symptoms. The percentage of FSWs who underwent HIV testing increased (p<0.001); similarly, a 20% increase was found in FSWs who availed counseling services from 65.2% in 1997 to 85.4% in 2008 (p<0.001). Poor, illiterate, and marginalized were more likely to get involved in risky behaviors which suggest the need for structural interventions as part of HIV prevention strategy. PMID:23320501

  6. [Shoes stitched, workers unstitched: a study on working and health conditions among women factory workers in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Taísa Junqueira; Navarro, Vera Lucia

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze associations between working conditions and health problems reported by women workers assigned to mechanical stitching in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. The qualitative study's theory and methodology were based on historical and dialectical materialism and combined sociological and ethnographic research techniques. Data were collected with taped interviews, focusing on the workers' life and work stories, systematic observation of the work process, consultation of historical documents, and imagistic production. Analysis of the data revealed the effects of work in mechanical stitching on the health of women workers employed in the factory and at home, who experience precarious labor conditions involving workday intensification and extension, preset production targets, job insecurity, and unhealthy workplaces. PMID:22031197

  7. Brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women during normal aging and in Alzheimer's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily R. Rosario; Lilly Chang; Elizabeth H. Head; Frank Z. Stanczyk; Christian J. Pike

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relationships between normal aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women. In postmortem brain tissue from neuropathologically normal, postmenopausal women, we found no age-related changes in brain levels of either androgens or estrogens. In comparing women with and without AD at different ages, brain levels of estrogens and androgens were

  8. HIV risk assessment and prevention in lesbians and women who have sex with women: practical information for clinicians.

    PubMed

    White, J C

    1997-01-01

    Clinicians care for lesbians and women sexually active with women (WSWs) routinely in the course of practice. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now believe that there are small but significant numbers of lesbians with HIV infection and that woman-to-woman transmission of HIV is possible. Although the risk of HIV transmission between women, although underreported, is probably low, clinicians need a literature-based practical understanding of how to assess WSWs for their HIV risk and counsel them appropriately about prevention of HIV transmission. Understanding sexual behaviors of WSWs the safer sex techniques that are appropriate for them, and the various ways in which lesbians may contract HIV are important to all primary care clinicians. This article also reviews the principles of communicating with lesbians and WSWs. PMID:9119789

  9. Introductory study on female condom use among sex workers in China.

    PubMed

    Yimin, Cheng; Zhaohui, Li; Xianmi, Wang; Shiying, Wang; Lingzhi, Hu; Yueying, Xie; Xiaolan, Huang; Lifen, Xu; Yunzhen, Wu; Shaolan, Zheng; Yulian, Liu

    2002-09-01

    There is lack of barrier method use among sex workers (SWs) in China. Our objective was to find new ways to introduce female condoms (FCs) among SWs, and to increase knowledge of, support for, and use of this method in this population. We used the intervention study method and provided the SWs of experimental groups with information, education, and communication on FCs and provided them with FCs. We recruited 330 SWs as the participants of the study in Enping City, China. The selected 330 SWs were randomly divided into the experimental group (165 SWs to use female condom) and the others into the reference group (165 SWs to use male condom). Questionnaires were used to evaluate the intervention study. At the end of our study, 15 SWs were lost of follow-up, so only 315 were included in the analysis. After intervention, about 97% of SWs in the intervention group expressed that they would use FC in the future. The rate of SWs who reported liking FC increased from 60% at pre-intervention to 94% at post-intervention. The rate of SWs who considered their clients could accept FC increased from 27% to 92%, and the rate of SWs who were willing to recommend FC to others increased from 19% to 70%. In comparison with the first several uses, during last several uses about 80% of SWs expressed that it became easier to use FC. Our intervention increased knowledge of, positive attitudes towards, and correct use of FC in this population of SWs. PMID:12384207

  10. Review of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in China.

    PubMed

    Poon, Adrienne N; Li, Zhijun; Wang, Ning; Hong, Yan

    2011-06-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) are at greater risk for HIV and STIs. A systematic literature review of HIV and STI prevalence and incidence data for FSW in China was conducted to assess current trends. Studies between 1996 and 2010 detailing seroprevalence or incidence data, other laboratory-based tests, and clinical diagnoses of infections among FSW were reviewed. Select articles from Chinese literature around street-based and drug-abusing FSW were also reviewed. Results revealed high median prevalence for a variety of STIs among FSW: active syphilis range 0.8-12.5% (median = 6.9%), herpes range 29.7-70.8% (median = 56.2%), chlamydia range 3.9-58.6% (median = 25.7%), gonorrhea range 2.0-85.4% (median = 16.4%), and trichomoniasis range 7.1-43.2% (median = 12.5%). HIV prevalence has remained relatively low and stable with a range of 0-10.3% (median = 0.6%), with the exception of higher prevalence in several areas of Yunnan and some areas of Guangxi. The FSW who are injecting drug users may be at even greater risk for HIV infection with 12-49% found to be HIV positive and 7-25% self-reporting positive status. A number of gaps in the literature remain, especially in the number of studies that detail prevalence confirmed by laboratory testing or that collect incidence data. Assessment of incidence and prevalence according to sampling methodology appropriate for the population, behavioral risks such as injecting drug use, and diverse venues especially those at the lower end are needed. Theory-based interventions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of HIV/STIs need to be piloted with successful models scaled-up. PMID:21660747

  11. Gaps between actual and desired sex life: web survey of 5,665 Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Koichi; Tai, Toshihiro; Saigo, Rieko; Kimura, Masaki; Ozaki, Yumi; Tanaka, Norie; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Nakajima, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    To explore issues that heterosexual women have concerning their sex life and desire toward their male partner, the authors conducted an online survey on actual sex life and sexual quality of life. Survey participants included 5,665 women who were 20 years of age and older who (a) lived in or near Tokyo, (b) had a male sex partner, and (c) intended to have sexual activity. Participants were asked to respond to a wide range of questions regarding their sexual fulfillment and desires. Differences between actual and desired duration of sexual activities (foreplay, intercourse, and afterplay) and number of sexual positions were calculated. The authors performed subgroup analyses regarding pain during sexual intercourse and by degree of partner's unilateral action. In addition, the authors investigated the relation between sexual quality of life and each subgroup. Women who participated in this survey tended to desire a longer duration of foreplay and afterplay than was experienced. The greater the pain during sexual intercourse, the percentage of respondents who desired a shorter duration of intercourse and fewer numbers of sexual positions increased and the sexual quality of life decreased. The degree of partner's unilateral action during sexual activity negatively affected the woman's sexual quality of life. The present study suggests the importance of establishing good communication between sex partners. PMID:23768131

  12. Forced sex: a critical factor in the sleep difficulties of young Australian women.

    PubMed

    Astbury, Jill; Bruck, Dorothy; Loxton, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of forced sex and its contribution to sleep difficulties among young Australian women aged 24-30 years (n=9,061) was examined using data from the 2003 Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. The lifetime prevalence of reported forced sex was 8.7%. Significantly higher levels of recurrent sleep difficulties, prescription sleep medication, clinical depression, anxiety disorder, self-harm, and substance use, as well as lower socioeconomic status (SES) indicators, were reported by the forced sex group compared to the no forced sex group. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed the high odds (OR=1.95, CI=1.66-2.26) of recurrent sleep difficulty in such women becomes partially attenuated, but remains statistically significant, after adjusting for key psychological, SES, and behavioral variables. Clinical implications for primary care providers and sleep specialists are discussed. Sleep difficulties are highly prevalent and affect more than 30% of those seeking primary health care (Kushida et al., 2005). They negatively impact on the way a person feels and functions (Dinges et al., 1997) and make a significant contribution to accidents, health care costs, and problems at work (Roth, 2005). PMID:21776829

  13. Love, Suspense, Sex, and Violence: Men’s and Women’s Film Predilections, Exposure to Sexually Violent Media, and their Relationship to Rape Myth Acceptance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tara M. Emmers-Sommer; Perry Pauley; Alesia Hanzal; Laura Triplett

    2006-01-01

    This investigation addressed the relationship between men’s and women’s predilections for film with a love story, suspense, or sex and violence theme and how that predilection related to rape myth acceptance (RMA). Also examined was how men’s and women’s predilections, as they related to RMA, were moderated by exposure to different levels of sexually violent media based on a true

  14. HIV and related risk behaviors among female sex workers in Iran: bias-adjusted estimates from the 2010 National Bio-Behavoral Survey.

    PubMed

    Mirzazadeh, Ali; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Navadeh, Soodabeh; Haghdoost, Aliakbar; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali; McFarland, Willi; Mohammad, Kazem

    2014-01-01

    In a national, facility-based survey of female sex workers in 14 cities of Iran (N = 872), HIV prevalence was measured at 4.5 % (95 % CI, 2.4-8.3) overall and at 11.2 % (95 % CI, 3.4-18.9) for FSW with a history of injection drug use. Using methods to correct for biases in reporting sensitive information, the estimate of unprotected sex in last act was 35.8 %, ever injecting drugs was 37.6 %, sexually transmitted disease symptoms was 82.1 %, and not testing for HIV in the last year was 64.0 %. The amount of bias correction ranged from <1 to >30 %, in parallel with the level of stigma associated with each behavior. Considering the current upward trajectory of HIV infection in the Middle East and North Africa region, as well as the ongoing high level of risky behaviors and considerable underreporting of many such behaviors in surveys, bias corrections may be needed, especially in the context of Iran, to obtain more accurate information to guide prevention and care responses to stop the growing HIV epidemic in this vulnerable group of women. PMID:23857356

  15. The Role of a Regular Sex Partner in Sexually Transmitted Infections and Reinfections: Results From the Study of Female Entertainment Establishment Workers in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    CHIAO, CHI; MORISKY, DONALD E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The main objective of this study is to understand the association between living with a regular sex partner, risk-taking behaviors, and one’s history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods Data on sexual behavior and STI histories were obtained from 876 Filipina entertainment establishment workers (FEEWs) through a large-scale participatory research survey. Results About one-third of FEEWs live with a regular sex partner. Single FEEWs are significantly more likely than partnered FEEWs to engage in commercial sex. Being single, engaging in commercial sex, and using condoms inconsistently, in turn, are significantly associated with a positive STI history. Conclusion These results suggest that living with a regular sex partner is an independent and protective factor against having an initial STI and subsequent reinfection. Programmatic strategies aimed at reducing STIs among entertainment establishment workers through promoting safer sex behaviors could potentially benefit by including a component that addresses sexual networks. PMID:17710751

  16. Police sexual coercion and its association with risky sex work and substance use behaviors among female sex workers in St. Petersburg and Orenburg, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Odinokova, Veronika; Rusakova, Maia; Urada, Lianne A; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive research documents that female sex workers (FSWs) in Russia are very vulnerable to abuses from police, including police sexual coercion. However, despite qualitative data suggesting abusive policing practices are more likely for FSWs contending with substance abuse issues and risky sex work contexts, there is a paucity of quantitative study evaluating these associations specifically in terms of police sexual coercion. Such research is needed to guide structural interventions to improve health and safety for FSWs in Russia and globally. Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of police sexual coercion among FSWs from two Russian cities, St. Petersburg and Orenburg, and to determine whether riskier sex work behaviors and contexts and substance use behaviors, including both IDU and risky alcohol use, are associated with increased risk for sexual coercion from police Method FSWs in St. Petersburg and Orenburg were recruited via time-location and convenience sampling and completed structured surveys on demographics (age, education), sex work risks (e.g., violence during sex work) and substance use. Logistic regression analyses assessed associations of substance use and risky sex work with police sexual coercion, adjusting for demographics. Results Participants (N=896) were aged 15 and older (94% were 20+ years). Most (69%) reported past year binge alcohol use, and 48% reported IDU the day before. Half (56%) reported 4+ clients per day. Rape during sex work ever was reported by 64%. Police sexual coercion in the past 12 months was reported by 38%. In the multivariate model, both current IDU (AOR=2.09, CI=1.45–3.02) and past year binge alcohol use (AOR=1.46, CI=1.03–2.07) were associated with police sexual coercion, as was selling sex on the street (not in venues) (AOR=7.81, CI=4.53–13.48) and rape during sex work (AOR=2.04, CI=1.43–2.92). Conclusion Current findings document the substantial role police sexual violence plays in the lives of FSWs in Russia. These findings also highlight heightened vulnerability to such violence among self-managed and substance abusing FSWs in this context. Structural interventions addressing police violence against FSWs may be useful to improve the health and safety of this population. PMID:23916802

  17. Encouraging Vietnamese-American Women to Obtain Pap Tests Through Lay Health Worker Outreach and Media Education

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tram K; McPhee, Stephen J; Mock, Jeremiah; Wong, Ching; Doan, Hiep T; Nguyen, Thoa; Lai, Ky Q; Ha-Iaconis, Tuyet; Luong, Thien-Nhien

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND Five times more Vietnamese-American women develop cervical cancer than white women. Few studies have examined whether community-based participatory research can effectively address Asian immigrants' health problems. This article reports the preliminary evaluation of 1 such project. METHODS A coalition of 11 organizations in Santa Clara County, California worked with university researchers to design and simultaneously implement a media education (ME) campaign and a lay health worker outreach (LHWO) program to increase Vietnamese-American women's cervical cancer awareness, knowledge, and screening. Two agencies each recruited 10 lay health workers (LHWs), who, in turn, each recruited 20 women who were then randomized into 2 groups: 10 to LHWO+ME (n = 200) and 10 to ME alone (n = 200). LHWs organized meetings with women to increase their knowledge and to motivate them to obtain Pap tests. Participants completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires. RESULTS At post-intervention, significantly more LHWO+ME women understood that human papillomavirus and smoking cause cervical cancer. The number of women who had obtained a Pap test increased significantly among women in both LHWO+ME and ME groups, but substantially more in the LHWO+ME group. Significantly more LHWO+ME women said they intended to have a Pap test. CONCLUSIONS Media education campaigns can increase Vietnamese women's awareness of the importance of Pap tests, but lay health workers are more effective at encouraging women to actually obtain the tests. Lay health workers are effective because they use their cultural knowledge and social networks to create change. Researchers, community members, and community-based organizations can share expert knowledge and skills, and build one another's capacities. PMID:12848834

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and experiences of sex trafficking by young women in Benin City, South-South Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonofua, F E; Ogbomwan, S M; Alutu, A N; Kufre, Okop; Eghosa, Aghahowa

    2004-09-01

    Benin City, the headquarters of Edo State, is known to have one of the highest rates of international sex trafficking of young women in Nigeria. This study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of young women in Benin City, towards international sex trafficking. A random household sample of 1456 women aged 15-25 years was interviewed with a structured questionnaire that elicited information on women's experiences of, and attitudes towards international sex trafficking. The results indicate that 97.4% of the women have heard of international sex trafficking; 70% had female relatives who lived in the receiving countries of Italy, Spain, and the Netherlands; while 44.0% knew of someone who was currently engaged in sex work abroad. Up to 32% of the women reported that they had been approached by someone offering to assist them to travel abroad. Women of poorer socio-economic status (being out-of-school, unemployed, parents uneducated and unemployed) were more likely to report having been offered assistance to travel abroad. Up to 81.5% of the women supported the notion that sex trafficking should be stopped, while 18.5% felt it should be allowed to continue. The perception that sex trafficking leads to wealth creation and economic gains for women was the most common reason proffered by those wanting the practice to continue. By contrast, the fear of adverse health consequences and the need to maintain social and religious morals were the reasons given by those wanting the practice to discontinue. These results suggest that programs that promote the economic well being of women, and social advocacy focusing on harm reduction will be most helpful in reducing the rate of sex trafficking in Benin City. PMID:15210102

  19. How lesbian and heterosexual women view relationships, sex, and virginity: explorations with a Singapore sample.

    PubMed

    Ho, Anqi; Sim, Tick Ngee

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-eight lesbian and 38 heterosexual women in Singapore (ages 21 to 35) discussed relationships, sex, and virginity in focus groups. Views were mostly similar between the two groups, although there were differences. All participants defined relationships as romantic involvement. However, while heterosexual participants equated commitment with monogamy, lesbian participants distinguished them. All participants differentiated between having sex (for thrill and fun) and making love (for expressing love), although there were differences in the purposes of making love. Primacy of penetration was found in defining virginity loss, but for many participants, virginity was important only insofar as it indicated sexual permissiveness. PMID:24383860

  20. Prevalence of rape and client-initiated gender-based violence among female sex workers: Kampala, Uganda, 2012.

    PubMed

    Schwitters, Amee; Swaminathan, Mahesh; Serwadda, David; Muyonga, Michael; Shiraishi, Ray W; Benech, Irene; Mital, Sasha; Bosa, Rose; Lubwama, George; Hladik, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    We utilized data from the 2012 Crane Survey in Kampala, Uganda to estimate prevalence of rape among female sex workers (FSWs) and to identify risk factors for and prevalence of client-initiated gender-based violence (GBV) among FSWs. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Analyses were weighted using RDSAT-generated individualized weights for each of the five dependent GBV outcomes. Analyses were conducted utilizing SAS 9.3. Among 1,467 FSWs who were interviewed, 82 % (95 % CI: 79-84) experienced client-initiated GBV and 49 % (95 % CI: 47-53) had been raped at least once in their lifetime. GBV risk increased with increasing frequency of client demands for unprotected sex, length of time engaged in sex work, and FSW alcohol consumption. Risk decreased when sex with clients occurred at the FSW's or client's house or a hotel compared to when sex occurred in open spaces. Our findings demonstrate a high prevalence of GBV among FSWs. This research reinforces the urgent need for GBV prevention and response strategies to be integrated into FSW programming and the continuing need for GBV research among key populations. PMID:25432876

  1. Venue-level correlates of female sex worker registration status: a multilevel analysis of bars in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Tommi L; Rusch, Melanie L A; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Goldenberg, Shira M; Lozada, Remedios; Robertson, Angela M; Perkins, Emily; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2013-01-01

    In Tijuana, Mexico, sex work is regulated by the municipal government, through registration cards issued to female sex workers (FSWs) for an annual fee. Registration has been associated with decreased drug use and increase condom use and HIV testing. Previously, it was demonstrated that FSWs operating in bars were more likely than street-based FSWs to be registered. This implies that certain venues may be more accessible to local authorities for the enforcement of this type of programme. Taking a novel multilevel approach, we examined whether venue characteristics of bars reflecting greater organised management and visibility affect registration status of FSWs. In an analysis of venue-level characteristics, predictors of being registered were availability of free condoms at work and distance to the main sex strip; however, these were not independently associated after inclusion of FSWs' income, illicit drug use and history of HIV testing. Our findings suggest that sex work regulations may inadvertently exclude venues in which the more vulnerable and less visible FSWs, such as injection drug users and those with limited financial resources, are situated. Efforts to revise or reconsider sex work regulations to ensure that they best promote FSWs' health, human and labour rights are recommended. PMID:23534477

  2. MARITAL AND FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS OF WORKERS, MARCH 1966. SPECIAL LABOR FORCE REPORT NUMBER 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALDMAN, ELIZABETH

    THE THRIVING ECONOMY'S DEMAND FOR WORKERS RESULTED IN DECREASED UNEMPLOYMENT RATES IN 1966 FOR WHITE AND NEGRO WOMEN AND WHITE MEN. THE INCREASED NUMBER OF WOMEN WORKERS RESULTED NOT ONLY FROM THE EXPANDING JOB MARKET BUT ALSO FROM FEDERAL LEGISLATION OUTLAWING SEX DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT. IN THIS DECADE, THE MOST SIGNIFICANT INCREASE IN…

  3. A behavioural intervention to reduce persistence of bacterial vaginosis among women who report sex with women: results of a randomised trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne M Marrazzo; Katherine K Thomas; Kathleen Ringwood

    2011-01-01

    ObjectivesBacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in lesbians, and treatment fails in up to 28%. Risks include sexual behaviours that transmit vaginal fluid. The authors measured efficacy of a behavioural intervention to reduce sexual transfer of vaginal fluid between female sex partners in reducing BV persistence.MethodsWomen aged 16–35 years with BV who reported sex with women (prior year) were eligible. Participants

  4. Women’s Bodies are Shops”: Beliefs About Transactional Sex and Implications for Understanding Gender Power and HIV Prevention in Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyce Wamoyi; Angela Fenwick; Mark Urassa; Basia Zaba; William Stones

    2011-01-01

    Although transactional sex has been linked to undesirable sexual health outcomes, there is a lack of clarity as to the meaning\\u000a of the practice, which appears to extend beyond behaviors related to women’s economic circumstances. This article explored\\u000a the perspectives of parents and unmarried young people on motivations for, and beliefs about, transactional sex in rural Tanzania\\u000a using an ethnographic

  5. Association between Pregnancy and Active Injection Drug Use and Sex Work among Women Injection Drug Users in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Girchenko, P; Ompad, D C; Bikmukhametov, D; Gensburg, L

    2015-06-01

    Widespread use of unsafe sexual practices among women injecting drugs both practicing and not practicing sex work leads to high levels of unplanned pregnancies in this population. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between pregnancy and active drug use and sex work. Data were collected using a convenience sample of 500 women in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in 2013. All women had recent experience of drug use, of which 200 were pregnant at the time of the study. The study consisted of a structured interview followed by a rapid HIV test. Pregnancy was protective against both active drug use and sex work. For HIV-positive women, these associations were stronger than for HIV-negative women: drug use prevalence ratio (PR) was 0.59 vs 0.85; for sex work, the PRs were 0.36 vs 0.64. Higher levels of education were associated with a lower prevalence ratio for active drug use and sex work in all models. Having children was not associated with active drug use or sex work. Pregnancy might be an optimal time for conducting interventions aimed at cessation of drug use and sex work among women injecting drugs. PMID:25835324

  6. The Influence of Gender on Sex: A Study of Men's and Women's Self-Reported High-Risk Sex Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa A. Cubbins; Koray Tanfer

    2000-01-01

    An investigation is presented of the relationship between gender and five self-reported high-risk sex behaviors: ever having had casual sex, the lifetime number of vaginal sex partners, the lifetime number of anal sex partners, having had multiple vaginal sex partners over the short term, and having had multiple anal sex partners over the short term. The analysis was guided by

  7. Sex tourism in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Many foreigners visit Thailand in search of sex. While long-distance tourism was long enjoyed by members of more privileged social classes, even the lower economical classes of Japan, Malaysia, Europe, America, and Australia can now afford to travel over long distances. This relatively new breed of tourist is more likely to be of lower socioeconomic and educational status and less likely to use condoms when having sex. An estimated 30,000 sex workers are active in Bangkok, of whom 7000/10,000 are females who work specifically in the tourism sector. 1/2-1/3 of the 600 commercial sex establishments in the city are visited by foreigners. Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui, and Chiangmai are also well-frequented by sex tourists. Overall, a large, diverse, inexpensive, and accessible commercial sex market exists in Thailand. One may meet sex workers quasi-ubiquitously and be assured to find someone capable of meeting one's sexual needs. With these attributes, Thailand strongly attracts tourists in search of sex. A certain degree of recklessness also prevails among those on vacation. Away from the peers and social mores of their native lands, tourists may engage in sexually activities without criticism. Likewise, Thai sex workers who cater to foreigners, especially females, enjoy more freedom and control in sexual relations than their peers who work among nationals. Neither single nor married women in Thailand are allowed much sexual freedom and are traditionally expected to be obliging docile, and submissive. The greater than normal personal latitude enjoyed by both sex worker and foreigner lead to more negotiation on condom use and overall lower use. As such, Thailand's commercial sex market with foreigners' involvement therein threatens to spread HIV to many other countries throughout the world. PMID:12286018

  8. A community empowerment approach to the HIV response among sex workers: effectiveness, challenges, and considerations for implementation and scale-up.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Morgan-Thomas, Ruth; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Mwangi, Peninah; Win, Kay Thi; McFall, Allison; Fonner, Virginia A; Butler, Jennifer

    2015-01-10

    A community empowerment-based response to HIV is a process by which sex workers take collective ownership of programmes to achieve the most effective HIV outcomes and address social and structural barriers to their overall health and human rights. Community empowerment has increasingly gained recognition as a key approach for addressing HIV in sex workers, with its focus on addressing the broad context within which the heightened risk for infection takes places in these individuals. However, large-scale implementation of community empowerment-based approaches has been scarce. We undertook a comprehensive review of community empowerment approaches for addressing HIV in sex workers. Within this effort, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of community empowerment in sex workers in low-income and middle-income countries. We found that community empowerment-based approaches to addressing HIV among sex workers were significantly associated with reductions in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and with increases in consistent condom use with all clients. Despite the promise of a community-empowerment approach, we identified formidable structural barriers to implementation and scale-up at various levels. These barriers include regressive international discourses and funding constraints; national laws criminalising sex work; and intersecting social stigmas, discrimination, and violence. The evidence base for community empowerment in sex workers needs to be strengthened and diversified, including its role in aiding access to, and uptake of, combination interventions for HIV prevention. Furthermore, social and political change are needed regarding the recognition of sex work as work, both globally and locally, to encourage increased support for community empowerment responses to HIV. PMID:25059938

  9. When Sex Doesn't Sell: Using Sexualized Images of Women Reduces Support for Ethical Campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Bongiorno, Renata; Bain, Paul G.; Haslam, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Images of scantily clad women are used by advertisers to make products more attractive to men. This “sex sells” approach is increasingly employed to promote ethical causes, most prominently by the animal-rights organization PETA. Yet sexualized images can dehumanize women, leaving an unresolved paradox – is it effective to advertise an ethical cause using unethical means? In Study 1, a sample of Australian male undergraduates (N?=?82) viewed PETA advertisements containing either sexualized or non-sexualized images of women. Intentions to support the ethical organization were reduced for those exposed to the sexualized advertising, and this was explained by their dehumanization of the sexualized women, and not by increased arousal. Study 2 used a mixed-gender community sample from the United States (N?=?280), replicating this finding and extending it by showing that behaviors helpful to the ethical cause diminished after viewing the sexualized advertisements, which was again mediated by the dehumanization of the women depicted. Alternative explanations relating to the reduced credibility of the sexualized women and their objectification were not supported. When promoting ethical causes, organizations may benefit from using advertising strategies that do not dehumanize women. PMID:24367591

  10. Career involvement of women in dual-career families: The influence of sex role identity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine D. Gaddy; Carol R. Glass; Diane B. Arnkoff

    1983-01-01

    Studied the influence of sex-role identity on the career involvement of 70 25–45 yr old professional women who were members of dual-career families that included young children. As predicted, Ss categorized as masculine on the Personality Research Form, ANDRO scales, were employed a significantly greater proportion of time after having children than Ss categorized as feminine. In addition, the more

  11. HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Interest among Female Sex Workers in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yunfeng; Yang, Xiaobo; Abdullah, Abu S.; Zhong, Xiaoni; Ruan, Yuhua; Lin, Xinqin; Li, Mingqiang; Wu, Deren; Jiang, Junjun; Xie, Peiyan; Huang, Jiegang; Liang, Bingyu; Zhou, Bo; Su, Jinming; Liang, Hao; Huang, Ailong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and willingness to participate in a clinical trial for both safety and efficacy of PrEP were investigated among female sex workers (FSWs) in Guangxi, China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in three cities in Guangxi. Structured, self-administered questionnaires were used to assess the acceptability of PrEP and the willingness to participate in a clinical trial. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to identify predictors. Results Among 405 participants, 15.1% had heard of PrEP. If PrEP was deemed to be effective, safe and provided for free, 85.9% reported that they would accept it, and 54.3% of those who accepted PrEP said that they would participate in a clinical trial. The increased acceptability of PrEP was associated with working in male dominated venues, higher income, a poor family relationship, better HIV/AIDS knowledge, not realizing HIV risk from unfamiliar clients, not being forced to use condoms by the gatekeepers, consistent use of condoms, and use of drugs to prevent STD infection. The increased willingness to participate in a clinical trial was associated with a poor family relationship, better HIV/AIDS knowledge, not realizing HIV risk from unfamiliar clients, a willingness to adhere to daily PreP use, and not being concerned about discrimination by others. The main reason for rejecting PrEP or participating in a clinical trial was the concern about the side effects of PrEP. Conclusions Acceptability of PrEP among Guangxi FSWs is relatively high, indicating that PrEP intervention programs may be feasible for Chinese FSWs. Given the fact that most of the participants had never heard of PrEP before, and that family, gatekeepers, and social discrimination could significantly affect its acceptability, a comprehensive mix of multiple interventions is necessary for the successful implementation of a PrEP program among this population in Guangxi. PMID:24465956

  12. Personality Profiles of Noncollege-degreed Women in Male and Female Typical Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazen, A. Magid

    Research on women in atypical occupations has generally focused on highly educated women and has neglected to compare atypically employed women to equally educated women in sex-typical occupations. Since the median American worker has only 13.6 years of schooling, the lack of research on the personality characteristics of noncollege-degreed women

  13. Supervisors and accomplices: Extra?marital sex among migrant construction workers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bui Thi Thanh Thuy; Joshua Kretchmar

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the influence of social networks on the sexual relations of migrant construction workers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam. Research included observation and interviews with members of two different groups of workers. The first group, together with their employer (cai), came from the same village; the second group came from different villages. Of interest in the present study

  14. Men and things, women and people: a meta-analysis of sex differences in interests.

    PubMed

    Su, Rong; Rounds, James; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

    2009-11-01

    The magnitude and variability of sex differences in vocational interests were examined in the present meta-analysis for Holland's (1959, 1997) categories (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional), Prediger's (1982) Things-People and Data-Ideas dimensions, and the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) interest areas. Technical manuals for 47 interest inventories were used, yielding 503,188 respondents. Results showed that men prefer working with things and women prefer working with people, producing a large effect size (d = 0.93) on the Things-People dimension. Men showed stronger Realistic (d = 0.84) and Investigative (d = 0.26) interests, and women showed stronger Artistic (d = -0.35), Social (d = -0.68), and Conventional (d = -0.33) interests. Sex differences favoring men were also found for more specific measures of engineering (d = 1.11), science (d = 0.36), and mathematics (d = 0.34) interests. Average effect sizes varied across interest inventories, ranging from 0.08 to 0.79. The quality of interest inventories, based on professional reputation, was not differentially related to the magnitude of sex differences. Moderators of the effect sizes included interest inventory item development strategy, scoring method, theoretical framework, and sample variables of age and cohort. Application of some item development strategies can substantially reduce sex differences. The present study suggests that interests may play a critical role in gendered occupational choices and gender disparity in the STEM fields. PMID:19883140

  15. Alcohol and other drug use, partner violence, and mental health problems among female sex workers in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Yiyun; Hong, Yan; Shan, Qiao; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the association between mental health problems and negative experiences among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. A total of 1,022 FSWs completed a self-administered survey on their demographic characteristics, mental health status, substance use behaviors, and experiences of partner violence. We found that alcohol use was independently predictive of mental health problems when both partner violence and illicit drug use were accounted for in the multivariate logistic regression models. The findings underscore the urgent need for effective alcohol reduction interventions and mental health promotion programs among FSWs in China and other developing countries. PMID:23631650

  16. PEPFAR's evolving HIV prevention approaches for key populations--people who inject drugs, men who have sex with men, and sex workers: progress, challenges, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Needle, Richard; Fu, Joe; Beyrer, Chris; Loo, Virginia; Abdul-Quader, Abu S; McIntyre, James A; Li, Zhijun; Mbwambo, Jessie K K; Muthui, Mercy; Pick, Billy

    2012-08-15

    In most countries, the burden of HIV among people who inject drugs, men who have sex with men, and sex workers is disproportionately high compared with that in the general population. Meanwhile, coverage rates of effective interventions among those key populations (KPs) are extremely low, despite a strong evidence base about the effectiveness of currently available interventions. In its first decade, President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is making progress in responding to HIV/AIDS, its risk factors, and the needs of KPs. Recent surveillance, surveys, and size estimation activities are helping PEPFAR country programs better estimate the HIV disease burden, understand risk behavior trends, and determine coverage and resources required for appropriate scale-up of services for KPs. To expand country planning of programs to further reduce HIV burden and increase coverage among KPs, PEPFAR has developed a strategy consisting of technical documents on the prevention of HIV among people who inject drugs (July 2010) and prevention of HIV among men who have sex with men (May 2011), linked with regional meetings and assistance visits to guide the adoption and scale-up of comprehensive packages of evidence-based prevention services for KPs. The implementation and scaling up of available and targeted interventions adapted for KPs are important steps in gaining better control over the spread and impact of HIV/AIDS among these populations. PMID:22797736

  17. The influence of stigma and discrimination on female sex workers' access to HIV services in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    King, Elizabeth J; Maman, Suzanne; Bowling, J Michael; Moracco, Kathryn E; Dudina, Viktoria

    2013-10-01

    Stigma associated with HIV and risk behaviors is known to be a barrier to health care access for many populations. Less is known about female sex workers (FSW) in Russia, a population that is especially vulnerable to HIV-infection, and yet hard-to-reach for service providers. We administered a questionnaire to 139 FSW to better understand how stigma and discrimination influence HIV service utilization. Logistic regression analysis indicated that HIV-related stigma is negatively associated with uptake of HIV testing, while sex work-related stigma is positively associated with HIV testing. HIV-positive FSW are more likely than HIV-negative FSW to experience discrimination in health care settings. While decreasing societal stigma should be a long-term goal, programs that foster inclusion of marginalized populations in Russian health care settings are urgently needed. PMID:23525789

  18. Characteristics of Female Sex Workers in Southern India Willing and Unwilling to Participate in a Placebo Gel Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mensch, Barbara S.; Friedland, Barbara A.; Abbott, Sharon A.; Katzen, Lauren L.; Tun, Waimar; Kelly, Christine A.; Sarna, Avina; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Solomon, Suniti

    2012-01-01

    Respondent-Driven Sampling was used to recruit female sex workers (FSWs) for a community survey conducted in southern India. After survey completion, participants were given a brochure describing a clinical trial that entailed daily use of a placebo vaginal gel for four months. This study assessed predictors of screening among survey respondents, predictors of enrollment among those eligible for the trial, and predictors of visit attendance and retention among those enrolled. FSWs who reported STI symptoms, engaging in sex work in the past month, and living in a subdistrict easily accessible by public transportation with a high concentration of FSWs, were more likely to screen. FSWs never before tested for HIV were more likely to enroll. This analysis suggests that the primary reason FSWs participated in the trial was a desire for health care—not other factors hypothesized to be important, e.g., HIV risk perception and poverty status. PMID:22907287

  19. Antibiotic prophylaxis among commercial sex workers in Cebu City, Philippines. Patterns of use and perceptions of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Abellanosa, I; Nichter, M

    1996-01-01

    Some commercial sex workers (CSWs) believe that self-treatment with low-dose prophylactic antibiotics can protect them from contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV and AIDS. Such practice, however, provides no protection against STD, impedes STD screening efforts, and contributes to antibiotic resistance. 200 sexually active female CSWs in Cebu City, Philippines, were interviewed to determine the extent to which they believe the prophylactic use of antibiotics can protect them from STD. 38% of the 160 CSWs involved in prostitution during the 2 weeks before the interviews reported routine or occasional use of antibiotics and 31% reported use in the past 2 weeks. CSWs not registered with the Cebu City social hygiene clinic were five times more likely to use prophylactic antibiotics than registered CSWs, seven times less likely to use condoms with 80% or more of their customers, and have sex with three times as many customers. PMID:8885073

  20. The WHISK (Women's Health: Increasing the Awareness of Science and Knowledge) Pilot Project: Recognizing Sex and Gender Differences in Women's Health and Wellness

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Sabriya; Weaks, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Women's health encompasses a continuum of biological, psychological, and social challenges that di?er considerably from those of men. Despite the remarkable advances in science, women's health and sex di?erences research is slowly gaining recognition and acceptance. It is important that women's health gain attention as women are usually the gatekeepers of care for the family. Women's health and health outcomes are strongly influenced by sex and gender di?erences as well as geography. Around the world, the interplay of biology and culture brings about di?erences in men's and women's health, which have been largely overlooked. The Women's Health: Increasing the Awareness of Science and Knowledge (WHISK) Pilot Project was a multidisciplinary project aimed to increase the awareness of sex and gender di?erences in women's health and research among healthcare professionals. Theater expression and creative art were used to translate knowledge, enhance understanding, and increase the awareness of sex di?erences. Findings from this project clearly showed an apparent increase in knowledge and cultivation of new insights. PMID:24416695

  1. “Money talks, bullshit walks” interrogating notions of consumption and survival sex among young women engaging in transactional sex in post-apartheid South Africa: a qualitative enquiry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transactional sex is believed to be a significant driver of the HIV epidemic among young women in South Africa. This sexual risk behaviour is commonly associated with age mixing, concurrency and unsafe sex. It is often described as a survival- or consumption-driven behaviour. South Africa’s history of political oppression as well as the globalization-related economic policies adopted post-apartheid, are suggested as the underlying contexts within which high risk behaviours occur among Black populations. What remains unclear is how these factors combine to affect the particular ways in which transactional sex is used to negotiate life among young Black women in the country. In this paper we explore the drivers of transactional sex among young women aged 16–24, who reside in a peri-urban community in South Africa. We also interrogate prevailing constructions of the risk behaviour in the context of modernity, widespread availability of commodities, and wealth inequalities in the country. Methods Data were collected through 5 focus group discussions and 6 individual interviews amongst young women, men, and community members of various age groups in a township in the Western Cape, South Africa. Findings Young women engaged in transactional sex to meet various needs: some related to survival and others to consumption. In this poverty-stricken community, factors that created a high demand for transactional sex among young women included the pursuit of fashionable images, popular culture, the increased availability of commodities, widespread use of global technologies, poverty and wealth inequalities. Transactional sex encounters were characterized by sexual risk, a casual attitude towards HIV, and male dominance. However, the risk behaviour also allowed women opportunities to adopt new social roles as benefactors in sexual relationships with younger men. Conclusion Transactional sex allows poor, young women to access what young people in many parts of the world also prioritize: fashionable clothing and opportunities for inclusion in popular youth culture. In the context of high HIV prevalence in South Africa, strategies are needed that present young women with safer economic gateways to create and consume alternative symbols of modernity and social inclusion. PMID:23866170

  2. Community-based HIV prevention research among substance-using women in survival sex work: The Maka Project Partnership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate Shannon; Vicki Bright; Shari Allinott; Debbie Alexson; Kate Gibson; Mark W Tyndall

    2007-01-01

    Substance-using women who exchange sex for money, drugs or shelter as a means of basic subsistence (ie. survival sex) have remained largely at the periphery of HIV and harm reduction policies and services across Canadian cities. This is notwithstanding global evidence of the multiple harms faced by this population, including high rates of violence and poverty, and enhanced vulnerabilities to

  3. Sexual Partners of Street-Based Female Sex Workers in St. Petersburg, Russia: A Model of Partnership Characteristics as a Basis for Further Research

    PubMed Central

    Levina, Olga S.; Heimer, Robert; Odinokova, Veronika; Bodanovskaya, Zinaida; Safiullina, Liliya; Irwin, Kevin S.; Niccolai, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    Street-based sex work in Russia, as in many countries, carries with it a high risk for violence and the transmission of infectious diseases. The male partners of female sex workers are both cause and recipient of such risks. Because little is known about the men, we undertook a preliminary study to determine the feasibility of recruiting and interviewing them, develop typologies that describe partners, and derive hypotheses for further study and risk reduction intervention projects. We were able to conduct open-ended, qualitative interviews with street-based sex workers and, largely through these contacts, their male partners. To these data, we added interviews with social work and medical experts who engage with the sex workers. The text of interviews from 37 respondents were analyzed to identify commonly mentioned partner characteristics in five distinct domains: sociodemographics, behavioral patterns of the partners, motivations in seeking sex services, levels of partner engagement with the sex workers, and the social circumstances that moderate the engagement. Four of the five domains (all but sociodemographics) proved useful in identifying typologies that were best described as populated points in a matrix generated from the intersection of the four domains. The data were too limited to specify which of the points in the matrix are most common, but the points populated are useful in generating hypotheses for further study and in identifying potential avenues for risk reduction interventions. PMID:25741032

  4. Motivations for Sex Among Low-Income African American Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna B.; Dal Santo, Teresa S.; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J. Barry; Eyre, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing (n = 20), similarity assessment (n = 25), and focus groups (four groups), to elicit self-described motivations for sex among low-income African American young women (19-22 years). Analyses revealed six clusters: Love/Feelings, For Fun, Curiosity, Pressured, For Money, and For Material Things. Focus groups explored how African American women interpreted the clusters in light of condom use expectations. Participants expressed the importance of using condoms in risky situations, yet endorsed condom use during casual sexual encounters less than half the time. This study highlights the need for more effective intervention strategies to increase condom use expectations among low-income African American women, particularly in casual relationships where perceived risk is already high. PMID:23372029

  5. Motivations for sex among low-income African American young women.

    PubMed

    Deardorff, Julianna; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dal Santo, Teresa S; Flythe, Michelle; Gurdin, J Barry; Eyre, Stephen L

    2013-12-01

    African American young women exhibit higher risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, compared with European American women, and this is particularly true for African American women living in low-income contexts. We used rigorous qualitative methods, that is, domain analysis, including free listing (n = 20), similarity assessment (n = 25), and focus groups (four groups), to elicit self-described motivations for sex among low-income African American young women (19-22 years). Analyses revealed six clusters: Love/Feelings, For Fun, Curiosity, Pressured, For Money, and For Material Things. Focus groups explored how African American women interpreted the clusters in light of condom use expectations. Participants expressed the importance of using condoms in risky situations, yet endorsed condom use during casual sexual encounters less than half the time. This study highlights the need for more effective intervention strategies to increase condom use expectations among low-income African American women, particularly in casual relationships where perceived risk is already high. PMID:23372029

  6. Are Women The Answer To The Shortage Of Skilled Workers In Manufacturing? Guest Editorial by Gretchen Zierick courtesy of Manufacturing & Technology News, November 18, 2011

    E-print Network

    Lin, Zhiqun

    of the current manufacturing work force is over age 55, with few young skilled workers available to replace them. Manufacturers are working to educate young workers that this is not the old manufacturing world of low payAre Women The Answer To The Shortage Of Skilled Workers In Manufacturing? Guest Editorial

  7. Practices of receptive and insertive anal sex among transgender women in relation to partner types, sociocultural factors, and background variables.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Tooru; Bödeker, Birte; Iwamoto, Mariko; Sakata, Maria

    2014-04-01

    It is urgent to develop efficacious HIV prevention programs to curb the reported extremely high HIV prevalence and incidence among transgender women (male-to-female transgender persons) who reside in large cities in the USA. This study aimed to describe unprotected receptive anal sex (URAS) and unprotected insertive anal sex (UIAS) among high-risk transgender women in relation to partner types, psychosocial factors, and background variables. Based on purposive sampling from the targeted communities and AIDS service organizations in San Francisco and Oakland, a total of 573 transgender women who had a history of sex work were recruited and individually interviewed using a structured survey questionnaire. Significant correlates with URAS with primary, casual, and commercial sex partners were found (e.g., needs for social support, frequency of social support received, exposure to transphobia, self-esteem, economic pressure, norms toward practicing healthy behaviors, and self-efficacy toward practicing safe sex). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that transgender women who had engaged in URAS with commercial partners were more likely to have higher levels of transphobia or lower levels of the norms or self-efficacy to practice safe sex. Among the participants who did not have vaginoplasty (preoperative transgender women), 16.4% had engaged in insertive anal sex (IAS) with commercial partners in the past 30 days. The participants who were HIV positive and had engaged in IAS were more likely to be African-American or Caucasians, coinfected with sexually transmitted infections, or identified themselves as homosexual. Practices of IAS among transgender women have not been thoroughly investigated in relation to sexual and gender identity. UIAS with homosexual and bisexual men in addition to URAS may be a cause for high HIV incidence among transgender women. An HIV prevention intervention study must be developed and evaluated, which aims to reduce HIV-positive and -negative transgender women's URAS and UIAS. PMID:24160715

  8. Family Violence and Juvenile Sex OffendingThe Potential Mediating Role of Psychopathic Traits and Negative Attitudes Toward Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALICIA A. CAPUTO; PAUL J. FRICK; STANLEY L. BRODSKY

    1999-01-01

    Juvenile sex offenders were compared to other juvenile offenders in the degree of violence against women they witnessed in their families of origin. Poor impulse control, a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, and sexist attitudes toward women were tested as potential mediators of this relation. Participants were 70 incarcerated juvenile males, ages 13 to 18, from three offender categories: 23

  9. The effects of rape myth pornography on women's attitudes and the mediating role of sex role stereotyping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzin E. Mayerson; Dalmas A. Taylor

    1987-01-01

    This study tested several hypotheses regarding (1) the effects of reading pornography on women's self-esteem and attitudes about rape and interpersonal violence and (2) how these effects were mediated by subject's degree of sex role stereotyping (SRS). Women high and low in SRS read one of three sexually explicit stories portraying different combinations of a woman's consent (or no consent)

  10. The Female Sex Work Industry in a District of India in the Context of HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Buzdugan, Raluca; Halli, Shiva S.; Hiremath, Jyoti M.; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Raghavendra, T.; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Scambler, Graham; Cowan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    HIV prevalence in India remains high among female sex workers. This paper presents the main findings of a qualitative study of the modes of operation of female sex work in Belgaum district, Karnataka, India, incorporating fifty interviews with sex workers. Thirteen sex work settings (distinguished by sex workers' main places of solicitation and sex) are identified. In addition to previously documented brothel, lodge, street, dhaba (highway restaurant), and highway-based sex workers, under-researched or newly emerging sex worker categories are identified, including phone-based sex workers, parlour girls, and agricultural workers. Women working in brothels, lodges, dhabas, and on highways describe factors that put them at high HIV risk. Of these, dhaba and highway-based sex workers are poorly covered by existing interventions. The paper examines the HIV-related vulnerability factors specific to each sex work setting. The modes of operation and HIV-vulnerabilities of sex work settings identified in this paper have important implications for the local programme. PMID:23346389

  11. Non-Disclosure of Violence among Female Sex Workers: Evidence from a Large Scale Cross-Sectional Survey in India

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Battala, Madhusudana; Porwal, Akash; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Objective One of the indicators critical to the success of violence reduction programmes among female sex workers (FSWs) is the pattern of disclosure of violence. This study examines the rate of non-disclosure of violence among FSWs in India by perpetrators of violence and programme exposure. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study conducted among FSWs in 2009 across four states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The analytical sample included 1341 FSWs who experienced physical violence in past six months. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by state was conducted to examine predictors of non-disclosure. Results About 54% of FSWs did not disclose their experience of violence to anyone with considerable variations in the pattern of disclosure across states. Another 36% of FSWs shared the experience with NGO worker/peer. Compared to violence perpetrated by paying partners/stranger, that by non-paying partner were twice more likely to report non-disclosure (53% vs. 68%, Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.3–2.4). Similarly, FSWs who were not registered with an NGO/sex worker collective were 40% more likely to report non-disclosure of violence against those registered (58% vs. 53%, AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1–1.9). Conclusions Non-disclosure of physical violence is quite high among FSWs which can be a barrier to the success of violence reduction efforts. Immediate efforts are required to understand the reasons behind non-disclosure based on which interventions can be developed. Community collectivisation and designing gender-based interventions with the involvement of non-paying partners should be the way forward. PMID:24846145

  12. Tailored Lay Health Worker Intervention Improves Breast Cancer Screening Outcomes in Non-Adherent Korean-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…

  13. Sexual risk and substance use behaviors among African American men who have sex with men and women.

    PubMed

    Operario, Don; Smith, Carla Dillard; Arnold, Emily; Kegeles, Susan

    2011-04-01

    African American men who have sex with men and women (MSMW), but who do not form a sexual identity around same-sex behavior, may experience risk for HIV infection and transmission. This paper reports cross-sectional survey findings on sexual behaviors and substance use of urban non-gay- or non-bisexual-identified African American MSMW (n = 68), who completed behavior assessment surveys using audio-computer assisted self-interviewing technology. Overall, 17.6% reported being HIV-positive. In the past 3 months, 70.6% had unprotected insertive sex with a female, 51.5% had unprotected insertive anal sex (UIAS) with a male, 33.8% had unprotected receptive anal sex (URAS) with a male, 25% had UIAS with a transgender female, and 10.3% had URAS with a transgender female. Findings indicated a bridging potential for HIV and sexually transmitted infections across groups, such that 38.2% reported concurrent unprotected sex with female and male partners and 17.6% reported concurrent unprotected sex with female and transgender female partners. In the past 3 months, 70.6% used alcohol before sex and 85% used drugs before sex. Men who used drugs before sex had a tenfold increased likelihood for unprotected sex with male partners, and men who injected drugs had a nearly fivefold increased likelihood for unprotected sex with a transgender female. Interventions to address sexual risk behaviors, especially partner concurrency, and substance use behavior for these men are warranted. PMID:19572194

  14. Oral contraception and unprotected sex with occasional partners of women HIV-infected through injection drug use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Carrieri; D. Rey; D. Serraino; F. Trémolières; D. Méchali; J. P. Moatti; B. Spire

    2006-01-01

    Among HIV-infected women, unprotected sex with the main sexual partner is common practice. Conversely, studies about condom use with sexual partners of unknown HIV sero-status are sparsely reported. We aimed to assess the impact of oral contraception on unsafe sexual behaviours with occasional partners in women HIV-infected through injection drug use. The analysis focused on 90 women, enrolled in the

  15. Gender Differences in Heterosexual Anal Sex Practices Among Women and Men in Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Meade, Christina S.; Tross, Susan; Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Beadnell, Blair

    2014-01-01

    Heterosexual anal intercourse (HAI) is an understudied risk behavior among women and men in substance abuse treatment. Rates of HAI for women (n = 441) and men (n = 539) were identified for any, main and casual partners. More men (32.8 %) than women (27.1 %) reported engaging in HAI in the previous 90 days. These rates are higher than those reported for both men (6.0–15.9 %) and women (3.5–13.0 %) ages 25–59 in the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior. Men were significantly more likely to report HAI with their casual partners (34.1 %) than women (16.7 %). In a logistic regression model generated to identify associations between HAI and variables previously shown to be related to high risk sexual behavior, being younger, bisexual, and White were significantly associated with HAI. For men, having more sex partners was also a significant correlate. HAI is a logical target for increased focus in HIV prevention interventions. PMID:23321947

  16. Social context, sexual risk perceptions and stigma: HIV vulnerability among male sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Okal, Jerry; Luchters, Stanley; Geibel, Scott; Chersich, Matthew F; Lango, Daniel; Temmerman, Marleen

    2009-11-01

    Knowledge about sexual practices and life experiences of men having sex with men in Kenya, and indeed in East Africa, is limited. Although the impact of male same-sex HIV transmission in Africa is increasingly acknowledged, HIV prevention initiatives remain focused largely on heterosexual and mother-to-child transmission. Using data from ten in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions (36 men), this analysis explores social and behavioural determinants of sexual risks among men who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Analysis showed a range and variation of men by age and social class. First male same-sex experiences occurred for diverse reasons, including love and pleasure, as part of sexual exploration, economic exchange and coercion. Condom use is erratic and subject to common constraints, including notions of sexual interference and motivations of clients. Low knowledge compounds sexual risk taking, with a widespread belief that the risk of HIV transmission through anal sex is lower than vaginal sex. Traditional family values, stereotypes of abnormality, gender norms and cultural and religious influences underlie intense stigma and discrimination. This information is guiding development of peer education programmes and sensitisation of health providers, addressing unmet HIV prevention needs. Such changes are required throughout Eastern Africa. PMID:19484638

  17. African-American college women's perceptions of resources and barriers when reporting forced sex.

    PubMed

    Amar, Angela Frederick

    2008-12-01

    Forced sex is both a public health and a social issue that affects many college women. Despite physical and mental health consequences and the multiple prevention programs on college campuses, most sexual violence goes unreported (Fisher, Daigle, Cullen, & Turner, 2003). The purpose of this research was to explore college women's perceptions of campus resources and to determine the perceived barriers to reporting sexual violence. After IRB approval, African-American women (N = 144) who attend a private college in the south completed a researcher-developed survey. Findings included percentages of reporting sexual violence to campus health, student services, and campus security. Significant factors that were associated with reporting sexual violence included having injuries, if they were drinking at the time, having a designated person on campus to handle sexual assault, having time to go to the authorities, and the perception of how one would be treated. Reporting of forced sex is necessary so that individuals have access to resources and support. Prevention strategies can include education that targets significant perceptions of resources and the elimination or minimization of barriers. PMID:19397052

  18. Sex worker-led structural interventions in India: a case study on addressing violence in HIV prevention through the Ashodaya Samithi collective in Mysore

    PubMed Central

    Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lorway, Rob; O’Brien, Nadia; Lazarus, Lisa; Jain, Jinendra; Bhagya, M.; Fathima, Mary P; Venukumar, KT; Raviprakash, K.N.; Baer, James; Steen, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Structural interventions have the capacity to improve the outcomes of HIV/AIDS interventions by changing the social, economic, political or environmental factors that determine risk and vulnerability. Marginalized groups face disproportionate barriers to health, and sex workers are among those at highest risk of HIV in India. Evidence in India and globally has shown that sex workers face violence in many forms ranging from verbal, psychological and emotional abuse to economic extortion, physical and sexual violence and this is directly linked to lower levels of condom use and higher levels of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the most critical determinants of HIV risk. We present here a case study of an intervention that mobilized sex workers to lead an HIV prevention response that addresses violence in their daily lives. Methods: This study draws on ethnographic research and project monitoring data from a community-led structural intervention in Mysore, India, implemented by Ashodaya Samithi. Qualitative and quantitative data were used to characterize baseline conditions, community responses and subsequent outcomes related to violence. Results: In 2004, the incidence of reported violence by sex workers was extremely high (> 8 incidents per sex worker, per year) but decreased by 84 per cent over 5 years. Violence by police and anti-social elements, initially most common, decreased substantially after a safe space was established for sex workers to meet and crisis management and advocacy were initiated with different stakeholders. Violence by clients, decreased after working with lodge owners to improve safety. However, initial increases in intimate partner violence were reported, and may be explained by two factors: (i) increased willingness to report such incidents; and (ii) increased violence as a reaction to sex workers’ growing empowerment. Trafficking was addressed through the establishment of a self-regulatory board (SRB). The community's progressive response to violence was enabled by advancing community mobilization, ensuring community ownership of the intervention, and shifting structural vulnerabilities, whereby sex workers increasingly engaged key actors in support of a more enabling environment. Interpretation & conclusions: Ashodaya's community-led response to violence at multiple levels proved highly synergistic and effective in reducing structural violence. PMID:22382190

  19. The influence of having children on HIV-related risk behaviors of female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico-US border cities.

    PubMed

    Rolon, Maria Luisa; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Robertson, Angela M; Rangel, M Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Ulibarri, Monica D; Servin, Argentina; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-06-01

    Among female sex workers who use drugs, the experience of having children and its effect on HIV risk behaviors remains underexplored. We draw from a study of 214 female sex workers and their intimate non-commercial partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, México (n = 428), approximately 30% of whom have children living with them. During qualitative interviews with 41 of these couples, having children emerged as an important topic. Children influenced partners' lives and HIV-related risk behaviors in positive and negative ways. Couples perceived that children strengthened their relationships. Concern for children's well-being motivated couples to contemplate healthier lifestyle changes. However, childrearing costs motivated sex work and structural constraints prevented couples from enacting lifestyle changes. Case studies illustrate these themes and highlight implications for couple- and family-based harm reduction interventions. Specifically, our results suggest a need for economic alternatives to sex work while working with families to develop risk reduction skills. PMID:23418131

  20. High Burden of Prevalent and Recently Acquired HIV among Female Sex Workers and Female HIV Voluntary Testing Center Clients in Kigali, Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Braunstein, Sarah L.; Ingabire, Chantal M.; Geubbels, Eveline; Vyankandondera, Joseph; Umulisa, Marie-Michèle; Gahiro, Elysée; Uwineza, Mireille; Tuijn, Coosje J.; Nash, Denis; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate HIV prevalence and risk factors in population-based samples of female sex workers (FSW) and female voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients in Rwanda. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 800 FSW and 1,250 female VCT clients in Rwanda, which included interviewing and testing for HIV-1/2, HSV-2 and pregnancy, and BED-CEIA and Avidity Index (AI) to identify recent infections among HIV-infected women. Results Prevalence of HIV-1, HSV-2, and pregnancy were 24% (95% CI: 21.0–27.0), 59.8% (56.4–63.2), and 7.6% (5.8–9.5) among FSW, and 12.8% (10.9–14.6), 43.2% (40.4–46.0), and 11.4% (9.7–13.3) among VCT clients, respectively. Thirty-five percent of FSW and 25% of VCT clients had never been HIV tested. Per national guidelines, 33% of newly HIV-diagnosed FSW and 36% of VCT clients were already eligible for ART based on CD4<350 cells/µl. Condom use at last sex was higher among FSW (74%) than VCT clients (12%). In age and district of residence-adjusted models, HIV-1 seropositivity was associated with HSV-2 co-infection; recent treatment for sexually transmitted infection (STI); genital symptoms; forced sex; imprisonment; widowhood; and alcohol consumption. Eleven percent of FSW and 12% of VCT clients had recently acquired HIV-1 per BED-CEIA and AI. HSV-2 infection and recent STI treatment were associated with recent HIV infection in both groups, and being married and vaginal cleansing were associated with recent infection before last sex among VCT clients. Conclusions This population-based survey reveals a high HIV prevalence and incidence among FSW and female VCT clients in Kigali, the scale of which is masked by the low general-population HIV prevalence in Rwanda. HIV/STI and family planning services should be strengthened. PMID:21949704