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1

Global meta-analysis of wood decomposition rates: a role for trait variation among tree species?  

PubMed

The carbon flux from woody debris, a crucial uncertainty within global carbon-climate models, is simultaneously affected by climate, site environment and species-based variation in wood quality. In the first global analysis attempting to explicitly tease out the wood quality contribution to decomposition, we found support for our hypothesis that, under a common climate, interspecific differences in wood traits affect woody debris decomposition patterns. A meta-analysis of 36 studies from all forested continents revealed that nitrogen, phosphorus, and C : N ratio correlate with decomposition rates of angiosperms. In addition, gymnosperm wood consistently decomposes slower than angiosperm wood within common sites, a pattern that correlates with clear divergence in wood traits between the two groups. New empirical studies are needed to test whether this difference is due to a direct effect of wood trait variation on decomposer activity or an indirect effect of wood traits on decomposition microsite environment. The wood trait-decomposition results point to an important role for changes in the wood traits of dominant tree species as a driver of carbon cycling, with likely feedback to atmospheric CO(2) particularly where angiosperm species replace gymnosperms regionally. Truly worldwide upscaling of our results will require further site-based multi-species wood trait and decomposition data, particularly from low-latitude ecosystems. PMID:19016827

Weedon, James T; Cornwell, William K; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Zanne, Amy E; Wirth, Christian; Coomes, David A

2008-11-05

2

Association Genetics of Wood Physical Traits in the Conifer White Spruce and Relationships With Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Marker-assisted selection holds promise for highly influencing tree breeding, especially for wood traits, by considerably reducing breeding cycles and increasing selection accuracy. In this study, we used a candidate gene approach to test for associations between 944 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers from 549 candidate genes and 25 wood quality traits in white spruce. A mixed-linear model approach, including a weak but nonsignificant population structure, was implemented for each marker–trait combination. Relatedness among individuals was controlled using a kinship matrix estimated either from the known half-sib structure or from the markers. Both additive and dominance effect models were tested. Between 8 and 21 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be significantly associated (P ? 0.01) with each of earlywood, latewood, or total wood traits. After controlling for multiple testing (Q ? 0.10), 13 SNPs were still significant across as many genes belonging to different families, each accounting for between 3 and 5% of the phenotypic variance in 10 wood characters. Transcript accumulation was determined for genes containing SNPs associated with these traits. Significantly different transcript levels (P ? 0.05) were found among the SNP genotypes of a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, a ?-tonoplast intrinsic protein, and a long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 9. These results should contribute toward the development of efficient marker-assisted selection in an economically important tree species.

Beaulieu, Jean; Doerksen, Trevor; Boyle, Brian; Clement, Sebastien; Deslauriers, Marie; Beauseigle, Stephanie; Blais, Sylvie; Poulin, Pier-Luc; Lenz, Patrick; Caron, Sebastien; Rigault, Philippe; Bicho, Paul; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John

2011-01-01

3

Association genetics of wood physical traits in the conifer white spruce and relationships with gene expression.  

PubMed

Marker-assisted selection holds promise for highly influencing tree breeding, especially for wood traits, by considerably reducing breeding cycles and increasing selection accuracy. In this study, we used a candidate gene approach to test for associations between 944 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers from 549 candidate genes and 25 wood quality traits in white spruce. A mixed-linear model approach, including a weak but nonsignificant population structure, was implemented for each marker-trait combination. Relatedness among individuals was controlled using a kinship matrix estimated either from the known half-sib structure or from the markers. Both additive and dominance effect models were tested. Between 8 and 21 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be significantly associated (P ? 0.01) with each of earlywood, latewood, or total wood traits. After controlling for multiple testing (Q ? 0.10), 13 SNPs were still significant across as many genes belonging to different families, each accounting for between 3 and 5% of the phenotypic variance in 10 wood characters. Transcript accumulation was determined for genes containing SNPs associated with these traits. Significantly different transcript levels (P ? 0.05) were found among the SNP genotypes of a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, a ?-tonoplast intrinsic protein, and a long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 9. These results should contribute toward the development of efficient marker-assisted selection in an economically important tree species. PMID:21385726

Beaulieu, Jean; Doerksen, Trevor; Boyle, Brian; Clément, Sébastien; Deslauriers, Marie; Beauseigle, Stéphanie; Blais, Sylvie; Poulin, Pier-Luc; Lenz, Patrick; Caron, Sébastien; Rigault, Philippe; Bicho, Paul; Bousquet, Jean; Mackay, John

2011-03-08

4

Breeding for Grain Quality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding for complex multigenic phenotypic quality characters in cereals by chemical analyses and functional pilot tests is\\u000a traditionally a slow and expensive process. The development of new instrumental screening methods for complex quality traits\\u000a evaluated by multivariate data analysis has during the last decades revolutionised the economy and scale in breeding for quality.\\u000a The traditional explorative plant breeding view is

Lars Munck

5

Identification of QTLs influencing wood property traits in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). I. Physical wood properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical wood property traits for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were analyzed for the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in a three-generation outbred pedigree. These traits\\u000a include wood specific gravity (wsg), volume percentage of latewood (vol%), and microfibril angle (mfa). Phenotypic data were collected for rings 2–11 for wsg and vol%, and rings 3, 5 and 7 for mfa.

M. M. Sewell; D. L. Bassoni; R. A. Megraw; N. C. Wheeler; D. B. Neale

2000-01-01

6

Association genetics in Pinus taeda L. I. Wood property traits.  

PubMed

Genetic association is a powerful method for dissecting complex adaptive traits due to (i) fine-scale mapping resulting from historical recombination, (ii) wide coverage of phenotypic and genotypic variation within a single experiment, and (iii) the simultaneous discovery of loci and alleles. In this article, genetic association among single nucleotide polymorphisms (58 SNPs) from 20 wood- and drought-related candidate genes and an array of wood property traits with evolutionary and commercial importance, namely, earlywood and latewood specific gravity, percentage of latewood, earlywood microfibril angle, and wood chemistry (lignin and cellulose content), was tested using mixed linear models (MLMs) that account for relatedness among individuals by using a pairwise kinship matrix. Population structure, a common systematic bias in association studies, was assessed using 22 nuclear microsatellites. Different phenotype:genotype associations were found, some of them confirming previous evidence from collocation of QTL and genes in linkage maps (for example, 4cl and percentage of latewood) and two that involve nonsynonymous polymorphisms (cad SNP M28 with earlywood specific gravity and 4cl SNP M7 with percentage of latewood). The strongest genetic association found in this study was between allelic variation in alpha-tubulin, a gene involved in the formation of cortical microtubules, and earlywood microfibril angle. Intragenic LD decays rapidly in conifers; thus SNPs showing genetic association are likely to be located in close proximity to the causative polymorphisms. This first multigene association genetic study in forest trees has shown the feasibility of candidate gene strategies for dissecting complex adaptive traits, provided that genes belonging to key pathways and appropriate statistical tools are used. This approach is of particular utility in species such as conifers, where genomewide strategies are limited by their large genomes. PMID:17110498

González-Martínez, Santiago C; Wheeler, Nicholas C; Ersoz, Elhan; Nelson, C Dana; Neale, David B

2006-11-16

7

Association Genetics in Pinus taeda L. I. Wood Property Traits  

PubMed Central

Genetic association is a powerful method for dissecting complex adaptive traits due to (i) fine-scale mapping resulting from historical recombination, (ii) wide coverage of phenotypic and genotypic variation within a single experiment, and (iii) the simultaneous discovery of loci and alleles. In this article, genetic association among single nucleotide polymorphisms (58 SNPs) from 20 wood- and drought-related candidate genes and an array of wood property traits with evolutionary and commercial importance, namely, earlywood and latewood specific gravity, percentage of latewood, earlywood microfibril angle, and wood chemistry (lignin and cellulose content), was tested using mixed linear models (MLMs) that account for relatedness among individuals by using a pairwise kinship matrix. Population structure, a common systematic bias in association studies, was assessed using 22 nuclear microsatellites. Different phenotype:genotype associations were found, some of them confirming previous evidence from collocation of QTL and genes in linkage maps (for example, 4cl and percentage of latewood) and two that involve nonsynonymous polymorphisms (cad SNP M28 with earlywood specific gravity and 4cl SNP M7 with percentage of latewood). The strongest genetic association found in this study was between allelic variation in ?-tubulin, a gene involved in the formation of cortical microtubules, and earlywood microfibril angle. Intragenic LD decays rapidly in conifers; thus SNPs showing genetic association are likely to be located in close proximity to the causative polymorphisms. This first multigene association genetic study in forest trees has shown the feasibility of candidate gene strategies for dissecting complex adaptive traits, provided that genes belonging to key pathways and appropriate statistical tools are used. This approach is of particular utility in species such as conifers, where genomewide strategies are limited by their large genomes.

Gonzalez-Martinez, Santiago C.; Wheeler, Nicholas C.; Ersoz, Elhan; Nelson, C. Dana; Neale, David B.

2007-01-01

8

Wood quality from fast-grown plantations  

SciTech Connect

As forestry becomes more intensive and as forestry operations move toward the tropical areas, an increasing proportion of the wood available to the industry will come from young, fast-grown plantations. The wood of such trees, especially from the conifers, is so different that it will have a major effect on utilization and product standards. Acceptability of wood from fast-grown plantations will change as solid wood and paper quality standards change. Some of the primary effects on wood and products from fast-grown plantations are discussed in this paper. The wood is very suitable for some products and poor for others. The paper reports on conifers and hardwoods separately, with a large section on Eucalyptus.

Zobel, B.

1981-01-01

9

The trait contribution to wood decomposition rates of 15 Neotropical tree species.  

PubMed

The decomposition of dead wood is a critical uncertainty in models of the global carbon cycle. Despite this, relatively few studies have focused on dead wood decomposition, with a strong bias to higher latitudes. Especially the effect of interspecific variation in species traits on differences in wood decomposition rates remains unknown. In order to fill these gaps, we applied a novel method to study long-term wood decomposition of 15 tree species in a Bolivian semi-evergreen tropical moist forest. We hypothesized that interspecific differences in species traits are important drivers of variation in wood decomposition rates. Wood decomposition rates (fractional mass loss) varied between 0.01 and 0.31 yr(-1). We measured 10 different chemical, anatomical, and morphological traits for all species. The species' average traits were useful predictors of wood decomposition rates, particularly the average diameter (dbh) of the tree species (R2 = 0.41). Lignin concentration further increased the proportion of explained inter-specific variation in wood decomposition (both negative relations, cumulative R2 = 0.55), although it did not significantly explain variation in wood decomposition rates if considered alone. When dbh values of the actual dead trees sampled for decomposition rate determination were used as a predictor variable, the final model (including dead tree dbh and lignin concentration) explained even more variation in wood decomposition rates (R2 = 0.71), underlining the importance of dbh in wood decomposition. Other traits, including wood density, wood anatomical traits, macronutrient concentrations, and the amount of phenolic extractives could not significantly explain the variation in wood decomposition rates. The surprising results of this multi-species study, in which for the first time a large set of traits is explicitly linked to wood decomposition rates, merits further testing in other forest ecosystems. PMID:21302839

van Geffen, Koert G; Poorter, Lourens; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

2010-12-01

10

The trait contribution to wood decomposition rates of 15 neotropical tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decomposition of dead wood is a critical uncertainty in models of the global carbon cycle. Despite this, relatively few studies have focused on dead wood decomposition, with a strong bias to higher latitudes. Especially the effect of inter-specific variation in species traits on differences wood decomposition rates remains unknown. In order to fill these gaps, we applied a novel

Geffen van K. G; Lourens Poorter; Ute Sass-Klaassen; Richard van Logtestijn; Johannes Cornelissen

2010-01-01

11

Identification of QTLs influencing wood property traits in loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.). II. Chemical wood properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical wood property traits were analyzed for the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in a three-generation outbred\\u000a pedigree of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). These traits were assayed using pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry and include mass spectrum peak intensities\\u000a associated with carbohydrates, ?-cellulose and hemicellulose sugars, and lignin. Models for projection to latent structures\\u000a (PLS) were used to

M. M. Sewell; M. F. Davis; G. A. Tuskan; N. C. Wheeler; C. C. Elam; D. L. Bassoni; D. B. Neale

2002-01-01

12

Genotypic variation in wood properties and growth traits of Eucalyptus hybrid clones in southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth traits, wood properties and bark percentage were assessed for 19 hybrid eucalypt clones at three sites in southern\\u000a China sampled at age 51 months. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences in growth traits and wood\\u000a properties between clones and sites, and that the clone × site interactions were also significant except for basic density.\\u000a Coefficients of variation ranged from

Shijun WuJianmin; Jianmin Xu; Guangyou Li; Vuokko Risto; Zhihu Du; Zhaohua Lu; Baoqi Li; Wei Wang

2011-01-01

13

The changing quality of the world wood supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reasons for changes in wood quality and utilization are related to the trends toward harvesting smaller, younger and lower-quality timber, wider use of formerly waste wood, unconventional uses of wood, and improved forest management and new wood manufacturing techniques.1.An unequal distribution of timber along with increasing costs of forest ownership and management is forcing short-rotation forestry, which results in

B. Zobel

1984-01-01

14

Identification of QTLs influencing wood property traits in loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.). II. Chemical wood properties.  

PubMed

Chemical wood property traits were analyzed for the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in a three-generation outbred pedigree of loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.). These traits were assayed using pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry and include mass spectrum peak intensities associated with carbohydrates, alpha-cellulose and hemicellulose sugars, and lignin. Models for projection to latent structures (PLS) were used to also estimate the chemical composition of cell walls (i.e., alpha-cellulose, galactan and lignin) from mass spectrum data using multivariate regression. Both earlywood and latewood fractions from the fifth annual ring were analyzed for each trait. An interval mapping approach designed for an outbred pedigree was used to estimate the number of QTLs, the magnitude of QTL effects, and their genomic position. Eight unique QTLs influencing cell wall chemistry were detected from multiple peak intensities and/or PLS estimates using the one- and two-QTL models. Significant differences in chemical contents were observed among the populations from North Carolina vs Oklahoma, and results from QTLxenvironment analyses suggest that QTLs interact with environmental location. QTLs should be verified in larger experiments and in different genetic and environmental backgrounds. QTL mapping will help towards eventually identifying genes having a major effect on chemical wood properties. PMID:12582689

Sewell, M. M.; Davis, M. F.; Tuskan, G. A.; Wheeler, N. C.; Elam, C. C.; Bassoni, D. L.; Neale, D. B.

2002-02-01

15

Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Influencing Wood Specific Gravity in an Outbred Pedigree of Loblolly Pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing wood specific gravity (WSG) in an outbred pedigree of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) . QTL mapping in an outcrossing species is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles (>2) at QTL and marker loci. Multiple alleles at QTL allow the examination of interaction among alleles at QTL (deviation from

A. Groover; M. Devey; T. Fiddler; J. Lee; R. Megraw; T. Mitchel-Olds; B. Sherman; S. Vujcic; C. Williams; D. Nede

16

Xenomic networks variability and adaptation traits in wood decaying fungi.  

PubMed

Fungal degradation of wood is mainly restricted to basidiomycetes, these organisms having developed complex oxidative and hydrolytic enzymatic systems. Besides these systems, wood-decaying fungi possess intracellular networks allowing them to deal with the myriad of potential toxic compounds resulting at least in part from wood degradation but also more generally from recalcitrant organic matter degradation. The members of the detoxification pathways constitute the xenome. Generally, they belong to multigenic families such as the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and the glutathione transferases. Taking advantage of the recent release of numerous genomes of basidiomycetes, we show here that these multigenic families are extended and functionally related in wood-decaying fungi. Furthermore, we postulate that these rapidly evolving multigenic families could reflect the adaptation of these fungi to the diversity of their substrate and provide keys to understand their ecology. This is of particular importance for white biotechnology, this xenome being a putative target for improving degradation properties of these fungi in biomass valorization purposes. PMID:23279857

Morel, Mélanie; Meux, Edgar; Mathieu, Yann; Thuillier, Anne; Chibani, Kamel; Harvengt, Luc; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Gelhaye, Eric

2013-01-02

17

Improved Agronomic and Quality Traits in Transgenic Crops: Recent Advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for genetic engineering of plants to produce new and useful traits in crops has now been confirmed. Although numerous examples exist in the literature of agronomically important traits, the examples of quality improvements are rare but increasing. This article describes several new agronomic and quality traits produced at the Monsanto Plant Science Division. Tomatoes have been produced that

Michael E. Fromm; David M. Stark; Glenn D. Austin; Frederick J. Perlak

1993-01-01

18

Variation in wood fibre traits among eight populations of Dipterocarpus indicus in Western Ghats, India.  

PubMed

Wood elements and anatomical ratio of Dipterocarpus indicus were studied to evaluate variation among populations and to recommend for end selection. The variation of wood element [fibre length (FL), fibre diameter (FD), lumen diameter (LD), cell wall thickness (CWT), double wall thickness (DWT), and lumen volume (LV)] and anatomical ratio [fibre lumen area (FLA), slenderness ratio (SR) and runkel ratio (RR)] were investigated in a girth class of 100 - 120 cm among eight populations of Dipterocarpus indicus in Western Ghats, India. The study revealed a significant variations in FL (0.2426), FD (4.7019), LD (3.1689), CWT (2.7104), DWT and (5.4298) among populations. The variations in anatomical ratios were significant among populations except in case of LV. The causes of variations among populations in their wood traits were attributed to the site factors. The interaction between genetic makeup of wood traits combined with effects of edaphic, local and regional climatic conditions reflect the amount of variation among populations. The highest coefficient of variation (CV %) for FL, FD, CWT and DWT was recorded in population of Gundya whereas low coefficient of variation were recorded in the population of Makuta (FL), Devimane (FD, CWT and DWT), and Sampaje (LD). The wood of Dipterocarpus indicus was found undesirable for pulp wood but can be utilized for plywood timbers. PMID:23033683

Prasad, A G Devi; Al-Sagheer, Nageeb A

2012-03-01

19

Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling variation in forage quality traits in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley forage quality has a direct relationship to animal performance, but forage quality traits are often neglected or not\\u000a accessible to the plant breeders. Doubled haploid lines (145) from the cross Steptoe × Morex were grown in 2 years of trails\\u000a under irrigated conditions to evaluate the variation in forage quality characteristics, identify quantitative trait loci (QTL)\\u000a for these traits and determine if

Lisa Surber; Hussein Abdel-Haleem; Jack Martin; Pat Hensleigh; Dennis Cash; Jan Bowman; Tom Blake

2011-01-01

20

Effects of thermal treatment on chemical, mechanical and colour traits in Norway spruce wood.  

PubMed

In several different branches of the wood industry heat treatment is a growing application as it changes the chemical, mechanical, physical and biological properties of wood. Investigations using wet chemical analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and CIELab colour system have been conducted to study the changes in Norway spruce wood subjected to temperature up to 270°C over a 30min time period. The results showed that mass loss (ML), total crystallinity index (TCI) of cellulose, total colour difference (?E(?)), and the content of lignin and extractives increased with the temperature, whereas degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), lightness difference (?L(?)), and the content of holocellulose, cellulose and hemicelluloses all decreased with the thermal treatment. Relationships between temperature and the examined wood traits were all fitted by exponential curves. Power law relationships were found to fit the trends for DP of cellulose with ?E(?), ?L(?), and TCI of cellulose. Also found were power law regressions for the content of hemicelluloses with MOE, MOR, ?L(?), and ML. Temperatures ranging from 20 to 187°C formed a compact cluster, clearly separated from the higher examined temperatures in the multivariate wood trait space. PMID:23871194

Ka?íková, Danica; Ka?ík, František; Cabalová, Iveta; Durkovi?, Jaroslav

2013-07-04

21

Sound quality assessment of wood for xylophone bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylophone sounds produced by striking wooden bars with a mallet are strongly influenced by the mechanical properties of the wood species chosen by the xylophone maker. In this paper, we address the relationship between the sound quality based on the timbre attribute of impacted wooden bars and the physical parameters characterizing wood species. For this, a methodology is proposed that

Mitsuko Aramaki; Henri Baillères; Loïc Brancheriau; Richard Kronland-Martinet

2007-01-01

22

Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Influencing Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.). III. QTL Verification and Candidate Gene Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term series of experiments to map QTL influencing wood property traits in loblolly pine has been completed. These experiments were designed to identify and subsequently verify QTL in multiple genetic backgrounds, environments, and growing seasons. Verification of QTL is necessary to substantiate a biological basis for observed marker-trait associations, to provide precise estimates of the magnitude of QTL effects,

Garth R. Brown; Daniel L. Bassoni; Geoffrey P. Gill; Joseph R. Fontana; Nicholas C. Wheeler; Robert A. Megraw; Mark F. Davis; Mitchell M. Sewell; Gerald A. Tuskan; David B. Neale

23

Genetic properties of egg quality traits and their correlations with performance traits in Japanese quail.  

PubMed

1. Performance traits were measured on 1908 Japanese quail and egg quality traits assessed on 1800 eggs at 10 wk of age. 2. Genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated using a bivariate animal model with restricted maximum likelihood using ASREML software. 3. Body weight at different ages showed positive genetic correlations with egg weight and most of the internal egg quality traits, whereas their genetic correlations with eggshell thickness, eggshell strength and eggshell percentage were negative. 4. Genetic correlations of age at sexual maturity and egg number with most of external and internal traits were negative. 5. It was concluded that selection for higher body weight will result in heavier and better quality eggs. Because of the negative genetic correlation between BW and egg shell quality, a selection index including BW and eggshell strength would be the best breeding strategy for genetic improvement of egg quality in Japanese quail. PMID:23281751

Lotfi, E; Zerehdaran, S; Raoufi, Z

2012-01-01

24

Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe.

J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

2010-01-01

25

QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe.

J. S. Tumuluru; Shahabaddine Sokhansanj; C. Jim Lim; X. T. Bi; A. K. Lau; Staffan Melin; E. Oveisi; T. Sowlati

2010-01-01

26

Quantitative Trait Loci Influencing End-use Quality Traits of Hard Red Spring Wheat Breeding Lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat end-product quality is determined by a complex group of traits including dough visco-elastic characteristics and bread-making properties. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and analysis were conducted for endosperm texture and polymeric proteins, dough mixing strength and bread-making prop...

27

Genome-wide identification of quantitative trait loci in a cross between Hampshire and Landrace II: Meat quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Meat quality traits are important in pig breeding programs, but they are difficult to include in a traditional selection program. Marker assisted selection (MAS) of meat quality traits is therefore of interest in breeding programs and a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis is the key to identifying markers that can be used in MAS. In this study, Landrace and

Ellen Markljung; Martin H Braunschweig; Peter Karlskov-Mortensen; Camilla S Bruun; Milena Sawera; In-Cheol Cho; Ingela Hedebro-Velander; Åsa Josell; Kerstin Lundström; Gertrud von Seth; Claus B Jørgensen; Merete Fredholm; Leif Andersson

2008-01-01

28

Validation of commercial DNA tests for quantitative beef quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between 3 commercially available genetic marker panels (GeneSTAR Quality Grade, GeneSTAR Tenderness, and Igenity Tender- GENE) and quantitative beef traits were validated by the US National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium. Validation was interpreted to be the independent con- firmation of the associations between genetic tests and phenotypes, as claimed by the commercial genotyping companies. Validation of the quality grade

A. L. Van Eenennaam; J. Li; R. M. Thallman; R. L. Quaas; M. E. Dikeman; C. A. Gill; D. E. Franke; M. G. Thomas

2006-01-01

29

Identification of quantitative trait loci for wood and fibre properties in two full-sib pedigrees of Eucalyptus globulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regions of the genome influencing wood and fibre traits in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. have been identified in two full-sib pedigrees that share a common male parent. The first pedigree, cross A, contains 148 progeny, and the second pedigree, cross B, contains 135 progeny. Subsets of progeny of these two controlled crosses were planted at seven sites throughout Australia in 1990.

Karen Thamarus; Kylie Groom; Alexander D Bradley; Carolyn A Raymond; Laurence R Schimleck; Emlyn R Williams; Gavin F Moran

2004-01-01

30

Identification of quantitative trait loci influencing wood specific gravity in an outbred pedigree of loblolly pine.  

PubMed

We report the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing wood specific gravity (WSG) in an outbred pedigree of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). QTL mapping in an outcrossing species is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles (> 2) at QTL and marker loci. Multiple alleles at QTL allow the examination of interaction among alleles at QTL (deviation from additive gene action). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker genotypes and wood specific gravity phenotypes were determined for 177 progeny. Two RFLP linkage maps were constructed, representing maternal and paternal parent gamete segregations as inferred from diploid progeny RFLP genotypes. RFLP loci segregating for multiple alleles were vital for aligning the two maps. Each RFLP locus was assayed for cosegregation with WSG QTL using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Five regions of the genome contained one or more RFLP loci showing differences in mean WSG at or below the P = 0.05 level for progeny as grouped by RFLP genotype. One region contained a marker locus (S6a) whose QTL-associated effects were highly significant (P > 0.0002). Marker S6a segregated for multiple alleles, a prerequisite for determining the number of alleles segregating at the linked QTL and analyzing the interactions among QTL alleles. The QTL associated with marker S6a appeared to be segregating for multiple alleles which interacted with each other and with environments. No evidence for digenic epistasis was found among the five QTL. PMID:7896107

Groover, A; Devey, M; Fiddler, T; Lee, J; Megraw, R; Mitchel-Olds, T; Sherman, B; Vujcic, S; Williams, C; Neale, D

1994-12-01

31

Intraspecific Relationships among Wood Density, Leaf Structural Traits and Environment in Four Co-Occurring Species of Nothofagus in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Plant functional traits capture important variation in plant strategy and function. Recent literature has revealed that within-species variation in traits is greater than previously supposed. However, we still have a poor understanding of how intraspecific variation is coordinated among different traits, and how it is driven by environment. We quantified intraspecific variation in wood density and five leaf traits underpinning the leaf economics spectrum (leaf dry matter content, leaf mass per unit area, size, thickness and density) within and among four widespread Nothofagus tree species in southern New Zealand. We tested whether intraspecific relationships between wood density and leaf traits followed widely reported interspecific relationships, and whether variation in these traits was coordinated through shared responses to environmental factors. Sample sites varied widely in environmental variables, including soil fertility (25–900 mg kg–1 total P), precipitation (668–4875 mm yr–1), temperature (5.2–12.4 °C mean annual temperature) and latitude (41–46 °S). Leaf traits were strongly correlated with one another within species, but not with wood density. There was some evidence for a positive relationship between wood density and leaf tissue density and dry matter content, but no evidence that leaf mass or leaf size were correlated with wood density; this highlights that leaf mass per unit area cannot be used as a surrogate for component leaf traits such as tissue density. Trait variation was predicted by environmental factors, but not consistently among different traits; e.g., only leaf thickness and leaf density responded to the same environmental cues as wood density. We conclude that although intraspecific variation in wood density and leaf traits is strongly driven by environmental factors, these responses are not strongly coordinated among functional traits even across co-occurring, closely-related plant species.

Richardson, Sarah J.; Allen, Robert B.; Buxton, Rowan P.; Easdale, Tomas A.; Hurst, Jennifer M.; Morse, Christopher W.; Smissen, Rob D.; Peltzer, Duane A.

2013-01-01

32

Intraspecific relationships among wood density, leaf structural traits and environment in four co-occurring species of Nothofagus in New Zealand.  

PubMed

Plant functional traits capture important variation in plant strategy and function. Recent literature has revealed that within-species variation in traits is greater than previously supposed. However, we still have a poor understanding of how intraspecific variation is coordinated among different traits, and how it is driven by environment. We quantified intraspecific variation in wood density and five leaf traits underpinning the leaf economics spectrum (leaf dry matter content, leaf mass per unit area, size, thickness and density) within and among four widespread Nothofagus tree species in southern New Zealand. We tested whether intraspecific relationships between wood density and leaf traits followed widely reported interspecific relationships, and whether variation in these traits was coordinated through shared responses to environmental factors. Sample sites varied widely in environmental variables, including soil fertility (25-900 mg kg(-1) total P), precipitation (668-4875 mm yr(-1)), temperature (5.2-12.4 °C mean annual temperature) and latitude (41-46 °S). Leaf traits were strongly correlated with one another within species, but not with wood density. There was some evidence for a positive relationship between wood density and leaf tissue density and dry matter content, but no evidence that leaf mass or leaf size were correlated with wood density; this highlights that leaf mass per unit area cannot be used as a surrogate for component leaf traits such as tissue density. Trait variation was predicted by environmental factors, but not consistently among different traits; e.g., only leaf thickness and leaf density responded to the same environmental cues as wood density. We conclude that although intraspecific variation in wood density and leaf traits is strongly driven by environmental factors, these responses are not strongly coordinated among functional traits even across co-occurring, closely-related plant species. PMID:23527041

Richardson, Sarah J; Allen, Robert B; Buxton, Rowan P; Easdale, Tomás A; Hurst, Jennifer M; Morse, Christopher W; Smissen, Rob D; Peltzer, Duane A

2013-03-18

33

Quality Assurance Procedures: Method 28 Certification and Auditing of Wood Heaters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quality assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing particulate matter sampling of wood heaters according to EPA protocol, Method 28. ...

G. D. Rives M. W. Hartman R. C. Olin T. E. Ward

1989-01-01

34

Genetic Control of Meat Quality Traits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meat was originally produced from non-specialized animals that were used for a variety of purposes, in addition to being a source of food. However, selective breeding has resulted in “improved” breeds of cattle that are now used to produce either milk or beef, and specialized chicken lines that produce eggs or meat. These improved breeds are very productive under appropriate management systems. The selection methods used to create these specialized breeds were based on easily measured phenotypic variations, such as growth rate or physical size. Improvement in the desired trait was achieved by breeding directly from animals displaying the desired phenotype. However, more recently sophisticated genetic models have been developed using statistical approaches that consider phenotypic information collected, not only from individual animals but also from their parents, sibs, and progeny.

Williams, John L.

35

Meat quality traits were unaffected by a quantitative trait locus affecting leg composition traits in Texel sheep.  

PubMed

A QTL affecting leg muscle and fat traits has been identified within the New Zealand Texel population. The QTL maps to a region on OAR 2 with a two-marker haplotype test established at markers BULGE20 and BM81124. These markers encompass the likely position of Growth Differentiation Factor 8 (GDF8). The pleiotropic effects of this QTL on meat quality traits are tested. Objective measures of meat quality including pH, color (L*, a*, and b*), and tenderness (as assessed by Warner-Bratzler shear force measurements) were assessed on longissimus and semi-membranosus muscles of 540 progeny from six Texel sires. Four of these sires were subsequently identified as segregating for leg muscle and fat traits. For these segregating sires, comparison of progeny that had inherited the favorable haplotype from their sire with those that had received the alternate haplotype revealed no significant differences in the meat quality traits assessed. This finding suggests that the muscling QTL does not have pleiotropic effects on meat quality. A general scan for meat quality QTL was carried out using genotype data for eight markers from FCB128 to RM356 flanking 122cM of OAR 2 using Haley-Knott regression. This analysis revealed two QTL for a single sire. A QTL detected in the region of Marker INRA40 for color L* mapped to a site close to the muscling QTL, but there was evidence to suggest it is at a distinct locus. The QTL in the region of Marker RM356 might map distal to Marker RM356, as no peak was observed. This QTL, which seems to affect pH, color a*, color b*, and Warner-Bratzler shear measurements, requires further characterization. PMID:16282610

Johnson, P L; McEwan, J C; Dodds, K G; Purchas, R W; Blair, H T

2005-12-01

36

Validation of Commercial DNA Tests for Beef Quality Traits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Associations between three commercially-available genetic marker panels (GeneSTAR® Quality Grade, GeneSTAR® Tenderness, and Igenity TenderGENE™) and quantitative beef traits were validated by the National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC). Validation was interpreted to be the independent ver...

37

Interrelationships among Agronomic and Seed Quality Traits in an Interspecific Soybean Recombinant Inbred Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to evaluate soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) agronomic and quality traits and to examine correlations among traits in an interspecific soybean population. The agronomic traits included maturity, plant canopy height, canopy spread, leaflet length, leaflet width, seed yield, and seed size. The seed quality traits were sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose content. A total of

Mine S. Cicek; Pengyin Chen; M. A. Saghai Maroof; Glenn R. Buss

2006-01-01

38

QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT  

SciTech Connect

Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

Tumuluru, J.S. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lau, A.K. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Oveisi, E. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-11-01

39

Association mapping for quality traits in soft winter wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement of end-use quality in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) depends on a thorough understanding of the genetic basis of important quality traits. The main goal of our study was\\u000a to investigate the genetic basis of 1,000-kernel weight, protein content, sedimentation volume, test weight, and starch concentration\\u000a using an association mapping approach. We fingerprinted 207 diverse European elite soft winter

Jochen C. Reif; Manje Gowda; Hans P. Maurer; C. F. H. Longin; Viktor Korzun; Erhard Ebmeyer; Reiner Bothe; Christof Pietsch; Tobias Würschum

2011-01-01

40

Quantitative trait loci for grain quality, productivity, morphological and agronomical traits in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain quality, yield components and other traits were investigated in two Sorghum caudatumguinea\\u000a recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. A total of 16 traits were evaluated (plant height, panicle length, panicle compactness,\\u000a number of kernels\\/panicle, thousand-kernel weight, kernel weight\\/panicle, threshing percentage, dehulling yield, kernel flouriness,\\u000a kernel friability, kernel hardness, amylose content, protein content, lipid content, germination

J.-F. Rami; P. Dufour; G. Trouche; G. Fliedel; C. Mestres; F. Davrieux; P. Blanchard; P. Hamon

1998-01-01

41

Carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits under heat stress.  

PubMed

Rabbits are very sensitive to heat stress because they have difficulty eliminating excess body heat. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress on slaughter weight, dressing percentage and carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits from two genetic groups. Ninety-six weaned rabbits were used: half were from the Botucatu genetic group and half were crossbreds between New Zealand White sires and Botucatu does. They were assigned to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (two genetic groups and three ambient temperatures: 18°C, 25°C and 30°C) and kept under controlled conditions in three environmental chambers from 5 to 10 weeks of age. Slaughter took place at 10 weeks, on 2 consecutive days. Meat quality measurements were made in the longissimus muscle. Actual average ambient temperature and relative humidity in the three chambers were 18.4°C and 63.9%, 24.4°C and 80.2% and 29.6°C and 75.9%, respectively. Purebred rabbits were heavier at slaughter and had heavier commercial and reference carcasses than crossbreds at 30°C; however, no differences between genetic groups for these traits were found at lower temperatures. No genetic group × ambient temperature interaction was detected for any other carcass or meat quality traits. The percentages of distal parts of legs, skin and carcass forepart were higher in crossbred rabbits, indicating a lower degree of maturity at slaughter in this group. The percentage of thoracic viscera was higher in the purebreds. Lightness of the longissimus muscle was higher in the purebreds, whereas redness was higher in the crossbreds. Slaughter, commercial and reference carcass weights and the percentages of thoracic viscera, liver and kidneys were negatively related with ambient temperature. Commercial and reference carcass yields, and the percentage of distal parts of legs, on the other hand, had a positive linear relationship with ambient temperature. Meat redness and yellowness diminished as ambient temperature increased, whereas cooking loss was linearly elevated with ambient temperature. Meat color traits revealed paler meat in the purebreds, but no differences in instrumental texture properties and water-holding capacity between genetic groups. Purebred rabbits were less susceptible to heat stress than the crossbreds. Heat stress resulted in lower slaughter and carcass weights and proportional reductions of organ weights, which contributed to a higher carcass yield. Moreover, it exerted a small, but negative, effect on meat quality traits. PMID:23031323

Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Fernandes, S; Sartori, J R; Teixeira, P S S; Moura, A S A M T

2012-10-01

42

Identification of quantitative trait loci influencing wood property traits in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). III. QTL Verification and candidate gene mapping.  

PubMed Central

A long-term series of experiments to map QTL influencing wood property traits in loblolly pine has been completed. These experiments were designed to identify and subsequently verify QTL in multiple genetic backgrounds, environments, and growing seasons. Verification of QTL is necessary to substantiate a biological basis for observed marker-trait associations, to provide precise estimates of the magnitude of QTL effects, and to predict QTL expression at a given age or in a particular environment. Verification was based on the repeated detection of QTL among populations, as well as among multiple growing seasons for each population. Temporal stability of QTL was moderate, with approximately half being detected in multiple seasons. Fewer QTL were common to different populations, but the results are nonetheless encouraging for restricted applications of marker-assisted selection. QTL from larger populations accounted for less phenotypic variation than QTL detected in smaller populations, emphasizing the need for experiments employing much larger families. Additionally, 18 candidate genes related to lignin biosynthesis and cell wall structure were mapped genetically. Several candidate genes colocated with wood property QTL; however, these relationships must be verified in future experiments.

Brown, Garth R; Bassoni, Daniel L; Gill, Geoffrey P; Fontana, Joseph R; Wheeler, Nicholas C; Megraw, Robert A; Davis, Mark F; Sewell, Mitchell M; Tuskan, Gerald A; Neale, David B

2003-01-01

43

Importance of health and environment as quality traits in the buying decision of organic products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to explore consumer preference for fresh vegetables labelled as organic in combination with health and environment related quality traits. The study decomposes organic farming into its main quality aspects and measures consumers' preference structure for organic, in general, and for specific organic quality traits in particular. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – By means of stated choice preference modelling,

Koen Mondelaers; Wim Verbeke; Guido Van Huylenbroeck

2009-01-01

44

Impact of the foliar pathogen Swiss needle cast on wood quality of Douglas-fir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Many stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga,menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) near coastal areas of Oregon and Washington are heavily infected with the foliar pathogen causing Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease, and yet there is very little research on the resulting wood quality. Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), microfibril angle (MFA), wood density, latewood proportion, and sapwood moisture content were

G. R. Johnson; Amy T. Grotta; Barbara L. Gartner; Geoff Downes

2005-01-01

45

Improving the quality of African robustas: QTLs for yield- and quality-related traits in Coffea canephora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffea canephora breeding requires combining sustainable productivity with improved technological and cup quality characteristics. Beverage\\u000a quality is a complex and subjective trait, and breeding for this trait is time consuming and depends on knowledge of the genetics\\u000a of its components. A highly variable C. canephora progeny resulting from an intraspecific cross was assessed for 63 traits over 5 years. To identify

Thierry Leroy; Fabien De Bellis; Hyacinthe Legnate; Edmund Kananura; Gustavo Gonzales; Luiz Felipe Pereira; Alan Carvalho Andrade; Pierre Charmetant; Christophe Montagnon; Philippe Cubry; Pierre Marraccini; David Pot; Alexandre de Kochko

2011-01-01

46

Association of AFLP and SSR markers with agronomic and fibre quality traits in Gossypium hirsutum L.  

PubMed

Molecular markers linked to QTL contributing to agronomic and fibre quality traits would be useful for cotton improvement. We have attempted to tag yield and fibre quality traits with AFLP and SSR markers using F(2) and F(3) populations of a cross between two Gossypium hirsutum varieties, PS56-4 and RS2013. Out of 50 AFLP primer combinations and 177 SSR primer pairs tested, 32 AFLP and four SSR primers were chosen for genotyping F(2) individuals. Marker-trait associations were studied for eight agronomic and five fibre quality traits through simple and multiple regression analysis (MRA) using a set of 92 AFLP polymorphic loci and four SSR markers. Simple linear regression analysis (SLRA) identified 23 markers for eight different traits whereas multiple regression analysis identified 30 markers for at least one of the 13 traits. SSR marker BNL 3502 was consistently identified to be associated with fibre strength. While all the markers identified in SLRA were also detected in MRA, as many as 16 of the 30 markers were identified to be associated with respective traits in both F2 and F3 generations. The markers explained up to 41 per cent of phenotypic variation for individual traits. A number of markers were found to be associated with multiple traits suggesting clustering of QTLs for fibre quality traits in cotton. PMID:20861566

Rakshit, Arunita; Rakshit, S; Singh, J; Chopra, S K; Balyan, H S; Gupta, P K; Bhat, Shripad R

2010-08-01

47

Heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlations of egg quality traits in Iranian native fowl.  

PubMed

1. The objective was to estimate heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlations for egg quality traits of Iranian native fowl at the Yazd Breeding Centre. 2. External and internal egg quality traits were measured on 1200 eggs from 794 hens of the 6th generation. A multivariate animal model with restricted maximum likelihood procedure was applied to estimate heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlations for egg quality traits using ASREML. 3. Heritability estimates for external egg quality traits ranged from 0·18 to 0·57 and for internal egg quality traits from 0·24 to 0·60. 4. For external egg quality traits, genetic correlation between egg weight and eggshell thickness (EST) was positive (0·36) and EST showed high genetic correlations with eggshell weight (0·84) and eggshell strength (0·55). This implies that heavier eggs tend to have thicker and stronger shells. 5. For internal egg quality traits, albumen height showed high positive genetic correlations with albumen weight (0·52), albumen index (0·98), yolk height (0·72) and yolk index (0·57). 6. Our results show that it is feasible to improve egg quality in Iranian fowl through selection for albumen height. PMID:21161780

Begli, H Emamgholi; Zerehdaran, S; Hassani, S; Abbasi, M A; Ahmadi, A R Khan

2010-12-01

48

Assessment of resonance wood quality by comparing its physical and histological properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of wood used for music instrument making (resonance wood) is determined by assessing six physical properties:\\u000a density, modulus of elasticity, sound velocity, radiation ratio, emission ratio, and loudness index. This can easily be done\\u000a by means of measurements of the resonance frequency and the corresponding damping factor. The method described here is based\\u000a on vibrational analyses, adapted from

Melanie Spycher; Francis W. M. R. Schwarze; René Steiger

2008-01-01

49

Identification and stability of QTLs for fruit quality traits in apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding for fruit quality traits is complex due to the polygenic (quantitative) nature of the genetic control of these traits.\\u000a Therefore, to improve the speed and efficiency of genotype selection, attention in recent years has focused on the identification\\u000a of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and molecular markers associated with these QTLs. However, despite the huge potential of\\u000a molecular markers in

Katrien Kenis; Johan Keulemans; Mark W. Davey

2008-01-01

50

Association mapping for growth, straightness and wood chemistry traits in the Pinus pinaster Aquitaine breeding population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association mapping is a recommended method to dissect the genetic basis of naturally occurring trait variation in non-model\\u000a tree species with outcrossing mating systems and large population sizes. We report here the results of the first association-mapping\\u000a study in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), a conifer species of economical importance for timber and pulp production in south-western Europe. Two association

Camille Lepoittevin; Luc Harvengt; Christophe Plomion; Pauline Garnier-Géré

51

Association analysis of yield and fiber quality traits in Gossypium barbadense with SSRs and SRAPs.  

PubMed

Cotton is an important cash crop. Mining for quantitative trait loci related to yield and fiber quality traits using association analysis has many advantages for cotton research. In this study, 170 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 258 sequence-related amplified polymorphisms (SRAPs) were used to analyze the association of 3 yield component traits and 5 fiber quality traits of 55 Gossypium barbadense accessions in 2009 and 2010. Principal component analysis of SSRs and SRAPs showed 3 and 2 subgroups, respectively. The boundaries between the SRAP groups were much more defined than those of the SSRs. A mixed linear model was used to analyze association of yield and fiber quality traits with SSRs and SRAPs. A total of 72 loci were detected, including 28 loci of SSRs and 44 loci of SRAPs; 26 of these loci were related to yield component traits, and 46 of these loci were related to fiber quality traits. The mean phenotypic variations explained in the SSR and SRAP analysis were 8.89 and 8.61%, respectively. The locus with the highest phenotypic variation explained was NAU1164 (23.33%), which was related to fiber uniformity. The comparison of association results between the two datasets showed that mining quantitative trait loci using association analysis was more efficient with SRAPs than with SSRs. PMID:24065676

Wang, X Q; Yu, Y; Li, W; Guo, H L; Lin, Z X; Zhang, X L

2013-09-04

52

Genetic effects on carcass-quality traits in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops ? ? Morone saxatilis ?)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A1 0? 10 factorial mating design was used to exam- ine the genetic e¡ects on various carcass-quality traits in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops , ? Morone saxatilis <). A total of 448 o¡spring were raised in a 'common-garden' environment and car- cass-quality traits were assessed at 389 days post fer- tilization; parentage of each ¢sh was inferred from genotypes

Xiaoxue Wang; Kirstin E Ross; Eric Saillant; Delbert M Gatlin; John R Gold

2007-01-01

53

Assessment methodology for the air quality impact of residential wood burning  

SciTech Connect

Data from surveys of 1977-1979 indicate that firewood usage tends to vary inversely with population density, resulting in an implied limit to the density of usage. Tests of wood stoves indicate that emissions of particulates vary inversely with heat demand, such that nighttime emissions at low combustion rates may be worse than those during maximum heat demand conditions. Finally, atmospheric dispersion rates are coupled to the driving forces of space heating so that nighttime emissions tend to have a disproportionately large impact on ambient air quality. All of these factors must be considered jointly in order to perform a meaningful assessment of the air quality impacts of increased residential wood fuel use; the results indicate that in flat terrain primary ambient standards are not threatened by residential wood combustion.

Lipfert, F.W.

1981-01-01

54

A career in quality: An interview with wood specialist Les Jozsa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an interview conducted by extension specialist Don Gayton, senior British Columbia forester Les Jozsa reflects on a long career working in the fields of wood quality, silviculture, and dendrochronology. Jozsa, now Research Scientist Emeritus with Forintek Canada, describes the importance of distilling scientific and technical forestry information into practical terms, and extending it to industry users. He also sum-

Don Gayton

55

Application of Wood Ash to Acidic Boralf Soils and its Effect on Oilseed Quality of Canola  

Microsoft Academic Search

crop quality (Vance, 1996; Muse and Mitchell, 1995; Meyers and Kopecky, 1998). For example, brassicaceous Acidic Typic Cryoboralf soils amended with wood ash can raise crops like canola require S for amino acid and protein soil pH and can supplement plant growth by adding minerals and micronutrients. However, presence of other elements in soils such as synthesis. Sulfur is also

S. J. Patterson; S. N. Acharya; A. B. Bertschi; J. E. Thomas

2004-01-01

56

Gene Discovery and Product Development for Grain Quality Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The composition of oils, proteins, and carbohydrates in seeds of corn, soybean, and other crops has been modified to produce grains with enhanced value. Both plant breeding and molecular technologies have been used to produce plants carrying the desired traits. Genomics-based strategies for gene discovery, coupled with high-throughput transformation processes and miniaturized, automated analytical and functionality assays, have accelerated the identification of product candidates. Molecular markerâÂÂbased breeding strategies have been used to accelerate the process of moving trait genes into high-yielding germplasm for commercialization. These products are being tested for applications in food, feed, and industrial markets.

Barbara Mazur (DuPont Agricultural Products Experimental Station;); Enno Krebers (DuPont Agricultural Products Experimental Station;); Scott Tingey (DuPont Agricultural Products Experimental Station;)

1999-07-16

57

Genetics of fluctuating asymmetry in pupal traits of the Speckled Wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), small random differences between left and right, has been extensively used as a measure of individual quality, though its usefulness in that respect is controversial. Whether FA is heritable has implications for sexual selection theory and for its usefulness as an indicator of stress. Heritability (h2) of FA is, however, difficult to estimate precisely and reliably. Here

J. J. Windig; S. Nylin

2002-01-01

58

More wood of better quality: intensive silviculture with rapid-growth improved Eucalyptus spp. for pulpwood  

SciTech Connect

The early forests planted using Brazilian Eucalyptus seeds produced great variability in the volume of wood. In the specific case of E. saligna, there was an inability of the species to adapt itself to the local ecological system. It was obvious that new silvicultural techniques should be developed and also new species and provenances, capable of adapting to the region, should be identified. The objective was to improve wood volume yields as well as to produce a better pulp quality. The research and development work has been more successful than anticipated mainly because of the new technique of rooting cuttings developed by Aracruz, which allows propagation of vigorous parent trees, including hybrids. The production of improved seeds has also been developed. A good genetic base has been established to guarantee continuous improvement for production of seedlings to be used in routine plantations. The first results have already enabled good gains in volume, wood density, cellulose content and resistance to disease.

Campinhos, E. Jr.

1980-01-01

59

Quality traits and popping performance considerations for popcorn (Zea mays Everta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Popcorn is a snack food with significant commercial popularity. Popcorn popping mechanics can be described by a series of polymeric transformations. The most important quality traits for popcorn are expansion volume and “eatability” factors including unpopped kernels, hull dispersion, and the color, texture, and flavor of popped flakes. Popcorn quality depends on both intrinsic factors, such as hybrid selection, kernel

Jess C. Sweley; Devin J. Rose; David S. Jackson

2012-01-01

60

Genetic parameters of meat technological quality traits in a grand-parental commercial line of turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic parameters for meat quality traits and their relationships with body weight and breast development were estimated for a total of 420 male turkeys using REML. The birds were slaughtered in a commercial plant and the traits measured included pH at 20 min (pH20) and 24 h post-mortem (pHu) and colour of the breast and thigh meat. The heritabilities of

Élisabeth Le Bihan-Duval; Cécile Berri; Élisabeth Baéza; Véronique Santé; Thierry Astruc; Hervé Rémignon; Gilles Le Pottier; James Bentley; Catherine Beaumont; Xavier Fernandez

2003-01-01

61

Trait Hostility, Perceived Stress, and Sleep Quality in a Sample of Normal Sleepers  

PubMed Central

Objective. To date, no studies have directly examined the effects of cognitive trait hostility on prospectively assessed sleep quality. This is important as individuals with heightened trait hostility demonstrate similar patterns of reactivity to perceived stressors as is often reported by poor sleepers. The present study hypothesized that increased trait hostility is associated with poorer subjective sleep quality and that perceived stress mediates this relationship. Methods. A sample of 66 normal sleepers completed daily sleep and stress logs for two weeks. Trait hostility was measured retrospectively. Results. The cognitive dimension of trait hostility was significantly correlated with subjectively rated sleep quality indicators, and these relationships were significantly mediated by perceived daily stress. Individuals with higher levels of trait cognitive hostility reported increased levels of perceived stress which accounted for their poorer sleep ratings as measured by both retrospective and prospective measures. Conclusions. Overall, the findings indicate that high levels of cognitive hostility are a significant risk factor for disturbed sleep and suggest that this might be a fruitful target for clinical intervention.

Taylor, Nicholas D.; Fireman, Gary D.; Levin, Ross

2013-01-01

62

Relationships of body weight and carcass quality traits with first lactation milk production in Finnish Ayrshire cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships of body weight and carcass quality traits with first lactation milk production traits were estimated from a field data set of 28?362 Finnish Ayrshire cows, using REML methodology and animal model. Studied body weight traits included heifer and mature live weight, estimated based on heart girth circumference as part of normal milk recording system, and carcass weight recorded in

Anna-Elisa Liinamo; Matti Ojala; Johan van Arendonk

1999-01-01

63

Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with rice eating quality traits using a population of recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between two temperate japonica cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved eating quality is a major breeding target in japonica rice due to market demand. In this study, we performed genetic analysis to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control\\u000a rice eating quality traits using 192 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two japonica cultivars, ‘Suweon365’ and ‘Chucheongbyeo’. We evaluated the stickiness (ST) and overall evaluation (OE)

Soon-Wook Kwon; Young-Chan Cho; Jeong-Heui Lee; Jung-Pil Suh; Jeong-Ju Kim; Myeong-Ki Kim; Im-Soo Choi; Hung-Goo Hwang; Hee-Jong Koh; Yeon-Gyu Kim

2011-01-01

64

Economic impact of proposed boron water quality standard for Wood River, R76-18  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report proposes a petition which would exempt a 0.9 mile section of Wood River above its confluence with the Mississippi and a few hundred feet of an unnamed tributary from the current 1.0 mg\\/l boron water quality standard. This would establish a 25 mg\\/l standard for that designated reach of stream. The Illinois Power Company, whose ash pond discharge

C. B. Muchmore; W. S. OBrien

1977-01-01

65

Nucleotide Diversity and Linkage Disequilibrium in Cold-Hardiness- and Wood Quality-Related Candidate Genes in Douglas Fir  

PubMed Central

Nuclear sequence variation and linkage disequilibrium (LD) were studied in 15 cold-hardiness- and 3 wood quality-related candidate genes in Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco]. This set of genes was selected on the basis of its function in other plants and collocation with cold-hardiness-related quantitative trait loci (QTL). The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery panel represented 24 different trees from six regions in Washington and Oregon plus parents of a segregating population used in the QTL study. The frequency of SNPs was one SNP per 46 bp across coding and noncoding regions on average. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were also moderately high with Hd = 0.827 ± 0.043 and ? = 0.00655 ± 0.00082 on average, respectively. The nonsynonymous (replacement) nucleotide substitutions were almost five times less frequent than synonymous ones and substitutions in noncoding regions. LD decayed relatively slowly but steadily within genes. Haploblock analysis was used to define haplotype tag SNPs (htSNPs). These data will help to select SNPs for association mapping, which is already in progress.

Krutovsky, Konstantin V.; Neale, David B.

2005-01-01

66

The effects of season and rearing systems on meat quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim to examine the effect of season and rearing system on major broiler meat quality traits appropriate experimental investigations were conducted. Trial material included a total of 800 one-day-old broilers of the Hybro line hybrid. The experiment was organized in two replications, as trial I (conducted in the spring season) and trial II (conducted in the summer season).

Snezana Bogosavljevic-Boskovic; Sreten Mitrovic; Vera Radovic; Vladimir Doskovic

2005-01-01

67

The Evolution Of Indicator Traits For Parental Quality: The Role Of Maternal And Paternal Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In systems where individuals provide material resources to their mates or offspring, mate choice based on traits that are phenotypically correlated with the quality of resources pro- vided is expected to be adaptive. Several models have explored the evolution of mating prefer- ence where there are direct benefits to choice, but few have addressed how a phenotypic correla- tion can

1997-01-01

68

Relationships between muscle characteristics and meat quality traits of young Charolais bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charolais bull calves (106) were used to study the variability in meat quality attributes in relation to the variability in muscle characteristics in the Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle. The variability in traits was adjusted either to constant age or constant weight at slaughter and thus originated only from differences between animals born, reared and fattened in the same location. The

G. Renand; B. Picard; C. Touraille; P. Berge; J. Lepetit

2001-01-01

69

Comparison between the three porcine RN genotypes for growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-step experimental design has been carried out to add evidence about the existence of the RN gene, with two segregating alleles RN- and rn+, having major effects on meat quality in pigs, to estimate its effects on production traits and to map the RN locus. In the present article, the experimental population and sampling procedures are described and discussed,

Pascale Le Roy; Jean-Michel Elsen; Jean-Claude Caritez; André Talmant; Hervé Juin; Pierre Sellier; Gabriel Monin

2000-01-01

70

From gene to function: Metabolic traits of starter cultures for improved quality of cereal foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food fermentations with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are employed to produce safe and shelf stable food products with characteristic flavour and texture. Advances in genomics and physiology of lactic acid bacteria enabled to link individual genetic and metabolic traits of starter cultures to specific food quality attributes. The empirical selection of starter cultures is increasingly supported by the targeted selection

Michael G. Gänzle

2009-01-01

71

Consumer perceptions of frontline service employee personality traits, interaction quality, and consumer satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although implementing the marketing concept can be accomplished through frontline employees in many service firms, very few studies have investigated the relationships between a service provider's personality and important performance outcomes. This article examines how frontline service employee personality traits affect interaction quality and consumer satisfaction from the consumers' point of view. Data were collected from 317 English consumers who

Yuksel Ekinci; Philip L. Dawes

2009-01-01

72

QUALITY TRAITS OF DATE PALM FRUITS IN A CENTER OF ORIGIN AND CENTER OF DIVERSITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Multivariate statistical analyses were employed in data reduction of six fruit qualitative traits, along with economic value and a final score of fruit quality, scored on fruits of 203 date palm varieties grown in 19 ecogeographical regions in six countries of the Arabian Peninsula. Fruit color and ...

73

Genetic effects on carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits in straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano steers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this work were to estimate heterosis and breed genetic effects for carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits of steers (Bos spp.) produced from matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle. Steers (n = 464) were weaned at 7 mo of age and transported to the Southern G...

74

Transcriptomic analysis of potato tuber development and tuber quality traits using microarray technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato crop is one of the most important food crops in the world and in order to understand how in potato plants the formation of potato tubers and the determination of different tuber quality traits are regulated, we need to identify and characterize the genes that are involved in regulating these processes. The aim of the research described in

B. A. Kloosterman

2006-01-01

75

EVALUATION OF WOOL AND HAIR BREEDS FOR GROWTH, CARCASS, AND MEAT QUALITY TRAITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A consumer-responsive goal of the sheep industry is consistent production of uniform, safe, nutritious, lean lamb that results in an enjoyable and pleasant eating experience. Important differences may exist between breeds of sheep for traits that affect consumer perceptions of lamb quality. Theref...

76

Yield and Fruit Quality Traits of Mamey Sapote Cultivars Grown at two Locations in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The demand for tropical fruits has increased significantly during the last decade as consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of mamey sapote cultivars. Six mamey sapote cultivars (Copan...

77

Association study between gene polymorphisms in PPAR signaling pathway and porcine meat quality traits.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence suggesting that fatty acids biosynthesis and metabolism are regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), mostly through the PPAR signaling pathway at the transcriptomic level. We hypothesized that the genetic variants of the enzymes in the PPAR signaling pathway may be associated with the traits of porcine meat quality (PMQ). We mined 77 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PPAR signaling pathway of the pig. There were 13 TagSNPs in 13 different genes mapped within the reported pig quantitative trait loci (QTLs) regions related to PMQ based on the Pig QTL database. Based on the association study with ten measured PMQ traits in both the pathway level and the SNP level, we tested eight significantly associated traits with additive effect in the PPAR signaling pathway and explored only one significant TagSNP in gene RXRB, which is directly associated with the trait of skin weight. Moreover, several interactions of TagSNPs were also significantly related to some of PMQ traits. In this large and comprehensive candidate gene set study, we found a modest association of genes and SNPs in the PPAR signaling pathway with PMQ. Further investigation of these gene polymorphisms jointly with fatty acid measures and other genetic factors would help us better understand the regulation mechanisms of PMQ. PMID:23797830

He, Kan; Wang, Qishan; Wang, Zhen; Pan, Yuchun

2013-08-01

78

Gender-related traits, quality of life, and psychological adjustment among women with irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional illness associated with significant impairment in quality of life. Compared\\u000a to men, women are more likely to meet criteria for IBS, to seek treatment, and experience greater detriments in quality of\\u000a life. In addition to physiological factors, psychosocial factors may contribute to such gender differences. We examined whether\\u000a traits associated with masculine (agentic)

Sabrina C. Voci; Kenneth M. Cramer

2009-01-01

79

Effects of metabolic modifiers on carcass traits and meat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has been conducted and published about metabolic modifiers that increase growth rate, improve feed efficiency, increase carcass leanness, and decrease carcass fatness. Most of these metabolic modifiers have been developed to improve efficiency and profitability of livestock production and to improve carcass composition, with fewer of them developed and researched specifically to improve meat quality. Some of the

M. E. Dikeman

2007-01-01

80

DIALLEL ANALYSIS OF FIBER QUALITY TRAITS IN UPLAND COTTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In addition to high yields, improving the quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber has become an increasingly important component of the value of cotton, especially for marketing in the international trade. The present study was designed to identify genetic sources of variation in F2 populat...

81

Quality and production trait genetics of farmed European whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus.  

PubMed

We present here phenotypic and genetic parameters for the major quality and production traits of farmed European whitefish. A total of 70 families were produced by mating each of 45 sires to an average of 1.6 dams and each of the 52 dams to an average of 1.3 sires. A total of 2,100 individuals were recorded for survival, and 507 individuals for growth and quality-related traits. The 4 major results were as follows: first, all traits exhibited nonzero heritabilities except for fillet gaping and fillet protein%. The heritabilities for the production traits were harvest weight (0.42 ± 0.10), gutted weight (0.40 ± 0.10), fillet weight (0.36 ± 0.09), maturity score (0.27 ± 0.11, on liability scale), survival (0.19 ± 0.05, on liability scale), carcass% (0.14 ± 0.07), and fillet% (0.11 ± 0.06). The heritabilities for the quality traits were condition factor (0.49 ± 0.10), fillet lipid% (0.37 ± 0.10), muscle texture (0.30 ± 0.09), Distell lipid reading (0.26 ± 0.09), fillet lightness (0.16 ± 0.07), fillet gaping (0.04 ± 0.06), and fillet protein% (0.04 ± 0.06). Second, the quality traits that were significantly genetically correlated with each other were all related to lipid deposition. Increasing fillet lipid% (an undesired change in whitefish) was genetically related to desired lighter fillet color [genetic correlation (r(G)) = 0.70 ± 0.22] and to undesired greater condition factor (0.39 ± 0.17). None of the other genetic correlations between condition factor, fillet lipid%, muscle texture, fillet lightness, fillet gaping, and fillet protein% were significant. Third, BW and gutted weight were genetically related to the quality traits that were genetically related to lipid deposition. Increasing harvest weight was genetically related to high fillet lipid% (r(G) = 0.59 ± 0.14), lighter fillet color (0.61 ± 0.25), and to greater condition factor (0.60 ± 0.12). All other genetic correlations of harvest weights with the quality traits were nonsignificant, indicating that rapid growth was not genetically related to gaping and softer flesh. Fourth, none of the genetic correlations of carcass%, fillet%, maturity, and survival with the quality traits were significant, implying weak genetic integration between the traits. Yet, marginally significant genetic correlations were found for fillet lipid% with maturity score (r(G) = -0.46 ± 0.24) and survival (0.36 ± 0.19). These results provide the genetic basis for assessing the potential to improve product quality via selective breeding. PMID:21097679

Kause, A; Quinton, C; Airaksinen, S; Ruohonen, K; Koskela, J

2010-11-19

82

Use of network analysis to capture key traits affecting tomato organoleptic quality  

PubMed Central

The long-term objective of tomato breeders is to identify metabolites that contribute to defining the target flavour and to design strategies to enhance it. This paper reports the results of network analysis, based on metabolic phenotypic and sensory data, to highlight important relationships among such traits. This tool allowed a reduction in data set complexity, building a network consisting of 35 nodes and 74 links corresponding to the 74 significant (positive or negative) correlations among the variables studied. A number of links among traits contributing to fruit organoleptic quality and to the perception of sensory attributes were identified. Modular partitioning of the characteristics involved in fruit organoleptic perception captured the essential fruit parameters that regulate interactions among different class traits. The main feature of the network was the presence of three nodes interconnected among themselves (dry matter, pH, and °Brix) and with other traits, and nodes with widely different linkage degrees. Identification of strong associations between some metabolic and sensory traits, such as citric acid with tomato smell, glycine with tomato smell, and granulosity with dry matter, suggests a basis for more targeted investigations in the future.

Carli, Paola; Arima, Serena; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Tardella, Luca; Frusciante, Luigi; Ercolano, Maria R.

2009-01-01

83

Quality-assurance procedures: Method 28 certification and auditing of wood heaters  

SciTech Connect

Quality-assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood-heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing particulate-matter sampling of wood heaters according to EPA protocol, Method 28. These procedures may be used in research and development, and as an aid in auditing and certification testing. A detailed, step-by-step quality assurance guide is provided to aid in the procurement and assembly of testing apparatus, to clearly describe the procedures, and to facilitate data collection and reporting. Suggested data sheets are supplied that can be used as an aid for both recordkeeping and certification applications. Throughout the document, activity matrices are provided to serve as a summary reference. Checklists are also supplied that can be used by testing personnel. Finally, for the purposes of ensuring data quality, procedures are outlined for apparatus operation, maintenance, and auditing. These procedures combined with the detailed description of the sampling and analysis protocol will help ensure the accuracy and reliability of Method 28 emission testing results.

Ward, T.E.; Rives, G.D.; Hartman, M.W.; Olin, R.C.

1989-06-01

84

QTL mapping of grain quality traits from the interspecific cross Oryza sativa x O. glaberrima.  

PubMed

International rice export markets are increasing demands for rapid improvements in grain quality characteristics. The African rice Oryza glaberrima is a new potential source of genes that will enhance the eating, cooking, and milling properties of the rice grain. The objective of this research was to identify and characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) among 312 doubled haploid lines derived from the BC3F1 of an interspecific cross of O. sativa x O. glaberrima. Genetic material was planted in replicated plots and evaluated for ten grain quality traits in 2001 in Colombia. A linkage map was constructed with 100 polymorphic microsatellite markers using the mapdisto software program to adjust for segregation distortion. Transgressive segregation was observed for all traits. Interval and composite interval analyses identified 27 QTLs for nine characters located on 11/12 chromosomes. The chromosomal positions of QTLs for percentage amylose, alkali-spreading score, and percentage protein were in agreement with data reported by others, whereas QTL markers for percentage head rice, percentage milled rice, percentage protein, and percentage brown rice were different in our mapping population. Five major QTLs were found to be associated with improved percentage rice bran, percentage amylose, and alkali-spreading score. Seven QTLs for improved percentage rice bran, percentage milled rice, alkali-spreading score, percentage protein, and grain length/width ratio were derived from the O. glaberrima accession. Three new QTLs for percentage rice bran are reported here for the first time. Results from this study suggest that the African rice might be a valuable new source for introgression and improvement of several traits that affect quality traits demanded by the different rice export markets. PMID:15105992

Aluko, G; Martinez, C; Tohme, J; Castano, C; Bergman, C; Oard, J H

2004-04-23

85

Proopiomelanocortin gene polymorphisms and its association with meat quality traits by ultrasound measurement in Chinese cattle.  

PubMed

Ultrasound technology was used to measure live animal meat traits instead of true carcass meat traits for beef production and cattle breeding by an increasing number of institutions. In this study, we analyzed the association between genetic polymorphisms of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and ultrasound measurement traits in Chinese cattle. Using direct DNA sequencing in 322 individuals of 7 different cattle subpopulation, 7 SNPs were identified for genotyping within 790bp region of intron 2 and exon 3 of POMC. 6586 T>G in intron 2 and 6769 C>T and 7216 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ultrasound backfat thickness (UBF) (P<0.05) and ultrasound loin muscle area (ULMA) (P<0.01) in the total population; 6694 C>T, 6706 T>C, 6796 C>T and 6810 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ULMA (P<0.0001) in the total population. These results clearly suggest that these SNPs of POMC be benefit for selection of individuals with good quality meat in Chinese cattle breeding program. Following validation in other populations and breeds, these markers could be incorporated into breeding programs to increase the rate of improvement in carcass and meat quality traits. PMID:23872232

Liu, Yongfeng; Zan, Linsen; Li, Linqiang; Xin, Yaping

2013-07-18

86

Postmortem Injection of Calcium Chloride Effects on Beef Quality Traits112  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-two Bos indicus type steers were commercially slaughtered, and their carcasses were chilled and processed to determine the effects of injecting calcium chloride (CaC12) on beef steak palatability and quality traits. Top loin and inside round subprimals were removed from each carcass using industry fabrication procedures. No injection (control) or injection of 200 mM CaC12 at 5% (wt\\/wt) was applied

J. L. Lansdell; M. F. Miller; T. L. Wheeler; M. Koohmaraie; C. B. Ramsey

87

INDUCED MUTAGENESIS FOR SEED QUALITY TRAITS IN ETHIOPIAN MUSTARD (Brassica carinata a. braun)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present study was undertaken to broaden the genetic base in Brassica carinata cv. PC 5 for seed quality traits through induced mutagenesis. Mutagenesis with 0.5 per cent ethyl methane sulphonate followed by selfing in M1 and screening for fatty acid composition through half seed method in M2 and M3 generations led to the identification of stable M4 progenies having desirable

F. A. Sheikh; B. Lone; S. Najeeb; Asif B. Shikari; G. A. Parray; R. S. Khudwani

88

Quality of Life as a Mediator between Behavioral Challenges and Autistic Traits for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A multiple mediation model was proposed to integrate core concepts of challenging behaviors with autistic traits to increase understanding of their relationship to quality of life (QoL). It was hypothesized that QoL is a possible mediator between the severity of challenging behaviors and autistic traits in adults with intellectual disability.…

Garcia-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Matson, Johnny L.

2013-01-01

89

Bayesian statistical analyses for presence of single genes affecting meat quality traits in a crossed pig population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presence of single genes affecting meat quality traits was investigated in F(2) individuals of a cross between Chinese Meishan and Western pig lines using phenotypic measurements on 11 traits. A Bayesian approach was used for inference about a mixed model of inheritance, postulating effects of polygenic background genes, action of a biallelic autosomal single gene and various nongenetic effects. Cooking

L. L. G. Janss; Arendonk van J. A. M; E. W. Brascamp

1997-01-01

90

Evaluation of Some Phenotypic, Physiological and Egg Quality Traits of African Black Neck Ostrich under Arid Desert Conditions of Libya  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Twenty birds of African Black Neck Ostrich (10 of both males and females) were used in th e present study in a completely randomized design to verify and evaluate the differences between males and females of ostrich in some phenotypic and physiological traits, likewise the egg quality traits were estimated under the poor desert conditions of south Libya.

S. El-Safty; M. Mahrose

91

Genetic analysis of agronomic and quality traits in mustard (Brassica juncea).  

PubMed

To develop an efficient mustard (Brassica juncea) breeding programme, a better knowledge of the genetic control and relationships of the main selected characters is needed. Thus, doubled haploid (DH) lines were evaluated over 2 years in the field. Days to flowering, plant height, thousand-seed weight, fatty acid composition, seed oil content, sinigrin, gluconapin and total glucosinolate contents were determined in the DH population. The influence of seed coat colour was estimated. Results showed significant differences between yellow and brown seeds only for oil and fatty acid contents. Molecular analysis revealed that seed coat colour is associated with two Mendelian trait loci: Bjc1 [on linkage group (LG) 3] and Bjc2 (on LG6). The quantitative trait loci associated with characters-detected by composite interval mapping-were not co-localised and revealed a genetic independence. The results obtained in this study show that the most important agronomic and quality traits of brown mustard could be bred independently. Correlation between the studied traits is also discussed. PMID:15340689

Lionneton, E; Aubert, G; Ochatt, S; Merah, O

2004-07-29

92

Genomic Selection for Fruit Quality Traits in Apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.)  

PubMed Central

The genome sequence of apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) was published more than a year ago, which helped develop an 8K SNP chip to assist in implementing genomic selection (GS). In apple breeding programmes, GS can be used to obtain genomic breeding values (GEBV) for choosing next-generation parents or selections for further testing as potential commercial cultivars at a very early stage. Thus GS has the potential to accelerate breeding efficiency significantly because of decreased generation interval or increased selection intensity. We evaluated the accuracy of GS in a population of 1120 seedlings generated from a factorial mating design of four females and two male parents. All seedlings were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium chip comprising 8,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and were phenotyped for various fruit quality traits. Random-regression best liner unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP) and the Bayesian LASSO method were used to obtain GEBV, and compared using a cross-validation approach for their accuracy to predict unobserved BLUP-BV. Accuracies were very similar for both methods, varying from 0.70 to 0.90 for various fruit quality traits. The selection response per unit time using GS compared with the traditional BLUP-based selection were very high (>100%) especially for low-heritability traits. Genome-wide average estimated linkage disequilibrium (LD) between adjacent SNPs was 0.32, with a relatively slow decay of LD in the long range (r2?=?0.33 and 0.19 at 100 kb and 1,000 kb respectively), contributing to the higher accuracy of GS. Distribution of estimated SNP effects revealed involvement of large effect genes with likely pleiotropic effects. These results demonstrated that genomic selection is a credible alternative to conventional selection for fruit quality traits.

Kumar, Satish; Chagne, David; Bink, Marco C. A. M.; Volz, Richard K.; Whitworth, Claire; Carlisle, Charmaine

2012-01-01

93

Mapping and Investigation of Two Novel Candidate Genes for Growth and Meat Quality traits in the Pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new candidate genes for growth and meat quality traits were studied. The porcine beta-tropomyosin (TPM2) and the agouti-related protein (AGRP) genes were chosen based on their presumed role in growth and meat quality traits. These genes were genetically mapped and were linked to several markers on porcine chromosomes (SSC) 1 and 6, respectively. Both genes also were physically mapped

K.-S. Kim; J. Sherwood; D. Ciobanu; Y. Zhang; M. F. Rothschild

2000-01-01

94

Molecular mapping of grain physico-chemical and cooking quality traits using recombinant inbred lines in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross between Pusa1266 (a new plant type) with Jaya (a popular\\u000a indica rice variety) was used for mapping QTL associated with grain physico-chemical and cooking quality traits in rice. A total\\u000a of 310 recombinant inbred lines were evaluated for nine grain physico-chemical and cooking quality traits at two locations\\u000a in India,

S. Guleria; V. Sharma; B. Marathi; S. Anand; N. K. Singh; T. Mohapatra; S. Gopala Krishnan; K. V. Prabhu; A. K. Singh

95

On-line prediction of beef quality traits using near infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test the ability of visible-near infrared (Vis-NIR) reflectance spectroscopy to predict beef quality traits in the slaughterhouse by directly applying a fiber-optic probe on the carcass surface. Carcasses from 230 young bulls and heifers slaughtered in two commercial abattoirs were included in the experiment. Vis-NIR spectra were recorded on an exposed surface of M. gracilis in the abattoirs 4 to 6 and 14 to 16 h post mortem. Traits evaluated were pH, color indexes (L*, a*, b*, H, and SI), cooking loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Prediction models were satisfactory for pH and color indexes, and promising for cooking loss but not for Warner-Bratzler shear force. Results of this work show that Vis-NIR spectroscopy may be a useful tool for on-line prediction of some physical beef quality traits when applied directly on the carcass surface. PMID:23618741

De Marchi, Massimo

2013-03-16

96

Phenotypic Data Collection and Sample Preparation for Genomics of Wood Formation and Cellulosic Biomass Traits in Sunflower: Ames, IA location.  

SciTech Connect

Three fields were planted in Ames in 2010, two association mapping fields, N3 and A, and a recombinant inbred line field, N13. Phenotype data and images were transferred to UGA to support genetic and genomic analyses of woody biomass-related traits.

Marek, Laura F.

2011-06-17

97

Genetic evaluation of meat quality traits and their correlation with growth and carcase composition in Japanese quail.  

PubMed

1. Estimates of heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlations of performance and meat quality traits were obtained in a population of Japanese quail using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedures. 2. The heritability estimates for body weight (BW) traits ranged from 0·15 at hatch to 0·42 at six weeks. For carcase composition traits, heritability estimates ranged from 0·12 for carcase yield to 0·26 for abdominal fat yield and for meat quality traits they ranged from 0·18 for drip loss to 0·54 for yellowness of the meat. 3. Negative genetic correlations were found between BW and carcase traits with ultimate pH and drip loss ranging from -0·01 (BW at hatch) to -0·40 (skin yield). Redness and yellowness showed negative genetic correlations with BW and carcase traits, whereas the genetic correlations with lightness were positive (from 0·04 to 0·43). 4. Shear force and cooking loss showed positive genetic correlations with carcase, breast, abdominal and skin yield. 5. In conclusion, meat quality traits have the potential to be improved through genetic selection but selection for higher BW and carcase composition may reduce the meat quality of Japanese quail through reducing redness, ultimate pH and intramuscular fat and increasing lightness, shear force and cooking loss of the meat. PMID:23398419

Zerehdaran, S; Lotfi, E; Rasouli, Z

2012-01-01

98

Human Urine and Wood Ash as Plant Nutrients for Red Beet (Beta vulgaris) Cultivation: Impacts on Yield Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of human urine and wood ash fertilization on the yield and quality of red beet by measuring the microbial, nutrient, and antioxidant (betanin) content of the roots. Red beets were fertilized with 133 kg of N\\/ha as mineral fertilizer, urine and ash, and only urine with no fertilizer as a

Surendra K. Pradhan; Jarmo K. Holopainen; Janne Weisell; Helvi Heinonen-Tanski

2010-01-01

99

From gene to function: metabolic traits of starter cultures for improved quality of cereal foods.  

PubMed

Food fermentations with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are employed to produce safe and shelf stable food products with characteristic flavour and texture. Advances in genomics and physiology of lactic acid bacteria enabled to link individual genetic and metabolic traits of starter cultures to specific food quality attributes. The empirical selection of starter cultures is increasingly supported by the targeted selection of functional starter cultures to achieve an improved quality of fermented foods. This review highlights recent developments related to metabolic traits of LAB that are relevant for the quality of foods; emphasis is placed on starter cultures for use in bread production. Although the food use of antibacterial metabolites of LAB is well established, antifungal compounds were only recently shown to extend the shelf life of foods. Redox reactions catalysed by LAB alter the technological functionality of proteins and influence the (off)-flavour development through lipid oxidation pathways. LAB produce polysaccharides and oligosaccharides from sucrose through the glycansucrase activities. The exploitation of glycansucrase biodiversity enables the generation of a large variety of glucans or fructans in food fermentation. Poly- and oligosaccharides influence food texture, increase the dietary fibre content of foods and can be applied to protect bacterial during culture preparation and storage. The transformation of amino acids or peptides to aroma compounds contributes substantially to food flavour of food and particularly the conversion of glutamate by LAB enables the targeted optimisation of food flavour. PMID:19515445

Gänzle, Michael G

2009-05-22

100

Physically Challenging Song Traits, Male Quality, and Reproductive Success in House Wrens  

PubMed Central

Physically challenging signals are likely to honestly indicate signaler quality. In trilled bird song two physically challenging parameters are vocal deviation (the speed of sound frequency modulation) and trill consistency (how precisely syllables are repeated). As predicted, in several species, they correlate with male quality, are preferred by females, and/or function in male-male signaling. Species may experience different selective pressures on their songs, however; for instance, there may be opposing selection between song complexity and song performance difficulty, such that in species where song complexity is strongly selected, there may not be strong selection on performance-based traits. I tested whether vocal deviation and trill consistency are signals of male quality in house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), a species with complex song structure. Males’ singing ability did not correlate with male quality, except that older males sang with higher trill consistency, and males with more consistent trills responded more aggressively to playback (although a previous study found no effect of stimulus trill consistency on males’ responses to playback). Males singing more challenging songs did not gain in polygyny, extra-pair paternity, or annual reproductive success. Moreover, none of the standard male quality measures I investigated correlated with mating or reproductive success. I conclude that vocal deviation and trill consistency do not signal male quality in this species.

Cramer, Emily R. A.

2013-01-01

101

Trait Mindfulness and Work-Family Balance among Working Parents: The Mediating Effects of Vitality and Sleep Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigates the relationship between trait mindfulness and work-family balance among a sample of working parents. Sleep quality and vitality are tested as mediators of this relationship. Results indicate that those with greater mindfulness report greater work-family balance, better sleep quality, and greater vitality. As…

Allen, Tammy D.; Kiburz, Kaitlin M.

2012-01-01

102

GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG WEST AFRICAN RICE VARIETIES FOR GRAIN QUALITY TRAITS USING CHEMICAL AND DNA MARKER ANALYSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Development of rice cultivars that are accepted by consumers requires evaluation of both objective and subjective quality factors. Because rice is generally consumed as a whole grain, physical properties, cooking quality, and sensory traits are very important. In some areas of West Africa, rice tha...

103

Estimation of genetic parameters and effects of cytoplasmic line on scrotal circumference and semen quality traits in Angus bulls.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to estimate the heritability of scrotal circumference (SC) and semen traits, genetic correlations between SC and semen quality traits, and the effect of cytoplasmic line on SC and semen traits. Breeding soundness exam (BSE) data were collected on registered Angus bulls at 4 ranches over 7 yr. The American Angus Association provided historical pedigree information to estimate the effect of cytoplasmic line on SC and semen quality traits. After editing, the evaluated data set contained 1,281 bulls with breeding soundness exam data that traced back to 100 founder dams. Data were analyzed using a 2-trait animal model to obtain heritability, genetic correlation between SC and semen quality traits, as well as the effect of cytoplasmic line as a random effect for SC, percent motility (MOT), percent primary abnormalities (PRIM), percent secondary abnormalities (SEC), and percent total abnormalities (TOT) using multiple-trait derivative-free REML. Fixed effects included source ranch and collection year, and test age was used as a covariate. Estimates of heritability for SC, MOT, PRIM, SEC, and TOT were 0.46, 0.05, 0.27, 0.23, and 0.25, respectively. Genetic correlations between SC and MOT, PRIM, SEC, and TOT were 0.36, -0.19, -0.11, and -0.23, respectively. The proportions of phenotypic variance accounted for by cytoplasmic line for SC, MOT, PRIM, SEC, and TOT were <0.001, 0.013, 0.023, 0.002, and <0.001, respectively. Genetic correlations between SC and semen quality traits were low to moderate and favorable. Cytoplasmic line may have a marginal effect on MOT and PRIM, but is likely not a significant source of variation for SC, SEC, or TOT. PMID:21036934

Garmyn, A J; Moser, D W; Christmas, R A; Minick Bormann, J

2010-10-29

104

Pre-freezing raw hams affects quality traits in cooked hams: potential influence of protein oxidation.  

PubMed

The influence of protein carbonylation and lipid oxidation on colour and texture changes in cooked hams from fresh and pre-frozen (frozen/thawed) raw material was studied. Samples from three muscles, biceps femoris (BF) quadriceps femoris (QF) and semimembranosus (SM) were analysed for the gain of specific protein carbonyls, ?-aminoadipic and ?-glutamic semialdehydes, the gain of TBA-RS and their colour and texture properties by instrumental and sensory techniques. The formation of protein carbonyls occurred concomitantly with an intense loss of redness and increase of hardness. Both phenomena were found to be more intense in QF and SM muscles in cooked hams elaborated from frozen material. Lipid oxidation played a negligible role on the impaired quality traits observed in cooked hams as a result of pre-freezing. Plausible mechanisms by which protein carbonylation may be implicated in the loss of quality in cooked hams produced from pre-frozen material are discussed. PMID:22748310

Utrera, M; Armenteros, M; Ventanas, S; Solano, F; Estévez, M

2012-06-15

105

Influence of dental carcass maturity on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls.  

PubMed

Carcasses of sixty-three Nellore bulls slaughtered at a commercial beef plant were randomly selected by dental classification (2, 4, 6 or 8 permanent incisors) in order to evaluate the influence of dental maturity on carcass traits and meat quality. Carcasses with 8 permanent incisors (p.i.) had greatest values (P<0.05) of carcass weight and longissimus area. Carcasses with 4 and 6 p.i. presented similar values of rib fat thickness being greater (P<0.05) than the other groups. Carcasses with 6 and 8 p.i. presented greater (P<0.05) values of shear force than the other groups. Conversely, carcasses with 2 and 4 p.i. displayed greater (P<0.05) myofibrillar fragmentation index and collagen solubility. Greatest values of thawing loss were observed in carcasses with 2 p.i. (P<0.05) while carcasses with 8 p.i. presented greatest values (P<0.05) of drip loss. Regarding longissimus color, carcasses with 8 p.i presented greatest value (P<0.05) of b*. Data suggests that dental maturity influences carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls. PMID:21333459

Duarte, M S; Paulino, P V R; Fonseca, M A; Diniz, L L; Cavali, J; Serão, N V L; Gomide, L A M; Reis, S F; Cox, R B

2011-02-03

106

Identification of expression QTL (eQTL) of genes expressed in porcine M. longissimus dorsi and associated with meat quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetic analysis of transcriptional profiles is a promising approach for identifying and dissecting the genetics of complex traits like meat performance. Accordingly, expression levels obtained by microarray analysis were taken as phenotypes in a linkage analysis to map eQTL. Moreover, expression levels were correlated with traits related to meat quality and principle components with high loadings of these traits.

Siriluck Ponsuksili; Eduard Murani; Manfred Schwerin; Karl Schellander; Klaus Wimmers

2010-01-01

107

Trait mindfulness and work–family balance among working parents: The mediating effects of vitality and sleep quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the relationship between trait mindfulness and work–family balance among a sample of working parents. Sleep quality and vitality are tested as mediators of this relationship. Results indicate that those with greater mindfulness report greater work–family balance, better sleep quality, and greater vitality. As expected, the relationship between mindfulness and work–family balance was mediated by sleep quality

Tammy D. Allen; Kaitlin M. Kiburz

108

Fattening performance, slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of Karayaka lambs.  

PubMed

In order to verify the fattening performance, slaughter and carcass characteristics and to investigate the changes in some meat quality traits of Karayaka lambs weaned at 3 months of age, 39 lambs (23 males and 16 females) were used as experimental animals. The lambs were fed a concentrate mixture and alfalfa hay (120 and 168 g crude protein and 2,700 and 1,951 ME/kg, respectively) for a period of 60 days of fattening period. Male lambs were superior (p < 0.05) to female lambs in terms of daily weight gain (270.4 vs. 205.4 g; SEM = 9.46), hot and cold carcass weights (16.7 and 16.0 vs. 14.1 and 13.4 kg, respectively; SEM = 0.35), intra-muscular fat ratios (1.9% vs. 2.5%; SEM = 0.12) and dripping loss of semitendinosus muscle 3 days postmortem (8.1% vs. 10.2%; SEM = 0.36). The relative weights of some organs, the meat quality traits (pH, cooking loss, shear force, CIELab colour characteristics) and proximate analyses (dry matter, protein and ash) of longissimus dorsi and semitendinosus muscle samples from lambs were not affected by sex (p > 0.05). Dripping loss, pH and colour characteristics were affected by storage time (p < 0.05). These results provide a basic understanding of performance and meat quality of Karayaka sheep which may have potentials in improving sheep production using an indigenous sheep breed in Turkey. PMID:20938737

Sen, Ugur; Sirin, Emre; Ulutas, Zafer; Kuran, Mehmet

2010-10-13

109

Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock*  

PubMed Central

Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5?-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned.

Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

2013-01-01

110

Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock.  

PubMed

Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

Guan, Rong-Fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-Qiang; Ma, Jie-Qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-Geng

2013-10-01

111

Polymorphisms in FGFBP1 and FGFBP2 genes associated with carcass and meat quality traits in chickens.  

PubMed

In the past, the focus of broiler breeding programs on yield and carcass traits improvement led to problems related to meat quality. Awareness of public concern for quality resulted in inclusion of meat quality traits in the evaluation process. Nevertheless, few genes associated with meat quality attributes are known. Previous studies mapped quantitative trait loci for weight at 35 and 42 days in a region of GGA4 flanked by the microsatellite markers, MCW0240 and LEI0063. In this region, there are 2 fibroblast growth factor binding protein (FGFBP) genes that play an important role in embryogenesis, cellular differentiation, and proliferation in chickens. The objective of this study was to identify and associate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FGFBP1 and FGFBP2 with performance, carcass, and meat quality in experimental and commercial chicken populations. In the commercial population, SNP g.2014G>A in FGFBP1 was associated with decreased carcass weight (P < 0.05), and SNP g.651G>A in FGFBP2 was associated with thawing loss and meat redness content (P < 0.05). Four haplotypes were constructed based on 2 SNPs and were associated with breast weight, thawing loss, and meat redness content. The diplotypes were associated with thawing loss, lightness, and redness content. The SNPs evaluated in the present study may be used as markers in poultry breeding programs to aid in improving growth and meat quality traits. PMID:23408407

Felício, A M; Boschiero, C; Balieiro, J C C; Ledur, M C; Ferraz, J B S; Moura, A S A M T; Coutinho, L L

2013-01-24

112

Genetic modification of wood quality for second-generation biofuel production.  

PubMed

How the abundant tree biomass resources can be efficiently used for future biofuel production has attracted a great deal of interest and discussion in the past few years. Capable technologies are expected to be developed to realize the production of biofuel from wood biomass. A significant effort is put into the field of modifying wood properties of trees and simplifying the process of biomass-to-ethanol conversion, which includes mainly genetic engineering of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose of woods. Current research in this field has achieved some promising results and opened up new opportunities to utilize wood biomass efficiently. This review will discuss the main developments in genetic modification of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose biosynthesis in trees as well as other potential genetic technology of biofuel production from wood biomass. PMID:21844678

Lu, Shanfa; Li, Laigeng; Zhou, Gongke

113

Genetic variation and inheritance of wood density in black spruce ( Picea mariana ) and its relationship with growth: implications for tree breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Based on 15-year-old spruce (Picea mariana) trees of 40 open-pollinated families grown in New Brunswick, this study examined the genetic variation and inheritance of\\u000a wood density, and its relationship with growth trait (tree diameter, tree height and bole volume). Implications of these genetic\\u000a parameters for wood quality improvement were discussed. Although wood density, earlywood density and latewood density show\\u000a smaller

S. Y. Zhang; E. K. Morgenstern

1995-01-01

114

Water Quality, Organic Chemistry of Sediment, and Biological Conditions of Streams Near an Abandoned Wood-Preserving Plant Site at Jackson, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of the water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey during December 1990. The objectives...

A. D. Bradfield N. M. Flexner D. A. Webster

1993-01-01

115

Genetic polymorphism of the CAPN1 gene is associated with meat quality traits in Japanese quail.  

PubMed

1. The objective of the study was to investigate the polymorphisms in two regions of the calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene and their association with breast and thigh meat quality in Japanese quail (ultimate pH (pHu), lightness, redness, yellowness, drip loss, thawing-cooking loss, water holding capacity and shear force, SF). 2. Blood samples were collected randomly from 100 birds and DNA was extracted using a commercial kit. Genotypes were determined by PCR amplification followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The effect of CAPN1 genotypes on meat quality traits were analysed using a general linear model (GLM) procedure. 3. Genotypes of the CAPN1 gene in the first region (217-bp) analysed were significantly associated with yellowness and SF. The TT genotype showed significantly higher yellowness and lower shear force (more tenderness) than CT and CC genotypes. Genotypes of the second region of the gene (intron 4, 800-bp) were significantly associated with pHu, redness and SF of the breast meat. The BB genotype showed significantly lower pHu and redness and higher SF (lower tenderness) than other genotypes. 4. Information on polymorphisms of the CAPN1 gene will eventually provide useful information for improving meat quality of Japanese quail through marker-assisted selection. PMID:23647179

Rasouli, Z; Zerehdaran, S; Azari, M A; Shargh, M S

2013-01-01

116

Epistatic QTL pairs associated with meat quality and carcass composition traits in a porcine Duroc × Pietrain population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses in pig have revealed numerous individual QTL affecting growth, carcass composition, reproduction and meat quality, indicating a complex genetic architecture. In general, statistical QTL models consider only additive and dominance effects and identification of epistatic effects in livestock is not yet widespread. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize epistatic effects

Christine Große-Brinkhaus; Elisabeth Jonas; Heiko Buschbell; Chirawath Phatsara; Dawit Tesfaye; Heinz Jüngst; Christian Looft; Karl Schellander; Ernst Tholen

2010-01-01

117

EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE CARCASS TRAITS AND SENSORY qUALITIES OF SWILL FED PORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted in a commercial pig farm to document the effect of probiotic supplementation on the carcass traits and sensory qualities of Large White Yorkshire pigs by selecting thirty two weaned piglets at random and divided two treatment groups comprising of sixteen in each group which was subjected to two feeding regimens viz., swill feed alone (control group)

S. Ganeshkumar; T. Sivakumar; M. Murugan

2009-01-01

118

Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids on productive, carcass and meat quality traits of pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three levels (0, 1 and 2%) of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were combined with two levels (low and high) of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) for pig feeding. Productive, carcass and meat quality traits were studied. Large White ?×Landrace×Large White ? gilts (n=288) weighting 70 kg were randomly allotted to 6 different feeding treatments and fed to a final average weight of

Diana Martin; Elena Muriel; Elena Gonzalez; Javier Viguera; Jorge Ruiz

2008-01-01

119

NEW ZEALAND PULP CHIP QUALITY FROM IN-WOODS CHIPPERS COUPLED WITH CHAIN FLAIL DELIMBERS-DEBARKERS: DOES IT MATCH CONVENTIONAL WOODYARD QUALITY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chain flail delimber-debarkers have gained a degree of acceptance in the Southern USA, especially for processing thinnings from pine plantations. TIzis Technical Release com- pares the quality of chips produced by in- woods chippers teamed with chain flail delimber-debarkers, with chips produced in conventional large-scale woodyards, to g&e a guideline as to what may occur with similar processing of radiata

W. F. Watson; B. J. Stokes

120

Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs.  

PubMed

1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability. PMID:23647192

Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z

2013-01-01

121

TILLING for allergen reduction and improvement of quality traits in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Allergic reactions to peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) can cause severe symptoms and in some cases can be fatal, but avoidance is difficult due to the prevalence of peanut-derived products in processed foods. One strategy of reducing the allergenicity of peanuts is to alter or eliminate the allergenic proteins through mutagenesis. Other seed quality traits could be improved by altering biosynthetic enzyme activities. Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING), a reverse-genetics approach, was used to identify mutations affecting seed traits in peanut. Results Two similar copies of a major allergen gene, Ara h 1, have been identified in tetraploid peanut, one in each subgenome. The same situation has been shown for major allergen Ara h 2. Due to the challenge of discriminating between homeologous genes in allotetraploid peanut, nested PCR was employed, in which both gene copies were amplified using unlabeled primers. This was followed by a second PCR using gene-specific labeled primers, heteroduplex formation, CEL1 nuclease digestion, and electrophoretic detection of labeled fragments. Using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) as a mutagen, a mutation frequency of 1 SNP/967 kb (3,420 M2 individuals screened) was observed. The most significant mutations identified were a disrupted start codon in Ara h 2.02 and a premature stop codon in Ara h 1.02. Homozygous individuals were recovered in succeeding generations for each of these mutations, and elimination of Ara h 2.02 protein was confirmed. Several Ara h 1 protein isoforms were eliminated or reduced according to 2D gel analyses. TILLING also was used to identify mutations in fatty acid desaturase AhFAD2 (also present in two copies), a gene which controls the ratio of oleic to linoleic acid in the seed. A frameshift mutation was identified, resulting in truncation and inactivation of AhFAD2B protein. A mutation in AhFAD2A was predicted to restore function to the normally inactive enzyme. Conclusions This work represents the first steps toward the goal of creating a peanut cultivar with reduced allergenicity. TILLING in peanut can be extended to virtually any gene, and could be used to modify other traits such as nutritional properties of the seed, as shown in this study.

2011-01-01

122

Application of proteomics for determining protein markers for wool quality traits.  

PubMed

The technique of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) has been under investigation for its usefulness in identifying protein markers for wool quality traits in sheep. However, before this could be achieved, unique problems relating to the detection and quantitation of wool proteins needed to be overcome so that 2-DE protein maps could be examined using computational programs like Melanie II. Four protein staining regimes were examined. Colloidal Coomassie Blue G-250 was found to be superior to Coomassie Blue R-250 and gave satisfactory staining of all protein classes. Silver staining detects minor strings of keratinous proteins, but unfortunately it negatively stains intermediate filament proteins, the major high sulphur proteins (HSPs) and the high glycine tyrosine proteins and the latter two classes can only be seen by overstaining the background of the gel. In contrast, labeling reduced keratins with [14C]iodoacetamide, followed by autoradiography detection, results in a protein map with low background and all protein spots stained positively. 2-DE has been used to obtain wool protein maps of Lincoln/Merino chimeric sheep to examine wool originating from two genotypes grown with different crimp frequencies within the same fleece. Between fleece, variations have also been examined. Work to date suggests that several major HSPs may be associated with the fibre curvature trait known as crimp frequency. From matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectral mapping, one of these proteins has been identified as being from the B2A family from the HSP class. PMID:10870975

Plowman, J E; Bryson, W G; Jordan, T W

2000-05-01

123

Genotype X environment interactions over seven years for yield yield components fiber quality and gossypol traits in the regional high quality tests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since the 1960s, many changes in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar tests have been made. This study partitions the total variation for 26 traits into environments (E), genotype (G) and GE variance components for the 2001 through 2007 Regional High Quality (RHQ) tests with 98 genotypes. It e...

124

Wood stains  

MedlinePLUS

Wood stains are products used for wood finishing. Wood stain poisoning occurs when someone swallows these substances. This is ... Various wood stains Note: This list does not include all sources of wood stain.

125

Drought alters timing, quantity, and quality of wood formation in Scots pine.  

PubMed

Drought has been frequently discussed as a trigger for forest decline. Today, large-scale Scots pine decline is observed in many dry inner-Alpine valleys, with drought discussed as the main causative factor. This study aimed to analyse the impact of drought on wood formation and wood structure. To study tree growth under contrasting water supply, an irrigation experiment was installed in a mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest at a xeric site in a dry inner-Alpine valley. Inter- and intra-annual radial increments as well as intra-annual variations in wood structure of pine trees were studied. It was found that non-irrigated trees had a noticeably shorter period of wood formation and showed a significantly lower increment. The water conduction cells were significantly enlarged and had significantly thinner cell walls compared with irrigated trees. It is concluded that pine trees under drought stress build a more effective water-conducting system (larger tracheids) at the cost of a probably higher vulnerability to cavitation (larger tracheids with thinner cell walls) but without losing their capability to recover. The significant shortening of the growth period in control trees indicated that the period where wood formation actually takes place can be much shorter under drought than the 'potential' period, meaning the phenological growth period. PMID:21273335

Eilmann, Britta; Zweifel, Roman; Buchmann, Nina; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Rigling, Andreas

2011-01-27

126

Unravelling the proteome of wool: towards markers of wool quality traits.  

PubMed

With ongoing efforts to make wool more competitive alongside other fibres, notably synthetics, there is a need to obtain a better understanding of the relationship between protein composition and characteristic wool properties to assist sheep breeding programmes. Before this can be achieved, the wool proteome needs to be mapped, by gel and non-gel techniques, and methods developed to reliably quantitate protein expression. Nevertheless, in setting out to achieve this, there are numerous challenges to be faced in the application of proteomics to wool, including the relative lack of wool protein sequence information in the publically accessible databases, the wide variety of proteins in the wool fibre, the high homology within the Type I and Type II keratins, the high degree of homology and polymorphism within individual keratin associated protein families, the dominance of the keratin proteins over others in wool and the peculiar chemistries found in keratins and their associated proteins. This review will discuss the various strategies that have been developed to both identify these proteins in the wool protein map and quantify them with the view to their application to the identification of markers for wool quality traits. PMID:22480905

Plowman, Jeffrey E; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu; Clerens, Stefan; Thomas, Ancy; Cornellison, Charisa D; Dyer, Jolon M

2012-03-27

127

Effect of housing conditions on production, carcass and meat quality traits of growing rabbits.  

PubMed

Production, carcass traits and meat quality of rabbits housed in cages or in different pens were compared. Rabbits (n=579) were sorted into 5 groups: C=cage (2 rabbits/cage); pen without platform: P11=9 rabbits/pen; P16=14 rabbits/pen; pen with platform: PW=wire net platform, 14 rabbits/pen; PD=platform with straw-litter, 14 rabbits/pen. Feed intake and average daily gain between 5 and 11weeks, and body weight at 11weeks were significantly higher in C rabbits than that of the mean of pen-housed groups, while the PD group had the lowest growth performance. C rabbits had the smallest hind part to reference carcass (P<0.001) and the largest percentage of perirenal and scapular fat (P<0.001). The meat/bone ratio was the largest in group C (P<0.05). Differences were recorded in a* value and lipid content of m. Longissimus dorsi. Rabbits housed in cages generally had the best performance whereas those housed in pens with platform exhibited the worst. PMID:23896135

Matics, Zs; Szendr?, Zs; Odermatt, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Nagy, I; Radnai, I; Zotte, A Dalle

2013-07-06

128

Significant association of APOA5 and APOC3 gene polymorphisms with meat quality traits in Kele pigs.  

PubMed

Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) and C3 (APOC3) genes are involved in the PPAR lipid metabolism pathway and thus associated with elevated triglyceride levels. However, whether APOA5 and APOC3 genetic polymorphisms affect intramuscular fat deposition and other meat quality traits remains unknown in pigs. One hundred and seventy-one Kele pigs were sampled to investigate genetic variants in the APOA5 and APOC3 genes and their association with seven pork quality traits. We identified 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of the APOA5 gene and 17 SNPs in the APOC3 gene. Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed 5 complete linkage disequilibria among these 22 SNPs. We found that 10 SNPs were significantly correlated with meat quality traits, including the mutation A5/-769 in the APOA5 gene, which was significantly associated with cooked weight percentage, and 9 SNPs in the APOC3 gene that were significantly associated with drip loss rate, meat color value of longissimus dorsi muscle and shear force. Therefore, these SNP markers will be useful for marker-assisted selection for improved pork quality. PMID:24085428

Hui, Y T; Yang, Y Q; Liu, R Y; Zhang, Y Y; Xiang, C J; Liu, Z Z; Ding, Y H; Zhang, Y L; Wang, B R

2013-09-13

129

[Association between gene polymorphisms of propanoate metabolism pathway and meat quality as well as carcass traits in pigs].  

PubMed

In order to gain more extensive insight into detailed genetic control mechanisms of porcine meat quality and mine novel candidate genes, this study focused on the relationship between the genes of propanpate metabolism pathway and porcine meat quality as well as carcass traits based on the candidate gene set approach. Thirty-seven DLY pigs were tested in this study. A total of 36 SNPs within 7 candidate genes of propanoate metabolism pathway were genotyped and association analysis was conducted via Least Squares method, Multivariate multiple regression model, and a model-based multifactor dimensionality reduction method (MB-MDR). As a result, four SNPs in genes PCCB, MUT, MCEE, and ACSS1 were significantly associated with DLY pig meat quality or carcass traits (P<0.05). Results of MB-MDR analysis demonstrated that the interactions between multiple SNPs were significantly associated with the backfat thickness, water content, and fat content (P<0.05). ACSS2 was significantly associated with fat content; MCEE and MUT significantly influenced backfat thickness; and PCCB was related to fat weight. Moreover, the interactions between the genes in the propanoate metabolism pathway had remarkable influence in porcine meat quality and carcass traits. PMID:22805213

Yang, Fan; Wang, Qiong-Ping; He, Kan; Wang, Ming-Hui; Pan, Yu-Chun

2012-07-01

130

Quality-assurance procedures: Method 5G determination of particulate emissions from wood heaters from a dilution tunnel sampling location  

SciTech Connect

Quality-assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood-heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing particulate matter sampling of wood heaters according to EPA protocol, Method 5G. These procedures may be used in research and development, and as an aid in auditing and certification testing. A detailed, step-by-step quality assurance guide is provided to aid in the procurement and assembly of testing apparatus, to clearly describe the procedures, and to facilitate data collection and reporting. Suggested data sheets are supplied that can be used as an aid for both recordkeeping and certification applications. Throughout the document, activity matrices are provided to serve as a summary reference. Checklists are also supplied that can be used by testing personnel. Finally, for the purposes of ensuring data quality, procedures are outlined for apparatus operation, maintenance, and traceability. These procedures combined with the detailed description of the sampling and analysis protocol will help ensure the accuracy and reliability of Method 5G emission-testing results.

Ward, T.E.; Hartman, M.W.; Olin, R.C.; Rives, G.D.

1989-06-01

131

An Assessment of Epiphytic Lichen Diversity and Environmental Quality in Knocksink Wood Nature Reserve, Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epiphytic lichens are extremely sensitive to environmental perturbations. This research work has adapted and applied recently developed methods of assessing epiphytic lichen species diversity to the Irish semi-natural acidophilous woodlands of Knocksink Wood Nature Reserve, Enniskerry, Co. Wicklow, Ireland. The study has focused on the differences that arise in relation to acidophilous oak versus ashhazel woodlands at Knocksink. The frequency

Lenka Brodeková; Alan Gilmer; Paul Dowding; Howard Fox; Anna Guttová

2006-01-01

132

Use of Genome Sequence Information for Meat Quality Trait QTL Mining for Causal Genes and Mutations on Pig Chromosome 17  

PubMed Central

The newly available pig genome sequence has provided new information to fine map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in order to eventually identify causal variants. With targeted genomic sequencing efforts, we were able to obtain high quality BAC sequences that cover a region on pig chromosome 17 where a number of meat quality QTL have been previously discovered. Sequences from 70 BAC clones were assembled to form an 8-Mbp contig. Subsequently, we successfully mapped five previously identified QTL, three for meat color and two for lactate related traits, to the contig. With an additional 25 genetic markers that were identified by sequence comparison, we were able to carry out further linkage disequilibrium analysis to narrow down the genomic locations of these QTL, which allowed identification of the chromosomal regions that likely contain the causative variants. This research has provided one practical approach to combine genetic and molecular information for QTL mining.

Hu, Zhi-Liang; Ramos, Antonio M.; Humphray, Sean J.; Rogers, Jane; Reecy, James M.; Rothschild, Max F.

2011-01-01

133

Quality of groundwater and surface water, Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, July and August 2012  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Residents and resource managers of the Wood River Valley of south-central Idaho are concerned about the effects that population growth might have on the quality of groundwater and surface water. As part of a multi-phase assessment of the groundwater resources in the study area, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the quality of water at 45 groundwater and 5 surface-water sites throughout the Wood River Valley during July and August 2012. Water samples were analyzed for field parameters (temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity), major ions, boron, iron, manganese, nutrients, and Escherichia coli (E.coli) and total coliform bacteria. This study was conducted to determine baseline water quality throughout the Wood River Valley, with special emphasis on nutrient concentrations. Water quality in most samples collected did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards for drinking water. E. coli bacteria, used as indicators of water quality, were detected in all five surface-water samples and in two groundwater samples collected. Some analytes have aesthetic-based recommended drinking water standards; one groundwater sample exceeded recommended iron concentrations. Nitrate plus nitrite concentrations varied, but tended to be higher near population centers and in agricultural areas than in tributaries and less populated areas. These higher nitrate plus nitrite concentrations were not correlated with boron concentrations or the presence of bacteria, common indicators of sources of nutrients to water. None of the samples collected exceeded drinking-water standards for nitrate or nitrite. The concentration of total dissolved solids varied considerably in the waters sampled; however a calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate water type was dominant (43 out of 50 samples) in both the groundwater and surface water. Three constituents that may be influenced by anthropogenic activity (chloride, boron, and nitrate plus nitrite) deviate from this pattern and show a wide distribution of concentrations in the unconfined aquifer, indicating possible anthropogenic influence. Time-series plots of historical water-quality data indicated that nitrate does not seem to be increasing or decreasing in groundwater over time; however, time-series plots of chloride concentrations indicate that chloride may be increasing in some wells. The small amount of temporal variability in nitrate concentrations indicates a lack of major temporal changes to groundwater inputs.

Hopkins, Candice B.; Bartolino, James R.

2013-01-01

134

Effects of non-feed removal molting methods on egg quality traits in commercial brown egg laying hens in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-feed removal molting programme in commercial brown laying hens and its influence on pre-molting, post-molting and end\\u000a of cycle egg quality traits were investigated. Overall 54 birds were randomly divided into three treatment groups and each\\u000a group was fed with one of the following diets during 10 days of molting period: (i) grain barley, (ii) alfalfa meal, or (iii)\\u000a commercial

Metin Petek; S. Sule Gezen; Fazli Alpay; Recep Cibik

2008-01-01

135

Performance and meat quality traits of beef heifers fed with two levels of concentrate and ruminally undegradable protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two levels of concentrate and ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) on performance, intake, digestibility, carcass\\u000a characteristics, meat quality traits, and commercial cuts yield were assessed. Twenty crossbred heifers (240 kg average body\\u000a weight) were used. At the beginning of the trial, four animals were slaughtered as reference group and the 16 remaining animals\\u000a were randomly assigned to four treatments,

Marcio de Souza Duarte; Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Mario Fonseca Paulino; Edenio Detmann; Joanis Tilemahos Zervoudakis; João Paulo Ismerio dos Santos Monnerat; Gabriel da Silva Viana; Luiz Henrique P. Silva; Nicola Vergara Lopes Serão

2011-01-01

136

Improvement of Beef Tenderness and Quality Traits with Calcium Chloride Injection in Beef Loins 48 Hours Postmortem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boneless strip loin subprimals (n = 24) were fabricated from 12 USDA Standard yield grade 2 carcasses at a commercial beef processing facility and processed 48 h postmortem to determine the effect of injection of 200 or 250 mM calcium chloride (CaC12) solution at 5% (wt\\/wt) on beef quality traits. One-third of the subprimal served as the control; the remaining

C. R. Kerth; M. F. Miller; C. B. Ramsey

137

Effect of Genotype and Age on Egg Quality Traits in Naked Neck Chicken under Tropical Climate from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study was undertaken to evaluate the egg quality traits in three naked neck genotypes, NaNa (homozygous), Nana (heterozygous) and nana (normal) by utilizing 556 eggs collected at 28, 32, 36 and 40 weeks of age. The overall mean egg weight, shape index and Haugh unit values were 56.41 g, 75.79 and 75.98, respectively. The yolk index, yolk height

U. Rajkumar; R. P. Sharma; K. S. Rajaravind; M. Niranjan; B. L. N. Reddy; T. K. Bhattachar; R. N. Chatterjee

2009-01-01

138

Association of FATP1 gene polymorphisms with chicken carcass traits in Chinese meat-type quality chicken populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we aimed to detect the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the chicken FATP1 gene and discern the potential association between FATP1 SNPs and chicken carcass traits. A total of 620 meat-type quality chickens from six commercial pure lines (S01, S02, S03,\\u000a S05, S06 and D99) and two cross lines (S05 × S01 and S06 × S01) were screened by using the

Yan WangQing; Qing Zhu; Xiao-Ling Zhao; Yong-Gang Yao; Yi-Ping Liu

2010-01-01

139

Fluctuating asymmetry of sexual and nonsexual traits in stalk-eyed flies: a poor indicator of developmental stress and genetic quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that females use fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in sexual ornaments to assess male quality. FA of sexual traits is predicted to show greater sensitivity to stress than FA of nonsexual traits, and to be heritable. We used a half-sib mating design and manipulation of larval food environment to test these predictions on stalk-eyed flies, Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni, in

T. BJORKSTEN; P. DAVID; Pomiankowski; K. FOWLER

2000-01-01

140

Molecular characterization, expression analysis and association study with meat quality traits of porcine TTID gene.  

PubMed

Titin immunoglobulin domain protein (TTID) is localized to the Z-line and binds to alpha-actinin, gamma-filamin. It plays an indispensable role in stabilization and anchorage of thin filaments. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence was isolated by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The TTID sequence was deposited into the Genbank under the accession no. DQ157551. The deduced protein of 499 amino acids showed 93 % identity to the corresponding human and rat sequence. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed porcine TTID gene was expressed highest level in skeletal muscle, at second-highest level in the heart, but only low expression in the fat was detected. Bioinformatics analysis shows the molecular weight of the TTID protein is 55.747 kD with a PI of 9.26. It contains the protein function site of two potential Ig-like domain profiles, six N-myristoylation sites, six potential Casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, eight protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, three N-glycosylation sites, a tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site and a cell attachment sequence site. No putative base substitution was detected in the coding region by comparing sequences of Large White, Landrace and Meishan pig breeds. A T978C single nucleotide polymorphism in the intron 6 of porcine TTID gene was detected by a HinfI PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Study showed allele frequency differences among four purebreds. Association of the genotypes with meat quality traits showed that different genotypes of porcine TTID gene were significantly associated with meat pH (m.Biceps Femoris) (P < 0.05), meat color value (m.longissimus Dorsi) (P < 0.05) and Water Moisture (m.longissimus Dorsi) (P < 0.05). PMID:23096086

Wang, Jun; Deng, Chang-Yan; Xiong, Yuan-Zhu; Zuo, Bo

2012-10-25

141

Association study of molecular polymorphisms in candidate genes related to stress responses with production and meat quality traits in pigs.  

PubMed

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis exerts a large range of effects on metabolism, the immune system, inflammatory processes, and brain functions. Together with the sympathetic nervous system, it is also the most important stress-responsive neuroendocrine system. Both systems influence production traits, carcass composition, and meat quality. The HPA axis may be a critical target for genetic selection of more robust animals. Indeed, numerous studies in various species have demonstrated the importance of genetic factors in shaping the individual HPA axis phenotype, and genetic polymorphism can be found at each level of the axis, including hormone production by the adrenal cortices under stimulation by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), hormone bioavailability, or receptor and postreceptor mechanisms. The aim of the present experiment was to extend these findings to the brain neurochemical systems involved in stress responses. To this end, a number of candidate genes were sequenced for molecular polymorphisms and their association was studied with stress neuroendocrine and production traits in a genetically diverse population consisting of 100 female pigs from an advanced intercross (F10-F12) between 2 highly divergent breeds, Large White (LW) and Meishan (MS). The LW breed has a high production potential for lean meat and a low HPA axis activity, and the MS breed has low growth rate, fat carcasses-but large litters of highly viable piglets-and a high HPA axis activity. Candidate genes were chosen in the catecholaminergic and serotonergic pathways, in the pituitary control of cortisol production, among genes previously demonstrated to be differentially expressed in ACTH-stimulated adrenal glands from LW and MS pigs, and in cortisol receptors. Sixty new polymorphisms were found. The association study with carcass and meat quality traits and with endocrine traits showed a number of significant results, such as monoamine oxidase (MAOA) polymorphisms with growth rate (P = 0.01); lean content and intramuscular fat (P < 0.01), which are the most important traits for carcass value; dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3) with carcass composition (P < 0.05); and vasopressin receptor 1B (AVPR1B) with meat quality traits (P ? 0.05). The effect of these polymorphisms on neuroendocrine parameters (eg DRD3 and HPA axis or AVPR1B and catecholamines) indicates information regarding their biological mechanism of action. PMID:23063408

Terenina, E; Babigumira, B M; Le Mignon, G; Bazovkina, D; Rousseau, S; Salin, F; Bendixen, C; Mormede, P

2012-10-01

142

Analysis of a slow-growing line reveals wide genetic variability of carcass and meat quality-related traits  

PubMed Central

Background Slow-growing lines are widely used in France for the production of high quality free-range chickens. While such production is mainly dedicated to the whole carcass market, new prospects are opening up for the development of cuts and processed products. Whether the body composition and meat quality of slow-growing birds can be improved by selection has thus become an important issue. The genetic parameters of growth, body composition and breast meat quality traits were evaluated in relation to behaviour at slaughter in a large pedigree population including 1022 male and female slow-growing birds. Results The heritability coefficients (h2) of body weight and body composition traits varied from 0.3 to 0.5. Abdominal fat percentage was genetically positively correlated with body weight but negatively correlated with breast muscle yield. The characteristics of the breast meat (i.e., post-mortem fall in pH, colour, drip loss, shear-force and lipid content) were all heritable, with h2 estimates ranging from 0.18 to 0.48. The rate and extent of the fall in pH were under different genetic control. Strong negative genetic correlations were found between the ultimate pH and the lightness, yellowness and drip loss of the meat. Wing flapping on the shackle line was significantly heritable and exhibited marked genetic correlations with the pH at 15 min post-slaughter and the redness of the meat. The genetic relationships between meat quality traits, body weight and body composition appeared slightly different between males and females. Conclusion This study suggested that there are a number of important criteria for selection on carcass and breast meat quality in slow-growing birds. Selection for reduced abdominal fatness and increased breast muscle yield should be effective as both traits were found to be highly heritable and favourably correlated. Substantial improvement in meat quality could be achieved by selection on ultimate pH which was highly heritable and strongly correlated with the colour and water-holding capacity of the meat. Moreover, this study revealed for the first time that the behaviour at slaughter is partly genetically determined in the chicken.

2012-01-01

143

PLCz Functional Haplotypes Modulating Promoter Transcriptional Activity Are Associated with Semen Quality Traits in Chinese Holstein Bulls  

PubMed Central

The sperm-specific phospholipase C zeta (PLCz) is a candidate sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor that triggers a characteristic series of physiological stimuli via cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations during fertilization. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PLCz gene expression remain largely unknown. To explore the genetic variations in the 5?-flanking region of the PLCz gene and their common haplotypes in Chinese Holstein bulls, as well as to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and transcriptional activity, DNA samples were collected from Chinese Holstein bulls and sequenced for the identification of genetic variants in the 5?-flanking region of PLCz. Two genetic variants were identified, and their haplotypic profiles were constructed. The two novel genetic variations (g. ?456 G>A and g. +65 T>C) were genotyped in 424 normal Chinese Holstein bulls. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that both loci are in transcription factor binding sites of the core promoter region. The association studies revealed that the two genetic variations and their haplotype combinations significantly affected semen quality traits. Using serially truncated constructs of the bovine PLCz promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 726 bp (?641 nt to +112 nt) fragment constitutes the core promoter region. Furthermore, four haplotypes, H1H1 (GTGT), H2H2 (GCGC), H3H3 (ATAT), and H4H4 (ACAC), were significantly associated with semen quality traits and successfully transfected into MLTC-1 cell lines. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the different haplotypes exhibited distinct promoter activities. Maximal promoter activity was demonstrated by the H2H2 haplotypes, as compared with the other haplotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on genetic variants and their respective haplotypes in the 5?-flanking region of PLCz gene that can influence the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls as well as contribute to the transcriptional activity of the PLCz promoter.

Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Yan; Qi, Chao; Gao, Qin; Zhou, Lei; Li, Qiuling; Wang, Lingling; Zhong, Jifeng; Liu, Mei; Wang, Changfa

2013-01-01

144

Wood Gasification Facility : Quality Assurance Project Plan : Facility Located at North Powder, Oregon.  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Biomass Energy Program, managed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), proposes to develop appropriate methodologies and conduct a testing program of a commercial-scale biomass gasifier to establish: (1) the validity of the test procedures; and (2) the performance of the gasification facility. It is proposed to conduct the testing at the wood gasification plant located at North Powder, Oregon, now operated by Idaho Timber Products of Boise, Idaho. The North Powder wood gasifier is an air-oxidized unit producing about 100 million Btu's per hour in the form of high temperature low-Btu gas (LBG). The gasifier utilizes a fluidized bed to partially combust and gasify mill wastes. Such units hold promise for making the energy of solid biomass available to a broader range of end uses, since the fuel gas created can be readily used by a wide variety of combustion devices or other process equipment. 5 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs.

Freeburn, Scott A.; Houck, James E.

1989-05-05

145

Impact of proximal cytoplasmic droplets on quality traits and in-vitro embryo production efficiency of cryopreserved bull spermatozoa  

PubMed Central

Background Proximal cytoplasmic droplets (PCDs), a remnant of germ cell cytoplasm, are common non-specific morphological defects in bovine semen. This study evaluated the effect of higher percentages of PCDs on the quality of frozen-thawed bovine semen, embryo production and early embryo development. Methods Three ejaculates from each of five (group 1: PCD ? 1%, control) and eight adult Bos indicus bulls (group 2: PCD ? 24%) were analysed. Semen samples were examined for: post-thaw motility, vigour of movement, concentration, sperm morphology, slow thermoresistance test (STT), membrane integrity, acrosome status, mitochondrial function using fluorescent probes association (FITC-PSA, PI and JC-1) and sperm chromatin integrity using acridine orange assay. Two bulls from group 2, with 28.5% and 48.5% PCD, respectively, and three bulls from the control group, each with 0% PCD, were selected for IVF (in vitro fertilisation). Results Semen analyses revealed a significant correlation (P < 0.01) between increased rates of PCD and sperm quality traits. Nevertheless, no differences were observed in sperm motility and vigour either before or after the STT or in the percentage of intact acrosomes (analysed by differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) after STT), but membrane integrity, acrosome status (evaluated with FITC-PSA staining method after thawing) and mitochondrial function were reduced, when compared with group 1 (P < 0.05). The higher incidence of PCD was positively correlated to chromatin damage, especially after three hours of incubation at 37°C. IVF showed similar results for bull C2 (group 1, control) and bull P2 (group 2, group with higher PCDs). Conclusion Higher PCD levels influenced spermatozoa quality traits. IVF and embryo development data showed that cleavage, blastocyst formation and blastocyst hatching may have been influenced by the interaction of morphology traits and individual bull effects.

2012-01-01

146

Association of PPARGC1A and CAPNS1 gene polymorphisms and expression with meat quality traits in pigs.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the genes PPARGC1A (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-coactivator 1A) and CAPNS1 (calpain small subunit 1) as candidate genes affecting meat quality traits in pigs. Four polymorphisms were identified in PPARCG1A and three in CAPNS1. The PPARGC1A polymorphism c.1288T>A was associated with pH and cooking loss in a F2 Duroc×Pietrain experimental cross (DuPi, n=313) and with pH values in Italian Large White (ILW, n=380) and Italian Landrace (ILA, n=158) populations (P<0.05). The CAPNS1 polymorphism c.429A>C was associated with pH and conductivity in DuPi and with meat color in ILA (P<0.05). PPARGC1A mRNA expression associated with drip loss (P<0.01) and the same tendency was found for CAPNS1 (P=0.06). The promoter methylation profiling suggested that methylation is not involved in CAPNS1 expression regulation. In conclusion, porcine PPARGC1A and CAPNS1 genes may affect meat quality traits, with breed-specific differences, and they could be used as markers for the improvement of meat quality in pigs. PMID:21680104

Gandolfi, G; Cinar, M U; Ponsuksili, S; Wimmers, K; Tesfaye, D; Looft, C; Jüngst, H; Tholen, E; Phatsara, C; Schellander, K; Davoli, R

2011-05-24

147

Pre-Service Teachers: Dispositional Traits, Emotional States, and Quality of Teacher-Student Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the interactive nature of teaching, dispositional characteristics (i.e., traits that dispose a person towards certain behaviors, choices, and experiences) like assertiveness and openness or emotional states such as sadness, worry, and stress may play important roles in a teacher's ability to interact in meaningful, engaging, and effective…

Ripski, Michael B.; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Decker, Lauren

2011-01-01

148

Human urine and wood ash as plant nutrients for red beet (Beta vulgaris) cultivation: impacts on yield quality.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of human urine and wood ash fertilization on the yield and quality of red beet by measuring the microbial, nutrient, and antioxidant (betanin) content of the roots. Red beets were fertilized with 133 kg of N/ha as mineral fertilizer, urine and ash, and only urine with no fertilizer as a control. The mineral-fertilized plants and urine- and ash-fertilized plants also received 89 kg of P/ha. Urine and ash and only urine fertilizer produced 1720 and 656 kg/ha more root biomass, respectively, versus what was obtained from the mineral fertilizer. Few fecal coliforms and coliphage were detected in mineral-fertilized and urine- and ash-fertilized red beet roots. The protein and betanin contents in red beet roots were similar in all treatments. In conclusion, this study revealed that urine with or without ash can increase the yield of red beet and furthermore the microbial quality and chemical quality were similar to the situation in mineral-fertilized products. PMID:20050665

Pradhan, Surendra K; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Weisell, Janne; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

2010-02-10

149

Wood and Wood Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood has been utilized by humans since antiquity. Trees provided a source of many products required by early humans such as food, medicine, fuel, and tools. For example, the bark of the willow tree, when chewed, was used as a painkiller in early Greece and was the precursor of the present-day aspirin. Wood served as the primary fuel in the United States until about the turn of the 19th century, and even today over one-half of the wood now harvested in the world is used for heating fuel.

Young, Raymond A.

150

Study of wood defects recognition based on Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image Processing of wood defects is important for wood defects recognition. Wood defects influence on wood production quality. X-ray testing system was adopted to detect wood defects. Because it not only can detect wood seeming defects, but also can detect inner defects. The collected images with defects were done median filter processing and edge detection so that the position, size

Hongbo Mu; Dawei Qi; Mingming Zhang

2010-01-01

151

Effect of leptin gene polymorphisms on growth, slaughter and meat quality traits of grazing Brangus steers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin is a hormone that affects the regulation of feed intake, energy balance and body composition in mammals. Several polymorphisms in the bovine leptin gene have been associated with phenotypic variance of these traits. We evaluated two known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the leptin gene of 253 grazing Brangus steers. Brangus is a 5\\/8 Angus-3\\/8 Brahman composite. Data were

P. M. Corva; G. V. Fernandez Macedo; L. A. Soria; J. Papaleo Mazzucco; M. Motter; E. L. Villarreal; A. Schor; C. A. Mezzadra; L. M. Melucci; M. C. Miquel

2009-01-01

152

A comparison between slaughter traits and meat quality of various sheep breeds: wool, dual-purpose and mutton.  

PubMed

The slaughter and meat quality traits of 20-month-old wool (Merino), dual-purpose (Dohne Merino and South African Mutton Merino [SAMM]) and mutton (Dormer) type sheep were compared. Average live weights of SAMM and Dormer sheep were 23% heavier than those of Dohne Merinos which were 28% heavier than Merinos. Fat depths at the thirteenth rib and lumbar regions of Merino and Dohne Merino sheep were lower than those of SAMM and Dormer sheep. The cooking loss, drip loss and shearing value from the M. longissimus dorsi did not differ between breeds. The initial juiciness and sustained juiciness of meat from Merinos were rated significantly lower by sensory analysis. Meat from Dohne Merino was rated significantly more tender for the attribute first bite. It was demonstrated that Dormer and SAMM sheep had heavier but fatter carcasses than Merinos and Dohne Merinos, with differences in meat quality between breeds. PMID:22391055

Cloete, J J E; Hoffman, L C; Cloete, S W P

2012-02-18

153

Association of bovine meat quality traits with genes included in the PPARG and PPARGC1A networks.  

PubMed

Understanding which are the genetic variants underlying the nutritional and sensory properties of beef, enables improvement in meat quality. The aim of this study is to identify new molecular markers for meat quality through an association study using candidate genes included in the PPARG and PPARGC1A networks given their master role in coordinating metabolic adaptation in fat tissue, muscle and liver. Amongst the novel associations found in this study, selection of the positive marker variants of genes such as BCL3, LPL, PPARG, SCAP, and SCD will improve meat organoleptic characteristics and health by balancing the n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in meat. Also previous results on GDF8 and DGAT1 were validated, and the novel ATF4, HNF4A and PPARGC1A associations, although slightly under the significance threshold, are consistent with their physiological roles. These data contribute insights into the complex gene-networks underlying economically important traits. PMID:23567132

Sevane, N; Armstrong, E; Cortés, O; Wiener, P; Wong, R Pong; Dunner, S

2013-03-01

154

The relationship between muscle fiber characteristics and meat quality traits of highly marbled Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) steers.  

PubMed

To investigate the relationships between muscle fiber characteristics and meat quality traits of Korean native cattle, Hanwoo, Longissimus dorsi (LD), Psoas major (PM) and Semimembranosus (SM) muscles obtained from 18 Hanwoo steers and the muscle fiber characteristics were measured by histochemical analysis. Fiber number, area percentages and density of type IIA and IIB were lower in SM muscle, but higher in PM muscle than other muscles. LD muscle had higher pH(24h), L* value and fat content whereas SM muscle had lower L* value and fat content. The lowest WBSF with longer sarcomere length was observed in PM muscle, while SM muscle showed the highest WBSF with shorter sarcomere length. Consequently, the percentage of type I and IIB were highly correlated with meat quality traits and inversely correlated with fat content, L* value and WBSF. Fiber number and area percentage of type I had a positive correlation with fat content and L* value and a negative correlation with WBSF. These results suggest that Hanwoo steers had high marbling, more lightness and tenderness when the percentage of type I was high and the percentage of type IIB was low in muscle. PMID:20598446

Hwang, Young-Hwa; Kim, Gap-Don; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Hur, Sun-Jin; Joo, Seon-Tea

2010-05-26

155

Association and expression analysis of porcine HNF1A gene related to meat and carcass quality traits.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the association and expression of HNF1A gene as a candidate gene for meat and carcass quality traits in pigs. Statistical analysis revealed that the g.8260 A>G polymorphism significantly associated with pH 24(H), meat percentage and muscle area in the F? Duroc × Pietrain (DuPi, n=313) and with pH 24(L), fat area and backfat thickness in the Pietrain (Pi, n=110) population. HNF1A mRNA and protein expressions were higher (p<0.05) in animals with the low post-mortem muscle pH 24(L). The promoter methylation profiling suggested that methylation was not involved on HNF1A expression regulation (p>0.05) in animal with divergent muscle pH. In conclusion, polymorphism in porcine HNF1A gene could be used as a candidate marker to improve the meat and carcass quality traits, with the consideration of breed-specific effect. PMID:23628452

Kayan, Autchara; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Kocamis, Hakan; Tesfaye, Dawit; Looft, Christian; Tholen, Ernst; Schellander, Karl; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas

2013-04-13

156

Effect of leptin gene polymorphisms on growth, slaughter and meat quality traits of grazing Brangus steers.  

PubMed

Leptin is a hormone that affects the regulation of feed intake, energy balance and body composition in mammals. Several polymorphisms in the bovine leptin gene have been associated with phenotypic variance of these traits. We evaluated two known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the leptin gene of 253 grazing Brangus steers. Brangus is a 5/8 Angus-3/8 Brahman composite. Data were collected during two consecutive growth/fattening cycles from two farms in southeast Buenos Aires province, Argentina. One of the markers is in the promoter region of the gene (SNP1) and the other is a non-synonymous polymorphism in exon 2 (SNP2). The traits that we evaluated were live weight gain in the spring, gain in backfat thickness in the spring, final live weight, final ultrasound backfat thickness, final ultrasound rib eye area, carcass weight and length, carcass yield, kidney fat, kidney fat percentage, backfat thickness, rib eye area, and intramuscular fat percentage. Both markers affected some meat traits; though the only significant associations were of SNP1 with ultrasound rib eye area and of SNP2 with carcass yield and backfat thickness. Under the same conditions as in the present study, leptin markers could be of help only as part of a larger genotyping panel including other relevant genes. PMID:19283678

Corva, P M; Fernández Macedo, G V; Soria, L A; Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Motter, M; Villarreal, E L; Schor, A; Mezzadra, C A; Melucci, L M; Miquel, M C

2009-02-03

157

Analysis of the associations between polymorphisms in GNAS complex locus and growth, carcass and meat quality traits in pigs.  

PubMed

Imprinted genes are interesting candidates for marker assisted selection in farm animals. One of them-GNAS complex locus is engaged in obesity pathogenesis in humans and mice. In our study, we identified new polymorphism in porcine GNAS gene (variable number of CT repeats, accession number: rs196952953) and found that this polymorphism is in linkage disequilibrum with GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T. Statistical analysis (GLM procedure), performed on 552 animals (Large White n = 258 and Landrace n = 269), revealed that deduced haplotypes and GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T are associated with growth performance and a few carcass traits, but not with feed intake. We observed significant additive effects of GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T genotype and haplotype 2 (C/278 bp) on test daily gain (TDG), average daily gain (ADG), number of days on test, age of the slaughter (P < 0.01) and FCR ratio (P < 0.05). Animals with two copies of C/278 haplotype had significantly higher: TDG, ADG, lower feed:gain ratio and faster reached the weight of 100 kg. When carcass traits were considered, significant associations between GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T polymorphism, haplotype 2 (C/278) and weight of ham with and without backfat and skin (WH) (WH2), length of the carcass, height and the width of the loin, meat percentage, weight of the main cuts were identified. The significant dominance effects of GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T polymorphism and haplotype 2 on WH and WH2 were observed (P < 0.05). When the two breeds were analyzed separately significant associations were observed for most of the traits in Landrace while in Large White the same trends were present but the differences were mostly not significant. Among meat quality traits we found significant association between haplotype and IMF content in Landrace (P < 0.03). Our results show for the first time that GNAS complex locus may modulate economically important traits in pigs. PMID:24057249

Oczkowicz, Maria; Ropka-Molik, Katarzyna; Tyra, Miros?aw

2013-09-22

158

Energy from wood - Treesearch  

Treesearch

... preparation of food to maintain the quality of life that encompasses the majority of citizens. ... In some South American countries wood charcoal provides the fuel for ... This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on ...

159

Effect of long-term selection for increased leanness on meat and eating quality traits in Duroc swine.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate differences in meat and eating quality traits between purebred Duroc pigs sired by boars currently available and pigs sired by boars from the mid 1980s. Two lines were developed by randomly allocating littermate and half-sib pairs of females to matings by current time period (CTP) or old time period (OTP) boars. Matings by CTP boars were made using fresh semen, and matings by OTP boars were via frozen semen. All available barrows and randomly selected gilts were sent to a commercial abattoir and used for meat and eating quality evaluation. A total of 178 pigs from 23 CTP sires and 99 pigs from 15 OTP sires, across 2 replications and at a mean live weight of 109 kg, were slaughtered and analyzed. Chemical intramuscular fat percentage was determined by lab analysis of a slice from the LM at the 10th rib. Additional meat and eating quality traits measured on the LM were Minolta reflectance and Hunter L color (24 h); pH (24 h and 7 d); water-holding capacity; subjective visual scores for color, marbling, and firmness (48 h); Instron tenderness; cooking loss; and trained sensory panel evaluations (7 d). Time period differences were assessed by use of a mixed model that included fixed effects of sire time period, replication, sex, contemporary group, and the interaction of sex x time period. The random effect of dam and the random effect of sire nested within time period were also included. Loins from pigs sired by OTP boars had greater intramuscular fat (3.48 vs. 3.09%) and visual marbling scores (3.54 vs. 3.07), required less Instron force (5.31 vs. 5.98 kg) to compress, and had darker visual color scores (4.09 vs. 3.87) compared with loins from pigs sired by CTP boars (P < 0.05). No differences were observed between time periods for Minolta reflectance, Hunter L (24 h), water-holding capacity, pH (24 h and 7 d), or subjective firmness scores. Trained sensory evaluations revealed more pork flavor and less off-flavor (P < 0.05) for OTP-sired pigs; however, no differences in tenderness score, juiciness score, chewiness score, or cooking loss were found between lines. Long-term selection response in carcass composition has been at the expense of meat and eating quality traits. PMID:16699115

Schwab, C R; Baas, T J; Stalder, K J; Mabry, J W

2006-06-01

160

Effects of wood-ash on the tree growth, vegetation and substrate quality of a drained mire: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of wood-ash fertilisation on tree stands, soil characteristics and ground vegetation were studied on a drained pine mire in Finland (64°51?N, 26°04?E, 62ma.s.l.). The original site type was a treeless, mesotrophic Sphagnum papillosum fen. The site was drained in 1933 and the wood-ash fertilisation experiment was started in 1947. The treatments were: (i) unfertilised, (ii) wood-ash 8tha?1, and

Mikko Moilanen; Klaus Silfverberg; Timo J Hokkanen

2002-01-01

161

Expression profiling of potato germplasm differentiated in quality traits leads to the identification of candidate flavour and texture genes.  

PubMed

Quality traits such as flavour and texture are assuming a greater importance in crop breeding programmes. This study takes advantage of potato germplasm differentiated in tuber flavour and texture traits. A recently developed 44,000-element potato microarray was used to identify tuber gene expression profiles that correspond to differences in tuber flavour and texture as well as carotenoid content and dormancy characteristics. Gene expression was compared in two Solanum tuberosum group Phureja cultivars and two S. tuberosum group Tuberosum cultivars; 309 genes were significantly and consistently up-regulated in Phureja, whereas 555 genes were down-regulated. Approximately 46% of the genes in these lists can be identified from their annotation and amongst these are candidates that may underpin the Phureja/Tuberosum trait differences. For example, a clear difference in the cooked tuber volatile profile is the higher level of the sesquiterpene alpha-copaene in Phureja compared with Tuberosum. A sesquiterpene synthase gene was identified as being more highly expressed in Phureja tubers and its corresponding full-length cDNA was demonstrated to encode alpha-copaene synthase. Other potential 'flavour genes', identified from their differential expression profiles, include those encoding branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase and a ribonuclease suggesting a mechanism for 5'-ribonucleotide formation in potato tubers on cooking. Major differences in the expression levels of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis (and potentially texture) were also identified, including genes encoding pectin acetylesterase, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase and pectin methylesterase. Other gene expression differences that may impact tuber carotenoid content and tuber life-cycle phenotypes are discussed. PMID:18987392

Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Wayne L; Prosser, Ian M; Morris, Jenny A; Beale, Michael H; Wright, Frank; Shepherd, Tom; Bryan, Glenn J; Hedley, Pete E; Taylor, Mark A

2008-11-05

162

Expression profiling of potato germplasm differentiated in quality traits leads to the identification of candidate flavour and texture genes  

PubMed Central

Quality traits such as flavour and texture are assuming a greater importance in crop breeding programmes. This study takes advantage of potato germplasm differentiated in tuber flavour and texture traits. A recently developed 44 000-element potato microarray was used to identify tuber gene expression profiles that correspond to differences in tuber flavour and texture as well as carotenoid content and dormancy characteristics. Gene expression was compared in two Solanum tuberosum group Phureja cultivars and two S. tuberosum group Tuberosum cultivars; 309 genes were significantly and consistently up-regulated in Phureja, whereas 555 genes were down-regulated. Approximately 46% of the genes in these lists can be identified from their annotation and amongst these are candidates that may underpin the Phureja/Tuberosum trait differences. For example, a clear difference in the cooked tuber volatile profile is the higher level of the sesquiterpene ?-copaene in Phureja compared with Tuberosum. A sesquiterpene synthase gene was identified as being more highly expressed in Phureja tubers and its corresponding full-length cDNA was demonstrated to encode ?-copaene synthase. Other potential ‘flavour genes’, identified from their differential expression profiles, include those encoding branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase and a ribonuclease suggesting a mechanism for 5?-ribonucleotide formation in potato tubers on cooking. Major differences in the expression levels of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis (and potentially texture) were also identified, including genes encoding pectin acetylesterase, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase and pectin methylesterase. Other gene expression differences that may impact tuber carotenoid content and tuber life-cycle phenotypes are discussed.

Ducreux, Laurence J. M.; Morris, Wayne L.; Prosser, Ian M.; Morris, Jenny A.; Beale, Michael H.; Wright, Frank; Shepherd, Tom; Bryan, Glenn J.; Hedley, Pete E.; Taylor, Mark A.

2008-01-01

163

SNPs at 3'-UTR of the bovine CDIPT gene associated with Qinchuan cattle meat quality traits.  

PubMed

The CDIPT is crucial to the fatty acid metabolic pathway, intracellular signal transduction and energy metabolism in eukaryotic cells. We detected three SNPs at 3'-untranslated regions (UTR), named 3'-UTR_108 A > G, 3'-UTR_448 G > A and 3'-UTR_477 C > G, of the CDIPT gene in 618 Qinchuan cattle using PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing methods. At each of the three SNPs, we found three genotypes named as follows: AA, AB, BB (3'-UTR_108 A > G), CC, CD, DD (3'-UTR_448 G > A) and EE, EF, FF (3'-UTR_477 C > G.). Based on association analysis of these SNPs with ultrasound measurement traits, individuals of genotype BB had a significantly larger loin muscle area than genotype AA. Individuals of genotype CC had significantly thicker back fat than individuals of genotype DD. Individuals of genotype EE also had significantly thicker back fat than did individuals of genotype FF. We conclude that these SNPs of the CDIPT gene could be used as molecular markers for selecting and breeding beef cattle with superior body traits, depending on breeding goals. PMID:23546961

Fu, C Z; Wang, H; Mei, C G; Wang, J L; Jiang, B J; Ma, X H; Wang, H B; Cheng, G; Zan, L S

2013-03-13

164

Efficient bleaching of non-wood high-quality paper pulp using laccase-mediator system  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-quality flax pulp was bleached in a totally-chlorine-free (TCF) sequence using a laccase-mediator system. Three fungal laccases (from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus eryngii) and two mediators, 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), were compared. P. cinnabarinus and T. versicolor laccases in the presence of HBT gave the best results in terms of high brightness and low lignin content (kappa

Susana Camarero; Olga Garc??a; Teresa Vidal; José Colom; José C del R??o; Ana Gutiérrez; José M Gras; Rebeca Monje; Mar??a J Mart??nez; Ángel T Mart??nez

2004-01-01

165

QTL analysis for grain quality traits in 2 BC2F2 populations derived from crosses between Oryza sativa cv Swarna and 2 accessions of O. nivara.  

PubMed

The appearance and cooking quality of rice determine its acceptability and price to a large extent. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 12 grain quality traits were mapped in 2 mapping populations derived from Oryza sativa cv Swarna × O. nivara. The BC(2)F(2) population of the cross Swarna × O. nivara IRGC81848 (population 1) was evaluated during 2005 and that from Swarna × O. nivara IRGC81832 (population 2) was evaluated during 2006. Linkage maps were constructed using 100 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in population 1 and 75 SSR markers in population 2. In all, 21 QTLs were identified in population 1 (43% from O. nivara) and 37 in population 2 (38% QTLs from O. nivara). The location of O. nivara-derived QTLs mp1.2 for milling percent, kw6.1 for kernel width, and klac12.1 for kernel length after cooking coincided in the 2 populations and appear to be useful for Marker Assisted Selection (MAS). Four QTLs for milling percent, 1 QTL each for amylose content, water uptake, elongation ratio, 2 QTLs for kernel width, and 3 QTLs for gel consistency, each explained more than 20% phenotypic variance. Three QTL clusters for grain quality traits were close to the genes/QTLs for shattering and seed dormancy. QTLs for 4 quality traits were associated with 5 of the 7 major yield QTLs reported in the same 2 mapping populations. Useful introgression lines have been developed for several agronomic traits. It emerges that 40% O. nivara alleles were trait enhancing in both populations, and QTLs for grain quality overlapped with yield meta-QTLs and QTLs for dormancy and seed shattering. PMID:22312119

Swamy, B P Mallikarjuna; Kaladhar, K; Shobha Rani, N; Prasad, G S V; Viraktamath, B C; Reddy, G Ashok; Sarla, N

2012-02-06

166

Trait impressions as overgeneralized responses to adaptively significant facial qualities: evidence from connectionist modeling.  

PubMed

Connectionist modeling experiments tested anomalous-face and baby-face overgeneralization hypotheses proposed to explain consensual trait impressions of faces. Activation of a neural network unit trained to respond to anomalous faces predicted impressions of normal adult faces varying in attractiveness as well as several elderly stereotypes. Activation of a neural network unit trained to respond to babies' faces predicted impressions of adults varying in babyfaceness as well as 1 elderly stereotype. Thus, similarities of normal adult faces to anomalous faces or babies' faces contribute to impressions of them quite apart from knowledge of overlapping social stereotypes. The evolutionary importance of appropriate responses to unfit individuals or babies is presumed to produce a strong response preparedness that is overgeneralized to faces resembling the unfit or babies. PMID:12788687

Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Mignault, Alain; Andreoletti, Carrie

2003-01-01

167

Genetic dissection of fruit quality traits in the octoploid cultivated strawberry highlights the role of homoeo-QTL in their control.  

PubMed

Fruit quality traits are major breeding targets in the Rosaceae. Several of the major Rosaceae species are current or ancient polyploids. To dissect the inheritance of fruit quality traits in polyploid fleshy fruit species, we used a cultivated strawberry segregating population comprising a 213 full-sibling F1 progeny from a cross between the variety 'Capitola' and the genotype 'CF1116'. We previously developed the most comprehensive strawberry linkage map, which displays seven homoeology groups (HG), including each four homoeology linkage groups (Genetics 179:2045-2060, 2008). The map was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 19 fruit traits related to fruit development, texture, colour, anthocyanin, sugar and organic acid contents. Analyses were carried out over two or three successive years on field-grown plants. QTL were detected for all the analysed traits. Because strawberry is an octopolyploid species, QTL controlling a given trait and located at orthologous positions on different homoeologous linkage groups within one HG are considered as homoeo-QTL. We found that, for various traits, about one-fourth of QTL were putative homoeo-QTL and were localised on two linkage groups. Several homoeo-QTL could be detected the same year, suggesting that several copies of the gene underlying the QTL are functional. The detection of some other homoeo-QTL was year-dependent. Therefore, changes in allelic expression could take place in response to environmental changes. We believe that, in strawberry as in other polyploid fruit species, the mechanisms unravelled in the present study may play a crucial role in the variations of fruit quality. PMID:22215248

Lerceteau-Köhler, E; Moing, A; Guérin, G; Renaud, C; Petit, A; Rothan, C; Denoyes, Béatrice

2012-01-04

168

Performance and meat quality traits of beef heifers fed with two levels of concentrate and ruminally undegradable protein.  

PubMed

The effects of two levels of concentrate and ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) on performance, intake, digestibility, carcass characteristics, meat quality traits, and commercial cuts yield were assessed. Twenty crossbred heifers (240 kg average body weight) were used. At the beginning of the trial, four animals were slaughtered as reference group and the 16 remaining animals were randomly assigned to four treatments, in a 2?×?2 factorial design: two levels of concentrate (40% and 80%, dry matter (DM) basis) and two levels of RUP (48.79% and 27.19% of CP). At the end of the trial, all the animals were slaughtered. There was no interaction (P?>?0.05) between concentrate and RUP levels. Dry matter intake and nutrients digestibility was not affected (P?>?0.05) by RUP level. Heifers fed the highest RUP level had greater (P??0.05) DMI and ADG. Heifers fed diets with 80% concentrate had greater intake of TDN and EE, and lower intake of NDF (P??0.05) the carcass characteristics and carcass gain composition. Heifers fed 80% concentrate diets had larger (P??0.05) the composition of carcass gain. There was no effect (P?>?0.05) of RUP and concentrate levels on meat quality traits and commercial cut yields. PMID:21225459

Duarte, Marcio de Souza; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; Zervoudakis, Joanis Tilemahos; Monnerat, João Paulo Ismerio dos Santos; Viana, Gabriel da Silva; Silva, Luiz Henrique P; Serão, Nicola Vergara Lopes

2011-01-13

169

Spatial Variability in Water Quality and Surface Sediment Diatom Assemblages in a Complex Lake Basin: Lake of the Woods, Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake of the Woods (LOW) is an international waterbody spanning the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba, and the U.S. state of Minnesota. In recent years, there has been a perception that water quality has deteriorated in northern regions of the lake, with an increase in the frequency and intensity of toxin-producing cyanobacterial blooms. However, given the lack of long-term

Sergi Pla; Andrew M. Paterson; John P. Smol; Bev J. Clark; Ron Ingram

2005-01-01

170

Effects of Postmortem Injection Time, Injection Level, and Concentration of Calcium Chloride on Beef Quality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to determine the optimum protocol for maximizing meat quality with CaC12 injection. Experiment 1 compared the effects of 30 min or 24 h postmortem injection of 175 mM CaCl2 or water at 10% (wt\\/wt) to controls on various measures of meat quality. An injection of CaC12 reduced (P < .05) shear force values in all three

T. L. Wheeler; M. Koohmaraie; J. L. Lansdell; G. R. Siragusa; M. F. Miller

171

Effects of cooked temperature on pork tenderness and relationships among muscle physiology and pork quality traits in loins from Landrace and Berkshire swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of, and associations between, loin muscle morphology and pork quality indicator traits were assessed at three cooked temperatures in loin chops from 38 purebred Berkshire and 52 purebred Landrace swine. Three loin chops from each pig were randomly assigned to cooked temperature treatments of 62, 71, or 79°C and loin tenderness was assessed as Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF).

S. M. Crawford; S. J. Moeller; H. N. Zerby; K. M. Irvin; P. S. Kuber; S. G. Velleman; T. D. Leeds

2010-01-01

172

Changes in muscle cell cation regulation and meat quality traits are associated with genetic selection for high body weight and meat yield in broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between-breed genetic variation for muscle and meat quality traits was determined at eight weeks of age in 34 lines of purebred commercial broiler and layer lines and traditional breeds (categories) of chickens. Between-breed genetic variation for plasma ion concentrations and element concentration in muscle dry matter and ash were determined. Plasma from broilers had higher concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg++,

Dale A Sandercock; Zoe E Barker; Malcolm A Mitchell; Paul M Hocking

2009-01-01

173

Evaluation of QTL for carcass merit and meat quality traits in a US commercial Duroc population.  

PubMed

Putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions on 5 chromosomes (SSC3, 6, 12, 15, and 18) were selected from our previous genome scans of a Duroc×Pietrain F(2) resource population for further evaluation in a US commercial Duroc population (n=331). A total of 81 gene-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were genotyped and 33 markers were segregating. The MDH1 SNP on SSC3 was associated with 45-min and ultimate pH (pHu), and pH decline. PRKAG3 on SSC15 was associated with pHu. The HSPG2 SNP on SSC6 was associated with marbling score and days to 113kg. Markers for NUP88 and FKBP10 on SSC12 were associated with 45-min pH and L*, respectively. The SSC15 marker SF3B1 was associated with L* and LMA, and the SSC18 marker ARF5 was associated with pHu and color score. These results in a commercial Duroc population showed a general consistency with our previous genome scan. PMID:22578477

Choi, Igseo; Bates, Ronald O; Raney, Nancy E; Steibel, Juan P; Ernst, Catherine W

2012-04-21

174

Genetic dissection of growth, wood basic density and gene expression in interspecific backcrosses of Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla  

PubMed Central

Background F1 hybrid clones of Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla are widely grown for pulp and paper production in tropical and subtropical regions. Volume growth and wood quality are priority objectives in Eucalyptus tree improvement. The molecular basis of quantitative variation and trait expression in eucalypt hybrids, however, remains largely unknown. The recent availability of a draft genome sequence (http://www.phytozome.net) and genome-wide genotyping platforms, combined with high levels of genetic variation and high linkage disequilibrium in hybrid crosses, greatly facilitate the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) as well as underlying candidate genes for growth and wood property traits. In this study, we used Diversity Arrays Technology markers to assess the genetic architecture of volume growth (diameter at breast height, DBH) and wood basic density in four-year-old progeny of an interspecific backcross pedigree of E. grandis and E. urophylla. In addition, we used Illumina RNA-Seq expression profiling in the E. urophylla backcross family to identify cis- and trans-acting polymorphisms (eQTLs) affecting transcript abundance of genes underlying QTLs for wood basic density. Results A total of five QTLs for DBH and 12 for wood basic density were identified in the two backcross families. Individual QTLs for DBH and wood basic density explained 3.1 to 12.2% of phenotypic variation. Candidate genes underlying QTLs for wood basic density on linkage groups 8 and 9 were found to share trans-acting eQTLs located on linkage groups 4 and 10, which in turn coincided with QTLs for wood basic density suggesting that these QTLs represent segregating components of an underlying transcriptional network. Conclusion This is the first demonstration of the use of next-generation expression profiling to quantify transcript abundance in a segregating tree population and identify candidate genes potentially affecting wood property variation. The QTLs identified in this study provide a resource for identifying candidate genes and developing molecular markers for marker-assisted breeding of volume growth and wood basic density. Our results suggest that integrated analysis of transcript and trait variation in eucalypt hybrids can be used to dissect the molecular basis of quantitative variation in wood property traits.

2012-01-01

175

The three important traits for cooking and eating quality of rice grains are controlled by a single locus in an elite rice hybrid, Shanyou 63  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cooking and eating quality of the rice grain is one of the most serious problems in many rice-producing areas of the world.\\u000a In this study, we conducted a molecular marker-based genetic analysis of three traits, amylose content (AC), gel consistency\\u000a (GC) and gelatinization temperature (GT), that are the most important constituents of the cooking and eating quality of rice

Y. F. Tan; J. X. Li; S. B. Yu; Y. Z. Xing; C. G. Xu; Qifa Zhang

1999-01-01

176

Relationship between Quality Traits of Soft Red Winter Wheat and Cookie Diameter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fifty-seven soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes including two cultivars released in Jiangsu Province and 55 advanced lines were subjected to quality tests of sixteen parameters, such as solvent retention capacity (SRC) and RVA viscosity parameters. The results showed that there we...

177

How Personality Traits and Job Satisfaction Influence Service Quality in Housing Agencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Human service organizations are intended to stabilize low-income families and promote self-sufficiency by providing much needed services and benefits. Recipients, however, often do not get everything they need in terms of either benefits or service quality. Understandably, clients want the help they are entitled to and promised from providers who…

Robinson, Donna E.

2010-01-01

178

Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Agronomic and Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The superior fiber properties of Gossypium barbadense L. serve as a source of novel variation for improving fiber quality in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.), but introgression from G. barbadense has been largely unsuccessful due to hybrid breakdown and a lack of genetic and genomic resources. In an e...

179

Heat stress in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.): Effects on grain growth and quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila (genotype 3), respectively heat sensitive and heat tolerant varieties for warm environments.Plants were grown in pots

J. H. J. Spiertz; R. J. Hamer; H. Xu; C. Primo-Martin; C. Don

2006-01-01

180

How Personality Traits and Job Satisfaction Influence Service Quality in Housing Agencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human service organizations are intended to stabilize low-income families and promote self-sufficiency by providing much needed services and benefits. Recipients, however, often do not get everything they need in terms of either benefits or service quality. Understandably, clients want the help they are entitled to and promised from providers who…

Robinson, Donna E.

2010-01-01

181

Egg Quality Traits of Layers Fed Sugarcane Press Residue with Biotechnological Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of inclusion of Sugarcane Press Residue (SPR) as a feed ingredient in layer diets on the qualities of the egg. Three experimental diets were formulated by incorporating SPR at 0, 5 and 10%. Another set of nine diets were prepared by supplementing each diet with either lipid utilizing agents (lipase and lecithin)

B. N. Suresh; B. S. V. Reddy; Manjunatha Prabhu B. H; N. Suma

2009-01-01

182

Molecular cloning of the HGD gene and association of SNPs with meat quality traits in Chinese red cattle.  

PubMed

Homogentisate 1, 2 dioxygenase (HGD) is one of six enzymes required for the catabolism of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. Here we present the nucleotide sequence of transcripts of the bovine HGD gene. The full length cDNA of bovine HGD has been identified, encoding a deduced protein of 445 amino acids (Accession No. FJ515744). The bovine HGD gene comprises 14 exons and 13 introns. This is the first published cDNA bovine sequences that share high sequence similarity with other species. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the bovine HGD transcript was mainly expressed in liver and kidney tissues. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, five in the coding region and four intronic. Four of the SNPs change an amino acid in the HGD protein sequence. Genotype and allelic frequencies were determined in Chinese red cattle breeds. Ten haplotypes were determined based upon the genotype of 9 SNPs. Moreover, for the first time an association was reported between HGD gene polymorphism and meat quality traits in Chinese red cattle (n = 224). Marker-trait association analyses showed that the HGD/PvuII genotypes showed a significant effect on meat cooking rate, muscle fiber diameter, and shear force (P < 0.05). The HGD DraIII genotypes showed a significant effect on muscle fiber diameter, shear force, and drip loss (P < 0.05). The HGD/AluI genotypes showed a significant effect on meat cooking rate, shear force, and drip loss (P < 0.05). The HGD/DraI genotypes showed a significant effect on meat cooking rate and shear force (P < 0.05). The HGD/EcoRV genotypes showed a significant effect on meat cooking rate, muscle fiber diameter, and shear force (P < 0.05). In all loci, no statistically significant differences were observed for pHu (P > 0.05). This is the first incidence where polymorphisms of a bovine HGD gene have demonstrated a correlation with meat traits in Chinese red cattle. PMID:19816789

Zhou, Guoli; Dudgeon, Crissy; Li, Mei; Cao, Yang; Zhang, Lichun; Jin, Haiguo

2010-01-01

183

Alkaline and Alkaline\\/oxidation pre-treatments of spruce wood ( Picea abies) – Impact on the quality of kraft pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparable series of specimens from spruce wood were pre-treated with sodium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide, or per-acetic acid sequences. The pre-treatments reduced the yield of pulps and their Kappa number noticeably, diminished the degree of polymerization moderately, and increased their brightness. One-step peroxide bleaching of pulps from the pre-treated spruce wood resulted in their higher brightness compared

R. Solár; J. Dibdiaková; M. Mamo?; F. Ka?ík; Z. Rázgová; V. Vacek; J. Sivák; M. Gaff

2011-01-01

184

Genetic variances, heritabilities and maternal effects on body weight, breast meat yield, meat quality traits and the shape of the growth curve in turkey birds  

PubMed Central

Background Turkey is an important agricultural species and is largely used as a meat bird. In 2004, turkey represented 6.5% of the world poultry meat production. The world-wide turkey population has rapidly grown due to increased commercial farming. Due to the high demand for turkey meat from both consumers and industry global turkey stocks increased from 100 million in 1970 to over 276 million in 2004. This rapidly increasing importance of turkeys was a reason to design this study for the estimation of genetic parameters that control body weight, body composition, meat quality traits and parameters that shape the growth curve in turkey birds. Results The average heritability estimate for body weight traits was 0.38, except for early weights that were strongly affected by maternal effects. This study showed that body weight traits, upper asymptote (a growth curve trait), percent breast meat and redness of meat had high heritability whereas heritabilities of breast length, breast width, percent drip loss, ultimate pH, lightness and yellowness of meat were medium to low. We found high positive genetic and phenotypic correlations between body weight, upper asymptote, most breast meat yield traits and percent drip loss but percent drip loss was found strongly negatively correlated with ultimate pH. Percent breast meat, however, showed genetic correlations close to zero with body weight traits and upper asymptote. Conclusion The results of this analysis and the growth curve from the studied population of turkey birds suggest that the turkey birds could be selected for breeding between 60 and 80 days of age in order to improve overall production and the production of desirable cuts of meat. The continuous selection of birds within this age range could promote high growth rates but specific attention to meat quality would be needed to avoid a negative impact on the quality of meat.

2011-01-01

185

Wood flour  

Treesearch

... used in many and varied products including soil amendments, extenders for glues, ... One of its earliest uses in plastics was in a phenol-formaldehyde and wood ... early wood-plastic composites were developed as an outlet for recycled film.

186

Comparison of NIRS approach for prediction of internal quality traits in three fruit species.  

PubMed

NIR Spectroscopy ability was investigated to assess the fruit structure effect (passion fruit, tomato and apricot) on prediction performance of soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA). Relationships between spectral wavelengths and SSC and TA were evaluated through the application of chemometric techniques based on partial least squares (PLS). Good prediction performance was obtained for apricot with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.95 for SSC and TA and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP%) of 3.3% and 14.2%, respectively. For the passion fruit and tomato, the prediction models were not satisfactorily accurate due to the high RMSEP. Results showed that NIR technology can be used to evaluate apricot internal quality, however, it was not appropriate to evaluate internal quality in fruits with thick skin, (passion fruit), and/or heterogeneous internal structure (tomato). PMID:24054234

de Oliveira, Gabrieli Alves; Bureau, Sylvie; Renard, Catherine Marie-Geneviève Claire; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; de Castilhos, Fernanda

2013-08-02

187

Physiological traits and meat quality of pigs as affected by genotype and housing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of pig housing system: alternative (bedding with outdoor area, BO) vs. conventional (slatted floor, SF) on growth performance, reactivity to pre-slaughter handling and meat quality was evaluated in two genotypes differing in the sire line, Duroc (CD) or synthetic (CS) with 40 pigs\\/genotype.Animal response to housing did not differ between genotypes. BO pigs had higher growth rate and

B. Lebret; A. Prunier; N. Bonhomme; A. Foury; P. Mormède; J. Y. Dourmad

2011-01-01

188

Sponge and dough bread making: genetic and phenotypic relationships with wheat quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic and phenotypic relationships among wheat quality predictors and sponge and dough bread making were evaluated in\\u000a a population derived from a cross between an Australian cultivar ‘Chara’ and a Canadian cultivar ‘Glenlea’. The genetic correlation\\u000a across sites for sponge and dough loaf volume was high; however, phenotypic correlations across sites for loaf volume were\\u000a relatively low compared with

Colin R. Cavanagh; Julian Taylor; Oscar Larroque; Neil Coombes; Arunas P. Verbyla; Zena Nath; Ibrahim Kutty; Lynette Rampling; Barbara Butow; Jean-Philippe Ral; Sandor Tomoskozi; Gabor Balazs; Ferenc Békés; Gulay Mann; Ken J. Quail; Michael Southan; Matthew K. Morell; Marcus Newberry

2010-01-01

189

Untargeted Metabolic Quantitative Trait Loci Analyses Reveal a Relationship between Primary Metabolism and Potato Tuber Quality1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in -omics technologies such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics along with genotypic profiling have permitted dissection of the genetics of complex traits represented by molecular phenotypes in nonmodel species. To identify the genetic factors underlying variation in primary metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum), we have profiled primary metabolite content in a diploid potato mapping population, derived from crosses between S. tuberosum and wild relatives, using gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry. In total, 139 polar metabolites were detected, of which we identified metabolite quantitative trait loci for approximately 72% of the detected compounds. In order to obtain an insight into the relationships between metabolic traits and classical phenotypic traits, we also analyzed statistical associations between them. The combined analysis of genetic information through quantitative trait locus coincidence and the application of statistical learning methods provide information on putative indicators associated with the alterations in metabolic networks that affect complex phenotypic traits.

Carreno-Quintero, Natalia; Acharjee, Animesh; Maliepaard, Chris; Bachem, Christian W.B.; Mumm, Roland; Bouwmeester, Harro; Visser, Richard G.F.; Keurentjes, Joost J.B.

2012-01-01

190

Mapping of QTLs for morpho-agronomic and seed quality traits in a RIL population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to determine the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling phenological traits (days to flowering, days to end of flowering, days to harvest as green pod, and days to maturity), seed size traits (seed length, seed height, seed width, and seed weight), and seed quality traits (water absorption, and coat proportion), in common bean. A population of 104 F(7) recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an inter-gene pool cross between Xana, and Cornell 49242, was used to develop a genetic linkage map including 175 AFLPs, 27 microsatellites, 30 SCARs, 33 ISSRs, 12 RAPDs, 13 loci codifying for seed proteins, and the four genes Fin,fin (growth habit); Asp,asp (seed coat shininess); P,p (seed color); and I,i (resistance to bean common mosaic virus). The map has a total length of 1,042 cM distributed across 11 linkage groups aligned to those of the core linkage map of bean using common molecular markers as anchor points. The QTL analyses were carried out over three environments using the mean environment data with composite interval mapping. Thirty-one QTLs for ten traits were found to be significant in at least one environment and in the mean environment data, the number of significant QTLs identified per trait ranging from two to five. Twenty-seven of these QTLs mapped forming clusters in eight different chromosomal regions. The rationale for this clustered mapping and the possible relationship between some QTLs for phenological traits and the genes Fin and I are discussed. PMID:20084493

Pérez-Vega, Elena; Pañeda, Astrid; Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Campa, Ana; Giraldez, Ramón; Ferreira, Juan José

2010-01-19

191

Genome-wide association mapping for wood characteristics in Populus identifies an array of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms.  

PubMed

Establishing links between phenotypes and molecular variants is of central importance to accelerate genetic improvement of economically important plant species. Our work represents the first genome-wide association study to the inherently complex and currently poorly understood genetic architecture of industrially relevant wood traits. Here, we employed an Illumina Infinium 34K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array that generated 29 233 high-quality SNPs in c. 3500 broad-based candidate genes within a population of 334 unrelated Populus trichocarpa individuals to establish genome-wide associations. The analysis revealed 141 significant SNPs (? ? 0.05) associated with 16 wood chemistry/ultrastructure traits, individually explaining 3-7% of the phenotypic variance. A large set of associations (41% of all hits) occurred in candidate genes preselected for their suggested a priori involvement with secondary growth. For example, an allelic variant in the FRA8 ortholog explained 21% of the total genetic variance in fiber length, when the trait's heritability estimate was considered. The remaining associations identified SNPs in genes not previously implicated in wood or secondary wall formation. Our findings provide unique insights into wood trait architecture and support efforts for population improvement based on desirable allelic variants. PMID:23889164

Porth, Ilga; Klapšte, Jaroslav; Skyba, Oleksandr; Hannemann, Jan; McKown, Athena D; Guy, Robert D; Difazio, Stephen P; Muchero, Wellington; Ranjan, Priya; Tuskan, Gerald A; Friedmann, Michael C; Ehlting, Juergen; Cronk, Quentin C B; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Douglas, Carl J; Mansfield, Shawn D

2013-07-26

192

Effects of corn distillers dried grains with solubles on quality traits of pork.  

PubMed

The high cost of feed grains has led swine producers to seek alternative feedstuffs, such as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). However, little is known about the effects of high levels of DDGS in swine diets on pork quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate belly processing and bacon, sausage, and loin quality of pigs fed high levels of DDGS. Sixty pigs averaging 34 kg BW were fed fortifi ed corn-soybean meal diets containing 0%, 15%, 30%, or 45% DDGS. At 120 kg BW, the pigs were humanely harvested and bellies, loins, and shoulders were removed from the left side of each carcass. Flex tests of bellies indicated that they became softer (linear, P < 0.03) as DDGS levels increased. The PUFA in backfat and belly fat increased linearly (P < 0.005), as did iodine values with increasing 0DDGS in the diet. Bellies were pumped to target 12% brine retention, cooked, and sliced at a commercial facility. Slicing yield was not affected by DDGS level fed. Fresh bacon slices were scored 1 to 6 with 1 representing no visible cracks in the fat and 6 representing a spider weblike shattering of the fat. Shatter scores decreased (linear, P < 0.001) with increasing dietary DDGS. Bratwurststyle sausage was produced by combining ground Boston butts and picnics to target 30% fat, blended with commercial seasonings, and stuffed into natural casings. Loose sausage was placed on trays, overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride wrap, and stored under constant, cool white fl orescent lighting (1,300 lx) at 4°C. Objective color values (L*, a*, and b*) were taken on loosepackaged sausage mix at 6 locations at the same time daily for 7 d. Sausage was also sampled for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at the same time daily on d 0, 3, 5, and 7. Color scores of sausage were not consistently affected by DDGS level in the diet and the changes were slight. The TBARS in sausage from pigs fed the 30% and 45% DDGS diets increased to a greater extent from d 0 to 7 than in those fed the control or 15% DDGS diets. An 8-member, trained panel evaluated the sensory attributes of bacon slices, sausage, and loin chops. The DDGS resulted in a softer texture (P < 0.004) and increased juiciness (P < 0.04) in sausages, but no differences in sensory scores were found in bacon slices or loin chops. The results indicate that the softer bellies, greater concentrations of PUFA in carcass fat, and greater iodine values associated with feeding increased DDGS did not negatively affect slicing yield of cured bellies, quality of fresh bacon slices, or eating quality of bacon, sausage, or loin chops. PMID:22952373

McClelland, K M; Rentfrow, G; Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D; Azain, M J

2012-09-05

193

Porcine skeletal muscle differentially expressed gene ATP5B: molecular characterization, expression patterns, and association analysis with meat quality traits.  

PubMed

The 2-DE/MS-based proteomics approach was used to investigate the differences of porcine skeletal muscle, and ATP5B was identified as one differential expression protein. In the present study, ATP5B gene was further cloned by RT-PCR, the sequence was analyzed using the bioinformatics method, and the mRNA expression was detected by qRT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that the porcine ATP5B gene contains an ORF encoding 528-amino-acid residues with 49 and 166 nucleotides in the 5' and 3' UTRs, respectively. The mRNA of ATP5B was widely expressed in all 14 tissues tested, but especially highly expressed in parorchis and fat. The expression pattern of ATP5B was similar in Large White and Meishan breeds, showing that the expression was upregulated by 3 days after birth and downregulated during postnatal development of skeletal muscle. Comparing the two breeds, the mRNA abundance of ATP5B in Large White was more highly expressed than in Meishan at all developmental stages (P < 0.05). Moreover, a synonymous mutation, G75A in exon 8, was identified and association analysis with the traits of meat quality showed that it was significantly associated with the RLF, FMP, IFR, IMF, and IMW (P < 0.05). These results suggested that ATP5B probably plays a key role in porcine skeletal muscle development and may provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible for breed-specific differences in meat quality. PMID:23420545

Xu, Haixia; Xu, Yongjie; Liang, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yanbo; Jin, Fangfang; Liu, Dengying; Ma, Yun; Yuan, Hongyu; Song, Xinqiang; Zeng, Wenxian

2013-02-19

194

Quality of life and personality traits in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma and their first-degree caregivers  

PubMed Central

Asbestos exposure causes significant pleural diseases, including malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Taking into account the impact of MPM on emotional functioning and wellbeing, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of life and personality traits in patients with MPM and their first-degree caregivers through the World Health Organization Quality of Life–BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). The sample was composed of 27 MPM patients, 55 first-degree relatives enrolled in Casale Monferrato and Monfalcone (Italy), and 40 healthy controls (HC). Patients and relatives reported poorer physical health than the HC. Patients had a higher overall sense of physical debilitation and poorer health than relatives and the HC, more numerous complaints of memory problems and difficulties in concentrating, and a greater belief that goals cannot be reached or problems solved, while often claiming that they were more indecisive and inefficacious than the HC. First-degree relatives reported lower opinions of others, a greater belief that goals cannot be reached or problems solved, support for the notion that they are indecisive and inefficacious, and were more likely to suffer from fear that significantly inhibited normal activities than were HC. In multinomial regression analyses, partial models indicated that sex, physical comorbidities, and the True Response Inconsistency (TRIN-r), Malaise (MLS), and Behavior-Restricting Fears (BRF) dimensions of the MMPI-2-RF had significant effects on group differences. In conclusion, health care providers should assess the ongoing adjustment and emotional wellbeing of people with MPM and their relatives, and provide support to reduce emotional distress.

Granieri, Antonella; Tamburello, Stella; Tamburello, Antonino; Casale, Silvia; Cont, Chiara; Guglielmucci, Fanny; Innamorati, Marco

2013-01-01

195

Association study and expression analysis of CD9 as candidate gene for boar sperm quality and fertility traits.  

PubMed

Cluster-of-differentiation antigen 9 (CD9) gene expressed in the male germ line stem cells is crucial for sperm-egg fusion, and was therefore selected as candidate gene for boar semen quality. The association of CD9 with boar sperm quality and fertility trait was analyzed using a total of 340 boars both from purebred Pietrain and Pietrain×Hampshire crosses. A single nucleotide polymorphism (g.358A>T) in intron 6 was significantly associated with sperm motility (MOT) (P<0.001), plasma droplet rate (PDR) (P<0.001) and abnormal spermatozoa rate (ASR) (P<0.01). Boars were divided into two groups with group 1 (G-I) boars having a higher SCON and SMOT, lower SVOL (sperm volume) and group 2 (G-II) having a lower SCON and SMOT, higher SVOL. The mRNA and protein expression levels were evaluated in reproductive, non-reproductive tissues and spermatozoa from G-I and G-II animals by using quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. When both reproductive and non-reproductive tissues were examined, highest mRNA was expressed in prostate gland, then in the body of the epididymis, vas deferens and tail of the epididymis. In case of reproductive tissues, CD9 expression was higher in tissues and spermatozoa collected from G-I boars than those collected from G-II boars. The mRNA expression was significantly different (P<0.05) in body of epididymis from G-I and G-II boars. The CD9 protein expression results from western blot were coincided with the results of qRT-PCR. Moreover, CD9 protein localization in Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, epithelial cells and spermatozoa was remarkable which indicated the important role of CD9 in spermatogenesis process. By using mRNA and protein expression profiles, it could be shown that CD9 plays a crucial role during sperm development, especially within the epididymis where the maturation of the sperm, a key process for the sperm quality and motility takes place. These results will improve the understanding of the functions of the CD9 in spermatogenesis within the reproductive tracts and will shed light on CD9 as a candidate gene in the selection of good sperm quality boars. PMID:21398056

Kaewmala, Kanokwan; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Grosse-Brinkhaus, Christine; Jonas, Elisabeth; Tesfaye, Dawit; Phatsara, Chirawath; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl

2011-02-18

196

Delineation of interspecific epistasis on fiber quality traits in Gossypium hirsutum by ADAA analysis of intermated G. barbadense chromosome substitution lines.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity is the foundation of any crop improvement program, but the most cultivated Upland cotton [Gossypium hirsutum L., 2n = 52, genomic formula 2(AD)(1)] has a very narrow gene pool resulting from its evolutionary origin and domestication history. Cultivars of this cotton species (G. hirsutum L.) are prized for their combination of exceptional yield, other agronomic traits, and good fiber properties, whereas the other cultivated 52-chromosome species, G. barbadense L. [2n = 52, genomic formula 2(AD)(2)], is widely regarded as having the opposite attributes. It has exceptionally good fiber qualities, but generally lower yield and less desirable agronomic traits. Breeders have long aspired to combine the best attributes of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, but have had limited success. F(1) hybrids are readily created and largely fertile, so the limited success may be due to cryptic biological and technical challenges associated with the conventional methods of interspecific introgression. We have developed a complementary alternative approach for introgression based on chromosome substitution line, followed by increasingly sophisticated genetic analyses of chromosome-derived families to describe the inheritance and breeding values of the chromosome substitution lines. Here, we analyze fiber quality traits of progeny families from a partial diallel crossing scheme among selected chromosome substitution lines (CS-B lines). The results provide a more detailed and precise QTL dissection of fiber traits, and an opportunity to examine allelic interaction effects between two substituted chromosomes versus one substituted chromosome. This approach creates new germplasm based on pair wise combinations of quasi-isogenic chromosome substitutions. The relative genetic simplicity of two-chromosome interactions departs significantly from complex or RIL-based populations, in which huge numbers of loci are segregating in all 26 chromosome pairs. Data were analyzed according to the ADAA genetic model, which revealed significant additive, dominance, and additive-by-additive epistasis effects on all of the fiber quality traits associated with the substituted chromosome or chromosome arm of CS-B lines. Fiber of line 3-79, the donor parent for the substituted chromosomes, had the highest Upper Half Mean length (UHM), uniformity ratio, strength, elongation, and lowest micronaire among all parents and hybrids. CS-B16 and CS-B25 had significant additive effects for all fiber traits. Assuming a uniform genetic background of the CS-B lines, the comparative analysis of the double-heterozygous hybrid combinations (CS-B × CS-B) versus their respective single heterozygous combinations (CS-B × TM-1) demonstrated that interspecific epistatic effects between the genes in the chromosomes played a major role in most of the fiber quality traits. Results showed that fiber of several hybrids including CS-B16 × CS-B22Lo, CS-B16 × CS-B25 and CS-B16 × TM-1 had significantly greater dominance effects for elongation and hybrid CS-B16 × CS-B17 had higher fiber strength than their parental lines. Multiple antagonistic genetic effects were also present for fiber quality traits associated with most of the substituted chromosomes and chromosome arms. Results from this study highlight the vital importance of epistasis in fiber quality traits and detected novel effects of some cryptic beneficial alleles affecting fiber quality on the 3-79 chromosomes, whose effects were not detected in the 3-79 parental lines. PMID:21301803

Saha, S; Wu, J; Jenkins, J N; McCarty, J C; Hayes, R; Stelly, D M

2011-02-08

197

Evidence for effects of testis and epididymis expressed genes on sperm quality and boar fertility traits.  

PubMed

Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), androgen receptor (AR), relaxin (RLN), acrosin (ACR) and osteopontin (polymorphism in intron 6 named OPNin6; polymorphism in promoter region named OPNprom) were addressed as functional candidate genes for sperm quality and boar fertility and investigated for their association with sperm concentration, motility, semen volume per ejaculate, plasma droplets rate, abnormal spermatozoa rate as well as non-return rate and number of piglets born alive. Therefore 356 AI boars of the purebred Pietrain (PI) and crossbred Pietrain x Hampshire (PI x HA) were genotyped at these loci. Analysis of variance revealed significant associations of RBP4 (p < 0.05), ACR (p < 0.01), and OPNin6 (p < 0.05) with sperm motility. OPNin6 (p < 0.05) was also associated with number of piglets born alive. Moreover, AR (p < 0.05) and OPNprom (p < 0.05) were significantly associated with abnormal spermatozoa rate. For RLN (p < 0.01) there was evidence for effects on sperm volume and ACR significantly affected sperm concentration (p < 0.05) as well as non-return rate (p < 0.05). No significant effects of any locus on plasma droplets rate were observed. PMID:17107514

Lin, C; Tholen, E; Jennen, D; Ponsuksili, S; Schellander, K; Wimmers, K

2006-12-01

198

Diversity and relationships in key traits for functional and apparent quality in a collection of eggplant: fruit phenolics content, antioxidant activity, polyphenol oxidase activity, and browning.  

PubMed

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) varieties with increased levels of phenolics in the fruit present enhanced functional quality, but may display greater fruit flesh browning. We evaluated 18 eggplant accessions for fruit total phenolics content, chlorogenic acid content, DPPH scavenging activity, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, liquid extract browning, and fruit flesh browning. For all the traits we found a high diversity, with differences among accessions of up to 3.36-fold for fruit flesh browning. Variation in total content in phenolics and in chlorogenic acid content accounted only for 18.9% and 6.0% in the variation in fruit flesh browning, and PPO activity was not significantly correlated with fruit flesh browning. Liquid extract browning was highly correlated with chlorogenic acid content (r = 0.852). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified four groups of accessions with different profiles for the traits studied. Results suggest that it is possible to develop new eggplant varieties with improved functional and apparent quality. PMID:23972229

Plazas, Mariola; López-Gresa, María P; Vilanova, Santiago; Torres, Cristina; Hurtado, Maria; Gramazio, Pietro; Andújar, Isabel; Herráiz, Francisco J; Bellés, José M; Prohens, Jaime

2013-09-06

199

The Impact of Sawmill Wood Wastes on the Water Quality and Fish Communities of Benin River, Niger Delta Area, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of sawmill wood wastes on the distribution of fish at the Sapele section of Benin River, Niger Delta, Nigeria was investigated from March to August 2005. A total of 558 individuals were collected by the fishing gear used, representing 23 taxa and 11 families. Three stations 1, 2 and 3 were selected from upstream of the site receiving

Francis O. Arimoro; Robert B. Ikomi; Efe C. Osalor

200

Association of selected SNP with carcass and taste panel assessed meat quality traits in a commercial population of Aberdeen Angus-sired beef cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), previously associated with meat and milk quality traits in cattle, in a population of 443 commercial Aberdeen Angus-cross beef cattle. The eight SNP, which were located within five genes: ?-calpain (CAPN1), calpastatin (CAST), leptin (LEP), growth hormone receptor (GHR) and acylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1

Jennifer L Gill; Stephen C Bishop; Caroline McCorquodale; John L Williams; Pamela Wiener

2009-01-01

201

Study on association of single nucleotide polymorphism of CAPN1 gene with muscle fibre and carcass traits in quality chicken populations.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at investigating the effect of the calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene on carcass and meat quality traits in eight meat-type chicken populations, including five pure lines (developed from Chinese local breeds) and three cross-breeds. Primer pairs for the Coding Sequence (CDS) region in CAPN1 were designed from the chicken genomic sequence database. Polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) and DNA sequencing. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; C2546T, G3535A and C7198A) were detected among individuals in each population. The associations of their haplotypes (H1 = CGA, H2 = CGC, H3 = CAA, H4 = CAC, H5 = TGA and H7 = TAA) with chicken breast muscle fibre and carcass traits were analysed. Results showed that the haplotypes were associated with live weight (LW), carcass weight (CW), breast muscle weight (BMW) and leg muscle weight (LMW) (p < 0.05), and were also related to eviscerated percentage (%EP) and breast muscle fibre density (p < 0.01). H1H3 haplotype was dominant for LW, CW and BMW; H1H5 haplotype was dominant for EP; H3H4 haplotype was dominant for LMW and H1H1 haplotype was dominant for BFD. It was concluded that the CAPN1 gene may be a major gene affecting meat quality traits of chicken or it is linked with the major gene. H1H3, H1H5 and H3H4 were the most advantageous haplotypes for carcass traits whereas H1H1 was the positive haplotype for breast muscle fibre trait. PMID:18727211

Zhang, Z R; Liu, Y P; Jiang, X; Du, H R; Zhu, Q

2008-08-01

202

A SNP in ASAP1 gene is associated with meat quality and production traits in Nelore breed.  

PubMed

The ASAP1 gene is located in a QTL region for meat production traits and to access the role of the ASAP1 gene, the association between a SNP in this gene and production traits in beef cattle was studied. For this, about 270 steers of reference families of Nelore breed were used. The investigation of marker effects on the traits was performed using a mixed model under the restricted maximum likelihood method. Novel association of a SNP in the ASAP1 gene and shear force measured at 24 h post mortem (P?0.0083) was described in this population of Nelore cattle. This polymorphism accounted for 1.13% of the total additive variance and 17.51% of total phenotypic variance of the trait, suggesting that this marker could be used in marker assisted selection. PMID:22682072

Tizioto, P C; Meirelles, S L; Veneroni, G B; Tullio, R R; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Medeiros, S R; Siqueira, F; Feijó, G L D; Silva, L O C; Torres, R A A; Regitano, L C A

2012-05-24

203

Multiple-Interval Mapping for Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Endosperm Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endosperm traits are trisomic inheritant and are of great economic importance because they are usually directly related to grain quality. Mapping for quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying endosperm traits can provide an efficient way to genetically improve grain quality. As the traditional QTL mapping methods (diploid methods) are usually designed for traits under diploid control, they are not the ideal

Chen-Hung Kao

2004-01-01

204

46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325 Section 148.325...325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp pellets in bulk that may oxidize,...

2011-10-01

205

46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325 Section 148.325...325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp pellets in bulk that may oxidize,...

2012-10-01

206

Altruism as an indicator of good parenting quality in long-term relationships: further investigations using the Mate Preferences Towards Altruistic Traits Scale.  

PubMed

Research has shown that altruism plays a role in mate choice, and recent studies suggest it is most important for long-term relationships. This study examined whether altruism is preferred for long-term relationships for both males and females. This was achieved using two versions of the Mate Preferences Towards Altruistic Traits (MPAT) scale that assessed preferences for short-term and long-term relationships. Both males and females significantly preferred altruistic mates for long-term relationships, and the size of this preference was greater than for other traits in mate choice. This provides support for previous findings that state that altruism conveys information about an individual's partner/parenting qualities or good character. PMID:23951948

Farrelly, Daniel

207

Mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting eggshell quality on chromosome 9 in an F(2) intercross between two chicken lines divergently selected for eggshell strength.  

PubMed

Broken and cracked eggshells are major causes of significant economic losses to the egg production industry. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 9 influencing the quality of eggshells were identified by analysing an intercross between two parent lines developed from the same founder population by a two-way selection for eggshell strength with non-destructive deformation conducted over 14 generations. Chromosome-wide highly significant (P < 0.01) QTL associated with egg weight (EW), short length of egg (SLE), long length of egg (LLE) and eggshell weight were mapped to the distal region of chromosome 9. Among the QTL affecting EW, SLE and LLE, ovocalyxin-32 was identified as a potential candidate gene influencing eggshell traits. Marker-assisted selection based on these QTL could be used to develop strategies for reducing the breakage and cracking of eggs in commercial layer houses. PMID:19780721

Takahashi, H; Yang, D; Sasaki, O; Furukawa, T; Nirasawa, K

2009-10-01

208

Proposed quality measures for palliative care in the critically ill: a consensus from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Critical Care Workgroup.  

PubMed

For critically ill patients and their loved ones, high-quality health care includes the provision of excellent palliative care. To achieve this goal, the healthcare system needs to identify, measure, and report specific targets for quality palliative care for critically ill or injured patients. Our objective was to use a consensus process to develop a preliminary set of quality measures to assess palliative care in the critically ill. We built on earlier and ongoing efforts of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Critical Care End-of-Life Peer Workgroup to propose specific measures of the structure and process of palliative care. We used an informal iterative consensus process to identify and refine a set of candidate quality measures. These candidate measures were developed by reviewing previous literature reviews, supplementing the evidence base with recently published systematic reviews and consensus statements, identifying existing indicators and measures, and adapting indicators from related fields for our objective. Among our primary sources, we identified existing measures from the Voluntary Hospital Association's Transformation of the ICU program and a government-sponsored systematic review performed by RAND Health to identify palliative care quality measures for cancer care. Our consensus group proposes 18 quality measures to assess the quality of palliative care for the critically ill and injured. A total of 14 of the proposed measures assess processes of care at the patient level, and four measures explore structural aspects of critical care delivery. Future research is needed to assess the relationship of these measures to desired health outcomes. Subsequent measure sets should also attempt to include outcome measures, such as patient or surrogate satisfaction, as the field develops the means to rigorously measure such outcomes. The proposed measures are intended to stimulate further discussion, testing, and refinement for quality of care measurement and enhancement. PMID:17057606

Mularski, Richard A; Curtis, J Randall; Billings, J Andrew; Burt, Robert; Byock, Ira; Fuhrman, Cathy; Mosenthal, Anne C; Medina, Justine; Ray, Daniel E; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Schneiderman, Lawrence J; Treece, Patsy D; Truog, Robert D; Levy, Mitchell M

2006-11-01

209

Accuracy of pedigree and genomic predictions of carcass and novel meat quality traits in multi-breed sheep data assessed by cross-validation  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic predictions can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. This is especially useful for meat quality traits in sheep. Carcass and novel meat quality traits were predicted in a multi-breed sheep population that included Merino, Border Leicester, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk sheep and their crosses. Methods Prediction of breeding values by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) based on pedigree information was compared to prediction based on genomic BLUP (GBLUP) and a Bayesian prediction method (BayesR). Cross-validation of predictions across sire families was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictions based on the correlation of predicted and observed values and the regression of observed on predicted values was used to evaluate bias of methods. Accuracies and regression coefficients were calculated using either phenotypes or adjusted phenotypes as observed variables. Results and conclusions Genomic methods increased the accuracy of predicted breeding values to on average 0.2 across traits (range 0.07 to 0.31), compared to an average accuracy of 0.09 for pedigree-based BLUP. However, for some traits with smaller reference population size, there was no increase in accuracy or it was small. No clear differences in accuracy were observed between GBLUP and BayesR. The regression of phenotypes on breeding values was close to 1 for all methods, indicating little bias, except for GBLUP and adjusted phenotypes (regression = 0.78). Accuracies calculated with adjusted (for fixed effects) phenotypes were less variable than accuracies based on unadjusted phenotypes, indicating that fixed effects influence the latter. Increasing the reference population size increased accuracy, indicating that adding more records will be beneficial. For the Merino, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk breeds, accuracies were greater than for the Border Leicester breed due to the smaller sample size and limited across-breed prediction. BayesR detected only a few large marker effects but one region on chromosome 6 was associated with large effects for several traits. Cross-validation produced very similar variability of accuracy and regression coefficients for BLUP, GBLUP and BayesR, showing that this variability is not a property of genomic methods alone. Our results show that genomic selection for novel difficult-to-measure traits is a feasible strategy to achieve increased genetic gain.

2012-01-01

210

Association of selected SNP with carcass and taste panel assessed meat quality traits in a commercial population of Aberdeen Angus-sired beef cattle  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), previously associated with meat and milk quality traits in cattle, in a population of 443 commercial Aberdeen Angus-cross beef cattle. The eight SNP, which were located within five genes: ?-calpain (CAPN1), calpastatin (CAST), leptin (LEP), growth hormone receptor (GHR) and acylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), are included in various commercial tests for tenderness, fatness, carcass composition and milk yield/quality. Methods A total of 27 traits were examined, 19 relating to carcass quality, such as carcass weight and fatness, one mechanical measure of tenderness, and the remaining seven were sensory traits, such as flavour and tenderness, assessed by a taste panel. Results An SNP in the CAPN1 gene, CAPN316, was significantly associated with tenderness measured by both the tenderometer and the taste panel as well as the weight of the hindquarter, where animals inheriting the CC genotype had more tender meat and heavier hindquarters. An SNP in the leptin gene, UASMS2, significantly affected overall liking, where animals with the TT genotype were assigned higher scores by the panellists. The SNP in the GHR gene was significantly associated with odour, where animals inheriting the AA genotype produced steaks with an intense odour when compared with the other genotypes. Finally, the SNP in the DGAT1 gene was associated with sirloin weight after maturation and fat depth surrounding the sirloin, with animals inheriting the AA genotype having heavier sirloins and more fat. Conclusion The results of this study confirm some previously documented associations. Furthermore, novel associations have been identified which, following validation in other populations, could be incorporated into breeding programmes to improve meat quality.

Gill, Jennifer L; Bishop, Stephen C; McCorquodale, Caroline; Williams, John L; Wiener, Pamela

2009-01-01

211

Variation in the ovocalyxin-32 gene in commercial egg-laying chickens and its relationship with egg production and egg quality traits.  

PubMed

Avian eggshell quality is an important trait for commercial egg production, as the eggshell is the primary packaging material and antimicrobial barrier for the internal food resource. Strong eggshells are essential to ensure that eggs can reach their final destination without damage. Ovocalyxin-32 (OCX32) is a matrix protein found within the outer layers of the eggshell and in the cuticle. Numerous reports in the literature have identified association between variants in the gene encoding this protein, OCX32, and various eggshell quality traits. Thus, OCX32 is a candidate gene for selection for eggshell traits in commercial poultry populations. Sequencing of exons 2-6 of the OCX32 gene in eight elite brown and white eggshell commercial egg-laying lines revealed 28 SNPs and one SNP/indel. Eighteen of these SNPs were predicted to alter the amino acid sequence of the protein. Clusters of SNPs in complete linkage disequilibrium were found in both exons 2 and 6. A total of 19 different versions or protein-sequence haplotypes of the OCX32 protein were inferred, revealing considerable variation within commercial lines. Genotypes for 13 of the SNPs were determined for 330-1819 individuals per line. Trait association studies revealed a significant effect of OCX32 on shell color in white egg lines and line-specific significant effects on albumen height, early egg weight, puncture score, and yolk weight. Three of the lines showed a significant change in OCX32 frequency over time, indicating selection pressure for certain variants of this gene during the breeding program. PMID:22742508

Fulton, J E; Soller, M; Lund, A R; Arango, J; Lipkin, E

2012-07-01

212

A functional-structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) focusing on tree architecture and wood quality  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds and Aims Functional–structural models are interesting tools to relate environmental and management conditions with forest growth. Their three-dimensional images can reveal important characteristics of wood used for industrial products. Like virtual laboratories, they can be used to evaluate relationships among species, sites and management, and to support silvicultural design and decision processes. Our aim was to develop a functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) given its economic importance in many countries. Methods The plant model uses the L-system language. The structure of the model is based on operational units, which obey particular rules, and execute photosynthesis, respiration and morphogenesis, according to their particular characteristics. Plant allometry is adhered to so that harmonic growth and plant development are achieved. Environmental signals for morphogenesis are used. Dynamic turnover guides the normal evolution of the tree. Monthly steps allow for detailed information of wood characteristics. The model is independent of traditional forest inventory relationships and is conceived as a mechanistic model. For model parameterization, three databases which generated new information relating to P. radiata were analysed and incorporated. Key Results Simulations under different and contrasting environmental and management conditions were run and statistically tested. The model was validated against forest inventory data for the same sites and times and against true crown architectural data. The performance of the model for 6-year-old trees was encouraging. Total height, diameter and lengths of growth units were adequately estimated. Branch diameters were slightly overestimated. Wood density values were not satisfactory, but the cyclical pattern and increase of growth rings were reasonably well modelled. Conclusions The model was able to reproduce the development and growth of the species based on mechanistic formulations. It may be valuable in assessing stand behaviour under different environmental and management conditions, assisting in decision-making with regard to management, and as a research tool to formulate hypothesis regarding forest tree growth and development.

Fernandez, M. Paulina; Norero, Aldo; Vera, Jorge R.; Perez, Eduardo

2011-01-01

213

Toxic woods.  

PubMed

Eighty-three cases of dermatitis caused by wood or sawdust have been seen at St John's Hospital for Dieases of the Skin, London, in the last 20 years. The clinical details and results of patch tests are reported. The literature on dermatitis, mucosal irritation, asthma and other toxic effects of woods of some 300 botanical species is reviewed at length, with an index of scientific, trade and vernacular names, chemical formulae of the known sensitizing substances, and a table of the 28 toxic woods most often encountered. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and prophylaxis are discussed. PMID:132958

Woods, B; Calnan, C D

1976-06-01

214

Genetic Variation in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) for Seed Quality-Related Traits and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers  

PubMed Central

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) is an oilseed crop that is valued as a source of high quality vegetable oil. The genetic diversity of 16 safflower genotypes originated from different geographical regions of Iran and some with exotic origin were evaluated. Eight different seed quality-related traits including fatty acid composition of seed oil (stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid), the contents of, oil, protein, fiber and ash in its seeds, as well as 20 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) polymorphic primers were used in this study. Analysis of variance showed significant variation in genotypes for the seed quality-related traits. Based on ISSR markers, a total of 204 bands were amplified and 149 bands (about 70%) of these were polymorphic. Cluster analysis based on either biochemical or molecular markers classified the genotypes into four groups, showing some similarities between molecular and biochemical markers for evaluated genotypes. A logical similarity between the genotype clusters based on molecular data with their geographical origins was observed.

Golkar, Pooran; Arzani, Ahmad; Rezaei, Abdolmajid M.

2011-01-01

215

Genome-wide linkage disequilibruim revealed by microsatellite markers and association study of fiber quality traits in cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The application of association mapping based on existing genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) between DNA polymorphisms and genes underlying traits is becoming powerful tool that overcome many limitations (high cost, poor resolution, requirement for bi-parentally crossed lines assessing only two ...

216

Linkage Disequilibrium Based Association Mapping of Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton Using Diverse Cotton Germplasm from Uzbekistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

QTL-mapping, a now-classical approach to identify molecular markers linked to complex traits in specific experimental populations, is extremely time-consuming, high-risk, and expensive work - prohibitively expensive if dozens, let alone hundreds or thousands, of germplasm accessions are to be examin...

217

A Muscle Hypertrophy Condition in Lamb (Callipyge): Characterization of Effects on Muscle Growth and Meat Quality Traits1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiment was con- ducted to determine the effect of the callipyge phenotype on traits affecting muscle growth and meat tenderness. Dorset wethers (n = 40) that were either carriers or non-carriers were fed grain and slaugh- tered at 169 d of age. Callipyge phenotype did not affect ( P > .05) slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, or weights

M. Koohmaraie; S. D. Shackelford; T. L. Wheeler; S. M. Lonergan; M. E. Doumit; Roman L. Hruska

2010-01-01

218

Association between ovocalyxin-32 gene haplotypes and eggshell quality traits in an F2 intercross between two chicken lines divergently selected for eggshell strength.  

PubMed

Broken and cracked eggshells contribute significantly to economic losses in the egg production industry. We previously identified ovocalyxin-32 as a potential gene influencing eggshell traits, by analysing an intercross between two parent lines developed from the same founder population by a two-way selection for eggshell strength with non-destructive deformation (DEF) conducted over 14 generations. We determined the nucleotide sequences of six ovocalyxin-32 exons in the parent individuals and analysed the association between ovocalyxin-32 and eggshell traits in the F2 individuals. We identified three haplotypes (W, M and S) of ovocalyxin-32 in the parent individuals. A mismatch amplification mutation assay was performed to distinguish six diplotype individuals (WW, MM, SS, WM, MS and WS) inthe F2 population. The egg weight (EW) of SS-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that of WW-, WM- and WS-diplotypes. Short length of the egg (SLE) of SS-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that of WW-, WM- and MS-diplotypes. Long length of the egg (LLE) of SS-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that of WM and WS-diplotypes. DEF of WW-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that ofSS-, WM, MS and WM-diplotypes. Haplotypic effect analyses showed significant differences between the W-haplotype and the S-haplotypes in the EW, SLE, LLE and DEF. The DEF of M-haplotype was significantly lower than that of W- and S-haplotypes. These results suggest that S- and M-haplotypes are critical for high quality of eggshells in the F2 population. In conclusion, ovocalyxin-32 is a useful marker of eggshell traits and can be used to develop strategies for improving eggshell traits in commercial layer houses. PMID:20331600

Takahashi, H; Sasaki, O; Nirasawa, K; Furukawa, T

2010-10-01

219

Quality-assurance procedures: Method 28A measurement of air-to-fuel ratio and minimum burn rate for wood-fired appliances  

SciTech Connect

Quality-assurance procedures are contained in the comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood-heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing measurement of air-to-fuel ratio and minimum burn rate determinations according to EPA protocol, Method 28A. These procedures may be used in research and development, and as an aid in auditing and certification applicability testing. A detailed, step-by-step quality-assurance guide is provided to aid in the procurement and assembly of testing apparatus, to clearly describe the procedures, and to facilitate data collection and reporting. Suggested data sheets are supplied that can be used as an aid for both recordkeeping and certification applications. Throughout the document, activity matrices are provided to serve as a summary reference. Checklists are also supplied that can be used by testing personnel. Finally, for the purposes of ensuring data quality, procedures are outlined for apparatus operation, maintenance, and traceability. These procedures combined with the detailed description of the sampling and analysis protocol will help ensure the accuracy and reliability of Method 28A testing results.

Olin, R.C.; Rives, G.D.; Hartman, M.W.; Ward, T.E.

1989-07-01

220

Use of dietary mannanoligosaccharides during rabbit fattening period: effects on growth performance, feed nutrient digestibility, carcass traits, and meat quality.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to compare the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and antibiotics as a dietary supplement on ADG, ADFI, G:F, and feed nutrient digestibility of rabbits during the fattening period, as well as on carcass traits and meat quality. A total of 512, sixty-day-old hybrid Hyla rabbits were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups based on BW and sex. The 4 treatment groups consisted of a control group and 3 MOS groups. The control group was fed a diet that contained apramycin (50 mg/kg), but diets for the 3 MOS groups contained 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 g/kg of MOS instead of apramycin. The rabbits were fed experimental diets for 22 d and all rabbits were slaughtered at the end of the experiment when they were 82 d old. Individual BW and feed intake per cage were recorded weekly for 32 cages randomly chosen per group (64 rabbits) to calculate ADG, ADFI, and G:F. The apparent digestibility values of OM, CP, ether extract, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, cellulose, and hemicellulose were measured using AIA as an inert marker. Carcass data were collected from 16 randomly chosen rabbits (8 males and 8 females) per group. The control group had less G:F (P < 0.001) than the MOS groups and a linear increase (P < 0.001) in G:F was observed as the concentration of MOS increased from 0.5 to 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, cellulose, and hemicellulose increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) as the concentration of MOS in the diets increased. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, cellulose, and hemicellulose was also greater (P < 0.05) in the diets containing MOS than in the control diet and the digestibility of these nutrients was greater (P < 0.05) in the diet containing 1.5 g/kg of MOS compared with the control diet. The concentration of palmitic acid, stearic acid, and SFA was greater (P < 0.05) in the meat from rabbits fed the control diet than rabbits fed the MOS diets. The concentration of stearic acid decreased (quadratic, P < 0.05) in the meat of rabbits as the concentration of MOS in the diet increased. Meat from rabbits fed diets containing MOS also had greater contents of oleic acid (P < 0.05) and MUFA (P < 0.001) than those rabbits fed the diet containing apramycin. The thrombogenic index was greater (P < 0.05) in the meat from the control group rabbits than the MOS group rabbits. In conclusion, the inclusion of MOS in diets fed to rabbits during the fattening period may improve G:F and modify the fatty acid profile of meat. PMID:22696621

Bovera, F; Lestingi, A; Iannaccone, F; Tateo, A; Nizza, A

2012-06-13

221

Heritability and repeatability of milk coagulation properties predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy during routine data recording, and their relationships with milk yield and quality traits.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate (co)variance components for milk coagulation properties (MCP) predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) during routine milk recording, and to assess their relationships with yield and quality traits. A total of 63 470 milk samples from Holstein-Friesian cows were analyzed for MCP, pH and quality characteristics using MIRS. Casein to protein and protein to fat ratios were calculated from information obtained by MIRS. Records were collected across 1 year on 16 089 cows in 345 herds. The model used for genetic analysis included fixed effects of parity and stage of lactation, and random effects of herd-test-day, cow permanent environmental, animal additive genetic and residual. (Co)variance components were assessed in a Bayesian framework using the Gibbs Sampler. Estimates of heritabilities were consistent with those reported in the literature, being moderate for MCP (0.210 and 0.238 for rennet coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (a30), respectively), milk contents (0.213 to 0.333) and pH (0.262), and low for somatic cell score (0.093) and yield traits (0.098 to 0.130). Repeatabilities were 0.391 and 0.434 for RCT and a30, respectively, and genetic correlations were generally low, with estimates greater than 0.30 (in absolute value) only for a30 with fat, protein and casein contents. Overall, results suggest that genetic evaluation for MCP predicted by MIRS is feasible at population level, and several repeated measures per cow during a lactation are required to estimate reliable breeding values for coagulation traits. PMID:23816365

Tiezzi, F; Pretto, D; De Marchi, M; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M

2013-07-02

222

Evaluation of cytoplasmic effects on agronomic and seed quality traits in two doubled haploid populations of Brassica napus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytoplasmic effects have been occasionally implicated in the inheritance of several traits in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), including linolenic acid concentration (18:3) in the oil. It is important that these be considered when choosing the\\u000a direction of cross for producing new breeding populations. To study this phenomenon, a reciprocal cross was made between two\\u000a genotypes of oilseed rape, Reston

I. Rajcan; K. J. Kasha; L. S. Kott; W. D. Beversdorf

2002-01-01

223

PRKAG3 and CAST genetic polymorphisms and quality traits of dry-cured hams--I. Associations in Spanish dry-cured ham Jamón Serrano.  

PubMed

The functional single polymorphisms identified in the calpastatin (CAST) gene have been related to the rate of meat tenderization and the protein turnover after slaughter, and the Ile199Val polymorphism identified in the coding region of the protein kinase AMP-activated (PRKAG3) gene has been proven to affect ultimate pH in muscle. The aim of the present study was to show the effects of these genetic polymorphisms on the quality traits of Spanish dry-cured ham Jamón Serrano. A tissue sample from 665 crossbreed pigs were genotyped for PRKAG3 Ile199Val, CAST Arg249Lys and CAST Ser638Arg polymorphisms, and a subsample of 120 dry cured hams was selected to perform physico-chemical, rheological, instrumental colour and sensory analyses. Associations between the polymorphisms and several quality traits of dry-cured ham, mainly related to flavour and texture, were found. The genotypes PRKAG3 Ile/Ile, CAST249 Arg/Arg and CAST638 Arg/Arg, and the haplotype CAST 249Arg-638Arg were the most favourable for Jamón Serrano production. PMID:22762995

Gou, P; Zhen, Z Y; Hortós, M; Arnau, J; Diestre, A; Robert, N; Claret, A; ?andek-Potokar, M; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

2012-06-18

224

Association of MYF5 and MYOD1 gene polymorphisms and meat quality traits in Large White x Meishan F2 pig populations.  

PubMed

MYF5 and MYOD1 belong to the myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) gene family. They code for the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that play key regulatory roles in the initiation and development of skeletal muscle and the maintenance of its phenotype. In this work three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in porcine MYF5 and one in porcine MYOD1 were detected in three pig breeds (Large White, Landrace, and Meishan) by means of a PCR-RFLP protocol. Analysis of the association of meat quality traits with the four polymorphisms in a series of three Large White x Meishan F2 populations, totaling 399 pigs, found: (1) MYF5 exon 1 Hsp92II polymorphism causing a Met --> Leu substitution was associated with intramuscular fat content (P = 0.04) and water moisture content (P = 0.0001) in the longissimus dorsi; (2) MYF5 exon 2 MspI polymorphism and an intron 1 HaeIII polymorphism, which were completely linked, were significantly associated with longissimus dorsi pH (P < 0.05); (3) MYOD1 intron 1 DdeI polymorphism was not significantly associated with any meat quality traits tested. Among these genetic variants (a novel SNP and three identified SNPs), our data suggested that the novel SNP of the MYF5 gene within exon 1 is valuable for pig breeding. PMID:18777094

Liu, Min; Peng, Jian; Xu, De-Quan; Zheng, Rong; Li, Feng-E; Li, Jia-Lian; Zuo, Bo; Lei, Ming-Gang; Xiong, Yuan-Zhu; Deng, Chang-Yan; Jiang, Si-Wen

2008-09-06

225

SmartStretch™ technology. III. The impact of medium voltage stimulation and SmartStretch™ technology on sheep topside (m. semimembranosus) meat quality traits under commercial processing conditions.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the interaction between medium voltage electrical stimulation, SmartStretch™ stretching and ageing treatments on key meat quality traits of hot boned sheep m. semimembranosus. Medium voltage stimulation reduced initial pH (P<0.001), but did not impact on other meat quality traits. There was a significant interaction between stretch treatment and ageing (P<0.001) for shear force such that samples which were both stretched and aged were the most tender. Sarcomere length was significantly (P<0.001) increased by SmartStretch™ treatment. Control (no stretching) resulted in greater (P<0.05) cooking loss, but there was significantly less purge loss (P<0.05). The ratio 630/580 nm and a* colour values at 0 and 5 days decreased at a significantly (P<0.05) slower rate when SmartStretch™ was applied. Overall medium voltage stimulation did not inhibit the effectiveness of the SmartStretch™ treatment. The SmartStretch™ treatment provided significant improvement in tenderness and the potential to increase meat display time. PMID:22999000

Toohey, E S; van de Ven, R; Thompson, J M; Geesink, G H; Hopkins, D L

2012-08-31

226

Changes in muscle cell cation regulation and meat quality traits are associated with genetic selection for high body weight and meat yield in broiler chickens  

PubMed Central

Between-breed genetic variation for muscle and meat quality traits was determined at eight weeks of age in 34 lines of purebred commercial broiler and layer lines and traditional breeds (categories) of chickens. Between-breed genetic variation for plasma ion concentrations and element concentration in muscle dry matter and ash were determined. Plasma from broilers had higher concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg++, total and free Ca++ and lower free:total Ca++ than plasma from layer and traditional lines. Muscle from broilers contained more Na and higher concentrations of K, Mg and Ca per mg of ash but not of dry matter compared with layer and traditional lines. In comparison with layer and traditional lines, broiler genotypes were over three times heavier, their plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), a marker of muscle tissue damage, was higher, their breast muscle colour was lighter (L*) and less red (a*) and yellow (b*) in appearance, the initial and final pH of their muscles were lower, the pH change was higher and their breast muscle was more tender. Thus, genetic selection for broiler traits has markedly altered cation regulation in muscle cells and may be associated with changes in muscle cell function and the development of pathology and meat quality problems.

Sandercock, Dale A; Barker, Zoe E; Mitchell, Malcolm A; Hocking, Paul M

2009-01-01

227

Identification and association of polymorphisms in CAPN1 and CAPN3 candidate genes related to performance and meat quality traits in chickens.  

PubMed

Meat quality is an important feature for the poultry industry and is associated with consumer satisfaction. The calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene is related to the tenderness process of meat post- mortem, and the calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene plays an important role in myofibrillar organization and growth. The objective of the present study was to identify polymorphisms in these genes and to determine the association between these polymorphisms and traits of economic interest in poultry. Eleven animals (F?) from an experimental poultry population at Embrapa Swine and Poultry were used to identify the polymorphisms. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the CAPN1 gene, and one SNP was found in the CAPN3 gene. A polymorphism from each gene was selected for genotyping in 152 chickens from the Embrapa F? experimental population and 311 chickens from a commercial population. Polymorphism g.2554T>C (CAPN1) was associated with body weight at 35 to 42 days, thigh weight, breast weight, carcass weight, and meat lightness content. SNP g.15486C>T (CAPN3) was associated with thigh yield, thawing-cooking loss, and shear force. Results suggest the possibility of using molecular markers in CAPN1 and CAPN3 genes as a tool for performance and meat quality traits in poultry breeding programs. PMID:23420372

Felício, A M; Boschiero, C; Balieiro, J C C; Ledur, M C; Ferraz, J B S; Michelan Filho, T; Moura, A S A M T; Coutinho, L L

2013-02-08

228

Industrial uses of wood char  

SciTech Connect

The quality and feasibility of wood char utilization in various industries are reported. Wood char provides fuel not only for cooking and domestic heating but also for many industrial purposes, such as manufacture of iron and some ferro-alloys, recovery of gold and other nonferrous metals from their leached solutions, manufacture of chemicals and medicines, burning of bricks and glass, and removal of toxic substances from their solutions. The selection of wood char for these purposes is made on the basis of its properties, such as chemical composition, reactivity, heating value, electrical resistivity, adsorption capacity, and strength.

Kumar, M.; Gupta, R.C. [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India)

1998-08-01

229

Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material  

Treesearch

USA.gov Government Made Easy ... Description: Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. ... decay, preservation, wood-based products, heat sterilization, sustainable use, sustainability, wood handbooks, handbooks.

230

Chemical modification of wood  

Treesearch

Source: Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites. ... deterioration, wood chemistry, chemical reactions, dimensional stability, modified wood ... this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information .

231

Modification of Wood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Theory of chemical plasticization; Properties of plasticized non-ground and ground wood; Technological problems of plasticized non-ground, laminated and ground wood; Some data on the process of pressing of wood-particle boards; Wood modification...

T. A. Darzinsh

1976-01-01

232

Effects of surface inactivation, high temperature drying and preservative treatment on surface roughness and colour of alder and beech wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although extensive research has been conducted in wood surface quality analysis, a unified approach to surface quality characterisation does not exist. Measurements of the variation in surface roughness and surface colour are used widely for the evaluation of wood surface quality. Colour is a basic visual feature for wood and wood-based products. Colour measurement is one of the quality control

Ismail Aydin; Gursel Colakoglu

2005-01-01

233

Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and potential for water-supply contamination near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrogeologic and ground-water-quality data were collected near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee to determine the extent and magnitude of ground-water contamination in offsite areas and to assess the potential for contamination of nearby water-supply wells. New methods were used to collect ground-water samples from the alluvial aquifer at six offsite stations at depths of less than about 40 feet below land surface. In addition, 36 offsite wells were installed at these stations to collect samples from the alluvial aquifer and to depths of about 150 feet in the deeper Fort Pillow aquifer. Ground-water samples collected by the new methods and from the 36 offsite wells were analyzed for selected volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The samples collected from the 36 wells also were analyzed for major and trace inorganic constituents. Naphthalene and some volatile organic compounds were detected at low concentrations in samples from both the alluvial aquifer and the Fort Pillow aquifer. To assess the potential for water-supply contamination from the site, four water-supply wells to the east (upgradient) and three wells to the west (down- gradient) of the abandoned plant site were sampled. These samples were analyzed for the same analytes as the samples from the 36 wells. Although volatile organic compounds and elevated concentrations of trace and major inorganic constituents were measured in samples from some wells east of the site, no organic compounds associated with the wood- preserving process were detected. No contaminants from the site were detected in samples from wells west of the site.

Parks, W. S.; Mirecki, J. E.; Kingsbury, J. A.

1993-01-01

234

Effect of concentrate level and slaughter body weight on growth performances, carcass traits and meat quality of Barbarine lambs fed oat hay based diet.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate concentrate level (CL) and slaughter body weight (SW) effects on growth performances, carcass traits and meat quality of Barbarine lambs. Twenty-four weaned male lambs (23.1 kg), receiving an oat-hay based diet, were allotted into two groups. The LCL group received low concentrate level (300 g) and the HCL group received high concentrate level (600 g). Lambs were slaughtered at two prefixed weights (35 and 42 kg). For each group and each weight, six lambs were slaughtered. Lambs from HCL group had higher ADG, carcass yields, carcass compactness and subcutaneous fat thickness, and lower carcass meat proportion. CL increase did not affect meat pH, meat and fat color, chemical and fatty acid composition. Late slaughtering improved carcass yields and increased carcass adiposity. However, it did not affect carcass meat proportion and shoulder tissue composition. SW had effect on meat color and fatty acid composition. PMID:23273464

Majdoub-Mathlouthi, L; Saïd, B; Say, A; Kraiem, K

2012-11-08

235

Meat quality and carcass traits in relation to HGD-BstXI and HGD-HaeIII PCR-RFLP polymorphism in Chinese red cattle.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of homogentisate 1, 2 dioxygenase (HGD) gene on meat quality and carcass traits in 287 Chinese red cattle. The PCR-SSCP method was used to identify polymorphism of the HGD gene in the exon 1 and intron 1. Two polymorphisms were detected in intron 1 and two restriction sites for endonuclease HGD-BstXI and HGD-HaeIII have also been found. The HGD-BstXI genotypes showed significant effects on cooking loss, drip loss, net meat weight, carcass weight, and eye muscle area (P<0.05). The HGD-HaeIII genotypes significant affected cooking loss, muscle fibre diameter, shear force, drip loss, and carcass yield ratio (P<0.05). Moreover, we found significant effects of diplotypes on cooking loss, muscle fibre diameter, shear force, drip loss, net meat weight, carcass weight, and eye muscle area (P<0.05). PMID:20374897

Zhou, G L; Cao, Y; Li, M; Zhang, L C; Yu, Y S; Jin, H G

2010-01-14

236

Polymorphisms in luteinizing hormone receptor and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes and their effects on sperm quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.  

PubMed

Genes of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis play a key role in male reproductive performance. This study evaluated the polymorphisms of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) genes and their effects on sperm quality traits including semen volume per ejaculate (VOL), sperm density (SD), fresh sperm motility (FSM), thawed sperm motility (TSM), acrosome integrity rate (AIR), and abnormal sperm rate (ASR) collected from 205 Chinese Hostein bulls. The study bulls consisted of 205 mature Chinese Holstein, 27 Simmental, 28 Charolais, and 14 German yellow cattle. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A883G) in exon 2 of GnRH and two SNPs (A51703G and G51656T) in intron 9 of LHR were identified in 274 bulls. Analysis of variance in 205 Chinese Holstein bulls showed that age had significant effect on both SD and FSM (P < 0.01), and ASR (P < 0.05). With regards to genotype and its interaction with age, only the SNP of G51656T in LHR gene had significant effect on SD (P < 0.05, P < 0.01; respectively). The association result showed that bulls with AG genotype had higher FSM than bulls with AA and GG genotype in LHR at 51,703 locus (P < 0.10), and bulls with GG genotype had higher SD than bulls with TT genotype in LHR at G51656T locus (P < 0.10). Phenotypic correlation among the traits revealed that significant negative correlations were observed between ASR and AIR (r = -0.736, P < 0.01), ASR and AIR (r = -0.500, P < 0.01). There were moderate positive correlations between VOL and SD (r = 0.422, P < 0.01), as well as FSM (r = 0.411, P < 0.01). In conclusion, LHR may be a potential marker for sperm quality of SD and FSM. PMID:22327646

Sun, Li-Ping; Du, Qing-Zhi; Song, Ya-Pan; Yu, Jun-Na; Wang, Shu-Juan; Sang, Lei; Song, Luo-Wen; Yue, Yao-Min; Lian, Yu-Ze; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Hua, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Yang, Li-Guo

2012-02-11

237

An evaluation of eco-friendly naturally coloured cottons regarding seed cotton yield, yield components and major lint quality traits under conditions of East Mediterranean region of Turkey.  

PubMed

In the study carried out in 2002-2003 in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey (in Kahramanmaras Province), four different naturally coloured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (dark brown, light brown, cream and green) lines from Azerbaijan and two white linted cotton varieties (Maras-92 and Sayar-314 (G. hirsutum L.)) of the region were used as material. The aim of this study was to determine seed cotton yield and yield components and major lint quality traits of investigated coloured cotton lines comprising white linted local standard cotton varieties. Field trials were established in randomized block design with four blocks. According to two year's results, it was determined that naturally coloured cottons were found similar to both white linted standard cotton varieties for sympodia number and seed cotton yield. For boll number per plant, except green cotton line all coloured cotton lines were similar to standard varieties or even some of them were better than standards. For ginning outturn, dark brown, cream and green cotton lines were found statistically similar to standard Maras-92. But all naturally coloured cotton lines had lower seed cotton weight per boll and generally lower fiber quality than white linted standard varieties. For fiber length and fiber strength cream cotton line was the best coloured cotton. And for fiber fineness only green cotton line was better than both standards. It can be said that naturally coloured cotton lines need to be improved especially for fiber quality characters in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey. PMID:20128501

Efe, Lale; Killi, Fatih; Mustafayev, Sefer A

2009-10-15

238

Effects of genotype and dietary oil supplementation on performance, carcass traits, pork quality and fatty acid composition of backfat and intramuscular fat.  

PubMed

A 42-day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of genotype: terminal sire line Duroc×F1 (DC×F1); terminal sire line Embrapa MS-115×F1 (MS-115×F1); and MS-115×Moura (MS-115×MO) and three dietary oil sources: soybean; canola; and canola+flax, on performance, carcass traits, pork quality, and fatty acid composition. Genotype affected the technological quality of pork and fatty acid profile. MS-115-sired pigs had better meat color and Duroc-sired pigs had higher intramuscular fat content, more saturated fat and better omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Moura breed influenced positively meat tenderness and intramuscular fat. Diet did not affect the technological quality of the meat. Canola or canola+flax oil diet supplementations increased monounsaturated and C18:3 and decreased C18:2 fatty acids, reducing the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The best omega-6/omega-3 ratio was obtained through supplementation with canola+flax. PMID:23273458

Bertol, T M; de Campos, R M L; Ludke, J V; Terra, N N; de Figueiredo, E A P; Coldebella, A; dos Santos Filho, J I; Kawski, V L; Lehr, N M

2012-11-17

239

Evaluation of subsurface exploration, sampling, and water-quality-analysis methods at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Direct Push Technology (DPT) and a modified-auger method of sampling were used at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, to collect lithologic data and ground-water samples in an area known to be affected by a subsurface creosote plume. The groundwater samples were analyzed using (1) gas chromatography with photo-ionization detection (GS/PID), (2) high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (3) colonmetric phenol analysis, and (4) toxicity bioassay. DPT piezocone and cone-penetrometer-type tools provided lithologic data and ground-water samples at two onsite stations to a depth of refusal of about 35 feet below land surface. With the assistance of an auger rig, this depth was extended to about 65 feet by pushing the tools in advance of the augers. Following the DPT work, a modified-auger method was tested by the USGS. This method left doubt as to the integrity of the samples collected once zones of contamination were penetrated. GC/PID and HPLC methods of water-quality analysis provided the most data concerning contaminants in the ground-water and proved to be the most effective in creosote plume detection. Analyses from these methods showed that the highest concentrations of contaminants were detected at depths less than about 35 feet below land surface. Phenol analyses provided data supplemental to the HPLC analyses. Bioassay data indicated that toxicity associated with the plume extended to depths of about 55 feet below land surface.

Parks, W. S.; Carmichael, J. K.; Mirecki, J. E.

1993-01-01

240

Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated 43 to 420 micrograms per liter. Sediment elutriate samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubta, Pimephales promelas, Photobacterium phosphoreum, and Salenastrum capricornulum.

Bradfield, A. D.; Flexner, N. M.; Webster, D. A.

1993-01-01

241

Effect of dietary formates on growth performance, carcass traits, sensory quality, intestinal microflora, and stomach alterations in growing-finishing pigs.  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of adding salts of formic acid to diets for growing-finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, 72 pigs (23.1 kg and 104.5 kg initial and final BW) were used to evaluate the effect of Ca/Na-formate and K-diformate on performance and carcass traits. Treatments were organized in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement with two feeding regimens (limit and semi-ad libitum feeding) and three diets (control, .85% Ca/Na-formate, and .8% K-diformate). No significant feeding regime x diet interaction was found. The K-diformate diet increased overall ADG of pigs compared with the control and Ca/Na-formate diets, but had no effect on ADFI or gain/feed (G/F) ratio. Neither K-diformate nor Ca/Na-formate had any effect on carcass lean or fat content. In Exp. 2, 10 limit-fed pigs (24.3 kg and 85.1 kg initial and final BW) were used to study the effect of K-diformate on performance and sensory quality of pork. Adding .8% K-diformate to diets increased ADG (P < .13) and G/F (P < .04), but had no effect on sensory quality of the pork or content of formate in liver, kidney, or muscle tissue of pigs. In Exp. 3, 96 limit-fed pigs (27.1 kg and 105 kg initial and final BW) were used to determine the effect of adding K-diformate to diets on performance, carcass traits, and stomach keratinization and(or) lesions. Adding K-diformate (0, .6, or 1.2%) to diets increased ADG and ADFI (linear P < .01). The K-diformate reduced the percentage of carcass fat (linear P < .03) and fat area in the cutlet (linear P < .09) and increased percentage lean in the ham (linear P < .01), flank (linear P < .02), loin (linear P < .09), and neck and shoulder (linear P < .09). The K-diformate had no negative effect on stomach alterations. In Exp. 3, the concentration of coliform bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated in eight control and eight 1.2% K-diformate-fed pigs. The K-diformate reduced the number of coliforms in the duodenum (P < .03), jejunum (P < .02), and rectum (P < .10) of pigs. In conclusion, K-diformate improved growth performance and carcass quality of growing-finishing pigs, whereas Ca/Na-formate had no effect. K-diformate had no adverse effect on sensory quality of pork or on stomach alteration scores. PMID:10907830

Overland, M; Granli, T; Kjos, N P; Fjetland, O; Steien, S H; Stokstad, M

2000-07-01

242

Genetics of hyperpigmentation associated with the Fibromelanosis gene (Fm) and analysis of growth and meat quality traits in crosses of native Indian Kadaknath chickens and non-indigenous breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The study investigated the extent of hyperpigmentation (a trait fixed in native Indian Kadaknath chickens), bodyweight, carcase quality and leanness at 12 weeks of age in F1 and back-crosses of Kadaknath with White Leghorn, White Plymouth Rock and Aseel Peela chickens.2. The objective of the study was to determine if hyperpigmentation was affected by the major gene Fibromelanosis (Fm)

G. Arora; S. K. Mishra; B. Nautiyal; S. O. Pratap; A. Gupta; C. K. Beura; D. P. Singh

2011-01-01

243

Molecular characterization of the porcine MTPAP gene associated with meat quality traits: chromosome localization, expression distribution, and transcriptional regulation.  

PubMed

MTPAP (mitochondrial poly(A) polymerase) gene plays a role in stabilizing the level of mitochondrial mRNAs and controlling the poly(A) length of human mitochondrial mRNAs. In this study, 2,296 bp partial cDNA sequences of the porcine MTPAP gene were obtained, which contained 1,746 bp full-length coding regions flanked by a 500 bp partial 3?-UTR. The porcine MTPAP gene was assigned to SSC10q14-q16 using the radiation hybrid (IMpRH) panel and chromosome electric location methods. Q-PCR analysis showed that MTPAP was expressed in all analyzed tissues, and has higher expression in heart, liver, skeletal muscles, and fat. One single nucleotide polymorphism g.2421T>A in intron5 of MTPAP gene was identified and detected by DdeI PCR–RFLP. Association of the genotypes with economic traits showed that different genotypes were significantly associated with juiciness, individuals with genotype AT displayed a significantly higher juiciness compared to genotype TT. The C/EBP? transcription factors was up-regulation the expression of MTPAP by analyzing a series of MTPAP promoter reporter constructs using the dual-luciferase assay system, it indicated that MTPAP gene maybe play a critical role in fat deposition regulation which is regulated by C/EBP? transcription factor. These findings provide an important basis for further understanding of porcine MTPAP regulation and function in swine. PMID:22297614

Han, Xuelei; Jiang, Tengfei; Yu, Lei; Zeng, Cuiping; Fan, Bin; Liu, Bang

2012-05-01

244

Imprinting analysis of porcine DIO3 gene in two fetal stages and association analysis with carcass and meat quality traits.  

PubMed

Imprinted genes play important roles in mammalian growth, development and behavior. In this study, we obtained 1568 bp mRNA sequence of porcine DIO3 (deiodinase, iodothyronine, type III), and also identified its imprinting status during porcine fetal development. The complete open reading frame (ORF) encoding 278 amino acids. The porcine DIO3 mRNA was expressed predominantly in backfat, mildly in liver, uterus, kidney, heart, small intestine, muscle and stomach, and almost absent in spleen and lung. A single nucleotide polymorphism in exon (A/C (687)) was used to investigate the allele frequencies in different pig breeds and the imprinting status in porcine embryonic tissues. The results indicate that DIO3 was imprinted in all the tested tissues. Statistical analysis showed the DIO3 gene polymorphism was significantly associated with almost all the fat deposition and carcass traits, including lean meat percentage (LMP), fat meat percentage (FMP), ratio of lean to fat (RLF), shoulder fat thickness (SFT), sixth-seventh rib fat thickness (RFT), buttock fat thickness (BFT), loin eye area (LEA), and intramuscular fat (IMF). PMID:21660470

Qiao, Mu; Wu, Hua-Yu; Guo, Ling; Mei, Shu-Qi; Zhang, Peng-Peng; Li, Feng-E; Zheng, Rong; Deng, Chang-Yan

2011-06-10

245

Mechanical properties of wood  

Treesearch

Source: Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material: chapter 5. ... in this chapter were derived from extensive sampling and analysis procedures. ... tensile strength, shear strength, physical properties, knots, reaction wood, failure.

246

Gender- and Age-Related Differences in the Association between Social Relationship Quality and Trait Levels of Salivary Cortisol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The majority of studies linking individual differences in the quality of social relationships and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have focused on the early development of attachment between infants and their caregivers. Later in development, during middle childhood and adolescence, the parallel HPA links to…

Booth, Alan; Granger, Douglas A.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

2008-01-01

247

Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. RESULTS: The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of

Laurent G Deluc; David R Quilici; Alain Decendit; Jérôme Grimplet; Matthew D Wheatley; Karen A Schlauch; Jean-Michel Mérillon; John C Cushman; Grant R Cramer

2009-01-01

248

Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves.  

PubMed

There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits in Angus beef cattle. Final antibody level and response to vaccination were based on neutralizing serum antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2). Calves were followed through development and the feedlot phase, with collection of yearling ultrasound (n = 957), preharvest (n = 762), and carcass (n = 673) data. In this study, 48% of the animals were observed to have positively responded to the vaccine, as evidenced by higher final antibody levels compared to prevaccination antibody levels. Increased final antibody levels were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with increased yearling weight and increased subcutaneous fat over the rump. An interaction between final antibody level and weaning time also was associated (P < 0.05) with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and meat pH, with a favorable, negative relationship between final antibody and WBSF in calves weaned at initial vaccination. Overall antibody response by wean time interaction had a significant (P < 0.05) association with ADG and meat pH, with calves weaned at initial vaccination having a favorable, positive relationship between overall antibody response and ADG. Under both the final antibody and overall antibody response models, animals weaned at initial vaccination had significantly (P < 0.05) lower intramuscular fat at yearling time and conversely higher harvest weight than animals weaned at the booster vaccination. When antibody response was grouped (none, low, high), a significant interaction (P < 0.05) between antibody response group and weaning time was identified for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW. Animals weaned at the initial vaccination in the high antibody response group had the advantage for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW compared to animals in the high-response group that were weaned at booster vaccination. Linear increases in antibody response generally did not have negative effects on performance or carcass quality traits in finished cattle (P > 0.05). Therefore, producers should not be concerned about decreased production or quality attributes as a result of developing a robust antibody response to vaccination for BVDV2 in beef cattle. PMID:24045477

Tait, R G; Downey, E D; Mayes, M S; Park, C A; Ridpath, J F; Garrick, D J; Reecy, J M

2013-09-17

249

Effect of crude protein and fat content of diet on productive performance and egg quality traits of brown egg-laying hens with different initial body weight.  

PubMed

A trial was conducted to study the influence of CP and fat content of the diet on performance and egg quality traits of brown egg-laying hens from 22 to 50 wk of age. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with 8 treatments arranged factorially with 4 diets and 2 initial BW of the hens (1,592 vs. 1,860 g). Three of these diets differed in the CP content (16.5, 17.5, and 18.5%) and included 1.8% added fat. The fourth diet also had 18.5% CP but was supplemented with 3.6% fat instead of 1.8% fat. Each treatment was replicated 4 times, and the experimental unit consisted of 21 hens allocated into groups of 7 in 3 adjacent cages. All diets were isocaloric (2,750 kcal of AME/kg) and met the recommendations of brown egg-laying hens for digestible Arg, Ile, Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, TSAA, and Val. Productive performance and egg quality were recorded by replicate every 28 d. For the entire experimental period, diet did not affect any of the productive performance traits studied, but the heavier hens had higher ADFI (120.6 vs. 113.9 g; P < 0.001), egg production (92.5 vs. 89.8%; P < 0.01), and egg weight (64.9 vs. 62.4 g; P < 0.001) than the lighter hens. Initial BW did not affect feed conversion per kilogram of eggs or hen mortality, but BW gain was higher (289 vs. 233 g; P < 0.01) and feed conversion ratio per dozen of eggs was better (1.52 vs. 1.57; P < 0.01) for the lighter than for the heavier hens. None of the egg quality variables studied was affected by dietary treatment or initial BW of the hens. It is concluded that brown egg-laying hens, irrespective of their initial BW, do not need more than 16.5% CP to maximize egg production, provided that the diet meets the requirements for key indispensable amino acids. Heavier hens produce more eggs that are larger than lighter hens but feed efficiency per kilogram of eggs is not affected. PMID:22582299

Pérez-Bonilla, A; Jabbour, C; Frikha, M; Mirzaie, S; Garcia, J; Mateos, G G

2012-06-01

250

Is there an association between immunosuppressant therapy medication adherence and depression, quality of life, and personality traits in the kidney and liver transplant population?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To measure the association of transplant patients’ personality, depression, and quality of life with medication adherence in kidney and liver transplant recipients. Methods A cross-sectional study of liver and kidney transplant recipients greater than 1 year post-transplant was conducted. Patients’ adherence with medications was assessed using the Immunosuppressive Therapy Adherence Scale. Personality and depression were assessed using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire 9, respectively. Quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36, and functional status was determined using the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale. Results A total of 86 kidney and 50 liver transplant patients completed the surveys. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated an association between depression and adherence with immunosuppressive medications in kidney transplant recipients. Kidney transplant patients who exhibited “low openness” scores were 91% more likely to be nonadherent. Kidney transplant patients’ physical functional status was strongly associated with nonadherence, and for each point increase in functionality the patients’ adherence increased by 4%. In the liver sample, age was associated with adherence. For every year increase in age, adherence increased by 7%. Conclusion The presence of low openness as a personality trait, poor physical functional status, and depression were associated with adherence in the kidney transplant population. In the liver transplant population, younger age was associated with nonadherence.

Gorevski, Elizabeth; Succop, Paul; Sachdeva, Jyoti; Cavanaugh, Teresa M; Volek, Paul; Heaton, Pamela; Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Martin-Boone, Jill E

2013-01-01

251

Genetic markers on BTA14 predictive for residual feed intake in beef steers and their effects on carcass and meat quality traits.  

PubMed

With the high cost of feed for animal production, genetic selection for animals that metabolize feed more efficiently could result in substantial cost savings for cattle producers. The purpose of this study was to identify DNA markers predictive for differences among cattle for traits associated with feed efficiency. Crossbred steers were fed a high-corn diet for 140 days and average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and residual feed intake (RFI) phenotypes were obtained. A region on chromosome 14 was previously associated with RFI in this population of animals. To develop markers with the highest utility for predicting an animal's genetic potential for RFI, we genotyped additional markers within this chromosomal region. These polymorphisms were genotyped on the same animals (n = 1066) and tested for association with ADFI, ADG and RFI. Six markers within this region were associated with RFI (P ? 0.05). After conservative correction for multiple testing, one marker at 25.09 Mb remained significant (P = 0.02) and is responsible for 3.6% of the RFI phenotypic variation in this population of animals. Several of these markers were also significant for ADG, although none were significant after correction. Marker alleles with positive effects on ADG corresponded to lower RFI, suggesting an effect increasing growth without increasing feed intake. All markers were also assessed for their effects on meat quality and carcass traits. All of the markers associated with RFI were associated with adjusted fat thickness (AFT, P ? 0.009) and three were also associated with hot carcass weight (HCW, P ? 0.003). Marker alleles associated with lower RFI were also associated with reduced AFT, and if they were associated for HCW, the effect was an increase in weight. These markers may be useful as prediction tools for animals that utilize feed more efficiently; however, validation with additional populations of cattle is required. PMID:22497335

Lindholm-Perry, A K; Kuehn, L A; Snelling, W M; Smith, T P L; Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G; King, D Andy; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Freetly, H C

2012-02-09

252

Microbial community structure and pH response in relation to soil organic matter quality in wood-ash fertilized, clear-cut or burned coniferous forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humus phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used in clear-cut, wood-ash fertilized (amounts applied: 1000, 2500, and 5000 kg ha?1), or prescribed burned (both in standing and clear-cut) coniferous forests to study the effects of treatments on microbial biomass and community structure. The microbial biomass (total PLFAs) decreased significantly due to the highest rate of wood-ash fertilization, clear-cutting, and the

Erland Bååth; Åsa Frostegård; Taina Pennanen; Hannu Fritze

1995-01-01

253

Effect of dietary protein regime on meat quality traits and carcase nutrient content of broilers from two commercial genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The present study aimed to evaluate breast muscle quality and muscle myofibre density in two broiler genotypes given three dietary protein feeding regimes.2.?A total of 1440 Ross 308 and 708 broilers (720\\/genotype) were given one of three dietary protein regimes (Low: 192, 166 and 155?g\\/kg, Control: 229, 199 and 182?g\\/kg and High: 266, 235 and 207?g\\/kg for starter, grower and

S. Yalçin; H. Özkul; S. Özkan; R. Gous; ?. Ya?a; E. Babacano?lu

2010-01-01

254

Effects of feeding strategies including different proportion of pasture and concentrate, on carcass and meat quality traits in Uruguayan steers.  

PubMed

Eighty four steers were randomly assigned to three pasture treatments with increasing levels of grain (T1: 0%; T2: 0.6%; T3: 1.2% of live weight) and to an ad libitum concentrate treatment, T4, to study the effects on carcass and meat quality. Animals were slaughtered with 500 kg of average live weight per treatment. Average daily gain increased with increasing levels of energy, determining different slaughter dates. Intermediate treatments showed higher carcass weight than T1. T4 and T3 had a higher weight of valuable cuts than T1 and T4. Pistolas from T4 had a higher fat proportion and lower bone percentage. Increasing levels of energy in diet decreased fat yellowness. After 20 days of aging, T4 had the lowest muscle a(?) values and shear force was higher for T4 than for T1. With pastures finishing strategy, no adverse effects on meat quality were detected and tenderness was enhanced. PMID:22063593

Del Campo, M; Brito, G; de Lima, J M Soares; Martins, D Vaz; Sañudo, C; Julián, R San; Hernández, P; Montossi, F

2008-03-30

255

Biomonitoring through biological traits of benthic macroinvertebrates: how to use species trait databases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to investigate the potential use of biological and ecological traits of macroinvertebrates as indicator systems of quality conditions in freshwater ecosystems. To provide a framework for the trait analysis, a data base was developed; it stored biological information about 472 benthic macroinvertebrate taxa. Twenty-two variables describing biological and ecological traits were resolved into a

Philippe Usseglio-Polatera; Michel Bournaud; Philippe Richoux; Henri Tachet

2000-01-01

256

A six-month prospective evaluation of personality traits, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in ayahuasca-naïve subjects.  

PubMed

The authors assessed 23 subjects immediately before and six months (27.5 weeks) after their first ayahuasca experience in an urban Brazilian religious setting, either Santo Daime (N = 15) or União do Vegetal (N = 8). Measures included scores on instruments assessing psychiatric symptoms, personality variables and quality of life. Independent variables were the frequency of ayahuasca use throughout the period and the length of ayahuasca wash-out after six months. Santo Daime subjects had a significant reduction of minor psychiatric symptoms, improvement of mental health, and a change in attitude towards more confidence and optimism. The União do Vegetal group had a significant decrease in physical pain, and attitude change towards more independence. Independence was positively correlated with the frequency of ayahuasca use and negatively correlated with the wash-out period. We discuss possible mechanisms by which these changes may occur and suggest areas for future research. PMID:19999673

Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Cazorla, Irene Maurício; Giglio, Joel Sales; Strassman, Rick

2009-09-01

257

SmartStretch™ technology: V. the impact of SmartStretch™ technology on beef topsides (m. semimembranosus) meat quality traits under commercial processing conditions.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of SmartStretch™ technology and ageing on meat quality traits of hot-boned beef m. semimembranosus from cull cows. The technology uses a flexible rubber sleeve surrounded by inflatable bladders that are housed within an airtight chamber. The sleeve is expanded allowing the meat to be inserted. Air is then pumped into the inflatable bladders causing the meat to be compressed by force and ejected into packaging. No significant treatment effect (P>0.05) on shear force was found although ageing did significantly reduce shear force (P<0.001). There was a significantly greater (P<0.05) cook loss at 14 days, but less (P<0.05) thaw loss and purge with 0 day cook loss unaffected (P>0.05). Sarcomere length examined by both laser diffraction and a filar micrometre method was significantly increased (P<0.05) following the treatment although a proportion of individual myofibrils appeared to have short and long sarcomeres. PMID:22537469

Toohey, E S; van de Ven, R; Thompson, J M; Geesink, G H; Hopkins, D L

2012-04-05

258

Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay  

PubMed Central

Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits.

Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jerome; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Merillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

2009-01-01

259

Influence of monochromatic light on quality traits, nutritional, fatty acid, and amino acid profiles of broiler chicken meat.  

PubMed

The role of monochromatic lights was investigated on meat quality in 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 360), divided into 6 light sources with 6 replicates having 10 chicks in each replicate. Six light sources were described as incandescent bulbs (IBL, as a control) and light-emitting diode (LED) light colors as white light (WL), blue light, red light (RL), green light, and yellow light. Among LED groups, the RL increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), saturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), and the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio (P < 0.001), but reduced the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-3 fatty acid, and n-6 fatty acid. The IBL increased the n-3 and sulfur-containing amino acids but reduced the n-6:n-3 nonessential amino acids. The WL improved the concentration of most of the essential amino acids (P < 0.01) and nonessential amino acids (P < 0.01) of breast meat. It can be extracted that the light produced by LED responded similar to the IBL light in influencing nutrient contents of meat. Moreover, LED is not decisive in improving fatty acid composition of meat. However, the role of IBL in reducing n-6:n-3 ratio and enhancing n-3 cannot be neglected. Among LED, WL is helpful in improving essential and nonessential amino acid contents of broiler meat. PMID:24135586

Kim, M J; Parvin, R; Mushtaq, M M H; Hwangbo, J; Kim, J H; Na, J C; Kim, D W; Kang, H K; Kim, C D; Cho, K O; Yang, C B; Choi, H C

2013-11-01

260

Freshwater Biological Traits Database.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Freshwater Biological Traits Database currently contains traits data for 3,857 North American macroinvertebrate taxa and includes habitat, life history, mobility, morphology, and ecological trait data. Species traits are the characteristics that expla...

2012-01-01

261

Alkaline and alkaline/oxidation pre-treatments of spruce wood (Picea abies)--impact on the quality of kraft pulp.  

PubMed

A comparable series of specimens from spruce wood were pre-treated with sodium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide, or per-acetic acid sequences. The pre-treatments reduced the yield of pulps and their Kappa number noticeably, diminished the degree of polymerization moderately, and increased their brightness. One-step peroxide bleaching of pulps from the pre-treated spruce wood resulted in their higher brightness compared to bleached pulp from sound wood. From the viewpoint of improved properties of pulp, the most efficient were the sodium hydroxide/per-acetic acid and per-acetic acid/sodium hydroxide sequences. The pre-treatments did not influence mechanical strength of the obtained pulps significantly. PMID:20817441

Solár, R; Dibdiaková, J; Mamo?, M; Ka?ík, F; Rázgová, Z; Vacek, V; Sivák, J; Gaff, M

2010-08-11

262

Fitness consequences of delayed maturity in female wood ducks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age at maturity has been suggested to be an important life-history trait with substantial poten- tial for influencing the evolution of life histories. Using known reproductive histories of 90 female wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from a long-term study (1982-96), we investigated the fitness consequences of changes in age at maturity. Female wood ducks that attained sexual maturity as yearlings had

Madan K. Oli; Gary R. Hepp; Robert A. Kennamer

2002-01-01

263

Stored Human Urine Supplemented with Wood Ash as Fertilizer in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Cultivation and Its Impacts on Fruit Yield and Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the use of human urine and wood ash as fertilizers for tomato cultivation in a greenhouse. Tomatoes were cultivated in pots and treated with 135 kg of N\\/ha applied as mineral fertilizer, urine + ash, urine only, and control (no fertilization). The urine fertilized plants produced equal amounts of tomato fruits as mineral fertilized plants and 4.2

Surendra K. Pradhan; Jarmo K. Holopainen; Helvi Heinonen-Tanski

2009-01-01

264

Genetic Variation in the Chemical Components of Eucalyptus globulus Wood.  

PubMed

Despite the ecological and economic importance of lignin and other wood chemical components, there are few studies of the natural genetic variation that exists within plant species and its adaptive significance. We used models developed from near infra-red spectroscopy to study natural genetic variation in lignin content and monomer composition (syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio [S/G]) as well as cellulose and extractives content, using a 16-year-old field trial of an Australian tree species, Eucalyptus globulus. We sampled 2163 progenies of 467 native trees from throughout the native geographic range of the species. The narrow-sense heritability of wood chemical traits (0.25-0.44) was higher than that of growth (0.15), but less than wood density (0.51). All wood chemical traits exhibited significant broad-scale genetic differentiation (Q(ST) = 0.34-0.43) across the species range. This differentiation exceeded that detected with putatively neutral microsatellite markers (F(ST) = 0.09), arguing that diversifying selection has shaped population differentiation in wood chemistry. There were significant genetic correlations among these wood chemical traits at the population and additive genetic levels. However, population differentiation in the S/G ratio of lignin in particular was positively correlated with latitude (R(2) = 76%), which may be driven by either adaptation to climate or associated biotic factors. PMID:22384327

Stackpole, Desmond J; Vaillancourt, René E; Alves, Ana; Rodrigues, José; Potts, Brad M

2011-07-01

265

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and quality traits of fossil cereal grains provide clues on sustainability at the beginnings of Mediterranean agriculture.  

PubMed

We present a novel approach to study the sustainability of ancient Mediterranean agriculture that combines the measurement of carbon isotope discrimination (Delta(13)C) and nitrogen isotope composition (delta(15)N) along with the assessment of quality traits in fossil cereal grains. Charred grains of naked wheat and barley were recovered in Los Castillejos, an archaeological site in SE Spain, with a continuous occupation of ca. 1500 years starting soon after the origin of agriculture (ca. 4000 BCE) in the region. Crop water status and yield were estimated from Delta(13)C and soil fertility and management practices were assessed from the delta(15)N and N content of grains. The original grain weight was inferred from grain dimensions and grain N content was assessed after correcting N concentration for the effect of carbonisation. Estimated water conditions (i.e. rainfall) during crop growth remained constant for the entire period. However, the grain size and grain yield decreased progressively during the first millennium after the onset of agriculture, regardless of the species, with only a slight recovery afterwards. Minimum delta(15)N values and grain N content were also recorded in the later periods of site occupation. Our results indicate a progressive loss of soil fertility, even when the amount of precipitation remained steady, thereby indicating the unsustainable nature of early agriculture at this site in the Western Mediterranean Basin. In addition, several findings suggest that barley and wheat were cultivated separately, the former being restricted to marginal areas, coinciding with an increased focus on wheat cultivation. PMID:18438779

Aguilera, Mònica; Araus, José Luis; Voltas, Jordi; Rodríguez-Ariza, Maria Oliva; Molina, Fernando; Rovira, Núria; Buxó, Ramon; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

2008-06-01

266

Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling fibre length and lignin content in Arabidopsis thaliana stems  

PubMed Central

Fibre properties and the biochemical composition of cell walls are important traits in many applications. For example, the lengths of fibres define the strength and quality of paper, and lignin content is a critical parameter for the use of biomass in biofuel production. Identifying genes controlling these traits is comparatively difficult in woody species, because of long generation times and limited amenability to high-resolution genetic mapping. To address this problem, this study mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) defining fibre length and lignin content in the Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line population Col-4×Ler-0. Adapting high-throughput phenotyping techniques for both traits for measurements in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems identified significant QTLs for fibre length on chromosomes 2 and 5, as well as one significant QTL affecting lignin content on chromosome 2. For fibre length, total variation within the population was 208% higher than between parental lines and the identified QTLs explained 50.58% of the observed variation. For lignin content, the values were 261 and 26.51%, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis of the associated intervals identified a number of candidate genes for fibre length and lignin content. This study demonstrates that molecular mapping of QTLs pertaining to wood and fibre properties is possible in Arabidopsis, which substantially broadens the use of Arabidopsis as a model species for the functional characterization of plant genes.

Berleth, Thomas

2013-01-01

267

Genetic analyses of agronomic and seed quality traits of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heritability, the number of segregating genes and the type of gene interaction of nine agronomic traits were analysed\\u000a based on F2 populations of synthetic oilseedBrassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization ofB. campestris andB. oleracea through ovary culture. The nine traits—plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of pods\\u000a per plant, number of seeds per

Guoqing Zhang; Weijun Zhou

2006-01-01

268

Estimation of genetic parameters and prediction of breeding values for apple fruit-quality traits using pedigreed plant material in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic parameters for apple (Malus x domestica) fruit external traits (fruit size, ground colour, proportion of over colour and attractiveness) and sensory traits (firmness,\\u000a crispness, texture, juiciness, flavour, sugar, acidity and global taste) were estimated using 2,207 pedigreed genotypes from\\u000a breeding programmes in six European countries. Data were scored for 3 years and four periods during storage. Analyses were\\u000a performed with

Abou Bakari Kouassi; Charles-Eric Durel; Fabrizio Costa; Stefano Tartarini; Eric van de Weg; Kate Evans; Felicidad Fernandez-Fernandez; Ceri Govan; Anastasia Boudichevskaja; Frank Dunemann; Adriana Antofie; Marc Lateur; Marta Stankiewicz-Kosyl; Andrzej Soska; Kazimierz Tomala; Markus Lewandowski; Krzysztof Rutkovski; Edwards Zurawicz; Walter Guerra; François Laurens

2009-01-01

269

Weathering of wood  

Treesearch

Source: Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites. ... The degradation mechanism depends on the type of material, but the cause is a ... has been degraded and it is not possible to form a good paint bond with the degraded surface.

270

[Needles stable carbon isotope composition and traits of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in sparse wood grassland in south edge of Keerqin Sandy Land under the conditions of different precipitation].  

PubMed

A comparative study was conducted on the needles stable carbon isotope composition (delta13 C), specific leaf area (SLA), and dry matter content (DMC) of 19-year-old Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica trees in a sparse wood grassland in the south edge of Keerqin Sandy Land under the conditions of extreme drought and extreme wetness, aimed to understand the water use of Pinus sylvestris under the conditions of extreme precipitation. The soil water content and groundwater level were also measured. In the dry year (2009), the soil water content in the grassland was significantly lower than that in the wet year (2010), but the delta13C values of the current year-old needles had no significant difference between the two years and between the same months of the two years. The SLA of the current year-old needles was significantly lower in the dry year than in the wet year, but the DMC had no significant difference between the two years. Under the conditions of the two extreme precipitations, the water use efficiency of the trees did not vary remarkably, and the trees could change their needles SLA to adapt the variations of precipitation. For the test ecosystem with a groundwater level more than 3.0 m, extreme drought could have no serious impact on the growth and survival of the trees. PMID:22937627

Song, Li-Ning; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Li, Ming-Cai; Yan, Tao; Zhang, Jin-Xin

2012-06-01

271

Chipper Woods Bird Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chipper Woods Bird Observatory (CWBO) is a non-profit organization committed to bringing "good science to the conservation of birds and their habitats through scientific research, scientific training and educational programs designed for all age groups." The CWBO website contains a nice variety of bird information and images for budding birders. The siteÂs Bird Photos section provides good quality images and information for an extensive selection of birds including the Peregrine Falcon, Barn Swallow, Tufted Titmouse, Scarlet Tanager, and many more. Various bird-related topics -Â such as migrating geese, owl pellets, West Nile Virus, and Bald Eagle Restoration -Â are covered as well. The CWBO website contains checklists for Indiana birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. The site also offers a banding summary, newsletter, list of publications, and short quiz for kids. The CWBO site is available in Spanish and English.

272

Wood Bond Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

1989-01-01

273

Stored human urine supplemented with wood ash as fertilizer in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivation and its impacts on fruit yield and quality.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the use of human urine and wood ash as fertilizers for tomato cultivation in a greenhouse. Tomatoes were cultivated in pots and treated with 135 kg of N/ha applied as mineral fertilizer, urine + ash, urine only, and control (no fertilization). The urine fertilized plants produced equal amounts of tomato fruits as mineral fertilized plants and 4.2 times more fruits than nonfertilized plants. The levels of lycopene were similar in tomato fruits from all fertilization treatments, but the amount of soluble sugars was lower and Cl(-) was higher in urine + ash fertilized tomato fruits. The beta-carotene content was greater and the NO(3)(-) content was lower in urine fertilized tomato fruits. No enteric indicator microorganisms were detected in any tomato fruits. The results suggest that urine with/without wood ash can be used as a substitute for mineral fertilizer to increase the yields of tomato without posing any microbial or chemical risks. PMID:19645508

Pradhan, Surendra K; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

2009-08-26

274

Recovery Heat Exchange to Conserve Energy in Wood Drying. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The North Central Forest Experiment Station of the Forest Service has had an ongoing program since 1974 to conserve energy in wood drying without reducing wood quality. We have suggested ways to conserve energy, developed new drying techniques which were ...

H. N. Rosen

1985-01-01

275

An Assessment of Epiphytic Lichens, Lichen Diversity and Environmental Quality in the Seminatural Woodlands of Knocksink Wood Nature Reserve, Enniskerry, County Wicklow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research work adapted and applied a recently developed method for assessing epiphytic lichen species diversity to the Irish semi-natural woodlands of Knocksink Wood Nature Reserve, Enniskerry, County Wicklow. The study focused on the differences that arise in relation to acidophilous oak woodland (Blechno-Quercetum petraeae) versus ash-hazel woodland (Corylo-Fraxinetum). The research also addressed differences in relation to the mixed oak-ash-hazel

Lenka Mulligan

2009-01-01

276

Functional traits explain light and size response of growth rates in tropical tree species.  

PubMed

Relationships between functional traits and average or potential demographic rates have provided insight into the functional constraints and trade-offs underlying life-history strategies of tropical tree species. We have extended this framework by decomposing growth rates of -130 000 trees of 171 Neotropical tree species into intrinsic growth and the response of growth to light and size. We related these growth characteristics to multiple functional traits (wood density, adult stature, seed mass, leaf traits) in a hierarchical Bayesian model that accounted for measurement error and intraspecific variability of functional traits. Wood density was the most important trait determining all three growth characteristics. Intrinsic growth rates were additionally strongly related to adult stature, while all traits contributed to light response. Our analysis yielded a predictive model that allows estimation of growth characteristics for rare species on the basis of a few easily measurable morphological traits. PMID:23431593

Rüger, Nadja; Wirth, Christian; Wright, S Joseph; Condit, Richard

2012-12-01

277

The Elasticity of Wood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A simple experiment concerning the elasticity of wood is described that can easily be performed at home. The forces needed to produce a stress in wood are measured and compared. Provides a mathematical discussion of the elasticity and stress of wood. (MVL)|

Casey, James

1993-01-01

278

Energy from wood wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of salvageable raw materials and energy from large volumes of wood wastes produced in the lumber and paper\\/pulp industries, cost problems and disposal of wood wastes, and waste processing problems in producing useful combustible fuel are discussed, and wood waste-derived fuel is compared with industrial fuels used in steam generation. The Pacific Northwest Coast area (Oregon, Washington, British Columbia)

Paul N. Cheremisinoff; Angelo C. Morresi

1977-01-01

279

The Elasticity of Wood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple experiment concerning the elasticity of wood is described that can easily be performed at home. The forces needed to produce a stress in wood are measured and compared. Provides a mathematical discussion of the elasticity and stress of wood. (MVL)

Casey, James

1993-01-01

280

Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in sheep. II. Meta-assembly and identification of novel QTL for milk production traits in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

An (Awassi × Merino) × Merino backcross family of 172 ewes was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for different milk production traits on a framework map of 200 loci across all autosomes. From five previously proposed mathematical models describing lactation curves, the Wood model was considered the most appropriate due to its simplicity and its ability to determine

Herman W Raadsma; Elisabeth Jonas; David McGill; Matthew Hobbs; Mary K Lam; Peter C Thomson

2009-01-01

281

Identification of transgenes from wood of genetically transformed poplar trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have extracted total DNA from different fractions of fresh wood as well as from cold-stored and air-dried wood harvested from transgenic aspen grown in the field. The highest amounts of DNA were obtained from bark\\/cambium tissue; the DNA quality, however, was poor. Best results in PCR and Southern blot analyses were obtained from DNA extracted from early wood. Using

Matthias Fladung; Olaf Nowitzki; Birgit Ziegenhagen; Torsten Markussen

2004-01-01

282

Allelic Variation in Cell Wall Candidate Genes Affecting Solid Wood Properties in Natural Populations and Land Races of Pinus radiata  

PubMed Central

Forest trees are ideally suited to association mapping due to their high levels of diversity and low genomic linkage disequilibrium. Using an association mapping approach, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers influencing quantitative variation in wood quality were identified in a natural population of Pinus radiata. Of 149 sites examined, 10 demonstrated significant associations (P < 0.05, q < 0.1) with one or more traits after accounting for population structure and experimentwise error. Without accounting for marker interactions, phenotypic variation attributed to individual SNPs ranged from 2 to 6.5%. Undesirable negative correlations between wood quality and growth were not observed, indicating potential to break negative correlations by selecting for individual SNPs in breeding programs. Markers that yielded significant associations were reexamined in an Australian land race. SNPs from three genes (PAL1, PCBER, and SUSY) yielded significant associations. Importantly, associations with two of these genes validated associations with density previously observed in the discovery population. In both cases, decreased wood density was associated with the minor allele, suggesting that these SNPs may be under weak negative purifying selection for density in the natural populations. These results demonstrate the utility of LD mapping to detect associations, even when the power to detect SNPs with small effect is anticipated to be low.

Dillon, S. K.; Nolan, M.; Li, W.; Bell, C.; Wu, H. X.; Southerton, S. G.

2010-01-01

283

The Trait in Latent Trait Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant to a latent trait or item response theory analysis of a mental test is the determination of exactly what is being quantified. The following are practical problems to be considered in the formulation of a good theory: (1) deciding whether two tests measure the same trait or traits; (2) analyzing the relative contributions of a pair of…

Levine, Michael V.

284

Proposed quality measures for palliative care in the critically ill: A consensus from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Critical Care Workgroup  

Microsoft Academic Search

For critically ill patients and their loved ones, high-quality health care includes the provision of excellent palliative care. To achieve this goal, the healthcare system needs to identify, mea- sure, and report specific targets for quality palliative care for critically ill or injured patients. Our objective was to use a con- sensus process to develop a preliminary set of quality

Richard A. Mularski; J. Randall Curtis; J. Andrew Billings; Robert Burt; Ira Byock; Cathy Fuhrman; Anne C. Mosenthal; Justine Medina; Daniel E. Ray; Gordon D. Rubenfeld; Lawrence J. Schneiderman; Patsy D. Treece; Robert D. Truog; Mitchell M. Levy

2006-01-01

285

Evaluating Five Factor Theory and social investment perspectives on personality trait development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we evaluate the Five Factor Theory (FFT; McCrae & Costa, 1999) and Social Investment (Helson, Kwan, John, & Jones, 2002; Roberts & Wood, in press) explanations of normative personality trait development in adulthood. FFT theory proposes that personality trait development is largely a genetic phenomenon, whereas the Social Investment theory proposes that it is largely the result

Brent W. Roberts; Dustin Wood; Jennifer L. Smith

2005-01-01

286

Evaluating Five Factor Theory and social investment perspectives on personality trait development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we evaluate the Five Factor Theory (FFT; McCrae & Costa, 1999) and Social Investment (Helson, Kwan, John, & Jones, 2002; Roberts & Wood, in press) explanations of normative personality trait development in adulthood. FFT theory proposes that personality trait development is largely a genetic phenomenon, whereas the Social Investment theory pro- poses that it is largely the

Brent W. Roberts; Dustin Wood; Jennifer L. Smith

2004-01-01

287

Efficiency of Using Solid Wood Fuels in Maple Syrup Evaporators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of commercial, wood-fired evaporators revealed that normal expected thermal efficiencies are between 35 to 50 percent. The moisture content and quality of wood fuels used and the design and method of firing the evaporator are critical in determini...

L. D. Garrett

1981-01-01

288

MODELING OF ALKANE EMISSIONS FROM A WOOD STAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

The article discusses full-scale residential house tests to evaluate the effects of organic emissions from a wood finishing product--wood stain--on indoor air quality (IAQ). he test house concentrations of three alkane species, nonane, decane, and undecane, were measured as a fun...

289

MODELING OF ALKANE EMISSIONS FROM A WOOD STAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

The article discusses full-scale residential house tests to evaluate the effects of organic emissions from a wood finishing product--wood stain--on indoor air quality (IAQ). The test house concentrations of three alkane species, nonane, decane, and undecane, were measured as a fu...

290

Core Delamination and Shear Tests for Laminated Wood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A delamination and a shear test method using small cores drilled from wood laminates provide for non-destructive and potentially low cost testing of glueline quality throughout the length and depth of laminated wood members. Cores 3/8 in. diameter obtaine...

R. F. England W. H. Miles

1964-01-01

291

RESEARCH AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-VOC WOOD COATINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses a project, cofunded by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and the U.S. EPA, to develop a new, low volatile organic compound (VOC) wood coating. Traditional wood furniture coating technologies contain organic solvents which become air pol...

292

A simulation tool for the wood drying process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new software tool for the simulation of drying of wood in drying kilns can be used to support the kiln operators in running the drying process efficiently. The simulation tool predicts the moisture in the wood boards during the drying batch. Furthermore, internal tensions in the boards are predicted indicating the risk of board cracking, a severe quality reduction

Helge Didriksen; Jan Sandvig Nielsen

2002-01-01

293

OPTIMIZATION OF COMPOSITE WOOD STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS: PROCESSING AND DESIGN CHOICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreasing size and quality of the world's forest resources are responsible for interest in producing composite wood structural components. Process and design optimization methods are offered in this paper. Processing concepts for wood composite structural products are reviewed to illustrate manufacturing boundaries and areas of high potential. Structural optimization principles are introduced to provide an overview of design requirements for

THEODORE L. LAUFENBERG

294

Wood Chip- and Wood-Fired Central Heating Installations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data from small wood fired central heating plants is presented in order to evaluate wood and wood chip as biomass fuel. Woodfired installations seem to have their greatest potential where there is access to cheap material. Plant operation and maintenance ...

K. O. Furuseth E. Nilssen O. Gislerud

1981-01-01

295

Chemical changes in hydrothermal treated wood: FTIR analysis of combined hydrothermal and dry heat-treated wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood specimens of Beech (Fagus silvatica L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) modified by a hydrothermal treatment process were analysed by means of Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). The chemical transformation of the cell-wall material was studied and associated with improved wood qualities. For this purpose, FTIR spectroscopy was used as since this technique has been found appropriate

B. F. Tjeerdsma; H. Militz

2005-01-01

296

The Nutritive Value of Wood Molasses as Compared with Cane Molasses1  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the many objectives of the Forest Products Laboratory of the U. S. Forest Service at Madison, Wis., is to find and develop new uses for low quality wood and wood wastes. One such development of this laboratory is the produc- tion of wood molasses. Using a dilute acid process for hydrolysis similar to one used in Germany with

N. F. Colovos; H. A. Keener; J. R. Prescott; A. E. Teeri

1949-01-01

297

Efficiency of using solid wood fuels in maple syrup evaporators. Forest service research paper (final)  

SciTech Connect

A study of commercial, wood-fired evaporators revealed that normal expected thermal efficiencies are between 35 to 50 percent. The moisture content and quality of wood fuels used and the design and method of firing the evaporator are critical in determining evaporator efficiency and the economic implications of using wood.

Garrett, L.D.

1981-01-01

298

Neural network based robust variable structure control of wood drying kiln  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper control of the wood-drying kiln is crucial to ensure the satisfactory quality of dried wood and in minimizing drying time and energy. This paper investigates the development and evaluation of a robust control system for a wood drying kiln process incorporating variable structure control (VSC) such that the moisture content of lumber will reach and be stabilized at the

Qinglei Hu; Jun Cao; Liping Sun; Yaqiu Liu

2009-01-01

299

Genetic variation of growth and tree quality traits among 42 diverse genetic origins of Tectona grandis planted under humid tropical conditions in Sabah, East Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-two different genetic origins of teak (Tectona grandis) comprising 26 open-pollinated families from a clonal seed orchard (CSO) were planted in a replicated trial under 2,500 mm\\u000a of annual rainfall and no distinct dry season, in 1997, in Sabah, East Malaysia. The trees were measured or scored for various\\u000a traits at 13, 35, 49, 61, 72, 85, 96, and 106 months after

Olivier Monteuuis; Doreen K. S. Goh; Charles Garcia; David Alloysius; Jikos Gidiman; Roberto Bacilieri; Gilles Chaix

300

Extent and consistency of linkage disequilibrium and identification of DNA markers for production and egg quality traits in commercial layer chicken populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The genome sequence and a high-density SNP map are now available for the chicken and can be used to identify genetic markers for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS). Effective MAS requires high linkage disequilibrium (LD) between markers and quantitative trait loci (QTL), and sustained marker-QTL LD over generations. This study used data from a 3,000 SNP panel to assess

Behnam Abasht; Erin Sandford; Jesus Arango; Petek Settar; Janet E Fulton; Neil P O'Sullivan; Abebe Hassen; David Habier; Rohan L Fernando; Jack CM Dekkers; Susan J Lamont

2009-01-01

301

Structure and function of wood  

Treesearch

Although humans have striven to understand wood in the context of wood technology, ... the mechanical support of the plant body, and the storage of biochemicals. ... In the third case, an understanding of particle size distribution and wood cell ...

302

Vacuum drying of oak wood  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum drying, i.e., drying under absolute gas pressure of about 10{sup 4} Pa, is an efficient means of reducing the process period and of producing good quality wood. The authors will examine here continuous vacuum drying where the plank surfaces are kept at a constant temperature, which remains above the boiling point, and moisture flowing to the surface is extracted from the kiln. They have carried out an experimental study of oak drying under such conditions. The drying rate and moisture content profile of the sample (40 mm thick) are recorded during the whole drying period. A model of continuous drying is established from general conservation equations with the main approximation that the air is rapidly extracted. The two constitutive equations of the model which describe temperature and water content fields are of a diffusive type and coupled through coefficients. The adequate boundary equation is not a convective one, but expresses a hygroscopic equilibrium between the vapor in the chamber and the wood surface. The mass diffusive coefficient can be adjusted to the drying rates through capillary pressure and bound water diffusion functions. The wood heterogeneity (seasonal growth) is the main factor of discrepancy in these functions. The simulated drying rates correspond with the experimental ones.

Fohr, J.P.; Chakir, A.; Arnaud, G.; Peuty, M.A. du [L.E.T.-UA CNRS, Poitiers (France)

1995-12-31

303

How James Wood Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

2008-01-01

304

Superior wood for violins--wood decay fungi as a substitute for cold climate.  

PubMed

Violins produced by Antonio Stradivari during the late 17th and early 18th centuries are reputed to have superior tonal qualities. Dendrochronological studies show that Stradivari used Norway spruce that had grown mostly during the Maunder Minimum, a period of reduced solar activity when relatively low temperatures caused trees to lay down wood with narrow annual rings, resulting in a high modulus of elasticity and low density. The main objective was to determine whether wood can be processed using selected decay fungi so that it becomes acoustically similar to the wood of trees that have grown in a cold climate (i.e. reduced density and unchanged modulus of elasticity). This was investigated by incubating resonance wood specimens of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) with fungal species that can reduce wood density, but lack the ability to degrade the compound middle lamellae, at least in the earlier stages of decay. Microscopic assessment of the incubated specimens and measurement of five physical properties (density, modulus of elasticity, speed of sound, radiation ratio, and the damping factor) using resonance frequency revealed that in the wood of both species there was a reduction in density, accompanied by relatively little change in the speed of sound. Thus, radiation ratio was increased from 'poor' to 'good', on a par with 'superior' resonance wood grown in a cold climate. PMID:18554266

Schwarze, Francis W M R; Spycher, Melanie; Fink, Siegfried

2008-07-09

305

Quantitative trait loci in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic variation for quantitative traits results from the simultaneous segregation of alleles at multiple quantitative trait loci. Understanding the genetic architecture of quantitative traits begins with mapping quantitative trait loci to broad genomic regions and ends with the molecular definition of quantitative trait loci alleles. This has been accomplished for some quantitative trait loci in Drosophila. Drosophila quantitative trait loci

Trudy F. C. Mackay

2001-01-01

306

Quantitative trait loci affecting eggshell traits in an F(2) population.  

PubMed

Good eggshell quality is important for both table egg quality and chicken reproductive performance. Weak eggshells cause economic losses in all production steps. Poor eggshell quality also poses increased risk for Salmonella infections. Eggshell quality has been a difficult trait to improve by traditional breeding, as it can be measured only for females and it is difficult and expensive to measure. Breeding for improved shell quality may therefore benefit from the use of marker-assisted selection. In an effort to find markers linked to eggshell quality, we have used an F(2) population of 668 females to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting eggshell traits (eggshell deformation, breaking force, weight). By using 160 microsatellite markers on 27 chromosomes, we found 11 genome-wide and 15 suggestive QTL for shell traits measured at different times during production. Loci affecting the deformation were found on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 14 and Z. Loci affecting the breaking force were detected on chromosomes 2, 3, 10, 12 and Z. Loci affecting the shell weight were detected on chromosomes 6, 12, 24 and Z. Each QTL explains between 1.5% and 4.6% of the phenotypic variance, adding up to 10-15% of total phenotypic variance explained for the different traits. No epistatic effects were observed between loci affecting eggshell traits. Because the effects for quality are mainly additive, these results provide a basis for further characterization of the loci to identify closely linked markers to be used in marker-assisted selection. PMID:21054450

Tuiskula-Haavisto, M; Honkatukia, M; Preisinger, R; Schmutz, M; de Koning, D J; Wei, W H; Vilkki, J

2010-11-04

307

Laser applications in wood processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lasers have been used for special woodprocessing purposes for more than twenty years. Besides dieboard manufacturing, which was one of the earliest applications, CO2 lasers are also used for different cutting, marking and engraving operations. High quality slots in varying depths are produced in wood and different plywood materials at high cutting speeds and with excellent accuracy. Decorative marking operations are performed by means of masking techniques, or by moving a defocused beam over the workpiece. Formerly collected and stored data is directly used for laser cutting of card-board and 3D map modeling. Examples of products are shown, processing data given and limitations discussed.

Broenstad, B. M.; Auman, N.; Toennessen, K.

1993-08-01

308

Age-dependent genetic effects on a secondary sexual trait in male Alpine ibex, Capra ibex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary sexual traits, such as horns in ungulates, may be good indicators of genetic quality because they are costly to develop. Genetic effects on such traits may be revealed by examining correlations between multilocus heterozygosity (MLH) and trait value. Correlations between MLH and fitness traits, termed heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFC), may reflect inbreeding depression or associative overdominance of neutral micro- satellite

ACHAZ VON H ARDENBERG; BRUNO BASSANO; MARCO FESTA-BIANCHET; GORDON LUIKART; PAOLO LANFRANCHI; DAVID COLTMAN

2007-01-01

309

The interindividual variation in femoral neck width is associated with the acquisition of predictable sets of morphological and tissue-quality traits and differential bone loss patterns.  

PubMed

A better understanding of femoral neck structure and age-related bone loss will benefit research aimed at reducing fracture risk. We used the natural variation in robustness (bone width relative to length) to analyze how adaptive processes covary traits in association with robustness, and whether the variation in robustness affects age-related bone loss patterns. Femoral necks from 49 female cadavers (29-93 years of age) were evaluated for morphological and tissue-level traits using radiography, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, micro-computed tomography, and ash-content analysis. Femoral neck robustness was normally distributed and varied widely with a coefficient of variation of 14.9%. Age-adjusted partial regression analysis revealed significant negative correlations (p < 0.05) between robustness and relative cortical area, cortical tissue-mineral density (Ct.TMD), and trabecular bone mineral density (Ma.BMD). Path analysis confirmed these results showing that a one standard deviation (SD) increase in robustness was associated with a 0.70 SD decrease in RCA, 0.47 SD decrease in Ct.TMD, and 0.43 SD decrease in Ma.BMD. Significantly different bone loss patterns were observed when comparing the most slender and most robust tertiles. Robust femora showed significant negative correlations with age for cortical area (R(2) = 0.29, p < 0.03), Ma.BMD (R(2) = 0.34, p < 0.01), and Ct.TMD (R(2) = 0.4, p < 0.003). However, slender femora did not show these age-related changes (R(2) < 0.09, p > 0.2). The results indicated that slender femora were constructed with a different set of traits compared to robust femora, and that the natural variation in robustness was a determinant of age-related bone loss patterns. Clinical diagnoses and treatments may benefit from a better understanding of these robustness-specific structural and aging patterns. PMID:22461103

Epelboym, Yan; Gendron, R Nicholas; Mayer, Jillian; Fusco, Joseph; Nasser, Philip; Gross, Gary; Ghillani, Richard; Jepsen, Karl J

2012-07-01

310

Environmental aspects of wood fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of whole tree harvesting for wood fuel and the conversion of existing electric generating stations to consume wood fuel is presented. Consideration is given to planning an experimental harvest, preharvesting inventory, wood operation, environmental impacts of the harvesting operation, and the economics of wood fuel. It is noted that whole tree removal resulted in 3 - 4.5 times

H. T. Garabedian; C. R. Sanborn

1978-01-01

311

Personal Traits and \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The group peer rating technique is employed to develop highly reliable measures of 16 personality traits for 445 adult workers and 237 high school seniors. Several of these traits are found to have high predictive validity for pay differentials, supervisor's ratings, and school grades. Dimensions derived from multidimensional scaling of the traits explain between 19 and 43 percent of the

Richard C. Edwards

1977-01-01

312

SENSORY QUALITY TRAITS OF THE RUNNER-TYPE PEANUT CULTIVAR GEORGIA GREEN AND ITS VALUE AS A PARENT COMPARED WITH FLORUNNER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Georgia Green has become the dominant runner market-type peanut in the United States because of its superior disease resistance. However, the roasted peanut flavor quality of Georgia Green has never been formally reported, and questions regarding its flavor quality have been expressed by the peanut ...

313

Chromosomes 3B and 4D are associated with several milling and baking quality traits in a soft white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat is marketed based on end-use quality characteristics and better knowledge of the underlying genetics of specific quality parameters is essential to enhance the breeding process. A set of 188 recombinant inbred lines from a ‘Louise’ by ‘Penawawa’ mapping population was grown in two crop years a...

314

Application of a life cycle assessment to walnut tree ( Juglans regia L.) high quality wood production: a case study in southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Italy is one of the most important exporters of furniture in Europe, it is also a great importer of foreign timber. We decided to focus our study on Walnut tree (Juglans regia L.) as it can be considered one of the most important species for high quality timber production in Italy.Our goal is to examine the production of high

Daniele Cambria; Domenico Pierangeli

315

Biodeterioration of wood  

Treesearch

The principal organisms that can degrade wood are fungi, insects, bacteria, and marine borers. ... thread-like microorganisms that must have organic material to live. ... strength losses over long periods of exposure, particularly in forest soils.

316

SARMATIAN PETRIFIED WOOD WITHIN \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the taxonomic identification of a piece of silicified fossil wood found within Bursuc locality area as Tetraclinoxylon romanicum IAMANDEI & IAMANDEI, 2000, completing the extract of the floristic association described here from Early Sarmatian deposits and known as \\

Eugenia IAMANDEI

2005-01-01

317

Wood adhesion and adhesives  

Treesearch

... to better understanding of the factors controlling the performance of the bonded ... other wood adhesives, especially when under the more severe durability tests. ... Keywords: Hot melt adhesives, pressure-sensitive adhesives, formaldehyde, ...

318

Acid prehydrolysis of wood  

Treesearch

Acid pretreatment of wood provides significant energy savings during refining ... reduction in specific refiner energy consumption, with a minor sacrifice in brightness. ... The similarity in behavior of these two pretreatments suggests a common ...

319

Properties of Tropical Woods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research have been the basis for a series of Technical Reports -- 45 in number -- dealing with such diverse subjects as gluing characteristics, weathering characteristics, fiber-saturation point of wood, water-vapor sorption characteristics, mechanica...

F. F. Wangaard

1969-01-01

320

Embryonic developmental patterns and energy expenditure are affected by incubation temperature in wood ducks (Aix sponsa).  

PubMed

Recent research in birds has demonstrated that incubation temperature influences a suite of traits important for hatchling development and survival. We explored a possible mechanism for the effects on hatchling quality by determining whether incubation temperature influences embryonic energy expenditure of wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Because avian embryos are ectothermic, we hypothesized that eggs incubated at higher temperatures would have greater energy expenditure at any given day of incubation. However, because eggs incubated at lower temperatures take longer to hatch than embryos incubated at higher temperatures, we hypothesized that the former would expend more energy during incubation. We incubated eggs at three temperatures (35.0°, 35.9°, and 37.0°C) that fall within the range of temperatures of naturally incubated wood duck nests. We then measured the respiration of embryos every 3 d during incubation, immediately after ducks externally pipped, and immediately after hatching. As predicted, embryos incubated at the highest temperature had the highest metabolic rates on most days of incubation, and they exhibited faster rates of development. Yet, because of greater energy expended during the hatching process, embryos incubated at the lowest temperature expended 20%-37% more energy during incubation than did embryos incubated at the higher temperatures. Slower developmental rates and greater embryonic energy expenditure of embryos incubated at the lowest temperature could contribute to their poor physiological performance as ducklings compared with ducklings that hatch from eggs incubated at higher temperatures. PMID:21897082

DuRant, S E; Hopkins, W A; Hepp, G R

321

Multiple-interval mapping for quantitative trait loci controlling endosperm traits.  

PubMed Central

Endosperm traits are trisomic inheritant and are of great economic importance because they are usually directly related to grain quality. Mapping for quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying endosperm traits can provide an efficient way to genetically improve grain quality. As the traditional QTL mapping methods (diploid methods) are usually designed for traits under diploid control, they are not the ideal approaches to map endosperm traits because they ignore the triploid nature of endosperm. In this article, a statistical method considering the triploid nature of endosperm (triploid method) is developed on the basis of multiple-interval mapping (MIM) to map for the underlying QTL. The proposed triploid MIM method is derived to broadly use the marker information either from only the maternal plants or from both the maternal plants and their embryos in the backcross and F2 populations for mapping endosperm traits. Due to the use of multiple intervals simultaneously to take multiple QTL into account, the triploid MIM method can provide better detection power and estimation precision, and as shown in this article it is capable of analyzing and searching for epistatic QTL directly as compared to the traditional diploid methods and current triploid methods using only one (or two) interval(s). Several important issues in endosperm trait mapping, such as the relation and differences between the diploid and triploid methods, variance components of genetic variation, and the problems if effects are present and ignored, are also addressed. Simulations are performed to further explore these issues, to investigate the relative efficiency of different experimental designs, and to evaluate the performance of the proposed and current methods in mapping endosperm traits. The MIM-based triploid method can provide a powerful tool to estimate the genetic architecture of endosperm traits and to assist the marker-assisted selection for the improvement of grain quality in crop science. The triploid MIM FORTRAN program for mapping endosperm traits is available on the worldwide web (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/chkao/).

Kao, Chen-Hung

2004-01-01

322

Concentrations of organic wood preservatives in wood chips produced from wood wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the concentrations of wood preservatives in the wood chips produced in wood-waste processing facilities in 1988, 1998–1999, and 2001–2002. Among the wood preservatives used in the past in Japan, halophenols, including PCP, chlordane, and chlorpyrifos, had comparatively high detection rates and high average concentrations in the wood chips produced in 2001–2002. Aldrin and endrin were rarely detected, and

Yasundo Kurata; Yoichi Watanabe; Yusaku Ono; Kiyoshi Kawamura

2005-01-01

323

Towards optimizing wood development in bioenergy trees.  

PubMed

To secure a sustainable energy source for the future, we need to develop an alternative to fossil fuels. Cellulose-based biofuel production has great potential for development into a sustainable and renewable energy source. The thick secondary walls of xylem cells provide a natural source of cellulose. As a result of the extensive production of wood through cambial activity, massive amounts of xylem cells can be harvested from trees. How can we obtain a maximal cellulose biomass yield from these trees? Thus far, tree breeding has been very challenging because of the long generation time. Currently, new breeding possibilities are emerging through the development of high-throughput technologies in molecular genetics. What potential does our current knowledge on the regulation of cambial activity provide for the domestication of optimal bioenergy trees? We examine the hormonal and molecular regulation of wood development with the aim of identifying the key regulatory aspects. We describe traits, including stem morphology and xylem cell dimensions, that could be modified to enhance wood production. Finally, we discuss the potential of novel marker-assisted tree breeding technologies. PMID:22474686

Nieminen, Kaisa; Robischon, Marcel; Immanen, Juha; Helariutta, Ykä

2012-04-01

324

Doctors’ traits perceived by Japanese nurses as communication barriers: A questionnaire survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStudies addressing nurses’ traits to improve the quality of nurse–physician communication exist, whereas only a few studies exploring physicians’ traits as communication barriers are conducted.

Kyoko Morinaga; Yohsuke Ohtsubo; Keiko Yamauchi; Yasuhiro Shimada

2008-01-01

325

Comparison of measured and modeled ambient concentrations of residential wood combustion emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of wood for residential heat is increasing in the Tennessee Valley region as it has in other areas of the United States. Because the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) finances wood stove installation as part of its energy conservation package and recognizes the potential for environmentally adverse air quality impacts, TVA's Air Quality Branch (AQB) has undertaken a series

R. E. Imhoff; K. G. Kronmiller; J. A. Manning; G. W. Russwurm

1983-01-01

326

Wood Processing: a contribute to the interpretation of surface origin according to grain orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface quality is one of the main factors to be achieved during secondary processing of wood. The technological features inuencing the nal quality, such as the tool geometry, the chip thickness, the cutting speed, the feeding speed and the friction coecient have been deeply analysed during the years. The aim of this work is to highlight the reactions of wood

Giacomo Goli; Marco Fioravanti; Nicola Sodini; Zhu Jiangang; Luca Uzielli

327

Experimental study of wood downdraft gasification for an improved producer gas quality through an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach.  

PubMed

This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings. PMID:21292477

Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan

2010-12-13

328

First World-Wide Study of the Wood and Wood Processing Industries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The wood and wood processing sector in the world; Logging and transport; Possibilities and prerequisites for mechanical wood processing industries in developing countries; International trade in wood and wood products; Some policy related issues...

1983-01-01

329

Proceedings of the Symposium on the Effect of Growth Acceleration on the Properties of Wood, Jointly Sponsored by the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory and the API-TAPPI Research Liaison Committee to FPL Held 10-11 November 1971 at Madison, Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Fiber morphology considerations in paper properties; Influence of fertilization on wood and pulp properties of douglas-fir; Effect of irrigation and fertilization on wood quality of young slash pine; Effects of fertilization on stem, wood proper...

1972-01-01

330

Rehabilitating agricultural streams in Australia with wood: a review.  

PubMed

Worldwide, the ecological condition of streams and rivers has been impaired by agricultural practices such as broadscale modification of catchments, high nutrient and sediment inputs, loss of riparian vegetation, and altered hydrology. Typical responses include channel incision, excessive sedimentation, declining water quality, and loss of in-stream habitat complexity and biodiversity. We review these impacts, focusing on the potential benefits and limitations of wood reintroduction as a transitional rehabilitation technique in these agricultural landscapes using Australian examples. In streams, wood plays key roles in shaping velocity and sedimentation profiles, forming pools, and strengthening banks. In the simplified channels typical of many agricultural streams, wood provides habitat for fauna, substrate for biofilms, and refuge from predators and flow extremes, and enhances in-stream diversity of fish and macroinvertebrates.Most previous restoration studies involving wood reintroduction have been in forested landscapes, but some results might be extrapolated to agricultural streams. In these studies, wood enhanced diversity of fish and macroinvertebrates, increased storage of organic material and sediment, and improved bed and bank stability. Failure to meet restoration objectives appeared most likely where channel incision was severe and in highly degraded environments. Methods for wood reintroduction have logistical advantages over many other restoration techniques, being relatively low cost and low maintenance. Wood reintroduction is a viable transitional restoration technique for agricultural landscapes likely to rapidly improve stream condition if sources of colonists are viable and water quality is suitable. PMID:18560930

Lester, Rebecca E; Boulton, Andrew J

2008-06-17

331

A microarray-based method for the parallel analysis of genotypes and expression profiles of wood-forming tissues in Eucalyptus grandis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Fast-growing Eucalyptus grandis trees are one of the most efficient producers of wood in South Africa. The most serious problem affecting the quality and yield of solid wood products is the occurrence of end splitting in logs. Selection of E. grandis planting stock that exhibit preferred wood qualities is thus a priority of the South African forestry industry. We

Eugenia Barros; Carol-Ann van Staden; Sabine Lezar

2009-01-01

332

QTL analysis of fruit quality in fresh market tomato: a few chromosome regions control the variation of sensory and instrumental traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organoleptic quality of tomato fruit involves a set of attributes (flavour, aroma, texture) that can be evaluated either by sensory analyses or by instru- mental measures. In order to study the genetic con- trol of this characteristic, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was developed from an intraspecific cross between a cherry tomato line with a good over- all

M. Causse; V. Saliba-Colombani; L. Lecomte; P. Duffe; P. Rousselle; M. Buret

2002-01-01

333

Modeling of alkane emissions from a wood stain  

SciTech Connect

The article discusses full-scale residential house tests to evaluate the effects of organic emissions from a wood finishing product--wood stain--on indoor air quality (IAQ). The test house concentrations of three alkane species, nonane, decane, and undecane, were measured as a function of time after the application of the wood stain. It was found that the test house concentrations can be simulated by an integrated IAQ model which takes into consideration source, sink, and ventilation effects. The alkane emissions were controlled by an evaporation-like process.

Chang, J.C.S.; Guo, Z.

1993-01-01

334

Real-time optimum sequencing of wood cutting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimization algorithm was developed to minimize waste in a real-time cutting process of high-volume solid wood furniture production where each wood strip is cut into shorter pieces depending on the production order. The optimization problem at hand is an extension of the standard one-dimensional cutting stock problem with random variable stock size. In addition, each stock has random quality

R. Ghodsi; F. Sassani

2005-01-01

335

Thermo-directional movement of wood and wood composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal movement of wood and wood composites was studied and compared with that of random and oriented phenolic foams. Cell orientation was a dominate factor determining the thermal response of these structures. In dried wood, thermal movement in the direction parallel to the cells (longitudinal) decreased in dimension during heating while the radial and tangential directions expanded under similar heating

S. Chow

1994-01-01

336

Wood identification and pattern recognition  

Treesearch

International Institute of Tropical Forestry ... Source: In: Identification of Central American Woods. ... processes this information in a way that melds scientific knowledge with a more artistic perception of the structures used to identify the wood.

337

Secondary Wood Processing in Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents an overview of secondary processing situations in the 17 African countries visited by consultants in connection with preparatory studies for the Second Consultation on the Wood and Wood Products Industries. Conclusions and recommendati...

G. E. Gresham

1990-01-01

338

The Woods and Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities offer sudents a hands-on approach to learning about their natural surroundings. After visiting a local pond and woods area, they will recognize that pond and woods environments are ecosystems and be able to state some of the differences between the two. They will also learn to identify trees by their leaves and bark and to identify shrubs by their fruit and manner of growth. In addition, they will also learn to identify animals and plants near the pond, and learn to recognize changes in the two ecosystems over a span of months.

1998-01-01

339

Influence of dietary vitamin E supplementation on meat quality traits and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in the Beijing-you chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The effects of dietary vitamin E (DL-?-tocopheryl acetate) on carcase and meat quality, oxidative stability, fatty acid composition of muscle lipids, and gene expression related to lipid metabolism were studied in Beijing-you chickens.2.?A total of 360 female birds were distributed among 6 treatments, containing 6 replicates, each of 10 birds. The feed for each treatment was supplemented with vitamin E

W. J. Li; G. P. Zhao; J. L. Chen; M. Q. Zheng; J. Wen

2009-01-01

340

Investigation of candidate genes for glycolytic potential of porcine skeletal muscle: Association with meat quality and production traits in Italian Large White pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the association of DNA markers in candidate genes for glycolytic potential on meat quality parameters (pH1, pHu, glycogen and lactate content and glycolytic potential of semimembranosus muscle) and estimated breeding values (EBVs) for average daily gain, lean cuts, back fat thickness, ham weight, and feed:gain ratio in 272 Italian Large White pigs.

L. Fontanesi; R. Davoli; L. Nanni Costa; F. Beretti; E. Scotti; M. Tazzoli; F. Tassone; M. Colombo; L. Buttazzoni; V. Russo

2008-01-01

341

Chemical and quality traits of ‘Olinda’ and ‘Campbell’ oranges after heat treatment at 44 or 46 °C for fruit fly disinfestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and quality characteristics of ‘Olinda’ and ‘Campbell’ oranges (nucellar budlines from Valencia late cultivar) were evaluated after exposure to a fruit core temperature of 44°C and held at 44°C for 100min or 46°C and held at 46°C for 50min, subsequent storage at 6°C for 2 weeks and an additional week of simulated marketing period (SMP) at 20°C. Exposure

Mario Schirra; Maurizio Mulas; Angela Fadda; Ilaria Mignani; Susan Lurie

2005-01-01

342

Treatment of wood ash containing soluble chromate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “TA Siedlungsabfall” issued in Germany in May 1993 will entail severe problems concerning the disposal of wood ash. One particular problem is associated with the occurrence of soluble chromium compounds in the leachates of wood ash. During combustion of wood, wood residues or waste wood, Cr-III which is generally found in wood is partly oxidized to Cr-VI. Under the

K. Pohlandt-Schwandt

1999-01-01

343

Network analysis reveals the relationship among wood properties, gene expression levels and genotypes of natural Populus trichocarpa accessions.  

PubMed

High-throughput approaches have been widely applied to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of industrially important wood properties. Wood traits are polygenic in nature, but gene hierarchies can be assessed to identify the most important gene variants controlling specific traits within complex networks defining the overall wood phenotype. We tested a large set of genetic, genomic, and phenotypic information in an integrative approach to predict wood properties in Populus trichocarpa. Nine-yr-old natural P. trichocarpa trees including accessions with high contrasts in six traits related to wood chemistry and ultrastructure were profiled for gene expression on 49k Nimblegen (Roche NimbleGen Inc., Madison, WI, USA) array elements and for 28 831 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Pre-selected transcripts and SNPs with high statistical dependence on phenotypic traits were used in Bayesian network learning procedures with a stepwise K2 algorithm to infer phenotype-centric networks. Transcripts were pre-selected at a much lower logarithm of Bayes factor (logBF) threshold than SNPs and were not accommodated in the networks. Using persistent variables, we constructed cross-validated networks for variability in wood attributes, which contained four to six variables with 94-100% predictive accuracy. Accommodated gene variants revealed the hierarchy in the genetic architecture that underpins substantial phenotypic variability, and represent new tools to support the maximization of response to selection. PMID:23889128

Porth, Ilga; Klápšt?, Jaroslav; Skyba, Oleksandr; Friedmann, Michael C; Hannemann, Jan; Ehlting, Juergen; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Mansfield, Shawn D; Douglas, Carl J

2013-07-29

344

Personality traits and sibling relationships in emerging adults.  

PubMed

Associations between the Big Five personality traits of siblings and the quality of sibling relationships were examined in a sample of 115 college students and one of their older siblings. Big Five traits, as assessed by Goldberg's 100 adjective markers, predicted a large amount of the variability in sibling Warmth and Conflict. Agreeableness was the most consistent predictor of positive sibling outcomes. PMID:17564243

Lanthier, Richard P

2007-04-01

345

Biotechnology in the wood industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood is a natural, biodegradable and renewable raw material, used in construction and as a feedstock in the paper and wood product industries and in fuel production. Traditionally, biotechnology found little attention in the wood product industries, apart from in paper manufacture. Now, due to growing environmental concern and increasing scientific knowledge, legal restrictions to conventional processes have altered the

C. Mai; U. Kües; H. Militz

2004-01-01

346

Classroom Demonstrations of Wood Properties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented in this manual are 20 activities selected to show some of the properties of wood and how these properties relate to the cellular structure of wood. Each activity includes stated objectives, indicates materials needed, and explains procedures. Illustrations related to the activities, glossary of terms, and photographs of wood structure…

Foulger, A. N.

347

Wood Brick Tile for Paneling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wood-brick tile is a new decorative paneling for homes, offices, and public buildings. The tiles are thin rectangular pieces of wood with chamfered edges and are applied with an adhesive to produce a brick and mortar pattern. Wood tile panels are especial...

G. A. Cooper E. G. Champagne

1967-01-01

348

Ambient wood smoke exposure and respiratory symptoms in Tasmania, Australia.  

PubMed

Wood smoke exposure has been associated with adverse respiratory health outcomes, with much of the current research focused on wood smoke from domestic heating and cooking. This study examined the association between respiratory symptoms and outdoor wood smoke in Launceston, Tasmania, where ~30% of homes use wood burners for domestic heating. This ecological study examined data from participants of the 2004 Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study postal survey and compared the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in Launceston (n=601) with that in Hobart (n=1071), a larger Tasmanian city with much less wood smoke. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations of interest while adjusting for gender, atopy, history of allergic disease and current smoking status. There were no significant differences in symptom prevalence between Launceston and Hobart. Two subgroup analyses, which examined participants with pre-existing chronic respiratory disease, and those who reported actively using a wood burner in their home, also did not find significant differences. Any impact of wood smoke on non-specific respiratory symptoms might have been overshadowed by other important determinants of respiratory health, such as vehicle exhaust and tobacco smoking, or were too small to have been detected. However, the lack of detectable differences in symptom prevalence might also reflect the success of regulatory action by local governments to reduce wood smoke emissions in Launceston. The results of other epidemiological studies support an association between ambient wood smoke exposure and adverse respiratory health. Further investigations of wood smoke exposure in Australian settings are needed to investigate the lack of significant associations found in this study, especially studies of indoor air quality and health impacts in children and elderly populations. PMID:21071067

Bennett, C M; Dharmage, S C; Matheson, M; Gras, J L; Markos, J; Mészáros, D; Hopper, J; Walters, E H; Abramson, M J

2010-11-10

349

A life cycle evaluation of wood pellet gasification for district heating in British Columbia.  

PubMed

The replacement of natural gas combustion for district heating by wood waste and wood pellets gasification systems with or without emission control has been investigated by a streamlined LCA. While stack emissions from controlled gasification systems are lower than the applicable regulations, compared to the current base case, 12% and 133% increases are expected in the overall human health impacts for wood pellets and wood waste, respectively. With controlled gasification, external costs and GHG emission can be reduced by 35% and 82% on average, respectively. Between wood pellets and wood waste, wood pellets appear to be the better choice as it requires less primary energy and has a much lower impact on the local air quality. PMID:21377867

Pa, Ann; Bi, Xiaotao T; Sokhansanj, Shahab

2011-02-05

350

Wood dust exposure in wood industry and forestry.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine occupational exposure in Croatian wood processing industry and forest workers to harmful effects of wood dust on the risk of nose, nasal cavity and lung carcinoma. Mass concentrations of respirable particles and total wood dust were measured at two wood processing plants, three woodwork shops, and one lumbering site, where 225 total wood dust samples and 221 respirable particle samples were collected. Wood dust mass concentration was determined by the gravimetric method. Mass concentrations exceeding total wood dust maximal allowed concentration (MAC, 3 mg/m3) were measured for beechwood and oakwood dust in 38% (79/206) of study samples from wood processing facilities (plants and woodwork shops). Mass concentrations of respirable particles exceeding MAC (1 mg/m3) were recorded in 24% (48/202) of samples from wood processing facilities (mean 2.38 +/- 2.08 mg/m3 in plants and 3.6 +/- 2.22 mg/m3 in woodwork shops). Thus, 13% (27/206) of work sites in wood processing facilities failed to meet health criteria according to European guidelines. Launching of measures to reduce wood dust emission to the work area is recommended. PMID:16117324

Puntari?, Dinko; Kos, Ankica; Smit, Zdenko; Zeci?, Zeljko; Sega, Kresimir; Beljo-Luci?, Ruzica; Horvat, Dubravko; Bosnir, Jasna

2005-06-01

351

Effects of microbial phytase, low calcium and phosphorus, and removing the dietary trace mineral premix on carcass traits, pork quality, plasma metabolites, and tissue mineral content in growing-finishing pigs.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of phytase addition, reduced Ca and available P (aP), and removing the trace mineral premix (TMP) on growth performance, plasma metabolites, carcass traits, pork quality, and tissue mineral content in growing-finishing swine. One hundred twenty cross-bred pigs (initial and final BW of 22 and 109 kg, respectively) were allotted to five dietary treatments on the basis of weight within gender in a randomized complete block design. There were three replications of barrows and three replications of gilts, with four pigs per replicate pen. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1) corn-soybean meal (C-SBM), 2) C-SBM with reduced Ca and aP, 3) C-SBM with reduced Ca and aP plus 500 phytase units/kg of diet, 4) Diet 1 without the TMP, and 5) Diet 3 without the TMP. The Ca and aP were reduced by 0.10% in the low Ca and aP diets and the diets with added phytase. Daily gain, hot carcass weight, dressing percent, kilograms of carcass lean, bone ash percent, and bone strength were decreased (P = 0.10), but liver and kidney weight were increased (P = 0.10) in pigs fed diets with reduced Ca and aP; adding phytase reversed these responses (P = 0.10). The Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage L* was decreased (P = 0.09) in pigs fed the low Ca and aP diet plus phytase relative to those fed the control diet. Removing the TMP had no effect on overall growth performance, but it increased (P = 0.03) 10th-rib backfat thickness and fasting glucose and decreased (P = 0.03) carcass length and ham weight. Liver weight and liver weight as a percentage of final BW were not affected when phytase was added to the control diet, but removing the TMP increased liver weight and liver weight as a percentage of final BW; adding phytase reversed these responses (phytase x TMP, P = 0.06). Removing the TMP decreased (P = 0.08) Zn concentrations in the bone, muscle, and liver, and Cu and Fe concentrations in the bile but increased (P = 0.08) Mn concentrations in the bile and liver of pigs. The addition of phytase reversed the negative effects of the reduced Ca and aP diets. These data indicate that removing the TMP in diets for growing-finishing pigs has no negative effects on growth performance or pork quality, but it had negative effects on carcass traits and had variable effects on tissue mineral content. PMID:15446480

Shelton, J L; Southern, L L; LeMieux, F M; Bidner, T D; Page, T G

2004-09-01

352

Wood energy in Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forest resources of Georgia are reviewed in relation to energy production. Methods of harvesting and the residues and total biomass generated which are reviewed include commercial harvesting, control plot, (no management), clear-cutting, selective thinning, and firewood plot. The gasification project at Rome, Georgia, is described. Another project is a wood-fired lumber dryer modified for drying corn, soy beans, and

1980-01-01

353

Multiple marker mapping of quantitative trait loci in an outbred pedigree of loblolly pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiple marker least squares approach is presented for the analysis of a single three-generation pedigree for quantitative\\u000a trait locus (QTL) characterisation. It is an extension of the approach by Haley et?al. (1994) to the situation where grandparents\\u000a cannot be assumed to be homozygous at QTLs for the trait of interest. The method is applied to the analysis of wood

S. A. Knott; D. B. Neale; M. M. Sewell; C. S. Haley

1997-01-01

354

Effects of dietary probiotic inclusion on performance, eggshell quality, cecal microflora composition, and tibia traits of laying hens in the late phase of production.  

PubMed

Ninety-six White laying hens (64 weeks old) were used to investigate the effect of dietary inclusion of Bacillus subtilis on performance and eggshell quality. Hens were randomly distributed into three treatment groups and fed basal diet (control), basal diet plus 0.5 g/kg B. subtilis (Probiotic-0.5), or basal diet plus 1 g/kg B. subtilis (Probiotic-1) for 10 weeks. Probiotic-1 group exhibited the maximum (P<0.05) increase in egg production, egg weight, egg mass, eggshell weight, and eggshell thickness, compared with Probiotic-0.5 and the control groups. During the last week of the study, eggshell densities were 94.9, 88.7, and 65.6 mg/cm(2) in Probiotic-1, Probiotic-0.5, and the control group, respectively. The average unmarketable eggs were 1.3 %, 2.2 %, and 6.4 % in Probiotic-1, Probiotic-0.5, and the control group, respectively. Tibia weight, density, and ash content increased significantly. The average time required by B. subtilis to establish a significant effect was 3 weeks for Probiotic-1and 6 weeks for Probiotic-5. B. subtilis improved gut microflora balance, which has the potential to improve gut health and absorption efficiency. It should be possible to improve egg performance and eggshell quality of aged laying hens by dietary inclusion of B. subtilis, which will be of importance for farmers. PMID:23271415

Abdelqader, Anas; Irshaid, Rabie; Al-Fataftah, Abdur-Rahman

2012-12-28

355

Plant trait-species abundance relationships vary with environmental properties in subtropical forests in eastern china.  

PubMed

Understanding how plant trait-species abundance relationships change with a range of single and multivariate environmental properties is crucial for explaining species abundance and rarity. In this study, the abundance of 94 woody plant species was examined and related to 15 plant leaf and wood traits at both local and landscape scales involving 31 plots in subtropical forests in eastern China. Further, plant trait-species abundance relationships were related to a range of single and multivariate (PCA axes) environmental properties such as air humidity, soil moisture content, soil temperature, soil pH, and soil organic matter, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents. At the landscape scale, plant maximum height, and twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, whereas mean leaf area (MLA), leaf N concentration (LN), and total leaf area per twig size (TLA) were negatively correlated with species abundance. At the plot scale, plant maximum height, leaf and twig dry matter contents, twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, but MLA, specific leaf area, LN, leaf P concentration and TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. Plant trait-species abundance relationships shifted over the range of seven single environmental properties and along multivariate environmental axes in a similar way. In conclusion, strong relationships between plant traits and species abundance existed among and within communities. Significant shifts in plant trait-species abundance relationships in a range of environmental properties suggest strong environmental filtering processes that influence species abundance and rarity in the studied subtropical forests. PMID:23560114

Yan, En-Rong; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Scott X; Wang, Xi-Hua

2013-04-03

356

Plant Trait-Species Abundance Relationships Vary with Environmental Properties in Subtropical Forests in Eastern China  

PubMed Central

Understanding how plant trait-species abundance relationships change with a range of single and multivariate environmental properties is crucial for explaining species abundance and rarity. In this study, the abundance of 94 woody plant species was examined and related to 15 plant leaf and wood traits at both local and landscape scales involving 31 plots in subtropical forests in eastern China. Further, plant trait-species abundance relationships were related to a range of single and multivariate (PCA axes) environmental properties such as air humidity, soil moisture content, soil temperature, soil pH, and soil organic matter, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents. At the landscape scale, plant maximum height, and twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, whereas mean leaf area (MLA), leaf N concentration (LN), and total leaf area per twig size (TLA) were negatively correlated with species abundance. At the plot scale, plant maximum height, leaf and twig dry matter contents, twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, but MLA, specific leaf area, LN, leaf P concentration and TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. Plant trait-species abundance relationships shifted over the range of seven single environmental properties and along multivariate environmental axes in a similar way. In conclusion, strong relationships between plant traits and species abundance existed among and within communities. Significant shifts in plant trait-species abundance relationships in a range of environmental properties suggest strong environmental filtering processes that influence species abundance and rarity in the studied subtropical forests.

Yan, En-Rong; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Scott X.; Wang, Xi-Hua

2013-01-01

357

Characterizing invertebrate traits in wadeable streams of the contiguous US: differences among ecoregions and land uses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Much is known about invertebrate community traits in basins across Europe, but no comprehensive description of traits exists for the continental US. Little is known about the trait composition of invertebrates in reference or least-disturbed basins of the US, how trait composition varies among ecoregions, or how consistently traits respond to land use. These elements are essential to development of trait-based tools for conservation and assessment of biological integrity. We compared invertebrate traits of least-disturbed basins among ecoregions of the US. Benthic invertebrate data (presence/absence) from 1987 basins were translated into 56 binary traits (e.g., bivoltine, clinger). Basins were classified as least-disturbed, agricultural, or urban, and grouped into 9 ecoregions. Landuse, climatic, physiographic, and hydrologic data were used to describe ecoregions and to evaluate least-disturbed basin quality. The unique habitat template of each ecoregion selected for trait compositions in least-disturbed basins that differed among ecoregions. Among the traits examined, life-history (e.g., voltinism, development) and ecological traits (e.g., rheophily, thermal preference) differed most among ecoregions. Agricultural and urban land uses selected for trait compositions that differed from least-disturbed, but the extent of the differences depended on ecoregion and quality of the least-disturbed basins. No trait compositions unique to specific land uses were found. However, a disturbance syndrome was observed in that the magnitude and direction of trait responses to urban and agricultural land uses were consistent among ecoregions. Each ecoregion had a unique trait composition, but trait compositions could be used to aggregate ecoregions into 3 broad regions: Western Mountains, Plains and Lowlands, and Eastern Highlands. Our results indicate that large-scale trait-based assessment tools for the US will require calibration to account for regional differences in the trait composition of basins and in the quality of least-disturbed basins.

Zuellig, Robert E.; Schmidt, Travis S.

2012-01-01

358

Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

Ghafghazi, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

2011-01-01

359

An oligo-based microarray offers novel transcriptomic approaches for the analysis of pathogen resistance and fruit quality traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Melon (Cucumis melo) is a horticultural specie of significant nutritional value, which belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance is second only to the Solanaceae. Its small genome of approx. 450 Mb coupled to the high genetic diversity has prompted the development of genetic tools in the last decade. However, the unprecedented existence of a transcriptomic approaches in melon, highlight the importance of designing new tools for high-throughput analysis of gene expression. Results We report the construction of an oligo-based microarray using a total of 17,510 unigenes derived from 33,418 high-quality melon ESTs. This chip is particularly enriched with genes that are expressed in fruit and during interaction with pathogens. Hybridizations for three independent experiments allowed the characterization of global gene expression profiles during fruit ripening, as well as in response to viral and fungal infections in plant cotyledons and roots, respectively. Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation together with functional-enrichment analysis are presented in this study. Conclusion The platform validation and enrichment analyses shown in our study indicate that this oligo-based microarray is amenable for future genetic and functional genomic studies of a wide range of experimental conditions in melon.

Mascarell-Creus, Albert; Canizares, Joaquin; Vilarrasa-Blasi, Josep; Mora-Garcia, Santiago; Blanca, Jose; Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Saladie, Montserrat; Roig, Cristina; Deleu, Wim; Pico-Silvent, Belen; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Aranda, Miguel A; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Nuez, Fernando; Puigdomenech, Pere; Cano-Delgado, Ana I

2009-01-01

360

Beatrice Wood: Sophisticated Primitive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beatrice Wood (1893-1998), at 104, was declared a “Living Treasure” in her native California and “Esteemed American Artist” by the Smithsonian Institution in 1997. She was an internationally recognized ceramicist, known especially for her trademark luster glazes, and was the last surviving member of the New York Dada group of 1915-1923. Featured in “late-bloomer” books, she did not begin pottery

Helen Dixon Hennessey

2003-01-01

361

Out of the woods.  

PubMed

Throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America women are pushed out of forests and from their maintenance by governments and private interests for cash crop development disregarding the role of women in conserving forests. In developing countries forests are a source of wood for fuel; 60-80% of women gather wood for family needs in America. Fruits, vegetables, and nuts gathered in woods enhance their diet. Indonesian women pick bananas, mangos, guavas, and avocados from trees around their homes; in Senegal shea-nut butter is made from a local tree fruit to be sold for cash. Women provide labor also in logging, wood processing, and tree nurseries. They make charcoal and grow seedlings for sale. In India 40% of forest income and 75% of forest products export earnings are derived from nonwood resources. Poor, rural women make items out of bamboo, rattan, and rope to sell: 48% of women in an Egyptian province make a living through such activities. In India 600,000 women harvest tendu leaves for use as wrappings for cigarettes. The expansion of commercial tree plantations replacing once communal natural forests has forced poor households to spend up to 4-% of their income on fuel that they used to find in forests. Tribal women in India know the medicinal uses of 300 forest species, and women in Sierra Leone could name 31 products they obtained or made from trees and bushes, while men named only 8 items. Only 1 forestry project appraised by the World Bank during 1984-97 named women as beneficiaries, and only 1 out of 33 rural development programs funded by the World Bank did. Women provide food, fuel, and water for their families in subsistence economies, they know sustainable methods of forestry, yet they are not included in development programs whose success or failure could hinge on more attention to women's contribution and on more equity. PMID:12285836

Jacobson, J L

362

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, WHOI, the largest independent oceanographic institution in the world, is a private, non-profit research facility dedicated to the study of marine science and to the education of marine scientists. Site provides information on graduate programs, undergraduate opportunities, facilities, and more. An abundance of information on the research program and its vessels, including an extensive collection of Deep Submergence Vehicle Alvin material. Also includes downloadable data, photos, and video.

363

The Trait Psychology Controversy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguments associated with trait psychology are reviewed with an application in the field of sport psychology. The role of cognition and perception in sport and physical activities is also discussed. (CJ)

Morgan, William P.

1980-01-01

364

Dilution of genetic traits  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Undesirable genetic traits, such as resistance to toxin, can be inhibited or reversed by introducing sexually compatible individuals substantially homozygous for the sensitive allele, such as the wild type, into the target population.

2011-08-16

365

InField Ambient Fine Particle Monitoring of an Outdoor Wood Boiler: Public Health Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor wood boilers (OWBs) are detached wood-fired units that heat water used for domestic consumption and heating. The increasing use of OWBs has prompted regulatory concern because of escalating public complaints. Few field studies of OWB ambient emissions have been conducted, limiting efforts to assess this air quality problem. A screening level evaluation was conducted to characterize ambient fine particle

Philip R. S. Johnson

2006-01-01

366

Environmental Influences on Wood Chemistry and Density of Populus and Loblolly Pine  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the study are to: (1) determine the degree to which physical and chemical wood properties vary in association with environmental and silvicultural practices in Populus and loblolly pine and (2) develop and verify species-specific empirical models in an effort to create a framework for understanding environmental influences on wood quality.

Tuskan, G.A.

2006-08-11

367

Recovery heat exchange to conserve energy in wood drying. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North Central Forest Experiment Station of the Forest Service has had an ongoing program since 1974 to conserve energy in wood drying without reducing wood quality. We have suggested ways to conserve energy, developed new drying techniques which were less energy intensive than conventional methods, and investigated recovery of vent stream energy with bench-scale heat exchangers. This study is

1985-01-01

368

Modelling and experimental investigation of a pilot plant for solar wood drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

In northeast Argentina, several species of hard wood, e.g. Algarrobo and Quebracho, are used for building furniture. To obtain high quality products in this and many other climates, artificial drying is required; typically, wood is dried in convection dryers. In this project the drying air is heated by solar energy in a collector resembling a greenhouse tunnel. Then passing through

M. Reuss; S. T. Benkert; A. Aeberhard; P. Martina; G. Raush; B. V. Rentzell; N. Sogari

1997-01-01

369

Biotechnology in the wood industry.  

PubMed

Wood is a natural, biodegradable and renewable raw material, used in construction and as a feedstock in the paper and wood product industries and in fuel production. Traditionally, biotechnology found little attention in the wood product industries, apart from in paper manufacture. Now, due to growing environmental concern and increasing scientific knowledge, legal restrictions to conventional processes have altered the situation. Biotechnological approaches in the area of wood protection aim at enhancing the treatability of wood with preservatives and replacing chemicals with biological control agents. The substitution of conventional chemical glues in the manufacturing of board materials is achieved through the application of fungal cultures and isolated fungal enzymes. Moreover, biotechnology plays an important role in the waste remediation of preservative-treated waste wood. PMID:12937955

Mai, C; Kües, U; Militz, H

2003-08-21

370

[Pneumoconiosis and exposure to wood].  

PubMed

The authors report a case of an employee in the wood processing industry. The clinical presentation was respiratory with dyspnoea on effort. The chest x-ray showed bilateral interstitial changes. Following bronchioalveolar lavage electron microscopic studies showed evidence of silica particles. Respiratory function tests showed pulmonary performance of 51%-64% of theoretical values depending on the test used. His working position involved the up keep of the boilers and also the drainage of the silos for wood dust. The wood used was corupixa, a brazilian wood containing crystalline silica; 0.1% in fresh wood dust. Numerous analyses have specified the percentage of silica in the ashes in magma. The diagnosis of pneumoconiosis of the silicotic type was sustained. The occupational risk linked to using this type of wood should be understood and the need to take protective measures for the employees concerned. PMID:9496609

Berthiot, G; Altmeyer, N

1997-12-01

371

Acetylation of wood causes photobleaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the photobleaching of acetylated wood. The acetylated spruce wood was irradiated by artificial sunlight emitted from xenon lamp with covering several kinds of band-pass filter. The lightness (L*) of acetylated wood increased with integral irradiance. The chroma (?C*) decreased by light-irradiation with wavelength from 430nm to 500nm. However, the light-irradiation including ultraviolet ray region made it

Katsuya Mitsui

2010-01-01

372

Air emissions from residential heating: The wood heating option put into environmental perspective. Report for June 1997--July 1998  

SciTech Connect

The paper compares the national scale (rather than local) air quality impacts of the various residential space heating options. Specifically, it compares the relative contributions of the space heating options to fine particulate emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and acid precipitation impacts. The major space heating energy options are natural gas, fuel oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), electricity, coal, and wood. Residential wood combustion (RWC) meets 9% of the Nation`s space heating energy needs and utilizes a renewable resource. Wood is burned regularly in about 30 million homes. Residential wood combustion is often perceived as environmentally dirty due to emissions from older wood burners.

Houck, J.E.; Tiegs, P.E.; McCrillis, R.C.; Keithley, C.; Crouch, J.

1998-12-31

373

Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01

374

Affective Traits in Schizophrenia and Schizotypy  

PubMed Central

This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, population-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review focuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based dispositions to experience corresponding emotional states. Individuals with schizophrenia report a pattern of stably elevated NA and low PA throughout the illness course. Among affected individuals, these traits are associated with variability in several clinically important features, including functional outcome, quality of life, and stress reactivity. Furthermore, evidence that elevated NA and low PA (particularly the facet of anhedonia) predict the development of psychosis and are detectable in high-risk samples suggests that these traits play a role in vulnerability to schizophrenia, though they are implicated in other forms of psychopathology as well. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment, etiological models, and future research to advance the study of affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy.

Horan, William P.; Blanchard, Jack J.; Clark, Lee Anna; Green, Michael F.

2008-01-01

375

Chemical Treatment and Preservation of Wood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Method for the production of plasticized wood; Determination of the diffusion coefficient of bound water in wood; Hydrolysis of birch wood in vibrating mill M-10 in the presence of different catalysts; Hydrolysis of lignocellulose with sulfuric ...

V. S. Gromov

1976-01-01

376

Water Repellency and Dimensional Stability of Wood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discussion of the interaction between wood and water makes clear the distinction between water repellency of wood (a rate of change) and dimensional stability (a level of equilibrium). A review of methods of treating wood follows, leading to comparison ...

R. M. Rowell W. B. Banks

1985-01-01

377

Wood Substitutes; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum guide is for use by college instructors concerned with expanding traditional woodworking programs. It was developed in a National Defense Education Act summer institute and is based on an outline provided by members of a previous institute. The content concerns wood substitutes which are made to resemble wood and are often used…

Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

378

Wood and combination wood-fired boiler ash characterization  

SciTech Connect

Ashes resulting from the combustion of wood residues in industrial boilers are characterized relative to (i) macroelement compositions, (ii) trace and heavy metal microelement compositions, (iii) organics, and (iv) polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs). Ash compositions, both macro- and microelements, are compared with coal ash and limestone. Microelements in wood ashes are also compared with other potential soil amendments such as pulp mill sludges. The impact of burning sludge and combinations of coal and wood residue on ash metal concentrations is presented. Levels of PCDD/Fs in ash resulting from combustion of 100% inland wood residue are reviewed, as are the levels of PCDD/Fs in ashes and soot resulting from residential wood combustion. The concentrations of metals in wood ash are comparable to other potential soil amendments. The concentration in wood ash of common organics of environmental concern appears to be negligible. The levels of PCDD/Fs in the ash appear to have a direct correlation with extraneous sources of chloride in the wood fuel. 48 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

Someshwar, A.V. [National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1996-09-01

379

Wood and combination wood-fired boiler ash characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ashes resulting from the combustion of wood residues in industrial boilers are characterized relative to (i) macroelement compositions, (ii) trace and heavy metal microelement compositions, (iii) organics, and (iv) polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans (PCDD\\/Fs). Ash compositions, both macro- and microelements, are compared with coal ash and limestone. Microelements in wood ashes are also compared with other potential soil amendments such

Arun V. Someshwar

1996-01-01

380

Wood ash for application in municipal biowaste composting.  

PubMed

This study aimed to clarify the impacts of pH control by wood ash amendment on biowaste composting processes. To achieve this, fresh source separated municipal biowaste was mixed with low doses (2-8% wt/vol) of wood ash and processed in a pilot and large-scale composting systems. The results indicated a correlation between a low initial pH and delay in the early rise of the process temperature. Wood ash elevated the composting temperatures and pH, and stimulated the mineralisation both in the pilot scale and the industrial large-scale processes. According to the results addition of amounts of 4-8% wood ash is sufficient for efficient biowaste composting process and yields a safe end product. However, to minimise the environmental risk for heavy metal contamination, and meet the criteria for the limit values of the impurities in wood ash, strict quality control of the applied wood ashes should be implemented. PMID:21349704

Kurola, Jukka M; Arnold, Mona; Kontro, Merja H; Talves, Matti; Romantschuk, Martin

2011-02-24

381

Current near-to-nature forest management effects on functional trait composition of saproxylic beetles in beech forests.  

PubMed

With the aim of wood production with negligible negative effects on biodiversity and ecosystem processes, a silvicultural practice of selective logging with natural regeneration has been implemented in European beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) during the last decades. Despite this near-to-nature strategy, species richness of various taxa is lower in these forests than in unmanaged forests. To develop guidelines to minimize the fundamental weaknesses in the current practice, we linked functional traits of saproxylic beetle species to ecosystem characteristics. We used continental-scale data from 8 European countries and regional-scale data from a large forest in southern Germany and forest-stand variables that represented a gradient of intensity of forest use to evaluate the effect of current near-to-nature management strategies on the functional diversity of saproxylic beetles. Forest-stand variables did not have a statistically significant effect on overall functional diversity, but they did significantly affect community mean and diversity of single functional traits. As the amount of dead wood increased the composition of assemblages shifted toward dominance of larger species and species preferring dead wood of large diameter and in advanced stages of decay. The mean amount of dead wood across plots in which most species occurred was from 20 to 60 m(3) /ha. Species occurring in plots with mean dead wood >60 m(3) /ha were consistently those inhabiting dead wood of large diameter and in advanced stages of decay. On the basis of our results, to make current wood-production practices in beech forests throughout Europe more conservation oriented (i.e., promoting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning), we recommend increasing the amount of dead wood to >20 m(3) /ha; not removing dead wood of large diameter (50 cm) and allowing more dead wood in advanced stages of decomposition to develop; and designating strict forest reserves, with their exceptionally high amounts of dead wood, that would serve as refuges for and sources of saproxylic habitat specialists. PMID:23432190

Gossner, Martin M; Lachat, Thibault; Brunet, Jörg; Isacsson, Gunnar; Bouget, Christophe; Brustel, Hervé; Brandl, Roland; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Müller, Jörg

2013-02-22

382

New technology for wood adhesives and coatings  

Treesearch

Treesearch Home ... Keywords: Glue, adhesion, adhesives, testing, coatings, research projects, technological innovations, microscopy, spectroscopy, gluing, wood chemistry, wood bonding, bond strength, bonding, durability, gluing, failure,  ...

383

Guayule as a wood preservative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional wood preservatives used to protect wood from insect and microbial damage are presently of major concern to human health and the environment. Finding alternative and economical preservatives has not been successful. Studies have shown that the resin material extracted from the guayule plant (Parthenium argentatum, Gray) has both insect and microbial resistant properties. Unfortunately, this finding has not been

F. S Nakayama; S. H Vinyard; P Chow; D. S Bajwa; J. A Youngquist; J. H Muehl; A. M Krzysik

2001-01-01

384

Holistic Approach to Wood Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

When untreated wood is exposed to adverse outdoor conditions, nature has a series of chemistries to degrade it to its original building blocks of carbon dioxide and wa­ ter. Fungi, termites, heat, moisture, ultraviolet (UV) en­ ergy, and chemicals take their toll on the performance properties of wood. We tend to study each of these degra­ dation chemistries as individual

Roger M. Rowell

385

Wood stove having catalytic converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is formed with double front and rear side walls of heat conductive metal spaced apart by heat conductive spacer fins and providing air passageways by which room air is heated by conduction from the walls which are heated by the burning of wood deposited on a firebox floor supported in heat conducting relationship with the inner

Willson

1982-01-01

386

Wood siding : installing, finishing, maintaining  

Treesearch

In fact, given reasonable care, wood siding will retain its beauty for centuries, ... that make it a good insulator, and its natural resistance to the ravages of weather. Other reasons to use wood siding include its ability to hold a wide variety of ...

387

Fire resistance of wood structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood as a building material has the disadvantage of being combustible. Consequently wood structures are seen by many as creating an environment less safe than structures built of noncombustible materials such as steel and masonry. However, experience has shown that some wooden structures have a fire resistance comparable, or greater than that of many noncombustible alternatives. Some statistical figures are

Kai Odeen

1985-01-01

388

MODELING LARGE WOOD STRUCTURES IN SAND BED STREAMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In-stream large wood structures (LWS) are becoming increasingly popular throughout the world. The LWS improve aquatic habitat quality and protect banks from erosion. While most reports describe the LWS in the Northwest as successful, LWS in one Mississippi sand-bed stream had an unacceptable failure...

389

Healthy volunteers exposed to wood stove particles demonstrate inflammatory changes  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction. Human exposure to particles associated with wood burning is of great consequence in both indoor air quality and air pollution and has been listed by the World Health Organization as one of the world's ten greatest health concerns. This investigation tested the postu...

390

Wood-Boring Marine and Estuarine Animals in Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Statewide Survey Description; Types of Wood Borers Encountered; Identification of Wood Borers at Specific Sites; Tolerance of Wood Borers to Standard Wood Preservatives; and Recommendations for Avoiding or Minimizing Attack by Wood-Borers.

S. A. Rice B. R. Johnson E. D. Estevez

1990-01-01

391

[Biological effect of wood dust].  

PubMed

The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis. PMID:8231799

Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Doma?ska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mo?ocznik, A

1993-01-01

392

Application and Outlook of Environment-Friendly Reactive Dyes in Wood Dyeing Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing shortage of supply of large-diameter-class and high-quality natural forest resources is caused by the intensification of the crisis of forest resources and changes in the structure of forest resources. As a result, excellent and valuable tree species are expensive and then they are gradually replaced by a large number of low-quality fast-growing plantation wood. Wood dyeing technology can

Hong Deng

2010-01-01

393

Eco-efficient wood protection : Furfurylated wood as alternative to traditional wood preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to show the potential decay resistance of furfurylated wood and investigate possible eco-toxicity of such materials produced. This paper deals with the environmental aspects and durability of furfurylated wood, both laboratory and field tests are included in the investigations. Results from several decay tests, emission analysis studies and ecotox tests are presented. The results show that furfurylated

Stig Lande; Mats Westin; Marc H. Schneider

2004-01-01

394

Comprehensive genetic dissection of wood properties in a widely-grown tropical tree: Eucalyptus  

PubMed Central

Background Eucalyptus is an important genus in industrial plantations throughout the world and is grown for use as timber, pulp, paper and charcoal. Several breeding programmes have been launched worldwide to concomitantly improve growth performance and wood properties (WPs). In this study, an interspecific cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis was used to identify major genomic regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL) controlling the variability of WPs. Results Linkage maps were generated for both parent species. A total of 117 QTLs were detected for a series of wood and end-use related traits, including chemical, technological, physical, mechanical and anatomical properties. The QTLs were mainly clustered into five linkage groups. In terms of distribution of QTL effects, our result agrees with the typical L-shape reported in most QTL studies, i.e. most WP QTLs had limited effects and only a few (13) had major effects (phenotypic variance explained > 15%). The co-locations of QTLs for different WPs as well as QTLs and candidate genes are discussed in terms of phenotypic correlations between traits, and of the function of the candidate genes. The major wood property QTL harbours a gene encoding a Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR), a structural enzyme of the monolignol-specific biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions Given the number of traits analysed, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the genetic architecture of wood properties in this Eucalyptus full-sib pedigree. At the dawn of Eucalyptus genome sequence, it will provide a framework to identify the nature of genes underlying these important quantitative traits.

2011-01-01

395

Engineered wood structures  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention is an engineered wood structure especially well suited to act as large woody debris in stream and lake rehabilitation projects. It is made using a number of small logs, typically about six to ten, assembled into a cylindrical or frustroconical structure. Normally, spaced apart opposing log pairs are joined by spars mortised into them at each end. Adjacent logs may additionally be doweled together at their ends. The spars are sufficiently displaced longitudinally so that they do not interfere spatially with each other although they may be in contact. Radial protrusions may be placed at one end or along the structure to simulate the root wad or limbs of a fallen tree and to provide anchoring when the structure is in place. A central cavity may be filled with rocks to reduce buoyancy and provide further anchoring. The structure can be field assembled in any location using only hand tools.

1998-10-20

396

Rufus Woods Photographs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The photographer Rufus Woods documented the vast transformation of the area around what became the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State. This massive project was not without controversy, and many people were upset that they had to move their worldly possessions and homes for the construction of this massive dam. North central Washington was dramatically changed, and this digital collection provides some remarkable evidence of the process. Staff members at the Central Washington University Libraries completed the collection, and there are several hundred photographs in this archive. Visitors can browse through the items by date or by title, and they can also perform more detailed searches as well. Some of the highlights here include visitors parading across the top of the completed dam, power transmission towers, and some of the buildings that would later be swept under the water as the reservoir behind the dam filled up.

397

State and trait anxiety revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

State and trait anxiety theory and assessment are reviewed. The person (trait anxiety) and the situation are important in determining levels of state anxiety. The facet of trait anxiety and the stressful situation must be congruent in order to evoke increases in state anxiety. The multidimensional interaction model is reviewed and empirical research is presented. A discussion of anxiety viewed

Norman S Endler; Nancy L Kocovski

2001-01-01

398

Micronized wood preservative formulations comprising boron compounds  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides wood preservative and flame retardant compositions having low leachability comprising micronized boron compounds and, optionally, one or more organic biocides which may be micronized. Also provided is a method for applying the composition to wood and wood products comprising impregnating the wood with the composition.

Zhang; Jun (Getzville, NY); Zhang; Wenjin (Tonawanda, NY); Leach; Robert M. (Grand Island, NY)

2012-05-01

399

CRETACEOUS WOODS FROM THE FARAFRA OASIS, EGYPT  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY There are fewer than 200 angiosperm wood records for the whole of the Cre- taceous; the majority are from North America, Europe, and Asia. This paper describes two petrified woods from the Late Cretaceous Hefhuf Formation, Farafra Oasis, Egypt, a locality near the Campanian equator. Affinities of these two wood types cannot be determined with certainty. One wood has

Marwah M. Kamal El-Din; E. A Wheeler; J. A. Bartlett

400

Surface Modification of Wood Using Nitric Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface modification of wood flakes by oxidation with nitric acid has been investigated at three different moisture contents of wood, and two different concentrations of the oxidant. It is shown that a significant number of the acid groups generated are chemically linked to wood. Increasing moisture content in wood has the effect of local dilution of the nitric acid oxidant

R. V. Subramanian; W. M. Balaba; K. N. Somasekharan

1982-01-01

401

Weathering and photostability of benzoylated wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical modification shows promise as a means of protecting wood from deterioration by fungi, but the systems tested to date have shown limited ability to photostabilise wood. In this study wood was esterified with benzoyl choride and the photostability of the modified wood was assessed. Benzoyl chloride was chosen because it was thought that the introduction of benzoyl groups into

P. D. Evans; N. L. Owen; S. Schmid; R. D. Webster

2002-01-01

402

THE CHALLENGE OF BONDING TREATED WOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Wood products are quite durable if exposure to moisture is minimized; however, most uses of wood involve considerable exposure to moisture. To preserve the wood, chemicals are used to minimize moisture pickup, to prevent insect attack, and\\/or to resist microbial growth. The chemicals used as preservatives can interfere with adhesive bonds to wood. Given the many potential modes of

Charles R. Frihart

2004-01-01

403

Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

Oatman, Olan

1975-01-01

404

FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

PURCELL, FRANK X.

405

Wood Scrap Project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated Utah's sawmill residue, logging residue and pinyon-juniper resource for use as an energy resource to replace supplement conventional fuels now in use. This was accomplished by analyzing existing and future supplies of wood suitable for energy use on a renewable basis and the cost effectiveness of using wood as compared to coal, natural gas, and propane. The promotion of the use and development of wood as a renewable resource to reduce Utah's dependency for selected residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial markets for conventional non-renewable forms of energy is also considered. 84 references, 21 figures, 32 tables.

Beachy, D.

1983-01-01

406

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci for Longitudinal Traits in Line Crosses  

PubMed Central

Quantitative traits whose phenotypic values change over time are called longitudinal traits. Genetic analyses of longitudinal traits can be conducted using any of the following approaches: (1) treating the phenotypic values at different time points as repeated measurements of the same trait and analyzing the trait under the repeated measurements framework, (2) treating the phenotypes measured from different time points as different traits and analyzing the traits jointly on the basis of the theory of multivariate analysis, and (3) fitting a growth curve to the phenotypic values across time points and analyzing the fitted parameters of the growth trajectory under the theory of multivariate analysis. The third approach has been used in QTL mapping for longitudinal traits by fitting the data to a logistic growth trajectory. This approach applies only to the particular S-shaped growth process. In practice, a longitudinal trait may show a trajectory of any shape. We demonstrate that one can describe a longitudinal trait with orthogonal polynomials, which are sufficiently general for fitting any shaped curve. We develop a mixed-model methodology for QTL mapping of longitudinal traits and a maximum-likelihood method for parameter estimation and statistical tests. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is applied to search for the maximum-likelihood estimates of parameters. The method is verified with simulated data and demonstrated with experimental data from a pseudobackcross family of Populus (poplar) trees.

Yang, Runqing; Tian, Quan; Xu, Shizhong

2006-01-01

407

Mapping quantitative trait loci for longitudinal traits in line crosses.  

PubMed

Quantitative traits whose phenotypic values change over time are called longitudinal traits. Genetic analyses of longitudinal traits can be conducted using any of the following approaches: (1) treating the phenotypic values at different time points as repeated measurements of the same trait and analyzing the trait under the repeated measurements framework, (2) treating the phenotypes measured from different time points as different traits and analyzing the traits jointly on the basis of the theory of multivariate analysis, and (3) fitting a growth curve to the phenotypic values across time points and analyzing the fitted parameters of the growth trajectory under the theory of multivariate analysis. The third approach has been used in QTL mapping for longitudinal traits by fitting the data to a logistic growth trajectory. This approach applies only to the particular S-shaped growth process. In practice, a longitudinal trait may show a trajectory of any shape. We demonstrate that one can describe a longitudinal trait with orthogonal polynomials, which are sufficiently general for fitting any shaped curve. We develop a mixed-model methodology for QTL mapping of longitudinal traits and a maximum-likelihood method for parameter estimation and statistical tests. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is applied to search for the maximum-likelihood estimates of parameters. The method is verified with simulated data and demonstrated with experimental data from a pseudobackcross family of Populus (poplar) trees. PMID:16751670

Yang, Runqing; Tian, Quan; Xu, Shizhong

2006-06-04

408

Studies on the wood tissue substitution by silica and calcite during the preservation of fossil wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three representative samples of petrified wood were investigated: wood from King George Island, Antarctica; wood from Bio-Bio province, middle Chile and wood from ?uków, Poland. Microdiffraction measurements of the Chilean and ?uków wood were made at LURE. Chilean and Antarctic samples were permineralised by silica material, but the share of undefined calcium silicates in construction of some intracellular locations in

Jakub Siurek; Pierre Chevallier; Chul-Un Ro; Hee Young Chun; Hwa Shik Youn; Emil Zi?ba; Andrzej Kuczumow

2004-01-01

409

Variation in life-history characteristics among populations of North American wood turtles: a view from the north  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-history traits such as age at maturity, body size and clutch size tend to vary across a species' distribution. The purpose of our study was to describe the demography of a newly discovered population of North American wood turtles Glyptemys insculpta at the species' northern range limit, and to compare our findings to those of other studies to test hypotheses

W. F. Greaves; J. D. Litzgus

2009-01-01

410

Trait emotional intelligence and the dark triad traits of personality.  

PubMed

This study presents the first behavioral genetic investigation of the relationships between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) and the Dark Triad traits of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. In line with trait EI theory, the construct correlated positively with narcissism, but negatively with the other two traits. Generally, the correlations were consistent across the 4 factors and 15 facets of the construct. Cholesky decomposition analysis revealed that the phenotypic associations were primarily due to correlated genetic factors and secondarily due to correlated nonshared environmental factors, with shared environmental factors being nonsignificant in all cases. Results are discussed from the perspective of trait EI theory with particular reference to the issue of adaptive value. PMID:21314254

Petrides, K V; Vernon, Philip A; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Veselka, Livia

2011-02-01

411

ESTUDIO EXPERIMENTAL DEL SECADO DE RENOVALES DE CANELO DRIMYS WINTERI WOOD DRYING STUDY OF CANELO DRIMYS WINTERI RE-GROWTHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the wood drying schedules at conventional temperatures of Drimys winteri re-growths are studied. The experimental design includes as variables the drying schedules (2) and the wood thickness (2). Six drying runs at pilot scale are performed in a 0.3 m3 capacity laboratory dry kiln. The wood drying quality, being based on European standards is evaluated, considering moisture

Patricio PEREZ; Rubén A. ANANIAS; Gonzalo HERNANDEZ

412

Extrinsic and intrinsic determinants of quality of work life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to test whether extrinsic, intrinsic or “prior” traits best predict satisfaction with quality of work life (QWL) in health care. Extrinsic traits are salaries and other tangible benefits; intrinsic traits include skill levels, autonomy and challenge. Prior traits are those of the individuals involved, such as their gender or employment status. A survey of

David Lewis; Kevin Brazil; Paul Krueger; Lynne Lohfeld; Erin Tjam

2001-01-01

413

Evaluating landfill disposal of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood and potential effects on groundwater: evidence from Florida.  

PubMed

Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood has been used for more than 50 years. Recent attention has been focused on appropriate disposal of CCA-treated wood when its service life ends. Groups in the US and Europe concerned with the possibility of arsenic migration to groundwater from disposed CCA-treated wood have proposed that consumers be required to dispose of the wood as a hazardous waste, in the most protective of landfills. We examined available data for evidence of arsenic migration from unlined construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills in Florida, where CCA-treated wood is disposed. Florida was chosen because soil, groundwater, landfill design, weather, and levels of CCA-treated wood use make the state a uniquely sensitive indicator for observing arsenic migration from CCA-treated wood disposal sites, should it occur. We developed and quality-checked a CCA-treated wood disposal model to estimate the amount of wood and associated arsenic disposed. By 2000, an estimated 13 million kg of arsenic in CCA-treated wood was disposed in Florida; however, groundwater monitoring data do not indicate that arsenic is migrating from unlined C&D landfills. Our results provide evidence that highly stringent regulation of CCA-treated wood disposal, such as treatment as a hazardous waste, is unnecessary. PMID:16870233

Saxe, Jennifer K; Wannamaker, Eric J; Conklin, Scott W; Shupe, Todd F; Beck, Barbara D

2006-07-25

414

Reusing Remediated CCA-Treated Wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Options for recycling and reusing chromated-copper-arsenate- (CCA) treated material include dimensional lumber and round wood size reduction, composites, and remediation. Size reduction by remilling, shaving, or resawing CCA-treated wood reduces the volume of landfilled waste material and provides many options for reusing used treated wood. Manufacturing composite products from CCA-treated wood combined with untreated wood, plastic, or cement has been

Carol A. Clausen

415

Acetylation of wood causes photobleaching.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the photobleaching of acetylated wood. The acetylated spruce wood was irradiated by artificial sunlight emitted from xenon lamp with covering several kinds of band-pass filter. The lightness (L(*)) of acetylated wood increased with integral irradiance. The chroma (?C(*)) decreased by light-irradiation with wavelength from 430nm to 500nm. However, the light-irradiation including ultraviolet ray region made it decrease after increase with integral irradiance. The visible light made hue angle (h°) increase, however, the ultraviolet ray made it decrease. The lignin degradation and the production of carbonyl groups were observed by light-irradiation including ultraviolet ray. However, no remarkable changes in IR spectra were observed by visible light-irradiation. Photobleaching of acetylated wood was caused by mainly visible light without modifying the IR spectra of lignin. PMID:20696591

Mitsui, Katsuya

2010-07-25

416

Radiation disinfestation of wood products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infestation of wood by insects, fungi and nematodes has been, for decades, a major challenge to trade in wood products around the world. The damage that can be inflicted on plants and animals through the introduction of unwanted pests into importing regions can reach hundreds of millions of dollars annually. Now that Methyl Bromide's days appear to be numbered, alternative methods of pest eradication in wood products for export must be sought at once, so as to avoid last minute scrambling by the industry when Methyl Bromide becomes finally and irreversibly unavailable. Other existing technologies are either costly (e.g. kiln drying) or still under development (e.g. RF vacuum drying and RF steam sterilization). This paper examines a variety of risk mitigation methods and presents an outline of a radiation processing system for wood disinfestation.

Kunstadt, Peter

1998-06-01

417

Structure and Function of Wood  

Treesearch

... roots to the leaves, mechanical support of the plant body, and storage and synthesis ... To accomplish any of these functions, wood must have cells that are ... with unique properties, uses, and capabilities, in both plant and human contexts.

418

Structure and function of wood  

Treesearch

... to the leaves, mechanical support of the plant body, and storage of biochemicals. ... To accomplish any of these functions, wood must have cells that are ... with unique properties, uses, and capabilities, in both plant and human contexts.

419

Effect of Habitat Conditions and Plant Traits on Leaf Damage in the Carduoideae Subfamily  

PubMed Central

Plant traits are the key factors that determine herbivore foraging selection. The traits serving as defense traits against herbivores represent a wide range of traits, such as chemical, physiological, morphological and life-history traits. While many studies considered plant defense traits at the within-species scale, much less is known from comparisons of a wide range of closely related species. The aim of this study was to identify factors responsible for the intensity of leaf damage in the Carduoideae subfamily of Asteraceae, which hosts many invasive species and thus is potential candidate plant species that could be controlled by biological control. Specifically, we wanted to see the relative importance of habitat characteristics, plant size and plants traits in determining the degree of folivory. The study identified several defense traits able to explain differences in herbivory between species after accounting for differences in the habitats in which the species occur and the plant size. Specifically, the most important traits were traits related to the quality of the leaf tissue expressed as the content of phosphorus, water and specific leaf area, which suggests that the leaf quality had a more important effect on the degree of herbivory than the presence of specific defense mechanisms such as spines and hair. Leaf quality is thus a candidate factor that drives herbivore choice when selecting which plant to feed on and should be considered when assessing the danger that a herbivore will switch hosts when introduced to a new range.

Munzbergova, Zuzana; Skuhrovec, Jiri

2013-01-01

420

Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh  

SciTech Connect

The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

1997-07-01

421

Coarse particulate matter and airborne endotoxin within wood stove homes.  

PubMed

Emissions from indoor biomass burning are a major public health concern in developing areas of the world. Less is known about indoor air quality, particularly airborne endotoxin, in homes burning biomass fuel in residential wood stoves in higher income countries. A filter-based sampler was used to evaluate wintertime indoor coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5 ) and airborne endotoxin (EU/m(3) , EU/mg) concentrations in 50 homes using wood stoves as their primary source of heat in western Montana. We investigated number of residents, number of pets, dampness (humidity), and frequency of wood stove usage as potential predictors of indoor airborne endotoxin concentrations. Two 48-h sampling events per home revealed a mean winter PM10-2.5 concentration (± s.d.) of 12.9 (± 8.6) ?g/m(3) , while PM2.5 concentrations averaged 32.3 (± 32.6) ?g/m(3) . Endotoxin concentrations measured from PM10-2.5 filter samples were 9.2 (± 12.4) EU/m(3) and 1010 (± 1524) EU/mg. PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 were significantly correlated in wood stove homes (r = 0.36, P < 0.05). The presence of pets in the homes was associated with PM10-2.5 but not with endotoxin concentrations. Importantly, none of the other measured home characteristics was a strong predictor of airborne endotoxin, including frequency of residential wood stove usage. PMID:23551341

McNamara, M; Thornburg, J; Semmens, E; Ward, T; Noonan, C

2013-03-29

422

Wood burning stove and fireplace  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove, a free standing fireplace or fireplace insert is constructed to receive one of three possible types of inserts to make the unit adaptable to a convection, hot air or hot water heating system. The wood or like fuel combustion rate is automatically controlled by a temperature sensor and draft control system. The insert may be a baffle structure, an air to air heat exchanger or an air to water heat exchanger.

Kolb, R.C.

1980-04-29

423

Wood carbonization systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work presents the evolution of the charcoal production systems, commenting their advantages and disadvantages, aiming to guide the choice of the ideal option, considering the aimed production, the quality of the products and the local economical situ...

R. S. Pontes

1990-01-01

424

Congeners in sugar cane spirits aged in casks of different woods.  

PubMed

The profile of volatile compounds and aging markers in sugar cane spirits aged for 36 months in casks made of 10 types of wood were studied. The ethanol content, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters, higher alcohols, and methanol were determined. In addition, gallic, vanilic and syringic acids, siringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, vanillin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural were identified and quantified. The profile of volatile compounds characterised aging in each type of wood. The beverage aged in oak cask achieved the highest contents of maturation-related congeners. The Brazilian woods, similar to oak, were jequitibá rosa and cerejeira, which presented the highest contents of some maturation-related compounds, such as vanillin, vanilic acid, syringaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. Although oak wood conferred more chemical complexity to the beverage, Brazilian woods, singly or complementarily, present potential for spirit characterisation and for improving the quality of sugar cane spirits. PMID:23561163

Bortoletto, Aline M; Alcarde, André R

2013-01-16

425

Wood-plastic composites with reduced moisture : effects of chemical ...  

Treesearch

Title: Wood-plastic composites with reduced moisture : effects of chemical modification on ... Keywords: Ultraviolet radiation, weathering, polyethylene, wood flour, ... biodegradation, mechanical properties, wood-decaying fungi, deterioration, ...

426

EFFECTS OF CAMBIAL AGE AND STEM HEIGHT ON WOOD DENSITY AND GROWTH OF JACK PINE GROWN IN BOREAL STANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jack pine specimens were examined for longitudinal and radial variations in selected wood quality parameters. Wood density and ring width of cross-sections were measured systematically from pith to bark along the merchantable stem using X-ray densitometry. Effects of cambial age and stem height were analyzed using a linear mixed model with two levels of nesting. A strong interaction between the

Suzanne Brais; Marc J. Mazerolle

2009-01-01

427

Feasibility study of enhanced combustion via improved wood stove firebox design. Final report Nov 84Jul 85  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of an examination of materials that might be used to line the firebox of a wood-burning stove to produce more uniform and complete combustion. (Emissions from incomplete combustion in wood-burning stoves are becoming an increasing environmental problem.) Although many materials were considered initially, refractory materials appear to possess the qualities desired relative to heat transfer, resistance

K. T. Fuentes; L. J. Hodas

1985-01-01

428

Directory of Wisconsin wood waste producers  

SciTech Connect

This directory began to take shape several years ago when Energy Bureau staff involved in promoting wood waste energy throughout the state became aware that there are literally hundreds of businesses in Wisconsin that produce wood waste in their business operations and hundreds more that could burn wood waste to supply energy for their process needs. If these wood waste producers and potential wood waste burners could get together, it was thought, Wisconsin could take a giant step toward energy self-reliance and reducing a significant source of solid waste. A companion directory, entitled Directory of Wisconsin Wood Burning Facilities, lists Wisconsin companies and institutions burning wood waste for fuel. The two directories are meant to complement each other; to provide wood waste burners with information on possible fuel supplies and wood waste producers with information on possible markets for their waste.

Not Available

1989-05-01

429

Marker\\/trait associations identified in spring wheat using 25 years of CIMMYT international trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study identified marker\\/trait associations (MTA) by the joint analysis of phenotypic data from a comprehensive set of field trials and dense DArT genome scans (1,447 polymorphic markers). MTA were identified for 21 traits (three rusts, grain yield, five agronomic characters, two quality traits, and 10 other foliar diseases) using data collected from the first 25 years of CIMMYT's Elite

Arief V; DeLacy IH; Dieters MJ; Crossa J; Batley J; Davenport G; Dreisiqacker S; Duveiller E; Edwards D; Huttner E; Manes Y; Payne T; Singh RP; Warburton M; Wenzl P; McLaren G; Braun H-J; Crouch J; Ortiz R; Basford KE

430

Mapping of quantitative trait locus associated with maize tolerance to high seed drying temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

quantitative trait locus (qTL) mapping and identification of traits of agronomic importance is important in the process of molecu- lar marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. The molecular map of maize is well saturated and qTL and simple sequence repeat (SSR) mark- ers have been identified, whereas few markers linked to seed quality traits are included. The present study aimed to

K. C. P. C. Salgado; E. V. R. Von Pinho; C. T. Guimaraes; R. G. Von Pinho; C. A. Ferreira; V. Andrade

2008-01-01

431

Anxiety traits among medical students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objetive: To evaluate the presence and intensity of anxiety traits among medical students. Method: The Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory was applied to 603 regularly matriculated students at ABC Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Results: 86.9% (524) of all six grades students answered the Inven- tory, 20.1% had scored 49 or more anxiety-traits symptoms, suggesting a high level of a anxiety

Sergio Baldassin; Lourdes Conceição Martins; Arthur Guerra de Andrade

2006-01-01

432

A comparison of co-combustion characteristics of coal with wood and hydrothermally treated municipal solid waste.  

PubMed

In this work, thermogravimetric analysis was used to investigate the co-combustion characteristics of wood and municipal solid waste (MSW) with Indian coal. Combustion characteristics like volatile release, ignition were studied. Wood presented an enhanced reaction rate reflecting its high volatile and low ash contents, while MSW enhanced ignition behavior of Indian coal. The results indicate that blending of both, wood and MSW improves devolatization properties of coal. Significant interaction was detected between wood and Indian coal, and reactivity of coal has improved upon blending with wood. On the other hand, MSW shows a good interaction with Indian coal leading to significant reduction in ignition temperature of coal and this effect was more pronounced with higher blending ratio of MSW. Hence MSW blending could more positively support the combustion of low quality Indian coal as compared to wood, due to its property of enhancement of ignition characteristics. PMID:20006927

Muthuraman, Marisamy; Namioka, Tomoaki; Yoshikawa, Kunio

2009-12-14

433

Measuring wood density by means of X-ray computer tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

– \\u000a \\u000a • Wood density is a characteristic of major interest. Usually, it is used as an indicator of wood quality; however, in the\\u000a context of global change, it is increasingly used for biomass and carbon storage estimations. X-ray computer tomography is\\u000a a method which enables quick estimates of wood density after applying a calibration procedure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • A review of

Charline Freyburger; Fleur Longuetaud; Frédéric Mothe; Thiéry Constant; Jean-Michel Leban

2009-01-01

434

Application of laboratory fungal resistance tests to solid wood and ...  

Treesearch

However, irreversible damage due to water sorption made separating the effects of ... Keywords: Plastic-impregnated wood, absorption, adsorption, wood, ... biodegradation, polyethylene, moisture, wood flour, soil-block testing, weight of wood ...

435

Some Methods Used in Studying Microbiological Deterioration of Wood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods useful in detecting and studying microbiological deterioration of wood are discussed. They concern aspects of wood microtechnique fundamental to the execution of microscopical examinations of decayed wood, isolation and culture of wood-destroying ...

1964-01-01

436

Genetic determinism of anatomical and hydraulic traits within an apple progeny.  

PubMed

The apple tree is known to have an isohydric behaviour, maintaining rather constant leaf water potential in soil with low water status and/or under high evaporative demand. However, little is known on the xylem water transport from roots to leaves from the two perspectives of efficiency and safety, and on its genetic variability. We analysed 16 traits related to hydraulic efficiency and safety, and anatomical traits in apple stems, and the relationships between them. Most variables were found heritable, and we investigated the determinism underlying their genetic control through a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis on 90 genotypes from the same progeny. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that all traits related to efficiency, whether hydraulic conductivity, vessel number and area or wood area, were included in the first PC, whereas the second PC included the safety variables, thus confirming the absence of trade-off between these two sets of traits. Our results demonstrated that clustered variables were characterized by common genomic regions. Together with previous results on the same progeny, our study substantiated that hydraulic efficiency traits co-localized with traits identified for tree growth and fruit production. PMID:21477120

Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Gorza, Olivier; Cochard, Hervé; Martinez, Sébastien; Celton, Jean-Marc; Ripetti, Véronique; Lartaud, Marc; Bry, Xavier; Trottier, Catherine; Costes, Evelyne

2011-06-22

437

Predicting fine root lifespan from plant functional traits in temperate trees.  

PubMed

Although linkages of leaf and whole-plant traits to leaf lifespan have been rigorously investigated, there is a limited understanding of similar linkages of whole-plant and fine root traits to root lifespan. In comparisons across species, do suites of traits found in leaves also exist for roots, and can these traits be used to predict root lifespan? We observed the fine root lifespan of 12 temperate tree species using minirhizotrons in a common garden and compared their median lifespans with fine-root and whole-plant traits. We then determined which set of combined traits would be most useful in predicting patterns of root lifespan. Median root lifespan ranged widely among species (95-336 d). Root diameter, calcium content, and tree wood density were positively related to root lifespan, whereas specific root length, nitrogen (N) : carbon (C) ratio, and plant growth rate were negatively related to root lifespan. Root diameter and plant growth rate, together (R² = 0.62) or in combination with root N : C ratio (R² = 0.76), were useful predictors of root lifespan across the 12 species. Our results highlight linkages between fine root lifespan in temperate trees and plant functional traits that may reduce uncertainty in predictions of root lifespan or turnover across species at broader spatial scales. PMID:22686426

Luke McCormack, M; Adams, Thomas S; Smithwick, Erica A H; Eissenstat, David M

2012-06-11

438

Mapping quantitative trait loci for kernel composition in almond  

PubMed Central

Background Almond breeding is increasingly taking into account kernel quality as a breeding objective. Information on the parameters to be considered in evaluating almond quality, such as protein and oil content, as well as oleic acid and tocopherol concentration, has been recently compiled. The genetic control of these traits has not yet been studied in almond, although this information would improve the efficiency of almond breeding programs. Results A map with 56 simple sequence repeat or microsatellite (SSR) markers was constructed for an almond population showing a wide range of variability for the chemical components of the almond kernel. A total of 12 putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling these chemical traits have been detected in this analysis, corresponding to seven genomic regions of the eight almond linkage groups (LG). Some QTL were clustered in the same region or shared the same molecular markers, according to the correlations already found between the chemical traits. The logarithm of the odds (LOD) values for any given trait ranged from 2.12 to 4.87, explaining from 11.0 to 33.1?% of the phenotypic variance of the trait. Conclusions The results produced in the study offer the opportunity to include the new genetic information in almond breeding programs. Increases in the positive traits of kernel quality may be looked for simultaneously whenever they are genetically independent, even if they are negatively correlated. We have provided the first genetic framework for the chemical components of the almond kernel, with twelve QTL in agreement with the large number of genes controlling their metabolism.

2012-01-01

439

Functional Pattern Recognition of 3D Laser Scanned Images of Wood-Pulp Chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the appropriateness of applying a functional rather than the typical vectorial approach to a pattern recognition\\u000a problem. The problem to be resolved was to construct an online system for controlling wood-pulp chip granulometry quality\\u000a for implementation in a wood-pulp factory. A functional linear model and a functional logistic model were used to classify\\u000a the hourly empirical distributions of

Marcos López; José M. Matías; José A. Vilán; Javier Taboada

2007-01-01

440

Experimental study about the effects of disc chipper settings on the distribution of wood chip size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays wood should be of principal sources of biomass. This wood is transformed into chips in order to increase automatic operations and to decrease the technical effort needed at the energy conversion plant. Typical high quality chips, which are used to feed small woodchip boilers, vary in size from 10 × 10 × 5 mm to 15 × 15 × 8 mm. Chips that are relatively square and flat are

Rami Abdallah; Sébastien Auchet; Pierre Jean Méausoone

2011-01-01

441

Thermo-economic optimisation of the integration of electrolysis in synthetic natural gas production from wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Converting wood to grid quality methane allows to distribute a CO2 free, renewable energy resource in a conventional energy distribution system and use it in transportation applications. Applying a multi-objective optimisation algorithm to a previously developed thermo-economic process model for the thermochemical production of synthetic natural gas from wood, the present paper assesses the prospect of integrating an electrolyser in

M. Gassner; F. Maréchal

2008-01-01

442

Effects of preboiling on the acidity and strength properties of heat-treated wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat treatment is an alternative to the chemical treatment in wood preservation, which has been used to some extent in improving\\u000a timber quality. However, reduction in strength properties has been one of the major limitations in the use of this technique\\u000a and therefore investigations on the use of various pre-treatment methods are highly essential. Wood samples from Scots pine\\u000a were

L. Awoyemi; M. C. Jarvis; A. Hapca

2009-01-01

443

G73-60 Working With Wood I. Home Drying Lumber (Revised July 1987)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avoid the expense of kiln-dried lumber by processing and drying your own lumber at home.\\u000aAnyone who has done much woodworking knows how expensive high quality, kiln-dried, hardwood lumber can be. Even kiln-dried construction lumber is expensive. Besides expense, there also may be problems with finding certain species of wood, highly figured wood, or hardwood boards thicker than one inch

Michael Kuhns; Richard Straight

1973-01-01

444

Biodegradability and waste behavior of industrial wood-based construction materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Industrial wood-based construction materials: chipboard, plain and overlaid plywood, phenolic surface film, laminates and\\u000a selected synthetic polymers were studied for their biodegradability under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and for the environmental\\u000a quality of the degradation residue. The yields of carbon dioxide plus methane from the wood-based materials in 6 months under\\u000a anaerobic conditions at 33?C ranged from ?3% to 79%

J S P Peltola; J Juhanoja; M S Salkinoja-Salonen

2000-01-01