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An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR). Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, and field observation. The distribution of plant species in the study areas was surveyed, and preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, priority ranking of factors and Informant consensus factor (ICF) were calculated. Results The informants categorized the vegetation into five community types based on plant density and associated landform: 'Raqqa', 'Hakka cadanaba', 'Mancchha', 'Bullukko', and 'Wodae gido'. 155 plant species were collected from the natural vegetation and 65 plant species from the home gardens ('Gattae Oduma'). Seventy-two plant species were documented as having medicinal value: Sixty-five (71%) from natural vegetation and 27 (29%) from home gardens. Forty-five (62%) were used for humans, 15(21%) for livestock and 13(18%) for treating both human and livestock ailments: 35 (43.2%) were Shrubs, 28(34.5%) herbs, 17 (20.9%) trees and 1(1.2%) climbers. The root (35.8%) was the most commonly used plant part. The category: malaria, fever and headache had the highest 0.82 ICF. Agricultural expansion (24.4%) in the area was found to be the main threat for medicinal plants followed by fire wood collection (18.8%). Peoples' culture and spiritual beliefs somehow helped in the conservation of medicinal plants. Conclusion Traditional healers still depend largely on naturally growing plant species and the important medicinal plants are under threat. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for further studies on the regions medicinal plants knowledge and for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies. PMID:19821994

Mesfin, Fisseha; Demissew, Sebsebe; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun



Community-based survey of podoconiosis in Bedele Zuria woreda, west Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease resulting in progressive bilateral swelling of the lower legs in barefoot individuals exposed to red-clay soil derived from volcanic rocks. It is a considerable public health problem in countries across tropical Africa, Central America and northern India. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and clinical features of podoconiosis, and patients' experience of disease prevention and treatment, in Bedele Zuria woreda (district), west Ethiopia. Methods The study was conducted during 2011 and involved a house-to-house survey in all 2285 households of five randomly selected rural kebeles (villages). Results The prevalence of podoconiosis was 5.6% (379/6710) (95% CI 5.1–6.2%) and was significantly greater among women than men (6.6% vs 4.7%; p = 0.001). A total of 311 (16.9%) households had at least one member with podoconiosis, and 128 (33.8%) study participants reported having a blood relative with podoconiosis. Two hundred and forty-three (76.4%) podoconiosis patients were in the economically productive age group of 15–64 years. On average, a patient experienced at least six episodes of adenolymphangitis per year resulting in a loss of 25 working days per year. Conclusion This study has revealed a high burden of podoconiosis in west Ethiopia, and suggests that disease prevention and treatment programmes are needed. PMID:24030111

Tekola Ayele, Fasil; Alemu, Getahun; Davey, Gail; Ahrens, Christel



Burden of Podoconiosis in Poor Rural Communities in Gulliso woreda, West Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Podoconiosis is an environmental lymphoedema affecting people living and working barefoot on irritant red clay soil. Podoconiosis is relatively well described in southern Ethiopia, but remains neglected in other parts of the Ethiopian highlands. This study aimed to assess the burden of podoconiosis in rural communities in western Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gulliso woreda (district), west Ethiopia. A household survey in the 26 rural kebeles (villages) of this district was conducted to identify podoconiosis patients and to measure disease prevalence. A more detailed study was done in six randomly selected kebeles to describe clinical features of the disease, patients' experiences of foot hygiene, and shoe wearing practice. 1,935 cases of podoconiosis were registered, giving a prevalence of 2.8%. The prevalence was higher in those aged 15–64 years (5.2%) and in females than males (prevalence ratio 2.6?1). 90.3% of patients were in the 15–64 year age group. In the detailed study, 335 cases were interviewed and their feet assessed. The majority of patients were farmers, uneducated, and poor. Two-third of patients developed the disease before the age of thirty. Almost all patients (97.0%) had experienced adenolymphangitis (ALA - red, hot legs, swollen and painful groin) at least once during the previous year. Patients experienced an average of 5.5 ALA episodes annually, each of average 4.4 days, thus 24 working days were lost annually. The incidence of ALA in podoconiosis patients was higher than that reported for filariasis in other countries. Shoe wearing was limited mainly due to financial problems. Conclusions We have documented high podoconiosis prevalence, frequent adenolymphangitis and high disease-related morbidity in west Ethiopia. Interventions must be developed to prevent, treat and control podoconiosis, one of the core neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia. PMID:21666795

Alemu, Getahun; Tekola Ayele, Fasil; Daniel, Takele; Ahrens, Christel; Davey, Gail



Determinants of Anemia among Children Aged 6-59 Months Living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, Northern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and determinant factors among children aged 6–59 months living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, eastern zone. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during February 2013 among 6 tabias of Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, northern Ethiopia. A total of 568 children were selected by systematic random sampling method. Anthropometric data and blood sample were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to anemia. Result. The mean hemoglobin level was 11.48?g/dl and about 37.3% of children were anemic. Children who were aged 6–23 months [AOR = 1.89: 95% CI (1.3, 2.8)], underweight [AOR = 2.05: 95% CI (1.3, 3.3)], having MUAC less than 12?cm [AOR = 3.35: 95% CI (2.1, 5.3)], and from households with annual income below 10,000 Ethiopian birr [AOR = 4.86: 95% CI (3.2, 7.3)] were more likely to become anemic. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia among the children is found to be high. It was associated with annual household income, age, and nutritional status of the child. So, improving family income and increasing awareness of the mother/caregiver were important intervention.

Gebreegziabiher, Gebremedhin; Niggusie, Daniel



Bovine Tuberculosis at the Wildlife-Livestock-Human Interface in Hamer Woreda, South Omo, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in cattle in the Ethiopian Highlands but no studies have been done so far in pastoralists in South Omo. This study assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) at an intensive interface of livestock, wildlife and pastoralists in Hamer Woreda (South Omo), Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey including a comparative intradermal skin testing (CIDT) was conducted in 499 zebu cattle and 186 goats in 12 settlements. Sputum samples from 26 symptomatic livestock owners were cultured for TB. Fifty-one wildlife samples from 13 different species were also collected in the same area and tested with serological (lateral flow assay) and bacteriological (culture of lymph nodes) techniques. Individual BTB prevalence in cattle was 0.8% (CI: 0.3%–2%) with the >4 mm cut-off and 3.4% (CI: 2.1%–5.4%) with the >2 mm cut-off. Herd prevalence was 33.3% and 83% when using the >4 and the >2 mm cut-off respectively. There was no correlation between age, sex, body condition and positive reactors upon univariate analysis. None of the goats were reactors for BTB. Acid fast bacilli (AFB) were detected in 50% of the wildlife cultures, 79.2% of which were identified as Mycobacterium terrae complex. No M. bovis was detected. Twenty-seven percent of tested wildlife were sero-positive. Four sputum cultures (15.4%) yielded AFB positive colonies among which one was M. tuberculosis and 3 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The prevalence of M. avium-complex (MAC) was 4.2% in wildlife, 2.5% in cattle and 0.5% in goats. In conclusion, individual BTB prevalence was low, but herd prevalence high in cattle and BTB was not detected in goats, wildlife and humans despite an intensive contact interface. On the contrary, NTMs were highly prevalent and some Mycobacterium spp were more prevalent in specific species. The role of NTMs in livestock and co-infection with BTB need further research. PMID:20808913

Tschopp, Rea; Aseffa, Abraham; Schelling, Esther; Berg, Stefan; Hailu, Elena; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Habtamu, Meseret; Argaw, Kifle; Zinsstag, Jakob



Factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12-23 months in Ambo Woreda, Central Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Vaccination is a proven tool in preventing and eradicating communicable diseases, but a considerable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage in many parts of the country remains low despite the efforts to improve the services. In 2005, only 20% of the children were fully vaccinated and about 1 million children were unvaccinated in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess complete immunization coverage and its associated factors among children aged 12–23?months in Ambo woreda. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in 8 rural and 2 urban kebeles during January- February, 2011. A modified WHO EPI cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. Data on 536 children aged 12–23?months from 536 representative households were collected using trained nurses. The data collectors assessed the vaccination status of the children based on vaccination cards or mother’s verbal reports using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through house-to-house visits. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with immunization coverage. Results About 96% of the mothers heard about vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases and 79.5% knew the benefit of immunization. About 36% of children aged 12–23?months were fully vaccinated by card plus recall, but only 27.7% were fully vaccinated by card alone and 23.7% children were unvaccinated. Using multivariate logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with complete immunization were antenatal care follow-up (adjusted odds ratio(AOR?=?2.4, 95% CI: 1.2- 4.9), being born in the health facility (AOR?=?2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4), mothers’ knowledge about the age at which vaccination begins (AOR?=?2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.6) and knowledge about the age at which vaccination completes (AOR?=?4.3, 95% CI: 2.3-8), whereas area of residence and mother’s socio-demographic characteristics were not significantly associated with full immunization among children. Conclusion Complete immunization coverage among children aged 12–23?months remains low. Maternal health care utilization and knowledge of mothers about the age at which child begins and finishes vaccination are the main factors associated with complete immunization coverage. It is necessary that, local interventions should be strengthened to raising awareness of the community on the importance of immunization, antenatal care and institutional delivery. PMID:22839418



An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by local people in the lowlands of Konta Special Woreda, southern nations, nationalities and peoples regional state, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Research was carried out in Konta Special Woreda (District); it is a remote area with lack of infrastructure like road to make any research activities in the area. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate medicinal plants of the Konta people and to document the local knowledge before environmental and cultural changes deplete the resources. Methods The information was collected between October 2006 and February 2007. Interview-based field study constituted the main data collection method in which the gathering, preparation, use, previous and current status and cultivation practices were systematically investigated. The abundance, taxonomic diversity and distribution of medicinal plants were studied using ecological approach. Results A total of 120 species, grouped within 100 genera and 47 families that are used in traditional medical practices were identified and studied. The Fabaceae and Lamiaceae were the most commonly reported medicinal plants with 16 (13.3%) and 14 (12%) species, respectively. 25.4% of the total medicinal plants are collected from homegardens and the rest (74.6%) are collected from wild habitats. Of the total number of medicinal plants, 108 species (90%) were used to treat human ailments, 6 (5%) for livestock diseases and the remaining 6 (5%) were used to treat both human and livestock health problems. The major threats to medicinal plants reported include harvesting medicinal plants for firewood (24.8%) followed by fire (22.3%) and construction (19%). Of the four plant communities identified in the wild, more medicinal plant species (34) were found in community type-4 (Hyparrhenia cymbaria-Erythrina abyssinica community), which accounted for 61.8%. Conclusion Konta Special Woreda is an important area for medicinal plants and associated local knowledge; the natural vegetation being the most important reservoir for the majority of the medicinal plants. Environmental and cultural changes are in the process of threatening the resources and this signals the need for serious efforts to create public awareness so that measures are taken to conserve the medicinal plants in the natural ecosystems and other suitable environments. PMID:19775482

Bekalo, Tesfaye Hailemariam; Woodmatas, Sebsebe Demissew; Woldemariam, Zemede Asfaw



Malaria prevalence and mosquito net coverage in Oromia and SNNPR regions of Ethiopia  

E-print Network

distributed in all malarious areas of Ethiopia with the assistance of health extension workers, volunteer community workers and local administration. However, even if all households at risk are fully covered, nets must also be used consistently and correctly... but when working in more remote areas, theyPage 4 of 12 (page number not for citation purposes) local conditions [10]. The questionnaire was translated and printed in Amharic and Oromiffa languages and were sometimes obliged to sleep in the field and stain...

Shargie, Estifanos B; Gebre, Teshome; Ngondi, Jeremiah; Graves, Patricia M; Mosher, Aryc W; Emerson, Paul M; Ejigsemahu, Yeshewamebrat; Endeshaw, Tekola; Olana, Dereje; WeldeMeskel, Asrat; Teferra, Admas; Tadesse, Zerihun; Tilahun, Abate; Yohannes, Gedeon; Richards, Frank O Jr



Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: A cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Although breastfeeding is universal in Ethiopia, ranges of regional differences in timely initiation of breastfeeding have\\u000a been documented. Initiation of breastfeeding is highly bound to cultural factors that may either enhance or inhibit the optimal\\u000a practices. The government of Ethiopia developed National Infant and Young Child Feeding Guideline in 2004 and behavior change\\u000a communications on breast feeding have been going

Tesfaye Setegn; Mulusew Gerbaba; Tefera Belachew



Seroprevalence of Newcastle disease and other infectious diseases in backyard chickens at markets in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.  


This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease (ND), Pasteurella multocida (PM) infection, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection, and infectious bursal disease (IBD) and to assess the level of concurrent seropositivity during the dry and wet seasons of the year 2010. In total, 234 and 216 sera were collected during the dry and wet seasons, respectively, from unvaccinated backyard chickens at 4 live poultry markets in 2 woredas (districts) of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia, and were tested using commercial ELISA kits. The overall seroprevalence of ND, PM, MG, and IBD was 5.9, 66.2, 57.7, and 91.9%, respectively, during the dry season, and 6.0, 63.4, 78.7, and 96.3%, respectively, during the wet season. The seroprevalence of MG was higher (P < 0.001) during the wet season than during the dry season and higher (P = 0.002) in Adami-Tulu-Jido-Kombolcha woreda (74%) than in Ada'a woreda (60%). Area and season had no significant effect on the seroprevalence of ND, IBD, and PM, indicating the widespread presence of those pathogens throughout the year in the study area. Of all the chickens tested, 85.6% had antibodies concurrently to more than one of the pathogens investigated. Birds were concurrently seropositive to more diseases during the wet season (median = 3) than during the dry season (median = 2; P = 0.002). As serology is not able to distinguish between strains, further studies are warranted to better understand the circulating strains, their interactions, and their economic effect on backyard poultry production in Ethiopia. PMID:22399725

Chaka, H; Goutard, F; Bisschop, S P R; Thompson, P N



Sustaining urban development through participation: an Ethiopian case study.  


Under the Mengistu regime, Addis Ababa was divided into six zones, 28 woredas, and 303 kebeles, the kebeles being the smallest grassroots administrative unit. To enhance community participation, the Kebele 29 Project promoted the establishment of grassroots community groups by dividing the kebele into four zones and 37 neighborhoods. Each neighborhood is represented by a chairperson and a deputy who take responsibility for reviewing the priority needs of households, relaying information between the project and the community, and following up the project interventions. The author considers the sustainability of income-generating activities established as part of many urban development projects instigated by development agencies, the likelihood of inhabitants generating enough income for the upkeep of new or improved infrastructure, and whether the necessary commitment from the community can be created in a situation in which civil organizations have been banned or discouraged. These issues are considered in the context of Oxfam UK/I's involvement in the Kebele 29 Project. PMID:12346982

Tadele, F



A Systems Approach to Improving Rural Care in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple interventions have been launched to improve the quality, access, and utilization of primary health care in rural, low-income settings; however, the success of these interventions varies substantially, even within single studies where the measured impact of interventions differs across sites, centers, and regions. Accordingly, we sought to examine the variation in impact of a health systems strengthening intervention and understand factors that might explain the variation in impact across primary health care units. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a mixed methods positive deviance study of 20 Primary Health Care Units (PHCUs) in rural Ethiopia. Using longitudinal data from the Ethiopia Millennium Rural Initiative (EMRI), we identified PHCUs with consistently higher performance (n?=?2), most improved performance (n?=?3), or consistently lower performance (n?=?2) in the provision of antenatal care, HIV testing in antenatal care, and skilled birth attendance rates. Using data from site visits and in-depth interviews (n?=?51), we applied the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis to identify key themes that distinguished PHCUs with different performance trajectories. Key themes that distinguished PHCUs were 1) managerial problem solving capacity, 2) relationship with the woreda (district) health office, and 3) community engagement. In higher performing PHCUs and those with the greatest improvement after the EMRI intervention, health center and health post staff were more able to solve day-to-day problems, staff had better relationships with the woreda health official, and PHCU communities' leadership, particularly religious leadership, were strongly engaged with the health improvement effort. Distance from the nearest city, quality of roads and transportation, and cultural norms did not differ substantially among PHCUs. Conclusions/Significance Effective health strengthening efforts may require intensive development of managerial problem solving skills, strong relationships with government offices that oversee front-line providers, and committed community leadership to succeed. PMID:22558113

Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Byam, Patrick; Alpern, Rachelle; Thompson, Jennifer W.; Zerihun, Abraham; Abeb, Yigeremu; Curry, Leslie A.



Podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones, Northern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) that is prevalent in red clay soil-covered highlands of tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northern India. It is estimated that up to one million cases exist in Ethiopia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones of Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha woredas (districts) in East and West Gojam Zones, respectively. The survey covered all 17,553 households in 20 kebeles (administrative subunits) randomly selected from the two woredas. A detailed structured interview was conducted on 1,704 cases of podoconiosis identified in the survey. Results The prevalence of podoconiosis in the population aged 15 years and above was found to be 3.3% (95% CI, 3.2% to 3.6%). 87% of cases were in the economically active age group (15–64 years). On average, patients sought treatment five years after the start of the leg swelling. Most subjects had second (42.7%) or third (36.1%) clinical stage disease, 97.9% had mossy lesions, and 53% had open wounds. On average, patients had five episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ALA) per year and spent a total of 90 days per year with ALA. The median age of first use of shoes and socks were 22 and 23 years, respectively. More men than women owned more than one pair of shoes (61.1% vs. 50.5%; ?2?=?11.6 p?=?0.001). At the time of interview, 23.6% of the respondents were barefoot, of whom about two-thirds were women. Conclusions This study showed high prevalence of podoconiosis and associated morbidities such as ALA, mossy lesions and open wounds in northern Ethiopia. Predominance of cases at early clinical stage of podoconiosis indicates the potential for reversing the swelling and calls for disease prevention interventions. PMID:22816005

Molla, Yordanos B.; Tomczyk, Sara; Amberbir, Tsige; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail



Bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis prevalence in cattle from selected milk cooperatives in Arsi zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis are two important milk-borne zoonoses that have been shown to be prevalent to various degrees in Ethiopian cattle. The study was carried out in four Woredas (districts) around Asella town, Arsi Zone between October 2011 and March 2012 and included 318 small-holders in 13 dairy cooperatives that marketed the delivered milk. The aims of the study were i) to assess the prevalence of the two diseases in cattle in a cross-sectional study, ii) to assess potential risk factors of BTB and brucellosis to humans as well as the knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) among these farmers towards these diseases. Results BTB testing using the comparative intradermal skin test (CIDT) was done on 584 milking cows, out of which 417 were serologically tested for brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test and reactors confirmed with an indirect ELISA test (PrioCHECK®). The individual animal prevalence was 0.3% (95% CI 0.1% to 1.3%) for BTB, 1.7% (95% CI 0.8% to 3.5%) for brucellosis and 8.9% (95% CI 6.8% to 11.5%) for MAC (Mycobacterium avium complex). Of the 13 milk cooperatives, two had at least one positive BTB reactor and five had animals positive for brucellosis. Cross-breeds accounted for 100% and 71.4% of the BTB and brucellosis reactors respectively. For both diseases, there were prevalence variations depending on Woreda. No animal was concomitant reactor for BTB and brucellosis. Raw milk was consumed by 55.4% of the respondents. 79.2% of the respondents reported touching the afterbirth with bare hands. The latter was fed to dogs in 83% of the households. One cow among the herds of the 130 interviewees had aborted in the last 12 months. Among the interviewees, 77% stated knowing tuberculosis in general but 42 out of the 130 respondents (32.3%) did not know that BTB was transmitted by livestock. Less than half (47.7%) of the respondents knew about brucellosis. Conclusions Low prevalence of both diseases reflected the potential for the area to compete with the growing milk demand. The authors discussed the possible control strategies for the area. PMID:23941112



Birth in a Health Facility -Inequalities among the Ethiopian Women: Results from Repeated National Surveys  

PubMed Central

Background Uptake of health facilities for delivery care in Ethiopia has not been examined in the light of equality. We investigated differences in institutional deliveries by urbanity, administrative region, economic status and maternal education. Methods This study was based on nation-wide repeated surveys undertaken in the years 2000, 2005, and 2011. The surveys used a cluster sampling design. Women of reproductive age were interviewed on the place of their last delivery. Data was analyzed using logistic regressions to estimate the weighted association between birth in a health facility and study's predictors. Results Utilization of health institutions for deliveries has improved throughout the study period, however, rates remain low (5.4%,2000 and 11.8%,2011). Compared with women from rural places, women from urban areas had independent OR of a health facility delivery of 4.9 (95% CI: 3.4, 7.0), 5.0 (95% CI: 3.6, 6.9), and 4.6 (95% CI: 3.5, 6.0) in 2000, 2005, and 2011, respectively. Women with secondary/higher education had more deliveries in a healthcare facility than women with no education, and these gaps widened over the years (OR: 35.1, 45.0 and 53.6 in 2000, 2005, and 2011, respectively). Women of the upper economic quintile had 3.0–7.2 times the odds of healthcare facility deliveries, compared with the lowest quintile, with no clear trend over the years. While Addis-Ababa and Dire Dawa remained with the highest OR for deliveries in a health facility compared with Amhara, other regions displayed shifts in their relative ranking with Oromiya, SNNPR, Afar, Harari, and Somali getting relatively worse over time. Conclusions The disparity related to urbanity or education in the use of health facility for birth in Ethiopia is staggering. There is a small inequality between most regions except Addis Ababa/Dire Dawa and sign of abating inequity between economic strata except for the richest households. PMID:24751600

Yesuf, Elias Ali; Kerie, Mirkuzie Woldie; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit



Household-level risk factors for Newcastle disease seropositivity and incidence of Newcastle disease virus exposure in backyard chicken flocks in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.  


A cross-sectional study with repeated sampling was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for Newcastle disease (ND) seropositivity and for incidence of ND virus (NDV) exposure in household flocks of backyard chickens in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Data were collected from 260 randomly selected households in 52 villages in Adami Tulu Jido Kombolcha and Ada'a woredas (districts) using a structured questionnaire, and serum samples from chickens were tested for NDV antibodies using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sampling took place during September 2009 and the same households were again sampled in May 2010. Household-level seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were estimated in various ways using serological results from the two samplings, flock dynamics, and farmers' reports of ND in their flocks. The risk factors were assessed using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression models. Household-level seroprevalence at the two sampling times was 17.4% and 27.4%, respectively, and the estimated incidence of household-level NDV exposure during the intervening period ranged between 19.7% and 25.5%. At the first sampling, reduced frequency of cleaning of poultry waste was associated with increased odds of seropositivity (OR=4.78; 95% CI: 1.42, 16.11; P=0.01) while hatching at home vs. other sources (buying in replacement birds, receiving as gift or buying fertile eggs) was associated with lower odds of seropositivity, both at the first sampling (OR=0.30; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.82; P=0.02) and the second sampling (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.52; P<0.001). The risk of NDV exposure was shown to be higher with larger flock size at the beginning of the observation period (OR=3.6; 95% CI: 1.25, 10.39; P=0.02). Using an open water source (pond or river) for poultry compared to closed sources (tap or borehole) was associated with increased risk of NDV exposure (OR=3.14; 95% CI: 1.12, 8.8; P=0.03). The use of a grain supplement (OR=0.14; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.69; P=0.03) and hatching at home for flock replacement (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.52; P=0.005) were associated with a lower risk of NDV exposure. Newcastle disease seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were more heterogeneous between villages than between kebeles (aggregations of villages) and woredas in the study area. Further investigation of village-level risk factors would likely improve our understanding of ND epidemiology in backyard chickens. PMID:23127692

Chaka, Hassen; Goutard, Flavie; Roger, Francois; Bisschop, Shahn P R; Thompson, Peter N



Bovine tuberculosis at a cattle-small ruminant-human interface in Meskan, Gurage region, Central Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in Ethiopian cattle. The aim of this study was to assess BTB prevalence at an intensive contact interface in Meskan Woreda (district) in cattle, small ruminants and suspected TB-lymphadenitis (TBLN) human patients. Methods The comparative intradermal test (CIDT) was carried out for all animals involved in the cross-sectional study and results interpreted using a > 4 mm and a > 2 mm cut-off. One PPD positive goat was slaughtered and lymph nodes subjected to culture and molecular typing. In the same villages, people with lymphadenitis were subjected to clinical examination. Fine needle aspirates (FNA) were taken from suspected TBLN and analyzed by smear microscopy and molecular typing. Results A total of 1214 cattle and 406 small ruminants were tested for BTB. In cattle, overall individual prevalence (> 2 mm cut-off) was 6.8% (CI: 5.4-8.5%) with 100% herd prevalence. Only three small ruminants (2 sheep and 1 goat) were reactors. The overall individual prevalence in small ruminants (> 2 mm cut-off) was 0.4% (CI: 0.03-5.1%) with 25% herd prevalence. Cattle from owners with PPD positive small ruminants were all PPD negative. 83% of the owners kept their sheep and goats inside their house at night and 5% drank regularly goat milk. FNAs were taken from 33 TBLN suspected cases out of a total of 127 screened individuals with lymph node swellings. Based on cytology results, 12 were confirmed TBLN cases. Nine out of 33 cultures were AFB positive. Culture positive samples were subjected to molecular typing and they all yielded M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis was also isolated from the goat that was slaughtered. Conclusions This study highlighted a low BTB prevalence in sheep and goats despite intensive contact with cattle reactors. TBLN in humans was caused entirely by M. tuberculosis, the human pathogen. M. tuberculosis seems to circulate also in livestock but their role at the interface is unknown. PMID:22085784



Podoconiosis patients' willingness to pay for treatment services in Northwest Ethiopia: potential for cost recovery  

PubMed Central

Background Podoconiosis is non-filarial elephantiasis of the lower legs. It is more commonly found in tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northwest India. In Ethiopia, a few non-governmental organizations provide free treatment to podoconiosis patients, but sustainability of free treatment and scale-up of services to reach the huge unmet need is challenged by resource limitations. We aimed to determine podoconiosis patient’s willingness to pay (WTP) for a treatment package (composed of deep cleaning of limbs with diluted antiseptic solution, soap, and water, bandaging, application of emollient on the skin, and provision of shoes), and factors associated with WTP in northwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected untreated podoconiosis patients (n?=?393) in Baso Liben woreda, northwestern Ethiopia. The contingent valuation method was used with a pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results The majority of podoconiosis patients (72.8%) were willing to pay for treatment services. The median WTP amount was 64 Birr (US$ 3.28) per person per year. More than one-third of patients (36.7%) were willing to pay at least half of the full treatment cost and 76.2% were willing to pay at least half of the cost of shoes. A multivariate analysis showed that having a higher monthly income, being a woman, older age, being aware of the role of shoes to prevent podoconiosis, and possession of a functional radio were significantly associated with higher odds of WTP. Conclusions The considerable WTP estimates showed that podoconiosis treatment could improve sustainability and service utilization. A subsidized cost recovery scheme could reduce treatment costs and more feasibility integrate podoconiosis treatment service with other NTDs and the government’s primary health care system. PMID:24642085



Patients' perceptions of podoconiosis causes, prevention and consequences in East and West Gojam, Northern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Podoconiosis is a form of non-filarial elephantiasis that affects barefoot individuals in highland tropical areas. The disease presents with bilateral, asymmetric swelling of the legs, usually confined to below the knee. This study aimed to assess podoconiosis patients’ perceptions of prevention, control, causes and familial clustering of the disease, and to document physical, social and economic impairments associated with the disease, with the ultimate aim of enabling development of tailored interventions in this region. Methods This descriptive study is part of the largest cross-sectional community-based household survey yet conducted on podoconiosis. It was completed in November and December, 2011, in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha Woredas of East and West Gojam Zones, northern Ethiopia, and consisted of a house-to-house census by community health workers followed by interviews of identified patients using a structured questionnaire. Results In the 17,553 households surveyed, 1,319 patients were identified. More male as compared to female patients were married (84.6% vs. 53.6%, ?2?=?157.1, p?