Note: This page contains sample records for the topic women sex workers from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Sex Object and Worker: Incompatible Images of Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors contend that the research on sex at work reveals an interesting paradox. At work, women are perceived as using sex to their advantage, yet in practice, they are hurt by sex at work. On the other hand, men who are perceived as concerned with business display more sexual behavior than women at work and may benefit from it.

Barbara A. Gutek; Verna Dunwoody

1987-01-01

2

Women Clerical Workers: Sex-Role Socialization, Work Attitudes, and Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored differences in sex-role socialization, personality orientation, and work attitudes and values of two groups of women clerical workers (N=91) who made their initial career choices in different historical time frames (the 1950s and 1970s). Results suggest that women clerical workers with differing sex-role socialization experiences may have…

Pearson, Hilary M.; Kahn, Sharon E.

1989-01-01

3

Labour, the Body, and Sexuality: Women Sex Workers' Negotiation of Public and Private Sex and Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feminists have been disputing the nature of commercial sex acts for nearly four decades. Some radical feminists argue that the existence of commercial sex signifies women's oppression and see prostitution as nothing but selling sex. In contrast, prostitutes' rights groups and pro-sex feminists tend to consider commercial sex acts as work or labour. The latter group, however, fails to elaborate

Mei-Hua Chen

2006-01-01

4

Male Sex Workers Who Sell Sex to Men Also Engage in Anal Intercourse with Women: Evidence from Mombasa, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior. Design Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Methods Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse. Results From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days – of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one’s own children, and lower education. Conclusions We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond.

Mannava, Priya; Geibel, Scott; King'ola, Nzioki; Temmerman, Marleen; Luchters, Stanley

2013-01-01

5

Living the reality of forced sex work: perspectives from young migrant women sex workers in northern Vietnam.  

PubMed

Young women are often lured or forced into selling sex as a result of migrating from rural to urban areas to find work. In this setting, they are exposed to high-risk situations, which may leave them vulnerable to exploitation. Using interviews with young migrant women currently working as sex workers in northern Vietnam, we recorded the perspectives of their initiation into sex work and life as a sex worker. The study found that high levels of forced sex and sexual exploitation were experienced by the majority of the young women interviewed. The young women describe their entry into sex work, first sexual experience (intercourse), violence, and condom negotiation and use. Although access to health care was available, the young women perceived the stigma attached to sex work as a barrier to receiving health care, and thus, preferred health education and care from peers. Health education programs focusing on peer education and support are essential for protecting and empowering these young women. In addition, policies and programs must work toward effective strategies to protect young migrant women. PMID:15973256

Rushing, Rosanne; Watts, Charlotte; Rushing, Sharon

6

Magdalena Pilot Project: motivational outreach to substance abusing women street sex workers.  

PubMed

The Magdalena Pilot Project provided outreach to Albuquerque women sex workers who were also using illicit drugs, primarily cocaine and heroin. This initial uncontrolled trial evaluated the feasibility and potential impact of motivational interviewing (MI) on change in drug use and HIV risk behaviors. Twenty-seven women were enrolled and interviewed about their substance use, health risk behaviors, and plans for change, using the client-centered, directive method of MI. Four months later, 25 women (93%) were interviewed again to assess their drug use and health risk behaviors. Large reductions were reported in frequency (days) of drug use and sex work, with a corresponding increase in days of lawful employment. In identifying problems that most needed to be addressed in order to help them live healthier lives, the women prioritized (1) basic needs including decent housing, (2) mental health care, and (3) treatment for substance use disorders. PMID:12127468

Yahne, Carolina E; Miller, William R; Irvin-Vitela, Lilly; Tonigan, J Scott

2002-07-01

7

‘You are just whores—you can't be raped’: barriers to safer sex practices among women street sex workers in Cape Town  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies barriers to HIV risk reduction among women street sex workers in Cape Town. To gain access to the study population, investigators undertook observational fieldwork for 9 months. This initial trust?building period allowed for the mutual identification of issues to guide the remainder of the research. Twenty?five individual interviews and four focus groups were then conducted. The following

2003-01-01

8

"... But Then He Became My Sipa": The Implications of Relationship Fluidity for Condom Use Among Women Sex Workers in Antananarivo, Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence indicates that sex workers use condoms less consistently with regular (i.e., nonpaying) partners than with clients. Few studies have examined the extent to which these 2 categories are mutually exclusive. In an ethnographic study of women's sex work in Antananarivo, Madagascar, we examined how the meaning of women sex workers’ sexual relationships could shift among 3 different forms of sex work. Condom use was less likely in forms in which the distinction between client and lover (sipa in Malagasy) was fluid. For many sex workers, therefore, relationships they understood to be intimate imparted the greatest health vulnerability. It is important to examine the influence of the meaning of sexual relationships on condom use for HIV prevention. Policy implications for HIV prevention work with sex workers are considered.

Hindin, Michelle J.; Nathanson, Constance A.; Rakotoarison, Paul Ghislain; Razafintsalama, Violette

2009-01-01

9

Women as Objects: Supermodels and Sex Workers GOVT 580.02 Instructor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overview This course will look at a range of issues regarding women's roles in the sex industry from a human rights perspective. We will start by looking at the U.S. domestic arena, and the class discussion will address issues of pornography, legalization of prostitution, and first amendment rights. On the second day, we will turn to the international level, examining

Margaret Huang

10

Women as Objects: Supermodels and Sex Workers GOVT 580.02 Fall 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

This course will look at a range of issues regarding women's roles in the sex industry from a human rights perspective. We will start by looking at the U.S. domestic arena, and the class discussion will address issues of pornography, legalization of prostitution, and first amendment rights. On the second day, we will turn to the international level, examining the

Margaret Huang

11

RISKY HEALTH ENVIRONMENTS:WOMEN SEX WORKERS' STRUGGLES TO FIND SAFE, SECURE AND NON-EXPLOITATIVE HOUSING IN CANADA'S POOREST POSTAL CODE  

PubMed Central

This study explored low-income and transitional housing environments of women sex workers and their role in shaping agency and power in negotiating safety and sexual risk reduction in Vancouver, Canada. A series of 12 focus group discussions were conducted with 73 women currently involved in street-based sex work. These women were purposively sampled for a range of experiences living in low-income housing environments, including homeless shelters, transitional housing, and co-ed and women-only single room occupancy (SRO) hotels. Drawing on the risk environment framework and theoretical constructs of gender, agency and power, analyses demonstrate that women continue to be vulnerable to violence and sexual and economic exploitation and have reduced ability to negotiate risk reduction resulting from the physical, structural and social environments of current dominant male-centred housing models. Within the physical environment, women described inhabitable housing conditions in SROs with infestations of bedbugs and rats, leading women to even more transitional housing options such as shelters and couch-surfing. In many cases, this resulted in their economic exploitation and increased sexual risk. Within the structural environment, enforcement of curfews and guest policies forced women to accept risky clients to meet curfew, or work outdoors where their ability to negotiate safety and condom use were limited. Certain policies promoted women’s agency and mitigated their ability to reduce risks when selling sex. These included flexible curfews and being able to bring clients home. The social environments of co-ed single-room occupancy hotels resulted in repeated violence by male residents and discrimination by male building staff. Women-only shelters and SROs facilitated ‘enabling environments’ where women developed support systems with other working women that resulted in safer work practices. The narratives expressed in this study reveal the critical need for public health interventions and safer supportive housing to account for the daily lived experiences of women sex workers.

Lazarus, L; Chettiar, J; Deering, K; Nabess, R; Shannon, K

2011-01-01

12

Governing sex workers in Timor Leste.  

PubMed

This paper argues that international security forces in Timor Leste depend upon civilian partners in HIV/AIDs "knowledge networks" to monitor prostitutes' disease status. These networks produce mobile expertise, techniques of government and forms of personhood that facilitate international government of distant populations without overt coercion. HIV/AIDs experts promote techniques of peer education, empowerment and community mobilisation to construct women who sell sex as health conscious sex workers. Such techniques make impoverished women responsible for their disease status, obscuring the political and economic contexts that produced that status. In the militarised context of Timor Leste, knowledge of the sexual conduct of sub-populations labelled high risk circulates among global HIV/AIDs knowledge networks, confirming their expert status while obscuring the sexual harm produced by military intervention. HIV/AIDs knowledge networks have recently begun to build Timorese sex worker organisations by contracting an Australian sex worker NGO to train a Timorese NGO tasked with building sex worker identity and community. Such efforts fail to address the needs and priorities of the women supposedly empowered. The paper engages theories of global knowledge networks, mobile technologies of government, and governmentality to analyse policy documents, reports, programmes, official statements, speeches, and journalistic accounts regarding prostitution in Timor Leste. PMID:21847829

Harrington, Carol

2011-01-01

13

HIV and female sex workers.  

PubMed Central

In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers.

Estebanez, P.; Fitch, K.; Najera, R.

1993-01-01

14

Substance abuse, treatment needs and access among female sex workers and non-sex workers in Pretoria, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study examined cross-sectional data collected from substance-using female sex workers (FSW) and non-sex workers (non-SW) in Pretoria, South Africa, who entered a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Women who reported alcohol use and recently engaging in sex work or unprotected sex were recruited for a randomized study. The study sample (N = 506) comprised 335 FSW and 171 female

Wendee M Wechsberg; Li-Tzy Wu; William A Zule; Charles D Parry; Felicia A Browne; Winnie K Luseno; Tracy Kline; Amanda Gentry

2009-01-01

15

HIV prevention among female sex workers in Africa.  

PubMed

Sex work occurs to meet the demand for sexual services and is a universal phenomenon. In Africa sex work takes many forms and is an important source of income for many women. Yet sex worker reproductive health needs remain largely unmet. The criminalisation of sex work; community and service provider stigma; violence; substance use and limited access to health services and prevention commodities contribute to the high HIV burden evident among female sex workers in Africa. Following UNAIDS' three pillar approach to HIV prevention and sex work we present an overview of current opportunities, barriers and suggestions to improve HIV prevention policy and programming for sex work in Africa. Universal access to a comprehensive package of HIV services is the first pillar. Reproductive health commodities; voluntary and anonymous HIV counselling and testing; treatment of sexually transmitted infections, HIV and opportunistic infections; harm reduction for substance use and psychosocial support services make up the recommended package of services. The second pillar is a sex worker-supportive environment. The inclusion of sex worker programmes within national HIV strategic planning; sex worker-led community mobilisation and the establishment of sex work community networks (comprised of sex workers, health service providers, law enforcers and other stakeholders) enable effective programme implementation and are recommended. The reduction of sex worker vulnerability and addressing structural issues form the final pillar. The decriminalisation of sex work; development of supportive policy; gender equality and economic development are key factors that need to be addressed to increase sex worker resilience. Evidence supports the public health benefit of human rights based approaches to HIV prevention; moralistic and restrictive policy and laws towards sex work are harmful and should be removed. The establishment of these pillars will increase sex worker safety and enhance the inclusiveness of the HIV response. PMID:23237073

Scheibe, A; Drame, F M; Shannon, K

2012-01-01

16

Women Workers' History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of one page chapters each documenting women's roles in changing the conditions for U.S. workers during and after the industrial revolution. Each chapter is a series of period style drawings with captions detailing the story of that particular incident and cartoon balloons offering humorous comments from the participants. The…

Huck, Gary; Gilmore, Peter

17

Sex workers in Vietnam: how many, how risky?  

PubMed

Because of concerns for HIV risks and need to plan effective programs, we assessed the number and risks of sex workers in Nha Trang City, Vietnam. Sex workers were contacted in streets, beaches, bars, and restaurants, and a capture-recapture method was used to estimate their number. An estimated 444 women worked on the streets and beach ("direct" sex workers) and 486 worked in bars and restaurants or other facilities ("indirect" sex workers). Direct and indirect sex workers engaged in sex work primarily to support their families. Direct sex workers were older and were more at risk for HIV risk than were indirect sex workers. Direct sex workers had more clients, were less likely to report always using condoms (67% vs. 81%), more likely to report a prior sexually transmitted infection (19% vs. 16%), and more likely to have clients who inject drugs (16% vs. 13%). This assessment has implications for planning programs to reduce sex work and its risks in Vietnam and potentially other countries. PMID:15491951

Minh, Truong Tan; Nhan, Do Thi; West, Gary R; Durant, Tonji M; Jenkins, Richard A; Huong, Pham Thi; Valdiserri, Ronald O

2004-10-01

18

Vulnerability of commercial sex workers : view point from Tangail Brothel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically in Bangladesh, the person (especially women) who entertains clients with sex for money is called Beisya (prostitute). This is the most hated word in society. The larger society treats these prostitutes with social reproach, they don't even like to hear about them. In this study the researcher uses the term Commercial Sex Worker (CSW) instead of prostitute to avoid

Ahsan-ul-Haque Helal

1999-01-01

19

Reproductive health and healthcare among sex workers in Escuintla, Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines understandings of sexual and reproductive health and healthcare, and perceptions of health services among women who regularly or occasionally sell or transact sex in Escuintla, Guatemala. Using an approach informed by grounded theory, 35 individual interviews were analysed. Results suggest that sex workers face multiple forms of vulnerability due to their level of education, economic situation and

Carmen Porras; Meritxell Sabidó; Victor Hugo Fernández; Anabela Batres; Jordi Casabona

2008-01-01

20

Sex workers talk about sex work: six contradictory characteristics of legalised sex work in Melbourne, Australia.  

PubMed

Despite research suggesting that legal sex work is safe and that emotional risks and social stigma are of greater concern than health risks, much research on sex work has focused on health risks. Given the legalisation of sex work in Victoria, Australia, it is timely to look beyond health. Three focus groups were conducted with a total of 14 female sex workers on their experience of legal sex work, both positive and negative, and the social acceptability of their profession. Thematic analysis was used to identify the key ways that sex workers described sex work. Women saw legal sex work as safer than illegal sex work, but still not socially acceptable. However, they also described six contradictory elements of sex work, which was seen as: financially rewarding and entrapping; empowering and demeaning; increasing some opportunities while reducing others; flexible and demanding; offering both intimacy and competition; and leading to a 'double life'. While legalisation has improved the safety of sex work, stigma and discrimination persist. PMID:23173716

Begum, Sufia; Hocking, Jane S; Groves, Jan; Fairley, Christopher K; Keogh, Louise A

2012-11-23

21

The Sex Worker and Her Pleasure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stereotypical view of prostitution is based on the idea that sex work destroys the woman's capability for sexual pleasure and alienates her from her sexuality. The author argues that the idea of the destructive capacity of sex work is not universally obvious. Sex workers interviewed seem to derive sexual pleasure in both commercial and private relationships. Professional sex work

Anna Kontula

2008-01-01

22

Criminalization, legalization or decriminalization of sex work: what female sex workers say in San Francisco, USA.  

PubMed

Sex work is a criminal offence in San Francisco, USA, and sex work advocates have so far unsuccessfully campaigned for decriminalizing it. Some groups argue that the decriminalization movement does not represent the voices of marginalized sex workers. Using qualitative and quantitative data from the Sex Worker Environmental Assessment Team Study, we investigated the perspectives and experiences of a range of female sex workers regarding the legal status of sex work and the impact of criminal law on their work experiences. Forty women were enrolled in the qualitative phase in 2004 and 247 women in the quantitative phase in 2006-07. Overall, the women in this study seemed to prefer a hybrid of legalization and decriminalization. The majority voiced a preference for removing statutes that criminalize sex work in order to facilitate a social and political environment where they had legal rights and could seek help when they were victims of violence. Advocacy groups need to explore the compromises sex workers are willing to make to ensure safe working conditions and the same legal protections afforded to other workers, and with those who are most marginalized to better understand their immediate needs and how these can be met through decriminalization. PMID:19962636

Lutnick, Alexandra; Cohan, Deborah

2009-11-01

23

Sex work venue and condom use among female sex workers in Senggigi, Indonesia.  

PubMed

This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: (1) freelance locations, (2) brothels and (3) entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women 'nested' within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV-prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered. PMID:23472595

Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A; Johnson, Timothy P

2013-03-11

24

Sex worker health: San Francisco style  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the characteristics of sex workers accessing care at a peer based clinic in San Francisco and to evaluate predictors of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Methods We conducted an observational study of sex workers at St James Infirmary. Individuals underwent an initial questionnaire, and we offered screening for STI at each clinic visit. We performed univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses to assess for predictors of STI in this population. Results We saw 783 sex workers identifying as female (53.6%), male (23.9%), male to female transgender (16.1%), and other (6.5%). 70% had never disclosed their sex work to a medical provider. Participants represented a wide range of ethnicities, educational backgrounds, and types of sex work. The most common substance used was tobacco (45.8%). Nearly 40% reported current illicit drug use. Over half reported domestic violence, and 36.0% reported sex work related violence. Those screened had gonorrhoea (12.4%), chlamydia (6.8%), syphilis (1.8%), or herpes simplex virus 2 (34.3%). Predictors of STI included African?American race (odds ratio (OR) 3.3), male gender (OR 1.9), and sex work related violence (OR 1.9). In contrast, participants who had only ever engaged in collective sex work were less likely to have an STI (OR 0.4). Conclusions The majority of sex workers have never discussed their work with a medical provider. Domestic violence is extremely prevalent as is work related violence. Working with other sex workers appears to be protective of STIs. STI prevention interventions should target African?American and male sex workers. Addressing violence in the workplace and encouraging sex workers to work collectively may be effective prevention strategies.

Cohan, D; Lutnick, A; Davidson, P; Cloniger, C; Herlyn, A; Breyer, J; Cobaugh, C; Wilson, D; Klausner, J

2006-01-01

25

Leaving sex work: barriers, facilitating factors and consequences for female sex workers in northern Thailand.  

PubMed

Factors facilitating or inhibiting women's ability to leave sex work are still poorly characterized, and little is known about women's lives after they leave the profession. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study about factors affecting women's ability to leave sex work and influencing their lives after leaving. We interviewed 42 current and former female sex workers (FSWs) drawn from a cohort study of 500 FSWs in northern Thailand. All but one of the participants had quit sex work at least once. The majority experienced one or more quit-re-entry-quit cycles. Women's ability and decisions to leave sex work were determined primarily by four factors: economic situation, relationship with a steady partner, attitudes towards sex work and HIV/AIDS experience. Economic concerns, ranging from survival needs to materialistic desires, had the strongest influence. Most women perceived their risk for HIV infection to be lower after leaving sex work, but three of the 17 HIV-infected women acquired infection after having left, presumably from their steady partners. Prevention efforts should guide women as they transition out of commercial sex work. Interventions aimed at assisting women wanting to leave sex work need to address the role of economic factors. PMID:12655832

Manopaiboon, C; Bunnell, R E; Kilmarx, P H; Chaikummao, S; Limpakarnjanarat, K; Supawitkul, S; St Louis, M E; Mastro, T D

2003-02-01

26

Automation and Women Workers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To determine the repercussions of scientific and technological progress on the employment of women and their conditions of work, the Women's Bureau used available statistical data from 1958-68 to study: (1) Employment and Unemployment, (2) Vocational Guidance and Training, (3) Training and Retraining of Older Women, (4) Remuneration, (5) Hours of…

Wells, Jean A.

27

HIV Prevention Among Sex Workers in India  

PubMed Central

Summary To test the efficacy of a sustainable community-level HIV intervention among sex workers, the Sonagachi Project was replicated, including community organizing and advocacy, peer education, condom social marketing, and establishment of a health clinic. Sex workers were randomly selected in 2 small urban communities in northeastern India (n = 100 each) and assessed every 5–6 months over 15 months (85% retention). Overall condom use increased significantly in the intervention community (39%) compared with the control community (11%), and the proportion of consistent condom users increased 25% in the intervention community compared with a 16% decrease in the control community. This study supports the efficacy of the Sonagachi model intervention in increasing condom use and maintaining low HIV prevalence among sex workers.

Basu, Ishika; Jana, Smarajit; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Lee, Sung-Jae; Newman, Peter; Weiss, Robert

2010-01-01

28

Trafficked female sex workers awaiting deportation: comparison with brothel workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In 2002, we researched the psychosocial characteristics of 55 women working in the commercial brothel-based sex industry in three Israeli cities. This previous social epidemiological study focused exclusively on women working in brothels and the brothel owners consented to their interviews, suggesting that this might be a sample of the most organized brothels with the best social conditions. We

J. Cwikel; B. Chudakov; M. Paikin; K. Agmon; R. H. Belmaker

2004-01-01

29

Beyond women workers: gendering csr  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though there is now a great deal of attention to the question of women workers and Corporate Social Responsibility (csr), a more far reaching analysis, which is informed by feminist economics approaches, stresses the importance of the gendered nature of the institutional context in which value chains operate, and the importance of acknowledging that labour markets are themselves gendered institutions

Ruth Pearson

2007-01-01

30

High Prevalence of Forced Sex Among Non-Brothel Based, Wine Shop Centered Sex Workers in Chennai, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual violence has been shown to increase women’s risk of HIV infection. India is a country where the HIV epidemic is growing\\u000a among women and intimate partner violence (IPV) is pervasive. This study examined prevalence of and factors associated with\\u000a forced sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Chennai, India. We conducted a probability survey among FSWs in 24 slum

Vivian F. GoAylur; Aylur K. Srikrishnan; Corette Breeden Parker; Megan Salter; Annette M. Green; Sudha Sivaram; Sethulakshmi C. Johnson; Carl Latkin; Wendy Davis; Suniti Solomon; David D. Celentano

2011-01-01

31

Prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence among a prospective cohort of female sex workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence against female sex workers in an environment of criminalised prostitution.Design Prospective observational study.Setting Vancouver, Canada during 2006-8.Participants Female sex workers 14 years of age or older (inclusive of transgender women) who used illicit drugs (excluding marijuana) and engaged in street level sex work. Main outcome measure Self reported

Kate Shannon; T Kerr; S A Strathdee; J Shoveller; J S Montaner; M W Tyndall

2009-01-01

32

A Descriptive Profile of Abused Female Sex Workers in India  

PubMed Central

This descriptive study presents the profiles of abused female sex workers (FSWs) in Chennai, India. Of 100 abused FSWs surveyed using a structured questionnaire, severe forms of violence by intimate partners were reported by most (98%) respondents. Of the total sample, 76% experienced violence by clients. Sexual coercion experiences of the FSWs included verbal threats (77%) and physical force (87%) by intimate partners and forced unwanted sexual acts (73%) by clients. While 39% of the women consumed alcohol before meeting a client, 26% reported that their drunkenness was a trigger for violence by clients. The findings suggest that there is an urgent need to integrate services, along with public-health interventions among FSWs to protect them from violence. Recognition of multiple identities of women in the contexts of intimate relationships versus sex work is vital in helping women to stay safe from adverse effects on health.

Johnson, Sethulakshmi C.; Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, A.K.; Zelaya, Carla; Solomon, Suniti; Go, Vivian F.; Celentano, David

2010-01-01

33

Alcohol Use, Unprotected Sex, and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Sex Workers in China  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective Alcohol use has been suggested to interfere with condom use and to increase sexual risk behaviors. However, data on the prevalence of this practice among female sex workers and its association with condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are limited. Methods Data were collected through the baseline survey of an HIV prevention project among 454 establishment-based female sex workers in Guangxi, China, in 2004. Both global association and situational analysis were performed using 2 measures of alcohol use (alcohol intoxication and drinking alcohol before having sex with a client). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association of alcohol use with women's condom use and STIs. Results One-third of women reported being intoxicated with alcohol at least once a month during the previous 6 months, and about 30% reported using alcohol before having sex with clients. In comparison with women who did not use alcohol before engaging in sex with clients, women who did so reported significantly less consistent condom use and higher rates of both current STIs and a history of STI. However, alcohol intoxication was not associated with condom use and STIs. These findings indicate event-specific rather than global associations of alcohol use with inconsistent condom use and STIs. Conclusion Alcohol use before commercial sex is associated with unprotected sex and increased risk for STIs. Interventions that address both alcohol use and HIV risk behaviors in the context of commercial sex may have a great impact in preventing the spread of HIV in China.

Wang, Bo; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Zhang, Lei; Fang, Xiaoyi

2010-01-01

34

Reframing the Interpretation of Sex Worker Health: A Behavioral-Structural Approach  

PubMed Central

Expanding sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics in many parts of Asia increase the importance of effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/STI prevention programs for female sex workers. Designing sex worker health research and programs demands a well-stated conceptual approach, especially when one is interpreting the relationship between local policy environments and sex worker health. However, the core principles of the 2 most common conceptual approaches used in sex worker health programs—abolitionism and empowerment—have frequently divergent assumptions and implications. The abolitionist approach sees major aspects of the sex industry as fundamentally coercive and exploitative of women and supports dismantling all or parts of the sex sector. The empowerment approach strengthens sex workers’ agency and rights in order to build collective self-efficacy and have women invested in implementing their own HIV/STI prevention programs. This review compares these approaches using implication analysis and empirical cases from Asia. The misperception of an unresolvable gap between the 2 approaches ignores common ground that forms the basis of a new behavioral–structural conceptual framework. Explicitly accounting for the interaction between female sex worker behaviors and larger structures and policies, a behavioral–structural approach may provide a solid foundation for sex work research and programs.

Tuminez, Astrid S.

2011-01-01

35

Reframing the interpretation of sex worker health: a behavioral-structural approach.  

PubMed

Expanding sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemics in many parts of Asia increase the importance of effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/STI prevention programs for female sex workers. Designing sex worker health research and programs demands a well-stated conceptual approach, especially when one is interpreting the relationship between local policy environments and sex worker health. However, the core principles of the 2 most common conceptual approaches used in sex worker health programs--abolitionism and empowerment--have frequently divergent assumptions and implications. The abolitionist approach sees major aspects of the sex industry as fundamentally coercive and exploitative of women and supports dismantling all or parts of the sex sector. The empowerment approach strengthens sex workers' agency and rights in order to build collective self-efficacy and have women invested in implementing their own HIV/STI prevention programs. This review compares these approaches using implication analysis and empirical cases from Asia. The misperception of an unresolvable gap between the 2 approaches ignores common ground that forms the basis of a new behavioral-structural conceptual framework. Explicitly accounting for the interaction between female sex worker behaviors and larger structures and policies, a behavioral-structural approach may provide a solid foundation for sex work research and programs. PMID:22043033

Tucker, Joseph D; Tuminez, Astrid S

2011-12-01

36

Women Migrant Workers: Embracing Empowerment Over Victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on women migrant workers - women who leave their countries, whether taking their families or leaving them behind, in search of employment and economic opportunity abroad. After a discussion of the recent globalization of migration, this paper continues with an examination of the feminization of migration. Part II then discusses how men and women workers experience migration

Jill Borak

37

From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises

2010-01-01

38

Posttraumatic stress disorder among female street-based sex workers in the greater Sydney area, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This paper examines rates of exposure to work-related violence and other trauma, and the prevalence of lifetime and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among female street-based sex workers. It also investigates associations between current PTSD symptoms and: demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, injecting and sex risk behaviours, and trauma history. METHODS: Cross sectional data collected from 72 women via face

Amanda Roxburgh; Louisa Degenhardt; Jan Copeland

2006-01-01

39

Environmental health and safety of Chinese sex workers: A cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimThis paper presents a Hong Kong data on the effect that sex work has on women's environmental health and safety. An outreach role that highlights safety and human rights is suggested for nurses working with female sex workers as clients.

Eleanor A. Holroyd; William C. W. Wong; Ann Gray; Davina C. Ling

40

Environmental health and safety of Chinese sex workers: A cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimThis paper presents a Hong Kong (HK) data on the effect that sex work has on women's environmental health and safety. An outreach role that highlights safety and human rights is suggested for nurses working with female sex workers (FSWs) as clients.

Eleanor A. Holroyd; William C. W. Wong; Sister Ann Gray; Davina C. Ling

2008-01-01

41

History of sex trafficking, recent experiences of violence, and HIV vulnerability among female sex workers in coastal Andhra Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Findings from female sex workers in southern India indicate that women who enter sex work via trafficking are exposed to unique HIV vulnerabilities. Objectives To estimate the prevalence of sex trafficking as a mode of entry into sex work, and to examine associations between sex trafficking and recent violence experiences and HIV vulnerability among female sex workers (FSWs). Methods In a cross-sectional study in 2006 in coastal Andhra Pradesh, India, 812 FSWs were recruited via respondent-driven sampling to take part in an oral survey of their experiences in sex work. Results One in 5 (19.3%) FSWs met the UN definition of sex trafficking. Women trafficked into sex work were more likely than other FSWs to report recent violence experiences (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32–2.81), more clients per week (AOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.11–2.41), and more days of sex work per week (AOR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.18–2.63), and were less likely to report use of FSW-focused services (AOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42–0.86). No significant differences emerged regarding HIV knowledge or consistent condom use. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of sex trafficking. A history of sex trafficking was associated with a greater vulnerability to recent violence and HIV risk behaviors, underscoring the need for increased attention to the public health needs of trafficked populations.

Gupta, Jhumka; Reed, Elizabeth; Kershaw, Trace; Blankenship, Kim M.

2011-01-01

42

Client retention and health among sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya.  

PubMed

It is still a small body of research that directly addresses female sex workers' relationships with their regular commercial male partners. I used ethnographic data from Nairobi, Kenya to interrogate motivations and strategies for recruiting and retaining regular male clients among female sex workers (FSWs). Regular commercial male partners, popularly called customer care, wera or wesh by Nairobi's FSWs, played diverse roles in their lives. Client retention enabled sex workers to manage the risk of reduced marriage prospects, guaranteed them steady work, livelihoods, and incomes, and prevented their victimization and harassment. To retain clients, sex workers obliged them a great deal, pretended they had quit prostitution, and sometimes resorted to magical practices. However, these strategies were also accompanied by risks that reinforced the vulnerability of sex workers. Lack of critical attention to sex workers' practices for managing perceived risks in their particular type of work may hamper current programmatic efforts to make their job safer. PMID:22434396

Izugbara, Chimaraoke O

2012-03-21

43

Female sex workers as health educators with men who buy sex: Utilising narratives of rationalisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on findings from an ethnographic study of female sex workers who work in the indoor sex markets in a British city. An unexpected finding was the collective narratives that sex workers construct to rationalise their involvement in the sex industry. Fifty-five respondents who took part in in-depth interviews maintained that prostitution is a useful occupation and function

Teela Sanders

2006-01-01

44

HIV/AIDS among Women Who Have Sex with Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Contact Us CDC en Español Search: CDC Home > HIV/AIDS > Topics > Women > Resources HIV among Women Resources Bibliography ... read documents in PDF format. Download the Reader . HIV/AIDS among Women Who Have Sex With Women View ...

45

Human Papillomaviruses and Cervical Cancer in Bangkok. III. The Role of Husbands and Commercial Sex Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between September 1991 and September 1993, husbands of women with and without cervical neoplasia and commercial sex workers in one brothel and one massage parlor in Bangkok, Thailand, were interviewed; serologic tests for sexually transmitted infections were performed; and cervical and penile scrapings were tested for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA. The risks of cervical carcinoma in monogamous women and of

David B. Thomas; Roberta M. Ray; Jane Kuypers; Nancy Kiviat; Amorn Koetsawang; Rhoda L. Ashley; Qin Qin; Suporn Koetsawang

46

More Than a Sex Machine: Accomplishing Masculinity Among Chinese Male Sex Workers in the Hong Kong Sex Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situated in the masculinity and deviance literature, this article examines a “deviant” masculinity, that of the male sex worker, and presents the ways men who engage in sex work cope with the job. Based on in-depth interviews of Chinese male sex workers (n = 18) in the Hong Kong sex industry, I argue that the stigma management techniques these men employ are

Travis S. K. Kong

2009-01-01

47

Condom use and sexually transmitted infections among Malagasy sex workers.  

PubMed

We evaluated whether use of a short- or longer-term recall period for condom use was superior for assessing risk of acquisition of incident sexually transmitted infection (STI). Female sex workers (n = 1000) in Madagascar took part in a randomized trial comparing counselling strategies for male and female condom promotion. We explored associations between women's self-reported condom use with clients and non-paying partners and incident STI, examining both short-term recall (last sex act) and longer-term recall (over the past month and year). Self-reported condom use was generally not associated with reduced STI risk, whether measured at the last act or over longer time periods; with clients or non-paying partners; and through unadjusted and adjusted modelling. No condom use measure (short versus longer time periods, with one or both partner types) was strongly predictive of STI, suggesting poor validity. PMID:21998174

Turner, A N; Feldblum, P; Hoke, T H

2011-10-01

48

Exploring the impact of underage sex work among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities  

PubMed Central

Although sex work and younger age increase HIV vulnerability, empirical data regarding the impacts of underage sex work are lacking. We explored associations between features of the risk environment, sex work and drug use history, and underage sex work entry among 624 female sex workers(FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Forty-one percent (n=253) of women began sex work as minors, among whom HIV and any STI/HIV prevalence were 5.2% and 60.7%. Factors independently associated with increased odds of underage sex work were inhalants as the first drug used, forced first injection, number of drug treatment attempts, and recent receptive syringe-sharing. Number of recent condom negotiation attempts with steady partners and depression as a reason for first injecting were negatively associated with underage entry. These results underscore the importance of efforts to prevent underage sex work and the wider factors contributing to HIV risk among vulnerable youth and underage FSWs.

Goldenberg, Shira M; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Patterson, Thomas L; Abramovitz, Daniela; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Strathdee, Steffanie A

2011-01-01

49

Partners and clients of female sex workers in an informal urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.  

PubMed

This paper compares and contrasts number of partners and condom use behaviour for female sex workers and a sample of women working in other economic activities, with both samples drawn from the large informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi. As expected, univariate analysis revealed much higher numbers of overall sexual partners and higher levels of condom use among female sex workers compared to Kibera women in other occupations. An unexpected finding, however, was that female sex workers with a romantic partner had significantly fewer sexual partners per unit time than female sex workers without such a partner. This finding held for multivariate analysis, with negative binomial regression analyses showing that having a romantic partner was significantly associated with reductions in total number of both sexual partners overall and with sexual partners who did not use condoms. In contrast, HIV status, education, number of immediate family members and levels of alcohol consumption were non-significant factors for both regression analyses. Results suggest that female sex workers' romantic partners act as more than sources of possible HIV infection; rather, romantic partners appear to have an important positive impact on health. We discuss this finding in light of possible harm-reduction programmes focusing on female sex workers and their romantic partners. PMID:21936649

Ngugi, Elizabeth; Benoit, Cecilia; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga; Jansson, Mikael; Roth, Eric Abella

2011-09-21

50

"Over here, it's just drugs, women and all the madness": The HIV risk environment of clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico  

PubMed Central

HIV vulnerability depends upon social context. Based in broader debates in social epidemiology, political economy, and sociology of health, Rhodes’ (2002) “risk environment” framework provides one heuristic for understanding how contextual features influence HIV risk, through different types of environmental factors (social, economic, policy, and physical) which interact at different levels of influence (micro, macro). Few data are available on the “risk environment” of male clients of female sex workers (FSWs); such men represent a potential “bridge” for transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from high- to low-prevalence populations. Using in-depth interviews (n=30), we describe the HIV risk environment of male clients in Tijuana, Mexico, where disproportionately high HIV prevalence has been reported among FSWs and their clients. A number of environmental themes influence risky sex with FSWs and the interplay between individual agency and structural forces: social isolation and the search for intimacy; meanings and identities ascribed to Tijuana’s Zona Roja (red light district) as a risky place; social relationships in the Zona Roja; and economic roles. Our findings suggest that clients’ behaviors are deeply embedded in the local context. Using the HIV “risk environment” as our analytic lens, we illustrate how clients’ HIV risks are shaped by physical, social, economic, and political factors. The linkages between these and the interplay between structural- and individual-level experiences support theories that view structure as both enabling as well as constraining. We discuss how the “embeddedness” of clients’ experiences warrants the use of environmental interventions that address the circumstances contributing to HIV risk at multiple levels.

Goldenberg, Shira; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Gallardo, Manuel; Rhodes, Tim; Wagner, Karla D.; Patterson, Thomas L.

2011-01-01

51

Can prostitutes marry? Thai attitudes toward female sex workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores popular attitudes towards female sex workers in Thailand by examining the general public's perceptions of a prostitute's ability to marry based on focus group data. The tentative conclusion emerging from our findings that the general public believes sex workers can marry is that a relative lack of severe or lasting social stigma is an important part of

Sara Peracca; John Knodel; Chanpen Saengtienchai

1998-01-01

52

Sex workers and the control of sexually transmitted disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To describe and assess measures to control sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among sex workers and their partners. METHODS: A review of medical, historical and social literature, focusing on selected cases. RESULTS: Measures to control disease in sex workers today are often prompted by concerns about HIV transmission. However, the literature shows that prostitution varies from one place and time

S Day; H Ward

1997-01-01

53

Substance abuse, treatment needs and access among female sex workers and non-sex workers in Pretoria, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined cross-sectional data collected from substance-using female sex workers (FSW) and non-sex workers (non-SW) in Pretoria, South Africa, who entered a randomized controlled trial. Methods Women who reported alcohol use and recently engaging in sex work or unprotected sex were recruited for a randomized study. The study sample (N = 506) comprised 335 FSW and 171 female non-SW from Pretoria and surrounding areas. Self-reported data about alcohol and other drug use as well as treatment needs and access were collected from participants before they entered a brief intervention. Results As compared with female non-SW, FSW were found to have a greater likelihood of having a past year diagnosis of alcohol or other drug abuse or dependence, having a family member with a history of alcohol or other drug abuse, having been physically abused, having used alcohol before age 18, and having a history of marijuana use. In addition, the FSW were more likely to perceive that they had alcohol or other drug problems, and that they had a need for treatment and a desire to go for treatment. Less than 20% of participants in either group had any awareness of alcohol and drug treatment programs, with only 3% of the FSW and 2% of the non-SW reporting that they tried but were unable to enter treatment in the past year. Conclusion FSW need and want substance abuse treatment services but they often have difficulty accessing services. The study findings suggest that barriers within the South African treatment system need to be addressed to facilitate access for substance-using FSW. Ongoing research is needed to inform policy change that fosters widespread educational efforts and sustainable, accessible, woman-sensitive services to ultimately break the cycle for current and future generations of at-risk South African women.

Wechsberg, Wendee M; Wu, Li-Tzy; Zule, William A; Parry, Charles D; Browne, Felicia A; Luseno, Winnie K; Kline, Tracy; Gentry, Amanda

2009-01-01

54

Opportunities for Woman-Initiated HIV Prevention Methods among Female Sex Workers in Southern China  

PubMed Central

Rapid changes in China over the past two decades have led to significant problems associated with population migration and changing social attitudes, including a growing sex industry and concurrent increases in STIs and HIV. This article reports results of an exploratory study of microbicide acceptability and readiness and current HIV prevention efforts among female sex workers in two rural and one urban town in Hainan and Guangxi Provinces in southern China. The study focused on these women’s knowledge and cultural understandings of options for protecting themselves from exposure to STIs and HIV, and the potential viability and acceptability of woman-initiated prevention methods. We report on ethnographic elicitation interviews conducted with women working within informal sex-work establishments (hotels, massage and beauty parlors, roadside restaurants, boarding houses). We discuss implications of these findings for further promotion of woman-initiated prevention methods such as microbicides and female condoms among female sex workers in China.

Weeks, Margaret R.; Liao, Susu; Abbott, Maryann; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiang; Jiang, Jingmei; Wei, Liu; Yu, Wang

2010-01-01

55

Prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence among a prospective cohort of female sex workers  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence against female sex workers in an environment of criminalised prostitution. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Vancouver, Canada during 2006-8. Participants Female sex workers 14 years of age or older (inclusive of transgender women) who used illicit drugs (excluding marijuana) and engaged in street level sex work. Main outcome measure Self reported gender based violence. Results Of 267 female sex workers invited to participate, 251 women returned to the study office and consented to participate (response rate of 94%). Analyses were based on 237 female sex workers who completed a baseline visit and at least one follow-up visit. Of these 237 female sex workers, 57% experienced gender based violence over an 18 month follow-up period. In multivariate models adjusted for individual and interpersonal risk practices, the following structural factors were independently correlated with violence against female sex workers: homelessness (adjusted odds ratio for physical violence (aORphysicalviolence) 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.34 to 3.43; adjusted odds ratio for rape (aORrape) 1.73, 1.09 to 3.12); inability to access drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio for client violence (aORclientviolence) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62; aORphysicalviolence 1.96, 1.03 to 3.43); servicing clients in cars or public spaces (aORclientviolence 1.50, 1.08 to 2.57); prior assault by police (aORclientviolence 3.45, 1.98 to 6.02; aORrape 2.61, 1.32 to 5.16); confiscation of drug use paraphernalia by police without arrest (aORphysicalviolence 1.50, 1.02 to 2.41); and moving working areas away from main streets owing to policing (aORclientviolence 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62). Conclusions Our results demonstrate an alarming prevalence of gender based violence against female sex workers. The structural factors of criminalisation, homelessness, and poor availability of drug treatment independently correlated with gender based violence against street based female sex workers. Socio-legal policy reforms, improved access to housing and drug treatment, and scale up of violence prevention efforts, including police-sex worker partnerships, will be crucial to stemming violence against female sex workers.

2009-01-01

56

Condom use, power and HIV\\/AIDS risk: sex-workers bargain for survival in Hillbrow\\/Joubert Park\\/Berea, Johannesburg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through interviews with 50 female sex-workers in the Hillbrow\\/Berea\\/Joubert Park area of Johannesburg, this paper explores sexual negotiations between men and women in the sex industry. This paper focuses on factors that affect sexual decision-making including safer sex practices. In moving beyond approaches that emphasize women's ‘powerlessness’ in sexual negotiation, this article focuses on ways in which sex-workers capitalize on

Janet Maia Wojcicki; Josephine Malala

2001-01-01

57

A Qualitative Exploration of Barriers to Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in China  

PubMed Central

Background Sex workers in China continue to engage in unprotected sex acts that put them at risk for contracting HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and other STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections). The purpose of this study was to explore women’s work history, the context of sex work, condom use, HIV testing services, and potential barriers to condom use in a sample of FSWs (female sex workers) in Guangzhou, China. Methodology/Principal Findings In-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 FSWs in Guangzhou, China. Informants were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using NVivo 8.0. The majority of respondents were internal economic migrants who had entered the sex industry in pursuit of greater financial reward. Most women in the study were married or had steady boyfriends, and were young, with secondary education and limited knowledge about HIV and STIs. Most were not satisfied with their current living conditions and expressed a desire to leave the sex industry. Women reported that they were more likely to use condoms during sex acts with commercial partners than with non-commercial partners. The potential stigma of being seen as a sex worker prevented many from accessing HIV testing. Three key factors put these FSWs at risk for HIV and STIs: unreasonable trust toward clients, stereotypes and assumptions about customers, and financial incentives. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that social and economic factors play an important role in shaping sexual decision-making among female sex workers in Guangzhou. We argue that greater insight into and attention to these factors could enhance the success of HIV prevention efforts.

Ciyong, Lu; Hui, Wang; Lingyao, Hong; Xueqing, Deng

2012-01-01

58

Sex workers and the issues surrounding registration in Turkey.  

PubMed

Awareness of the activities of commercial sex workers can be an important step toward understanding the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries. This study discusses how sex workers are viewed in Turkey and the process of mandatory registration. To support the information provided and the conclusions drawn, a sample of 150 sex workers who made regular visits to a STI hospital was interviewed. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, family and support information and certain risk behaviors were solicited. Recommendations for increasing preventive education are made, with considerations for increased attention and support for this group of individuals. PMID:17824586

Simsek, Sukran; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

2003-01-01

59

Sex Role Sterotypes and Justice for Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual sterotyping affects the incarceration of women, their treatment in prisons and jails, and their reception in the community following release. While women's organizations play a major role in improving conditions facing incarcerated women, they have perpetuated the sterotypes. Because of sex role sterotyping, we have denied justice to women.…

Feinman, Clarice

1979-01-01

60

Sexual Coercion, HIV-Related Risk, and Mental Health Among Female Sex Workers in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed this study to examine the association of sexual coercion with HIV-related risk behaviors and suicidal thoughts and attempts among female sex workers (FSWs) in Guangxi, China. Four hundred fifty-four FSWs in 57 entertainment establishments (including shampooing salons, massage parlors, and restaurants) were interviewed between March and May 2004. Fifteen percent of the women reported having been coerced into

Bo Wang; Xiaoming Li; Bonita Stanton; Xiaoyi Fang; Hongmei Yang; Ran Zhao; Yan Hong

2007-01-01

61

Foster Care History and HIV Infection among Drug-Using African American Female Sex Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foster care has been associated with increased HIV risk behaviors among youth, yet long-term association with HIV infection\\u000a has not been examined. This study explored the associations between foster placement, victimization, mental health, onset\\u000a of sex work and HIV infection among highly vulnerable female sex workers. 562 drug-involved African American women were enrolled\\u000a into an intervention study to increase health

Hilary L. SurrattSteven; Steven P. Kurtz

62

Female migrant sex workers in Moscow: gender and power factors and HIV risk.  

PubMed

This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding HIV risks in female migrant sex workers in Moscow, focusing on gender and power. This was a collaborative ethnographic study, informed by the theory of gender and power, in which researchers conducted minimally structured interviews with 24 female sex workers who were migrants to Moscow and who provided sexual services to male migrant laborers. Overall, the female migrant sex workers engaged in HIV risk behaviors and practiced inadequate HIV protection with their clients. These behaviors were shaped by gender and power factors in the realms of labor, behavior, and cathexis. In the labor realm, because some female migrants were unable to earn enough money to support their families, they were pushed or pulled into sex work providing service to male migrants. In the behavior realm, many female migrant sex workers were intimidated by their male clients, feared violence, and lacked access to women's health care and prevention. In the cathexis realm, many had a sense of shame, social isolation, emotional distress, and lacked basic HIV knowledge and prevention skills. To prevent HIV transmission requires addressing the gender and power factors that shape HIV/AIDS risks among female migrant sex workers through multilevel intervention strategies. PMID:23421339

Weine, Stevan; Golobof, Alexandra; Bahromov, Mahbat; Kashuba, Adrianna; Kalandarov, Tohir; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Loue, Sana

2013-01-01

63

Occupational health and safety among commercial sex workers.  

PubMed

The concept of occupational health and safety (OHS) for commercial sex workers has rarely been investigated, perhaps because of the often informal nature of the workplace, the associated stigma, and the frequently illegal nature of the activity. We reviewed the literature on health, occupational risks, and safety among commercial sex workers. Cultural and local variations and commonalities were identified. Dimensions of OHS that emerged included legal and policing risks, risks associated with particular business settings such as streets and brothels, violence from clients, mental health risks and protective factors, alcohol and drug use, repetitive strain injuries, sexually transmissible infections, risks associated with particular classes of clients, issues associated with male and transgender commercial sex workers, and issues of risk reduction that in many cases are associated with lack of agency or control, stigma, and legal barriers. We further discuss the impact and potential of OHS interventions for commercial sex workers. The OHS of commercial sex workers covers a range of domains, some potentially modifiable by OHS programs and workplace safety interventions targeted at this population. We argue that commercial sex work should be considered as an occupation overdue for interventions to reduce workplace risks and enhance worker safety. PMID:21808944

Ross, Michael W; Crisp, Beth R; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Hawkes, Sarah

2011-08-01

64

"One country, two systems": Sociopolitical implications for female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

Background Under the "two countries, one system" policy implemented by China to manage the return of Hong Kong's sovereignty, Hong Kong has maintained a comparatively prosperous economy within the Asian region. This has resulted in an environment which fosters migration from the mainland to Hong Kong, due largely to proximity, higher earning potential, common language, and a relaxing of border control measures. However not all mainland China citizens are equally able to access these new migration schemes and indeed a number of women such as sex workers are either migrating and/or working illegally and without occupational, legal and health protection within Hong Kong. Discussion Female migrant sex workers are exposed to a number of significant threats to their health, however their illegal status contributes to even greater vulnerability. The prevailing discourses which view these women as either "trafficked women" or as "illegal immigrants" do not adequately account for the complex situations which result in such women's employment in Hong Kong's sex industry. Rather, their position can best be understood within the broader frameworks provided by migration literature and the concept of "structural violence". This allows for a greater understanding of the socio-political issues which are systematically denying migrant sex workers adequate access to health care and other opportunities for social advancement. When these issues are taken into account, it becomes clear that the current relevant legislation regarding both immigration and sex work is perpetuating the marginalised and vulnerable status of migrant sex workers. Unless changes are made, structural barriers will remain in place which impede the ability of migrant sex workers to manage their own health needs and status. Conclusion Female migrant sex workers in Hong Kong are extremely vulnerable to a number of occupational health and safety hazards which have significantly detrimental effects on their health. These risks can best be understood within a broad framework of socio-political factors contributing to their vulnerability. Ensuring that migrant sex workers have adequate support for their health and legal rights requires require structural interventions such as decriminalisation and providing open and inclusive access to health service to counteract such factors.

Wong, William CW; Holroyd, Eleanor; Chan, Emily Y; Griffiths, Sian; Bingham, Amie

2008-01-01

65

Intimate Partner Violence Is As Important As Client violence in Increasing Street-based Female Sex Workers' Vulnerability to HIV in India  

PubMed Central

Objectives There are no studies that examine street-based female sex workers’ vulnerability to HIV from both clients and intimate partners. This study documents street-based female sex workers’ experiences of client and intimate partners, examines the intersections of violence, alcohol use in condom use, and highlights survival strategies used to avert harm. Methods Ethnographic data were collected from 49 female sex workers though focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Results Female sex workers experienced multifarious forms of severe client and intimate partner violence. Sexual coercion and forced group sex in the context of alcohol use posed formidable barriers for condom use negotiation. Further, traditional gender norms dictated women’s inabilities to negotiate condom-use with intimate partners. However, there was evidence of adoption of successful survival strategies in the face of danger and women’s positive evaluations of the benefits of sex work and their contributions to family well-being. Conclusions Harm reduction efforts with female sex workers need to account for their vulnerability to HIV from intimate partners in addition to clients. HIV prevention programmes need to include male clients in order to reduce harm among street-based female sex workers. There is an urgent need to build on sex workers’ strengths and involve them in designing individual level, community, and structural interventions that could help in reducing women’s vulnerability to intimate partner violence and HIV in India.

Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C.; Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, A.K.; Latkin, Carl; Bentley, Margaret E.; Solomon, Suniti; Go, Vivian F.; Celentano, David

2008-01-01

66

Stress in the sex trade and beyond: Women working in the sex trade talk about the emotional stressors in their working and home lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an extensive body of research literature on female sex trade workers’ risks of sexually transmitted infections including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We also have a vast literature on the physical assaults and violence experienced by female sex trade workers while working. However, we know relatively little about other aspects of the women's health, and especially the ways

Lois A. Jackson; Carolyn G. Bennett; Barbara A. Sowinski

2007-01-01

67

Foster Care History and HIV Infection among Drug-Using African American Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

Foster care has been associated with increased HIV risk behaviors among youth, yet long-term association with HIV infection has not been examined. This study explored the associations between foster placement, victimization, mental health, onset of sex work and HIV infection among highly vulnerable female sex workers. 562 drug-involved African American women were enrolled into an intervention study to increase health services utilization and reduce HIV risk. Seventeen percent reported a history of foster placement. Foster history was associated with significantly lower educational attainment, higher victimization, and more severe mental health problems. Women with foster histories reported significantly earlier entry into paid sex work, with some 62% active in the sex trade before age 18. Multivariate analyses found that foster care was independently associated with HIV seropositivity, and that early sex work partially mediated this association. The potential long-term health vulnerabilities associated with foster placement are understudied and warrant additional research.

Surratt, Hilary L.; Kurtz, Steven P.

2011-01-01

68

Foster care history and HIV infection among drug-using African American female sex workers.  

PubMed

Foster care has been associated with increased HIV risk behaviors among youth, yet long-term association with HIV infection has not been examined. This study explored the associations between foster placement, victimization, mental health, onset of sex work and HIV infection among highly vulnerable female sex workers. 562 drug-involved African American women were enrolled into an intervention study to increase health services utilization and reduce HIV risk. Seventeen percent reported a history of foster placement. Foster history was associated with significantly lower educational attainment, higher victimization, and more severe mental health problems. Women with foster histories reported significantly earlier entry into paid sex work, with some 62% active in the sex trade before age 18. Multivariate analyses found that foster care was independently associated with HIV seropositivity, and that early sex work partially mediated this association. The potential long-term health vulnerabilities associated with foster placement are understudied and warrant additional research. PMID:21818654

Surratt, Hilary L; Kurtz, Steven P

2012-05-01

69

Women's Responses to Sex in Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advertising researchers have neglected to analyze women's reactions to sexual appeals, and researchers are just beginning to recognize the utility of personality variables as predictors of responses to sex in advertising. This study addresses both areas by testing women's reactions to a sexual commercial, and examining the relationship between women's sexual schemas with their responses. Sexual schemas are people's cognitive

Tom Reichert; Ignatius Fosu

2006-01-01

70

AIDS and STD knowledge, condom use and HIV\\/STD infection among female sex workers in Bali, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this paper were to examine changes in AIDS\\/STD knowledge and behaviour from 1992-1998, current levels of STD infection and psychosocial and demographic determinants of condom use and STD infection among female sex workers. Data for the study were drawn from cross-sectional surveys of female sex workers conducted in 1994 and 1997-8. For each survey, women participated in

K. Ford; D. N. Wirawan; B. D. Reed; P. Muliawan; M. Sutarga

2000-01-01

71

Surviving the OSHA lead standard. No. 11. Fertile women workers  

SciTech Connect

Reproductive implications of fertile women in the factory workplace are discussed in relation to their male co-workers. Women's personal hygiene is viewed as the most important variable in worker protection from possible lead hazards. (PSB)

Lundquist, M.

1980-01-01

72

Drug sharing with clients as a risk marker for increased violence and sexual and drug-related harms among survival sex workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have described links between violence, decreased condom use and drug sharing among intimate partners, though limited information exists about the predictors of drug sharing among female sex workers and their clients. The following analysis explored the association between sharing illicit drugs with clients and sexual and drug-related harms among survival sex workers. A total of 198 women participated

K. Shannon; T. Kerr; V. Bright; K. Gibson; M. W. Tyndall

2008-01-01

73

Sex, Charades, and Census Records: Locating Female Sex Trade Workers in a Victorian City  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Prostitution was a prominent issue in Canada during the late nineteenth century. In many Canadian cities, female sex-trade workers resided in brothels located in so-called red-light districts. Although they were enumerated in every decennial census, sex-trade workers have been overlooked by historical demographers, urban geographers, and census historians because they used euphemisms such as dressmaker to disguise their occupation. Using

Patrick A. Dunae

2009-01-01

74

Women who sell sex in a Ugandan trading town: life histories, survival strategies and risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the background of commercial sex workers in Africa. This study investigated how women in a trading town on the trans-Africa highway in southwest Uganda become involved in commercial sex work, which factors contribute to their economic success or lack of success, and what effect life trajectories and economic success have on negotiating power and risk behaviour.

Marjolein Gysels; Robert Pool; Betty Nnalusiba

2002-01-01

75

Interviews with senegalese commercial sex trade workers and implications for social programming.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to assess the efficacy of the Senegalese pubic policy toward registered sex workers through an interview process examining their backgrounds and evaluating their knowledge of sexual health. Sixty registered sex workers in Dakar, Senegal, were interviews at the Institute d'Hygiene Social (IHS) to investigate patient knowledge of contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Ninety-eight percent of the women reported that, as a result of their visits to the clinic, they had increased precaution in their trade by demanding their clients use condoms and refusing clients who did not comply. Nearly 96% of the women were able to define the three main ways by which HIV is contracted, while 100% of the women reported that they used male condoms with their clients and would refuse clients who rejected the use of condoms. Senegal's proactive policy toward the safeguarding of women's health and the containment of HIV/AIDS through the legalization and monitoring of sex workers can serve as an example for successful strategies in the fight against the global spread of HIV/AIDS. PMID:15804912

Homaifar, Nazaneen; Wasik, Suzan Zuljani

2005-02-01

76

Stigma to Sage: Learning and Teaching Safer Sex Practices Among Canadian Sex Trade Workers. NALL Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study interviewed 37 Canadian sex workers in 4 cities to determine how they acquire a working knowledge of safer sex practices and what that knowledge constituted. Findings indicated the vast majority exhibited high levels of knowledge and efficacy regarding safer sex practices; sex workers took the initiative to obtain information and engage in…

Meaghan, Diane

77

Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls  

PubMed Central

Sex trafficking involves some form of forced or coerced sexual exploitation that is not limited to prostitution, and has become a significant and growing problem in both the United States and the larger global community. The costs to society include the degradation of human and women’s rights, poor public health, disrupted communities, and diminished social development. Victims of sex trafficking acquire adverse physical and psychological health conditions and social disadvantages. Thus, sex trafficking is a critical health issue with broader social implications that requires both medical and legal attention. Healthcare professionals can work to improve the screening, identification, and assistance of victims of sex trafficking in a clinical setting and help these women and girls access legal and social services.

Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M

2013-01-01

78

Low Sex Drive in Women  

MedlinePLUS

... If you and your partner are open to experimentation, sex toys and fantasy can help rekindle your ... North America. 2010;33:323. Biggs WS. Medical human sexuality: Female sexual dysfunction. In: Rakel RE. Textbook ...

79

Occupational Hazards and Coping Strategies of Sex Workers in South-Western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The researcher investigated occupational hazards of sex work and determined coping strategies adopted by female sex workers in Nigeria. Participants were 112 female sex workers selected from three urban towns in Southwestern Nigeria. An instrument titled “Questionnaire on Sex Work” adapted from Akinnawo (1995) was administered to collect information on factors influencing the growth of the sex industry, occupational hazards

Bayode Isaiah Popoola

2012-01-01

80

Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Sex Workers in Yunnan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional prevalence survey of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was conducted among female sex workers (FSWs) in Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. A total of 505 FSWs participated in the survey. All eligible participants gave informed consent. Demographic, be- havioral, and clinical information of the participants was gathered by direct structured inter- views. Tampon swabs were collected to test for Chlamydia

Xiang-Sheng Chen; Yue-Ping Yin; Guo-Jun Liang; Xiang-Dong Gong; Hua-Sheng Li; Gilles Poumerol; Nguyen Thuy; Mei-Qin Shi; Yan-Hua Yu

2005-01-01

81

Female commercial sex workers in Kramat Tunggak, Jakarta, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indonesia is predicted to face a severe AIDS epidemic in the near future. More than 60% of the reported HIV-positive cases in Indonesia can be attributed to heterosexual transmission; therefore, by the nature of their work, female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) constitute one of the communities at risk. No meaningful or effective STD\\/HIV prevention programs for FCSWs can be planned

Endang R. Sedyaningsih-Mamahit

1999-01-01

82

Sex trade workers’ narratives of sexual violence: A field investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 119 sex trade workers were interviewed about sexually violent experiences. Up to three narratives were elicited: a remarkable, positive (control) event (POS), a well-remembered sexual assault (WELL), and a poorly recalled sexual assault (POOR). The results demonstrated that WELL narratives contained more details than POS narratives despite the fact that the respective experiences were older. WELL narratives

Dorothee Griesel; John C. Yuille

2012-01-01

83

Sex trade workers' narratives of sexual violence: A field investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 119 sex trade workers were interviewed about sexually violent experiences. Up to three narratives were elicited: a remarkable, positive (control) event (POS), a well-remembered sexual assault (WELL), and a poorly recalled sexual assault (POOR). The results demonstrated that WELL narratives contained more details than POS narratives despite the fact that the respective experiences were older. WELL narratives

Dorothee Griesel; John C. Yuille

2012-01-01

84

Race and sex differences in quits by young workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of young men and women to analyze race and sex differences in the probability and consequences of quitting. The authors find that overall quit rates in this group are higher for women than for men and about the same for blacks and whites. When several personal and job characteristics are held

Francine D. Blau; Lawrence Kahn

1981-01-01

85

Sexually transmitted infections in women who have sex with women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To describe the prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STIs) in a sample of women who have sex with women (WSW) and to identify risk factors for the acquisition of STI.Method: Cross sectional survey. Questionnaire for demographic, sexual history, and sexual practice data linked with the results of genitourinary examination. 708 new patients attending two sexual health clinics for lesbians

J V Bailey; C Farquhar; C Owen; P Mangtani

2004-01-01

86

Sex trafficking of women and girls.  

PubMed

Sex trafficking involves some form of forced or coerced sexual exploitation that is not limited to prostitution, and has become a significant and growing problem in both the United States and the larger global community. The costs to society include the degradation of human and women's rights, poor public health, disrupted communities, and diminished social development. Victims of sex trafficking acquire adverse physical and psychological health conditions and social disadvantages. Thus, sex trafficking is a critical health issue with broader social implications that requires both medical and legal attention. Healthcare professionals can work to improve the screening, identification, and assistance of victims of sex trafficking in a clinical setting and help these women and girls access legal and social services. PMID:23687554

Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M

2013-01-01

87

Do women use dental dams? Safer sex practices of lesbians and other women who have sex with women.  

PubMed

Dental dams are distributed and promoted in some safer sex campaigns for use in oral sex. However, whether and how often dams are used for sex between Australian women remains unknown. We investigated the use of dental dams for sex by lesbians and other women who have sex with women, and the relationship between dam use and sexual risk for this group. In 2004, a self-completion questionnaire was distributed to women attending the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras Fair Day and lesbian community venues and health services in Sydney (n = 543). Among the 330 women who had had oral sex with a woman in the previous 6 months, 9.7% had used a dental dam and 2.1% had used one 'often'. There was little evidence of dam use for prevention of sexually transmissible infections. Although women who practised rimming (oral-anal contact) or had fetish sex involving blood were more likely to have used a dam, dam use was not significantly more common among women who had more partners, or had casual or group sex. Some women avoided oral sex during menstruation or had oral sex with a tampon in place. Latex gloves and condoms were used by more women and more often than dams. PMID:20465981

Richters, Juliet; Prestage, Garrett; Schneider, Karen; Clayton, Stevie

2010-06-01

88

Multiple risks among male and transgender sex workers in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Using data from a qualitative study and a subsequent quantitative survey among 918 male and transgender sex workers (MTSW), we explore the context of multiple risks they face. We show that over one-fifth of MTSW have sex with IDU clients. Combined with high levels of risk behavior and very low levels of risk reduction and knowledge, the extent of sexual networking with men who inject drugs contributes further to the sex workers' health risks. Our findings suggest that isolated interventions with single-risk groups are unlikely to be sufficient to control the spread of the epidemic in Pakistan. We highlight the need for integrated approaches to risk reduction programs among MTSW and IDUs. PMID:19856740

Collumbien, Martine; Chow, Jaime; Qureshi, Ayaz Ahmed; Rabbani, Aliya; Hawkes, Sarah

2008-01-01

89

AIDS/other STIs prevention in China: the effect of sex worker migration and the organization of the sex industry.  

PubMed

HIV/AIDS prevention projects that pay special attention to the socio-cultural context of a community have been implemented in a number of Asian and African countries recently. Such projects integrate scientific approaches, such as condom promotion, with cultural approaches that focus on regional social norms. This paper explores effective intervention strategies in the context of sex workers' mobility patterns, and the sex industry's internal organization in China. It argues that a social network based on quasi-familial relations and regional ties recruits young women into the business, helps them move vertically as well as horizontally within the business, and facilitates the smooth operation of the business. A sound understanding of the specific characteristics of sex work in China, therefore, is instrumental in formulating effective intervention tactics. PMID:23514622

Zhuang, Kongshao; McQuaide, Shiling

2013-03-21

90

Joining and leaving sex work: experiences of women in Kigali, Rwanda.  

PubMed

Although sex work can bring significant economic benefit there are serious downsides, not least vulnerability to adverse sexual health outcomes. Focus-groups discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with 70 female sex workers to explore the context in which they started sex work, their motivations to leave, and their experiences of trying to leave. The pathway to becoming a sex worker was underscored by poverty, with disruptive events leading to increasing vulnerability and increasingly difficult life choices. A sizeable minority of women became sex workers while working as house-girls, a position associated with financial, physical and sexual vulnerability. The majority of participants were still working as sex workers, citing financial reasons for not leaving. Motivations to leave sex work included experiencing a frightening incident, peer pressure and concerns about dependent children. Those who left often described a change in their financial circumstances that enabled them to leave. Some had left but had returned to sex work following a financial crisis or because they found their new life too hard. House-girls are particularly vulnerable and therefore an appropriate focus for prevention. Programmes assisting women to leave need to include financial safety nets so that a time of financial difficulty does not necessitate a return to sex work. PMID:22937751

Ingabire, Marie Chantal; Mitchell, Kirstin; Veldhuijzen, Nienke; Umulisa, Marie Michelle; Nyinawabega, Jeanine; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Van Steijn, Minouk; Van De Wijgert, Janneke; Pool, Robert

2012-08-31

91

Looking beyond legality: understanding the context of female sex workers in greater Cairo, Egypt.  

PubMed

Data on demographic, social and behavioural characteristics of female sex workers in greater Cairo are very scarce. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 431 randomly selected sex workers after mapping of sites where they gather. Data collection was performed by direct interviewing using a questionnaire sheet covering sociodemographic data and sexual history with paying and non-paying partners. More than one half of participants (52.7%) were aged < 30 years. Only 39.3% were exclusively working as sex workers while the rest had other jobs beside sex work. Almost 70% were responsible for deperidants. The age of first selling sex was < 15 years for 4.7% of the women and 15-25 years for 58.7%. Unwanted pregnancies were experienced by 36.2% and 34.8% had had an abortion. Many participants had ever been arrested by the police (71.2%). The study has provided some useful background data for further studies in this very sensitive area of research. PMID:23520902

Kabbash, I A; Abdul-Rahman, I; Shehata, Y A

2013-01-01

92

Social and behavioural factors associated with condom use among direct sex workers in Siem Reap, Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the social and behavioural factors associated with condom use among direct sex workers in Siem Reap, Cambodia.Methods: Using a structured behavioural questionnaire, interviews were conducted with 140 direct sex workers attending a health centre in Siem Reap for HIV screening.Results: Consistent condom use with their clients was reported by 78% of sex workers compared to only 20%

M L Wong; I Lubek; B C Dy; S Pen; S Kros; M Chhit

2003-01-01

93

‘She's a professional like anyone else’: social identity among Brazilian sex workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community mobilisation among sex workers is recognised as an important HIV\\/STI prevention strategy. However, factors such as poverty and stigma often negatively influence participation in activities that attempt to mobilise around a common identity of ‘sex workers’. A qualitative study was conducted to explore the relationship between social identity and participation among 24 sex workers enrolled in an HIV\\/STI prevention

Laura R. Murray; Sheri A. Lippman; Angela A. Donini; Deanna Kerrigan

2010-01-01

94

Incarcerated sex workers and HIV prevention in China: Social suffering and social justice countermeasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex workers in China are routinely coercively detained through administrative mechanisms outside of legal procedures, but very little is known about the anthropologic and public health context of these policies. This biosocial analysis of female Chinese sex worker detention uses ethnographic, legal, and public health data to describe social suffering and countervailing social justice responses among incarcerated sex workers (ISW)

Joseph Tucker; Xin Ren; Flora Sapio

2010-01-01

95

Exploring dynamics of anal sex among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh  

PubMed Central

Objective: The anal sex among heterosexual couples is on the rise as reported in many scientific studies. Considering that unprotected anal sex has higher risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission than the vaginal sex, we undertook a study to understand the anal sex practices among Female Sex Workers (FSW). Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among FSW attending 11 randomly selected sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Bill and Melinda Gates supported targeted interventions in Andhra Pradesh. A structured questionnaire was administered to the 555 FSW attending these clinics by project clinic counselors. Informed consent was obtained from all the study participants. Results: Engaging in anal sex was self reported by 22% of sex workers, though demand from clients was reported to be much higher (40%). The reasons for anal sex practices included more money (61%), clout/influence of the client (45%), risk of losing client (27%), and forced sex (1.2%). Factors associated with anal sex were higher number of clients, higher duration of sex work, higher income, and older age group. Associated risks perceived by FSW were bleeding and injury to anal canal (98%) while only 28% associated it with higher HIV transmission risk. Reported Condom and lubricant use was about 88% and 39% respectively. Conclusion: The study shows that there is frequent anal sex, inconsistent condom and infrequent lubricant usage, economic and physical coercion, and low awareness of STI/HIV transmission risk among FSW, which have serious implications for HIV prevention programmes. There is a need to focus on anal sex education and use of lubricants along with condoms during anal sex in FSW-targeted interventions in AP.

Tucker, Saroj; Krishna, Rama; Prabhakar, Parimi; Panyam, Swarup; Anand, Pankaj

2012-01-01

96

Occupational hazards and coping strategies of sex workers in southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The researcher investigated occupational hazards of sex work and determined coping strategies adopted by female sex workers in Nigeria. Participants were 112 female sex workers selected from three urban towns in southwestern Nigeria. An instrument titled "Questionnaire on Sex Work" adapted from Akinnawo ( 1995 ) was administered to collect information on factors influencing the growth of the sex industry, occupational hazards in the industry, and coping mechanisms adopted by sex workers. It was found that the majority of sex workers joined the profession for socioeconomic reasons. Reported occupational hazards include poor health, risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), police harassment, and loss of social prestige. PMID:23311907

Popoola, Bayode Isaiah

2013-01-01

97

Men Sex Workers and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men: How Do Their HIV Risks Compare in New Zealand?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex workers have their perspective on HIV transmission, claiming that in general they are more similar than different from other people in HIV status and the practice of safe sex. Such an assertion of similarity goes against public and professional opinion that prostitution is a major vector in the spread of AIDS. Taking the sex workers' similarity claim seriously, this

Martin S. Weinberg; Heather Worth; Colin J. Williams

2001-01-01

98

The Body Wager: Materialist resignification of Vietnamese women workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores the symbolic representations of Vietnamese women workers as both laboring and consuming women. It argues that feminist scholars must look at how femininity is being articulated at the intersection of state and global economic practices. I explore aspects of the state's changing discourse on women workers, and examine their literary representation through a short story published in

2006-01-01

99

Sex-related health risks and implications for interventions with hospitality women in Hainan, China.  

PubMed

This article describes the living situations of sex workers (hospitality girls) in a typical rural town in southern China; their personal, social, financial, and psychological needs and expectations; and the social and economic factors that place them at risk for STIs/HIV and unwanted pregnancy, based on the qualitative and quantitative data collected prior to and during a preventive intervention. Though some similarities to knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of sex workers reported in other Asian countries were identified, this study identified some differences distinctive to the China context, such as how economic factors, kinship, and friendship networks function in the service industry, and how the culture of reproduction and birth control policy interact with and affect sex workers' health and decision-making options. Understanding these factors is critical for design of a culturally and contextually tailored intervention for the reduction of sex-related health risks of women in the sex service industry. PMID:12739788

Liao, Su-Su; Schensul, Jean; Wolffers, Ivan

2003-04-01

100

Police-related experiences and HIV risk among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Research suggests experiences with police are related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sexual risk among women working as sex workers. However, little is known about the links between specific police-related behaviors and HIV vulnerability. We examine whether 5 police-related experiences are associated with measures of HIV risk and violence among a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in Andhra Pradesh, India, and consider the implications for HIV prevention. FSWs at least 18 years of age (n = 835) were recruited through respondent-driven sampling for a cross-sectional survey conducted as part of Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative. Using logistic regression models adjusted for age, age at start of sex work, and sex work venue, we assessed police-related experiences reported by FSWs in relation to HIV risk behaviors and violence. Results showed having sex with police to avoid trouble, giving gifts to police to avoid trouble, having police take condoms away, experiencing a workplace raid, and being arrested were associated with sexually transmitted infection symptoms, inconsistent condom use, acceptance of more money for sex without a condom, and experience of client violence. These findings suggest a need for interventions targeting police-FSW interactions to reduce HIV vulnerability among FSWs. PMID:22043036

Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Reed, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Kim M

2011-12-01

101

Commercial sex venues, syphilis and methamphetamine use among female sex workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with methamphetamine (MA) use, syphilis, and unprotected sex among female sex workers from different type of venues in Qingdao City, Shandong Province of China. Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys provided information on demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, and HIV-related services. Of 1187 participants, 3.0% were infected with syphilis; 30.2%

Dianming Kang; Meizhen Liao; Zhenxia Jiang; Xijiang Zhang; Wenwen Mao; Ning Zhang; Xiaorun Tao; Tao Huang; Zhenqiang Bi; Muktar Aliyu; Pingsheng Wu; Baofa Jiang; Yujiang Jia

2011-01-01

102

Low Condom Use Among Adolescent Female Sex Workers in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Thailand, it is estimated that there are nearly 2 million female sex workers (FSWs), of whom 800,000 (40%) are under the age of 18 years. Studies examining condom use among adolescent FSWs in Thailand have been limited. Therefore, a survey was administered to a cross-sectional, nonrandomized sample of convenience among 130 adolescent, brothel-based FSWs in four geographic areas of

John Moraros; Robert W. Buckingham; Yelena Bird; Surasri Prapasiri; Ashley Graboski-Bauer

2012-01-01

103

Intravaginal practices among female sex workers in Kibera, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo assess vaginal cleansing and lubricant use among female sex workers (FSW) in Kenya participating in a 6-month, prospective study of the acceptability of the use of the diaphragm.MethodsThe study is based on 140 FSW in Nairobi, who completed 140 baseline visits and 390 bi-monthly follow-up visits. Participants were instructed to wear the diaphragm for all coital acts during follow-up

Maria F Gallo; Anjali Sharma; Elizabeth A Bukusi; Betty Njoroge; Rosemary Nguti; Denise J Jamieson; April J Bell; David A Eschenbach

2010-01-01

104

Unprotected Sex with Injecting Drug Users among Iranian Female Sex Workers: Unhide HIV Risk Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of unprotected sex with injecting drug users (IDUs) among a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in Iran. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 144 FSWs who were interviewed as a part of Unhide HIV Risk Study, a national behavioral survey focusing on various high-risk populations, including IDUs, FSWs, and Men who have Sex with Men (MSMs) in 2009. The survey was conducted in eight provinces in Iran using respondent-driven sampling. Participants' sociodemographic status, HIV knowledge, and HIV attitude were analyzed via logistic regression to determine the predictors of unprotected sex with IDU(s) during the past month. Results. Nineteen percent of FSWs reported at least one occasion of unprotected sex with IDU(s) in the month preceding the study. Higher educational level (OR = ?0.653, 95%CI = ?1.192 to ?0.115), perceived HIV risk (OR = ?1.047, 95%CI = ?2.076 to ?0.019), and perceived family intimacy during childhood (OR = ?1.104, 95%CI = ?1.957 to ?0.251) were all independently associated with lower odds of having unprotected sex with IDU(s) in the month preceding the study. Age, marital status, living condition, HIV knowledge, and perceived behavioral control did not affect the odds of FSWs having sex with IDUs. Conclusion. Perceived HIV risk, which is a modifiable factor, seems to be a promising target for harm reduction interventions amongst Iranian female sex workers. Data presented here may aid in reducing or eliminating the role of sex workers as a bridge for HIV transmission from IDUs to the general population in Iran.

Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Rezazade, Majid; Nafarie, Mohammad; Moazen, Babak; Yarmohmmadi Vasel, Mosaieb; Assari, Shervin

2012-01-01

105

Male sex workers in Córdoba, Argentina: sociodemographic characteristics and sex work experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective .To report on the sociodemographic characteristics and work experiences of 3 1 male sex workers (MSWs) in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. Methods .Information on each of the MSWs was collected using a questionnaire that co v - ered his personal characteristics and his work background, self-assessed general health status , and use of health and social services. Scales

Rodrigo Mariño; Victor Minichiello; Carlos Disogra

2003-01-01

106

Determinants of safer?sex behaviors of brothel female commercial sex workers in Jakarta, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross?sectional survey was conducted in Kramat Tunggak, an official brothel complex in Northern Jakarta. The objectives were to investigate factors that influence the female commercial sex workers' consistent practice of condom use. These factors were classified into personal behaviors and external factors, such as government programs and the brothel managers' and the clients' attitudes towards condom use. After controlling

Steven L. Gortmaker

1999-01-01

107

Oral sex practices, oral human papillomavirus and correlations between oral and cervical human papillomavirus prevalence among female sex workers in Lima, Peru.  

PubMed

Few data exist on oral human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in female sex workers (FSWs). Information regarding oral sex practices of 185 Peruvian FSWs, 18-26 years of age, was obtained via survey and compared with HPV testing results of oral rinse samples. Oral HPV prevalence was 14/185 (7.6%); four (28.9%) HPV genotypes were carcinogenic. One hundred and eighty-two participants reported having had oral sex; 95% reported condom use during oral sex with clients and 9.5% with partners. Women who had oral sex more than three times with their partners in the past month were more likely to have oral HPV than women who had oral sex three times or less (P = 0.06). Ten (71.4%) women with oral HPV were HPV-positive at the cervix; conversely 8.3% of women with cervical HPV were HPV-positive in the oral cavity. The prevalence of oral HPV was relatively low, considering the high rates of oral sex practiced by these women. PMID:22096051

Brown, B; Blas, M M; Cabral, A; Carcamo, C; Gravitt, P E; Halsey, N

2011-11-01

108

20 Facts on Women Workers. Facts on Working Women No. 90-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This information sheet presents 20 facts on women workers in 1989: (1) 56 million women 16 years of age and over are working or looking for work; (2) 69 percent of all women 18 to 64 years of age are in the civilian labor force; (3) most women workers are employed full time; (4) the average women worker spends 29.3 years of her life in the labor…

Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

109

“Bridge population”: sex workers or their clients? – STI prevalence and risk behaviors of clients of female sex workers in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic and the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in China has come to the forefront of public health attention, female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients (CFSWs) are becoming increasingly important to HIV\\/STI prevention efforts. This secondary analysis uses data abstracted from the Chinese Health and Family Life Survey 1999–2000 to report prevalence rates of two

Z. J. Huang; W. Wang; M. C. Martin; E. J. Nehl; B. D. Smith; F. Y. Wong

2011-01-01

110

Khat in East Africa: taking women into or out of sex work?  

PubMed

Women's drug use is often associated with sex work as a means of raising money for consumption. Similarly, in Kenya and Uganda, journalists, the general public and aid agencies associate female consumption of the stimulant drug, khat (Catha edulis), as pulling women into prostitution. In contrast to Yemen and Ethiopia, these views are expressed by people living in areas where there are no rituals or traditions of female khat consumption. This paper presents data from a study carried out in Kenya and Uganda in 2004 and 2005 that documents that the majority of women engaging in khat chewing are not sex workers. Frequently, however, women who retail khat are often assumed by men to be sexually immoral. The role of women in the retail and wholesale khat trade is examined. The stigma attached to selling khat is linked to the overall situation of independent women in East Africa and the place of commercial sex in urban life. PMID:18649237

Beckerleg, Susan

2008-07-01

111

HIV risk perceptions, knowledge and behaviours among female sex workers in two cities in Turkmenistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes HIV risk behaviour patterns among street- and bar-based female sex workers in the Turkmenistan cities of Ashgabat and Mary. Street-based sex workers had little to no knowledge of HIV and primarily used condoms when condom use was initiated by clients. Bar-based sex workers had HIV knowledge and reported regularly using condoms mainly with first-time clients. While sex

Z. Chariyeva; R. Colaco; S. Maman

2011-01-01

112

Occupational Stigma as a Primary Barrier To Health Care For Street-Based Sex Workers in Canada  

PubMed Central

Individuals working in the sex industry continue to experience many negative health outcomes. As such, disentangling the factors shaping poor health access remains a critical public health priority. Within a quasi-criminalised prostitution environment, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of occupational stigma associated with sex work and its relationship to barriers to accessing health services. Analyses draw on baseline questionnaire data from a community-based cohort of women in street-based sex work in Vancouver, Canada (2006–8). Of a total of 252 women, 141 (58.5%) reported occupational sex work stigma (defined as hiding occupational sex work status from family, friends and/or home community), while 125 (49.6%) reported barriers to accessing health services in the previous six months. In multivariable analysis, adjusting for socio-demographic, interpersonal and work environment risks, occupational sex work stigma remained independently associated with an elevated likelihood of experiencing barriers to health access. Study findings indicate the critical need for policy and societal shifts in views of sex work as a legitimate occupation, combined with improved access to innovative, accessible and non-judgmental health care delivery models for street-based sex workers that include the direct involvement of sex workers in development and implementation.

Lazarus, Lisa; Deering, Kathleen N; Nabess, Rose; Gibson, Kate; Tyndall, Mark W; Shannon, Kate

2011-01-01

113

Occupational stigma as a primary barrier to health care for street-based sex workers in Canada.  

PubMed

Individuals working in the sex industry continue to experience many negative health outcomes. As such, disentangling the factors shaping poor health access remains a critical public health priority. Within a quasi-criminalised prostitution environment, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of occupational stigma associated with sex work and its relationship to barriers to accessing health services. Analyses draw on baseline questionnaire data from a community-based cohort of women in street-based sex work in Vancouver, Canada (2006-2008). Of a total of 252 women, 141 (55.9%) reported occupational sex work stigma (defined as hiding occupational sex work status from family, friends and/or home community), while 125 (49.6%) reported barriers to accessing health services in the previous six months. In multivariable analysis, adjusting for sociodemographic, interpersonal and work environment risks, occupational sex work stigma remained independently associated with an elevated likelihood of experiencing barriers to health access. Study findings indicate the critical need for policy and societal shifts in views of sex work as a legitimate occupation, combined with improved access to innovative, accessible and non-judgmental health care delivery models for street-based sex workers that include the direct involvement of sex workers in development and implementation. PMID:22084992

Lazarus, Lisa; Deering, Kathleen N; Nabess, Rose; Gibson, Kate; Tyndall, Mark W; Shannon, Kate

2011-11-15

114

Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Unsafe Sex and STIs among Women Working in China's Entertainment Industry*  

PubMed Central

Female entertainment workers in China are at risk of sexually acquiring HIV, but risk factors of their unsafe sex remain understudied. Using information from a venue-based sample of 724 female entertainment workers in Shanghai, this paper examines the prevalence and risk factors of unsafe sex and STIs. While both measures of unsafe sex and history of common STIs suggest that participants in this study appear to have lower rates of unsafe sex and STIs than reported in the literature, venue-based female entertainment workers are at risk of sexually acquiring HIV. Risk factors of unsafe sex include both individual cognitive (information, motivation, and behavioral skills) and social factors. However, HIV related information and most social factors are not directly and independently associated with unsafe sex. Behavioral intervention is needed for female entertainment workers in China. However, individual-based cognitive approach alone may be limited in effectiveness in reducing unsafe sex among female entertainment workers. Effective intervention needs to take a multi-level approach that addresses both individual cognitive and social risk factors and can particularly benefit from attention to empowering women in sexual relationships and creating a supportive social and working environment.

Yang, Xiushi

2011-01-01

115

Prevalence and correlates of HIV unsafe sex and STIs among women working in China's entertainment industry.  

PubMed

Female entertainment workers in China are at risk of sexually acquiring HIV, but risk factors of their unsafe sex remain understudied. Using information from a venue-based sample of 724 female entertainment workers in Shanghai, this paper examines the prevalence and risk factors of unsafe sex and STIs. While both measures of unsafe sex and history of common STIs suggest that participants in this study appear to have lower rates of unsafe sex and STIs than reported in the literature, venue-based female entertainment workers are at risk of sexually acquiring HIV. Risk factors of unsafe sex include both individual cognitive (information, motivation, and behavioral skills) and social factors. However, HIV-related information and most social factors are not directly and independently associated with unsafe sex. Behavioral intervention is needed for female entertainment workers in China. However, individual-based cognitive approach alone may be limited in effectiveness in reducing unsafe sex among female entertainment workers. Effective intervention needs to take a multi-level approach that addresses both individual cognitive and social risk factors and can particularly benefit from attention to empowering women in sexual relationships and creating a supportive social and working environment. PMID:21660753

Yang, Xiushi

2011-06-01

116

Vulnerability to HIV infection among sex worker and non-sex worker female injecting drug users in Dhaka, Bangladesh: evidence from the baseline survey of a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background: Very little is known about female injecting drug users (IDU) in Bangladesh but anecdotal evidence suggests that they are hidden and very vulnerable to HIV through both their injection sharing and sexual risk behaviors. In order to better understand the risks and vulnerability to HIV of female IDU, a cohort study was initiated through which HIV prevalence and risk behaviors was determined. Methods: All female IDU (those who had injected in the last six months and were 15 years or older) who could be identified from three cities in the Dhaka region were enrolled at the baseline of a cohort study. The study was designed to determine risk behaviors through interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and measure prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis semiannually. At the baseline of the cohort study 130 female IDU were recruited and female IDU selling sex in the last year (sex workers) versus those not selling sex (non-sex workers) were compared using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results: Of the 130 female IDU enrolled 82 were sex workers and 48 were non-sex workers. None had HIV but more sex workers (60%) had lifetime syphilis than non-sex workers (37%). Fewer sex worker than non-sex worker IDU lived with families (54.9% and 81.3% respectively), but more reported lending needles/syringes (29.3% and 14.6% respectively) and sharing other injection paraphernalia (74.4% and 56.3% respectively) in the past six months. Although more sex workers used condoms during last sex than non-sex workers (74.4% and 43.3% respectively), more reported anal sex (15.9% and 2.1% respectively) and serial sex with multiple partners (70.7% and 0% respectively). Lifetime sexual violence and being jailed in the last year was more common in sex workers. Conclusion: Female IDU are vulnerable to HIV through their injection and sexual risk behaviors and sex worker IDU appear especially vulnerable. Services such as needle exchange programs should become more comprehensive to address the needs of female IDU.

Azim, Tasnim; Chowdhury, Ezazul I; Reza, Masud; Ahmed, Munir; Uddin, Mohammed T; Khan, Repon; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Rahman, Motiur; Khandakar, Irona; Khan, Sharful I; Sack, David A; Strathdee, Steffanie A

2006-01-01

117

Sexual health and use of condoms among local and international sex workers in Sydney.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To compare indicators of sexual health and predictors of condom use for commercial sex among local and international female sex workers first attending an STD clinic. SETTING: A public STD clinic in Sydney, Australia. SUBJECTS: All sex workers first attending between June 1991 and May 1993. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of demographic, behavioural and morbidity data from proforma medical records. RESULTS: 91 local sex workers and 123 international sex workers (predominantly from Thailand, Malaysia and China) first presented during the study period. There were significantly higher prevalences of chlamydia (0 v. 15%, p = 0.0002), gonorrhoea (0 v. 14%, p = 0.0006), syphilis (0 v. 10%, p = 0.006) and clinical genital herpes (0 v. 5%, p = 0.04) among international sex workers. The only case of HIV infection was in an international sex worker. Inconsistent condom use for commercial sex was significantly more common among international sex workers (RR = 4.5; 95% CI 3.1-6.5). On multivariate analysis, inconsistent condom use in international sex workers was associated with a recent history of prostitution outside Australia (p = 0.04), while inconsistent condom usage among local sex workers was associated with increasing age (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: These data illustrate the efficacy of condoms and the success of targeted education programmes in local sex workers in Sydney. By contrast, international sex workers continued to be at high risk of STDs. The international sex industry in Sydney requires enhanced culture-specific interventions. Immigration laws as they affect sex workers should also be reviewed.

O'Connor, C C; Berry, G; Rohrsheim, R; Donovan, B

1996-01-01

118

Women Workers in the Brick Kiln Industry in Haryana, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vast majority of the country’s workforce is in the unorganised sector, and consequently unprotected. In the absence of economic opportunities where they live, many migrate across the states of India to seek casual employment. Brick production depends almost entirely on migrant workers, half of whom are women. This paper looks into the socio-economic status of women workers in the

D. P. Singh

2005-01-01

119

Occupational Health of Women Construction Workers in the Unorganised Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to assess the occupational health status of women workers in the construction industry by evaluating incidences of occupational health disorders. One thousand and fifty-two workers were selected by stratified random sampling, medically examined and subject to relevant interviews, examinations and investigations. Over three-fourths of the women and almost all men reported working for 10 to 12

Ram Lakhani

2004-01-01

120

Engagement with HIV Prevention Treatment and Care among Female Sex Workers in Zimbabwe: a Respondent Driven Sampling Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective(S) To determine the HIV prevalence and extent of engagement with HIV prevention and care among a representative sample of Zimbabwean sex workers working in Victoria Falls, Hwange and Mutare. Design Respondent driven sampling (RDS) surveys conducted at each site. Methods Sex workers were recruited using respondent driven sampling with each respondent limited to recruiting 2 peers. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and provided a finger prick blood sample for HIV antibody testing. Statistical analysis took account of sampling method. Results 870 women were recruited from the three sites. HIV prevalence was between 50 and 70%. Around half of those confirmed HIV positive were aware of their HIV status and of those 50-70% reported being enrolled in HIV care programmes. Overall only 25-35% of those with laboratory-confirmed HIV were accessing antiretroviral therapy. Among those reporting they were HIV negative, 21-28% reported having an HIV test in the last 6 months. Of those tested HIV negative, most (65-82%) were unaware of their status. Around two-thirds of sex workers reported consistent condom use with their clients. As in other settings, sex workers reported high rates of gender based violence and police harassment. Conclusions This survey suggests that prevalence of HIV is high among sex workers in Zimbabwe and that their engagement with prevention, treatment and care is sub-optimal. Intensifying prevention and care interventions for sex workers has the potential to markedly reduce HIV and social risks for sex workers, their clients and the general population in Zimbabwe and elsewhere in the region.

Cowan, Frances M.; Mtetwa, Sibongile; Davey, Calum; Fearon, Elizabeth; Dirawo, Jeffrey; Wong-Gruenwald, Ramona; Ndikudze, Theresa; Chidiya, Samson; Benedikt, Clemens; Busza, Joanna; Hargreaves, James R.

2013-01-01

121

Gender performances as spatial acts: (fe)male Thai migrant sex workers in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to investigate how Thai migrant sex workers in Denmark understand normative heterosexuality and femininity\\/masculinity as they are reproduced in the Danish sex industry. To do so I analyse the ways that gender plays a part in sex work and the ways in which sex work plays a significant role in how Thai migrant sex

Marlene Spanger

2011-01-01

122

The female condom: a promising but unavailable method for dominican sex workers, their clients, and their partners.  

PubMed

Despite evidence of the potential of the female condom as a method that effectively protects against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and pregnancy, it is still not widely available. We conducted in-depth interviews with 18 sex workers, 15 male clients, and seven partners in the Dominican Republic to assess the acceptability of the female condom. The majority of the sex workers found the female condom acceptable and welcomed the option of a female-controlled method. Clients and partners of the sex workers were also positive about the female condom and, particularly with regard to pleasure; almost all preferred it to the male condom. These findings suggest that the female condom offers an acceptable option for protection against HIV, STIs, and pregnancy. The positive attitudes of women and men could be developed into messages in marketing campaigns for the female condom, targeting not only vulnerable groups but also the general population. PMID:23465398

van Dijk, Marieke G; Pineda, Diana Lara; Grossman, Daniel; Sorhaindo, Annik; García, Sandra G

2013-03-07

123

An assessment of sex work in Swaziland: barriers to and opportunities for HIV prevention among sex workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIV situation in virtually all southern African countries is a generalised epidemic. Despite the fact that almost all adult age and social groups have high HIV prevalence estimates, sex workers are disproportionally affected, with prevalence estimates higher than the general population. In a qualitative study of 61 male and female sex workers in Swaziland, we found that while poverty

Shalote Chipamaunga; Adamson S Muula; Ronald Mataya

2010-01-01

124

Prevalence and determinants of hepatitis C virus infection among female drug injecting sex workers in Glasgow  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies of the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have focussed on women who work as street sex workers to finance their drug use. Methods The investigators report the survey findings of such a population in Glasgow. All women attending the health and social care drop-in centre, situated in Glasgow's "Red Light Area", during a four-week period in 1999 were invited to participate in a survey involving the provision of a saliva sample for anonymous HCV testing and the self-completion of a questionnaire seeking demographic, sexual and injecting practice data. Results Of the 223 women who attended, 51% agreed to participate. Of the 98 women who provided a sufficient saliva sample, 64% (95% CI: 54%–74%) tested HCV antibody positive; 98% of those who tested positive had ever injected drugs. Adjusting for the 85% sensitivity of the saliva test, the HCV antibody prevalence among IDU sex workers sampled was 81%; a rate which is considerably higher than those recorded, contemporaneously, among Glasgow IDUs generally. Two factors were independently associated with HCV antibody positivity in saliva: ever shared needles and syringes (adjusted OR 5.7, 95% CI 2–16) and number of times imprisoned (adjusted OR 7.3, 95% CI 1.4–39, for more than five times compared to zero times). Conclusion Women who engage in street sex work to finance their drug habit are a particularly desperate, chaotic and vulnerable population. This study demonstrates that their HCV infection risk may be greater than that for other IDUs. Those responsible for designing interventions to prevent HCV infection among IDUs should consider the special needs of this group.

Taylor, Avril; Hutchinson, Sharon J; Gilchrist, Gail; Cameron, Sheila; Carr, Susan; Goldberg, David J

2008-01-01

125

Adherence to Diaphragm Use for Infection Prevention: A Prospective Study of Female Sex Workers in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess adherence to and acceptability of the diaphragm among 140 female sex workers in Kenya in a 6-month prospective study. Methods. At baseline and bimonthly visits, participants were interviewed on diaphragm knowledge, attitude, and practices. We used principal component analysis and logistic regression to identify predictors of consistent use. Results. At 50% of 386 bimonthly visits, women reported consistently using a diaphragm with all partners during the preceding 2 weeks. Consistent use was significantly higher at the 6-month than the 2-month visit. Women reported less covert use with “helping” (regular sex partners to whom she could go for help or support) than with “other” partners. Perceptions that diaphragms are easier to use than condoms and that their lack of coital interruption is important were associated with consistent diaphragm use with both partner types. Partner support of diaphragm use is correlated with consistent use with “helping” partners only while higher parity, consistent condom use, and perceived lack of need of condoms as a benefit of diaphragms were associated with consistent use with “other” partners. Conclusions. Diaphragm acceptance among female sex workers in Nairobi was high. Future studies should distinguish between partner types when evaluating diaphragm adherence.

Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Gallo, Maria F.; Sharma, Anjali; Njoroge, Betty; Jamieson, Denise J.; Nguti, Rosemary; Bell, April J.; Eschenbach, David A.

2009-01-01

126

Correlates of unprotected sex with female sex workers among male clients in Tijuana, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Tijuana, situated adjacent to San Diego, CA on the US-Mexico border, is experiencing an emerging HIV epidemic, with prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) having risen in recent years from <1% to 6%. Comparable data on FSWs’ clients are lacking. We explored correlates of unprotected sex with FSWs among male clients in Tijuana. Methods In 2008, males from San Diego (N=189) and Tijuana (N=211) aged 18 or older who had paid or traded for sex with a FSW in Tijuana during the past 4 months were recruited in Tijuana’s red light district. Participants underwent psychosocial interviews and were tested for HIV, syphilis (Treponema pallidum), gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), and Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis). Results Of 394 men, median age was 36 years, 42.1% were married, and 39.3% were unemployed. Ethnic composition was 13.2% white, 79.4% Hispanic and 7.4% black or other. Half (50.3%) reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex with FSWs in Tijuana in the past 4 months. High proportions reported using drugs during sex (66%), and 36% reported frequenting the same FSW. Factors independently associated with unprotected sex with FSWs were using drugs during sex, visiting the same FSW, being married, and being unemployed. Conclusions FSWs’ clients represent an STI/HIV transmission “bridge” through unprotected sex with FSWs, wives and other partners. Tailored interventions to promote consistent condom use are needed for clients, especially within the context of drug use and ongoing relations with particular FSWs.

Goldenberg, Shira M; Cruz, Manuel Gallardo; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Nguyen, Lucie; Semple, Shirley J; Patterson, Thomas L

2010-01-01

127

The Potential for Rapid Sexual Transmission of HIV in China: Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Condom Failure Highly Prevalent Among Female Sex Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial sex is believed to play a role in the steadily increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV in China, but little attention has been paid to female sex workers working in the entertainment industry. From October to December 2000, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 482 women in Baise City, Guangxi Autonomous Region, bordering Yunnan Province. Although no participants had antibodies

Shuquan Qu; Wei Liu; Kyung-Hee Choi; Rongjian Li; Deyuan Jiang; Yuejiao Zhou; Fang Tian; Priscilla Lee Chu; Huang Shi; Xiwen Zheng; Jeffrey Mandel

2002-01-01

128

Violence as a Barrier for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Argentina  

PubMed Central

Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been increasingly reported as an important determinant of HIV infection risk. This study explores the frequency of different violent experiences (sexual abuse, rejection, beating and imprisonment) among FSWs in Argentina and its association with condom use and HIV and T. pallidum prevalence. Methods A convenience sample of 1255 FSWs was included in a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2006 and November 2009. Results Sexual abuse was reported by 24.1% (219/907) of women. A total of 34.7% (42/1234) reported rejection experiences, 21.9% (267/1215) reported having been beaten and 45.4% (561/1236) stated having been arrested because of their sex work activity. There was a higher frequency of inconsistent condom use with clients among FSWs who had experienced sexual abuse, rejection, and police detention. A higher frequency of HIV and T. pallidum infection was detected among FSWs who reported having been arrested by the police. Conclusion The study shows for the first time the frequency of different violent situations among FSWs in Argentina. The association between violence against sex workers, condom use and STI prevalence demonstrated here calls for measures to reduce stigma and violence against FSWs. Such violent experiences may increase vulnerability to STI through coerced unprotected sex.

Pando, Maria A.; Coloccini, Romina S.; Reynaga, Elena; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Montano, Silvia M.; Avila, Maria M.

2013-01-01

129

HIV testing behaviors among female sex workers in Southwest China.  

PubMed

Despite the recognized importance of HIV testing in prevention, care and treatment, HIV testing remains low in China. Millions of female sex workers (FSW) play a critical role in China's escalating HIV epidemic. Limited data are available regarding HIV testing behavior among this at-risk population. This study, based on a cross-sectional survey of 1,022 FSW recruited from communities in Southwest China, attempted to address the literature gap. Our data revealed that 48% of FSW ever took HIV testing; older age, less education, working in higher-income commercial sex venues and better HIV knowledge were associated with HIV testing. Those who never took HIV testing were more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors including inconsistent condom use with clients and stable partners. A number of psychological and structural barriers to testing were also reported. We call for culturally appropriate interventions to reduce HIV risks and promote HIV testing for vulnerable FSW in China. PMID:21538081

Hong, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei

2012-01-01

130

Sex Education Attitudes and Outcomes among North American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…

Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura

2006-01-01

131

Understanding survival sex: young women, homelessness and intimate relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to explore gendered experiences of homelessness through an examination of survival sex. Survival sex is usually understood to be the exchange of sex for material support, however, this research found a greater complexity in the intimate relationships being undertaken by young women experiencing homelessness. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young women aged 18–25 years living in

Juliet Watson

2011-01-01

132

Women Who Report Having Sex With Women: British National Probability Data on Prevalence, Sexual Behaviors, and Health Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We estimated the prevalence of same-sex experience among women and compared women reporting sex with women and men and women reporting sex exclusively with women with women reporting sex exclusively with men, in terms of sociodemographics and sexual, reproductive, and gen- eral health risk behaviors and outcomes. Methods. We used a British probability survey (n = 6399 women, aged

Catherine H. Mercer; Julia V. Bailey; Anne M. Johnson; Bob Erens; Kaye Wellings; Kevin A. Fenton; Andrew J. Copas

133

Dance Ponnaya, Dance! Police Abuses Against Transgender Sex Workers in Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feminist theory and research are limited in their focus on intersections of gender and sexual orientation in the victimization of sex workers. Through inductive analysis of 24 in-depth interviews and 3 focus groups with male-to-female transgender sex workers in Sri Lanka, police mistreatment was examined to show how the abuses sex workers experience reflect the intersectional nature of gendered victimization.

Andrea Nichols

2010-01-01

134

Sex guilt and life satisfaction in Iranian-american women.  

PubMed

Although the experience of sex guilt has been considered among a variety of ethnic groups, the area has not yet been empirically explored among Iranian American women. The present study investigated the relationship between sexual self-schema (i.e., beliefs about the sexual aspects of oneself), acculturation, and sex guilt, and it further examined the association between sex guilt and life satisfaction in Iranian American women. A total of 65 Iranian American women, with a mean age of 31.3 years (SD = 11.7), completed five self-administered questionnaires. Findings indicated a significant inverse correlation between sexual self-schema and sex guilt. More specifically, women who endorsed negative self-views regarding their sexual self reported higher levels sex guilt. Results revealed that acculturation was unrelated to sex guilt, when the effect of being Muslim or non-Muslim was controlled. Women with high sex guilt reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. Moreover, analyses for mediation effects supported sex guilt as a partially mediating variable between sexual self-schema and life satisfaction. Levels of sex guilt were higher among Muslim women when compared to women of other religious affiliations. Additionally, Muslim women appeared to be significantly less acculturated to Western ideals than other religious groups. The present findings suggest that mental health professionals who provide services to Iranian American women need to consider the negative effects of sex guilt, particularly among Muslim women. PMID:23546891

Abdolsalehi-Najafi, Emon; Beckman, Linda J

2013-04-02

135

Male sex workers in Antwerp, Belgium: a descriptive study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI), sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics in a population of male sex workers (MSW) in Antwerp, Belgium. Between September 1999 and March 2004, 129 MSW were reached by Gh@pro, an outreach programme providing preventive health care, free STI check-up and hepatitis B vaccination, to sex workers (SW). Sera were collected from 121 men, urine samples from 115 men and a questionnaire was filled in by 43 MSW. In 45.5% of MSW one or more STI were diagnosed (including hepatitis B), 76% on laboratory testing at first screening, 9% through symptomatology at first visit. The prevalence of HIV was 10.8%, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection 28.9%, syphilis 12.5%, gonorrhoea 1.7% and Chlamydia trachomatis 9.7%. More than 50% of non-immune MSW completed their three-dose hepatitis B vaccination course. Prevalence of STI is concordant with published data on MSW; this population clearly requests and deserves particular attention and approach. There is an important difference in sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics between MSW working in the red light district and those working on the street. Health promotion should be tailored to the different subpopulations and outreach appears to be a successful tool. PMID:16303070

Leuridan, E; Wouters, K; Stalpaert, M; Van Damme, P

2005-11-01

136

HIV-related risk perception among female sex workers in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Over one-third of sex workers in Nigeria are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet there is a lack of understanding of sex workers’ own perception of sexual risk-taking. Applying the theory of cognitive dissonance, this paper examined the personal HIV risk perception of brothel-based sex workers. Methods The study is based on 24 focus group discussions held among brothel-based sex workers in four geographically and culturally dispersed cities in Nigeria. Results It was found that sex workers underestimated their risk of infection and rationalized, defended, or justified their behaviors, a typical psychological response to worry, threat, and anxiety arising from the apparent discrepancies between beliefs and behaviors. To reduce dissonance, many sex workers had a strong belief in fatalism, predestination, and faith-based invulnerability to HIV infection. Many believed that one will not die of acquired immune deficiency syndrome if it is not ordained by God. The sex workers also had a high level of HIV-related stigma. Conclusion From these findings, most sex workers considered risk reduction and in particular condom use as far beyond their control or even unnecessary, as a result of their strong beliefs in fatalism and predestination. Therefore, one critical area of intervention is the need to assist sex workers to develop accurate means of assessing their personal vulnerability and self-appraisal of HIV-related risk.

Ankomah, Augustine; Omoregie, Godpower; Akinyemi, Zacch; Anyanti, Jennifer; Ladipo, Olaronke; Adebayo, Samson

2011-01-01

137

HIV risk perceptions, knowledge and behaviours among female sex workers in two cities in Turkmenistan.  

PubMed

This paper describes HIV risk behaviour patterns among street- and bar-based female sex workers in the Turkmenistan cities of Ashgabat and Mary. Street-based sex workers had little to no knowledge of HIV and primarily used condoms when condom use was initiated by clients. Bar-based sex workers had HIV knowledge and reported regularly using condoms mainly with first-time clients. While sex workers perceived themselves to be at low risk for acquiring HIV, they were aware of other sexually transmitted infections (STI) and expressed a strong desire for free STI testing and treatment services. PMID:20486005

Chariyeva, Z; Colaco, R; Maman, S

2011-01-01

138

Gender relations and risks of HIV transmission in South India: the discourse of female sex workers' clients.  

PubMed

In South India, where the majority of the country's cases of HIV are concentrated, transmission of infection occurs mainly within networks composed of female sex workers, their clients and the other sexual partners of the latter. This study aims to determine how gender relations affect the risks of HIV transmission in this region. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 30 clients and analysed qualitatively. Results show that clients perceive sexual relations with female sex workers as a vice involving loss of control and contact with women at the bottom of the social ladder. Paradoxically, this sometimes allows them to conform to the masculine ideal, in giving sexual satisfaction to a woman, in a context of incompatibility between the idealised and actual masculine and feminine archetypes. Attitudes to condoms, affected by various facets of the client-female sex worker relationship, are indicators of the link between this relationship and the risks of contracting HIV. The results suggest that there is a need for expanding targeted HIV prevention towards clients and female sex workers alongside more general interventions on gender issues, particularly among young people, focusing on the structural elements moulding current relations between men and women, with particular consideration of local cultural characteristics. PMID:22574910

Aubé-Maurice, Joanne; Clément, Michèle; Bradley, Janet; Lowndes, Catherine M; Gurav, Kaveri; Alary, Michel

2012-05-11

139

Migrant Domestic Workers and the Rights of Women and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'care' economy and women's gender role Housework is not generally considered as 'work' but an extension of women's role as wives, mothers and daughters, and domestic\\/household workers are there to 'help' them to carry out these responsibilities. Domestic service in private homes continues to be one of the principal means for poor women and girls in developing countries to

Marilyn Thomson

140

Evaluation of STD\\/HIV Prevention Needs of Low and Middle-Income Female Sex Workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) AIDS Committee is concerned about providing prevention and sexually transmitted disease (STD) services to increasing numbers of female sex workers (FSWs). We interviewed 250 non-brothel-based FSWs in HCMC in 1997, including 100 detained women at a rehabilitation center, and 150 women soliciting on the street (low income) and in bars (middle income). The majority

Le Truong Giang; Nguyen Thanh Son; Le Thuy Lan Thao; Lan Vu; Esther Sid Hudes; Christina Lindan

2000-01-01

141

Endogenous sex steroid levels in women with generalised osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Epidemiologic and clinical observations have suggested a relationship between generalised osteoarthritis (GOA) and hormonal and menopausal factors in women. We explored the hypothesis that postmenopausal women with GOA have altered sex hormone status compared with control women. We studied 112 women (mean age 64) with GOA. Controls were 151 women (mean age 54) from the general population without clinical

T. D. Spector; L. A. Perry; R. W. Jubb

1991-01-01

142

Motivations for entry into sex work and HIV risk among mobile female sex workers in India.  

PubMed

This paper assesses the reasons for entry into sex work and its association with HIV risk behaviours among mobile female sex workers (FSWs) in India. Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 22 districts across four high HIV prevalence states in India during 2007-2008. Analyses were limited to 5498 eligible mobile FSWs. The reasons given by FSWs for entering sex work and associations with socio-demographic characteristics were assessed. Reported reasons for entering sex work include poor or deprived economic conditions; negative social circumstances in life; own choice; force by an external person; and family tradition. The results from multivariate analyses indicate that those FSWs who entered sex work due to poor economic conditions or negative social circumstances in life or force demonstrated elevated levels of current inconsistent condom use as well as in the past in comparison with those FSWs who reported entering sex work by choice or family tradition. This finding indicates the need for a careful assessment of the pre-entry contexts among HIV prevention interventions since these factors may continue to hinder the effectiveness of efforts to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS in India and elsewhere. PMID:21729360

Saggurti, Niranjan; Verma, Ravi K; Halli, Shiva S; Swain, Suvakanta N; Singh, Rajendra; Modugu, Hanimi Reddy; Ramarao, Saumya; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Jain, Anrudh K

2011-06-10

143

Relationship of sex guilt and moral reasoning to premarital sex in college women and in couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory, the Sex Experience Inventory, and Kohlberg's Moral Dilemmas Questionnaire in Exp I to assess 119 unmarried college women with regard to sex behavior, sex guilt, and moral reasoning. Categories of sexual expression were developed which were useful in predicting behavior. Guilt was a better predictor of sex than morality. Maintaining virginity and losing it

Judith F. DAugelli; Herbert J. Cross

1975-01-01

144

Transactional sex risk and STI among HIV-infected female sex workers and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs in India.  

PubMed

To describe sex risk behaviors of HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs) and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs, to evaluate associations between risky transactional sex and number of unprotected transactional sex episodes, and to assess the association between unprotected transactional sex and self-reported sexually transmitted infection (STI). Adult HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) and HIV-infected male clients (n = 205) were surveyed in Mumbai about demographics, STI, and past 90-day and past year sex and substance use histories. Gender-stratified Poisson regression models were used to evaluate associations between four risky transactional sex behaviors (number of transactional sex partners; alcohol use before transactional sex; anal transactional sex; and transactional sex with a known HIV-infected partner) and number of unprotected transactional sex episodes; logistic regression was used to assess the association between unprotected transactional sex and self-reported STI. Twenty-nine percent of females and 7% of males reported any unprotected transactional sex episodes in the past 90 days. Thirty-nine percent of females and 12% of males reported past year STI. Among males, a greater number of transactional sex partners was associated with more unprotected transactional sex episodes (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 8.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-38.4 highest vs. lowest tertile), and any unprotected transactional sex was associated with a higher odds of self-reported STI in the past year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.6, 95% CI = 1.4-22.4). For women, risky transactional sex behaviors were not associated with condom non-use, and unprotected sex was negatively associated with STI (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.9). Reports of condom use during transactional sex were high for these samples. However, standard predictors of unprotected transactional sex (i.e., greater number of partners) and STI (i.e., unprotected sex) only held true for males. Further research is needed to guide an understanding of sex risk and STI among HIV-infected FSWs in India. PMID:21711167

Raj, Anita; Saggurti, N; Cheng, Debbie M; Dasgupta, Anindita; Bridden, Carly; Pradeshi, Manojkumar; Samet, J H

2011-06-28

145

Factors associated with condom use negotiation by female sex workers in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Negotiation for condom use by female sex workers with their male clients can enhance condom use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1395 female sex workers; 439 from two brothels, 442 from 30 hotels, and 514 from streets of two cities in Bangladesh to determine the predictors of condom use negotiation. Consistent condom use rates in the 7 days prior to interview were reported to be 16.2%, 21.7%, and 4.5% among the brothel, hotel, and street-based female sex workers, respectively. Overall, 28.1% of female sex workers negotiated for condom use with their clients. Participation in behaviour change communication (BCC) programmes (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0) and self-perceived risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection (AOR, 1.8 95% CI, 1.6-2.1) were positive predictors for condom negotiation. Compared to the hotel-based female sex workers, street (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9) and brothel-based female sex workers (AOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9) were less likely to negotiate for condom use. Female sex workers in Bangladesh are at high risk for sexually transmitted infection / human immunodeficiency virus infection because of low overall negotiation for condom use. Participation in BCC programmes had positive effect on condom negotiation by female sex workers, and should be strengthened in commercial sex venues. PMID:23970599

Alam, Nazmul; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Mridha, Malay K; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Azim, Tasnim

2013-07-15

146

Characteristics associated with prevalent HIV infection among a cohort of sex workers in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of HIV infection in a cohort of female sex workers in Cameroon, and to describe characteristics associated with HIV infection in this population. METHODS: In a cross sectional study, 2260 female sex workers in Cameroon were interviewed and screened for HIV serostatus. A standardised questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics and sexual and health behaviours. RESULTS: Seropositive participants (18%) were more likely to be over age 25, have four or more children, live in Yaounde or Douala for 5 years or less, solicit clients in their homes or on the street, have a low educational level, earn a weekly income of less than $24, and have no other occupation outside of sex work. A logistic regression model of selected sociodemographic characteristics indicated that women at particularly high odds of HIV infection were older, poorer, and new immigrants to their city of residence. CONCLUSION: This seroprevalence study found a lower HIV prevalence than had been previously reported. Although our results are different, this group is still at much higher risk of HIV infection than the population as a whole. ?????

Ryan, K. A.; Roddy, R. E.; Zekeng, L.; Weir, S. S.; Tamoufe, U.

1998-01-01

147

Sex work in the Caribbean Basin: patterns of substance use and HIV risk among migrant sex workers in the US Virgin Islands.  

PubMed

Drug use, commercial sex work, and migration each play a role in the spread of HIV in the Caribbean, yet the intersection of these factors in the region is not well understood. This paper explores the connections between substance use and HIV risk among migrant female sex workers in the US Virgin Islands. Participants were located through targeted sampling techniques in Christiansted and Frederiksted, St. Croix, and Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas where 101 women were interviewed regarding their drug use, sexual behaviours, migration patterns and health status. In the month prior to interview, 25.7% reported no substance use, 57.4% reported alcohol use only and 16.8% indicated use of an illicit drug. Drug using sex workers reported a significantly greater number of past-month sexual partners than alcohol-only and non-drug users. In logistic regression analyses, illicit drug users were significantly more likely to report unprotected sexual activity, client violence and sexually transmitted infections as well. In addition, illicit drug users engaged in sex work in a significantly greater number of countries and were more likely to work in locations outside the US Virgin Islands. The intersection of multiple risk factors for HIV identified among drug-involved sex workers in the region, including unprotected sexual activity with multiple partners, violent victimization and migration between high and low HIV-prevalence areas, suggests that illicit drug use may play an important role in driving the growing heterosexual HIV epidemic in the Caribbean. PMID:18071971

Surratt, H

2007-11-01

148

Identity management, negotiation and resistance among women in the sex trade in London, Ontario.  

PubMed

Sex work, and ideas about women in the trade, have long been represented as tragic and/or threatening. However, such portrayals tell us very little about how women think about themselves and the kinds of work they do. The data for this paper come from an ethnographic, community-based study in London, Ontario, that involves women in street-based, indoor and transactional sex work. This discussion focuses on how women develop different individual identities, including the management of multiple selves, their sexual identities and what we have termed the 'good junkie' identity. We also examine how these women employ aspects of dominant representation of sex workers, namely the low status accorded to those in street-based work and the defamatory term 'whore' or 'ho', when negotiating the moral hierarchies that exist within various kinds of sex work (i.e., stripping, massage parlours) and making sense of their professional and personal lives. The work that goes into the creation and maintenance of the women's divergent identities sheds important light on this complicated and tremendously demanding, yet inadequately understood, aspect of life as women in the sex trade. PMID:23231416

Orchard, Treena; Farr, Sara; Macphail, Susan; Wender, Cass; Young, Dawn

2012-12-12

149

Efficacy of a Brief Behavioral Intervention to Promote Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the efficacy of a brief behavioral intervention to promote condom use among female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Methods. We randomized 924 female sex workers 18 years or older without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recently had unprotected sex with clients to a 30-minute behavioral intervention or a didactic control condition. At baseline and 6 months, women underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Results. We observed a 40% decline in cumulative sexually transmitted illness incidence (P = .049) in the intervention group. Incidence density for the intervention versus control groups was 13.8 versus 24.92 per 100 person-years for sexually transmitted illnesses combined (P = .034) and 0 versus 2.01 per 100 person-years for HIV (P < .001). There were concomitant increases in the number and percentage of protected sex acts and decreases in the number of unprotected sex acts with clients (P < .05). Conclusions. This brief behavioral intervention shows promise in reducing HIV and sexually transmitted illness risk behaviors among female sex workers and may be transferable to other resource-constrained settings.

Mausbach, Brent; Lozada, Remedios; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Semple, Shirley J.; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel; Orozovich, Prisci; Abramovitz, Daniela; de la Torre, Adela; Amaro, Hortensia; Martinez, Gustavo; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2008-01-01

150

'As prostitutes, we control our bodies': perceptions of health and body in the lives of establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.  

PubMed

Many studies of female sex work focus on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections because sex workers are considered bridges between high-risk and low-risk populations. The voices of female sex workers as they pertain to health issues are often lacking in the literature. This paper offers a feminist constructivist grounded theory study with establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico. Analyses of interviews with 20 women reveal that they are aware of the impact of their work on their bodies, but conceptualise their health holistically and not just in terms of HIV. They emphasise that working in the sex industry has implications for sexual health, non-sexual physical health and mental health. The paper concludes that in order for public health interventions to have more sustainable impact on the lives of female sex workers, they should take into account the voices of the women, including how they define their health. The findings suggest that public health professionals need to be more aware that female sex workers have agency and a desire to control their health and their bodies. PMID:20446129

Choudhury, Shonali M

2010-08-01

151

Women as Sex Objects and Victims in Print Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content analysis examined the depiction of women in 1,988 advertisements from 58 popular U.S. magazines. Advertisements\\u000a were coded with respect to whether women were presented as sex objects and\\/or as victims using a scheme developed by the researchers.\\u000a On average across magazines, one of two advertisements that featured women portrayed them as sex objects. Women appeared as\\u000a victims in

Julie M. Stankiewicz; Francine Rosselli

2008-01-01

152

Prevalence and correlates of sexual risk among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviours among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, the busiest border crossing area on the US – Mexico border, analysing survey data from a purposive, cross-sectional sample of male and female sex workers who worked in a range of indoor and outdoor settings. Logistic regression was used to determine factors

Yasmina Katsulis; Alesha Durfee

2012-01-01

153

Anal Sex, Vaginal Practices, and HIV Incidence in Female Sex Workers in Urban Kenya: Implications for the Development of Intravaginal HIV Prevention Methods  

PubMed Central

Abstract Multiple intravaginal HIV prevention methods, including microbicide gels, barriers, and intravaginal rings, are in clinical development in Africa. Development of intravaginal HIV prevention products requires an understanding of sexual behavior, sexually transmitted infection (STI), and vaginitis prevalences, and sexual and vaginal practices in potential target populations. We assessed these factors in a cohort of Kenyan female sex workers (FSW). Women who reported exchanging sex for money/gifts at least three times in the past month and who were HIV uninfected were enrolled and followed for 6 months. STI prevalence and HIV incidence were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis, controlling for demographic and behavioral factors. Thirty-seven percent (74/200) reported having had anal sex. Frequency of anal sex was higher with regular and casual partners than with primary partners. Women were less likely to use condoms for anal sex than for vaginal sex with regular or casual partners. Vaginal washing was universal (100%). HIV incidence was 5.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI 1.62, 11.67). HIV incidence was not associated with any demographic or risk behavior. The relatively high rate of anal sex and universal vaginal washing may complicate both safety and efficacy evaluation of intravaginal products and should be taken into account in trial design. This FSW population had significant HIV incidence and needs continued HIV prevention interventions.

Wakasiaka, Sabina; Hoang, Tina D.; Smith, Donna J.; Farah, Bashir; del Rio, Carlos; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah

2011-01-01

154

HIV\\/AIDS-related sexual risks and migratory status among female sex workers in a rural Chinese county  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, there are millions of female sex workers (FSWs) in China and these women play a critical role in the escalating HIV epidemic in the country. Existing studies revealed high mobility of this population, but data on the relationship of FSWs’ migratory status and their HIV\\/AIDS-related sexual risks are limited. A cross-sectional survey was administered among 454 FSWs in a

Yan Hong; Xiaoming Li; Hongmei Yang; Xiaoyi Fang; Ran Zhao

2009-01-01

155

Sexual Risk Behaviors, Alcohol Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence Among Sex Workers in Mongolia: Implications for HIV Prevention Intervention Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines HIV\\/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV\\/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using

Susan S. Witte; Altantsetseg Batsukh; Mingway Chang

2010-01-01

156

A study on female sex workers in southern China (Shenzhen): HIV-related knowledge, condom use and STD history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to investigate the perspective relations between HIV\\/AIDS and condom-related knowledge, condom use, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and predictive factors of condom use by female sex workers (FSW) who were sent to the Women Re-education Center (WRC) in Shenzhen, People's Republic of China. Seven hundred and one FSW were interviewed. Whereas respondents had attained certain

J. T. F. Lau; H. Y. Tsui; P. C. Siah; K. L. Zhang

2002-01-01

157

Social-Environmental Factors and Protective Sexual Behavior Among Sex Workers: The Encontros Intervention in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to determine the association of social–environmental factors with condom use and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 420 sex workers participating in an STI/HIV prevention study in Corumbá, Brazil, to inform future intervention efforts. Methods. Participants provided urine samples for polymerase chain reaction testing of chlamydia and gonorrhea and responded to multi-item scales addressing perceived social cohesion, participation in networks, and access to and management of resources. We conducted multivariate log-linear and negative binomial regression analyses of these data. Results. Increased social cohesion was inversely associated with number of unprotected sex acts in the preceding week among women (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.80; P < .01), and there was a marginal association among men (adjusted IRR = 0.41; P = .08). Women's increased participation in social networks was associated with a decrease in frequency of unprotected sex acts (adjusted IRR = 0.83; P = .04), as was men's access to and management of social and material resources (IRR = 0.15; P = .01). Social–environmental factors were not associated with STIs. Conclusions. The social context within which populations negotiate sexual behaviors is associated with condom use. Future efforts to prevent STI/HIV should incorporate strategies to modify the social environment.

Donini, Angela; Diaz, Juan; Chinaglia, Magda; Reingold, Arthur; Kerrigan, Deanna

2010-01-01

158

When can ants discriminate the sex of brood? A new aspect of queen-worker conflict.  

PubMed

The stage in preimaginal ontogeny at which the sexes can first be distinguished has important implications for queen-worker conflict in social insects. If workers are unable to sex larvae at an early instar, their opportunity to control colony reproductive strategies may be limited. In addition, by concealing the sex of her sons for some portion of development, the queen could protect them from the workers' attempts to substitute their own sons or to skew the numerical sex ratio. In a series of choice experiments, workers of the carpenter ant, Camponotus floridanus, failed to discriminate the sex of several stages of larvae but did retrieve female pupae significantly more rapidly than male pupae. Our results suggest that in this species, sex may not become detectable until pupation, which is consistent with sexual deception as an aspect of queen control. PMID:11607136

Nonacs, P; Carlin, N F

1990-12-15

159

Women animal foster care workers: An ecofeminist critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

As with other forms of animal rights activism, animal foster care also appears to be dominated by women. In this paper I explore the role of animal foster care in, and its implications for, a Patriarchal society based on hierarchical dualisms. I argue that through their work as animal foster care workers and adoption facilitators these women do create positions

Denise L Roemer

2004-01-01

160

WOMEN WORKERS IN THE MONDRAGON SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL COOPERATIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feminist analysis of the Basque Mondragon system of industrial cooperatives suggests that women fare somewhat better in cooperatives than in private firms in employment, earnings, and job security. Market phenomena and the family as basic economic unit affect women workers negatively, as does increasing professionalism in the technical core of the system. Similarities in gender stratification and segregation in

SALLY L. HACKER; CLARA ELCOROBAIRUTIA

1987-01-01

161

Safer Sex Among HIV+ Women: The Role of Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among 230 HIV+ women in New York City, 105 had been heterosexually active in the last 90 days and 54% of these reported unsafe sex. Contrary to our hypotheses based on relational theory, respondents with steady partners were more likely to have unprotected sex than nonpartnered women. However, among respondents with steady partners, the degree of commitment to the relationship

Jane M. Simoni; Karina L. Walters; Dawn K. Nero

2000-01-01

162

Structure and agency: reflections from an exploratory study of Vancouver indoor sex workers.  

PubMed

Sex work research continues to be characterised by debates around decriminalization. Central to these debates are claims about the agency of those involved in the sex trade. Some researchers argue that individuals involved in the sex trade are victims of structural and interpersonal constraint, whilst others depict them as workers exercising choice. Drawing on structure-agency theory, a review of legal and media accounts of the sex trade and qualitative interviews with 21 indoor sex workers in Vancouver, Canada, we argue that both of these perspectives are insufficient. Rather than reducing the sex trade to part of a binary, we suggest that it is necessary to analyse sex work through the complex interplay of both structure and agency. Specifically, structural analyses undercover the numerous ways that sex workers are controlled, observed and influenced whilst agency perspectives elicit the means that sex workers continue to exercise control in spite of disadvantage. While we do not finalise decriminalisation debates, we do critique current Canadian laws for the lack of responsiveness to the lives of sex workers and their exploitative and contradictory stance on sex work. PMID:20967651

Bungay, Vicky; Halpin, Michael; Atchison, Chris; Johnston, Caitlin

2011-01-01

163

University Student Beliefs about Sex: Men vs. Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of survey data from 326 undergraduates at a large southeastern university revealed significant differences between men and women in their sexual beliefs. Specifically, men were more likely to think that oral sex is not sex; that cybersex is not cheating, that men can't tell if a woman is faking orgasm and that sex frequency drops in…

Knox, David; Zusman, Marty; McNeely, Andrea

2008-01-01

164

University Student Beliefs about Sex: Men vs. Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analysis of survey data from 326 undergraduates at a large southeastern university revealed significant differences between men and women in their sexual beliefs. Specifically, men were more likely to think that oral sex is not sex; that cybersex is not cheating, that men can't tell if a woman is faking orgasm and that sex frequency drops in…

Knox, David; Zusman, Marty; McNeely, Andrea

2008-01-01

165

Hepatitis B vaccination for male sex workers: the experience of a specialist GUM service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Male sex workers are at risk of blood borne viruses but may have limited access to sexual health services, including vaccination. We explore factors associated with hepatitis B vaccination uptake among male sex workers in LondonMethods: Follow up study of men attending the Working Men’s Project, a specialist health project for men who sell sex, between 1994 and 2003.Results:

G Sethi; B M Holden; L Greene; J Gaffney; H Ward

2006-01-01

166

"He can be good and still have AIDS". Peer education prevents AIDS in Thai women workers.  

PubMed

Focus group discussions and interviews with 240 single adolescent women who had migrated to northern Thailand to work in the garment industry revealed a high incidence of unprotected premarital sex and widespread misinformation about the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many believed that "good people" could not get AIDS and that condoms were men's concern, for use with prostitutes rather than girlfriends. In response, an educational program was designed for these young factory workers with the aim of providing accurate information and encouraging women to insist on protected sex. Peer education was selected as the strategy most likely to promote participatory learning, skill acquisition, and emotional support. Educational materials were interactive and based on problem-solving. A comic book featured an invisible flying condom that instructed young women how to negotiate condom use; a romantic novel about a young migrant factory worker addressed the false notion that "good men" cannot become infected with AIDS. The peer education program lasted for 3 months, after which participants received a certificate. Post-program evaluation indicated widespread acceptance of condoms as a contraceptive option for women and enhanced relational skills in negotiating for safe sex. PMID:12345370

Cash, K

1993-01-01

167

Women who sell sex in a Ugandan trading town: life histories, survival strategies and risk.  

PubMed

Little is known about the background of commercial sex workers in Africa. This study investigated how women in a trading town on the trans-Africa highway in southwest Uganda become involved in commercial sex work, which factors contribute to their economic success or lack of success, and what effect life trajectories and economic success have on negotiating power and risk behaviour. Over the course of two years detailed life histories of 34 women were collected through recording open, in-depth interviews, the collection of sexual and income and expenditure diaries, visits to the women's native villages, and participant observation. The women share similar disadvantaged backgrounds and this has played a role in their move into commercial sex. They have divergent experiences, however, in their utilisation of opportunities and in the level of success they achieve. They have developed different life styles and a variety of ways of dealing with sexual relationships. Three groups of women were identified: (1) women who work in the back-street bars, have no capital of their own and are almost entirely dependent on selling sex for their livelihood; (2) waitresses in the bars along the main road who engage in a more institutionalised kind of commercial sex, often mediated by middlemen and (3) the more successful entrepreneurs who earn money from their own bars as well as from commercial sex. The three groups had different risk profiles. Due partly to their financial independence from men, women in the latter group have taken control of sexual relationships and can negotiate good sexual deals for themselves, both financially and in terms of safe sex. The poorer women were more vulnerable and less able to negotiate safer sex. A disadvantaged background and restricted access to economic resources are the major reasons for women gravitating to commercial sex work. Various aspects of personality play a role in utilising income from commercial sex to set up an economic basis that then makes the selling of sex unnecessary. This has implications for interventions, and part of the longer-term solution should lie in improving the economic position of women vis-à-vis men. PMID:11824924

Gysels, Marjolein; Pool, Robert; Nnalusiba, Betty

2002-01-01

168

The Use of Female Commercial Sex Workers' Services by Latino Day Laborers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the characteristics of Latino day laborers who have sex with female commercial sex workers (CSWs). A sample of 450 day laborers in Los Angeles was used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association of independent variables with the likelihood of having sex with a CSW. Overall, 26% of the 450 day…

Galvan, Frank H.; Ortiz, Daniel J.; Martinez, Victor; Bing, Eric G.

2009-01-01

169

Structure and agency: reflections from an exploratory study of Vancouver indoor sex workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex work research continues to be characterised by debates around decriminalization. Central to these debates are claims about the agency of those involved in the sex trade. Some researchers argue that individuals involved in the sex trade are victims of structural and interpersonal constraint, whilst others depict them as workers exercising choice. Drawing on structure-agency theory, a review of legal

Vicky Bungay; Michael Halpin; Chris Atchison; Caitlin Johnston

2011-01-01

170

Empowering sex workers in India to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted diseases?  

PubMed Central

The Sonagachi Project was initiated in Kolkata, India in 1992 as a STD/HIV intervention for sex workers. The project evolved to adopt strategies common to women’s empowerment programs globally (i.e., community mobilization, rights-based framing, advocacy, micro-finance) to address common factors that support effective, evidence-based HIV/STD prevention. The Sonagachi model is now a broadly diffused evidence-based empowerment program. We previously demonstrated significant condom use increases among female sex workers in a 16 month replication trial of the Sonagachi empowerment intervention (n = 110) compared to a control community (n = 106) receiving standard care of STD clinic, condom promotion, and peer education in two randomly assigned rural towns in West Bengal, India (Basu et al., 2004). This article examines the intervention’s impacts on 21 measured variables reflecting five common factors of effective HIV/STD prevention programs to estimate the impact of empowerment strategies on HIV/STD prevention program goals. The intervention which was conducted in 2000–2001 significantly: 1) improved knowledge of STDs and condom protection from STD and HIV, and maintained STD/HIV risk perceptions despite treatment; 2) provided a frame to motivate change based on reframing sex work as valid work, increasing disclosure of profession, and instilling a hopeful future orientation reflected in desire for more education or training; 3) improved skills in sexual and workplace negotiations reflected in increased refusal, condom decision-making, and ability to change work contract, but not ability to take leave; 4) built social support by increasing social interactions outside work, social function participation, and helping other sex workers; and 5) addressed environmental barriers of economic vulnerabilities by increasing savings and alternative income, but not working in other locations, nor reduced loan taking, and did not increase voting to build social capital. This study’s results demonstrate that, compared to narrowcast clinical and prevention services alone, empowerment strategies can significantly impact a broader range of factors to reduce vulnerability to HIV/STDs.

Swendeman, Dallas; Basu, Ishika; Das, Sankari; Jana, Smarajit; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

2010-01-01

171

HIV vulnerability and condom use among migrant women factory workers in Puebla, Mexico.  

PubMed

International migration is associated with increased HIV vulnerability, but little is known about the vulnerability of internal migrants. This qualitative study explored perceptions of HIV and condom use among Mexican migrant female factory workers. Migration and male sexual infidelity contributed to increased HIV vulnerability and unprotected sex was ubiquitous. The dominant cultural discourse that dichotomizes "good" (monogamous) and "bad" (sexually stigmatized) women, and male partner's resistance, were barriers to condom use. Women's positive attitudes toward the dual protection (pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections) offered by condoms and sexual agency expressed by refusing unwanted sexual contact are resources for HIV prevention. PMID:20461602

Kendall, Tamil; Pelcastre, Blanca Estela

2010-06-01

172

Tracking the sex workers along the roads of Lahore city and exploring the unsympathetic social behaviors in social GIS aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fornication exist in every country. But its moral values are different in different countries. The country like Pakistan it is well organized in elite class but it the sex workers standing on road side are living in more miserable condition than higher class sex workers. There are many pull and push factors, which force these, sex workers to hunt the

173

Police violence and sexual risk among female and transvestite sex workers in Serbia: qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore female and transvestite sex workers’ perceptions of risk in the sex work environment in Serbia. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Street based locations for sex work in Belgrade and Pancevo, Serbia. Participants 31 female and transvestite sex workers. Results Violence, including police violence, was reported as a primary concern in relation to risk. Violence was linked to unprotected sex and the reduced capacity for avoiding sexual risk. Participants reported that coerced sex was routinely provided to the police in exchange for freedom from detainment, arrest, or fine, and was enforced by the perceived threat of violence, sometimes realised. Accounts contained multiple instances of physical and sexual assault, presented as abuses of police authority, and described policing as a form of moral punishment. This was largely through non-physical means but was also enforced through physical violence, especially towards transvestite and Roma sex workers, whose experience of police violence was reported as relentless and brutal and connected with broader social forces of discrimination in this setting, especially towards Roma. Conclusion Preventing violence towards sex workers, which can link with vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections, is a priority in Serbia. This requires monitoring perpetrators of violence, providing legal support to sex workers, and creating safer environments for sex work.

2008-01-01

174

Alcohol and drug use in Australian male sex workers: Its relationship to the safety outcome of the sex encounter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the self-reporting patterns of alcohol and drug consumption among male sex workers (MSWs) in three Australian cities during commercial sex encounters, and examines to what extent alcohol and drugs are used and whether this is related to the safe\\/unsafe outcome of the commercial sex encounter. One hundred and eighty-six MSWs from Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne completed a

V. Minichiello; R. Mariño; M. A. Khan; J. Browne

2003-01-01

175

What happens to women who sell sex? Report of a unique occupational cohort  

PubMed Central

Background/objectives Sex work has been seen as both a health and a social problem. However, there is a paucity of evidence on the longer term impact on health. We explored the health and career paths over a period of 15?years among women who have worked in the sex industry. Design A longitudinal study of sex workers recruited between 1986 and 1993 and followed for 15?years. Outcome data were obtained through interview, clinic records, or third parties. Setting Clinic and community settings in London. Participants We obtained outcome data on 130 (37%) of the original cohort of 354 women, with a combined follow up of 1247?years. Main outcome measures Vital status, most recent occupation, duration of sex work, sexually transmitted infections (STI), major health problems. Results The majority (73/124, 59%) were still in the sex industry and had sold sex for a mean of 13.6?years. There were six deaths, a mortality of 4.8 per 1000 person years. Surviving women had a high cumulative risk (110 of 118, 93%) of STI. Past gonorrhoea was associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (RR 2.28, 95% CI 1.12 to 4.66) and infertility (RR 10.9, 95% CI 1.5 to 77.3). Other outcomes included mental health problems (38 of 97, 40%) and addiction (46 of 72, 64%). There were no significant differences in health outcomes between women who were still in the sex industry and those who had stopped. There was a high level of occupational mobility, and 31 women (of 84, 37%) had completed vocational or higher education, including eight to postgraduate level. Conclusions Sex work is associated with excess mortality and morbidity including the sequelae of STI, mental health problems, and substance misuse. The relation between these health problems and sex work is complex.

Ward, H; Day, S

2006-01-01

176

Situating HIV risk in the lives of formerly trafficked female sex workers on the Mexico-US border.  

PubMed

Due to stigma and the psychosocial repercussions of past trauma and abuse, survivors of sex trafficking may experience increased susceptibility to violence, revictimization, and various harmful health outcomes, including HIV infection. Given the paucity of research characterizing the experiences of formerly trafficked female sex workers (FSWs), we set out to describe and contextualize perceptions of HIV risk among women who have experienced past episodes of sex trafficking and who are currently engaged in sex work in Tijuana, Mexico. Based on semi-structured interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, we describe the following interrelated themes as influencing formerly trafficked FSWs' perceptions and experiences of HIV risk: economic vulnerability; susceptibility to violence; and psychological trauma. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention efforts to incorporate broader structural and social interventions aimed at reducing vulnerability to violence and human rights abuses among this population and improving their general economic, psychological, and social well-being. PMID:22963518

Collins, Shane P; Goldenberg, Shira M; Burke, Nancy J; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A

2012-09-11

177

Sexual risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, and intimate partner violence among sex workers in Mongolia: implications for HIV prevention intervention development.  

PubMed

This study examines HIV/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using alcohol before engaging in sex with paying partners; and 38% reported high levels of depression. Focus group findings provide contextual support and narrative descriptions for the ways that poverty, alcohol abuse, interpersonal violence, and cultural norms that stigmatize and marginalize women are intertwined risk factors for STIs, including HIV, among these vulnerable women. PMID:20391057

Witte, Susan S; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Chang, Mingway

2010-04-01

178

Risks for Acquisition of Bacterial Vaginosis Among Women Who Report Sex with Women: A Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in women who have sex with women. While cross-sectional data support a role for sexual transmission, risks for incident BV have not been prospectively studied in this group.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe studied risks for BV acquisition in a prospective cohort study of women (age 16–35 years) who reported sex with other women (?1 partner, prior year). Women

Jeanne M. Marrazzo; Katherine K. Thomas; Tina L. Fiedler; Kathleen Ringwood; David N. Fredricks; Landon Myer

2010-01-01

179

Women and the Future: Changing Sex Roles in Modern America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book identifies, analyzes, and evaluates the changes in the status of women in government, work, the family, and the cultural system. It is intended for persons interested in any aspect of women's studies or sex roles. American women today have a greater voice in politics than at any earlier point in history. But signs of inequality in actual…

Giele, Janet Zollinger

180

Risks and prevention of sexually transmissible infections among women who have sex with women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care providers working with women who have sex with women (WSW) have been ill-informed about a range of sexual health issues for these women. Pertinent issues include sexual behaviours that carry risks of sexually transmissible infection (STI), prevention strategies for safer sex and understanding experiences of abuse. A relative silence continues in all of these areas within the mainstream

Ruth McNair; MINNIS COMMUNICATIONS

2005-01-01

181

Risky behavior in women with history of casual travel sex.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to define epidemiologic and psychosocial characteristics of women with a history of casual travel sex abroad. The participants were 996 women seeking contraceptive advice, of whom 276 admitted that they had experienced casual travel sex. The remaining women served as a comparison group. In structured interviews, questions were asked about educational level, partnerships, reproductive history, contraceptive and drug use, smoking, and psychosocial factors such as wariness, success, and attractiveness. The women who had experienced casual travel sex were more often single, had more often experienced broken relationships, were more often smokers, and used alcohol or cannabis at a higher frequency. Their educational level was higher and a history of induced abortions was more common. The results of this study indicate that women with experience of casual travel sex not only take sexual risks but also take other risks that might represent a danger to their health. PMID:9263363

Arvidson, M; Kallings, I; Nilsson, S; Hellberg, D; Mårdh, P A

1997-08-01

182

Amphetamine-type stimulant use and HIV/STI risk behaviour among young female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background Use of amphetamine-type substances (ATS) has been linked to increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) worldwide. In Cambodia, recent ATS use is independently associated with incident STI infection among young female sex workers (FSW). Methods We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with women (15–29 years old) engaged in sex work to explore ATS use and vulnerability to HIV/STI. Results Participants reported that ATS, primarily methamphetamine in pill and crystalline forms (yama), were cheap, widely available and commonly used. Yama was described as a “power drug” (thnam kamlang) which enabled women to work long hours and serve more customers. Use of ATS by clients was also common, with some providing drugs for women and/or encouraging their use, often resulting in prolonged sexual activity. Requests for unprotected sex were also more common among intoxicated clients and strategies typically employed to negotiate condom use were less effective. Conclusion ATS use was highly functional for young women engaged in sex work, facilitating a sense of power and agency and highlighting the occupational significance and normalization of ATS in this setting. This highly gendered dynamic supports the limited but emerging literature on women’s use of ATS, which to date has been heavily focused on men. Results indicate an urgent need to increase awareness of the risks associated with ATS use, to provide women with alternative and sustainable options for income generation, to better regulate the conditions of sex work, and to work with FSWs and their clients to develop and promote culturally appropriate harm reduction interventions.

Maher, L; Phlong, P; Mooney-Somers, J; Keo, S; Stein, E; Page, K

2011-01-01

183

Puerto Rican Women as Workers and Writers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This theme issue of the "Centro Bulletin" highlights recent studies by and about employed Puerto Rican and Latina women. "La mujer en el Puerto Rico del siglo XIX" (O. Jimenez de Wagenheim), in Spanish, reviews the contributions of women to Puerto Rican economic, political, and social life during the nineteenth century. "Notas sobre el desarrollo…

Vazquez, Blanca, Ed.

1989-01-01

184

Women’s perception about sex selection in an urban slum in Delhi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A strong son preference has been the norm in most of Asian countries. Modern sex-selection technology (although illegal in India) along with traditional methods have led to a skewed sex ratio. Methods: This study attempts to explore slum-dwelling women’s perception regarding the use of sex-selection techniques, both traditional and modern. Forty-two women from three different groups (adolescent, adult and

Neelima Bhagat; Ananya Ray Laskar; Nandini Sharma

2012-01-01

185

Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and performance of STI syndromes against aetiological diagnosis, in female sex workers of red light area in Surat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To measure prevalence of selected sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV among female sex workers (SWs) in the red light area of Surat, India, and to evaluate the performance of STI syndrome guidelines (for general population women in India) in this group against the standard aetio- logical diagnosis of STIs by laboratory methods. Methods: In a cross sectional study,

V K Desai; J K Kosambiya; H G Thakor; D D Umrigar; B R Khandwala; K K Bhuyan

2003-01-01

186

Relationships Between Teenage Smoking and Attitudes Toward Women's Rights, Sex Roles, Marriage, Sex and Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the relationships of cigarette smoking to attitudes toward equal opportunities for women, attitudes toward appropriate roles for women and men, and attitudes toward marriage, sex and family. Our analyses utilize data for white high school seniors from the 1985 Monitoring the Future national survey. Smoking was not related to attitudes toward equal opportunities for women, attitudes toward

Ingrid Waldron; Diane Lye

1990-01-01

187

Violence against Chinese female sex workers in Hong Kong: from understanding to prevention.  

PubMed

Violence against sex workers is considered a global phenomenon. Despite this, very little is known about the patterns and nature of this form of violence. This article is concerned with violence against Chinese female sex workers in Hong Kong. Based on a systematic analysis of 75 police case files, it was found that violent attacks on sex workers display clear temporal and spatial patterns, and that perpetrators share certain characteristics. The article concludes that violence against female sex workers in the Chinese context is largely opportunity driven and goes on to argue that situational measures offer the greatest potential for preventive gains. Barriers to effective implementation such as the inappropriate or unfavourable responses of the government, the police, community leaders, and local residents toward commercial sexual activity are also discussed. PMID:22419521

Li, Jessica C M

2012-03-14

188

Sex Trafficking and Initiation-Related Violence, Alcohol Use, and HIV Risk Among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers in Mumbai, India  

PubMed Central

Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5 participants (41.7%) reported being forced or coerced into sex work. During the first month in sex work, such FSWs had higher odds of sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–6.1), ?7 clients per day (AOR, 3.3; 1.8–6.1), no use of condoms (AOR, 3.8, 2.1–7.1), and frequent alcohol use (AOR, 1.9; 1.0–3.4) than HIV-infected FSWs not entering involuntarily. Those trafficked into sex work were also at higher odds for alcohol use at first sex work episode (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2–4.0). These results suggest that having been trafficked into sex work is prevalent among this population and that such FSWs may face high levels of sexual violence, alcohol use, and exposure to HIV infection in the first month of sex work. Findings call into question harm reduction approaches to HIV prevention that rely primarily on FSW autonomy.

Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M.; Decker, Michele R.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H.

2011-01-01

189

Sex trafficking and initiation-related violence, alcohol use, and HIV risk among HIV-infected female sex workers in Mumbai, India.  

PubMed

Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5 participants (41.7%) reported being forced or coerced into sex work. During the first month in sex work, such FSWs had higher odds of sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-6.1), ? 7 clients per day (AOR, 3.3; 1.8-6.1), no use of condoms (AOR, 3.8, 2.1-7.1), and frequent alcohol use (AOR, 1.9; 1.0-3.4) than HIV-infected FSWs not entering involuntarily. Those trafficked into sex work were also at higher odds for alcohol use at first sex work episode (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). These results suggest that having been trafficked into sex work is prevalent among this population and that such FSWs may face high levels of sexual violence, alcohol use, and exposure to HIV infection in the first month of sex work. Findings call into question harm reduction approaches to HIV prevention that rely primarily on FSW autonomy. PMID:22043037

Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Decker, Michele R; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H

2011-12-01

190

Hepatitis B vaccination in women healthcare workers: A seroepidemiological survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess the concentration and kinetics of antibody response after hepatitis B vaccination among women healthcare workers.\\u000a Design. Longitudinal retrospective seroepidemiological survey among women vaccinated against hepatitis B working in a university\\u000a hospital and followed-up in an occupational health department. A structured form was used to collect socio-demographic characteristics,\\u000a clinical data, age at vaccination, vaccination schedule, measurement of antibodies to

C. Locquet; J.-L. Marande; D. Choudat; G. Vidal-Trecan

2007-01-01

191

20 Facts on Women Workers. Facts on Working Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Of the 108 million women age 16 or over who were part of the 1999 civilian noninstitutional U.S. population, 65 million (about 60%) were either employed or actively looking for work. In 1999, black, white, and Hispanic women participated in the labor force at rates of 63.5%, 59.6%, and 55.9%, respectively. According to projections, women will…

Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

192

Moving beyond safe sex to women-controlled safe sex: A concept analysis  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper is a report of a conceptual analysis of women-controlled safe sex. Background Women bear disproportionate burdens from sexually-related health compromising outcomes. Imbalanced societal gender and power positions contribute to high morbidities. The expression, women-controlled safe sex, aims to empower women to gain control of their sexual lives. Few researchers focus on contextualized socio-cultural definitions of sexual safety among women. Data Sources The sample included scientific literature from Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Sociological Abstracts. Papers were published 2000–2010. Review Methods Critical analyses of literature about women-controlled safe sex were performed using Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis methods. The search focused on social and cultural influences on sexual practices aimed at increasing women’s control over their sexual safety. Results The analysis uncovered five attributes of women-controlled safe sex: technology; access to choices; women at-risk; “condom migration” panic; and communication. Three antecedents included: male partner influence; body awareness; and self-efficacy. Consequences were categorized as positive or negative. Nine surrogate terms included: empowerment; gender power; female-controlled sexual barrier method; microbicides; diaphragm; sexual negotiation and communication; female condom; women-initiated disease transmission prevention; and spermicides. Finally, a consensus definition was identified: a socio- culturally influenced multilevel process for initiating sexual safety by women deemed at-risk for sexually-related dangers, usually sexually transmitted infections and/or HIV/AIDS. Conclusion This concept analysis described current significance, uses, and applications of women-controlled safe sex in the scientific literature. The authors clarified its limited nature and conclude that additional conceptual refinement in nursing is necessary to influence women’s health.

Alexander, Kamila A.; Coleman, Christopher L.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Jemott, Loretta S.

2011-01-01

193

Biological Validation of Self-Reported Condom Use Among Sex Workers in Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-reported condom use may be prone to social desirability bias. Our aim was to assess the validity of self-reported condom\\u000a use in a population of female sex workers using prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a gold standard biomarker of recent unprotected\\u000a vaginal intercourse. We collected data on 223 sex-workers in Conakry, Guinea in order to assess the sensitivity and specificity

Joséphine Aho; Anita Koushik; Soumaïla Laye Diakité; Kovana Marcel Loua; Vinh-Kim Nguyen; Sélim Rashed

2010-01-01

194

Knowledge, risk perceptions and condom usage in male sex workers from three Australian cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study identifies factors associated with knowledge and perception of risk of HIV\\/AIDS, as well as attitudes to and usage of condoms by a sample of male sex workers (MSW). One hundred and eighty-five male sex workers completed a self-reported questionnaire, including knowledge about HIV transmission, attitudes to condom use and perceptions and personal susceptibility to HIV and sexually transmitted

V. Minichiello; R. Mariño; J. Browne

2001-01-01

195

Reducing Intimate and Paying Partner Violence Against Women Who Exchange Sex in Mongolia: Results From a Randomized Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women who exchange sex for money or other goods, that is, female sex workers, are at increased risk of experiencing physical and sexual violence from both paying and intimate partners. Exposure to violence can be exacerbated by alcohol use and HIV\\/STI risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a HIV\\/STI risk reduction and enhanced HIV\\/STI

Catherine E. Carlson; Jiehua Chen; Mingway Chang; Altantsetseg Batsukh; Aira Toivgoo; Marion Riedel; Susan S. Witte

2012-01-01

196

Sex Slaves’ Or ‘sex Workers’? Cross-cultural and Comparative Religious Perspectives on Sexuality, Subjectivity, and Moral Identity in Anti-sex Trafficking Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global trafficking in women and children (primarily girls) for prostitution and sex work has become a multi-billion dollar industry in recent decades, especially in parts of South and Southeast Asia. Despite their common goal to eliminate or diminish the sex trafficking industry and assist the victims, the various entities engaged in anti-sex trafficking efforts have sharply disagreed about a

Lucinda Joy Peach

2005-01-01

197

Improving the Welfare of Women Factory Workers: Lessons from Indonesia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attention to the quality of the working environment for women factory workers can make a real contribution to productivity. The example of an Indonesian project that introduced low-cost workplace improvements and provided health instruction shows the feasibility and effectiveness of such efforts, provided there is a clear commitment from…

White, Mary C.

1990-01-01

198

Sex, gender, and pain: Women and men really are different  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex-related differences in the experience of both clinical and experimentally induced pain have been widely reported. Specifically,\\u000a females are at greater risk for developing several chronic pain disorders, and women exhibit greater sensitivity to noxious\\u000a stimuli in the laboratory compared with men. Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for these sex differences. Psychosocial\\u000a factors such as sex role beliefs,

Roger B. Fillingim

2000-01-01

199

Examining predictors of sex guilt in multiethnic samples of women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that attitudes, including sex guilt, may influence the nature and type of sexual practices in which a person engages. This study examined the relationship of socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity, and religiosity to sex guilt and aspects of sexual permissiveness that relate to sexual attitudes. Subjects were random samples of 126 African American women and 122 white

Gail E. Wyatt; Kristi M. Dunn

1991-01-01

200

Suicidal Behavior Among Female Sex Workers in Goa, India: The Silent Epidemic  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to study suicidal behavior prevalence and its association with social and gender disadvantage, sex work, and health factors among female sex workers in Goa, India. Methods. Using respondent-driven sampling, we recruited 326 sex workers in Goa for an interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding self-harming behaviors, sociodemographics, sex work, gender disadvantage, and health. Participants were tested for sexually transmitted infections. We used multivariate analysis to define suicide attempt determinants. Results. Nineteen percent of sex workers in the sample reported attempted suicide in the past 3 months. Attempts were independently associated with intimate partner violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.38, 5.28), violence from others (AOR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.15, 4.45), entrapment (AOR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.11, 6.83), regular customers (AOR = 3.20; 95% CI = 1.61, 6.35), and worsening mental health (AOR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.11). Lower suicide attempt likelihood was associated with Kannad ethnicity, HIV prevention services, and having a child. Conclusions. Suicidal behaviors among sex workers were common and associated with gender disadvantage and poor mental health. India's widespread HIV-prevention programs for sex workers provide an opportunity for community-based interventions against gender-based violence and for mental health services delivery.

Wayal, Sonali; Cowan, Frances; Mabey, David; Copas, Andrew; Patel, Vikram

2009-01-01

201

Risk behaviours among internet-facilitated sex workers: evidence from two new datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex workers have historically played a central role in STI outbreaks by forming a core group for transmission and due to their higher rates of concurrency and inconsistent condom usage. Over the past 15 years, North American commercial sex markets have been radically reorganised by internet technologies that channelled a sizeable share of the marketplace online. These changes may have

Scott Cunningham; Todd D Kendall

2010-01-01

202

Alcohol and condom use among HIV-positive and HIV-negative female sex workers in Nagaland, India.  

PubMed

This study examines the relationship between alcohol use, HIV status, and condom use among female sex workers in Nagaland, India. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2009, using descriptive and multivariate statistics. Out of 417 female sex workers, one-fifth used alcohol daily and one-tenth were HIV-positive. HIV-positive female sex workers were more likely than HIV-negative female sex workers to consume alcohol daily (30.2% vs. 18.0%). HIV-positive daily alcohol users reported lower condom use at last sex with regular clients compared to HIV-positive non-daily alcohol users (46.2% vs. 79.3%), a relationship not evident among HIV-negative female sex workers. There is a need to promote awareness of synergies between alcohol use and HIV, and to screen for problematic alcohol use among female sex workers in order to reduce the spread of HIV. PMID:23970581

Nuken, Amenla; Kermode, Michelle; Saggurti, Niranjan; Armstrong, Greg; Medhi, Gajendra Kumar

2013-07-19

203

Single-Sex Schooling and Women's Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rarely when single-sex Catholic secondary schools convert to coed school organization is the potential loss of gender-specific benefits addressed. Since the movement to coeducation is seldom accompanied by the return of a "converted" school to single-sex status, the incalculable loss to the traditional gender diversity of school organization is…

Bauch, Patricia A.

204

The Sex of Class: Women Transforming American Labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] This book too is about class. It details the rise of class inequalities in the United States, and it offer portraits of the new labor movements that are arising in response. But is also about the sex of class. It is about the feminization of work and workers and the continued reluctance of those who study class and who

Dorothy Sue Cobble

2007-01-01

205

Central & Eastern Europe and Central Asia: police raids and violence put sex workers at risk of HIV.  

PubMed

In most of the countries of Central & Eastern Europe and Central Asia, sex workers report very high levels of abuse from police, particularly in the context of police raids. In this article, based on an oral presentation at the conference, the Sex Workers' Rights Advocacy Network (SWAN) report on the results of a study conducted among sex workers in several countries in the region. The authors make the link between police violence and general violence, and between violence against sex workers and vulnerability to HIV infection. The authors advance a number of recommendations, including that sex work be decriminalized. PMID:19297766

Crago, A L; Rakhmetova, A; Karadafov, M; Islamova, S; Maslova, I

2008-12-01

206

Sex role identity and sex-stereotyped tasks in the development of learned helplessness in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

80 undergraduate females participated in a study investigating the relation of sex-role identity and sex-stereotyped tasks to the development of learned helplessness in women. Half of the Ss from 4 sex-role identity groups received bogus feedback and were forced to fail on a concept formation task described to them as either a male- or female-stereotyped task; the other 40 Ss

Donald H. Baucom; Pamela Danker-Brown

1984-01-01

207

'We are despised in the hospitals': sex workers' experiences of accessing health care in four African countries.  

PubMed

Sex workers in east and southern Africa are exposed to multiple occupational health and safety risks. Detailed understanding of barriers to accessing care would optimise design of improved services for this population. In this study, trained sex workers conducted 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with 106 female, 26 male and 4 transgender sex workers across 6 urban sites in Kenya, Zimbabwe, Uganda and South Africa. Data were analysed thematically, following an interpretive framework. Participants cited numerous unmet health needs, including diagnosis and treatment for sexually transmitted infections and insufficient access to condoms and lubricant. Denial of treatment for injuries following physical assault or rape and general hostility from public-sector providers was common. Resources permitting, many sex workers attended private services, citing higher quality and respect for dignity and confidentiality. Sex workers in southern Africa accessed specialised sex worker clinics, reporting mostly positive experiences. Across sites, participants called for additional targeted services, but also sensitisation and training of public-sector providers. Criminalisation of sex workers and associated stigmatisation, particularly of transgender and male sex workers, hinder HIV-prevention efforts and render access to mainstream healthcare precarious. Alongside law reform, sex worker-led peer outreach work should be strengthened and calls by sex workers for additional targeted services heeded. PMID:23414116

Scorgie, Fiona; Nakato, Daisy; Harper, Eric; Richter, Marlise; Maseko, Sian; Nare, Prince; Smit, Jenni; Chersich, Matthew

2013-02-18

208

Relationship of Sex Guilt and Moral Reasoning to Premarital Sex in College Women and in Couples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiment I assessed 119 unmarried college women with regard to sex behavior, sex guilt, and moral reasoning. Experiment II assessed 76 unmarried college couples on the same variables. The pattern of results suggests that the male partner is more influential than the female in setting standards for the couple. (Author)

D'Augelli, Judith Frankel; Cross, Herbert J.

1975-01-01

209

Sex-Role Stereotypes of Women in Australian Magazine Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a survey of the sex-role stereotypes portrayed by women in Australian magazine advertising are presented so that a profile of the interface between women and print media advertising can be documented. With recourse to such actual survey findings advertisers, management, public policy makers, and social commentators are then in a better position to create informed opinions regarding the

Grahame R. Dowling

1978-01-01

210

Seriously Mentally Ill Women’s Safer Sex Behaviors and the Theory of Reasoned Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seriously mentally ill women at risk for HIV infection (n = 96) participated in structured interviews assessing sexual and substance-use behavior over a 3-month period. The majority of the women (63.5%) did not use condoms. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, attitudes toward condom use and perceived social norms about safer sex were associated with safer sex intentions. Supplementing

Mary E. Randolph; Steven D. Pinkerton; Anton M. Somlai; Jeffrey A. Kelly; Timothy L. McAuliffe; Richard H. Gibson; Kristin Hackl

2009-01-01

211

The association between sex segregation, working conditions, and sickness absence among employed women  

PubMed Central

Methods: The study group consisted of 1075 women employed as nurses, assistant nurses, medical secretaries, or metal workers who answered a questionnaire comprising 218 questions on women's health and living conditions. Sickness absence was collected from employers' and social insurance registers. Results: Women working in the male dominated occupation had in general higher sickness absence compared to those working in female dominated occupations. However, metal workers at female dominated work sites had 2.98 (95% CI 2.17 to 3.79) sick-leave spells per woman and year compared to 1.70 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.10) among those working with almost only men. In spite of a better physical work environment, female metal workers at a female dominated work site had a higher sickness absence than other women, which probably could be explained by the worse psychosocial work environment. Working with more women also had a positive association to increased frequency of sick-leave spells in a multivariate analysis including several known indicators of increased sick-leave. Conclusions: There was an association between sickness absence and sex segregation, in different directions at the occupational and work site level. The mechanism behind this needs to be more closely understood regarding selection in and out of an occupation and a certain work site.

Hensing, G; Alexanderson, K

2004-01-01

212

Bedford v. Canada: a paradigmatic case toward ensuring the human and health rights of sex workers.  

PubMed

The Criminal Code of Canada prohibits certain aspects of sex work: the keeping of a common bawdy-house, living off the avails of prostitution and communicating for the purposes of prostitution in a public place. These legal constraints impede sex workers' ability to practise their profession safely and without risk to their bodily integrity; they also impair their personal autonomy and can lead to their stigmatization. Bedford v. Canada is a groundbreaking case, since the applicants and intervening organizations seek to overturn aspects of Canadian law that specifically put the health and human rights of sex workers at risk. PMID:22165257

Galldin, Karin; Robertson, Leslie; Wiseman, Charlene

2011-10-01

213

HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of female sex workers in Chiang Rai, Thailand  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To determine demographic and behavioural factors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) associated with prevalent HIV-1 infection among brothel based and other female sex workers (FSWs) in Chiang Rai, northern Thailand. METHODS: Data were collected from questionnaires, physical examinations, and laboratory evaluations on Thai FSWs enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Chiang Rai, Thailand, from 1991 to the end of 1994. RESULTS: HIV-1 seroprevalence was 32% among 500 women: 47% for 280 brothel workers and 13% for 220 other FSWs (p < 0.001); 96% of infections were due to HIV-1 subtype E. At enrolment, other STIs were common: chlamydia, 20%; gonorrhoea, 15%; active syphilis (serological diagnosis), 9%; genital ulcer, 12%; seroreactivity to Haemophilus ducreyi, 21%, and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), 76%. On multiple logistic regression analysis, HIV-1 was associated with brothel work, birth in upper northern Thailand, initiation of commercial sex at < 15 years of age, syphilis, HSV-2 seropositivity, and genital ulcer. CONCLUSIONS: Young Thai FSWs working in brothels in northern Thailand in the early phase of the HIV epidemic have been at very high risk for HIV-1 infection and several other STIs. Programmes are needed to prevent girls and young women from entering the sex industry and to reduce the risk of infection with HIV-1 and other STIs. ???

Limpakarnjanarat, K.; Mastro, T. D.; Saisorn, S.; Uthaivoravit, W.; Kaewkungwal, J.; Korattana, S.; Young, N. L.; Morse, S. A.; Schmid, D. S.; Weniger, B. G.; Nieburg, P.

1999-01-01

214

[Characteristics of a population of sex workers and their association with the presence of sexually transmitted diseases].  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to describe a population of sex workers considering their sociodemographic characteristics, gyneco-obstetric history and behavioral factors, and to verify the association of these characteristics with the presence of sexually transmitted diseases. This epidemiological cross-sectional study was performed with 102 female sex workers. Data were collected using structured interviews and gold-standard exams for diagnosis of the diseases of interest. The women's mean age was 26.1 years. Most of them had attended school for nine years or more, were single and reported becoming sexually active before 15 years of age. Performing oral sex on partners was cited by 90.2% of women, and 99% reported the use of condoms at work; only 26.3% used condoms with permanent partners, and 42.2% used illicit drugs. No association was observed between sociodemographic factors, gyneco-obstetric history or behavioral factors and sexually transmitted diseases, which may have been due to their educational status and the fact that the population had very similar characteristics, thus making it difficult to determine such associations. PMID:23018397

Dal Pogetto, Maíra Rodrigues Baldin; Marcelino, Larissa Doddi; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães; Parada, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima

2012-08-01

215

Truck drivers, middlemen and commercial sex workers: AIDS and the mediation of sex in south west Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although long distance truck drivers have been implicated in the spread of HIV in Africa, there is a paucity of studies of their sexual cultures. This paper reports on a study of the sexual culture of drivers, mediators and commercial sex workers (CSWs) in a roadside truck stop on the Trans-Africa highway in south west Uganda. Sixty-nine truck drivers, six

M. Gysels; R. Pool; K. Bwanika

2001-01-01

216

Utilisation of sexual health services by female sex workers in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background The Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) in 2006 showed that more than half (56%) of the women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, in Nepal sought sexual health services. There is no such data for female sex workers (FSWs) and the limited studies on this group suggest they do not even use routine health services. This study explores FSWs use of sexual health services and the factors associated with their use and non-use of services. Methods This study aimed to explore the factors associated with utilisation of sexual health services by FSWs in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, and it used a mixed-method approach consisting of an interviewer administered questionnaire-based survey and in-depth interviews. Results The questionnaire survey, completed with 425 FSWs, showed that 90% FSWs self-reported sickness, and (30.8%) reported symptoms of STIs. A quarter (25%) of those reporting STIs had never visited any health facilities especially for sexual health services preferring to use non-governmental clinics (72%), private clinics (50%), hospital (27%) and health centres (13%). Multiple regression analysis showed that separated, married and street- based FSWs were more likely to seek health services from the clinics or hospitals. In- depth interviews with 15 FSWs revealed that FSWs perceived that personal, structural and socio-cultural barriers, such as inappropriate clinic opening hours, discrimination, the judgemental attitude of the service providers, lack of confidentiality, fear of public exposure, and higher fees for the services as barriers to their access and utilisation of sexual health services. Conclusion FSWs have limited access to information and to health services, and operate under personal, structural and socio-cultural constraints. The 'education' to change individual behaviour, health worker and community perceptions, as well as the training of the health workers, is necessary.

2011-01-01

217

HIV knowledge, risk perception, and safer sex practices among female sex workers in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea  

PubMed Central

Sex workers are considered a high-risk group for sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and are often targeted by prevention interventions with safer sex messages. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which knowledge of HIV and perception of risk influence safer sex practices among female sex workers (FSWs) in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. FSWs (n = 174) were recruited from 19 sites to participate in the study. Qualitative data were collected using semistructured interviews with FSWs (n = 142) through focus group discussions and (n = 32) individual interviews. In addition, quantitative data were collected from all FSWs using a short structured, demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using recurring themes and calculations of confidence intervals. Despite some common misperceptions, overall, most FSWs were basically aware of the risks of HIV and informed about transmission and prevention modalities but used condoms inconsistently. Most reported using condoms ‘sometimes’, almost one-sixth ‘never’ used condoms, only a fraction used condoms ‘always’ with clients, and none used condoms ‘always’ with regular sexual partners (RSPs). Among these FSWs, being knowledgeable about the risks, transmission, and prevention of HIV did not translate into safe sex. The findings suggest that certain contextual barriers to safer sex practices exist. These barriers could heighten HIV vulnerability and possibly may be responsible for infection in FSWs. Specific interventions that focus on improving condom self-efficacy in FSWs and simultaneously target clients and RSPs with safer sex messages are recommended.

Bruce, Eunice; Bauai, Ludwina; Sapuri, Mathias; Kaldor, John M; Fairley, Christopher K; Keogh, Louise A

2011-01-01

218

Contraception and condom use among Bolivian female sex workers: relationship-specific associations between disease prevention and family planning behaviors.  

PubMed

We examined data from a clinic-based survey of 1,222 Bolivian female sex workers (FSWs) to assess whether use of nonbarrier modern contraception is associated with less consistent condom use with clients and noncommercial partners. Women who were using nonbarrier modern contraception were less likely than nonusers to consistently use condoms with noncommercial partners (AOR 0.393, 95% CI 0.203-0.759, p = .005). With clients, this inverse association did not hold. Public health professionals must consider both disease prevention and pregnancy prevention needs in this vulnerable population, and messages should be tailored to encourage dual method use with all partners. PMID:23394324

Yam, Eileen A; Tinajeros, Freddy; Revollo, Rita; Richmond, Kara; Kerrigan, Deanna L; Garcia, Sandra G

2013-01-01

219

Partner Status Influences Women's Interest in the Opposite Sex  

PubMed Central

Previous research has demonstrated that hormones, relationship goals, and social context influence interest in the opposite sex. It has not been previously reported, however, whether having a current sexual partner also influences interest in members of the opposite sex. To test this, we obtained explicit and implicit measures of interest by measuring men’s and women’s subjective ratings and response times while they evaluated photos of opposite-sex faces. Fifty-nine men and 56 women rated 510 photos of opposite-sex faces for realism, masculinity, attractiveness, or affect. We found that these subjective ratings were not influenced by partner status in either men or women. However, women who did not report having a current sexual partner spent more time evaluating the photos than women who did have partners, demonstrating greater interest in the photos. Sexual partner status did not predict men’s response times. These findings may reveal that relationship commitment in women suppresses interest in alternative partners.

Rupp, Heather; Librach, Giliah R.; Feipel, Nick C.; Ketterson, Ellen D.; Sengelaub, Dale R.; Heiman, Julia R.

2009-01-01

220

Women Who Report Having Sex With Women: British National Probability Data on Prevalence, Sexual Behaviors, and Health Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We estimated the prevalence of same-sex experience among women and compared women reporting sex with women and men and women reporting sex exclusively with women with women reporting sex exclusively with men, in terms of sociodemographics and sexual, reproductive, and general health risk behaviors and outcomes. Methods. We used a British probability survey (n=6399 women, aged 16 to 44 years) conducted from 1999 to 2001 with face-to-face interviewing and computer-assisted self-interviewing. Results. We found that 4.9% of the women reported same-sex partner(s) ever; 2.8% reported sex with women in the past 5 years (n=178); 85.0% of these women also reported male partner(s) in this time. Compared with women who reported sex exclusively with men, women who reported sex with women and men reported significantly greater male partner numbers, unsafe sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, and intravenous drug use and had an increased likelihood of induced abortion and sexually transmitted infection diagnoses (age-adjusted odds ratios=3.07 and 4.41, respectively). Conclusions. For women, a history of sex with women may be a marker for increased risk of adverse sexual, reproductive, and general health outcomes compared with women who reported sex exclusively with men. A nonjudgmental review of female patients’ sexual history should help practitioners discuss risks that women may face.

Mercer, Catherine H.; Bailey, Julia V.; Johnson, Anne M.; Erens, Bob; Wellings, Kaye; Fenton, Kevin A.; Copas, Andrew J.

2007-01-01

221

Cohort-level sex ratio effects on women’s labor force participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It follows from a number of theoretical models of marriage that the scarcer women are relative to men, i.e., the higher the\\u000a sex ratio, the less married women are likely to participate in the labor force. Such sex ratio effects may be stronger among\\u000a less educated women. These predictions are tested using individual data from Current Population Surveys for four

Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes; Shoshana Grossbard

2007-01-01

222

Healthcare worker’s perceptions of barriers to care by immigrant women with postpartum depression: an exploratory qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Objective: We interviewed healthcare workers working in Toronto, Canada, regarding their experience of providing care to recent immigrant\\u000a women suffering from postpartum depression. The objective was two-fold: 1) to identify potential barriers to care that recent\\u000a immigrant women may encounter as perceived by healthcare workers; and 2) to identify challenges healthcare workers felt that\\u000a they faced as providers of

L. Teng; E. Robertson Blackmore; D. E. Stewart

2007-01-01

223

Rates and determinants of HIV-attributable mortality among rural female sex workers in Northern Karnataka, India.  

PubMed

Female sex workers (FSWs) have among the highest rates of HIV infection in India. However, little is known about their HIV-specific mortality rates. In total, 1561 FSWs participated in a cohort study in Karnataka. Outcome data (mortality) were available on 1559 women after 15 months of follow-up. To gather details on deaths, verbal autopsy (VA) questionnaires were administered to key informants. Two physicians reviewed the VA reports and assigned underlying causes of death. Forty-seven deaths were reported during the follow-up (overall mortality rate was 2.44 per 100 person-years), with VA data available on 45 women. Thirty-five (75.6%) of these women were known to be HIV-positive, but only 42.5% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Forty deaths were assessed to be HIV-related, for an HIV-attributable mortality rate of 2.11 deaths per 100 person-years. Absence of a current regular partner (incidence rate ratio: 2.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39-5.60) and older age (1.06; 1.01-1.11) were associated with increased HIV-attributable mortality. Reported duration in sex work was not related to HIV-attributable mortality. We found a high HIV-related mortality rate among this cohort of FSWs; nearly 10 times that of national mortality rates among women of a similar age group. Older age, but not reported duration in sex work, was associated with increased mortality, and suggests HIV acquisition prior to self-reported initiation into sex work. Despite significant efforts, there remain considerable gaps in HIV prevention near or before entry into sex work, as well as access and uptake of HIV treatment among FSWs. PMID:22362685

Becker, M L; Mishra, S; Satyanarayana; Gurav, K; Doshi, M; Buzdugan, R; Pise, G; Halli, S; Moses, S; Avery, L; Washington, R G; Blanchard, J F

2012-01-01

224

Factors Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infection Underreporting Among Female Sex Workers in China  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To examine the underreporting of sexually transmitted infections (STI) (i.e., no STI by self-report but have at least one STI through biological testing or clinical examination) and factors associated with underreporting among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. Methods A total of 454 FSWs were recruited from entertainment establishments in a rural county of Guangxi, China. Participants completed a self-administered survey about their demographic and working characteristics, history of STI (past or current infections), sexual history and practices, and HIV/STI-related knowledge and perceptions; 411 of the sample were also tested for syphilis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Chlamydia, Trichomonas, and genital warts. Results About 18% (79 of 411) of the sample reported a history of STI (past or current infections). Biological testing or clinical examination revealed at least one STI (acute STI) for 42% (171 of 411) of the sample. Only 9% (37 of 411) of FSWs with acute STI reported an STI through self-report, which resulted in 33% (134 of 411) of FSWs who were considered underreporting their STI. STI underreporting was independently associated with younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76-0.99), a shorter duration of commercial sex (aOR 0.97, 95% CI 0.94-0.99), poorer knowledge of STI (aOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.94), and less sexual risks (aOR 0.52, 95% CI 0.41-0.66). Conclusions Underreporting of STI was prevalent in FSWs, especially among women with perceived lower STI risks. The underreporting might be largely due to their perception of low risks for STI and unawareness of STI symptoms (including asymptomatic STIs). Future studies of FSWs should identify those new in commercial sex with lower STI awareness and perceived risks and encourage them to seek timely and appropriate testing and treatment.

Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Yuejiao; Zhao, Ran; Li, Xiaoming

2011-01-01

225

Evidence for adverse reproductive outcomes among women microelectronic assembly workers.  

PubMed Central

Microelectronics assembly entails complex processes where several potentially fetotoxic chemical compounds are used extensively. This study was undertaken to assess the potential adverse reproductive outcomes among former women workers in a microelectronics assembly plant in New Mexico with respect to a comparable population from the same geographical region and to examine the relation between these outcomes and employment history in this plant. After matching a pool of 143 former microelectronic female workers and 105 referents, 90 former microelectronic female worker-referent pairs were constituted (representing 302 and 324 pregnancies in former workers and referents respectively). The odds ratio (for pair matching design) of spontaneous abortion among women workers, before beginning to assemble microelectronic components, was 0.9 (chi 2 = 0.04; NS). After the beginning of employment this odds ratio became 5.6 (chi 2 = 9.8; p less than 1%). This estimated odds ratio decreased to 4.0, taking into account the increased risk for spontaneous abortion in previous pregnancies before employment (chi 2 = 5.4; p less than 5%). It was not possible to determine if this effect was reversible owing to the small number of pairs available after employment. The findings of this study corroborate the results of former studies that suggest a potential association between electronic manufacturing activity and risk of spontaneous abortion. Although the organic solvents were suspected of being the potential risk factor, this study was inconclusive from this point of view. Nevertheless, these investigations may provide some insight into reproductive outcomes among female workers exposed to solvents.

Huel, G; Mergler, D; Bowler, R

1990-01-01

226

The Use of Female Commercial Sex Workers' Services by Latino Day Laborers  

PubMed Central

This article reports the characteristics of Latino day laborers who have sex with female commercial sex workers (CSWs). A sample of 450 day laborers in Los Angeles was utilized. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association of independent variables with the likelihood of having sex with a CSW. Overall, 26% of the 450 day laborers reported having had sex with a CSW in the previous 12 months. A lower likelihood of having sex with a CSW was found for those with more than six years of education and for those who were married and living with their spouses. A higher likelihood of having sex with a CSW was found for those who met the criteria for harmful drinking or drug dependence. Commercial sex work has been associated with sexually transmitted infections and other problems among clients of CSWs and warrants further attention by providers working with day laborers.

Galvan, Frank H.; Ortiz, Daniel J.; Martinez, Victor; Bing, Eric G.

2010-01-01

227

Genital human papillomavirus infection in women who have sex with women: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual transmission of human papillomavirus between women has been postulated on the basis of reports of abnormal Papanicolaou smears in women who reported no prior sex with men and by studies using amplified deoxyribonucleic acid technology for human papillomavirus detection. To review the current knowledge of the epidemiology of human papillomavirus and the Papanicolaou smear screening practices among women who

Jeanne M. Marrazzo; Kathleen Stine; Laura A. Koutsky

2000-01-01

228

Health outcomes among women trafficked for sex in the United States: a closer look.  

PubMed

Human trafficking is recognized as a major public health problem and a tragic transnational crime. Little is known about the health outcomes of victims of human trafficking. This study identifies the relationship of risk factors to physical, sexual, and mental health outcomes in three groups of women (N = 38) exploited for sex in the United States: international trafficking victims, domestic trafficking victims, and nontrafficked sex workers. To date this is the first study to examine the impact of risk factors on health outcomes using a sample of women trafficked for sex in the United States that includes both domestic and international victims. Overall, findings suggest that the experiences in sex work of domestic trafficking victims were dissimilar to those of international trafficking victims. Moreover, domestic trafficking victims displayed poorer health outcomes compared to international trafficking victims. In terms of risk factors, a higher percentage of women involved in street prostitution reported sexual health problems, co-occurring health issues, and addiction. Childhood physical/sexual victimization was related to poor physical health. PMID:23295378

Muftic, Lisa R; Finn, Mary A

2013-01-06

229

Offspring sex ratio in women with android body fat distribution.  

PubMed

The relationship between waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), several behavioral factors, and the number of male and female offspring was examined in a sample of 69 women. Two questions were examined: (1) Are hormonal differences, as indicated by differences in the WHR, associated with offspring sex ratio? and (2) are there any behavioral factors, such as coital frequency or orgasm, that are associated with offspring sex ratio? After statistically controlling for subject's age, socioeconomic status, and total number of offspring, we found that women with a higher WHR tended to have more sons than daughters. In addition, women who reported greater ease of having multiple orgasms also tended to have more sons than daughters. The results thus support both a hormonal and a behavioral influence on offspring sex ratio. PMID:9198313

Singh, D; Zambarano, R J

1997-08-01

230

Acceptability of Hypothetical Microbicides among Women in Sex Establishments in Rural Areas in Southern China  

PubMed Central

Objectives and Goal The objectives of this study were to measure the potential acceptability of a hypothetical microbicide among women in sex establishments in rural areas of Southern China, and demographic, behavioral and social context factors likely to affect microbicide acceptability. Study Design This was a cross-sectional survey, using a quota sampling, among 300 women from sex establishments in three rural towns. An interviewer-administered standardized questionnaire was used to measure the acceptability score of hypothetical microbicides’ characteristics, as well as sexual relationships and behaviors, and other contextual factors. Results Findings showed a generally positive response to microbicides, indicated by an acceptability index score of 2.89 (SD, 0.56, scale of 1–4) in the overall sample. Multivariate analysis shows the acceptability score varied significantly by study sites, type of sex-work establishments, marital status, sex partner type, vaginal product experience, locus of control by partners and locus of control by chance. Conclusions Microbicides may be acceptable among sex workers in rural settings in China; however, contextual factors should be carefully considered in education and promotion of microbicides in the future.

Wang, Yu; Liao, Su-Su; Weeks, Margaret R.; Jiang, Jing-Mei; Abbott, Maryann; Zhou, Yue-Jiao; He, Bin; Liu, Wei; Mosack, Katie E.

2010-01-01

231

Is the partnership gap closing for women? Cohort differences in the sex gap in partnership chances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper test predictions from three social science explanations as to how sex differences in attainment of partnership and how women’s perceptions of sex discrimination should have changed as women have been integrated into law. Men’s and women’s partnership rates 15years after graduation and women’s reports of sex discrimination are compared for two cohorts of University of Michigan Law School

Mary C. Noonan; Mary E. Corcoran; Paul N. Courant

2008-01-01

232

Community-based HIV and STI prevention in women working in indoor sex markets.  

PubMed

Community research into women's experiences in the indoor commercial sex industry illustrated an urgent need for sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV education, prevention, testing, and treatment and culturally appropriate services to support the sexual and reproductive health of commercial sex workers (CSWs). This work also revealed that a high number of immigrant--primarily Asian--women are involved in the indoor sex industry. In response, the authors developed a community-academic research partnership to design and implement a blended outreach research program to provide STI and HIV prevention interventions for indoor CSWs and their clients. This Community Health Worker Model HIV Prevention and Health Promotion Program incorporated health education, primary care referrals, STI testing using self-swab techniques, and a point-of-care HIV screening test. Here the authors report on program implementation, design, and the experiences of participants and team members and provide research and vaccination recommendations for future work in this area. This work work affirms that community-based service providers can be a key entry point for indoor CSWs to access health care and sexual health promotion and education and may be a solution to missed opportunities to provide culturally and contextually appropriate education and services to this population. PMID:22885289

Bungay, Vicky; Kolar, Kat; Thindal, Soni; Remple, Valencia P; Johnston, Caitlin L; Ogilvie, Gina

2012-08-10

233

Peer education reaches young women factory workers in Thailand.  

PubMed

In Thailand, the International Center for Research on Women conducted a study comparing the effect of various HIV/AIDS prevention activities on never-married women 14-24 years old who migrated to Chiang Mai to work in the export garment industry. These young women are very vulnerable to HIV/AIDS because they are freed from traditional norms and exposed to urban peer pressure. However, focus groups revealed that the women did not consider themselves at risk and feared negative reactions if they tried to discuss condoms with their boyfriends (who would equate knowledge with prior sexual experience). Among the interventions were a comic book which couched condom negotiation information in humorous terms and a romantic novel about a factory worker diagnosed with HIV. For 3 months trained peer leaders and health promoters led weekly educational sessions that included role-play. All participants were given a certificate noting that they had completed an AIDS education course. This certificate enabled the young women to broach the subject of AIDS with their boyfriends, their families, and their friends. The project improved their communication skills, their self-confidence, and their perceptions of risk. The most significant improvements were found among the women enrolled in the groups facilitated by peer leaders. Even though the peer leaders were not as knowledgeable as the health promoters, the peer leaders were more sensitive to the needs of the women and more capable of leading group discussions and participatory learning activities. PMID:12288826

Cash, K

1993-12-01

234

Prevalence and correlates of HIV unsafe sex and STIs among women working in China's entertainment industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female entertainment workers in China are at risk of sexually acquiring HIV, but risk factors of their unsafe sex remain understudied. Using information from a venue-based sample of 724 female entertainment workers in Shanghai, this paper examines the prevalence and risk factors of unsafe sex and STIs. While both measures of unsafe sex and history of common STIs suggest that

Xiushi Yang

2011-01-01

235

Transactional sex risk and STI among HIV-infected female sex workers and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

To describe sex risk behaviors of HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs) and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs, to evaluate associations between risky transactional sex and number of unprotected transactional sex episodes, and to assess the association between unprotected transactional sex and self-reported sexually transmitted infection (STI). Adult HIV-infected FSWs (n=211) and HIV-infected male clients (n=205) were surveyed in Mumbai about

Anita Raj; N. Saggurti; Debbie M. Cheng; Anindita Dasgupta; Carly Bridden; Manojkumar Pradeshi; J. H. Samet

2011-01-01

236

Enumeration of sex workers in the central business district of Nairobi, Kenya.  

PubMed

Accurate program planning for populations most at risk for HIV/STI acquisition requires knowledge of the size and location where these populations can best be reached. To obtain this information for sex workers operating at 137 hotspots in the central business district (CBD) in Nairobi, Kenya, we utilized a combined mapping and capture-recapture enumeration exercise. The majority of identified hotspots in this study were bars. Based on this exercise, we estimate that 6,904 male and female sex workers (95% confidence intervals, 6690 and 7118) were working nightly in the Nairobi CBD in April 2009. Wide ranges of captures per spot were obtained, suggesting that relatively few hot spots (18%) contain a relatively high proportion of the area's sex workers (65%). We provide geographic data including relatively short distances from hotspots to our dedicated sex worker outreach program in the CBD (mean<1 km), and clustering of hotspots within a relatively small area. Given the size covered and areas where sex work is likely taking place in Nairobi, the estimate is several times lower than what would be obtained if the entire metropolitan area was enumerated. These results have important practical and policy implications for enhancing HIV/STI prevention efforts. PMID:23372713

Kimani, Joshua; McKinnon, Lyle R; Wachihi, Charles; Kusimba, Judith; Gakii, Gloria; Birir, Sarah; Muthui, Mercy; Kariri, Anthony; Muriuki, Festus K; Muraguri, Nicholas; Musyoki, Helgar; Ball, T Blake; Kaul, Rupert; Gelmon, Lawrence

2013-01-25

237

Determinants of intention to use condoms among clients of female sex workers in Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine factors influencing intention of condom use among 378 clients of female sex workers (FSWs) visiting commercial sex sites in St-Marc and Gonaives, Haiti. Mean age of the study participants was 24 years. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, behaviors, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs. Seventy-four

Marie-Claude Couture; Julio C. Soto; Gerard Joseph; Maria-Victoria Zunzunegui

2010-01-01

238

Women, sex and marriage. Restraint as a feminine strategy.  

PubMed

The expression of sexuality varies in different cultures, and most societies attempt to control sexuality through the institution of marriage. In the West, the availability of cheap, effective contraceptives separated sex from reproduction and promoted the sexual liberation of women. Today, while divorce is common, sexually liberated people nevertheless engage in a form of serial monogamy. Sexual liberation in the West causes women to be exploited by men and creates instability in nuclear families. In India, feminism is tempered by a belief that familial rights have precedence over individual rights. India women practice sexual self-denial after being widowed to protect their children and to gain power and respect in the community. The power of chastity was illustrated by Mahatma Gandhi who marshalled his spiritual forces to fight for independence. The stories of many individual women illustrate how they attain status and prestige through chastity. Other women maintain absolute marital faithfulness as a marital strategy to control wayward husbands. These women deemphasize their roles as wives and emphasize their roles as mothers. The children of such women often recognize their sacrifices and become their strongest allies. On the other hand, examples of women who have chosen sexual freedom show that such a choice places them at the mercy of men, makes them social outcasts, and causes other women to distrust them as competitors for their husbands. In patriarchal societies, women can not win if they try to mimic men's capacity for irresponsible sex. Sexual freedom can only work for women in matrilineal communities that shun marriage in favor of strong ties within a woman's natal family. Indian women rooted in the extended family enjoy the resilience and flexibility attendant upon playing a larger role than simply pleasing men. Opting for sexual restraint can be an effective though costly strategy to achieve the sympathy and support of an extended family when a man is being sexually irresponsible. PMID:12348107

Kishwar, M

239

The voices of sex workers (prostitues?) and the dilemma of feminist discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of prostitution has been a longtime concern for many societies. It has also been a complicated issue within feminist discourse. Some women choose sex work as a viable economic option while others are forced into prostitution by traffickers and pimps and some are forced into it due to disadvantaged circumstances. The presence of sex work and prostitution is

Justine L Kessler

2005-01-01

240

A Profile of HIV Risk Factors in the Context of Sex Work Environments among Migrant Female Sex Workers in Beijing, China  

PubMed Central

Migrant female sex workers (FSWs) are one of the most at-risk populations for HIV in China. This study demonstrates how multiple risk factors are situated and vary by types of sex work environments in a sample of 348 migrant FSWs in Beijing. Participants reported high rates of clients' refusal to use condoms (76%), unsafe sex with both clients (32%), non-paid regular partners (e.g., boyfriend or husband) (76%), and a STI symptom (79%) last year. Only 22% of FSWs had been tested for HIV. Risk factors were compared by three types of sex work environments: (1) entertainment establishments, (2) personal services sectors, and (3) street-based venues, including roadside brothels. Street-based FSWs, compared to the other FSWs, were more likely to be older, married with children, migrate from rural areas, and be arrested by police, and less likely to be educated, have contact with prevention services, be knowledgeable about HIV, and be tested for HIV. The FSWs in entertainment establishments were more likely than street-based FSWs to have reported being physically, verbally, and/or sexually abused by clients. Multiple discriminant analysis distinguished a profile of two different groups of risk factors: (1) police arrest, lack of protection from violence, access to prevention and health care, and HIV knowledge, and (2) verbal and physical abuse and clients' refusal of condom use. In the massive internal migration in China, disadvantages in economic sectors drive women to become involved in sex work. HIV prevention strategies must target socio-structural factors embedded in sex work environments.

Yi, Huso; Mantell, Joanne E.; Wu, Rongrong; Lu, Zhao; Zeng, Jing; Wan, Yanhai

2010-01-01

241

Sex roles and unwanted pregnancy in adolescent and adult women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the stresses of unwanted pregnancy for women, their partners and families, and health professionals. Psychologists are considered capable of reducing the likelihood of unwanted pregnancy as well as contributing to a constructive resolution of the crisis. Factors that are often associated with contraceptive use and nonuse are highlighted. It is also shown that socialization in traditional sex roles contributes

Nancy E. Adler

1981-01-01

242

Men's and women's responses to sex role portrayals in advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the emotions evoked with the audience by advertisements featuring female and male models in different sex roles? Do women and men differ in their emotional and attitudinal response? And how do consumer a priori attitudes towards stereotyped portrayals affect advertising effectiveness? These and related questions are addressed in this paper by examining consumer response to magazine advertisements for

Ulrich R Orth; Denisa Holancova

2004-01-01

243

Sex hormones, appetite and eating behaviour in women.  

PubMed

Sex hormones play essential roles in the regulation of appetite, eating behaviour and energy metabolism and have been implicated in several major clinical disorders in women. Estrogen inhibits food intake, whereas progesterone and testosterone may stimulate appetite. This review describes recent findings concerning interactions between sex hormones and neuroendocrinological mechanisms in the control of appetite and eating in women. Furthermore, we are gaining insights into the roles played by sex hormones in the development of eating disorders and obesity. For instance, androgens may promote bulimia by stimulating appetite and reducing impulse control, a proposal supported by the observation that antiandrogenic treatment attenuates bulimic behaviour. Androgens are also involved in the pathophysiology of abdominal obesity in women. On the other hand, hormone replacement therapy with estrogen counteracts the weight gain and accumulation of abdominal fat associated with the menopausal transition. In conclusion, sex hormones and/or agents that exhibit similar activities may provide novel strategies for the treatment of eating disorders and android obesity, two of the most serious health problems for women today. PMID:22281161

Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

2012-01-26

244

Reduction of Health-Related Risks Among Female Commercial Sex Workers: Learning From Their Life and Working Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed this study to determine both positive and negative impacts on the health of sex workers working on the street. We conducted this study using key informant and focus group interviews in bars and streets in Mozambique. The interviewed sex workers were aware about the risks and protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and they consistently used condoms. Most

Mayumi Ohnishi; Ermelinda NotiÇO

2011-01-01

245

Evaluation of Sexually Transmitted Diseases\\/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Intervention Programs for Sex Workers in Calcutta, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objective: The Sonagachi Project in Calcutta, India, organized sex workers to improve working conditions. Goal: To compare rates of sexually transmitted diseases between the Sonagachi Project and other areas in which only the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) interventions were implemented. Study: A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected female sex workers. Results: There was no difference in the

Dwijendra Nath Gangopadhyay; Mitra Chanda; Kamalesh Sarkar; Swapan Kumar Niyogi; Sekhar Chakraborty; Malay Kumar Saha; Byomkesh Manna; Smarajit Jana; Pratim Ray; Sujit Kumar Bhattacharya; Roger Detels

2005-01-01

246

HIV behavioural risks and the role of work environment among Chinese male sex workers in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Male sex workers are a highly marginalised group in Hong Kong and it is increasingly so with an influx of them travelling from mainland China to work as "freelance" sex workers. This study aimed to measure important work environment variables that might affect the likelihood of condom use among male sex workers working in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional survey of 161 participants recruited by snowball and convenience sampling methods through outreach workers of a local non-governmental organization was conducted in 2007-2008. Only 27.4%, 54.7% and 42.6% reported consistent condom use when engaging in oral, anal and vaginal sex, respectively. Logistic regression shows unsafe sex was nearly four times (OR=3.41; 95%CI 1.51-7.69) as common in institutionalised male sex workers as among their independent counterparts. Lack of condoms provided at workplaces was a major barrier in this socio-legal context and was strongly associated with condom non-use amongst institutionalised sex workers (OR= 10.86; 95%CI 2.94-40.17). The present study finds that when compared with independent Male sex workers (MSWs), institutionalised MSWs were older, less educated, earned a higher income but more likely to engage in unsafe sex with their clients and their partners. Public health physicians must work with law-enforcing authorities to provide clear guidelines to remove these HIV prevention barriers. PMID:22293067

Wong, William C W; Leung, Phil W S; Li, C W

2012-01-31

247

Violence against women and suicide risk: The neglected impact of same-sex sexual behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used data from the National Survey on Violence against Women in France carried out in 2000 on a representative sample of 6970 women to compare the social characteristics of women who had sex with women (WSW) and women who had sex only with men (WSM). The WSW were more likely to be of a high socio-economic level and living

Brigitte Lhomond; Marie-Josèphe Saurel-Cubizolles

2006-01-01

248

Molecular Definition of Vaginal Microbiota in East African Commercial Sex Workers ? †  

PubMed Central

Resistance to HIV infection in a cohort of commercial sex workers living in Nairobi, Kenya, is linked to mucosal and antiinflammatory factors that may be influenced by the vaginal microbiota. Since bacterial vaginosis (BV), a polymicrobial dysbiosis characterized by low levels of protective Lactobacillus organisms, is an established risk factor for HIV infection, we investigated whether vaginal microbiology was associated with HIV-exposed seronegative (HESN) or HIV-seropositive (HIV+) status in this cohort. A subset of 44 individuals was selected for deep-sequencing analysis based on the chaperonin 60 (cpn60) universal target (UT), including HESN individuals (n = 16), other HIV-seronegative controls (HIV-N, n = 16), and HIV+ individuals (n = 12). Our findings indicate exceptionally high phylogenetic resolution of the cpn60 UT using reads as short as 200 bp, with 54 species in 29 genera detected in this group. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, few differences between HESN and HIV-N women were observed. Several HIV+ women had distinct profiles dominated by Escherichia coli. The deep-sequencing phylogenetic profile of the vaginal microbiota corresponds closely to BV+ and BV? diagnoses by microscopy, elucidating BV at the molecular level. A cluster of samples with intermediate abundance of Lactobacillus and dominant Gardnerella was identified, defining a distinct BV phenotype that may represent a transitional stage between BV+ and BV?. Several alpha- and betaproteobacteria, including the recently described species Variovorax paradoxus, were found to correlate positively with increased Lactobacillus levels that define the BV? (“normal”) phenotype. We conclude that cpn60 UT is ideally suited to next-generation sequencing technologies for further investigation of microbial community dynamics and mucosal immunity underlying HIV resistance in this cohort.

Schellenberg, John J.; Links, Matthew G.; Hill, Janet E.; Dumonceaux, Tim J.; Kimani, Joshua; Jaoko, Walter; Wachihi, Charles; Mungai, Jane Njeri; Peters, Geoffrey A.; Tyler, Shaun; Graham, Morag; Severini, Alberto; Fowke, Keith R.; Ball, T. Blake; Plummer, Francis A.

2011-01-01

249

Robots, Gender & Sensemaking: Sex Segregation's Impact On Workers Making Sense Of a Mobile Autonomous Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This ethnographic study suggests that social structures such as the sex segregation of jobs may impact how different groups of workers make sense of robots in their work environment. Designers may need to take such structures into account if mobile autonomous robots are to operate successfully alongside humans in the workplace.

Rosanne M. Siino; Pamela J. Hinds

2005-01-01

250

Crystal methamphetamine use among female street-based sex workers: Moving beyond individual-focused interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given growing concern of the sexual risks associated with crystal methamphetamine use and the dearth of research characterizing the use of methamphetamine among street-based sex workers (FSWs), this study aimed to characterize the prevalence and individual, social, and structural contexts of crystal methamphetamine use among FSWs in a Canadian setting. Drawing on data from a prospective cohort, we constructed multivariate

Kate Shannon; Steffanie Strathdee; Jean Shoveller; Ruth Zhang; Julio Montaner; Mark Tyndall

2011-01-01

251

Etiology of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Street-Based Female Sex Workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

An etiological study of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was conducted among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Endocervical swab and blood samples from 269 street-based FSWs were examined for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis as well as for antibodies to Treponema pallidum and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). Sociodemographic data and data regarding behavior were also collected.

MOTIUR RAHMAN; ASHRAFUL ALAM; KHAIRUN NESSA; ANOWAR HOSSAIN; SHAMSUN NAHAR; DILIP DATTA; SHAHNEWAZ ALAM KHAN; RUHUL AMIN MIAN; M. JOHN ALBERT

2000-01-01

252

Epidemiology and Etiology of Sexually Transmitted Infection among Hotel-Based Sex Workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among hotel-based sex workers (HBSWs) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, was studied. A total of 400 HBSWs were enrolled in the study during April to July 2002. Endocervical swabs, high vaginal swabs, and blood samples from 400 HBSWs were examined for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (by culture), Chlamydia trachomatis (by PCR), Trichomonas

Khairun Nessa; Shama-A Waris; Zafar Sultan; Shirajum Monira; Maqsud Hossain; Shamsun Nahar; Habibur Rahman; Mahbub Alam; Pam Baatsen; Motiur Rahman

2004-01-01

253

Sexual assault in the lives of urban sex workers: a descriptive and comparative analysis.  

PubMed

This exploratory study contributes to the sparse literature on sexually assaulted sex workers. We examined 462 sexual assault cases seen at an emergency department-based sexual assault service and reported to the police between 1993 and 1997. More than one fifth of victims were sex workers. We compared them to other victims on victim characteristics, assault characteristics, and medical-legal findings. Relative to other victims, sex workers were younger, had lower incomes, and were more likely to be heroin and/or cocaine users. They suffered a greater number of injuries and forensic samples collected from their bodies were more likely to test positive for sperm and/or semen. These victims were also less likely to have been using alcohol and/or marijuana prior to the assault and to be emotionally expressed during the medical- legal examination. The substantial proportion of sex workers in the study population suggests that attention to their particular needs should be an important part of hospital-based sexual assault services. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:15256357

Du Mont, Janice; McGregor, Margaret J

2004-01-01

254

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Toward Sexually-Transmitted Infections in Turkish Sex Trade Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence and subsequent rise of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is an important public health problem in Turkey, as it is in other parts of the world. Since the mid-1980s, the incidence of STIs among the Turkish population has increased dramatically, particularly in the major urban areas. One hundred and fifty registered sex trade workers were interviewed to examine their

SUKRAN SIMSEK; NALAN OZHAN ELBAS; ADNAN KISA; SOPHIA F. DZIEGIELEWSKI; DILAVER TENGILIMOGLU

2004-01-01

255

Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and condom use among female street sex workers in Padua  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate knowledge of sexually transmitted dis- eases (STDs) and condom use in a population of young female street sex workers from eastern Europe and other non-EU countries based in the Padua area (north-eastern Italy). To assess whether any aspects of their behavior might foster the spread of STDs. Study design: Street

C. Veller Fornasa; F. Gai; M. Tarantello; P. Gallina

256

Age Differences among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Sexual Risk Negotiations and Perceived Manager Advice  

PubMed Central

Consistent condom use among high risk groups such as female sex workers (FSWs) remains low. Adolescent female sex workers are especially at higher risk for HIV/STI infections. However, few published studies have compared the sexual risk negotiations among adolescent, emerging adult, and older age groups or the extent a manager's advice about condom use is associated with an FSW's age. Of 1,388 female bar/spa workers surveyed in the southern Philippines, 791 FSW who traded sex in the past 6 months were included in multivariable logistic regression models. The oldest FSWs (aged 36–48) compared to adolescent FSWs (aged 14–17) were 3.3 times more likely to negotiate condoms when clients refused condom use. However, adolescent FSWs received more advice from their managers to convince clients to use condoms or else to refuse sex, compared to older FSWs. Both adolescent and the oldest FSWs had elevated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and inconsistent condom use compared to other groups. Having a condom rule at the establishment was positively associated with condom negotiation. Factors such as age, the advice managers give to their workers, and the influence of a condom use rule at the establishment need to be considered when delivering HIV/STI prevention interventions.

Urada, Lianne A.; Malow, Robert M.; Santos, Nina C.; Morisky, Donald E.

2012-01-01

257

"Who Is Helsinki" Sex Workers Advise Improving Communication for Good Participatory Practice in Clinical Trials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After premature closures in 2004 of biomedical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention trials involving sex workers in Africa and Asia, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and Global Advocacy for HIV Prevention (AVAC) undertook consultations to establish better participatory guidelines for such trials in order to address…

Ditmore, Melissa Hope; Allman, Dan

2011-01-01

258

An HIV-Prevention Intervention for Sex Workers in Tijuana, Mexico: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Female sex workers (FSW) are at high risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, and putting their clients and other partners at risk for infection. There is considerable evidence that Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)?based interventions are effective in reducing high-risk sexual behavior among at-risk populations in the…

Patterson, Thomas L.; Semple, Shirley J.; Fraga, Miguel; Bucardo, Jesus; Davila-Fraga, Wendy; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2005-01-01

259

Sexual and physical violence against female sex workers in Kenya: a qualitative enquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies in Africa provide detailed descriptions of the vulnerabilities of female sex workers (FSW) to sexual and physical violence, and how this impacts on their HIV risk. This qualitative study documents FSW's experiences of violence in Mombasa and Naivasha, Kenya. Eighty-one FSW who obtained clients from the streets, transportation depots, taverns, discos and residential areas were recruited through local

Jerry Okal; Matthew F. Chersich; Sharon Tsui; Elizabeth Sutherland; Marleen Temmerman

2011-01-01

260

Behavioural and serological human immunodeficiency virus risk factors among female commercial sex workers in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Cambodia is mainly caused by sexual transmission and the high-risk group in this country are female commercial sex workers (CSW). There are two types of CSW, direct CSW (DCSW) and indirect CSW (IDCSW), who are different from each other in sexual activities. This study was conducted in order to describe the

K Ohshige; S Morio; K Tajima; P Tia; S Heng; V Saphonn; K Sodaa

2000-01-01

261

The role of sex worker clients in transmission of HIV in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The study investigated whether clients of sex workers are a bridge for transmission of HIV to the general population of Cambodia. We interviewed and collected blood from 468 clients attending 30 randomly selected brothels in three provinces of Cambodia. The levels of HIV knowledge and condom use, and prevalence of HIV (9.2%) were high. Almost 40% of those interviewed

Leng Bun Hor; Roger Detels; Sopheab Heng; Phalkun Mun

2005-01-01

262

Young Sex-Workers in Ho Chi Minh City Telling Their Life Stories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study the life stories of 22 sex-workers (age 15-18 years) in Vietnam are organized into three thematic narratives depicting how the girls presented their lives. Poverty, lack of job alternatives and the responsibility to share in the support of their families led the girls into prostitution. Strong family ties gave many girls…

Rubenson, Birgitta; Hanh, Le Thi; Hojer, Bengt; Johansson, Eva

2005-01-01

263

Review of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female sex workers (FSW) are at greater risk for HIV and STIs. A systematic literature review of HIV and STI prevalence and incidence data for FSW in China was conducted to assess current trends. Studies between 1996 and 2010 detailing seroprevalence or incidence data, other laboratory-based tests, and clinical diagnoses of infections among FSW were reviewed. Select articles from Chinese

Adrienne N. Poon; Zhijun Li; Ning Wang; Yan Hong

2011-01-01

264

An HIV-Prevention Intervention for Sex Workers in Tijuana, Mexico: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Female sex workers (FSW) are at high risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, and putting their clients and other partners at risk for infection. There is considerable evidence that Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)?based interventions are effective in reducing high-risk sexual behavior among at-risk populations in the…

Patterson, Thomas L.; Semple, Shirley J.; Fraga, Miguel; Bucardo, Jesus; Davila-Fraga, Wendy; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2005-01-01

265

Transactional Sex Risk across a Typology of Rural and Urban Female Sex Workers in Indonesia: A Mixed Methods Study  

PubMed Central

Context-specific typologies of female sex workers (FSWs) are essential for the design of HIV intervention programming. This study develops a novel FSW typology for the analysis of transactional sex risk in rural and urban settings in Indonesia. Mixed methods include a survey of rural and urban FSWs (n?=?310), in-depth interviews (n?=?11), key informant interviews (n?=?5) and ethnographic assessments. Thematic analysis categorises FSWs into 5 distinct groups based on geographical location of their sex work settings, place of solicitation, and whether sex work is their primary occupation. Multiple regression analysis shows that the likelihood of consistent condom use was higher among urban venue-based FSWs for whom sex work is not the only source of income than for any of the other rural and urban FSW groups. This effect was explained by the significantly lower likelihood of consistent condom use by rural venue-based FSWs (adjusted OR: 0.34 95% CI 0.13–0.90, p?=?0.029). The FSW typology and differences in organisational features and social dynamics are more closely related to the risk of unprotected transactional sex, than levels of condom awareness and availability. Interventions need context-specific strategies to reach the different FSWs identified by this study's typology.

Puradiredja, Dewi Ismajani; Coast, Ernestina

2012-01-01

266

Sex with women among men who have sex with men in china: prevalence and sexual practices.  

PubMed

Abstract Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) are a potential bridge population for transmitting HIV to heterosexual women. This study assessed key characteristics of this subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Of 1141 eligible MSM, 45.6% reported bisexual behaviors. Besides marriage as a strong predictor (odds ratio: 23.90, 95% confidence interval: 14.29-39.98), older age (1.12, 1.10-1.15) and lower education (or no college education) (1.98, 1.52-2.59) were also independently associated with having ever had sex with women. MSMW reported higher proportions of alcohol drinking, heterosexual/bisexual orientation, and preference for an insertive role in anal sex than men who had sex with men only; but there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and in history of sexually transmitted infections. HIV prevention intervention programs should break the bridging role of HIV transmission in MSMW population. PMID:23931683

Tao, Jun; Ruan, Yuhua; Yin, Lu; Vermund, Sten H; Shepherd, Bryan E; Shao, Yiming; Qian, Han-Zhu

2013-08-09

267

Health Risk Behaviors in an Urban Sample of Young Women Who Have Sex with Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the prevalence of sexual and substance use behaviors among a group of young women who have sex with women (WSW) aged 16 to 24. A convenience sample of 137 young WSW participants completed a confidential survey that included demographics, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Descriptive analyses were used to interpret the data. Comparisons were made between rates

Amy L. Herrick; Alicia K. Matthews; Robert Garofalo

2010-01-01

268

Treatment with Antiretroviral Therapy is Not Associated with Increased Sexual Risk Behaviour in Kenyan Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that sexual risk behaviour would increase following initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting FSW cohort in Mombasa, Kenya, 1993-2008. Subjects 898 women contributed HIV-1-seropositive follow-up visits, of whom 129 initiated ART. Intervention Beginning in March 2004, ART was provided to women qualifying for treatment according to Kenyan National Guidelines. Participants received sexual risk reduction education and free condoms at every visit. Main Outcome Measures Main outcome measures included unprotected intercourse, abstinence, 100% condom use, number of sexual partners, and frequency of sex. Outcomes were evaluated at monthly follow-up visits using a one week recall interval. Results Compared to non-ART-exposed follow-up, visits following ART initiation were not associated with an increase in unprotected sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-1.19, P=0.4). There was a non-significant decrease in abstinence (AOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.65-1.01, P=0.07), which was offset by a substantial increase in 100% condom use (AOR 1.54, 95% CI 1.07-2.20, P=0.02). Numbers of sex partners and frequency of sex were similar before versus after starting ART. A trend for decreased sexually transmitted infections following ART initiation provides additional support for the validity of the self-reported behavioural outcomes (AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.44-1.02, P=0.06). Conclusions In the setting of ongoing risk reduction education and provision of free condoms, initiation of ART was not associated with increased sexual risk behaviour in this cohort of Kenyan FSWs.

McClelland, R. Scott; Graham, Susan M.; Richardson, Barbra A.; Peshu, Norbert; Masese, Linnet N.; Wanje, George H.; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra N.; Kurth, Ann E.; Jaoko, Walter; Ndinya-Achola, J. O.

2010-01-01

269

Stigma, social inequality, and HIV risk disclosure among Dominican male sex workers?  

PubMed Central

Some quantitative behavioral studies in the USA have concluded that bisexually behaving Latino men are less likely than White men to disclose to their female partners that they have engaged in same-sex risk behavior and/or are HIV-positive, presumably exposing female partners to elevated risk for HIV infection. Nevertheless, very little theoretical or empirical research has been conducted to understand the social factors that promote or inhibit sexual risk disclosure among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), and much of the existing literature has neglected to contextualize disclosure patterns within broader experiences of stigma and social inequality. This paper examines decisions about disclosure of sex work, same-sex behavior, and sexual risk for HIV among male sex workers in two cities in the Dominican Republic. Data derive from long-term ethnography and qualitative in-depth interviews with 72 male sex workers were used to analyze the relationships among experiences of stigma, social inequality, and patterns of sexual risk disclosure. Thematic analysis of interviews and ethnographic evidence revealed a wide range of stigma management techniques utilized by sex workers to minimize the effects of marginality due to their engagement in homosexuality and sex work. These techniques imposed severe constraints on men’s sexual risk disclosure, and potentially elevated their own and their female partners’ vulnerability to HIV infection. Based on the study’s findings, we conclude that future studies of sexual risk disclosure among ethnic minority MSM should avoid analyzing disclosure as a decontextualized variable, and should seek to examine sexual risk communication as a dynamic social process constrained by hierarchical systems of power and inequality.

Padilla, Mark; Castellanos, Daniel; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Sanchez Marte, Leonardo E.; Soriano, Martha Arredondo

2010-01-01

270

The Effect of a Structural Intervention for Syphilis Control Among 3597 Female Sex Workers: A Demonstration Study in South China  

PubMed Central

Background.?Syphilis has made a rapid resurgence in China, especially among high-risk groups including female sex workers (FSWs). Methods.?Two cities in each of 3 provinces in South China were chosen and allocated to intervention or control arms. The intervention consisted of enhancing community-based syphilis screening outreach intervention with comprehensive sexually transmitted infection services at designated clinics while the control maintained routine intervention activities. Generalized linear modeling was used to examine effect of the intervention on incident syphilis infection. Results.?A total of 8275 women were eligible, and 3597 women enrolled (n = 2011 in control arm, n = 1586 in intervention arm) in the study. The median follow-up duration was 375 days (interquartile range, 267–475). Syphilis incidence density in the intervention group was reduced by 70% (95% confidence interval, 53%–81%) compared with the incidence in the control arm. The syphilis prevention intervention benefits were robust among FSWs at low-tier venues, individuals with less than high school education, migrants, and women who did not report condom use during the last episode of sex. Conclusions.?Integrated sexually transmitted infection and human immunodeficiency virus prevention strategies substantially reduce syphilis incidence among FSWs, especially among those at low-tier venues. This intervention suggests the need for scaling up comprehensive FSW programs in China.

Wang, Baoxi; Wang, Qian-Qiu; Yin, Yue-Ping; Liang, Guo-Jun; Jiang, Ning; Gong, Xiang-Dong; Yang, Bin; Zhou, Yue-Jiao; Liu, Qiao; Huan, Xi-Ping; Yang, Li-Gang; Tan, Guang-Jie; Pei, Dong-Nu; Tucker, Joseph D.; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

2012-01-01

271

Acceptability of circumcision among clients of female sex worker in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Clients of female sex workers (CFSW) are at high risk of HIV transmission. Circumcision reduces the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV. A total of 353 CFSW were interviewed using a combined interviewer-computer-assisted method. Amongst the participants, 28.0% were circumcised, whilst 63.8% of the uncircumcised participants were willing to take up circumcision (conditioned on being briefed about a 50% potential risk reduction effect). In a stepwise logistic regression model, frequency of patronizing female sex workers and factors related to the Health Belief Model were significantly associated with conditional willingness. Amongst uncircumcised participants, 20.9% anticipated risk compensation (i.e. would use condoms less frequently after being circumcised). Adjusting for background variables, inconsistent condom use during commercial sex and self-reported STD history in the last 6 months were significantly associated with anticipated risk compensation. It is feasible to promote circumcision among CFSW but such programs also need to promote condom use. PMID:22080385

Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph T F; Gu, Jing

2012-10-01

272

Managing the public health risk of a 'sex worker' with hepatitis B infection: legal and ethical considerations.  

PubMed

This paper examines the ethical issues faced by health workers managing a fictional case of a female sex worker who is hepatitis B positive with a high level of virus but is asymptomatic. According to guidelines she does not require treatment herself, but is potentially highly infectious to others. Recent legal cases in the UK show it can be criminal to pass on HIV or hepatitis B infection sexually if the risk is known and the partner has not been informed. However, there is no statute or case law showing that health workers are required to intervene to prevent such a potential 'crime', particularly when the partners are unknown, as in this case. The health workers could respond in various ways. They could do nothing, thus making further infection probable. They could advise the sex worker to use condoms and to inform her clients. They could treat the sex worker to reduce her level of infectivity, although there is no benefit to her. They could disclose the sex worker's status, although breaking confidentiality is a serious matter ethically and may be of no benefit to the unknown client group. Regulating prostitution might help; but sex workers with infection may work off licence. This paper discusses the clinical, moral and ethical issues associated with such a scenario and concludes that the most beneficial course is to target clients, through health education, to recognise the potential risks of infection from a sex worker and to take suitable precautions including immunisation against hepatitis B. PMID:21546521

Poll, Ray

2011-05-05

273

Sexually Transmitted Infection Control with Sex Workers: Regular Screening and Presumptive Treatment Augment Efforts to Reduce Risk and Vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex workers have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), many of them easily curable with antibiotics. STIs as co-factors and frequent unprotected exposure put sex workers at high risk of acquiring HIV and transmitting STIs and HIV to clients and other partners. Eliminating STIs reduces the efficiency of HIV transmission in the highest-risk commercial sex contacts—those where condoms are

Richard Steen; Gina Dallabetta

2003-01-01

274

Sex Ratio and Women's Career Choice: Does a Scarcity of Men Lead Women to Choose Briefcase Over Baby?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the ratio of males to females in a population is known to influence behavior in nonhuman animals, little is known about how sex ratio influences human behavior. We propose that sex ratio affects women's family planning and career choices. Using both historical data and experiments, we examined how sex ratio influences women's career aspirations. Findings showed that a scarcity

Kristina M. Durante; Vladas Griskevicius; Jeffry A. Simpson; Stephanie M. Cantú; Joshua M. Tybur

2012-01-01

275

Women accused of sex offenses: a gender-based comparison.  

PubMed

Sexual offenses committed by women are likely underestimated and under-reported. This exploratory study compares and contrasts women accused of sexual offenses and their male counterparts. Data were retrospectively compiled on all alleged female and age-matched male sex offenders who were referred for psychiatric evaluation to a large Midwestern city's court psychiatric clinic over a six-year period. Data were abstracted regarding their crimes, charges, demographics, social history, medical history, legal history, violence history, substance use, sexual history, psychiatric history and their victims. Like the men, women were most frequently referred for sexual predator classification evaluations. Ages ranged from 19 to 62 years, and the majority had children. Most had prior arrests. One-third had a past history of psychiatric hospitalization, and most were given a non-paraphilic psychiatric diagnosis. The majority of the women reported past histories of sexual or physical victimization. While there were many similarities between female and male sex offenders in this psychiatric sample, women more frequently had victims of both genders. PMID:21928401

West, Sara G; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Kim, Ki Dan

276

Feasibility and Safety of Cervical Biopsy Sampling for Mucosal Immune Studies in Female Sex Workers from Nairobi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background There is an urgent need to improve our understanding of the mucosal immuno-pathogenesis of HIV acquisition in the female genital tract, particularly in high-risk women such as female sex workers (FSWs). Cervical biopsy samples offer technical advantages over cytobrush sampling, but there are concerns that this might increase HIV acquisition, particularly if healing is slow and/or women do not abstain from sex during healing. Methodology/Principal Findings Cervical biopsy samples and cervico-vaginal swabs for co-infection diagnostics, prostate specific antigen (PSA) and immune studies were collected from 59 women, including HIV seropositive and HIV-exposed seronegative (HESN) FSWs as well as lower risk women from Nairobi, Kenya. A clinical-demographic questionnaire was administered and women were instructed to avoid sexual intercourse, douching and the insertion of tampons for 14 days. All participants underwent a repeat exam to assess healing within the 14 days, and had HIV diagnostics at six months. Cervical sampling was well tolerated, and 82% of participants had healed macroscopically by 5 days. Both self-report and PSA screening suggested high levels of compliance with pre- and post-procedure abstinence. Delayed healing was associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and HESN status. At six-month follow up all low-risk and HESN participants remained HIV seronegative. Conclusion Cervical biopsy sampling is a safe and well-tolerated method to obtain cervical biopsies in this context, particularly if participants with VVC are excluded. As healing could be delayed up to 11 days, it is important to support (both financially and with rigorous counseling) a period of post-procedure abstinence to minimize HIV risk.

Hasselrot, Klara; Cheruiyot, Juliana; Kimani, Joshua; Ball, Terry B.; Kaul, Rupert; Hirbod, Taha

2012-01-01

277

A pragmatic intervention to promote condom use by female sex workers in Thailand.  

PubMed Central

An overview is presented of a multifaceted intervention to promote consistent condom use by female commercial sex workers in Thailand, in the context of the government's 100% condom use policy for preventing spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The project is described with reference to a succession of stages including pre-programme needs assessment, intervention design, implementation and evaluation. The key elements of the intervention were video scenarios and discussions coordinated by health personnel, and video-depicted open-ended narratives aimed at helping sex workers to explore their personal and work-related dilemmas and concerns. A core objective was to enhance sex workers' self-esteem and perceived future with a view to strengthening their motivation to take preventive action against HIV infection. The intervention was evaluated using a combination of qualitative (process evaluation) and quantitative (outcome) methods. The outcome evaluation was undertaken using a pretest, post-test intervention and control group quasi-experimental design. There were significant increases in consistent condom use among the intervention groups but not among the controls. Pragmatic stability is advocated for the Thai sex industry and recommendations are offered for good quality HIV prevention activities.

Ford, N.; Koetsawang, S.

1999-01-01

278

"Bridge population": sex workers or their clients?--STI prevalence and risk behaviors of clients of female sex workers in China.  

PubMed

As the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in China has come to the forefront of public health attention, female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients (CFSWs) are becoming increasingly important to HIV/STI prevention efforts. This secondary analysis uses data abstracted from the Chinese Health and Family Life Survey 1999-2000 to report prevalence rates of two STIs as well as sexual risk behaviors for CFSWs - men who paid for sex with FSWs in the past 12 months - in comparison with men who had not patronized FSWs. Among 1879 Chinese CFSWs who completed anonymous interviews and urine testing, 152 (6.3%, weighted) said they had paid for sex in the past 12 months and 18.8% of CFSWs (weighted) tested positive for gonorrhea. CFSWs were 10 times more likely to have an STI (either self-reported or tested) than non-client Chinese men, and they were equally likely to use condoms inconsistently with their spouses. This study highlights the importance of studying CFSWs who use condoms inconsistently and do not practice safe sex with their spouse as a potential bridge population. Prevention and intervention efforts should target this bridge population and include education on HIV/AIDS and STI transmission, condom promotion, marriage counseling, destigmatization of HIV and STIs, and promotion of STI diagnosis and treatment. PMID:21660750

Huang, Z J; Wang, W; Martin, M C; Nehl, E J; Smith, B D; Wong, F Y

2011-06-01

279

Seductive father-daughter relationships and sex roles in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the relationship of three variables reportedly characteristic of families in which father-daughter incest occurs to women's sex-role functioning and attitudes toward heterosexual interactions. The results showed that a sexualized father-daughter relationship was correlated with negative male traits (e.g., arrogance), low levels of positive female traits (emotionality), and negative attitudes toward male sexuality and female competitiveness. Discord

Joseph D. LaBarbera

1984-01-01

280

Women and Sex at Midlife: Desire, Dysfunction, and Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arewomen likely to experience more sexual and relationship satisfaction in midlife than in earlier periods of their lives?\\u000a Which women are, and why? Does a woman experience heterosexual partner sex more positively when she is no longer responsible\\u000a for birth control or parenting? In what ways, if any, do the sexual relations of aging lesbians improve over time? Arewomen\\u000a who

Maureen C. McHugh

281

Sexy ladies sexing ladies: women as consumers in strip clubs.  

PubMed

Recent shifts in the consumer base of the sex industry have involved greater female attendance in strip clubs. This article examines how strip clubs and dancers incorporate female patrons into a sexualized space traditionally designed for men by identifying three interactional processes: passing over, sidestaging, and tailoring. We suggest dancers pass over women because they perceive female patron behavior to include resistance to "buying the game" and spending patterns that diverge from male customers. Drawing on Goffman's dramaturgical analysis, we suggest the dynamic relationship between dancer and female patron involves what we term sidestaging, which refers to both dancers' disclosure and how the club's spatial organization inhibits the construction of women as customers through sharing gendered spaces, such as the bathroom. We argue that when a dancer tailors her lap dance for a female patron, she succeeds in acknowledging the female customer's sexual subjectivity and potential same-sex desires by providing an individualized avenue for exploring an erotic experience. Finally, we discuss data implications for understanding how same-sex desire and sexual identity operate in an environment that eroticizes the female form, and how the strip club becomes a potential space for engaging in same-sex eroticism that includes elements of play. PMID:18686149

Wosick-Correa, Kassia R; Joseph, Lauren J

282

Predictors of Unsafe Sex among At-Risk Heterosexual Women  

PubMed Central

Despite widespread intervention efforts to curtail the spread of HIV, heterosexual transmission of HIV continues to drive the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States, especially among women. Research has shown that knowledge about HIV and AIDS is relatively great, even among persons who engage in high rates of risky sexual behaviors. This begs the question: What characteristics underlie and are predictive of involvement in unprotected sex? The objective of this paper is to examine the factors that are associated with engaging in unprotected sex in a population of urban, at-risk, heterosexually-active women. Conceptually, the research is guided by the notion of understanding risk and, theoretically, by the Theory of Gender and Power. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with 178 sexually active adult at-risk heterosexual women in Atlanta, Georgia. Street outreach efforts were used to identify potential study participants, and ethnographic mapping and targeted sampling procedures guided the recruitment process. Using a multivariate path analysis approach, three factors–marital status, having two drug-abusing parents, and negative attitudes toward condom use–were identified as predictors of unsafe sex. Further exploration of the latter measure yielded two factors that were statistically-significant multivariate predictors of attitudes toward using condoms: age and self-esteem level. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the fit of a risk-prediction model containing all of these measures, and it was shown to be supported quite strongly by the data.

Elifson, Kirk W.; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E.

2013-01-01

283

Implementing for results: program analysis of the HIV/STI interventions for sex workers in Benin.  

PubMed

HIV response has entered a new era shaped by evidence that the combination of interventions impacts the trajectory of the epidemic. Even proven interventions, however, can be ineffective if not to scale, appropriately implemented, and with the right combination. Benin is among the pioneering countries that prioritized HIV prevention for sex workers and clients early on. Effective implementation up to 2006 resulted in consistent condom use among sex workers increasing from 39% to 86.2% and a decline in prevalence of gonorrhea from 5.4% to 1.6%. This study responds to the growing concern that, although proven interventions for female sex workers (FSWs) were expanded in Benin since 2008, indicators of coverage and behaviors are far from satisfactory. The quest to better understand implementation and how to render service delivery efficient and effective resonates with increased emphasis in the international arena on return for investments. Quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized to collect data. The output measured is the number of sex workers seeking Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) care at user-friendly STI Clinics (SCs). Data were collected for 2010-2011 in nine regions of Benin. While recognizing that commitment to scale up is commendable, the study revealed deficiencies in program design and implementation that undermine outcomes. The selected mix of interventions is not optimal. Allocation of funds is not proportionate to the needs of FSW across regions. Only 5 of 41 SCs were fully functional at time of study. Free distribution of condoms covers only 10% of needs of FSWs. Funding and financing gaps resulted in extended interruptions of services. Successful HIV prevention in Benin will depend on the effective and efficient implementation of well-funded programs in sex work setting. Resources should be aligned to local sex work typology and presence in communities. A national framework defining an appropriate mix of interventions, management structure, referral mechanisms, and operational standards is required to guide rigorous implementation. Health services, in particular functional and user-friendly SCs coupled with mechanisms that link community-based work and health facilities should be strengthened to ensure STI care/anti-retroviral treatment expansion. Without leadership of sex workers, any attempt to end HIV will be unsuccessful. PMID:23745627

Semini, Iris; Batona, Georges; Lafrance, Christian; Kessou, Léon; Gbedji, Eugène; Anani, Hubert; Alary, Michel

2013-01-01

284

Understanding out-migration among female sex workers in South India  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Migrant sex workers are known to be vulnerable to HIV. There is substantial female sex worker (FSW) mobility between the borders of Maharashtra and Karnataka, but little programming emphasis on migrant FSWs in India. We sought to understand the individual/cultural, structural and contextual determinants of migration among FSWs from Karnataka. METHODS A cross sectional face-to-face interview of 1567FSWs from 142 villages in 3 districts of northern Karnataka, India was conducted from January–June 2008. Villages having 10+FSWs, a large number of whom were migrant, were selected following mapping of FSWs. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify characteristics associated with migrant (travelled for ?2weeks outside the district past year) and mobile (travelled for <2weeks outside the district past year) FSWs; adjusting for age and district. RESULTS Compared to non-migrants, migrant FSWs were more likely to be brothel than street-based (AOR 5.7; 95%CI 1.6–20.0), have higher income from sex work (AOR 42.2; 12.6–142.1), speak >2languages (AOR 5.6%; 2.6–12.0), have more clients (AORper client 2.9; 1.2–7.2) and have more sex acts/day (AORper sex act 3.5; 1.3–9.3). Mobile FSWs had higher income from sex work (AOR=13.2; 3.9–44.6) relative to non-migrants, but not as strongly as for migrant FSWs. CONCLUSION Out-migration of FSWs in Karnataka was strongly tied to sex work characteristics; thus, the structure inherent in sex work should be capitalized on when developing HIV preventive interventions. The important role of FSWs in HIV epidemics, coupled with the potential for rapid spread of HIV with migration, requires the most effective interventions possible for mobile and migrant FSWs.

Banandur, Pradeep; Ramnaik, Satyanarayana; Manhart, Lisa E.; Buzdugan, Raluca; Mahapatra, Bidhubhushan; Isac, Shajy; Halli, Shiva S; Washington, Reynold G; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

2012-01-01

285

Survival times of pre-1950 US women radium dial workers  

SciTech Connect

Survival times of US women radium dial workers to the end of 1989 were examined by life table methods. Included were 1301 women rust employed before 1930 and 1242 first employed in 1930-1949. Expected numbers of deaths were estimated from age- and time-specific death rates for US white females. In the early group, 85 deaths from the well-known radium-induced cancers - bone sarcomas and head carcinomas - were observed, but only 724 deaths from aH other causes were observed vs 755 expected. Life shortening ({plus_minus}S.E.) of 1.8 {plus_minus}0.5 y compared to the general population of US white females was calculated from the time distribution of all deaths in the pre-1930 group. In the 1930--1949 group, 350 deaths were observed vs 343 expected and no bone sarcomas or head carcinomas occurred. Among women who survived at least 2 y after rust measurement of body radium, a significant excess of observed vs expected deaths was found only for radium intakes greater than 1.85 MBq of {sup 226}Ra + {sup 228}Ra, and no trend of deaths or reduction of life expectancy was found with length of employment.

Stehney, A.F.

1994-05-01

286

Violence against women in war: rape, AIDS, sex slavery. International.  

PubMed

At an international conference attended by 2000 delegates, violence against women in Rwanda, former Yugoslavia, and Kurdistan was discussed. Kalliope Migirou, of the United Nations Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda, described the slaughter of between 500,000 and 1.5 million Tutsis and moderate Hutus in 1994; estimates of the number of rapes ranged from 15,700 (Rwandan government) to 250,000-500,000 (UN special representative). Women were gang-raped and sexually mutilated; fathers were forced to rape their daughters, and sons, their mothers. The transmission of HIV was used as a weapon to murder women and their communities. Women were taken to refugee camps as sex slaves and have written their families about their "new marriages" to Hutu militia men. No rape charge is found among the more than 4000 cases prepared for the Rwandan war crimes trial. 80,000 Rwandans are in prison on suspicion of participating in the genocide; 8% are women. Violete Krasnic, of the Autonomous Women's Center Against Sexual Violence in Belgrade, spoke about the war in former Yugoslavia, which increased all forms of violence against women: 1) domestic violence, particularly in inter-ethnic marriages; 2) death threats against women (up 30-50%); 3) rape (up 30%); and 4) threats with weapons (40%). Men, upon exposure to nationalistic propaganda, used violence against their wives. Nazaneen Rasheed, a London-based representative of the Women's Union of Kurdistan, stated that women in northern Iraq had no power or land. While some turned to prostitution to survive, hundreds were killed by male relatives because of shame to the family. PMID:12347566

287

Interaction between Objective and Subjective Occupational Conditions Affecting Physical Health of Women Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an investigation on the interaction between the subjective and objective occupational conditions in affecting the overall health of women workers in industries that have accommodated information technology. The sample consisted of 23 establishments and 630 women respondents. Results show that the most prevalent issues among workers in the electronics industry included the need to upgrade skills, repetitive and

Jinky Leilanie; D. Lu

288

The Struggles of Women Industrial Workers To Improve Work Conditions in the Progressive Era.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Offers a lesson plan that addresses the working conditions endured by women in the Progressive Era and their struggles for womens rights in the workplace. Strives to demonstrate the similarities between the plights of the Progressive Era women to those of women workers in the 1990s. (CMK)|

Barrett, Nancy J.

1999-01-01

289

High risk of HIV in non-brothel based female sex workers in India  

PubMed Central

Background Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of HIV transmission in India that is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work and with regular sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs), and identified its associations that could assist in planning HIV prevention programmes. Methods Detailed documentation of various aspects of sex work, and sexual behaviour with regular sex partners, was done through confidential interviews for 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Multivariate analysis was done to understand condom non-use with clients. Results 5010 (75.4%), 1499 (22.5%), and 139 (2.1%) FSWs were street-, home-, and brothel-based, respectively. Of the total 6648 FSWs, 6165 (92.7%) had penetrative vaginal/anal sex with at least one client in the last 15 days, and of these 2907 (47.2%; 95% CI 41.2–53.2%) reported non-use of condom with at least one of her last three clients. Lack of knowledge that HIV could be prevented (odds ratio 5.01; 95% CI 4.38–5.73), no access to free condoms (odds ratio 3.45; 95% CI 2.99–3.98), being street-based as compared with brothel-based (odds ratio 3.36; 95% CI 1.87–6.04), and no participation in FSW support groups (odds ratio 2.02; 95% CI 1.50–2.70) were the most significant predictors of condom non-use with clients. Other associations included lower social support, lower income, age >24 years, illiteracy, and living in medium-size urban or rural areas. Of the 2582 who had penetrative sex with regular sex partner within the last 7 days, 2428 (94%; 95% CI 92.1–95.9%) had not used condom at last sex, and 1032 (41.8%) had neither used condom consistently with clients nor with regular sex partner. Conclusion About half the FSWs do not use condom consistently with their clients in this Indian state putting them at high risk of HIV infection. Non-brothel-based FSWs, who form the majority of sex workers in India, were at a significantly higher risk of HIV infection as compared with brothel-based FSWs. With their high vulnerability, the success of expansion of HIV prevention efforts will depend on achieving and sustaining an environment that enables HIV prevention with the non-brothel based FSWs.

Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo; Kumar, Anil G; McPherson, Sam; Samuels, Fiona; Bertozzi, Stefano M

2005-01-01

290

Down low sex, older African American women, and HIV infection.  

PubMed

The phenomenon of down low sex, wherein men involved in monogamous relationships with women seek extrarelationship sexual relations with men, has gained recognition in recent years. This study addressed the issue of down low sex in a group of African American women whose long-term sexual partners had become infected with HIV during extramarital sexual encounters with men. A grounded theory methodology was used to explore the experiences of 11 women in individual interviews that were sensitive to the intimate nature of their experiences. Themes shown in the data focused on (a) being betrayed and losing trust; (b) reflecting upon the features of the past relationship; (c) seeking the positive aspects of the past relationship; (d) being ashamed before God, community, and family; and (e) assuming the caregiver role and sharing the burden of illness. The study identified the strong influence of positive long-term relationships on life decisions of women following a diagnosis of HIV, despite the extrarelationship sexual activities of their partners. PMID:19007720

Whyte, James; Whyte, Maria D; Cormier, Eileen

291

Sex work and risky sexual behaviors among foreign entertainment workers in urban Singapore: findings from Mystery Client Survey.  

PubMed

Globalization has led to a rapid influx of female workers from Asian countries with high prevalence of HIV to Singapore, with many entering the entertainment industry. We assessed the prevalence of sexual services, condom use, and self-initiated screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and associated variables among foreign female entertainment workers in Singapore. A cross-sectional survey of 317 female entertainment workers, using mystery clients, was conducted on a two-stage proportional cluster sample of 93 entertainment establishments stratified by geographical zone in Singapore. We found a high prevalence (71 %) of sexual services in entertainment establishments with 53 % of the female entertainment workers reporting selling sex. Consistent condom use for sex with paying clients in a usual week in the past 3 months was low, ranging from 37.9 % for oral sex, 46.9 % for anal sex, to 51.9 % for vaginal sex. On multivariate logistic regression, consistent condom use for vaginal sex with clients showed a significant independent association with the entertainment worker's behavior of asking clients to use condoms and a borderline association with entertainment worker being a Chinese national. Less than half (48.9 %) of the sex workers had ever been screened for STIs either locally or in their home country. The only independent factor significantly associated with STI screening was having to support one's family. In summary, a high percentage of foreign female entertainment workers in Singapore reported selling sex. Condom use and STI screening were low among them. Access to STI screening, treatment, and education services should be enhanced for foreign female entertainment workers in Singapore. PMID:22707309

Wong, Mee-Lian; Chan, Roy; Tan, Hiok Hee; Yong, Eunice; Lee, Lionel; Cutter, Jeffrey; Tay, Joanne; Koh, David

2012-12-01

292

HIV prevalence among female sex workers, drug users and men who have sex with men in Brazil: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Brazilian response towards AIDS epidemic is well known, but the absence of a systematic review of vulnerable populations ? men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW), and drug users (DU) remains a main gap in the available literature. Our goal was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing HIV prevalence among

Monica Malta; Monica MF Magnanini; Maeve B Mello; Ana Roberta P Pascom; Yohana Linhares; Francisco I Bastos

2010-01-01

293

Sex work in the Caribbean Basin: Patterns of substance use and HIV risk among migrant sex workers in the US Virgin Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug use, commercial sex work, and migration each play a role in the spread of HIV in the Caribbean, yet the intersection of these factors in the region is not well understood. This paper explores the connections between substance use and HIV risk among migrant female sex workers in the US Virgin Islands. Participants were located through targeted sampling techniques

H. Surratt

2007-01-01

294

Did South Africa's soccer bonanza bring relief to sex workers in South Africa? The 2010 FIFA World Cup and the impact on sex work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex workers are an exceptionally vulnerable group in South Africa. Ongoing criminalisation of the sex work industry fuels the AIDS epidemic by precluding effective prevention and education strategies, and infringes human rights. The 19th FIFA World Cup was held in South Africa in June–July 2010 and was expected to attract 450 000 or more visitors. Intense attention was focused on

Marlise Richter; Dianne Massawe

2010-01-01

295

Reasons for not using condoms among female sex workers in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to gather data on condom use among brothel-based female sex workers in\\u000aIndonesia and to study the reasons for not using condoms in order to provide new and existing condom promotion programs with information to improve their performance. Quantitative data were gathered by KABP surveys (n = 1450) and a condom diary with a

Endang Basuki; Ivan Wolffers; W. Devillé; Noni Erlaini; Dorang Luhpuri; Rachmat Hargono; Nuning Maskuri; Nyoman Suesen; Nel van Beelen

2002-01-01

296

Sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Tunisia: high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in female sex workers (FSW) in Tunisia.Methods188 prostitutes from three Tunisian towns were enrolled at their weekly medical visit. Demographic and sexual behaviour data were collected. C trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) were

Abir Znazen; Olfa Frikha-Gargouri; Lamia Berrajah; Sihem Bellalouna; Hela Hakim; Nabiha Gueddana; Adnene Hammami

2010-01-01

297

Associations between migrant status and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine associations between migration and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among Mexican female sex workers (FSW).Methods:FSW aged 18 years and older in Tijuana, Baja California (BC) underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia. Multivariate logistic regressions identified correlates of STI.Results:Of 471 FSW, 79% were migrants to BC. Among migrant FSW, prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia

V D Ojeda; S A Strathdee; R Lozada; M L A Rusch; M Fraga; P Orozovich; C Magis-Rodriguez; A De La Torre; H Amaro; W Cornelius; T L Patterson

2009-01-01

298

Bacterial vaginosis and HIV seroprevalence among female commercial sex workers in Chiang Mai, Thailand.  

PubMed

To explore a possible association between bacterial vaginosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, 144 consecutively enrolled commercial sex workers from a sexually transmitted disease clinic (STD) in Chiang Mai, Thailand, were interviewed and underwent serologic testing and genital examination. 62 (43%) of sex workers were HIV-positive. A self-reported history of syphilis, chancroid, herpes, gonorrhea, or Chlamydia was significantly associated with HIV infection. Bacterial vaginosis, detected in 49 (34%), was also associated with HIV infection. Sex workers reporting 10-19 and 20 or more sexual encounters per week were 2.2 and 3.5 times, respectively, more likely to be infected with HIV than those reporting under 10 encounters. A clinically established diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was independently associated with HIV seropositivity even when age, number of sexual encounters per week, current condom use, and past and current STD infection were controlled (odds ratio, 4.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-9.4). When the bacterial vaginosis diagnosis was based on Gram stain (score 7-10), however, the association with HIV seropositivity disappeared, but having abnormal vaginal flora (gram stain score 4-10) was related to HIV status. Further epidemiologic studies are recommended to investigate the possibility that bacterial vaginosis--the most prevalent genital infection in Thailand--acts as a cofactor for the heterosexual transmission of HIV. PMID:8527084

Cohen, C R; Duerr, A; Pruithithada, N; Rugpao, S; Hillier, S; Garcia, P; Nelson, K

1995-09-01

299

Does scale matter? The costs of HIV-prevention interventions for commercial sex workers in India.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To explore how the scale of a project affects both the total costs and average costs of HIV prevention in India. METHODS: Economic cost data and measures of scale (coverage and service volume indicators for number of cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) referred, number of STIs treated, condoms distributed and contacts made with target groups) were collected from 17 interventions run by nongovernmental organizations aimed at commercial sex workers in southern India. Nonparametric methods and regression analyses were used to look at the relationship between total costs, unit costs and scale. FINDINGS: Coverage varied from 250 to 2008 sex workers. Annual costs ranged from US$ 11 274 to US$ 52 793. The median cost per sex worker reached was US$ 19.21 (range = US$ 10.00-51.00). The scale variables explain more than 50% of the variation in unit costs for all of the unit cost measures except cost per contact. Total costs and unit costs have non-linear relationships to scale. CONCLUSION: Average costs vary with the scale of the project. Estimates of resource requirements based on a constant average cost could underestimate or overestimate total costs. The results highlight the importance of improving scale-specific cost information for planning.

Guinness, Lorna; Kumaranayake, Lilani; Rajaraman, Bhuvaneswari; Sankaranarayanan, Girija; Vannela, Gangadhar; Raghupathi, P.; George, Alex

2005-01-01

300

Sociodemographic and risk behavior characteristics associated with unprotected sex with women among black men who have sex with men and women in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to compare sociodemographic and risk behavior characteristics between black men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW) and those who have sex with men only (MSMO) and assess factors associated with having any unprotected vaginal and\\/or anal intercourse (UVAI) with women in the last 3 months. Data from 326 black men

Hong-Van Tieu; Pilgrim Spikes; Jocelyn Patterson; Sebastian Bonner; James E. Egan; Krista Goodman; Kiwan Stewart; Victoria Frye; Guozhen Xu; Donald R. Hoover; Beryl A. Koblin

2012-01-01

301

The Role of Sex Guilt in the Relationship Between Culture and Women’s Sexual Desire  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of literature demonstrates that East Asian women report lower sexual desire than Caucasian women. Although most\\u000a studies have explained these differences by referring to general culture-linked differences in sexual conservatism, none have\\u000a examined the potential role of specific constructs such as sex guilt. The goals of the current study were to examine the supposition\\u000a that sexual conservatism

Jane S. T. Woo; Lori A. Brotto; Boris B. Gorzalka

2011-01-01

302

Mobilizing collective identity to reduce HIV risk among sex workers in Sonagachi, India: The boundaries, consciousness, negotiation framework  

PubMed Central

The significantly low rate of HIV infection and high rate of condom use among sex workers in Kolkata, India is partially attributable to a community-led structural intervention called the Sonagachi Project which mobilizes sex workers to engage in HIV education, formation of community-based organizations and advocacy around sex work issues. This research examines how Sonagachi Project participants mobilize collective identity and the manner in which collective identity influences condom use. Using purposive sampling methods, 46 Sonagachi Project participants were selected in 2005 for in-depth qualitative interviews. Taylor and Whittier’s (Taylor, V & Whittier, N (1992). Collective identities in social movement communities: lesbian feminist mobilization. In A. Morris & C. Mueller (Eds.) Frontiers in social movement theory. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) model of identity-formation through boundaries, consciousness and negotiation was used to interpret results. Subjects mobilized collective identity by (1) building boundaries demarcating in-group sex workers from out-group members, (2) raising consciousness about sex work as legitimate labor and the transformative change that results from program participation, and (3) negotiating identity with out-group members. This research establishes a conceptual link between the boundaries, consciousness and negotiation framework of collective identity mobilization and condom use. Condom use among sex workers is motivated by each element of the boundaries, consciousness and negotiation model: condoms mark boundaries, enunciate the consciousness that sex with clients is legitimate labor, and help negotiate the identity of sex workers in interactions with clients.

Ghose, Toorjo; Swendeman, Dallas; George, Sheba; Chowdhury, Debasish

2010-01-01

303

Can rights stop the wrongs? Exploring the connections between framings of sex workers' rights and sexual and reproductive health  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing interest in the ways in which legal and human rights issues related to sex work affect sex workers’ vulnerability to HIV and abuses including human trafficking and sexual exploitation. International agencies, such as UNAIDS, have called for decriminalisation of sex work because the delivery of sexual and reproductive health services is affected by criminalisation and social exclusion as experienced by sex workers. The paper reflects on the connections in various actors’ framings between sex workers sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and the ways that international law is interpreted in policing and regulatory practices. Methods The literature review that informs this paper was carried out by the authors in the course of their work within the Paulo Longo Research Initiative. The review covered academic and grey literature such as resources generated by sex worker rights activists, UN policy positions and print and online media. The argument in this paper has been developed reflectively through long term involvement with key actors in the field of sex workers’ rights. Results International legislation characterises sex work in various ways which do not always accord with moves toward decriminalisation. Law, policy and regulation at national level and law enforcement vary between settings. The demands of sex worker rights activists do relate to sexual and reproductive health but they place greater emphasis on efforts to remove the structural barriers that limit sex workers’ ability to participate in society on an equal footing with other citizens. Discussion and conclusion There is a tension between those who wish to uphold the rights of sex workers in order to reduce vulnerability to ill-health and those who insist that sex work is itself a violation of rights. This is reflected in contemporary narratives about sex workers’ rights and the ways in which different actors interpret human rights law. The creation of regulatory frameworks around sex work that support health, safety and freedom from abuse requires a better understanding of the broad scope of laws, policies and enforcement practices in different cultural contexts and economic settings, alongside reviews of UN policies and human rights conventions.

2011-01-01

304

Seroincidence and Phylogeny of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in a Cohort of Commercial Sex Workers in Montevideo, Uruguay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cohort study involving 60 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative male transvestite commercial sex workers (CSWs) was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay in 1999 2001. Serum samples were tested for HIV by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening ...

D. Ruchansky J. Vinoles J. C. Russ M. Serra S. Sosa-Estani

2005-01-01

305

Rapid Syphilis Testing Uptake for Female Sex Workers at Sex Venues in Southern China: Implications for Expanding Syphilis Screening  

PubMed Central

Background Accessibility of syphilis testing services is critical in syphilis control programs for female sex workers (FSWs), but few FSWs attend public STI clinics or other testing sites. Introduction of free rapid syphilis testing (RST) into outreach programs for FSWs will help improve test uptake. Methods Commercial sex venues were identified in two cities in South China. In cooperation with health advocacy organizations, health outreach teams from local public health or medical facilities approached all types of sex venues in study areas to offer free RST. Acceptability and uptake of RST among FSWs were evaluated. Results A total of 2812 FSWs were offered RST and 2670 (95.0%) accepted syphilis testing. 182 (6.8%) FSWs had a positive RST result among whom 136 (74.7%) were willing to attend an STD clinic for confirmatory testing and treatment. More than half (89, 66.4%) of those with syphilis were not willing to notify their sex partners. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that syphilis test uptake was associated with residing in Jiangmen (AOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.15–2.77), older age (AOR, 2.11, 95% CI, 1.17–3.79 for age of 31 years or above), and not working at a service venue (AOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.10–2.34). Conclusions RST at sex venues is well accepted by FSWs when it is integrated into ongoing outreach services. Such programs provide excellent opportunities for expanding syphilis screening efforts among specific subgroups of FSW who are difficult to reach through clinic-based programs.

Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Yin, Yue-Ping; Shen, Crystal; Liu, Guo-Gu; Zhu, Zheng-Jun; Wei, Wan-Hui; Wang, Hong-Chun; Huang, Shui-Jie; Li, Jing; Tucker, Joseph D.; Mabey, David C.; Peeling, Rosanna W.

2012-01-01

306

Diversity among Clients of Female Sex Workers in India: Comparing Risk Profiles and Intervention Impact by Site of Solicitation. Implications for the Vulnerability of Less Visible Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

Background It seems generally accepted that targeted interventions in India have been successful in raising condom use between female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients. Data from clients of FSWs have been under-utilised to analyse the risk environments and vulnerability of both partners. Methods The 2009 Integrated Biological and Behavioural Assessment survey sampled clients of FSWs at hotspots in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (n=5040). The risk profile of clients in terms of sexual networking and condom use are compared across usual pick-up place. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the average treatment effect on treated (ATT) of intervention messages on clients’ consistent condom use with FSW. Results Clients of the more hidden sex workers who solicit from home or via phone or agents had more extensive sexual networks, reporting casual female partners as well as anal intercourse with male partners and FSW. Clients of brothel-based sex workers, who were the least educated, reported the fewest number/categories of partners, least anal sex, and lowest condom use (41%). Consistent condom use varied widely by state: 65% in Andhra Pradesh, 36% in Maharashtra and 29% in Tamil Nadu. Exposure to intervention messages on sexually transmitted infections was lowest among men frequenting brothels (58%), and highest among men soliciting less visible sex workers (70%). Exposure had significant impact on consistent condom use, including among clients of home-based sex workers (ATT 21%; p=0.001) and among men soliciting other more hidden FSW (ATT 17%; p=0.001). In Tamil Nadu no impact could be demonstrated. Conclusion Commercial sex happens between two partners and both need to be, and can be, reached by intervention messages. Commercial sex is still largely unprotected and as the sex industry gets more diffuse a greater focus on reaching clients of sex workers seems important given their extensive sexual networks.

Suryawanshi, Dipak; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Deshpande, Sucheta; Zhou, Weiwei; Singh, Pankaj; Collumbien, Martine

2013-01-01

307

Risks, benefits and survival strategies-views from female sex workers in Savannakhet, Laos  

PubMed Central

Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Savannakhet province in Laos. Methods Five focus group discussions (FGDs) and seven interviews were conducted with FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Laos. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed text. Results The results revealed that the FSWs were aware of risks but they also talked about benefits related to their work. The risks were grouped into six categories: STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, stigma, violence, being cheated, and social and economic insecurity. The reported benefits were financial security, fulfilling social obligations, and sexual pleasure. The FSWs reported using a number of strategies to reduce risks and increase benefits. Conclusions The desire to be self-sufficient and earn as much money as possible put the FSWs in disadvantaged and vulnerable situations. Fear of financial insecurity, obligations to support one’s family and the need to secure the future influenced FSWs’ decisions to have safe or unsafe sex. The FSWs were, however, not only victims. They also had some control over their lives and working environment, with most viewing their work as an easy and good way of earning money.

2012-01-01

308

Condom use during commercial sex among clients of Hijra sex workers in Karachi, Pakistan (cross-sectional study)  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the prevalence and predictors of condom use and sexual risk in the male clients of Hijra sex workers (HSWs) in Karachi, Pakistan. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Karachi, Pakistan. Participants Clients of HSWs were recruited with assistance from HSWs and a non-governmental organisation (NGO) focused on men who have sex with men (MSM) during October–November 2010. Measurements The interviewer administered the questionnaire to each participant to solicit information on demographics, HIV/AIDS knowledge/attitudes and sexual risk behaviours/practices, including condom use in the last sexual act with the HSW. Results Of the 203 participants, 42.4% reported that they used condoms during their last sexual act with HSW, 40% were married, 18% had ever used drugs or alcohol, and 52% reported also engaging with female sex workers in the last month. Casual HSW clients were more likely to use condoms than regular clients (adjusted OR (AOR), 2.50; 95% CI 1.34 to 4.65), as were persons with a higher education level (AOR 5.8; 95% CI 1.6 to 20.3). Drug/alcohol users and non-users were equally likely to use condoms (AOR 1.11; 95% CI 0.51 to 2.24). Conclusion Clients of HSWs in Pakistan are at risk of acquiring HIV/STI infections. Concerted efforts are needed to increase condom use in this key bridge population to curtail the spread of HIV in the general population.

Qian, Han-Zhu; Altaf, Arshad; Cassell, Holly; Shah, Sharaf Ali; Vermund, Sten H

2011-01-01

309

HIV, HBV, and HCV Infections Among Drug-Involved, Inner-City, Street Sex Workers in Miami, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the rates of HIV, HBV, and HCV seropositivity among drug-involved, female street sex workers in low-income, inner-city sections of Miami, Florida; further, their sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, and sexual risk behaviors were assessed; and predictors of infection were reported. A sample of 586 sex workers was recruited through targeted sampling methods, interviewed, and counseled and tested for

James A. Inciardi; Hilary L. Surratt; Steven P. Kurtz

2006-01-01

310

Understanding the diversity of male clients of sex workers in China and the implications for HIV prevention programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male clients of sex workers have been overlooked in China's HIV prevention efforts. This study aims to examine men's practices and attitudes toward extramarital sexual relationships, motivations for visiting female sex workers (FSWs), perceptions of sexually transmitted infection (STI)\\/HIV risk and risk prevention strategies used. One hundred and eighty-six clients of FSWs with varying socio-economic statuses were interviewed in different

Yingying Huang; Suzanne Maman; Suiming Pan

2012-01-01

311

Invasive pneumococcal disease in a cohort of predominantly HIV1 infected female sex-workers in Nairobi, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground HIV infection is a major risk factor for pneumococcal disease in industrialised countries. Although both are common infections in sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have investigated the importance of this interaction. We have followed up a cohort of female sex-workers in Nairobi and report here on the extent of invasive pneumococcal disease.Methods A well-established cohort of low-class female sex-workers, based

C. F Gilks; S. A Ojoo; J. C Ojoo; R. J Brindle; J Paul; B. I. F Batchelor; J. N Kimari; R Newnham; J Bwayo; F. A Plummer; D. A Warrell

1996-01-01

312

An outreach programme for sexually transmitted infection screening in street sex workers using self-administered samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Street sex workers represent an at-risk group of individuals who ® nd it dif® cult to access mainstream health services. This was a cross-sectional study of street sex workers in Melbourne, Australia using a self-administered method to detect chlamydial, gonorrhoea and trichomonas infections. Of the 81 individuals approached, 63 (78%) (95% CI: 67± 86%) agreed to participate. Overall, 87%

A N Morton; T Wakefield; S N Tabrizi; S M Garland; C K Fairley

1999-01-01

313

Experience of violence and adverse reproductive health outcomes, HIV risks among mobile female sex workers in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Female sex workers (FSWs) are a population sub-group most affected by the HIV epidemic in India and elsewhere. Despite research\\u000a and programmatic attention to FSWs, little is known regarding sex workers' reproductive health and HIV risk in relation to\\u000a their experiences of violence. This paper therefore aims to understand the linkages between violence and the reproductive\\u000a health and HIV risks

Suvakanta N Swain; Niranjan Saggurti; Madhusudana Battala; Ravi K Verma; Anrudh K Jain

2011-01-01

314

Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers and Male Clients: An Integrative Review of Global Literature  

PubMed Central

Aims: To review the patterns, contexts and impacts of alcohol use associated with commercial sex reported in the global literature. Methods: We identified peer-reviewed English-language articles from 1980 to 2008 reporting alcohol consumption among female sex workers (FSWs) or male clients. We retrieved 70 articles describing 76 studies, in which 64 were quantitative (52 for FSWs, 12 for male clients) and 12 qualitative. Results: Studies increased over the past three decades, with geographic concentration of the research in Asia and North America. Alcohol use was prevalent among FSWs and clients. Integrating quantitative and qualitative studies, multilevel contexts of alcohol use in the sex work environment were identified, including workplace and occupation-related use, the use of alcohol to facilitate the transition into and practice of commercial sex among both FSWs and male clients, and self-medication among FSWs. Alcohol use was associated with adverse physical health, illicit drug use, mental health problems, and victimization of sexual violence, although its associations with HIV/sexually transmitted infections and unprotected sex among FSWs were inconclusive. Conclusions: Alcohol use in the context of commercial sex is prevalent, harmful among FSWs and male clients, but under-researched. Research in this area in more diverse settings and with standardized measures is required. The review underscores the importance of integrated intervention for alcohol use and related problems in multilevel contexts and with multiple components in order to effectively reduce alcohol use and its harmful effects among FSWs and their clients.

Li, Qing; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

2010-01-01

315

WOMEN AND CHILDREN LAST: SEX TRAFFICKING AND SEX OFFENSES: PROSECUTION OF SEX TRAFFICKERS AS SEX OFFENDERS: THE NEED FOR A SEX TRAFFICKER REGISTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to explore the application of U.S. sex offender laws to the sex traffickers. Sex offender laws seek to dramatically decrease recidivism of sex offenders. Applying sex offender laws to sex traffickers could have the same deterrent effect. This article is divided into seven sections. Part one defines human trafficking. Part two analyzes three different

Geneva O Brown

2011-01-01

316

WOMEN AND CHILDREN LAST: SEX TRAFFICKING AND SEX OFFENSES: PROSECUTION OF SEX TRAFFICKERS AS SEX OFFENDERS: THE NEED FOR A SEX TRAFFICKER REGISTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to explore the application of U.S. sex offender laws to the sex traffickers. Sex offender laws seek to dramatically decrease recidivism of sex offenders. Applying sex offender laws to sex traffickers could have the same deterrent effect. This article is divided into seven sections. Part one defines human trafficking. Part two analyzes three different

Geneva O Brown

2010-01-01

317

Human rights of migrant women workers in janitorial services and night clubs : A case of North Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To discuss the gender dimension of migration and human rights, and to provide an assessment of how to improve human rights protections for migrant women workers in janitorial services and night clubs across registered and unregistered migrant women workers in North Cyprus. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey is done to establish the employment conditions of migrant women workers in

Fatma Güven-Lisaniler; Sevin U?ural; Leopoldo Rodríguez

2008-01-01

318

Setting Occupational Sex Segregation in Motion: Demand-Side Explanations of Sex Traditional Employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The employment of women in female-dominated occupations and men in male-dominated occu- pations (sex traditional employment) is a fundamental source of economic sex inequality. Despite this, we know little about how organizational practices and policies link workers to sex traditional jobs. The author tests theoretically hypothesized determinants of sex traditional employment using data on the sex of the last hire

JULIE A. KMEC

2005-01-01

319

Risks and prevention of sexually transmissible infections among women who have sex with women.  

PubMed

Health care providers working with women who have sex with women (WSW) have been ill-informed about a range of sexual health issues for these women. Pertinent issues include sexual behaviours that carry risks of sexually transmissible infection (STI), prevention strategies for safer sex and understanding experiences of abuse. A relative silence continues in all of these areas within the mainstream medical literature, textbooks, research and policy documents, which perpetuates medical ignorance. There is evidence that the prevalence of STIs among WSW is at least as high as among heterosexual women, if not higher among some sub-groups. Risk factors include the sex and number of sexual partners, minimal use of protected sexual behaviours and low levels of knowledge of STI prevention among WSW. Importantly, marginalisation leading to poorer mental health and experiences of abuse can combine to influence risk taking including substance abuse and risky sexual behaviours. Safe-sex guidelines and the need to recognise the impact of sexual abuse are presented. PMID:16402667

McNair, Ruth

2005-01-01

320

Degrading Content and Character Sex: Accounting for Men and Women’s Differential Reactions to Pornography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines sex differences in arousal to non?violent sexually explicit videos and viewers’ perceptions of the character traits that distinguish degrading from non?degrading content. Men and women were exposed to either neutral, erotic or nonviolent pornographic video clips then administered a questionnaire assessing subjective arousal and perceptions of male and female characters. Nonviolent pornographic videos were characterized by perceptions

Jack Glascock

2005-01-01

321

Prevalence and correlates of non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners among HIV-infected female sex workers and HIV-infected male clients of female sex workers in India.  

PubMed

This study examines non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners among HIV-infected adults involved with transactional sex in Mumbai, India. Surveys were conducted with HIV-infected female sex workers (n = 211) and infected male clients (n = 205) regarding HIV knowledge, awareness of sex partners' HIV serostatus, alcohol use, transactional sex involvement post-HIV diagnosis and non-disclosure of HIV serostatus. Gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models were used for analysis. Non-disclosure of one's serostatus to all sex partners was reported by almost three-fifths of females and two-fifths of males. Predictors of non-disclosure included lack of correct knowledge about HIV and no knowledge of sex partners' HIV serostatus. Among females, recent alcohol consumption also predicted non-disclosure. Among males, 10 + paid sexual partners in the year following HIV diagnosis predicted non-disclosure. Secondary HIV prevention efforts in India require greater focus on HIV disclosure communication and integrated alcohol and sexual risk reduction. PMID:22810892

Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Cheng, Debbie M; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Battala, Madhusudana; Silverman, Jay G; Pardeshi, Manoj H; Samet, Jeffrey H

2013-01-01

322

On his terms: representations of sexuality in women's magazines and the implications for negotiating safe sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on sexual content in women's magazines has identified dominant ideologies that promote sexual role stereotypes and privilege masculinity. We extend this analysis in a thematic analysis to examine representations of sex in two best selling Australian women's magazines and to examine how such ideologies may reduce women's abilities to negotiate safe sex. One main theme – hetero monogamy –

Claire Moran; Christina Lee

2011-01-01

323

Young Women, Local Authority Care and Selling Sex: Findings from Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers, practitioners and policy makers have noted the disproportionate number of young women with backgrounds of local authority care who are involved in commercial sex. However, the lack of knowledge about why this occurs means that there is little evidence with which to develop interventions. This article describes research that explored young women’s routes into the sex industry from local

Maddy Coy

2008-01-01

324

Local Representatives in Connecticut: Sex Differences in Attitudes towards Women's Rights Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research investigated the relationship of a person's sex to his or her public policy preferences, with particular regard to women's issues. Women's issues are reflected in public policy which directly affects women's lives. Examples are day care facilities, sex bias of educational materials, and abortion facilities. The study was conducted to…

Mezey, Susan Gluck

325

Quality of life in 70 women with disorders of sex development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life and psychosocial well-being in women with disorders of sex development (DSD). Design: An open case-control study. Methods: Social and psychiatric information was collected via a structured interview from 70 Danish women diagnosed with DSD, 70 controls matched on sex, age, and school education, and six women with

Trine H Johannsen; Caroline P L Ripa; Erik L Mortensen; Katharina M Main

2006-01-01

326

Nontraditional sex role aspirations, gender identity conflict, and disordered eating among college women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies point directly to the role played by sex roles and indirectly to the role played by gender identity in the onset of disordered eating. In this study, women who report adhering to nontraditional sex role aspirations are almost twice as likely as other women to report purging or frequent bingeing. Women who exhibit gender identity conflict by drawing

Brett Silverstein; Shari Carpman; Deborah Perlick; Lauren Perdue

1990-01-01

327

Seroprevalence of HSV-1 and 2 among sex workers attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Singapore.  

PubMed

We studied the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and 2 in sex workers attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Singapore and examined their knowledge and attitudes towards HSV infection. A total of 300 participants were recruited. Questionnaires were administered and blood was taken and analysed, using the HerpeSelect 1 and 2 Elisa IgG assays (type-specific serological test). HSV-1 serology was positive in 230 (76.7%), negative in 67 (22.3%) sex workers and indeterminate in three (1.0%) sex workers. HSV-2 serology was positive in 237 (79.0%) and negative in 63 (21.0%) sex workers. On univariate analysis, there was significant association between HSV-2 seropositivity and increasing age, nationality (locals) (P<0.001) and marital status (P<0.01). Adjusting for age, marital status and condom use, HSV-2 prevalence increased significantly with duration of years of practice of sex work. Most of the respondents (86.0%) were aware that HSV could be spread through sex without a condom and about two-thirds of them were aware that HSV could be spread in the absence of symptoms. In conclusion, HSV-2 is a common infection among sex workers in Singapore with the risk increasing with years of practice. PMID:16734962

Theng, T S C; Sen, P R; Tan, H H; Wong, M L; Chan, K W R

2006-06-01

328

Condom Negotiations among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Environmental Influences  

PubMed Central

Background Social and structural influences of condom negotiation among female sex workers (FSWs) remain understudied. This study assesses environmental and individual factors associated with condom negotiation among FSWs at high risk for acquiring HIV in a large urban setting of Metro Manila, Philippines. Methods Female bar/spa workers (N?=?498), aged 18 and over, underwent interview-led surveys examining their sexual health practices in the context of their risk environments. Data were collected from April 2009-January 2010 from 54 venues. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to assess socio-behavioral factors (e.g., age, education, length of time employed as an entertainer, and alcohol/drug use) and socio-structural factors (e.g., venue-level peer/manager support, condom rule/availability, and sex trafficking) associated with condom negotiation, adjusting for individuals nested within venues. Results Of 142 FSWs who traded sex in the previous 6 months (included in the analysis), 24% did not typically negotiate condom use with venue patrons. Factors in the physical environment - trafficked/coerced into work (AOR?=?12.92, 95% CI?=?3.34–49.90), economic environment - sex without a condom to make more money (AOR?=?1.52, 95% CI 1.01–2.30), policy environment - sex without a condom because none was available (AOR?=?2.58, 95% CI?=?1.49–4.48), and individual risk - substance use (AOR?=?2.36, 95% CI?=?1.28–4.35) were independently associated with FSWs' lack of condom negotiation with venue patrons. Conclusions Factors in the physical, economic, and policy environments, over individual (excepting substance use) and social level factors, were significantly associated with these FSWs' condom negotiations in the Philippines. Drawing upon Rhodes' risk environment framework, these results highlight the need for policies that support safer sex negotiations among sex workers in the context of their risk environments. Interventions should reduce barriers to condom negotiation for FSWs trafficked/coerced into their work, substance using, and impacted by economic conditions and policies that do not support condom availability.

Urada, Lianne A.; Morisky, Donald E.; Pimentel-Simbulan, Nymia; Silverman, Jay G.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2012-01-01

329

High Lifetime Pregnancy and Low Contraceptive Usage Among Sex Workers Who Use Drugs- An Unmet Reproductive Health Need  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to describe levels of pregnancy and contraceptive usage among a cohort of street-based female sex workers (FSWs) in Vancouver. Methods The study sample was obtained from a community-based prospective cohort study (2006-2008) of 211 women in street-based sex work who use drugs, 176 of whom had reported at least one prior pregnancy. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate lifetime pregnancy prevalence, pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage, abortion, adoption, child apprehension, child custody), and contraceptive usage. In secondary analyses, associations between contraceptive usage, individual and interpersonal risk factors and high number of lifetime pregnancies (defined as greater than the sample mean of 4) were examined. Results Among our sample, 84% reported a prior pregnancy, with a mean of 4 lifetime pregnancies (median = 3; IQR: 2-5). The median age of women reporting 5+ pregnancies was 38 years old [interquartile range (IQR): 25.0-39.0] compared to 34 years [IQR: 25.0-39.0] among women reporting 4 or fewer prior pregnancies. 45% were Caucasian and 47% were of Aboriginal ancestry. We observed high rates of previous abortion (median = 1;IQR:1-3), apprehension (median = 2; IQR:1-4) and adoption (median = 1; IQR:1-2) among FSWs who reported prior pregnancy. The use of hormonal and insertive contraceptives was limited. In bivariate analysis, tubal ligation (OR = 2.49; [95%CI = 1.14-5.45]), and permanent contraceptives (e.g., tubal ligation and hysterectomy) (OR = 2.76; [95%CI = 1.36-5.59]) were both significantly associated with having five or more pregnancies. Conclusion These findings demonstrate high levels of unwanted pregnancy in the context of low utilization of effective contraceptives and suggest a need to improve the accessibility and utilization of reproductive health services, including family planning, which are appropriately targeted and tailored for FSWs in Vancouver.

2011-01-01

330

Psychotherapy with Women Who Have Worked in the "Sex Industry"  

PubMed Central

Psychotherapy is effective for a myriad of mental health symptoms, with the clinical situation dictating the most applicable method. For episodes of severe stress including acute depression and anxiety, supportive mechanisms (crisis interventions and shoring up existing coping skills and strategies) may be the best fit. During periods of relatively milder symptomatology a psychodynamic approach may be utilized with the same patient (focusing on self-reflection and a more in-depth exploration). This article focuses on the use of psychotherapy with women working in the sex industry, whether indoor (such as strip clubs and cabarets) or outdoor (such as prostitution and escort services). These women frequently experience violence in various forms, and most report multiple traumatic experiences, both during their developmental years and while working in the industry. A composite case is included that illustrates some of the supportive and psychodynamic psychotherapy techniques that can be applied when treating these individuals.

Anklesaria, Ariz

2012-01-01

331

Psychotherapy with women who have worked in the "sex industry".  

PubMed

Psychotherapy is effective for a myriad of mental health symptoms, with the clinical situation dictating the most applicable method. For episodes of severe stress including acute depression and anxiety, supportive mechanisms (crisis interventions and shoring up existing coping skills and strategies) may be the best fit. During periods of relatively milder symptomatology a psychodynamic approach may be utilized with the same patient (focusing on self-reflection and a more in-depth exploration). This article focuses on the use of psychotherapy with women working in the sex industry, whether indoor (such as strip clubs and cabarets) or outdoor (such as prostitution and escort services). These women frequently experience violence in various forms, and most report multiple traumatic experiences, both during their developmental years and while working in the industry. A composite case is included that illustrates some of the supportive and psychodynamic psychotherapy techniques that can be applied when treating these individuals. PMID:23198274

Anklesaria, Ariz; Gentile, Julie P

2012-10-01

332

Is Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) Useful in Risk Behaviour Assessment of Female and Male Sex Workers, Mombasa, Kenya?  

PubMed Central

Background Audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) may elicit more frequent reporting of socially sensitive behaviours than face-to-face (FtF)-interview. However, no study compared responses to both methods in female and male sex workers (FSW; MSW) in Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequentially enrolled adults recruited for an HIV-1 intervention trial into a comparative study of ACASI and FtF-interview, in a clinic near Mombasa, Kenya. Feasibility and acceptability of ACASI, and a comparative analysis of enrolment responses between ACASI and FtF on an identical risk assessment questionnaire were evaluated. In total, 139 women and 259 men, 81% of eligible cohort participants, completed both interviews. ACASI captured a higher median number of regular (2 vs. 1, p<0.001, both genders) and casual partners in the last week (3 vs. 2, p?=?0.04 in women; 2 vs. 1, p<0.001 in men). Group sex (21.6 vs. 13.5%, p<0.001, in men), intravenous drug use (IDU; 10.8 vs. 2.3%, p<0.001 in men; 4.4 vs. 0%, p?=?0.03 in women), and rape (8.9 vs. 3.9%, p?=?0.002, in men) were reported more frequently in ACASI. A surprisingly high number of women reported in ACASI that they had paid for sex (49.3 vs. 5.8%, p<0.001). Behaviours for recruitment (i.e. anal sex, sex work, sex between males) were reported less frequently in ACASI. The majority of women (79.2%) and men (69.7%) felt that answers given in ACASI were more honest. Volunteers who were not able to take ACASI (84 men, and 37 women) mostly lacked reading skills. Conclusions/Significance About 1 in 5 cohort participants was not able to complete ACASI, mostly for lack of reading skills. Participants who completed ACASI were more likely to report IDU, rape, group sex, and payment for sex by women than when asked in FtF interview. ACASI appears to be a useful tool for high risk behaviour assessments in the African context.

van der Elst, Elisabeth M.; Okuku, Haile Selassie; Nakamya, Phellister; Muhaari, Allan; Davies, Alun; McClelland, R. Scott; Price, Matthew A.; Smith, Adrian D.; Graham, Susan M.; Sanders, Eduard J.

2009-01-01

333

Women are Victims, Men Make Choices: The Invisibility of Men and Boys in the Global Sex Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invisibility of men and boys in scholarly discussions of the global sex trade was analyzed through a sample of 166 recent\\u000a articles published in social science journals. Most failed to acknowledge the existence of male sex workers at all. When male\\u000a sex workers were discussed, they were assigned considerably more agency than female sex workers, the chief danger ascribed

Jeffery P. Dennis

2008-01-01

334

Chinese Immigrant Women Workers' Mediated Negotiations With Constraints On Their Cultural Identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on ethnographic fieldwork, this study examines the cultural identities of Chinese immigrant women workers in American society, that is, how the women negotiate with white supremacist cultural values that seek to interpellate them through their everyday use of media. I argue that through certain Chinese ethnic newspapers' cultural discourses, white supremacist cultural values penetrate the women's private lives and

Yu Shi

2008-01-01

335

Selective Sexual Harassment: Differential Treatment of Similar Groups of Women Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

If male workers categorize different groups of women coworkers and, subsequently, treat them differently, the experiences of women from one of these groups would not be indicative of the experiences of women from another group. When this different treatment involves hostile environment sexual harassment of one group, but not the other, then the law must recognize the possibility of “selective

Elizabeth A. Hoffmann

2004-01-01

336

Assessment of the Utilization of HIV Interventions by Sex Workers in Selected Brothels in Bangladesh: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative study of brothel-based Female Sex Workers (FSWs), the authors explored factors that influence safe sex practices of FSWs within an integrated HIV intervention. Qualitative methods, including focus group discussions (FGDs), in-depth interviews and key informant interviews were applied in four brothels in Bangladesh. Young and…

Huq, Nafisa Lira; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi

2012-01-01

337

Clients of Female Sex Workers in Lima, Peru A Bridge Population for Sexually Transmitted Disease\\/HIV Transmission?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the prev- alence of risk behaviors, gonorrhea, and chlamydia in clients of female sex workers, and to compare them with men selected from the general population. Study Design: We conducted a cross-sectional study of men re- cruited from commercial sex venues in Lima, Peru from January to February 2002. Subjects answered

GREGG A. MILLER; WALTER MENDOZA; MELISSA R. KRONE; RENA MEZA; CARLOS F. CACERES; THOMAS J. COATES; JEFFREY D. KLAUSNER

338

Sex and the global fund: how sex workers, lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender people, and men who have sex with men are benefiting from the Global Fund, or not.  

PubMed

The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has allowed countries to bring their response to HIV/AIDS to an unprecedented scale, resulting in innovative projects that reach otherwise underserved communities with HIV prevention, treatment, and care. But in regions and countries where sex workers, men who have sex with men, or lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons are criminalized or stigmatized, organizations that are led by or work with these groups face challenges participating in Global Fund processes and accessing funding. This article explores the potential of the Global Fund to create space for the participation of these groups in decision-making and to increase their access to resources; examines barriers that hinder their participation; and proposes measures to overcome them. PMID:20845864

Fried, Susana T; Kowalski-Morton, Shannon

2008-01-01

339

"I do what I have to do to survive": An investigation into the perceptions, experiences and economic considerations of women engaged in sex work in Northern Namibia  

PubMed Central

Background There is little published research investigating sex work in Namibia, particularly in rural areas. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to determine the views of women engaged in sex work in the Oshakati area of Namibia concerning the main factors influencing their use, or non-use, of male condoms during transactional sexual exchanges. Methods Qualitative interviews were used to better understand the perceptions, experiences and economic considerations of female sex workers in Namibia who were involved in a Behavior Change Communication Program encouraging safer sex practices among high-risk populations in 2006 and 2007. Results While the Behavior Change Communication Program has made significant strides in educating and empowering young women to negotiate more consistent condom use with sexual partners, the gendered economic inequalities and power imbalances within rural and semi-urban Namibian society that favor men hinder further advancement towards positive behavioral change for HIV prevention and also hinder the development of the loving relationships sought by some sex workers. Conclusion This study found that sex workers and transactional sex encounters are heterogeneous entities dependent upon the characteristics of the man (known, stranger, wealthy, attractive to the woman) and the woman (in financial need, desiring love). These features all influence condom use. The 3 E's 'education, empowerment and economic independence' are critical factors needed to encourage and facilitate consistent condom use to prevent HIV transmission. Without financial independence and occupational alternatives building on their health education and empowerment, women who engage in sex work-and transactional sex more generally-will remain largely marginalized from Namibian society, and will continue engaging in risky sexual practices that facilitate HIV acquisition and transmission throughout the community.

2011-01-01

340

A profile of clients of male sex workers in Córdoba, Argentina.  

PubMed

This paper provides a profile of clients seen by male sex workers (MSWs) in Córdoba, Argentina. Thirty-two MSWs completed a diary after each paid sexual encounter with a client over a two-week period. The results show that 254 commercial sex encounters were reported. More than half of these encounters were with first time clients. The most common source of recruiting clients was advertisements followed by street contact. The majority of the clients were aged in their 30s or 20s, and identified as 'middle class' and 'bisexual' or 'gay'. In the majority of the encounters, alcohol or drugs were not used by clients, and in about less than half of the cases, the MSWs had some personal tracing information about the client. Most of the clients indicated to the MSW what sexual activity they wanted and unsafe anal sex was requested in a minority (6%) of the encounters. While most workers reported having no or little attraction to the client, most indicated that they would serve the client again. The implications of the results for public health education and further research are discussed. PMID:15075022

Mariño, Rodrigo; Minichiello, Victor; Disogra, Carlos

2004-04-01

341

Predictors of willingness to use HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among female sex workers in Southwest China.  

PubMed

This research examined predictors of willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among female sex workers (FSW) in Southwest China. The final sample included 395 women (mean age=26.73 years, SD=6.74 years) who were predominantly of Han majority ethnicity (84.6%) and had completed middle-school education or lower (63.0%). Participants were recruited initially from commercial sex venues (e.g., saunas, massage parlors) in the cities of Nanchang, Luizhou, Nanning, Urumqi, and Karamay as well as two districts of Chongqing municipality and subsequently via snowball procedures. They completed a battery of self-report measures assessing beliefs about HIV and PrEP, psychosocial influences, demographics and willingness to use HIV PrEP. Willingness to use HIV PrEP was predicted by high levels of trust in physicians and more reported unmet interpersonal belongingness needs. Beyond these factors, willing and unwilling groups were differentiated on the basis of intervention-specific beliefs (perceived stigma and self-efficacy in use of PrEP). Together, findings suggested interpersonal factors should be considered in concert with perceptions of intervention characteristics in assessing motivations to enroll in PrEP within this particular at-risk group. PMID:23062151

Jackson, Todd; Huang, Ailong; Chen, Hong; Gao, Xiao; Zhang, Yan; Zhong, Xiaoni

2012-10-15

342

Condom access: Associations with consistent condom use among female sex workers in two northern border cities of Mexico.  

PubMed

To determine whether condom access is associated with consistent condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, between 2004 and 2006 we administered a questionnaire to 924 FSWs who reported unprotected sex with a client in the past 2 months. Of these women, 43% reported consistent ("often" or "always") condom use, 74% said condoms were available, and 38% reported having access to free condoms. In a logistic regression, factors positively associated with consistent condom use were condom availability (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32-3.03), condom affordability (AOR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.25-2.38) and self-efficacy (AOR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.54-3.04). Factors inversely associated with consistent condom use included poor financial status (AOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47-0.90), methamphetamine use (AOR = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.40-0.83), alcohol use (AOR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.96), and recent injection drug use (AOR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39-0.97). While increased condom availability may improve condom use among FSWs in general, interventions to broaden condom use among lower income and drug-using FSWs are critically needed. PMID:20973665

Muñoz, Fátima A; Pollini, Robin A; Zúñiga, María Luisa; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Martínez, Gustavo A; Valles-Medina, Ana M; Sirotin, Nicole; Patterson, Thomas L

2010-10-01

343

HIV/AIDS-related sexual risks and migratory status among female sex workers in a rural Chinese county.  

PubMed

Currently, there are millions of female sex workers (FSWs) in China and these women play a critical role in the escalating HIV epidemic in the country. Existing studies revealed high mobility of this population, but data on the relationship of FSWs' migratory status and their HIV/AIDS-related sexual risks are limited. A cross-sectional survey was administered among 454 FSWs in a rural county of Guangxi, China. Sexual risks and current infections of sexually transmitted disease (STD) were compared among local FSWs (i.e. those who were the county residents or from other parts of Guangxi) and those FSWs who migrated from outside Guangxi. Data reveal that local FSWs were younger, less educated and newer to the sex industry, and had more sexual risks and higher rates of STDs compared to migrant FSWs. This relationship remains significant after controlling for potential confounders. A higher level of sexual risks and STDs among local FSWs than migrant FSWs in the rural Chinese county suggests the need to examine the relationship between migratory status and HIV/AIDS-related risks within specific social and cultural contexts. The data also underscore an urgent need for culturally appropriate HIV/AIDS-prevention intervention efforts among FSWs in rural or less developed areas in China. PMID:19229691

Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Hongmei; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Ran

2009-02-01

344

Drug sharing with clients as a risk marker for increased violence and sexual and drug-related harms among survival sex workers.  

PubMed

Previous studies have described links between violence, decreased condom use and drug sharing among intimate partners, though limited information exists about the predictors of drug sharing among female sex workers and their clients. The following analysis explored the association between sharing illicit drugs with clients and sexual and drug-related harms among survival sex workers. A total of 198 women participated in interview-administered questionnaires and confidential HIV testing. Of the total, 117 (59%) reported sharing drugs with clients/johns in the last six months and crack cocaine was the primary drug shared (n=108). In logistic regression analysis, sharing drugs with clients/johns was associated with borrowing a used crack pipe (AOR=5.63; 95%CI: 2.71-9.44; p<0.001), intensive/daily crack cocaine smoking (AOR=3.78; 95%CI:1.60-8.92; p<0.002), inconsistent condom use by a client/john (AOR=3.17; 95%CI:1.48-6.77; p<0.003) and having a recent bad date (verbal harassment, physical and/or sexual assault) (AOR=2.71; 95%CI:1.17-6.32; p=0.021). Sharing illicit drugs with clients/johns may be a crucial risk marker for increased violence and sexual and drug-related harms among survival sex workers. HIV prevention and harm reduction initiatives targeting both women and clients/johns are urgently needed, including enhanced support for community and peer-driven sex work initiatives, to address some of the structural facilitators for HIV transmission. PMID:18293134

Shannon, K; Kerr, T; Bright, V; Gibson, K; Tyndall, M W

2008-02-01

345

Use of barrier protection for sexual activity among women who have sex with women  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the frequency and associations of barrier protection use during sexual activity in a population of women who have sex with women (WSW). Methods WSW were invited to participate in an international internet-based survey. Information regarding ethnodemographics, sexual health, and barrier use during sexual activities was collected. Results The study cohort comprised 1557 participants. Barrier use was least prevalent during digital genital stimulation (11.3% ever used barriers) and most prevalent during stimulation with a sex toy (34.4% ever used barriers). Univariate analysis revealed that women in non-monogamous relationships were more likely than monogamous women to always use barrier protection for sexual activity (14.3% vs 3.5%). On multivariate analysis, there was no association between barrier use and frequency of casual sexual activity or history of sexually transmitted infection. Small associations were noted between barrier use and certain sexual activities, age, race, and number of partners. Conclusion Many WSW do not use barrier protection during sexual activity, even in the context of potentially risky sexual behaviors. Safer-sex practices among WSW merit increased attention from healthcare providers and public health researchers.

Rowen, Tami S.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Lin, Tzu-Chin; Li, Chin-Shang; Robertson, Patricia A.; Shindel, Alan W.

2013-01-01

346

'Where sex ends and emotions begin': love and HIV risk among female sex workers and their intimate, non-commercial partners along the Mexico-US border.  

PubMed

This study explores the affective dimensions of female sex workers' relationships with their intimate, non-commercial partners and assesses how emotions shape each partner's sexual and drug-related risk within their relationship. We draw on qualitative data from a study of HIV, sexually transmitted infections and high-risk behaviours among female sex workers and their non-commercial partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, to illustrate that these couples share relationships based on love, trust, respect and emotional and material support. These relationships range in emotional intensity, which shapes partners' decisions not to use condoms with each other. Drugs were important in most couples' relationships. Among injectors, syringe sharing was common and represented both a sign of care and a pragmatic reaction to conditions of material scarcity. Our findings suggest that couple-based HIV interventions to address dual sexual and drug-related risks should be tailored to the emotional dynamics of sex workers' intimate relationships. PMID:23473586

Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Robertson, Angela M; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Rangel, M Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

2013-03-11

347

Inconsistent condom use among young men who have sex with men, male sex workers, and transgenders in Thailand.  

PubMed

Young men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV infection. We investigated inconsistent condom use among 827 sexually active young MSM (15-24 years), enrolled using venue-day-time sampling in Bangkok, Chiang Mai and Phuket, Thailand. Data was collected using palmtop computer-assisted self-interviewing. Of participants, 33.1% were regular MSM, 37.7% were male sex workers (MSWs) and 29.1% were transgenders (TGs). Of MSM, 46.7%, of MSWs, 34.9% and of TGs, 52.3% reported recent inconsistent condom use. In multivariate analysis, receptive anal intercourse (MSM, MSWs), receptive and insertive anal intercourse, living alone and a history of sexual coercion (MSWs), not carrying a condom when interviewed (MSM, TGs), lower education, worrying about HIV infection and a history of sexually transmitted infections (TGs) were significantly and independently associated with inconsistent condom use. Interventions for young MSM are needed and must consider the distinct risk factors of MSM, MSWs, and TGs. PMID:20387981

Chemnasiri, Tareerat; Netwong, Taweesak; Visarutratana, Surasing; Varangrat, Anchalee; Li, Andrea; Phanuphak, Praphan; Jommaroeng, Rapeepun; Akarasewi, Pasakorn; van Griensven, Frits

2010-04-01

348

Risks for Acquisition of Bacterial Vaginosis Among Women Who Report Sex with Women: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in women who have sex with women. While cross-sectional data support a role for sexual transmission, risks for incident BV have not been prospectively studied in this group. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied risks for BV acquisition in a prospective cohort study of women (age 16–35 years) who reported sex with other women (?1 partner, prior year). Women were followed for one year with examinations at quarterly visits and for genital symptoms at any time. Species-specific 16S rRNA gene PCRs for BV-associated bacteria (BVAB) were applied to vaginal fluid obtained at enrollment. Sexual behaviors were ascertained by computer-assisted interview. Of 335 participants, 239 had no BV at baseline; 199 were seen in follow-up (median follow-up 355 days, 4.0 visits/subject). Forty women experienced ?1 BV episode. Risks for incident BV were presentation ?14 days since onset of menses (hazard ratio (HR) 2.3 (95% CI, 1.2–4.7), report of new sex partner with BV history (HR 3.63 (1.1–11.9)), change in vaginal discharge (HR 2.6 (1.3–5.2)) and detection of any of several BVAB in vaginal fluid at enrollment, including BVAB1 (HR 6.3 (1.4–28.1)), BVAB2 (HR 18.2 (6.4–51.8)), BVAB3 (HR 12.6 (2.7–58.4)), G. vaginalis (HR 3.9 (1.5–10.4)), Atopobium vaginae (HR 4.2 (1.9–9.3)), Leptotrichia spp (9.3 (3.0–24.4)), and Megasphaera-1 (HR 11.5 (5.0–26.6)). Detection of Lactobacillus crispatus at enrollment conferred reduced risk for subsequent BV (HR 0.18 (0.08–0.4)). Detailed analysis of behavioral data suggested a direct dose-response relationship with increasing number of episodes of receptive oral-vulvovaginal sex (HR 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00–1.04). Conclusions/Significance Vaginal detection of several BVAB in BV-negative women predicted subsequent BV, suggesting that changes in vaginal microbiota precede BV by weeks or months. BV acquisition was associated with report of new partner with BV; associations with sexual practices – specifically, receptive oral sex – require further investigation.

Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Thomas, Katherine K.; Fiedler, Tina L.; Ringwood, Kathleen; Fredricks, David N.

2010-01-01

349

The making of unwanted sex: gendered and neoliberal norms in college women's unwanted sexual experiences.  

PubMed

Building on extant research regarding the role of gendered norms in women's consent to unwanted sex with male partners as well as recent studies of how the sociopolitical discourse of neoliberalism shapes sexuality at the individual level, we conducted a thematic analysis of undergraduate women's (N = 22) descriptions of their experiences of unwanted sex. In accordance with previous research (Gavey, 2005; Martin, 1996; Phillips, 2000; Tolman, 2002), gendered norms (e.g., women's sexual passivity; subordination of women's sexual interests to those of men) played important roles (a) laying the foundation for unwanted sex, and (b) in-the-moment negotiations between partners. In an extension of the established literature regarding unwanted sex, we also noted the emergence of neoliberal norms (e.g., personal responsibility) in participants' discussions of unwanted sex after the fact. We use these results to argue that gender and neoliberal ideologies work in tandem to (re)produce women's consent to unwanted sex. PMID:18937130

Bay-Cheng, Laina Y; Eliseo-Arras, Rebecca K

350

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis outbreak among transvestite sex workers, Buenos Aires, Argentina.  

PubMed

We describe the first outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) that occurred in Argentina among transvestite sex workers, and actions undertaken for its control. In Buenos Aires city, transmission was documented between 2001 and 2004 by conventional and molecular methods in a hotel where transvestites used to reside and work. The source case was traced back to 1998. Six secondary cases were diagnosed and treated. Thirty-two contacts were investigated. The outbreak strain had formerly caused nosocomial transmission in Rosario, a city 300 km from Buenos Aires. Our findings highlight the difficulties controlling MDR-TB in Argentina. PMID:16229230

Palmero, D; Ritacco, V; Ruano, S; Ambroggi, M; Cusmano, L; Romano, M; Bucci, Z; Waisman, J

2005-10-01

351

Immigration Status and HIV-risk Related Behaviors among Female Sex Workers in South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares immigrant (i.e., foreigner) with non-immigrant (i.e., local\\/native) HIV-related risk behaviors among female\\u000a sex workers (FSW) in South America. A total of 1,845 FSW were enrolled in Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Uruguay. According\\u000a to their nationality, 10.1% of participants were immigrant FSW. Immigrant FSW were more likely to be younger in Argentina;\\u000a to work in a disco\\/bar in

Christian T. Bautista; Carlos Mosquera; Margarita Serra; Alberto Gianella; Maria M. Avila; Victor Laguna-Torres; Jean K. Carr; Silvia M. Montano; José L. Sanchez

2008-01-01

352

Sexual health of transgender sex workers attending an inner-city genitourinary medicine clinic.  

PubMed

Previous studies have reported high HIV prevalence among transgender sex workers (TSWs). We performed a retrospective case-note review of known TSWs attending our unit. In all, 16/24 (66.7%) of patients were diagnosed with at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) and 7/24 (29.2%) reported intentional unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse, which may explain the high prevalence of HIV in our cohort (37.5%). TSWs disclosed high rates of substance misuse, violence and sexual assault, which may also contribute to the increased prevalence of STI in this group. PMID:22096059

Hill, S C; Daniel, J; Benzie, A; Ayres, J; King, G; Smith, A

2011-11-01

353

Immigration status and HIV-risk related behaviors among female sex workers in South America.  

PubMed

This study compares immigrant (i.e., foreigner) with non-immigrant (i.e., local/native) HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSW) in South America. A total of 1,845 FSW were enrolled in Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Uruguay. According to their nationality, 10.1% of participants were immigrant FSW. Immigrant FSW were more likely to be younger in Argentina; to work in a disco/bar in Bolivia; to be single and use illegal drugs in Ecuador; and to work in a brothel, consume alcohol, and have sex with foreign clients in Uruguay. HIV-related sexual and drug use behaviors were more common among immigrant FSW in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Uruguay. Country-specific HIV/STI prevention and control programs should be developed for immigrant FSW populations in South America. PMID:17587171

Bautista, Christian T; Mosquera, Carlos; Serra, Margarita; Gianella, Alberto; Avila, Maria M; Laguna-Torres, Victor; Carr, Jean K; Montano, Silvia M; Sanchez, José L

2007-06-21

354

Auxiliary Women Workers in the Legal Sector: Traversing Subjectivities and "Self" to Learn through Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study is about female auxiliary workers in the Australian legal sector. The purpose is to explore the impact of subjectivities on women workers and how they negotiate their positionality to participate in meaningful work and learning. The study is grounded in theories of identity and socio-cultural perspectives of subjectivity, agentic…

Cavanagh, Jillian Maria

2012-01-01

355

BULIMAREXIA AS SYMPTOM OF SEX-ROLE STRAIN IN PROFESSIONAL WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the relationship between expanded opportunities for high-achieving women and the drastic increase in eating disorders in young women during the past decade. Bulimarexia is hypothesized to be a symptom of the sex-role strain young women experience when their career choice conflicts with their sex-role socialization into the feminine role. Common problems in high-achieving women are explored, including

Linda R. Barnett

1986-01-01

356

Reducing intimate and paying partner violence against women who exchange sex in Mongolia: results from a randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed

Women who exchange sex for money or other goods, that is, female sex workers, are at increased risk of experiencing physical and sexual violence from both paying and intimate partners. Exposure to violence can be exacerbated by alcohol use and HIV/STI risk. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a HIV/STI risk reduction and enhanced HIV/STI risk reduction intervention at decreasing paying and intimate partner violence against Mongolian women who exchange sex and engage in harmful alcohol use. Women are recruited and randomized to either (a) four sessions of a relationship-based HIV/STI risk reduction intervention (n = 49), (b) the same HIV/STI risk reduction intervention plus two additional motivational interviewing sessions (n = 58), or (c) a four session control condition focused on wellness promotion (n = 59). All the respondents complete assessments at baseline (preintervention) as well as at immediate posttest, 3 and 6 months postintervention. A multilevel logistic model finds that women who participated in the HIV/STI risk reduction group (OR = 0.14, p < .00), HIV/STI risk reduction and motivational interview group (OR = 0.46, p = .02), and wellness (OR = 0.20, p < .00) group reduced their exposure to physical and sexual violence in the past 90 days. No significant differences in effects are observed between conditions. This study demonstrates the efficacy of a relationship-based HIV/STI risk reduction intervention, a relationship-based HIV/STI risk reduction intervention combined with motivational interviewing, and a wellness promotion intervention in reducing intimate and paying partner violence against women who exchange sex in Mongolia. The findings have significant implications for the impact of minimal intervention and the potential role of peer networks and social support in reducing women's experiences of violence in resource poor settings. PMID:22366477

Carlson, Catherine E; Chen, Jiehua; Chang, Mingway; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Toivgoo, Aira; Riedel, Marion; Witte, Susan S

2012-02-23

357

Behaviour change and associated factors among Female Sex Workers in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Initiatives aimed at behaviour change of key populations such as the female sex workers (FSWs) are pivotal in reducing the transmission of HIV. An 8-year implementation research to establish the predictor factors of behaviour change among FSWs in Kenya was initiated by the African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) with Sida and DfID support. Methods This cross-sectional survey interviewed 159 female sex workers (FSWs) identified through snowball procedure. The measurement of behaviour change was based on: the consistent use of condoms with both regular and non regular clients, reduced number of clients, routine checks for STIs, and involvement in alternative income generating activities. The adjusted odds ratios at 95% confidence interval computed during binary logistic regression analysis were used to determine the behaviour change predictor factors. Results Most FSWs (84%) had participated in AMREF's integrated intervention programme for at least one year and 59.1% had gone through behaviour change. The adjusted odds ratio showed that the FSWs with secondary education were 2.23 times likely to change behaviour, protestants were 4.61 times, those in sex work for >4 years were 2.36 times, FSWs with good HIV prevention knowledge were 4.37 times, and those engaged in alternative income generating activities were 2.30 times more likely to change their behaviour compared to respective counterparts. Conclusion Behaviour change among FSWs was possible and is associated with the level of education, religious affiliation, number of years in sex work and one's level of HIV prevention knowledge. A re-orientation on the peer education programme to focus on HIV preventive measures beyond use of condoms is emphasized.

Nyagero, Josephat; Wangila, Samuel; Kutai, Vincent; Olango, Susan

2012-01-01

358

College students and blue?collar workers: A comparative analysis of sex?role attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the research literature, college?educated women provide the most consistent support for nontraditional sex?role attitudes. Conversely, working?class males are supposedly the most ambivalent toward changes in gender roles. The present study involves a direct comparison of the attitudes of two different samples: one employed in blue?collar occupations and the other enrolled in a small, private university. Some of the

John R. Earle; Catherine T. Harris

1989-01-01

359

HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.  

PubMed

This study quantitatively and qualitatively described HIV risk behaviors among Vietnamese female sex workers (FSWs) who work at three distinct venues in Ho Chi Minh City: street, massage parlors, and bars/clubs. Although 35% of the participants had never been tested for HIV, 18% of street and 7% of bar/club FSWs reported being positive. Almost all massage parlor FSWs had never used a condom for oral sex. Inconsistent condom use for vaginal sex with customers was more prevalent among bar/club FSWs (85%) than massage parlor (72%) and street FSWs (68%). Many participants reported difficulties in negotiating condom use with customers because of economic pressure, maintaining relationships, and lack of bargaining power. Bar/club FSWs revealed a difficult situation where drinking is part of their work. Thirty percent of street FSWs had injected drugs and reported addiction to heroin in relation to their helpless condition as FSWs. Street FSWs had the lowest levels of self-esteem and norms toward practicing safe sex and the highest levels of economic pressure. This study recommends future HIV prevention programs for FSWs in Vietnam that target their specific risk behaviors and work environments. PMID:18956984

Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Colby, Donn; Witt, Samantha; Pishori, Alefiyah; Le, Mai Nhung; Vinh, Dang Thi Nhat; Giang, Le Truong

2008-10-01

360

Clients of female sex workers: a population-based survey of China.  

PubMed

The control of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) is a challenge in China, with female sex workers (FSW) and male clients suspected as bridge groups. This study used a 2006 national probability survey of 2,707 adult men. Among men 15-49 years old, the prevalence of FSW contacts last year was 4.2% (95% CI, 3.3-5.2) overall, with 7.2% (CI, 5.9-8.7) in urban and 1.8% (CI, 1.0-3.3) in rural areas. In urban areas, the men most at risk for FSW were high income, often traveled, engaged in business entertaining, ages 25-39, and had early sex histories. When compared to men with only wife or stable sex partner, those most likely to report STI last year also reported FSW sex of any type (aOR,13.10; CI, 5.87-29.42). Additionally, when compared to men reporting consistent condom use with FSW, men with inconsistent condom use had elevated STI (aOR, 3.71; CI, 1.18-11.66). Additional efforts are needed for high income men in urban areas, and on consistent condom use with FSW. PMID:22043034

Pan, Suiming; Parish, William L; Huang, Yingying

2011-12-01

361

Chinese Sex-Role Conceptions: A Double Edged Sword for Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although Chinese government policies officially support the equality of the sexes, stereotyped views about the nature of men and women often serve to perpetuate discrimination and to keep women in inferior positions. Women are often segregated into lower paying jobs because of stereotypical views about what is natural for women to do. Despite…

Korabik, Karen

362

Occupational safety and HIV risk among female sex workers in China: a mixed-methods analysis of sex-work harms and mommies.  

PubMed

Female sex workers (FSWs) in China are exposed to multiple work-related harms that increase HIV vulnerability. Using mixed-methods, we explored the social-ecological aspects of sexual risk among 348 FSWs in Beijing. Sex-work harms were assessed by property stolen, being underpaid or not paid at all, verbal and sexual abuse, forced drinking; and forced sex more than once. The majority (90%) reported at least one type of harm, 38% received harm protection from 'mommies' (i.e., managers) and 32% reported unprotected sex with clients. In multivariate models, unprotected sex was significantly associated with longer involvement in sex work, greater exposure to harms, and no protection from mommies. Mommies' protection moderated the effect of sex-work harms on unprotected sex with clients. Our ethnography indicated that mommies played a core role in sex-work networks. Such networks provide a basis for social capital; they are not only profitable economically, but also protect FSWs from sex-work harms. Effective HIV prevention interventions for FSWs in China must address the occupational safety and health of FSWs by facilitating social capital and protection agency (e.g., mommies) in the sex-work industry. PMID:22375698

Yi, Huso; Zheng, Tiantian; Wan, Yanhai; Mantell, Joanne E; Park, Minah; Csete, Joanne

2012-03-01

363

Risk of sexually transmitted infections and violence among indoor-working female sex workers in London: the effect of migration from Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo examine risk factors associated with HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and experience of physical and sexual violence among sex workers in London, with a particular focus on differences in risk between migrants from Eastern Europe (EE) or the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and UK-born sex workers.MethodsThe authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of sex workers born in the UK,

Lucy Platt; Pippa Grenfell; Chris Bonell; Sarah Creighton; Kaye Wellings; John Parry; Tim Rhodes

2011-01-01

364

Sex-specific interaction effects of age, occupational status, and workplace stress on psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load among healthy Montreal workers.  

PubMed

Abstract Socio-demographics and workplace stress may affect men and women differently. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess sex-specific interactions among age, occupational status, and workplace Demand-Control-Support (D-C-S) factors in relation to psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load levels representing multi-systemic "wear and tear". It was hypothesized that beyond main effects, D-C-S factors would be moderated by occupational status and age in sex-specific directions predictive of subjective psychiatric symptoms and objective physiological dysregulations. Participants included healthy male (n?=?81) and female (n?=?118) Montreal workers aged 20 to 64 years (Men: M?=?39.4 years, SD?=?11.3; Women: M?=?42.8 years, SD?=?11.38). The Job Content Questionnaire was administered to assess workplace D-C-S factors that included psychological demands, decisional latitude, and social support. Occupational status was coded using the Nam--Powers--Boyd system derived from the Canadian census. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Sex-specific allostatic load indices were calculated based on fifteen biomarkers. Regression analyses revealed that higher social support was associated with less depressive symptoms in middle aged (p?=?0.033) and older men (p?=?0.027). Higher occupational status was associated with higher allostatic load levels for men (p?=?0.035), while the reverse occurred for women (p?=?0.048). Women with lower occupational status but with higher decision latitude had lower allostatic load levels, as did middle-aged (p?=?0.031) and older women (p?=?0.003) with higher psychological demands. In summary, age and occupational status moderated workplace stress in sex-specific ways that have occupational health implications. PMID:23952366

Juster, Robert-Paul; Moskowitz, D S; Lavoie, Joel; D'Antono, Bianca

2013-09-19

365

Neural activation during anticipation of opposite-sex and same-sex faces in heterosexual men and women.  

PubMed

Psychobiological accounts of face processing predict that greater salience is attributed to faces matching a viewer's sexual preference than to faces that do not. However, behaviorally, this effect could only be demonstrated in tasks assessing reward 'wanting' (e.g. work-per-view-tasks) but not in tasks assessing 'liking' (e.g. facial attractiveness ratings), and has been found to be more pronounced in heterosexual men than women, especially with regard to very attractive faces. Here, we addressed the question if sex differences at the level of 'wanting' persist if participants are uninformed about the attractiveness of an anticipated male or female face. Seventeen heterosexual men and 13 heterosexual women (all single) participated in a social incentive delay task (SID). Participants were required to react on simple graphical cues in order to view a smiling face. Cues provided a priori information on the level of smile intensity (low/medium/high) as well as sex of the face (male/ female). A significant interaction of sex-of-face and sex-of-participant was observed in a priori defined regions of interest in the brain reward system (including ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex), reflecting enhanced activation to cues signaling opposite-sex faces relative to same-sex faces in both, men and women. Women additionally recruited the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during processing of opposite- vs. same-sex cues, suggesting stronger incorporation of social cognition processes in women than men. The findings speak against a general male bias for opposite-sex faces. Instead they provide preliminary evidence that men and women recruit different brain circuits during reward value assessment of facial stimuli. PMID:23128082

Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Rademacher, Lena; Paulus, Frieder M; Gründer, Gerhard

2012-11-01

366

Prevalence of HIV, Herpes Simplex Virus-2, and Syphilis in male sex partners of pregnant women in Peru  

PubMed Central

Background: Sexually active heterosexual men may represent an important risk factor for HIV infection and STI transmission to their female partners and unborn children, though little is known about the prevalence of STIs in this population. We sought to determine the prevalence of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and syphilis infection and associated risk behaviors among male sex partners of pregnant women in Peru. Methods: Survey and seroprevalence data were collected from 1,835 male partners of pregnant women in four cities in Peru. Serum was tested for antibodies to HIV, HSV-2, and syphilis. Results: Among the 1,835 male participants, HIV prevalence was 0.8% (95% CI = 0.5–1.4%), HSV-2 16.0% (95% CI = 14.3–17.8%), and syphilis 1.6% (95% CI = 1.0–2.2%). Additionally, 11.0% reported a lifetime history of intercourse with men, and 37.1% with female sex workers. Unprotected intercourse with men during the previous year was reported by 0.9% and with female sex workers by 1.2%. Conclusion: Pregnant women's sex partners reported lifetime sexual contact with core risk groups, had an elevated prevalence of HSV-2, and demonstrated the potential to spread HIV and other STIs to their partners. Though the prevalence of HIV in the population was not significantly higher than observed in other samples of heterosexuals in Peru, the risk of HIV transmission to their female partners may be exacerbated by their increased prevalence of HSV-2 infection. Further study of heterosexual populations is necessary to fully understand the epidemiology of HIV/STIs in Latin America.

Clark, Jesse L; Konda, Kelika A; Munayco, Cesar V; Pun, Monica; Lescano, Andres G; Leon, Segundo R; Pajuelo, Jose; Suarez-Ognio, Luis; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Coates, Thomas J; Caceres, Carlos F

2008-01-01

367

How Women’s Nonconscious Association of Sex with Submission Relates to Their Subjective Sexual Arousability and Ability to Reach Orgasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common cultural stereotypes promote women’s submission to men, especially within intimate heterosexual relationships. Mirroring these stereotypes, women possess nonconscious associations between sex and submission (Sanchez, Kiefer & Ybarra, 2006). Moreover, women’s sex-submission associations predict greater reports of engagement in submissive sexual behavior (Sanchez et al., 2006). In the present research, we again found that women associate sex with submission at

Amy K. Kiefer; Diana T. Sanchez; Christina J. Kalinka; Oscar Ybarra

2006-01-01

368

[Frequency of curable sexually transmitted infections among registered female sex-workers in Ankara City].  

PubMed

Sex-workers are considered as the high-risk population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Early diagnosis and treatment of curable STIs in this high-risk group have crucial importance in STI control and prevention of complications and transmission of infection. In this study, 146 registered female sex-workers in Ankara city were screened with rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for causative agents of curable STIs such as, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Treponema pallidum. To identify gonorrhoea, Gram stained endocervical smears were examined microscopically for the presence of gram-negative intracellular diplococci. For the diagnosis of chlamydial infection, an optic immunoassay (OIA) (Chlamydia OIA, Biostar, USA) as a RDT was performed by using endocervical specimens. For the detection of T. vaginalis, direct smears of vaginal swabs were examined for the presence of motile trophozoites first directly and after being cultured in Diamond's media for 24-48 hours of incubation. Syphilis was screened in the serum specimens by RPR (Omega, UK) test. There was no positive test results for gonorrhoea and syphilis however, the frequency of C. trachomatis and T. vaginalis in the study population was 1.4% and 0.7%, respectively. To provide comprehensive policies and optimal control strategies, a reliable source of data about the frequency and spectrum of STIs among high-risk populations and optimized effective screening programmes are required. PMID:20455407

Zarakolu, Pinar; Alp, Sehnaz; Ya?ci, Server

2010-01-01

369

The effects of sex education on women with secondary orgasmic dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effects of sex education on 48 couples in which the women reported secondary orgasmic dysfunction. None of the males had a problem with premature ejaculation or with erectile dysfunction. Couples received two, two-hour sessions of sex education during a one-week period. From measures administered before and after treatment, the women reported significantly increased orgasmic frequency and

Peter R. Kilmann; Katherine H. Mills; Bonnie Bella; Charlene Caid; Edward Davidson; Gerald Drose; Richard Wanlass

1983-01-01

370

Type II Diabetes Abrogates Sex Differences in Endothelial Function in Premenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Obesity is a more potent cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) in men than in women. Because traditional CVRFs cannot fully account for this sex difference, we tested the hypothesis that compared with men, women exhibit more robust endothelial function independent of obesity and that this sex difference is abrogated by diabetes. Methods and Results—We studied leg blood flow (LBF) responses to

Helmut O. Steinberg; Giancarlo Paradisi; Jessica Cronin; Kristin Crowde; Annette Hempfling; Ginger Hook; Alain D. Baron

2010-01-01

371

Examining women's customary roles as sex educators through community media in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This briefing investigates a popular sex education programme of a community radio station in the rural village of Nakaseke in Uganda. The programme, which is referred to as Ssenga (which refers to paternal aunts), hosts ‘elderly’ women who ‘educate’ young women about their traditional\\/cultural roles. These duties and responsibilities revolve around the household: child bearing, housekeeping and, most importantly, sex

Carol Azungi Dralega

2008-01-01

372

Is Military Sexual Trauma Associated with Trading Sex Among Women Veterans Seeking Outpatient Mental Health Care?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust association between sexual trauma and trading sex has been documented in civilian samples but has not been examined in veterans. Women veterans experience high rates of sexual victimization across the lifespan, including during military service (military sexual trauma [MST]). Associations between MST and trading sex were examined in 200 women enrolled in a crosssectional study of HIV risks

Jennifer L. Strauss; Christine E. Marx; Julie C. Weitlauf; Karen M. Stechuchak; Kristy Straits-Tröster; Ayaba W. Worjoloh; Christina B. Sherrod; Maren K. Olsen; Marian I. Butterfield; Patrick S. Calhoun

2011-01-01

373

Contributions of sex guilt and masturbation guilt to women's contraceptive attitudes and use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were, first, to confirm inverse relationships between sex guilt and contraceptive use and attitudes and, second, to demonstrate that guilt regarding masturbation in comparison to sex guilt was a specific inhibitor of diaphragm use. In a sample of 186 single college women, sex guilt accounted for 28% of the variance in nine measures of contraceptive

Donald L. Mosher; Susan G. Vonderheide

1985-01-01

374

Prescription opioid abuse among drug-involved street-based sex workers.  

PubMed

National population surveys and individual studies over the past decade have documented the escalating abuse of a variety of prescription medications, particularly prescription opioids. Although surveillance data provide important information for estimating the prevalence of prescription opioid abuse in the general population, studies documenting the patterns of prescription drug abuse among chronic street-drug-using populations are extremely rare. This paper examines the abuse of prescription opioids among drug-involved street-based sex workers in Miami, Florida. The data for this study were drawn from an ongoing HIV intervention trial initiated in 2001, designed to test the relative effectiveness of two alternative HIV prevention protocols for this population. Participants in the study were recruited through traditional targeted sampling strategies, and complete data are available on 588 street-based sex workers. In terms of prescription drug abuse, 12.2 percent of the sample reported using at least one opioid analgesic in the past 90 days without having a legitimate prescription. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between prescription opioid abuse and its predictors. In the multivariate model, factors positively associated with prescription opioid abuse included: Caucasian race (OR = 2.53; 95 percent CI 1.30 to 4.91), current powder cocaine use (OR = 2.28; 95 percent CI 1.28 to 4.08), current heroin use (OR = 2.08; 95 percent CI 1.10 to 3.92), 90-day physical abuse/victimization (OR = 2.07; 95percent CI 1.18 to 3.61), and shorter sex-work involvement (OR = 1.98; 95 percent CI 1.13 to 3.48). In contrast, daily crack smoking was negatively associated with prescription opioid abuse (OR = 0.61; 95 percent CI 0.33 to 1.10). This study provides some of the first empirical evidence to indicate that prescription opioid abuse is emerging in a heretofore unstudied community of marginalized drug-using sex workers. In addition, data on this population's mechanisms of access to prescription opioids clearly suggest that there is an active black market for these drugs. These findings warrant intensive study to determine the relative contribution of each mechanism of diversion to the illicit market. PMID:17319260

Surratt, Hilary L; Inciardi, James A; Kurtz, Steven P

375

Social and cultural contexts of HIV risk behaviors among Thai female sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand.  

PubMed

Recently, the number of indirect female sex workers (FSWs) who work at bars/clubs and massage parlors is substantially increasing in Thailand; however, there are huge gaps in knowledge about HIV risk behaviors among indirect FSWs. This study aimed to describe and understand HIV risk behaviors among Thai FSWs in Bangkok in relation to sociocultural factors and work environment (e.g., bars/clubs, massage parlors, brothels, and street). Based on venue-based purposive sampling methods, Thai FSWs were recruited for qualitative interviews (n=50) and survey interviews (n=205). Based on mixed methods, the study revealed that HIV risk and substance use behaviors among FSWs significantly differed depending on work venues, although there were no significant differences between work venues on some key risk behaviors (e.g., inconsistent condom use with primary partners and customers; willingness to engage in unsafe sex with customers). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that FSWs who had used illicit drugs, were young, had low levels of self-esteem, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with customers. Also, FSWs who worked at bars/clubs, were young, had higher income, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in sex with customers under the influence of alcohol. Qualitative interviews illustrated FSWs' alcohol and drug use due to their stressful life (e.g., long working hours and a large number of customers) and easy access to alcohol and drugs. FSWs had shown inaccurate knowledge about HIV prevention methods and engaged in risky behaviors, such as washing vagina with water or toothpaste after having had sex with customers. The HIV prevention strategies in Thailand need to be re-structured through implementing evidence-based HIV prevention intervention programs for FSWs, which must address sociocultural factors (e.g., self-esteem) and alcohol and drug use specific to work venues. PMID:23082928

Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Sakata, Maria; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada

2012-10-22

376

Sex Steroid Hormone Pathway Genes and Health-Related Measures in Women of 4 Races\\/Ethnicities: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We synthesized findings relating health outcomes and genetic variants of the sex steroid hormone pathway in women from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Genetics Study. The SWAN Genetics Study, a component of the longitudinal SWAN study, describes selected genetics characteristics of health-related attributes during the menopausal transition in African American, Caucasian, Chinese, and Japanese women. At

MaryFran R. Sowers; Angela L. Wilson; Carrie A. Karvonen-Gutierrez; Sharon R. Kardia

2006-01-01

377

The health of women temporary agricultural workers in Canada: a critical review of the literature.  

PubMed

Among high-income countries such as Canada, there is growing dependency on "low skilled" temporary foreign workers in a variety of sectors. The purpose of this review is to critically synthesize and analyze the theoretical and empirical literature on gendered and temporary migration in the context of globalization and the health of temporary agricultural workers, particularly women in Canadian programs. While the social sciences literature contains well-developed conceptualizations of gendered migration, the research has focused on women in feminized occupations such as domestic work. Multidisciplinary searches produced only 11 research and review publications on the gendered constraints or health of temporary agricultural workers in Canada. Further investigation is needed to explore and integrate the strengths, resiliencies, and health-care needs of women migrant agricultural workers in Canada, as well as the barriers they face, within the intersecting and gendered forces of inequities at all levels: local, national, and global. PMID:22435309

Edmunds, Kathryn; Berman, Helene; Basok, Tanya; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Forchuk, Cheryl

2011-12-01

378

Prevalence of HIV Infection and Predictors for Syphilis Infection among Female Sex Workers in Southern China  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for syphilis infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Liuzhou City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China. A cross-sectional study recruited FSWs using a venue-based method and subsequent snowball sampling with mapping strategies. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted to collect demographic and behavioral information. Blood was tested for syphilis (RPR with TPPA confirmation) and HIV (EIA with Western blot confirmation) infections. Of the 362 eligible participants, 81.7% were non-local residents (60.5% from other parts of Guangxi and 21.2% were non-Guangxi residents); 58.0% belonged to non-Han minority ethnic groups; 37.5% reported inconsistent condom use with their clients and 71.2% reported inconsistent condom use with their regular sex partners during the past month. Nearly 10% reported having had sex with drug users. The prevalence rates for HIV and syphilis infections were 2.3% and 11.0%, respectively. Almost half (46.6%) of participants reported having had STD symptoms. Inconsistent condom use with clients in the past month (AOR=5.0; 95%CI=1.8-13.8), less education (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.1-7.4), and HIV infection (AOR=8.1; 95%CI=1.1-68.5) were independently associated with syphilis infection.

Lu, Fan; Jia, Yujiang; Sun, Xinhua; Wang, Lan; Liu, Wei; Xiao, Yan; Zeng, Gang; Li, Chunmei; Liu, Jianbo; Cassell, Holly; Chen, Huey T; Vermund, Sten H

2009-01-01

379

Clients of Female Sex Workers as a Bridging Population in Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Understanding bridging behaviors of clients of female sex workers (FSWs) is important for projecting and intervening in the spread of sexually transmitted infections in Vietnam. The goals of the study were to determine HIV/STI prevalence amongst different bridging groups, identify factors associated with being potential and active bridgers, and assess the association of drug use and unsafe sex with HIV and/or STI prevalence. In April, 2007, 292 clients were anonymously interviewed at sex venues in a two-stage time-location cluster sampling survey, followed by HIV, syphilis, and HSV-2 testing. Based on condom use with both high-risk (FSWs) and low-risk (wives/girlfriends) sexual partners, clients were classified as unlikely, potential, or active bridgers. The majority of clients were potential or active bridgers (55.8%) who had a significantly higher prevalence of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) (21% and 33%, respectively) than unlikely bridgers (8.7%). HIV seropositivity was 4.4-fold (95% CI 1.1–17.1) higher among those who were HSV-2-positive. Clients of FSWs may be playing a major bridging role in transmitting HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Vietnam. An observed synergistic interaction between drug use and condom slippage/breakage emphasizes the importance of proper condom use, particularly among drug users.

Nguyen, Nhu T.; Nguyen, Hien T.; Trinh, Huan Q.; Mills, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

380

HIV Infection and Risk Characteristics Among Female Sex Workers in Hanoi, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Summary The prevalence of HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was determined, the risk characteristics examined, and factors associated with HIV infection identified among noninstitutionalized female sex workers (FSWs), using a cross-sectional survey with 2-stage cluster sampling. Four hundred FSWs were interviewed face to face using a structured questionnaire and tested for HIV, syphilis, Chlamydia infection, and gonorrhea. HIV seroprevalence was 12%, syphilis 17% (using the treponemal pallidum hemagglutination assay), Chlamydia infection 3.8% (using polymerase chain reaction [PCR]), and gonorrhea 6.3% (PCR). Lower-class FSWs averaged 2 clients per day, and middle-class FSWs about 1.2. Median duration in sex work was 2.3 years. Consistent condom use was 63% with irregular clients, 41% with regular clients, and only 4.8% with “love mates.” Fifty-five percent had had sex with a drug user(s). Thirty-eight percent used drugs, of whom 83% injected. Factors associated with HIV included being young, having a low level of education, longer residence in Hanoi, being a lower-class FSW, having higher income compared with peers, perception of self being at low risk for HIV, poor knowledge of HIV, and sharing injecting equipment. Intervention strategies should include reduction of both stigmatization and sharing of drug paraphernalia, promotion of nonstigmatizing voluntary testing and counseling, and aggressive marketing and promotion of condoms.

Tran, Trung Nam; Detels, Roger; Long, Hoang Thuy; Van Phung, Le; Lan, Hoang Phuong

2010-01-01

381

[Safe sex negotiation on TV: gender discourses among female community health workers under the Family Health Program in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the understanding among female community health workers in the Family Health Program in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, concerning the notion of safe sex negotiation promoted by the Brazilian government in AIDS prevention campaigns targeting women. The paper is based on empirical data gathered in 2003. The study focused on TV advertisements used in campaigns by the Brazilian Ministry of Health from 1994 to 2000. The analytical approach was informed by feminist and cultural studies, taken from a post-structuralist and Foucauldian perspective. The research aimed to produce knowledge to support a critical reading of such education for HIV/AIDS prevention, especially concerning gender relations. The paper argues that knowledge and practices permeating the "safe sex negotiation" discourse incorporate, reproduce, and/or transmit hegemonic representations of masculinity and femininity and that these representations differentiate and highlight hierarchical positions of women in relation to men and/or women in relation to other women, producing and/or reinforcing prejudices and inequalities. PMID:15486674

Oliveira, Dora Lúcia Leidens Correa de; Meyer, Dagmar Estermann; Santos, Luis Henrique Sacchi dos; Wilhelms, Daniela Montano

2004-10-13

382

DEFINING TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses challenges and dilemmas surrounding current definitions of trafficking in women. The analysis is based on the review of literature and the findings of a phenomenological study which examined the life experiences of migrant\\/trafficked sex workers from the former Eastern Bloc in Canada. The study interviewed 20 female sex workers, 15 health and social service providers, and 15

Natalya Timoshkina

383

The Power of Prestige: Why Young Men Report Having more Sex Partners than Young Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a survey of 48 men and 61 women from a southwestern US college, the gender difference in reported number of sex partners\\u000a was mediated by the degree to which individuals felt that men and women who had many sexual partners were prestigious. In\\u000a addition, men cared about the quantity and quality of their sex partners more than women did

Peter K. Jonason; Terri D. Fisher

2009-01-01

384

HIV Prevention Needs of Sex-Trading Injection Drug-Using Black Men Who Have Sex With Both Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined HIV prevention program needs from the perspective of injection drug—using men who have sex with both men and women involved in sex trade. Focus groups were conducted involving an exploratory sample (N = 105) of men who met the following parameters: African American, injection drug—using behavior, men who have sex with men and women, and men who

Thomas Alex Washington; Nancy Meyer-Adams

2010-01-01

385

Prevalence and Characteristics of Abuse Experiences and Depression Symptoms among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Mexico  

PubMed Central

This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors—ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work—were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.

Ulibarri, Monica D.; Hiller, Sarah P.; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Stockman, Jamila K.; Silverman, Jay G.; Ojeda, Victoria D.

2013-01-01

386

Sex-trafficking, violence, negotiating skill, and HIV infection in brothel-based sex workers of eastern India, adjoining Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh.  

PubMed

A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based sex workers of West Bengal, eastern India, to understand sex-trafficking, violence, negotiating skills, and HIV infection in them. In total, 580 sex workers from brothels of four districts participated in the study. A pretested questionnaire was introduced to study their sociodemography, sex-trafficking, violence, and negotiating skills. Blood sample of 4-5 mL was collected from each sex worker using an unlinked anonymous method to study their HIV status. Data were edited and entered into a computer using the Epi Info software (6.04d version). Both univariate and multivariate analyses were done to find out any association between HIV and relevant risk factors. Results of the study revealed that a sizeable number of the participants were from Nepal (9%) and Bangladesh (7%). The seroprevalence of HIV was strikingly higher among Nepalese (43%) than among Bangladeshis (7%) and Indians (9%). Almost one in every four sex workers (24%) had joined the profession by being trafficked. Violence at the beginning of this profession was more among the trafficked victims, including those sold by their family members (57%) compared to those who joined the profession voluntarily (15%). The overall condom negotiation rate with most recent two clients was 38%. By multivariate analysis, HIV was significantly associated with sexual violence (odds ratio=2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.5). The study has documented that the trafficked victims faced violence, including sexual violence, to a greater magnitude, and sexual violence was associated with acquiring HIV in them. There is a need for an in-depth study to understand the problem of trafficking and its consequences. PMID:18686555

Sarkar, Kamalesh; Bal, Baishali; Mukherjee, Rita; Chakraborty, Sekhar; Saha, Suman; Ghosh, Arundhuti; Parsons, Scott

2008-06-01

387

Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Behavioral Risk Factors of Female Sex Workers in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex work remains an important contributor to HIV transmission within early, advanced and regressing epidemics in sub-Saharan\\u000a Africa, but its social and behavioral underpinnings remain poorly understood, limiting the impact of HIV prevention initiatives.\\u000a This article systematically reviews the socio-demographics of female sex workers (FSW) in this region, their occupational\\u000a contexts and key behavioral risk factors for HIV. In total

Fiona ScorgieMatthew; Matthew F. Chersich; Innocent Ntaganira; Antonio Gerbase; Frank Lule; Ying-Ru Lo

388

Safety and Adherence to Intermittent Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-1 in African Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about safety of and adherence to intermittent HIV PrEP regimens, which may be more feasible than daily dosing in some settings. We present safety and adherence data from the first trial of an intermittent PrEP regimen among Kenyan men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). Methods/Principal Findings MSM and FSW were randomized to daily oral FTC/TDF or placebo, or intermittent (Monday, Friday and within 2 hours after sex, not to exceed one dose per day) oral FTC/TDF or placebo in a 2?1?2?1 ratio; volunteers were followed monthly for 4 months. Adherence was assessed with the medication event monitoring system (MEMS). Sexual activity data were collected via daily text message (SMS) queries and timeline followback interviews with a one-month recall period. Sixty-seven men and 5 women were randomized into the study. Safety was similar among all groups. Median MEMS adherence rates were 83% [IQR: 63–92] for daily dosing and 55% [IQR:28–78] for fixed intermittent dosing (p?=?0.003), while adherence to any post-coital doses was 26% [IQR:14–50]. SMS response rates were low, which may have impaired measurement of post-coital dosing adherence. Acceptability of PrEP was high, regardless of dosing regimen. Conclusions/Significance Adherence to intermittent dosing regimens, fixed doses, and in particular coitally-dependent doses, may be more difficult than adherence to daily dosing. However, intermittent dosing may still be appropriate for PrEP if intracellular drug levels, which correlate with prevention of HIV acquisition, can be attained with less than daily dosing and if barriers to adherence can be addressed. Additional drug level data, qualitative data on adherence barriers, and better methods to measure sexual activity are necessary to determine whether adherence to post-coital PrEP could be comparable to more standard regimens. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00971230

Mugo, Peter; Anzala, Omu; Haberer, Jessica E.; Bangsberg, David; Barin, Burc; Rooney, James F.; Mark, David; Chetty, Paramesh; Fast, Patricia; Priddy, Frances H.

2012-01-01

389

Prevalence and Predictors of HIV Infection among Female Sex Workers in Kaiyuan City, Yunnan Province, China  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual transmission is the fastest growing route of HIV transmission in China. Methods Cross-sectional study of 737 female sex workers (FSW) in Kaiyuan City, Yunnan Province, China from March-May 2006 to describe risk factors for HIV infection and to determine the commercial sex venues where FSWs were most at risk of being infected with or infecting others with HIV. Results Overall HIV prevalence was 10.3%, but prevalence varied with the sex venue with 25.8% of FSWs working on streets being HIV-positive and none of the FSWs working in night clubs. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) of HIV infection were 9.1 (95% CI: 4.67–17.55) for injection drug use; 3.3 (95% CI: 1.46–7.37) for non-injection illegal drug use; 2.7 (95% CI: 1.25–5.93) for duration of sex work ?5 years; 2.2 (95% CI: 1.05–4.70) for infection with herpes simplex virus type 2; and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.12–3.47) for working at a higher risk entertainment venue. Although condom use was not a significant risk factor in the overall model, FSWs in lower risk venues who reported consistent use with clients had a 70% reduction in HIV infections (OR: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.12–0.90). Conclusions Illegal drug use, particularly with injection drugs, is the single greatest risk factor for HIV infection among FSWs in Kaiyuan City, China. FSWs working on the street or in temporary sublets, beauty salons or saunas are at particularly high risk for transmitting and being infected with HIV. HIV prevention efforts among FSWs should target illegal drug users and these other subgroups.

Wang, Haibo; Chen, Ray Y.; Ding, Guowei; Ma, Yanling; Ma, Jianguo; Jiao, Jin Hua; Wu, Zhenglai; Sharp, Gerald B.; Wang, Ning

2008-01-01

390

Relationship between mobility, violence and HIV/STI among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India  

PubMed Central

Background Violence and mobility have been identified as critical factors contributing to the spread of HIV worldwide. This study aimed to assess the independent and combined associations of mobility and violence with sexual risk behaviors and HIV, STI prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in India. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, bio-behavioral survey conducted among 2042 FSWs across five districts of southern India in 2005–06. Regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for sexual risk behaviors and HIV infection based on experience of violence and mobility after adjusting for socio-demographic and sex work related characteristics. Results One-fifth of FSWs (19%) reported experiencing violence; 68% reported travelling outside their current place of residence at least once in the past year and practicing sex work during their visit. Mobile FSWs were more likely to report violence compared to their counterparts (23% vs. 10%, p?sex with occasional (adjusted OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.76–4.65) and regular clients (adjusted OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.40–3.06). Conclusions The findings indicate that mobility and violence were independently associated with HIV infection. Notably, the combined effect of mobility and violence posed greater HIV risk than their independent effect. These results point to the need for the provision of an enabling environment and safe spaces for FSWs who are mobile, to augment existing efforts to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS.

2012-01-01

391

Women's Sexual Satisfaction as a Predictor of Well-Being in Same-Sex Versus Mixed-Sex Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural equation modelling was used to assess the strengths of the links between sexual satisfaction and self-reported (a) relationship well-being, (b) mental health, and (c) physical health for women in same-sex (i.e., homosexual, n = 114) versus mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual, n = 208) relationships. Participants came from a large-scale Internet study. Sexual satisfaction was found to be an extremely strong predictor of relational well-being,

Diane Holmberg; Karen L. Blair; Maggie Phillips

2010-01-01

392

Sexual Desire, Communication, Satisfaction, and Preferences of Men and Women in Same-Sex Versus Mixed-Sex Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an online study, measures of subjective sexual experiences in one's current relationship were compared across four groups: Men and women in mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual) and same-sex (i.e., homosexual) relationships. Results indicated far more similarities than differences across the four groups, with groups reporting almost identical sexual repertoires, and levels of sexual communcation with partner. Men reported experiencing somewhat more

Diane Holmberg; Karen L. Blair

2009-01-01

393

Sex Work and Its Associations With Alcohol and Methamphetamine Use Among Female Bar and Spa Workers in the Philippines.  

PubMed

To assess the prevalence of sex work and its associations with substance use among female bar/spa workers in the Philippines (N = 498), workers from 54 bar or spa venues in Metro Manila (2009-2010) were surveyed on demographics, drug/alcohol use, abuse history, and sex work. Their median age was 23 years and 35% engaged in sex work. Sex work was independently associated with methamphetamine use (19% vs 4%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-6.2), alcohol use with patrons (49% vs. 27%; AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.4), and alcohol intoxication during sex (50% vs. 24%; AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.5), but inversely associated with daily alcohol use (13% vs. 16%; AOR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.5). Additional significant covariates included sexual abuse history, younger age, and not having a higher education. Findings suggest that interventions with sex workers in bars and spas should focus on methamphetamine use, alcohol use contexts, and violence victimization, to better meet the needs of this population. PMID:23343641

Urada, Lianne A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Morisky, Donald E; Schilling, Robert F; Simbulan, Nymia P; Estacio, Leonardo R; Raj, Anita

2013-01-22

394

Women's anal sex practices: implications for formulation and promotion of a rectal microbicide.  

PubMed

To gain insight into practices that may inform formulation and use of rectal microbicides, in-depth interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 28 women who engage in anal intercourse. Microbicides are compounds under development to decrease sexually transmitted infections. Most women practiced anal sex in conjunction with vaginal intercourse. Anal sex typically was not preplanned, and few women reported preparation. Condom use was rare. Most women relied on saliva, vaginal fluids, prelubricated condoms, or used no lubrication at last intercourse. Women were uncertain about the amount of lubricant used during sex, with typical estimates of 1 to 2 teaspoons. This may prove challenging to the formulation and promotion of rectal microbicides, as substantially higher amounts may be required. Additional challenges include infrequent use of packaged lubricants, and typical male lubricant application, which may make women's control of rectal microbicides more difficult. Women overwhelmingly expressed interest in rectal microbicides. PMID:18433320

Exner, T M; Correale, J; Carballo-Diéguez, A; Salomon, L; Morrow, K M; Dolezal, C; Mayer, K

2008-04-01

395

Seriously mentally ill women's safer sex behaviors and the theory of reasoned action.  

PubMed

Seriously mentally ill women at risk for HIV infection (n = 96) participated in structured interviews assessing sexual and substance-use behavior over a 3-month period. The majority of the women (63.5%) did not use condoms. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, attitudes toward condom use and perceived social norms about safer sex were associated with safer sex intentions. Supplementing variables from the theory of reasoned action with safer sex self-efficacy explained additional variance in safer sex intentions. Greater safer sex intentions were related to both greater condom use and less frequent unprotected intercourse. In addition, less frequent sex after drug use and a less fatalistic outlook were associated with less frequent unprotected intercourse. Life circumstances specific to this population are particularly important to examine to improve the effectiveness of risk reduction interventions for seriously mentally ill women. PMID:19458268

Randolph, Mary E; Pinkerton, Steven D; Somlai, Anton M; Kelly, Jeffrey A; McAuliffe, Timothy L; Gibson, Richard H; Hackl, Kristin

2009-05-20

396

Relationship of age and sex-role conflict for professional women in human services.  

PubMed

This study provides external validation of the Sex-role Conflict Scale. The relationship between age and sex-role conflict among women with educational interests was investigated. 128 female students in education were assessed on the conflict they experienced in various settings. The mean sex-role conflict scores, although hypothesized to be significantly different, were not among women ages 25 yr. and below, ages 26 to 39 yr., and ages 40 yr. and over. Also investigated was the relationship between age and sex-role conflict in dual-career respondents. Of the 29 respondents who met the criterion for classification, mean sex-role conflict scores were not significantly different for the three age groups. The nonlinear relationship between sex-role conflict and age does not have support for professional women who work in fields other than business. PMID:2263704

Soled, S W; Blair, E D

1990-10-01

397

HIV prevalence, previous HIV testing, and condom use with clients and regular partners among Senegalese commercial sex workers  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection, to investigate condom use among registered female commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Senegal, West Africa, and to examine the association between previous HIV testing, knowledge of HIV serostatus and condom use with both regular sex partners and clients within this population. Methods A cross?sectional study was conducted at three sexually transmitted disease clinics among 1052 Senegalese registered CSWs between 2000 and 2004. Inperson interviews soliciting information concerning demographic characteristics, medical history, sexual behaviour with clients and regular partners, and previous HIV testing history were performed. Blood samples were collected for determination of HIV?1 and/or HIV?2 serostatus. Multivariable, Poisson and log?binomial models were used to calculate prevalence ratios. Results The overall HIV prevalence was 19.8%. Over 95% of CSWs reported always using a condom with clients, but only 18% reported always using a condom with their regular partners. A history of previous HIV testing was not associated with condom use with clients (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR)?=?0.98, 95% confidence intervals, CI: 0.90 to 1.06). However, prior HIV testing was associated with decreased condom use with their regular partners (APR?=?0.44, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.69), especially in women who tested HIV negative (APR?=?0.17, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.36). Conclusions CSWs in Senegal have a high HIV prevalence; therefore preventing HIV transmission from this population to the general population is important. Condom use with regular partners is low among registered CSWs in Senegal, and a prior HIV negative test is associated with even less condom use with regular partners. Intervention efforts to increase condom use with regular sexual partners are needed.

Wang, C; Hawes, S E; Gaye, A; Sow, P S; Ndoye, I; Manhart, L E; Wald, A; Critchlow, C W; Kiviat, N B

2007-01-01

398

Reports of work related musculoskeletal injury among home care service workers compared with nursery school workers and the general population of employed women in Sweden.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To describe the nationwide occurrence of work related musculoskeletal injuries among all home care service workers in Sweden, and to identify relative risks and risk factors of the injuries. METHODS--The study was based on work related injuries reported to the Swedish occupational injury information system in 1990-1. The work related musculoskeletal injuries were divided into overexertion accidents and musculoskeletal diseases. The incidence of the injuries in female home care service workers was compared with those in nursery school workers and all other employed women in Sweden. RESULTS--In home care service workers, the annual incidence of injury from overexertion accidents and musculoskeletal diseases were 19.2 and 15.1 per 1000 workers, respectively, which was higher than those in nursery school workers and all employed women in Sweden. For five injury locations including the back, all the age standardised relative risks (SRR) of overexertion accidents exceeded 4.0, and most of those for musculoskeletal diseases were 1.5 or more in home care service workers compared with all other employed women in Sweden. Total duration of sick leave due to overexertion accidents was 7.7 times, and musculoskeletal diseases 3.5 times, longer than in nursery school workers. National loss due to sick leave resulting from only musculoskeletal injuries in home care service workers was about 8.2% of the total work related sick leave in all employed women in Sweden, although the number of home care service workers represented only some 5% of this population. Lifting other people was most frequently reported as the main risk cause of overexertion accidents in both kinds of workers. CONCLUSIONS--The results support the hypothesis that home care service workers have higher annual injury incidence of musculoskeletal injuries than nursery school workers due to physically stressful tasks that are far less common in nursery school workers.

Ono, Y; Lagerstrom, M; Hagberg, M; Linden, A; Malker, B

1995-01-01

399

Women, Female Sex and Love Addicts, and Use of the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews changes in use of Internet by women over the past decade compared to previous decades. In a study of self-identified female sex and love addicts (FSLA) compared to non-addict women, data related to Internet use revealed significant differences on hypersexual behavior and cybersex subscales between women who identify as FSLA having cybersex problems, FSLA's without cybersex problems,

M. Deborah Corley; Joshua N. Hook

2012-01-01

400

Sex-Composition of Occupation and the Determinants of Women's Earnings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the impact of sex composition of occupation on women's earnings and the structure of wage determination in "masculine" and "feminine" occupations. Data--a national sample of women--came from the Project Talent Data Bank. Results indicated that, overall, women in "masculine" occupations earned approximately 42% more annually than…

Abrams, Doris L.

401

Ambivalent sexism and attitudes toward women who engage in premarital sex in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship of ambivalent sexism, political conservatism, demographic variables (age, education, and gender), and prior sexual experience to Turkish men's and women's attitudes toward women who engage in premarital sex. Participants included 124 Turkish undergraduate students and 60 nonstudent Turkish adults. Benevolent but not hostile sexism uniquely predicted more negative views of women who engage in premarital

Peter Glick

2003-01-01

402

Longitudinal change in sex role orientations: Differences between men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longitudinal comparisons over the five-year period of 1975–1980 show that both men and women have significantly lessened in sex role traditionalism. The change among women, further, is significantly greater than that for men. Using multiple regression analysis it is found that for women, entry into marriage, but not employment, is associated with lessened traditionalism. For men, it is not entry

William H. McBroom

1987-01-01

403

Depicting Women as Sex Objects in Television Advertising: Effects on Body Dissatisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether exposure to TV ads that portray women as sex objects causes increased body dissatisfaction among women and men. Participants were exposed to 15 sexist and 5 nonsexist ads, 20 nonsexist ads, or a no ad control condi- tion. Results revealed that women exposed to sexist ads judged their current body size as larger and revealed a

Howard Lavine; D. Sweeney; S. H. Wagner

1999-01-01

404

Coverage of HIV Prevention Services for Female Sex Workers in Seven Cities of Myanmar.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional surveys of female sex workers using time-location sampling in seven cities of Myanmar gauged coverage of HIV prevention programs. HIV testing in last year ranged from 28 to 73 %; attending peer educator talks ranged from 15 to 50 %; exposure to media campaigns varied by city and materials (e.g., lower for TV and radio, higher for printed materials). Consistent condom use with clients in last week was high (88-99 %) across all cities. The largest city, Yangon, lagged behind others in coverage of most programs. Such data are necessary for planning, targeting, and evaluating the prevention response for this key population disproportionately affected by HIV. PMID:23695521

Aung, Tin; Paw, Ethi; Aye, Nyo Me; McFarland, Willi

2013-05-22

405

Social support and recovery among Mexican female sex workers who inject drugs.  

PubMed

This qualitative study describes social support that female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) receive and recovery efforts in the context of relationships with family and intimate partners. We conducted thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with 47 FSW-IDUs enrolled in an intervention study to reduce injection/sexual risk behaviors in Tijuana, Mexico. FSW-IDUs received instrumental and emotional social support, which positively and negatively influenced recovery efforts. Participants reported how some intimate partners provided conflicting positive and negative support during recovery attempts. Problematic support (i.e., well-intended support with unintended consequences) occurred in strained family relationships, limiting the positive effects of support. Mexican drug treatment programs should consider addressing social support in recovery curricula through evidence-based interventions that engage intimate partners, children and family to better reflect socio-cultural and contextual determinants of substance abuse. PMID:23375570

Hiller, Sarah P; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D

2013-02-01

406

Children of female sex workers and drug users: a review of vulnerability, resilience and family-centred models of care  

PubMed Central

Background Injection drug users and female sex workers are two of the populations most at risk for becoming infected with HIV in countries with concentrated epidemics. Many of the adults who fall into these categories are also parents, but little is known about the vulnerabilities faced by their children, their children's sources of resilience, or programmes providing services to these often fragile families. This review synthesizes evidence from disparate sources describing the vulnerabilities and resilience of the children of female sex workers and drug users, and documents some models of care that have been put in place to assist them. Review A large literature assessing the vulnerability and resilience of children of drug users and alcoholics in developed countries was found. Research on the situation of the children of sex workers is extremely limited. Children of drug users and sex workers can face unique risks, stigma and discrimination, but both child vulnerability and resilience are associated in the drug use literature with the physical and mental health of parents and family context. Family-centred interventions have been implemented in low- and middle-income contexts, but they tend to be small, piecemeal and struggling to meet demand; they are poorly documented, and most have not been formally evaluated. We present preliminary descriptive data from an organization working with pregnant and new mothers who are drug users in Ukraine and from an organization providing services to sex workers and their families in Zambia. Conclusions Because parents' drug use or sex work is often illegal and hidden, identifying their children can be difficult and may increase children's vulnerability and marginalization. Researchers and service providers, therefore, need to proceed with caution when attempting to reach these populations, but documentation and evaluation of current programmes should be prioritized.

2010-01-01

407

Comparative views of the public, sex workers, businesses and residents on establishing managed zones for prostitution: Analysis of a consultation in Liverpool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug addiction, violence and anti-social behaviour are characteristics of street prostitution. An alternative approach to zero tolerance is establishing a managed zone where sex workers operate according to regulations and can access health services. Using a consultation with sex workers ðn ¼ 50Þ, businesses ðn ¼ 51Þ, residents ðn ¼ 179Þ and the public ðn ¼ 789Þ we examined where

Mark A. Bellis; Fay L. D. Watson; Sara Hughes; Penny A. Cook; Jennifer Downing; Peter Clark; Rod Thomson

408

Addressing Poverty, Unemployment and Gender Inequality in Southern Africa: An Alternative Strategy for HIV/AIDS Prevention with Sex Workers in Botswana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the results of a study that was conducted as an effort to identify the needs of sex workers as potential beneficiaries of future HIV prevention and empowerment activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the situation and needs of sex workers in the context of HIV/AIDS. Data were collected from one of the small…

Ntseane, Peggy Gabo

2004-01-01

409

TOO MANY MEN? SEX RATIOS AND WOMEN'S PARTNERING BEHAVIOR IN CHINA.  

PubMed

The relative numbers of women and men are changing dramatically in China, but the consequences of these imbalanced sex ratios have received little attention. We merge data from the Chinese Health and Family Life Survey with community-level data from Chinese censuses to examine the relationship between cohort- and community-specific sex ratios and women's partnering behavior. Consistent with demographic-opportunity theory and sociocultural theory, we find that high sex ratios (indicating more men relative to women) are associated with an increased likelihood that women marry before age 25. However, high sex ratios are also associated with an increased likelihood that women engage in premarital and extramarital sexual relationships and have had more than one sexual partner, findings consistent with demographic-opportunity theory but inconsistent with sociocultural theory. PMID:22199403

Trent, Katherine; South, Scott J

2011-09-01

410

Sociodemographic and Risk Behavior Characteristics Associated with Unprotected Sex with Women among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women in New York City  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to compare sociodemographic and risk behavior characteristics between black men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW) and those who have sex with men only (MSMO) and assess factors associated with having any unprotected vaginal and/or anal intercourse (UVAI) with women in the last 3 months. Data from 326 black men who reported recent unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a man in an HIV behavioral intervention study in New York City were analyzed. Baseline characteristics were compared between MSMW and MSMO, and factors associated with having any UVAI in the past 3 months with women among MSMW were evaluated. In total, 26.8% reported having sex with both men and women in the last 3 months. MSMW were less likely to be HIV-infected, use amyl nitrates, and have unprotected receptive anal sex with most recent male partner. MSMW were more likely to be over 40 years old and use heroin. 55.6% of MSMW reported having UVAI with women in the last 3 months. Compared to MSMW having only protected sex, MSMW having any UVAI with women were less likely to be HIV-infected and to disclose having sex with men to female partners; they were more likely to have greater than 4 male sex partners in the last 3 months. In conclusion, HIV prevention interventions among black MSMW should directly address the risk of HIV transmission to both their female and male partners. Disclosure of bisexuality to female partners may be an important component of future prevention efforts.

Tieu, Hong-Van; Spikes, Pilgrim; Patterson, Jocelyn; Bonner, Sebastian; Egan, James E.; Goodman, Krista; Stewart, Kiwan; Frye, Victoria; Xu, Guozhen; Hoover, Donald R.; Koblin, Beryl A.

2012-01-01

411

Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, genital symptoms and health-care seeking behaviour among HIV-negative female sex workers in Kigali, Rwanda.  

PubMed

Timely diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is often hampered by the lack of symptoms, inadequate diagnostics and/or poor availability, accessibility and quality of treatment in resource-limited settings. Female sex workers (FSW) are highly vulnerable for HIV and key transmitters of STIs. Among FSW (n = 400) participating in a prospective HIV incidence study in Kigali, Rwanda, only 15% (17/116) of women with laboratory-diagnosed non-ulcerative STIs at baseline reported symptoms. Only 27% (20/74) of women self-reporting genital symptoms sought care at enrolment, and 39% (46/117) of women with self-reported genital symptoms during follow-up. During focus group discussions, FSW considered treatment-seeking and partner notification important. Shame and feeling disrespected by doctors or other health-care workers were identified as barriers to seeking health care. A comprehensive STI control programme targeting both symptomatic and asymptomatic FSW should be considered in this setting. PMID:23514831

Veldhuijzen, N J; van Steijn, M; Nyinawabega, J; Kestelyn, E; Uwineza, M; Vyankandondera, J; van de Wijgert, J H H M

2013-03-20

412

Dangerous subtlety: relationship-related determinants of consistency of condom use among female sex workers and their regular, non-commercial partners in Hai Phong, Viet Nam.  

PubMed

Research indicates female sex workers use condoms more consistently with their clients than with regular, non-commercial partners (partners). The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship between couple communication and HIV risk behavior by examining (1) sex worker-partner divergence on communication measures and (2) the association between intra-couple communication divergence and consistent condom use. In this cross-sectional study, 50 sex workers and their partners in Hai Phong, Viet Nam were separately asked about their relationships and condom use. When asked about HIV risk communication in their relationship, sex workers reported significantly higher HIV communication content than their partners (p < 0.001). Higher communication divergence between partners was associated with a decreased likelihood of consistent condom use (OR 0.54 95% CI 0.30, 0.97). Sex workers urgently need interventions that build their communication skills and address their risk behavior in non-commercial relationships. PMID:20924782

Hoffman, Leah; Nguyen, Ha Thi Thu; Kershaw, Trace S; Niccolai, Linda M

2011-10-01

413

Felt Stigma in Injection Drug Users and Sex Workers: Focus Group Research with HIV-Risk Populations in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though many studies have conclusively linked felt stigma and HIV, few have focused on the experiences of rejection felt by members of such socially marginalized groups as intravenous drug users (IDU) and sex workers (SW). Using focus groups, our study explored these experiences in 34 individuals (17 male UDUs and 17 female SWs) at risk of becoming infected with HIV,

Julio Jiménez; Marieva Puig; Ana Cecilia Sala; Juan Carlos Ramos; Eida Castro; Marangelie Morales; Lydia Santiago; Carmen Zorrilla

2011-01-01

414

HIV1 and other sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of female sex workers in Chiang Rai, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine demographic and behavioural factors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) associated with prevalent HIV-1 infection among brothel based and other female sex workers (FSWs) in Chiang Rai, northern Thailand. METHODS: Data were collected from questionnaires, physical examinations, and laboratory evaluations on Thai FSWs enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Chiang Rai, Thailand, from 1991 to the end

K. Limpakarnjanarat; T. D. Mastro; S. Saisorn; W. Uthaivoravit; J. Kaewkungwal; S. Korattana; N. L. Young; S. A. Morse; D. S. Schmid; B. G. Weniger; P. Nieburg

1999-01-01

415

The incidence of sexually transmitted infections among frequently screened sex workers in a decriminalised and regulated system in Melbourne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) among decriminalised and regulated sex workers in Victoria.Methods: The incidence of STI was calculated for individuals who attended the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre on more than one occasion. Results of initial screen specimens were not included. Follow up time was calculated in person months and used as the denominator with

D M Lee; A Binger; J Hocking; C K Fairley

2005-01-01

416

How to reach clients of female sex workers: a survey ''by surprise'' in brothels in Dakar, Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To describe the sampling techniques and survey procedures used in identifying male clients who frequent brothels to buy sexual services from female sex workers in Dakar, Senegal, with the aim of measuring the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and investigating related risk behaviours. Methods Surveys were conducted in seven brothels in Dakar, Senegal. Clients were identified ''by

M. E. Gomes; G. D. Etheredge

417

Sexual risk behaviours and barriers to HIV testing among clients of female sex workers in Guatemala: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Few interventions have targeted clients of female sex workers in Central America, despite their potential role in HIV/STI prevention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 clients of female sex workers on attitudes towards prevention of HIV/STIs, barriers to condom use and behaviour towards HIV/STI testing and treatment in Escuintla, Guatemala. Despite high knowledge of condoms as an HIV/STI preventive measure, the decision to use them was often based on the client's social judgment of the woman's sexual conduct. Regular clients reported lower condom use. Clients' risk perception diminished with the awareness of the public HIV/STI clinic addressed to female sex workers. Most preferred private clinics to increase confidentiality and were reluctant to take the HIV test for fear of a positive result. Outreach programmes offering HIV/STI counselling and testing to clients of female sex workers could increase their test uptake and health-seeking behaviour and reduce potential transmission to the general population. PMID:23627770

Lahuerta, Maria; Torrens, Míriam; Sabidó, Meritxell; Batres, Anabella; Casabona, Jordi

2013-04-29

418

Clinic Appointment Attendance for Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening among Filipina Sex Workers: A Multilevel Analysis  

PubMed Central

This study evaluates putative individual- and contextual-level social risk factors that may influence the likelihood Filipina sex workers (FSWs) attend and utilize health services for STI screening. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1,004 FSWs and their 86 employers. Research staff also collected clinic appointment attendance data. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to estimate the simultaneous effects of individual- and workplace-level factors. Results showed that both individual- and contextual-level characteristics were associated with STI screening appointment attendance. Individual characteristics found to have significant effects on clinic attendance included occupation, income, length of work and commercial sex involvement. City of establishment was a workplace characteristic significantly associated with appointment attendance. In addition to cross-level interactions, the impact of individual-level occupation depended upon