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Sample records for wood quality traits

  1. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling growth and wood quality traits in Eucalyptus grandis using a maternal half-sib family and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Grattapaglia, D; Bertolucci, F L; Penchel, R; Sederoff, R R

    1996-11-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of forest productivity traits was performed using an open pollinated half-sib family of Eucalyptus grandis. For volume growth, a sequential QTL mapping approach was applied using bulk segregant analysis (BSA), selective genotyping (SG) and cosegregation analysis (CSA). Despite the low heritability of this trait and the heterogeneous genetic background employed for mapping, BSA detected one putative QTL and SG two out of the three later found by CSA. The three putative QTL for volume growth were found to control 13.7% of the phenotypic variation, corresponding to an estimated 43.7% of the genetic variation. For wood specific gravity five QTL were identified controlling 24.7% of the phenotypic variation corresponding to 49% of the genetic variation. Overlapping QTL for CBH, WSG and percentage dry weight of bark were observed. A significant case of digenic epistasis was found, involving unlinked QTL for volume. Our results demonstrate the applicability of the within half-sib design for QTL mapping in forest trees and indicate the existence of major genes involved in the expression of economically important traits related to forest productivity in Eucalyptus grandis. These findings have important implications for marker-assisted tree breeding. PMID:8913761

  2. Genomic selection for growth and wood quality in Eucalyptus: capturing the missing heritability and accelerating breeding for complex traits in forest trees.

    PubMed

    Resende, Marcos D V; Resende, Márcio F R; Sansaloni, Carolina P; Petroli, Cesar D; Missiaggia, Alexandre A; Aguiar, Aurelio M; Abad, Jupiter M; Takahashi, Elizabete K; Rosado, Antonio M; Faria, Danielle A; Pappas, Georgios J; Kilian, Andrzej; Grattapaglia, Dario

    2012-04-01

    • Genomic selection (GS) is expected to cause a paradigm shift in tree breeding by improving its speed and efficiency. By fitting all the genome-wide markers concurrently, GS can capture most of the 'missing heritability' of complex traits that quantitative trait locus (QTL) and association mapping classically fail to explain. Experimental support of GS is now required. • The effectiveness of GS was assessed in two unrelated Eucalyptus breeding populations with contrasting effective population sizes (N(e) = 11 and 51) genotyped with > 3000 DArT markers. Prediction models were developed for tree circumference and height growth, wood specific gravity and pulp yield using random regression best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP). • Accuracies of GS varied between 0.55 and 0.88, matching the accuracies achieved by conventional phenotypic selection. Substantial proportions (74-97%) of trait heritability were captured by fitting all genome-wide markers simultaneously. Genomic regions explaining trait variation largely coincided between populations, although GS models predicted poorly across populations, likely as a result of variable patterns of linkage disequilibrium, inconsistent allelic effects and genotype × environment interaction. • GS brings a new perspective to the understanding of quantitative trait variation in forest trees and provides a revolutionary tool for applied tree improvement. Nevertheless population-specific predictive models will likely drive the initial applications of GS in forest tree breeding. PMID:22309312

  3. Manipulation of wood chemical traits for energy: An assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ranney, J.W.; Turhollow, A.F. ); Dinus, R.J. )

    1989-01-01

    A comparative assessment of the biological potential to modify wood for improved conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels identifies specific gravity, lignin and hemicellulose qualities, bark quantity, and hemicellulose content as priority research targets. However, the difference in priorities of 10 characteristics is minimal. When biological opportunities are compared to biofuel conversion priorities, bark quantity and specific gravity fall in priority and concern for lignin content rises. The major conclusion of the comparison is that an assortment of many minor changes hold the greatest and most practical promise. The economic benefit of these potential improvements needs evaluation. The qualities of productivity (growth) and disease/pest tolerance and resistance continue to exist as a major concerns against which energy trait modifications must have little negative effect. 34 refs., 7 tabs.

  4. Dietary effects of a mix derived from oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil and sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood extract on pig performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits.

    PubMed

    Ranucci, D; Beghelli, D; Trabalza-Marinucci, M; Branciari, R; Forte, C; Olivieri, O; Badillo Pazmay, G V; Cavallucci, C; Acuti, G

    2015-02-01

    The effects of a pre-formulated commercial plant extract mix, composed of equal parts of oregano essential oil and sweet chestnut wood extract, on performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits were evaluated. In two 155-d studies, 60 pigs (mean liveweight: 42.9 kg) were assigned to either a control diet (CTR) or an identical diet supplemented (0.2%) with the plant extract mix (OC). No differences in the growth rate were observed. Glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the OC muscles (Longissimus lumborum) were higher than in CTR muscles. The lipid oxidation of meat was lower in the OC group. In the cooked meat samples, OC animals had the lowest L* and H° values and the highest a* values. The OC meat received higher scores for colour, taste and overall liking in both the blind and the labelled consumer tests. PMID:25454470

  5. Genomics of Quality Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seeds of the cereal crops provide a large portion of both the total calories and protein in the human diet. The utility of any cereal depends on the precise characteristics of their grain and the summation of parameters that translate in the grain "quality" for speific utilizations. This chapter...

  6. Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, G.A.

    2001-06-20

    Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F2 progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar.

  7. Wood quality from fast-grown plantations

    SciTech Connect

    Zobel, B.

    1981-01-01

    As forestry becomes more intensive and as forestry operations move toward the tropical areas, an increasing proportion of the wood available to the industry will come from young, fast-grown plantations. The wood of such trees, especially from the conifers, is so different that it will have a major effect on utilization and product standards. Acceptability of wood from fast-grown plantations will change as solid wood and paper quality standards change. Some of the primary effects on wood and products from fast-grown plantations are discussed in this paper. The wood is very suitable for some products and poor for others. The paper reports on conifers and hardwoods separately, with a large section on Eucalyptus.

  8. Plant traits and wood fates across the globe: rotted, burned, or consumed?

    E-print Network

    Allison, Steven D.

    Plant traits and wood fates across the globe: rotted, burned, or consumed? W I L L I A M K . C O R, USA Abstract Wood represents the defining feature of forest systems, and often the carbon in woody debris has a long residence time. Globally, coarse dead wood contains 36­72 Pg C, and understanding what

  9. ECOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY DETERMINANTS OF A KEY PLANT FUNCTIONAL TRAIT: WOOD DENSITY AND ITS COMMUNITY-

    E-print Network

    Enquist, Brian Joseph

    could be differentiated (Westoby et al., 2002). One of the key traits that seems to encapsulateECOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY DETERMINANTS OF A KEY PLANT FUNCTIONAL TRAIT: WOOD DENSITY AND ITS trait in trees indicative of their life history and mechanical and physiological strategies

  10. Size-dependent changes in wood chemical traits: a comparison of neotropical saplings and large trees

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam R.; Thomas, Sean C.; Zhao, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Wood anatomical traits are important correlates of life-history strategies among tree species, yet little is known about wood chemical traits. Additionally, size-dependent changes in wood chemical traits have been rarely examined, although these changes may represent an important aspect of tree ontogeny. Owing to selection for pathogen resistance and biomechanical stability, we predicted that saplings would show higher lignin (L) and wood carbon (Cconv), and lower holocellulose (H) concentrations, compared with conspecific large trees. To test these expectations, we quantified H, L and Cconv in co-occurring Panamanian tree species at the large tree vs. sapling size classes. We also examined inter- and intraspecific patterns using multivariate and phylogenetic analyses. In 15 of 16 species, sapling L concentration was higher than that in conspecific large trees, and in all 16 species, sapling H was lower than that in conspecific large trees. In 16 of 24 species, Cconv was higher in saplings than conspecific large trees. All large-tree traits were unrelated to sapling values and were unrelated to four life-history variables. Wood chemical traits did not show a phylogenetic signal in saplings, instead showing similar values across distantly related taxa; in large trees, only H showed a significant phylogenetic signal. Size-dependent changes in wood chemistry show consistent and predictable patterns, suggesting that ontogenetic changes in wood chemical traits are an important aspect of tree functional biology. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that at early ontogenetic stages, trees are selected for greater L to defend against cellulose-decaying pathogens, or possibly to confer biomechanical stability.

  11. Functional Multi-Locus QTL Mapping of Temporal Trends in Scots Pine Wood Traits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zitong; Hallingbäck, Henrik R.; Abrahamsson, Sara; Fries, Anders; Gull, Bengt Andersson; Sillanpää, Mikko J.; García-Gil, M. Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of wood properties in conifer species has focused on single time point measurements or on trait means based on heterogeneous wood samples (e.g., increment cores), thus ignoring systematic within-tree trends. In this study, functional QTL mapping was performed for a set of important wood properties in increment cores from a 17-yr-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) full-sib family with the aim of detecting wood trait QTL for general intercepts (means) and for linear slopes by increasing cambial age. Two multi-locus functional QTL analysis approaches were proposed and their performances were compared on trait datasets comprising 2 to 9 time points, 91 to 455 individual tree measurements and genotype datasets of amplified length polymorphisms (AFLP), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The first method was a multilevel LASSO analysis whereby trend parameter estimation and QTL mapping were conducted consecutively; the second method was our Bayesian linear mixed model whereby trends and underlying genetic effects were estimated simultaneously. We also compared several different hypothesis testing methods under either the LASSO or the Bayesian framework to perform QTL inference. In total, five and four significant QTL were observed for the intercepts and slopes, respectively, across wood traits such as earlywood percentage, wood density, radial fiberwidth, and spiral grain angle. Four of these QTL were represented by candidate gene SNPs, thus providing promising targets for future research in QTL mapping and molecular function. Bayesian and LASSO methods both detected similar sets of QTL given datasets that comprised large numbers of individuals. PMID:25305041

  12. Effects of thermal treatment on chemical, mechanical and colour traits in Norway spruce wood.

    PubMed

    Ka?íková, Danica; Ka?ík, František; Cabalová, Iveta; Durkovi?, Jaroslav

    2013-09-01

    In several different branches of the wood industry heat treatment is a growing application as it changes the chemical, mechanical, physical and biological properties of wood. Investigations using wet chemical analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and CIELab colour system have been conducted to study the changes in Norway spruce wood subjected to temperature up to 270°C over a 30 min time period. The results showed that mass loss (ML), total crystallinity index (TCI) of cellulose, total colour difference (?E*), and the content of lignin and extractives increased with the temperature, whereas degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), lightness difference (?L*), and the content of holocellulose, cellulose and hemicelluloses all decreased with the thermal treatment. Relationships between temperature and the examined wood traits were all fitted by exponential curves. Power law relationships were found to fit the trends for DP of cellulose with ?E*, ?L*, and TCI of cellulose. Also found were power law regressions for the content of hemicelluloses with MOE, MOR, ?L*, and ML. Temperatures ranging from 20 to 187°C formed a compact cluster, clearly separated from the higher examined temperatures in the multivariate wood trait space. PMID:23871194

  13. Identifying quantitative end-use quality traits through marker-trait associations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    End-use quality traits (grain, milling and baking) are generally expensive and difficult to measure. We are in the process of estimating phenotypic trait values for a wide range of Pacific Northwest wheat genotypes, including soft white spring, winter and club, hard red winter and spring, and hard ...

  14. Quantitative Trait Loci Influencing End-use Quality Traits of Hard Red Spring Wheat Breeding Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat end-product quality is determined by a complex group of traits including dough visco-elastic characteristics and bread-making properties. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and analysis were conducted for endosperm texture and polymeric proteins, dough mixing strength and bread-making prop...

  15. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTL) ANALYSIS OF CANNING QUALITY TRAITS IN KIDNEY BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canning quality of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), of which the degree of splitting (SPLT) and overall appearance (APP) if canned beans are major components, is a complex trait that exhibits quantitative. The objectives of this study were to identify major genes that affect APP and SPLT in kidney...

  16. Genetic Control of Meat Quality Traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, John L.

    Meat was originally produced from non-specialized animals that were used for a variety of purposes, in addition to being a source of food. However, selective breeding has resulted in “improved” breeds of cattle that are now used to produce either milk or beef, and specialized chicken lines that produce eggs or meat. These improved breeds are very productive under appropriate management systems. The selection methods used to create these specialized breeds were based on easily measured phenotypic variations, such as growth rate or physical size. Improvement in the desired trait was achieved by breeding directly from animals displaying the desired phenotype. However, more recently sophisticated genetic models have been developed using statistical approaches that consider phenotypic information collected, not only from individual animals but also from their parents, sibs, and progeny.

  17. Mapping quantitative trait loci for five forage quality traits in a sorghum-sudangrass hybrid.

    PubMed

    Li, J Q; Wang, L H; Zhan, Q W; Liu, Y L; Zhang, Q; Li, J F; Fan, F F

    2015-01-01

    The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting forage quality traits enables an understanding of the genetic mechanism of these loci. The aim of the present study was to detect QTLs for the whole-plant protein content (WP), whole-plant fat content (WF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and whole-plant ash content (WA) using a population of 184 F2 individuals from a cross between sorghum Tx623A and sudangrass Sa. Correlation analysis was performed between the five forage quality traits. WP was found to be positively correlated with WF, NDF, and ADF. Furthermore, NDF was positively correlated with ADF but negatively correlated with WA. A genetic map with 124 SSR markers was constructed for QTL mapping. A total of 12 QTLs associated with the five forage quality traits were detected. Of these QTLs, qNDF3, qNDF8, and qADF8 explained more than 10% of the phenotypic variation. Additionally, although all of the QTLs exhibited additive and dominant effects, they mainly exhibited dominant effects. Our results provide important information for marker-assisted selection breeding of sorghum-sudangrass hybrids. PMID:26535640

  18. Validation of Commercial DNA Tests for Beef Quality Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Associations between three commercially-available genetic marker panels (GeneSTAR® Quality Grade, GeneSTAR® Tenderness, and Igenity TenderGENE™) and quantitative beef traits were validated by the National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC). Validation was interpreted to be the independent ver...

  19. VALIDATION OF COMMERCIAL DNA TESTS FOR QUANTITATIVE BEEF QUALITY TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Associations between three commercially-available genetic marker panels (GeneSTAR(TM) Quality Grade, GeneSTAR(TM) Tenderness, and Igenity TenderGENE(TM)) and quantitative beef traits were validated by the National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC). Validation was interpreted to be the indepe...

  20. Perceived quality of wood images influenced by the skewness of image histogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, Shigehito; Mizokami, Yoko; Yaguchi, Hirohisa

    2015-08-01

    The shape of image luminance histograms is related to material perception. We investigated how the luminance histogram contributed to improvements in the perceived quality of wood images by examining various natural wood and adhesive vinyl sheets with printed wood grain. In the first experiment, we visually evaluated the perceived quality of wood samples. In addition, we measured the colorimetric parameters of the wood samples and calculated statistics of image luminance. The relationship between visual evaluation scores and image statistics suggested that skewness and kurtosis affected the perceived quality of wood. In the second experiment, we evaluated the perceived quality of wood images with altered luminance skewness and kurtosis using a paired comparison method. Our result suggests that wood images are more realistic if the skewness of the luminance histogram is slightly negative.

  1. Watermelon quality traits as affected by ploidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers offering high quality watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.), Matsum & Nakai] that are also high in phytonutrients will have stronger market opportunities. In order to offer highly nutritious fruit, the industry must understand the nature of phytonutrient accumulation as it is affected by ...

  2. Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export

    SciTech Connect

    J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  3. QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, J.S.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, X.T.; Lau, A.K.; Melin, Staffan; Oveisi, E.; Sowlati, T.

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  4. Genetic mapping analysis of bread-making quality traits in spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we assess the genetic architecture of bread-making quality traits in spring wheat. A mapping population derived from BR34 and Grandin, a soft x hard cross, was used to measure 20 end-use quality traits including six kernel characteristics, seven milling and flour traits, four dough mi...

  5. Emotional trait and memory associates of sleep timing and quality.

    PubMed

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Rubin, Zoe S; Tracy, Lauren E; Spencer, Rebecca M C; Orr, Scott P; Verga, Patrick W

    2015-10-30

    Poor ability to remember the extinction of conditioned fear, elevated trait anxiety, and delayed or disrupted nocturnal sleep are reported in anxiety disorders. The current study examines the interrelationship of these factors in healthy young-adult males. Skin-conductance response was conditioned to two differently colored lamps. One color but not the other was then extinguished. After varying delays, both colors were presented to determine extinction recall and generalization. Questionnaires measured sleep quality, morningness-eveningness, neuroticism and trait anxiety. A subset produced a mean 7.0 nights of actigraphy and sleep diaries. Median split of mean sleep midpoint defined early- and late-"sleep timers". Extinction was more rapidly learned in the morning than evening only in early timers who also better generalized extinction recall. Extinction recall was greater with higher sleep efficiency. Sleep efficiency and morningness were negatively associated with neuroticism and anxiety. However, neuroticism and anxiety did not predict extinction learning, recall or generalization. Therefore, neuroticism/anxiety and deficient fear extinction, although both associated with poor quality and late timing of sleep, are not directly associated with each other. Elevated trait anxiety, in addition to predisposing directly to anxiety disorders, may thus also indirectly promote such disorders by impairing sleep and, consequently, extinction memory. PMID:26257092

  6. Carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Fernandes, S; Sartori, J R; Teixeira, P S S; Moura, A S A M T

    2013-03-01

    Rabbits are very sensitive to heat stress because they have difficulty eliminating excess body heat. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress on slaughter weight, dressing percentage and carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits from two genetic groups. Ninety-six weaned rabbits were used: half were from the Botucatu genetic group and half were crossbreds between New Zealand White sires and Botucatu does. They were assigned to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (two genetic groups and three ambient temperatures: 18°C, 25°C and 30°C) and kept under controlled conditions in three environmental chambers from 5 to 10 weeks of age. Slaughter took place at 10 weeks, on 2 consecutive days. Meat quality measurements were made in the longissimus muscle. Actual average ambient temperature and relative humidity in the three chambers were 18.4°C and 63.9%, 24.4°C and 80.2% and 29.6°C and 75.9%, respectively. Purebred rabbits were heavier at slaughter and had heavier commercial and reference carcasses than crossbreds at 30°C; however, no differences between genetic groups for these traits were found at lower temperatures. No genetic group × ambient temperature interaction was detected for any other carcass or meat quality traits. The percentages of distal parts of legs, skin and carcass forepart were higher in crossbred rabbits, indicating a lower degree of maturity at slaughter in this group. The percentage of thoracic viscera was higher in the purebreds. Lightness of the longissimus muscle was higher in the purebreds, whereas redness was higher in the crossbreds. Slaughter, commercial and reference carcass weights and the percentages of thoracic viscera, liver and kidneys were negatively related with ambient temperature. Commercial and reference carcass yields, and the percentage of distal parts of legs, on the other hand, had a positive linear relationship with ambient temperature. Meat redness and yellowness diminished as ambient temperature increased, whereas cooking loss was linearly elevated with ambient temperature. Meat color traits revealed paler meat in the purebreds, but no differences in instrumental texture properties and water-holding capacity between genetic groups. Purebred rabbits were less susceptible to heat stress than the crossbreds. Heat stress resulted in lower slaughter and carcass weights and proportional reductions of organ weights, which contributed to a higher carcass yield. Moreover, it exerted a small, but negative, effect on meat quality traits. PMID:23031323

  7. A trait based approach to defining valued mentoring qualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendall, E.

    2012-12-01

    Graduate training in the sciences requires strong personal interactions among faculty, senior lab members and more junior members. Within the lab-group setting we learn to frame problems, to conduct research and to communicate findings. The result is that individual scientists are partly shaped by a few influential mentors. We have all been influenced by special relationships with mentors, and on reflection we may find that certain qualities have been especially influential in our career choices. In this presentation I will discuss favorable mentoring traits as determined from an informal survey of scientists in varying stages of careers and from diverse backgrounds. Respondents addressed questions about traits they value in their mentors in several categories: 1) personal qualities such as approachability, humor and encouragement; background including gender, ethnicity, and family status; 2) scientific qualities including discipline or specialization, perceived stature in discipline, seniority, breadth of perspective, and level of expectations; and 3) community-oriented qualities promoted by mentors, such as encouraging service contributions and peer-mentoring within the lab group. The results will be compared among respondents by gender, ethnicity, stage of career, type of work, and subdiscipline within the broadly defined Biogeoscience community. We hope to contribute to the growing discussion on building a diverse and balanced scientific workforce.

  8. Ecological and evolutionary determinants of a key plant functional trait: wood density and its community-wide variation across latitude and elevation.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Nathan G; Enquist, Brian J

    2007-03-01

    Wood density is an important trait in trees indicative of their life history and mechanical and physiological strategies. The following examines the evolutionary ecology of wood density using a large database for seed plants. In particular, we focused on the geographic and phylogenetic variation in wood density for both gymnosperms and angiosperms. A phylogenetic supertree was constructed for over 4600 taxa, allowing for comprehensive analyses of divergences across the seed plant phylogeny. Community-wide means and variances for wood densities were quantified for 171 standardized forest communities. Wood density was generally highly conserved across the entire seed plant phylogeny, yet large divergences were found within the rosid clade. Geographic and community variation in wood density, however, was significantly lower in temperate and high elevation communities, dominated by gymnosperms, than in tropical lowland communities, dominated by angiosperms, suggesting an increase in trait and, to some extent, clade filtering with latitude and elevation. Together, our results support the notion that both biotic and abiotic forces have been important in the evolution of wood density as well as in controlling the observed trait mean and variance across geographic gradients. PMID:21636415

  9. Trait Impressions as Overgeneralized Responses to Adaptively Significant Facial Qualities: Evidence from Connectionist Modeling

    E-print Network

    Fellous, Jean-Marc

    Trait Impressions as Overgeneralized Responses to Adaptively Significant Facial Qualities: Evidence tested anomalous-face and baby-face overgeneralization hypotheses proposed to explain consensual trait large effects, comparable in magnitude to the effects of an individual's gender or personality traits

  10. Sperm traits in relation to male quality in colonial spawning bluegill

    E-print Network

    Montgomerie, Bob

    Sperm traits in relation to male quality in colonial spawning bluegill S. J. CASSELMAN AND R 2003, Accepted 24 March 2004) Sperm traits (morphology, motility and concentration within ejaculates, Ontario, Canada. Sperm traits varied significantly more among than within males suggesting that some

  11. Quantitative Trait Loci influencing endosperm proteins and end-use quality traits of Hard Red Spring Wheat breeding lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of high yielding wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties with acceptable end-use quality is a major focus in breeding programs worldwide. Variations in molecular weight (Mw) distribution of wheat endosperm proteins are known to influence end-use quality traits. In this paper, we report th...

  12. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES: METHOD 28 CERTIFICATION AND AUDITING OF WOOD HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quality assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing particulate matter sampling of wood heaters according to EPA protocol, Method 28. These procedures may be u...

  13. The associations between Vrs1 alleles and grain quality traits in spring barley Hordeum vulgare L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley head row type is a major trait affecting end use quality. Six rowed forms emerged due to mutations in the Vrs1 gene in two rowed barleys. Whether barley is two (Vrs1) or six rowed (vrs1) directly affects a wide range of morphological traits related to seed yield and grain quality. Vrs1 has be...

  14. Health-related quality of life in women exposed to wood smoke while cooking.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, A N; Umasankar, K; Gupta, D

    2014-08-01

    Using the abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-Bref) questionnaire, we evaluated the effect of exposure to smoke from wood combustion while cooking on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in 85 women using wood and 85 women using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuel in India. Age, years of cooking and hours spent daily in the kitchen were similar between women in the two groups. WHOQOL-Bref transformed scores in psychological, social relationships and environment domains were significantly lower in women in using wood than in those using LPG, suggesting that HRQL was impaired across domains among these women. PMID:25199018

  15. Leaf litter resource quality induces morphological changes in wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) metamorphs.

    PubMed

    Stoler, Aaron B; Stephens, Jeffrey P; Relyea, Rick A; Berven, Keith A; Tiegs, Scott D

    2015-11-01

    For organisms that exhibit complex life cycles, resource conditions experienced by individuals before metamorphosis can strongly affect phenotypes later in life. Such resource-induced effects are known to arise from variation in resource quantity, yet little is known regarding effects stemming from variation in resource quality (e.g., chemistry). For larval anurans, we hypothesized that variation in resource quality will induce a gradient of effects on metamorph morphology. We conducted an outdoor mesocosm experiment in which we manipulated resource quality by rearing larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) under 11 leaf litter treatments. The litter species represented plant species found in open- and closed-canopy wetlands and included many plant species of current conservation concern (e.g., green ash, common reed). Consistent with our hypothesis, we found a gradient of responses for nearly all mass-adjusted morphological dimensions. Hindlimb dimensions and gut mass were positively associated with litter nutrient content and decomposition rate. In contrast, forelimb length and head width were positively associated with concentrations of phenolic acids and dissolved organic carbon. Limb lengths and widths were positively related with the duration of larval period, and we discuss possible hormonal mechanisms underlying this relationship. There were very few, broad differences in morphological traits of metamorphs between open- and closed-canopy litter species or between litter and no-litter treatments. This suggests that the effects of litter on metamorph morphology are litter species-specific, indicating that the effects of changing plant community structure in and around wetlands will largely depend on plant species composition. PMID:26188520

  16. Metal contaminated biochar and wood ash negatively affect plant growth and soil quality after land application.

    PubMed

    Jones, D L; Quilliam, R S

    2014-07-15

    Pyrolysis or combustion of waste wood can provide a renewable source of energy and produce byproducts which can be recycled back to land. To be sustainable requires that these byproducts pose minimal threat to the environment or human health. Frequently, reclaimed waste wood is contaminated by preservative-treated timber containing high levels of heavy metals. We investigated the effect of feedstock contamination from copper-preservative treated wood on the behaviour of pyrolysis-derived biochar and combustion-derived ash in plant-soil systems. Biochar and wood ash were applied to soil at typical agronomic rates. The presence of preservative treated timber in the feedstock increased available soil Cu; however, critical Cu guidance limits were only exceeded at high rates of feedstock contamination. Negative effects on plant growth and soil quality were only seen at high levels of biochar contamination (>50% derived from preservative-treated wood). Negative effects of wood ash contamination were apparent at lower levels of contamination (>10% derived from preservative treated wood). Complete removal of preservative treated timber from wood recycling facilities is notoriously difficult and low levels of contamination are commonplace. We conclude that low levels of contamination from Cu-treated wood should pose minimal environmental risk to biochar and ash destined for land application. PMID:24915641

  17. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Kernel and Malting Quality Traits Using Historical European Barley Records

    PubMed Central

    Röder, Marion S.; van Eeuwijk, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Malting quality is an important trait in breeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). It requires elaborate, expensive phenotyping, which involves micro-malting experiments. Although there is abundant historical information available for different cultivars in different years and trials, that historical information is not often used in genetic analyses. This study aimed to exploit historical records to assist in identifying genomic regions that affect malting and kernel quality traits in barley. This genome-wide association study utilized information on grain yield and 18 quality traits accumulated over 25 years on 174 European spring and winter barley cultivars combined with diversity array technology markers. Marker-trait associations were tested with a mixed linear model. This model took into account the genetic relatedness between cultivars based on principal components scores obtained from marker information. We detected 140 marker-trait associations. Some of these associations confirmed previously known quantitative trait loci for malting quality (on chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 5H). Other associations were reported for the first time in this study. The genetic correlations between traits are discussed in relation to the chromosomal regions associated with the different traits. This approach is expected to be particularly useful when designing strategies for multiple trait improvements. PMID:25372869

  18. Genetic variation of hydraulic and wood anatomical traits in hybrid poplar and trembling aspen

    E-print Network

    Hamann, Andreas

    Stefan G. Schreiber1 , Uwe G. Hacke2 , Andreas Hamann1 and Barb R. Thomas1,3 1 Department of Renewable G. Hacke Tel: +1 780 492 8511 Email: uwe.hacke@ualberta.ca Received: 29 September 2010 Accepted: 11 grown at a boreal plant- ing site in Alberta, Canada. Variability in these traits was statistically

  19. How do drought and warming influence survival and wood traits of Picea mariana saplings?

    PubMed Central

    Balducci, Lorena; Deslauriers, Annie; Giovannelli, Alessio; Beaulieu, Marilène; Delzon, Sylvain; Rossi, Sergio; Rathgeber, Cyrille B. K.

    2015-01-01

    Warming and drought will occur with increased frequency and intensity at high latitudes in the future. How heat and water stress can influence tree mortality is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate how carbon resources, stem hydraulics, and wood anatomy and density determine the ability of black spruce saplings to survive daytime or night-time warming (+ 6 °C in comparison with control) in combination with a drought period. Plant water relations, the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates and starch, mortality rate, and wood anatomy and density of saplings were monitored. Warming, in conjunction with 25 d of water deficit, increased sapling mortality (10% and 20% in night-time and daytime warming, respectively) compared with the control conditions (0.8%). Drought substantially decreased gas exchange, and also pre-dawn and mid-day leaf water potential to values close to –3MPa which probably induced xylem embolism (xylem air entry point, P 12, being on average around –3MPa for this species). In addition, the recovery of gas exchange never reached the initial pre-stress levels, suggesting a possible loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity associated with cavitation. Consequently, mortality may be due to xylem hydraulic failure. Warmer temperatures limited the replenishment of starch reserves after their seasonal minimum. Lighter wood was formed during the drought period, reflecting a lower carbon allocation to cell wall formation, preventing the adaptation of the hydraulic system to drought. Saplings of black spruce experienced difficulty in adapting under climate change conditions, which might compromise their survival in the future. PMID:25371502

  20. Genetic Parameters of Reproductive and Meat Quality Traits in Korean Berkshire Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon-Ho; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Park, Hwa-Chun; Park, Kyung-Do

    2015-01-01

    Genetic parameters of Berkshire pigs for reproduction, carcass and meat quality traits were estimated using the records from a breeding farm in Korea. For reproduction traits, 2,457 records of the total number of piglets born (TNB) and the number of piglets born alive (NBA) from 781 sows and 53 sires were used. For two carcass traits which are carcass weight (CW) and backfat thickness (BF) and for 10 meat quality traits which are pH value after 45 minutes (pH45m), pH value after 24 hours (pH24h), lightness in meat color (LMC), redness in meat color (RMC), yellowness in meat color (YMC), moisture holding capacity (MHC), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL), fat content (FC), and shear force value (SH), 1,942 pig records were used to estimate genetic parameters. The genetic parameters for each trait were estimated using VCE program with animal model. Heritability estimates for reproduction traits TNB and NBA were 0.07 and 0.06, respectively, for carcass traits CW and BF were 0.37 and 0.57, respectively and for meat traits pH45m, pH24h, LMC, RMC, YMC, MHC, DL, CL, FC, and SH were 0.48, 0.15, 0.19, 0.36, 0.28, 0.21, 0.33, 0.45, 0.43, and 0.39, respectively. The estimate for genetic correlation coefficient between CW and BF was 0.27. The Genetic correlation between pH24h and meat color traits were in the range of ?0.51 to ?0.33 and between pH24h and DL and SH were ?0.41 and ?0.32, respectively. The estimates for genetic correlation coefficients between reproductive and meat quality traits were very low or zero. However, the estimates for genetic correlation coefficients between reproductive traits and drip and cooking loss were in the range of 0.12 to 0.17 and ?0.14 to ?0.12, respectively. As the estimated heritability of meat quality traits showed medium to high heritability, these traits may be applicable for the genetic improvement by continuous measurement. However, since some of the meat quality traits showed negative genetic correlations with carcass traits, an appropriate breeding scheme is required that carefully considers the complexity of genetic parameters and applicability of data. PMID:26323395

  1. Genetic Parameters of Reproductive and Meat Quality Traits in Korean Berkshire Pigs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Ho; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Park, Hwa-Chun; Park, Kyung-Do

    2015-10-01

    Genetic parameters of Berkshire pigs for reproduction, carcass and meat quality traits were estimated using the records from a breeding farm in Korea. For reproduction traits, 2,457 records of the total number of piglets born (TNB) and the number of piglets born alive (NBA) from 781 sows and 53 sires were used. For two carcass traits which are carcass weight (CW) and backfat thickness (BF) and for 10 meat quality traits which are pH value after 45 minutes (pH45m), pH value after 24 hours (pH24h), lightness in meat color (LMC), redness in meat color (RMC), yellowness in meat color (YMC), moisture holding capacity (MHC), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL), fat content (FC), and shear force value (SH), 1,942 pig records were used to estimate genetic parameters. The genetic parameters for each trait were estimated using VCE program with animal model. Heritability estimates for reproduction traits TNB and NBA were 0.07 and 0.06, respectively, for carcass traits CW and BF were 0.37 and 0.57, respectively and for meat traits pH45m, pH24h, LMC, RMC, YMC, MHC, DL, CL, FC, and SH were 0.48, 0.15, 0.19, 0.36, 0.28, 0.21, 0.33, 0.45, 0.43, and 0.39, respectively. The estimate for genetic correlation coefficient between CW and BF was 0.27. The Genetic correlation between pH24h and meat color traits were in the range of -0.51 to -0.33 and between pH24h and DL and SH were -0.41 and -0.32, respectively. The estimates for genetic correlation coefficients between reproductive and meat quality traits were very low or zero. However, the estimates for genetic correlation coefficients between reproductive traits and drip and cooking loss were in the range of 0.12 to 0.17 and -0.14 to -0.12, respectively. As the estimated heritability of meat quality traits showed medium to high heritability, these traits may be applicable for the genetic improvement by continuous measurement. However, since some of the meat quality traits showed negative genetic correlations with carcass traits, an appropriate breeding scheme is required that carefully considers the complexity of genetic parameters and applicability of data. PMID:26323395

  2. Genome-wide association of meat quality traits and tenderness in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork quality has a large impact on consumer preference and perception of eating quality. A genome-wide association was performed for pork quality traits [intramuscular fat (IMF)], slice shear force (SSF), color attributes, purge, cooking loss, and pH] from 531 to 1,237 records on barrows and gilts o...

  3. Genome-wide Association Study to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat and Carcass Quality Traits in Berkshire

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Asif; Kim, You-Sam; Kang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Yun-Mi; Rai, Rajani; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Oh, Dong-Yup; Nam, Ki-Chang; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Meat and carcass quality attributes are of crucial importance influencing consumer preference and profitability in the pork industry. A set of 400 Berkshire pigs were collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea that were born between 2012 and 2013. To perform genome wide association studies (GWAS), eleven meat and carcass quality traits were considered, including carcass weight, backfat thickness, pH value after 24 hours (pH24), Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage lightness in meat color (CIE L), redness in meat color (CIE a), yellowness in meat color (CIE b), filtering, drip loss, heat loss, shear force and marbling score. All of the 400 animals were genotyped with the Porcine 62K SNP BeadChips (Illumina Inc., USA). A SAS general linear model procedure (SAS version 9.2) was used to pre-adjust the animal phenotypes before GWAS with sire and sex effects as fixed effects and slaughter age as a covariate. After fitting the fixed and covariate factors in the model, the residuals of the phenotype regressed on additive effects of each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) under a linear regression model (PLINK version 1.07). The significant SNPs after permutation testing at a chromosome-wise level were subjected to stepwise regression analysis to determine the best set of SNP markers. A total of 55 significant (p<0.05) SNPs or quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on various chromosomes. The QTLs explained from 5.06% to 8.28% of the total phenotypic variation of the traits. Some QTLs with pleiotropic effect were also identified. A pair of significant QTL for pH24 was also found to affect both CIE L and drip loss percentage. The significant QTL after characterization of the functional candidate genes on the QTL or around the QTL region may be effectively and efficiently used in marker assisted selection to achieve enhanced genetic improvement of the trait considered. PMID:26580276

  4. Response of Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Quality Traits and Yield to Sowing Date

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mukhtar; Fayyaz-ul-Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictability and large fluctuation of the climatic conditions in rainfed regions do affect spring wheat yield and grain quality. These variations offer the opportunity for the production of better quality wheat. The effect of variable years, locations and sowing managements on wheat grain yield and quality was studied through field experiments using three genotypes, three locations for two years under rainfed conditions. The two studied years as contrasting years at three locations and sowing dates depicted variability in temperature and water stress during grain filling which resulted considerable change in grain yield and quality. Delayed sowing, years (2009–10) and location (Talagang) with high temperature and water stress resulted increased proline, and grain quality traits i.e. grain protein (GP) and grain ash (GA) than optimum conditions (during 2008–09, at Islamabad and early sowing). However, opposite trend was observed for dry gluten (DG), sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), SPAD content and grain yield irrespective of genotypes. The influence of variable climatic conditions was dominant in determining the quality traits and inverse relationship was observed among some quality traits and grain yield. It may be concluded that by selecting suitable locations and different sowing managements for subjecting the crop to desirable environmental conditions (temperature and water) quality traits of wheat crop could be modified. PMID:25927839

  5. Resonance wood [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]--evaluation and prediction of violin makers' quality-grading.

    PubMed

    Buksnowitz, Christoph; Teischinger, Alfred; Müller, Ulrich; Pahler, Andreas; Evans, Robert

    2007-04-01

    The definition of quality in the field of resonance wood for musical instrument making has attracted considerable interest over decades but has remained incomplete. The current work compares the traditional knowledge and practical experience of violin makers with a material-science approach to objectively characterize the properties of resonance wood. Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] has earned a very high reputation for the construction of resonance tops of stringed instruments and resonance boards of keyboard instruments, and was therefore chosen as the focus of the investigation. The samples were obtained from numerous renowned resonance wood regions in the European Alps and cover the whole range of available qualities. A set of acoustical, anatomical, mechanical and optical material properties was measured on each sample. These measurements were compared with subjective quality grading by violin makers, who estimated the acoustical, optical and overall suitability for violin making. Multiple linear regression models were applied to evaluate the predictability of the subjective grading using the measured material characteristics as predictors. The results show that luthiers are able to estimate wood quality related to visible features, but predictions of mechanical and acoustical properties proved to be very poor. PMID:17471750

  6. A Review on Suspended Wood Dust Combustion. Efficiency and Fuel Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silins, Kaspars

    2012-09-01

    The paper is dedicated to review the combustion efficiency in low capacity wood dust suspension burners. Fuel quality is reviewed as the main contributor to the combustion efficiency. Wood dust moisture content, particle size and shape, amount of volatiles are discussed as the main contributors. Some additional aspects like burner ignition, fuel and combustion air feeding are reviewed to increase the efficiency. A brief overview of particle combustion process is provided followed by an identification and discussion of combustion efficiency influencing parameters. The significance of fuel feeding and air supply is discussed at the end of the paper.

  7. Nitrogen immobilization by wood-chip application: Protecting water quality in a northern hardwood forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homyak, P.M.; Yanai, R.D.; Burns, D.A.; Briggs, R.D.; Germain, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Forest harvesting disrupts the nitrogen cycle, which may affect stream water quality by increasing nitrate concentrations, reducing pH and acid neutralizing capacity, and mobilizing aluminum and base cations. We tested the application of wood chips derived from logging slash to increase immobilization of N after harvesting, which should reduce nitrate flux to streams. In August 2004, a stand of northern hardwoods was patch-clearcut in the Catskill Mountains, NY, and four replicates of three treatments were implemented in five 0.2-ha cut patches. Wood chips were applied to the soil surface at a rate equivalent to the amount of slash smaller than eight inches in diameter (1?? treatment). A second treatment doubled that rate (2??), and a third treatment received no chips (0??). Additionally, three uncut reference plots were established in nearby forested areas. Ion exchange resin bags and soil KCl-extractions were used to monitor nitrate availability in the upper 5-10 cm of soil approximately every seven weeks, except in winter. Resin bags indicated that the wood chips retained 30% or 42% of the nitrate pulse, while for KCl extracts, the retention rate was 78% or 100% of the difference between 0?? and uncut plots. During the fall following harvest, wood-chip treated plots had resin bag soil nitrate concentrations about 25% of those in 0?? plots (p = 0.0001). In the first growing season after the cut, nitrate concentrations in wood-chip treated plots for KCl extracts were 13% of those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.03) in May and about half those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.01) in July for resin bags. During spring snowmelt, however, nitrate concentrations were high and indistinguishable among treatments, including the uncut reference plots for resin bags and below detection limit for KCl extracts. Wood chips incubated in litterbags had an initial C:N of 125:1, which then decreased to 70:1 after one year of field incubation. These changes in C:N values indicate that the wood-chip application can potentially immobilize between 19 and 38 kg N ha-1 in the first year after harvesting, depending on the rate of wood-chip application. Our results suggest that the application of wood chips following harvesting operations can contribute to the protection of water quality and warrant additional research as a new Best Management Practice following cutting in regions that receive elevated levels of atmospheric N deposition. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. More wood of better quality: intensive silviculture with rapid-growth improved Eucalyptus spp. for pulpwood

    SciTech Connect

    Campinhos, E. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The early forests planted using Brazilian Eucalyptus seeds produced great variability in the volume of wood. In the specific case of E. saligna, there was an inability of the species to adapt itself to the local ecological system. It was obvious that new silvicultural techniques should be developed and also new species and provenances, capable of adapting to the region, should be identified. The objective was to improve wood volume yields as well as to produce a better pulp quality. The research and development work has been more successful than anticipated mainly because of the new technique of rooting cuttings developed by Aracruz, which allows propagation of vigorous parent trees, including hybrids. The production of improved seeds has also been developed. A good genetic base has been established to guarantee continuous improvement for production of seedlings to be used in routine plantations. The first results have already enabled good gains in volume, wood density, cellulose content and resistance to disease.

  9. More wood of better quality through intensive silviculture with rapid-growth improved Brazilian eucalyptus

    SciTech Connect

    Campinhos, E. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    The early forests planted using Brazilian Eucalyptus seeds produced great variability in the volume of wood. In the specific case of E. saligna, the species was unable to adapt itself to the local ecological system. It was obvious that a new silviculture technique should be developed and also that new species and provenances, capable of adapting to the region, should be identified. The objective was to improve wood volume yields as well as to produce better pulp quality. The research and development work has been more successful than anticipated, mainly because a new technique of rooting cuttings which allows propagation of vigorous parent trees, including hybrids, was developed. The production of improved seeds has also been developed. A good genetic base has been established to guarantee continuous improvement for production of seedlings to be used in routine plantings. The first results have already shown good gains in volume, wood density, cellulose content, and resistance to disease.

  10. Estimation of Genetic Associations between Production and Meat Quality Traits in Duroc Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Cabling, M. M.; Kang, H. S.; Lopez, B. M.; Jang, M.; Kim, H. S.; Nam, K. C.; Choi, J. G.; Seo, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Data collected from 690 purebred Duroc pigs from 2009 to 2012 were used to estimate the heritability, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between production and meat quality traits. Variance components were obtained through the restricted maximum likelihood procedure using Wombat and SAS version 9.0. Animals were raised under the same management in five different breeding farms. The average daily gain, loin muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BF), and lean percent (LP) were measured as production traits. Meat quality traits included pH, cooking loss, lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), marbling score (MS), moisture content (MC), water holding capacity (WHC), and shear force. The results showed that the heritability estimates for meat quality traits varied largely from 0.19 to 0.79. Production traits were moderate to highly heritable from 0.41 to 0.73. Genotypically, the BF was positively correlated (p<0.05) with MC (0.786), WHC (0.904), and pH (0.328) but negatively correlated with shear force (?0.533). The results of genetic correlations indicated that selection for less BF could decrease pH, moisture content, and WHC and increase the shear force of meat. Additionally, a significant positive correlation was recorded between average daily gain and WHC, which indicates pork from faster-growing animals has higher WHC. Furthermore, selection for larger LMA and LP could increase MS and lightness color of meat. The meat quality and production traits could be improved simultaneously if desired. Hence, to avoid further deterioration of pork characteristics, appropriate selection of traits should be considered. PMID:26104512

  11. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI?6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women. PMID:26030141

  12. Fractal geometry of a complex plumage trait reveals bird's quality

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Jovani, Roger; Mougeot, François

    2013-01-01

    Animal coloration is key in natural and sexual selection, playing significant roles in intra- and interspecific communication because of its linkage to individual behaviour, genetics and physiology. Simple animal traits such as the area or the colour intensity of homogeneous patches have been profusely studied. More complex patterns are widespread in nature, but they escape our understanding because their variation is difficult to capture effectively by standard, simple measures. Here, we used fractal geometry to quantify inter-individual variation in the expression of a complex plumage trait, the heterogeneous black bib of the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). We show that a higher bib fractal dimension (FD) predicted better individual body condition, as well as immune responsiveness, which is condition-dependent in our study species. Moreover, when food intake was experimentally reduced during moult as a means to reduce body condition, the bib's FD significantly decreased. Fractal geometry therefore provides new opportunities for the study of complex animal colour patterns and their roles in animal communication. PMID:23345576

  13. Soil quality in a cropland soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    The strategy of the European Union "Europe 2020" states that by 2020, 20% of final energy consumption must come from renewables. In this scenario, there is an increasing use of biomass utilization for energy production. Indeed, it is expected that the production of wood-ash will increase in coming years. Wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, can be applied to soil to improve the soil quality and crop production. Since the residue contains significant content of charcoal, the application of mixed wood ash may also improve the SOM content and soil quality in the long term, in soils degraded as a consequence of intensive management. The objective of this study was asses the changes in SOM quality and soil properties in a degraded soils treated with wood ash containing charcoal. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %) and fine texture. The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1, 16 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (16 Mg) and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (32 Mg). The application was carried out once. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark and branches. The wood ash is highly alkaline (pH= 10), contains 10 % of highly condensed black carbon (atomic H/C ratio < 0.5 and T50 en DSC= 500 ºC). The evolution of SOM properties were monitored over three years by solid state 13C CPMAS NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). These techniques were applied in bulk samples and aggregates of different sizes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Several physical properties, such soil aggregate distribution, hydraulic conductivity and available water contente were also determined. Three years after applications the SOM content increased lightly in the treatment receiving more than 16 Mg ha-1 of wood ash. SOM in the treated soils displayed a higher degree of aromaticity than in the untreated soils, indicating a gain in more stable SOM compounds probably as a consequence of the charcoal application. However, both methods also revealed increases in labile C compounds, probably due to the carbohydrates added through root system. Microbial biomass-C and soil respiration increased significantly. The treatments also led to increases in the functional diversity indices. The amended soils showed greater utilization of substrates and the ability of soil bacteria to utilize different C resources was also greatly altered. The application of mixed wood ash did not lead to any difference in MWD, which was around 6 mm in all cases. The application of 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1 increased significantly the hydraulic conductivity (4.07 cmh-1) when compared with in control plots (1.3 cmh-1) and mixed ash plots (1.52 and 2.45 cmh-1, 16 Mg and 32 Mg respectively). However, air-filled porosity was not higher in 16 Mg fly ash plots. AWC was not improved by wood ash application.

  14. Impact of operating wood-burning fireplace ovens on indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Wientzek, Sebastian; Wensing, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The use of combustion heat sources like wood-burning fireplaces has regained popularity in the past years due to increasing energy costs. While the outdoor emissions from wood ovens are strictly regulated in Germany, the indoor release of combustion products is rarely considered. Seven wood burning fireplaces were tested in private homes between November 2012 and March 2013. The indoor air quality was monitored before, during and after operation. The following parameters were measured: ultra-fine particles (5.6-560 nm), fine particles (0.3-20 ?m), PM2.5, NOx, CO, CO2, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Most ovens were significant sources of particulate matter. In some cases, an increase of benzene and BaP concentrations was observed in the indoor air. The results illustrate that wood-burning fireplaces are potential sources of indoor air contaminants, especially ultra-fine particles. Under the aspect of lowering indoor air exchange rates and increasing the use of fuels with a net zero-carbon footprint, indoor combustion sources are an important topic for the future. With regards to consumer safety, product development and inspection should consider indoor air quality in addition to the present fire protection requirements. PMID:24364889

  15. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES: METHOD 5G DETERMINATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM WOOD HEATERS FROM A DILUTION TUNNEL SAMPLING LOCATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quality assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing particulate matter sampling of wood heaters according to EPA protocol, Method 5G. These procedures may be u...

  16. Relations between water balance, wood traits and phenological behavior of tree species from a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica--a multifactorial study.

    PubMed

    Worbes, Martin; Blanchart, Sofie; Fichtler, Esther

    2013-05-01

    Drought tolerance is a key factor for the establishment and survival of tree species in tropical ecosystems. Specific mechanisms of drought resistance can be grouped into four functional ecotypes based on differences in leaf fall behavior: deciduous, brevi-deciduous, stem succulent and evergreen. To identify the key factors influencing phenology and cambial activity and thus drought tolerance, we tested the stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and stable carbon isotopes in the leaves and wood of 12 species from a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. With wood anatomical techniques, we further studied seasonal cambial activity and a suite of wood traits related to water transport for each of the functional ecotypes. Using a principal component analysis, we identified two groups of variables that can be related to (i) hydraulic conductivity and (ii) control of transpiration and water loss. Hydraulic conductivity is controlled by vessel size as the limiting variable, water potential as the driving force and wood density as the stabilizing factor of the anatomical structure of an effective water transport system. Stomatal control plays a major role in terms of water loss or saving and is the dominant factor for differences in phenological behavior. Stem succulent species in particular developed a rarely identified but highly effective strategy against drought stress, which makes it a successful pioneer species in tropical dry forests. PMID:23629581

  17. Implementing meta-analysis from genome-wide association studies for pork quality traits.

    PubMed

    Bernal Rubio, Y L; Gualdrón Duarte, J L; Bates, R O; Ernst, C W; Nonneman, D; Rohrer, G A; King, D A; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Cantet, R J C; Steibel, J P

    2015-12-01

    Pork quality plays an important role in the meat processing industry. Thus, different methodologies have been implemented to elucidate the genetic architecture of traits affecting meat quality. One of the most common and widely used approaches is to perform genome-wide association (GWA) studies. However, a limitation of many GWA in animal breeding is the limited power due to small sample sizes in animal populations. One alternative is to implement a meta-analysis of GWA (MA-GWA) combining results from independent association studies. The objective of this study was to identify significant genomic regions associated with meat quality traits by performing MA-GWA for 8 different traits in 3 independent pig populations. Results from MA-GWA were used to search for genes possibly associated with the set of evaluated traits. Data from 3 pig data sets (U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, commercial, and Michigan State University Pig Resource Population) were used. A MA was implemented by combining -scores derived for each SNP in every population and then weighting them using the inverse of estimated variance of SNP effects. A search for annotated genes retrieved genes previously reported as candidates for shear force (calpain-1 catalytic subunit [] and calpastatin []), as well as for ultimate pH, purge loss, and cook loss (protein kinase, AMP-activated, ? 3 noncatalytic subunit []). In addition, novel candidate genes were identified for intramuscular fat and cook loss (acyl-CoA synthetase family member 3 mitochondrial []) and for the objective measure of muscle redness, CIE a* (glycogen synthase 1, muscle [] and ferritin, light polypeptide []). Thus, implementation of MA-GWA allowed integration of results for economically relevant traits and identified novel genes to be tested as candidates for meat quality traits in pig populations. PMID:26641170

  18. Estimation of Pork Quality Traits Using Exsanguination Blood and Postmortem Muscle Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Choe, J. H.; Choi, M. H.; Ryu, Y. C.; Go, G. W.; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, S. H.; Lim, K. S.; Lee, E. A.; Kang, J. H.; Hong, K. C.; Kim, B. C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study was designed to estimate the pork quality traits using metabolites from exsanguination blood and postmortem muscle simultaneously under the Korean standard pre- and post-slaughter conditions. A total of 111 Yorkshire (pure breed and castrated male) pigs were evaluated under the Korean standard conditions. Measurements were taken of the levels of blood glucose and lactate at exsanguination, and muscle glycogen and lactate content at 45 min and 24 h postmortem. Certain pork quality traits were also evaluated. Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis including stepwise regression were performed. Exsanguination blood glucose and lactate levels were positively correlated with each other, negatively related to postmortem muscle glycogen content and positively associated with postmortem muscle lactate content. A rapid and extended postmortem glycolysis was associated with high levels of blood glucose and lactate, with high muscle lactate content, and with low muscle glycogen content during postmortem. In addition, these were also correlated with paler meat color and reduced water holding capacity. The results of multiple regression analyses also showed that metabolites in exsanguination blood and postmortem muscle explained variations in pork quality traits. Especially, levels of blood glucose and lactate and content of muscle glycogen at early postmortem were significantly associated with an elevated early glycolytic rate. Furthermore, muscle lactate content at 24 h postmortem alone accounted for a considerable portion of the variation in pork quality traits. Based on these results, the current study confirmed that the main factor influencing pork quality traits is the ultimate lactate content in muscle via postmortem glycolysis, and that levels of blood glucose and lactate at exsanguination and contents of muscle glycogen and lactate at postmortem can explain a large portion of the variation in pork quality even under the standard slaughter conditions. PMID:25925063

  19. DIRECT BREED EFFECTS ON GROWTH, CARCASS, AND MEAT QUALITY TRAITS OF SHEEP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to estimate direct breed effects on growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. Rams of nine breeds (Composite, Dorper, Dorset, Finnsheep, Katahdin, Rambouillet, Romanov, Suffolk, and Texel) were mated to Composite ewes. Data recorded on 804 progeny of 130 rams were analy...

  20. Impact of high pressure processing on the quality traits of starter-free Queso Fresco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Queso Fresco (QF), a popular high-moisture, high-pH Hispanic cheese sold in the U.S., underwent high- pressure processing (HPP) to determine if this process, which has the potential to improve the safety of cheese, would alter its quality traits. Starter-free rennet-set QF (manufactured from pasteur...

  1. Yield and Fruit Quality Traits of Atemoya Cultivars Grown in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The demand for tropical fruits has increased more than 33% during the last decade as consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) cultivars. Six a...

  2. BREED EFFECTS ON GROWTH, CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY TRAITS OF SHEEP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to estimate direct breed effects on growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. Rams of nine breeds (Composite, Dorper, Dorset, Finnsheep, Katahdin, Rambouillet, Romanov, Suffolk, and Texel) were mated to Composite ewes. Data recorded on 804 progeny of 130 rams were analy...

  3. Genetic effects on carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits in straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this work were to estimate heterosis and breed genetic effects for carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits of steers (Bos spp.) produced from matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle. Steers (n = 464) were weaned at 7 mo of age and transported to the Southern G...

  4. [Cotton fiber quality traits were controlled mainly by maternal plant genotype].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu-Zhen; Zhang, Bao-Cai; Li, Jun-Wen; Liu, Ai-Ying; Yuan, You-Lu

    2008-11-01

    Hai1, a Gossypium barbadense L. variety with super fiber quality, and CCRI36 and Zhong221, two upland cotton cultivars (Gossypium hirsutum L.), were used as recurrent parents to develop two backcross combinations of CCRI36xHai1 and Zhong221xHai1. Fiber quality of inter-crossing bolls and self-crossing bolls were analyzed from different generations of the two combinations. The results showed that there existed significant difference in the average value, pole difference and CV% of fiber quality traits, and no significant correlation in fiber quality traits between inter-crossing bolls (BC2F0) and self-crossing bolls (BC1F1) from male parent plants. There existed no significant difference in the average value, pole difference and CV% of fiber quality traits between inter-crossing bolls (BC2F0) and self-crossing bolls from the recurrent parents when BC1F1 plants were used as male parents and the recurrent parents (CCRI36, Zhong221) as female parents. The results also showed that average value, pole difference and CV% of fiber traits of inter-crossing bolls (BC3F0) were close to those of the female parents (BC2F1). When BC2F1 populations were used as female parents and the recurrent parents (CCRI36, Zhong221) were used as male parents, there were extremely significant positive correlation for fiber length, strength, micronaire value and elongation, except for fiber uniformity between inter-crossing bolls (BC3F0) and self-crossing bolls (BC2F1). So, fiber quality of inter-crossing bolls were close to those of self-crossing bolls of maternal plants and the male parent pollen genotype had no prominent effect to fiber quality traits of inter-crossing bolls. Fiber quality traits were controlled mainly by maternal plant genotype, while the contemporary seed embryonal genotype showed no significant effects for fiber quality. PMID:19073557

  5. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP15 in CAPN1 could be used as a powerful genetic marker in selection programs for beef quality improvement in the Snow Dragon Beef population. PMID:25656186

  6. Exposure of wood in floodplains affects its chemical quality and its subsequent breakdown in streams.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Rubén; Gómez, Rosa

    2016-02-01

    In stream ecosystems, coarse organic matter from the riparian vegetation, a key food resource, is often retained in the floodplains before reaching the channel. During floodplain exposure, organic matter can be affected by abiotic and biotic processes ("preconditioning"), which alter its quality and affect its subsequent decomposition in streams. We analyzed the effect of floodplain preconditioning on wood quality (lignin, C, N, P, K, among others), and its subsequent aquatic breakdown, paying special attention to microbial activity. We simulated preconditioned standard wooden sticks on one arid stream floodplain for 3 and 4months, and then monitored their breakdown in three different streams, together with control (non-preconditioned) sticks. Preconditioning reduced lignin mass and C:N and lignin:N ratios, caused the leaching of soluble nutrients such as P and K, as well as N immobilization by microbes. These changes enhanced the breakdown of wood in the first week of immersion, but had no effect on breakdown rates after 4months of incubation in the streams, although N immobilization was diminished. Our results suggest that terrestrial preconditioning could alter the role of wood as a long-lasting nutrients and energy source for freshwater ecosystem. PMID:26613519

  7. Quantifying And Predicting Wood Quality Of Loblolly And Slash Pine Under Intensive Forest Management Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III

    2006-05-04

    The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.

  8. Association mapping for yield and grain quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Borba, Tereza Cristina; Brondani, Rosana Pereira Vianello; Breseghello, Flávio; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes; Mendonça, João Antônio; Rangel, Paulo Hideo Nakano; Brondani, Claudio

    2010-07-01

    Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Embrapa Rice Core Collection (ERiCC) with 86 SSR and field data from two experiments. A clear subdivision between lowland and upland accessions was apparent, thereby indicating the presence of population structure. Thirty-two accessions with admixed ancestry were identified through structure analysis, these being discarded from association analysis, thus leaving 210 accessions subdivided into two panels. The association of yield and grain-quality traits with SSR was undertaken with a mixed linear model, with markers and subpopulation as fixed factors, and kinship matrix as a random factor. Eight markers from the two appraised panels showed significant association with four different traits, although only one (RM190) maintained the marker-trait association across years and cultivation. The significant association detected between amylose content and RM190 was in agreement with previous QTL analyses in the literature. Herein, the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization was demonstrated, even when considering low marker density. The high linkage disequilibrium expected in rice lines and cultivars facilitates the detection of marker-trait associations for implementing marker assisted selection, and the mining of alleles related to important traits in germplasm. PMID:21637426

  9. Association mapping for yield and grain quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Embrapa Rice Core Collection (ERiCC) with 86 SSR and field data from two experiments. A clear subdivision between lowland and upland accessions was apparent, thereby indicating the presence of population structure. Thirty-two accessions with admixed ancestry were identified through structure analysis, these being discarded from association analysis, thus leaving 210 accessions subdivided into two panels. The association of yield and grain-quality traits with SSR was undertaken with a mixed linear model, with markers and subpopulation as fixed factors, and kinship matrix as a random factor. Eight markers from the two appraised panels showed significant association with four different traits, although only one (RM190) maintained the marker-trait association across years and cultivation. The significant association detected between amylose content and RM190 was in agreement with previous QTL analyses in the literature. Herein, the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization was demonstrated, even when considering low marker density. The high linkage disequilibrium expected in rice lines and cultivars facilitates the detection of marker-trait associations for implementing marker assisted selection, and the mining of alleles related to important traits in germplasm. PMID:21637426

  10. Quantitative trait loci influencing chemical and sensory characteristics of eating quality in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Azanza, F; Tadmor, Y; Klein, B P; Rocheford, T R; Juvik, J A

    1996-02-01

    This study was conducted to ascertain the chromosomal location and magnitude of effect of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the chemical and sensory properties of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) eating quality. Eighty-eight RFLPs, 3 cloned genes (sh1, sh2, and dhn1), and 2 morphological markers (a2 and se1) distributed throughout the sweet corn genome were scored in 214 F2:3 families derived from a cross between the inbreds W6786su1Se1 and IL731Asu1se1. Kernel properties associated with eating quality (kernel tenderness and starch, phytoglycogen, sucrose, and dimethyl sulfide concentrations) were quantified on F2:3 sib-pollinated ears harvested at 20 days after pollination. Sensory evaluation was conducted on a subset of 103 F2:3 families to determine intensity of attributes associated with sweet corn eating quality (corn aroma, grassy aroma, sweetness, starchiness, grassy flavor, crispness, tenderness, and juiciness) and overall liking. Single factor analysis of variance revealed significant QTL for all these traits, which accounted for from 3 to 42% of the total phenotypic variation. A proportion of the RFLP markers associated with human sensory response were also found to be associated with kernel characteristics. To our knowledge this is the first report of the identification of QTL associated with human flavor preferences in any food crop. Key words : sweet corn, RFLP, quantitative trait loci, eating quality, sensory evaluation. PMID:18469876

  11. Water storage dynamics in the main stem of subtropical tree species differing in wood density, growth rate and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Oliva Carrasco, Laureano; Bucci, Sandra J; Di Francescantonio, Débora; Lezcano, Oscar A; Campanello, Paula I; Scholz, Fabián G; Rodríguez, Sabrina; Madanes, N; Cristiano, Piedad M; Hao, Guang-You; Holbrook, N Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Wood biophysical properties and the dynamics of water storage discharge and refilling were studied in the trunk of canopy tree species with diverse life history and functional traits in subtropical forests of northeast Argentina. Multiple techniques assessing capacitance and storage capacity were used simultaneously to improve our understanding of the functional significance of internal water sources in trunks of large trees. Sapwood capacitances of 10 tree species were characterized using pressure-volume relationships of sapwood samples obtained from the trunk. Frequency domain reflectometry was used to continuously monitor the volumetric water content in the main stems. Simultaneous sap flow measurements on branches and at the base of the tree trunk, as well as diurnal variations in trunk contraction and expansion, were used as additional measures of stem water storage use and refilling dynamics. All evidence indicates that tree trunk internal water storage contributes from 6 to 28% of the daily water budget of large trees depending on the species. The contribution of stored water in stems of trees to total daily transpiration was greater for deciduous species, which exhibited higher capacitance and lower sapwood density. A linear relationship across species was observed between wood density and growth rates with the higher wood density species (mostly evergreen) associated with lower growth rates and the lower wood density species (mostly deciduous) associated with higher growth rates. The large sapwood capacitance in deciduous species may help to avoid catastrophic embolism in xylem conduits. This may be a low-cost adaptation to avoid water deficits during peak water use at midday and under temporary drought periods and will contribute to higher growth rates in deciduous tree species compared with evergreen ones. Large capacitance appears to have a central role in the rapid growth patterns of deciduous species facilitating rapid canopy access as these species are less shade tolerant than evergreen species. PMID:25428825

  12. A “Rice Diversity Panel” Evaluated For Variation In Agro-Morphological And Grain Quality Traits Among The Genetically Defined Subpopulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A “Rice Diversity Panel” composed of 409 purified accessions originating from 79 countries was evaluated for 18 agro-morphological traits and two quality traits, amylose content and alkali spreading value (ASV) which is a measure of gelatinization temperature (gel temp). This panel was also screened...

  13. Quality of Life as a Mediator between Behavioral Challenges and Autistic Traits for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Matson, Johnny L.

    2013-01-01

    A multiple mediation model was proposed to integrate core concepts of challenging behaviors with autistic traits to increase understanding of their relationship to quality of life (QoL). It was hypothesized that QoL is a possible mediator between the severity of challenging behaviors and autistic traits in adults with intellectual disability.…

  14. Litter quality and decomposability of species from a Mediterranean succession depend on leaf traits but not on nitrogen supply

    PubMed Central

    Kazakou, Elena; Violle, Cyrille; Roumet, Catherine; Pintor, Cristina; Gimenez, Olivier; Garnier, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The rate of plant decomposition depends on both the decomposition environment and the functional traits of the individual species (e.g. leaf and litter quality), but their relative importance in determining interspecific differences in litter decomposition remains unclear. The aims of this study were to: (a) determine if species from different successional stages grown on soils with low and high nitrogen levels produce leaf and litter traits that decompose differently under identical conditions; and (b) assess which trait of living leaves best relates to litter quality and litter decomposability Methods The study was conducted on 17 herbaceous species representative of three stages of a Mediterranean successional sere of Southern France. Plants were grown in monocultures in a common garden under two nitrogen levels. To elucidate how different leaf traits affected litter decomposition a microcosm experiment was conducted to determine decomposability under standard conditions. Tests were also carried out to determine how successional stage and nitrogen supply affected functional traits of living leaves and how these traits then modified litter quality and subsequent litter decomposability. Key Results The results demonstrated that leaf traits and litter decomposability varied according to species and successional stage. It was also demonstrated that while nitrogen addition affected leaf and litter traits, it had no effect on decomposition rates. Finally, leaf dry matter content stood out as the leaf trait best related to litter quality and litter decomposability Conclusions In this study, species litter decomposability was affected by some leaf and litter traits but not by soil nitrogen supply. The results demonstrated the strength of a trait-based approach to predict changes in ecosystem processes as a result of species shifts in ecosystems. PMID:19710073

  15. Evaluation of the chemical quality traits of soybean seeds, as related to sensory attributes of soymilk.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming

    2015-04-15

    The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs. PMID:25466078

  16. Four genes located on a SSC2 meat quality QTL region are associated with different meat quality traits in Landrace x Chinese-European crossbred population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for different meat quality traits have been localized on the q arm of porcine chromosome 2 at position 55–78 cM. Association analyses were performed in a commercial Landrace x Chinese-European (LCE) crossbred population (n = 446) slaughtered at approximately 127...

  17. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) Associated with Maintenance of Bread Making Quality under Heat Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum) 

    E-print Network

    Beecher, Francis Ward

    2010-10-12

    OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTLs) ASSOCIATED WITH MAINTENANCE OF BREAD MAKING QUALITY UNDER HEAT STRESS IN WHEAT (Triticum aestivum) A Thesis by FRANCIS WARD BEECHER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2009 Major Subject: Molecular and Environmental Plan Sciences IDENTIFICATION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTLs) ASSOCIATED WITH MAINTENANCE OF BREAD MAKING QUALITY UNDER HEAT STRESS IN WHEAT (Triticum...

  18. The use of levoglucosan to assess the environmental impact of residential wood-burning on air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Locker, H.B.

    1988-01-01

    Levoglucosan, a product of the incomplete combustion of cellulose, is present in relatively high concentrations in the particle matter generated from wood-burning stoves. This fact has been exploited to develop a source apportionment method whereby measurements of levoglucosan in ambient air may be used to estimate the contribution of residential wood-burning activities to the Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. Analysis of the emissions from wood-burning stoves, both in controlled laboratory burns and from stoves as actually operated in the field, indicates that the percentage of levoglucosan on wood smoke particles is relatively insensitive to burn rate and operating conditions. For a representative group of stoves operated in the home under actual operating conditions, they found that typical wood smoke particles contain 4.6 ({plus minus} 1.7) percent w/w levoglucosan. The average PAH contribution to wood smoke particulate composition was also determined for the field operated stoves and results were used for source assessment of ambient PAH. This application to PAH estimates is complicated by the fact that PAH emissions are sensitive to stove operating conditions. Under controlled laboratory dilution tunnel conditions it was demonstrated that the PAH emission factor from wood-burning stoves increased with increasing burn rate. Application of their source assessment method to the winter-time ambient Hanover, NH airshed indicates that up to 60 ({plus minus} 21)% of the ambient TSP and 70 ({plus minus} 25)% of the PAH may be attributed to wood-burning activities. Given the current concern regarding the contribution of wood-burning to air quality, it should be noted that this analytical scheme provides a rapid and convenient method of determining the environmental impact of residential wood combustion.

  19. Seed source, seed traits, and frugivore habits: Implications for dispersal quality of two sympatric primates.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; González-Di Pierro, Ana Ma; Lombera, Rafael; Guillén, Susana; Estrada, Alejandro

    2014-06-11

    • Premise of the study: Frugivore selection of fruits and treatment of seeds together with seed deposition site are crucial for the population dynamics of vertebrate-dispersed plants. However, frugivore species may influence dispersal quality differently even when feeding on the same fruit species and, while animals disperse some seeds, others simply fall beneath the parent plant.• Methods: In southern Mexico, we investigated to see if within-species seed traits (i.e., length, width, weight, and volume) and germination success differed according to seed source. For five tropical tree species we obtained ingested seeds from two sources, howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces; and noningested seeds from two sources, the ground and tree crowns (with predispersed seeds used as control).• Key results: A principal components' analysis showed that traits of seeds ingested by howler monkeys differed from other sources while seeds ingested by spider monkeys were similar to noningested seeds. Howlers consumed on average the larger seeds in Ampelocera hottlei, Brosimum lactescens, and Dialium guianense. Both primate species consumed the smaller seeds in Spondias mombin, while no seed trait differences among seed sources were found in Spondias radlkoferi. For all five tree species, germination rate was greatest for seeds ingested by howler monkeys.• Conclusions: For the studied plant species, seed ingestion by howler monkeys confers higher dispersal quality than ingestion by spider monkeys or nondispersal. Dispersal services of both primate species, however, are not redundant and may contribute to germination heterogeneity within plant populations in tropical forests. PMID:24920763

  20. Assessment of leucoreduction of sickle cell trait blood: quality of the filtered product

    PubMed Central

    Amar, Karim Ould; Bourdonné, Olivier; Bruneau, Sylvie; Sellami, Fatiha; Richard, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background With the implementation of universal leucoreduction of blood components in several industrialised countries, the problems associated with leucocyte filtration of sickle cell trait blood have been reconsidered. In this study, we assessed the use of high performance filters for leucoreduction of packed red blood cells donated from subjects with sickle cell trait and evaluated the incidence and recurrence of altered red blood cell filterability. Materials and methods Twenty-one volunteer donors with HbAS were compared to 21 donors with HbAA selected at random. The main parameters analysed were residual white blood cell count and post-filtration haemolysis. Filtration times, flow, volume and haemoglobin loss of the packed red blood cells were also determined. Results In all, 33% of HbAS red blood cell units with slow flow and prolonged filtration time had high residual white blood cell counts. In 7.7% of cases, despite flow through the filter, the units were not leucoreduced properly. Haemoglobin and volume loss were significantly greater in the slow filtration group. Significant post-filtration haemolysis was present in half of the units with high residual white blood cell counts. Discussion Despite the development of new technology for filtration, the problem of filterability of blood from donors with sickle cell trait is not yet resolved. Altered filterability of blood from sickle cell trait donors cannot be predicted from the donors’ characteristics and recurrence of the problem is not observed between donations. Screening blood donors for sickle cell trait to ensure the safety and quality of blood products for transfusion does, therefore, remain a relevant issue. PMID:23149143

  1. QTL analysis and comparative genomics of herbage quality traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

    PubMed

    Cogan, N O I; Smith, K F; Yamada, T; Francki, M G; Vecchies, A C; Jones, E S; Spangenberg, G C; Forster, J W

    2005-01-01

    Genetic control of herbage quality variation was assessed through the use of the molecular marker-based reference genetic map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and genomic DNA-derived simple sequence repeat-based (SSR) framework marker set was enhanced, with RFLP loci corresponding to genes for key enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis and fructan metabolism. Quality traits such as crude protein (CP) content, estimated in vivo dry matter digestibility (IVVDMD), neutral detergent fibre content (NDF), estimated metabolisable energy (EstME) and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content were measured by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis of herbage harvests. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed using single-marker regression, simple interval mapping and composite interval mapping approaches, detecting a total of 42 QTLs from six different sampling experiments varying by developmental stage (anthesis or vegetative growth), location or year. Coincident QTLs were detected on linkage groups (LGs) 3, 5 and 7. The region on LG3 was associated with variation for all measured traits across various experimental datasets. The region on LG7 was associated with variation for all traits except CP, and is located in the vicinity of the lignin biosynthesis gene loci xlpomt1 (caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase), xlpccr1 (cinnamoyl CoA-reductase) and xlpssrcad 2.1 (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase). Comparative genomics analysis of these gene classes with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) provides evidence for conservation of gene order over evolutionary time and the basis for cross-specific genetic information transfer. The identification of co-location between QTLs and functionally associated genetic markers is critical for the implementation of marker-assisted selection programs and for linkage disequilibrium studies, which will enable future improvement strategies for perennial ryegrass. PMID:15558228

  2. Characterization of two Indian native chicken breeds for production, egg and semen quality, and welfare traits.

    PubMed

    Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Shanmugam, M; Padhi, M K; Reddy, M R; Sunitha, R; Rajkumar, U; Panda, A K

    2011-02-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize 2 important native chicken breeds from India and compare them on growth, production, egg and semen quality, and welfare traits. The Aseel breed showed (P < 0.001) higher BW at different ages; higher shank, radius, and toe lengths at 40 wk of age; and greater egg weights at 28, 32, and 40 wk of age than did the Kadaknath breed. The Kadaknath breed reached sexual maturity at an early age, and it had higher 40-wk egg production (P < 0.001). Higher egg specific gravity (P < 0.05) and higher albumen (P < 0.001) and shell (P < 0.009) percentages in the Kadaknath were observed, whereas the Aseel breed had a higher yolk index (P < 0.004), higher yolk percentage (P < 0.001), and higher yolk-to-albumen ratio (P < 0.001). Concentration of sperm (P < 0.01), live sperm counts (P < 0.05), and semen appearance scores (P < 0.05) were higher in the Aseel breed than in the Kadaknath breed. The Aseel breed showed a greater incidence of feather-pecking behavior under floor rearing, and this was negligible or mild in the Kadaknath breed. Broodiness under cage rearing was observed (8.42%) in the Aseel breed. With regard to welfare traits, male Aseel birds had a significantly shorter (P < 0.05) duration of tonic immobility (TI) than did male Kadaknath birds. Furthermore, male Aseel birds had a shorter (P < 0.001) duration of TI than did female Aseel birds, whereas female Aseel birds had a longer (P < 0.05) duration of TI than did female and male Kadaknath birds. From this study, it was concluded that the breeds differed on various growth, production, egg and semen quality, and behavioral traits, but not on welfare traits, although female Aseel birds exhibited a greater fear response. PMID:21248327

  3. Phenotypic Data Collection and Sample Preparation for Genomics of Wood Formation and Cellulosic Biomass Traits in Sunflower: Ames, IA location.

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, Laura F.

    2011-06-17

    Three fields were planted in Ames in 2010, two association mapping fields, N3 and A, and a recombinant inbred line field, N13. Phenotype data and images were transferred to UGA to support genetic and genomic analyses of woody biomass-related traits.

  4. Secondary sex traits, parasites, immunity and ejaculate quality in the Arctic charr

    PubMed Central

    Liljedal, S.; Folstad, I.; Skarstein, F.

    1999-01-01

    Ejaculate quality may limit male reproductive success. Sperm cells are immunologically perceived as non-self in the male reproductive tract and may therefore be attacked by the immune system. Males may consequently have to suppress their immune system in order to produce high-quality ejaculates. This suppression may be influenced by the current level of parasite infections, suggesting that only parasite-resistant males are able to produce high-quality ejaculates. In a study of naturally infected male Arctic charr sampled during their spawning period, we found that the density of circulating granulocytes, spleen mass and the intensity of infection by one nematode species located outside the testes were negatively associated with ejaculate quality. This suggests that a male's extra-testicular immune environment may affect the production of high-quality ejaculates and that parasite infections located in the extra-testicular soma may influence ejaculate quality, a trait most likely under directional selection. Moreover, male fertilization potential was negatively correlated with their red spawning coloration. In conclusion, these results emphasize the importance of parasites and immunity as factors generating variability in sperm quality, suggesting that parasite resistance may be of importance for maintaining variance in reproductive success even after copulation.

  5. Novel SNPs in the Ankyrin 1 gene and their association with beef quality traits.

    PubMed

    Horodyska, J; Sweeney, T; Ryan, M; Hamill, R M

    2015-10-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of bovine Ankyrin 1 (ANK1) have been associated with tenderness and intramuscular fat level in beef. The objectives of this study were to characterise novel DNA variants in the coding region of bovine ANK1 and test for association with beef quality traits. A 3kb region of ANK1 cDNA was amplified and sequenced in 32 Charolais cattle using five sets of overlapping primers. Eighteen SNPs were identified and a predicted exon was confirmed. An in silico translation indicated that SNP4 and SNP16 were non-conservative. Three SNPs were genotyped in 158 crossbred cattle (n=158) with associated meat quality data. SNP6 was associated with texture scores while SNP17 was associated with juiciness. Haplotype (cHAP) 1 was associated with lightness, redness, ultimate pH, as well as sarcomere length. Alleles of the ANK1 gene could be potential targets for gene-assisted selection to improve a range of meat quality traits in beef. PMID:26051041

  6. Effects of big-five personality traits on the quality of relationship and satisfaction in Chinese coach-athlete dyads.

    PubMed

    Yang, S X; Jowett, S; Chan, D K C

    2015-08-01

    The present study examined the influence of personality traits on the quality of the Chinese coach-athlete relationship and satisfaction through a dyadic research design. A total of 350 coach-athlete dyads completed a self-report instrument that assessed personality traits, as well as perceptions of relationship quality and satisfaction with training. Results revealed that: (a) actor effects (i.e., actor's personality will predict his or her own perceptions of relationship quality) of personality traits, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on both coaches' and athletes' perceptions of relationship quality and (b) partner effects (an actor's own personality will predict his or her partner's perceptions of relationship quality) of only athletes' personality, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on their coaches' perceptions of relationship quality. The findings suggested that each relationship member's personality trait contributed independently to relationship quality, and both actor and partner effects of the relationship quality on satisfaction with training were found to be significant. In Chinese sports culture, there presents a unique dynamics of personality and relationship quality among coach-athlete dyad. PMID:25367655

  7. Trait canalization analysis of water quality, temperature, and developmental associations with early life stages of two fish species.

    PubMed

    Simon, Thomas P

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of trait robustness based on environmental fluctuation in ontogenetic life stages are needed to evaluate stability and trait response during critical developmental events. Hardness, alkalinity, acidity, light intensity, and thermal differences were studied for trait canalization variation in morphometric, meristic, ontogenetic processes, and pigment characteristics. Trait canalization was observed with no statistical differences (p > 0.05) in mixed random two-way ANOVA comparisons between various block and treatment effects for hardness, alkalinity or acidity. Thermal block variation differences in six measures, including mandible length, yolk sac length, midpostanal depth, and head width, incubation, and hatching length, varied significantly (p ? 0.05) with declining temperatures. Water quality and thermal attributes exhibited trait canalization and did not increase character state variation in the early life stage morphological expression, which result in stable phenotypic inheritance rather than variable environmental conditions during embryonic and larval development. PMID:25863479

  8. Epistatic QTL pairs associated with meat quality and carcass composition traits in a porcine Duroc × Pietrain population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses in pig have revealed numerous individual QTL affecting growth, carcass composition, reproduction and meat quality, indicating a complex genetic architecture. In general, statistical QTL models consider only additive and dominance effects and identification of epistatic effects in livestock is not yet widespread. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize epistatic effects between common and novel QTL regions for carcass composition and meat quality traits in pig. Methods Five hundred and eighty five F2 pigs from a Duroc × Pietrain resource population were genotyped using 131 genetic markers (microsatellites and SNP) spread over the 18 pig autosomes. Phenotypic information for 26 carcass composition and meat quality traits was available for all F2 animals. Linkage analysis was performed in a two-step procedure using a maximum likelihood approach implemented in the QxPak program. Results A number of interacting QTL was observed for different traits, leading to the identification of a variety of networks among chromosomal regions throughout the porcine genome. We distinguished 17 epistatic QTL pairs for carcass composition and 39 for meat quality traits. These interacting QTL pairs explained up to 8% of the phenotypic variance. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate the significance of epistasis in pigs. We have revealed evidence for epistatic relationships between different chromosomal regions, confirmed known QTL loci and connected regions reported in other studies. Considering interactions between loci allowed us to identify several novel QTL and trait-specific relationships of loci within and across chromosomes. PMID:20977705

  9. Assessment of starch-based wood adhesive quality by confocal Raman microscopic detection of reaction homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Panjun; Cheng, Li; Gu, Zhengbiao; Li, Zhaofeng; Hong, Yan

    2015-10-20

    Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) was used to detect the reaction homogeneity of vinyl acetate grafted on starch granules and help to assess the quality of high solid content starch-based wood adhesive (HSSWA). Primarily, four experimental starch samples were investigated, and by analysis of band area ratio (carbonyl/carbohydrate) of each granule, information about reaction homogeneity was collected. The results showed that reaction extent and homogeneity were inconsistent for samples with different G values, and the distribution of ester groups on blend samples was much less uniform than grafted starch samples with the same G value, confirming that CRM was useful for determining the homogeneity of chemical modification. Afterwards, the technique was applied to research HSSWA prepared by two-stage seeded polymerization and traditional process. The distribution of ester groups was more uniform among starch granules prepared by former method, resulted in adhesive with much better performance, indicating that uniformity of polymerization was an important factor related to properties of starch-based wood adhesive. PMID:26256162

  10. The Negative Correlation between Fiber Color and Quality Traits Revealed by QTL Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gaskin; Sun, Junling; Pan, Zhaoe; He, Shoupu; Zhu, Heqin; Sun, Jie; Du, Xiongming

    2015-01-01

    Naturally existing colored cotton was far from perfection due to having genetic factors for lower yield, poor fiber quality and monotonous color. These factors posed a challenge to colored cotton breeding and innovation. To identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber color along with understanding of correlation between fiber color and quality in colored cotton, a RIL and two F2 populations were generated from crosses among Zong128 (Brown fiber cotton) and two white fiber cotton lines which were then analyzed in four environments. Two stable and major QTLs (qLC-7-1, qFC-7-1) for fiber lint and fuzz color were detected accounting for 16.01%-59.85% of the phenotypic variation across multiple generations and environments. Meanwhile, some minor QTLs were also identified on chromosomes 5, 14, 21 and 24 providing low phenotypic variation (<5%) from only F2 populations, not from the RILs population. Especially, a multiple-effect locus for fiber color and quality has been detected between flanking markers NAU1043 and NAU3654 on chromosome 7 (A genome) over multiple environments. Of which, qLC-7-1, qFC-7-1 were responsible for positive effects and improved fiber color in offsprings. Meanwhile, the QTLs (qFL-7-1, qFU-7-1, qFF-7-1, qFE-7-1, and qFS-7-1) for fiber quality had negative effects and explained 2.19%-8.78% of the phenotypic variation. This multiple-effect locus for fiber color and quality may reveal the negative correlation between the two types of above traits, so paving the way towards cotton genetic improvement. PMID:26121363

  11. Trait Mindfulness and Work-Family Balance among Working Parents: The Mediating Effects of Vitality and Sleep Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tammy D.; Kiburz, Kaitlin M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between trait mindfulness and work-family balance among a sample of working parents. Sleep quality and vitality are tested as mediators of this relationship. Results indicate that those with greater mindfulness report greater work-family balance, better sleep quality, and greater vitality. As…

  12. Association of CRTC2 gene polymorphisms with growth and meat quality traits of Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Xu, H C; Gui, L S; Song, N; Zhang, Y Y; Wang, H C; Zan, L S

    2015-01-01

    Growth and meat quality traits play important roles in the evaluation of cattle productivity and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. CRTC2 is a recently discovered gene related to obesity that may influence fat deposition. The aim of the current study was to detect polymorphisms of bovine CRTC2 and explore their relationships to growth and meat quality in Qinchuan cattle. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); g.3001 C>T; g.3034 G>A; and g.3467 T>C, were identified from sequencing results of 422 Qinchuan cattle. The genotypic distributions of both g.3034 G>A and g.3467 T>C mutations were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, (P < 0.05), while the T3001C mutation was not (P > 0.05), based on ?(2) test analysis. The SNPs g.3001 C>T and g.3034 G>A are missense mutations (Ser/Phe and Ser/Thr respectively). Additionally, SNPs g.3034 G>A and g.3467 T>C showed a medium polymorphism level (0.25 < PIC< 0.50), whereas g.3001 C>T showed a low polymorphism level (PIC < 0.25). These three SNPs were significantly associated with several growth and meat quality traits in the Qinchuan cattle population (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Collectively, these results demonstrate that CRTC2 is involved in the regulation of cattle growth and meat quality, and suggest that CRTC2 is a potential candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in future breeding development programs for Qinchuan cattle. PMID:26505444

  13. Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock*

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

    2013-01-01

    Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5?-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

  14. MHD coal-fired flow facility baseline water-quality study. Woods Reservoir, May 1979-April 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.

    1980-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) is located on Woods Reservoir at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Part of the role of UTSI, as participants in the DOE program, is to document environmental aspects of coal-fired MHD. In early 1979, prior to operation of the CFFF, a water quality program was initiated to establish baseline conditions for the reservoir. The study was designed to provide an accurate assessment of water quality which could be used as a basis for comparison to evaluate the impact, if any, of the plant operation on the aquatic environment. Results of a one year baseline study of water quality on Woods Reservoir are presented in this report. The key findings are that this reservoir is a eutrophic lake. Its predominant ions are calcium and bicarbonate and its pH is circumneutral.

  15. Effects of long-term ambient ozone exposure on biomass and wood traits in poplar treated with ethylenediurea (EDU).

    PubMed

    Carriero, G; Emiliani, G; Giovannelli, A; Hoshika, Y; Manning, W J; Traversi, M L; Paoletti, E

    2015-11-01

    This is the longest continuous experiment where ethylenediurea (EDU) was used to protect plants from ozone (O3). Effects of long-term ambient O3 exposure (23 ppm h AOT40) on biomass of an O3 sensitive poplar clone (Oxford) were examined after six years from in-ground planting. Trees were irrigated with either water or 450 ppm EDU. Above (-51%) and below-ground biomass (-47%) was reduced by O3 although the effect was significant only for stem and coarse roots. Ambient O3 decreased diameter of the lower stem, and increased moisture content along the stem of not-protected plants (+16%). No other change in the physical wood structure was observed. A comparison with a previous assessment in the same experiment suggested that O3 effects on biomass partitioning to above-ground organs depend on the tree ontogenetic stage. The root/shoot ratios did not change, suggesting that previous short-term observations of reduced allocation to tree roots may be overestimated. PMID:26310976

  16. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Yield and Grain Quality Traits in Winter Wheat Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, W.; Ogbonnaya, F. C.; Jighly, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.; Sohail, Q.; Rajaram, S.; Baum, M.

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of yield and grain quality traits in winter wheat genotypes using association mapping approach, and identify linked molecular markers for marker assisted selection. A total of 120 elite facultative/winter wheat genotypes were evaluated for yield, quality and other agronomic traits under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for two years (2011–2012) at the Tel Hadya station of ICARDA, Syria. The same genotypes were genotyped using 3,051 Diversity Array Technologies (DArT) markers, of which 1,586 were of known chromosome positions. The grain yield performance of the genotypes was highly significant both in rain-fed and irrigated sites. Average yield of the genotypes ranged from 2295 to 4038 kg/ha and 4268 to 7102 kg/ha under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, respectively. Protein content and alveograph strength (W) ranged from 13.6–16.1% and 217.6–375 Jx10-4, respectively. DArT markers wPt731910 (3B), wPt4680 (4A), wPt3509 (5A), wPt8183 (6B), and wPt0298 (2D) were significantly associated with yield under rain-fed conditions. Under irrigated condition, tPt4125 on chromosome 2B was significantly associated with yield explaining about 13% of the variation. Markers wPt2607 and wPt1482 on 5B were highly associated with protein content and alveograph strength explaining 16 and 14% of the variations, respectively. The elite genotypes have been distributed to many countries using ICARDA’s International system for potential direct release and/or use as parents after local adaptation trials by the NARSs of respective countries. The QTLs identified in this study are recommended to be used for marker assisted selection after through validation using bi-parental populations. PMID:26496075

  17. RNA-Seq using two populations reveals genes and alleles controlling wood traits and growth in Eucalyptus nitens.

    PubMed

    Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; Southerton, Simon; Thumma, Bala

    2014-01-01

    Eucalyptus nitens is a perennial forest tree species grown mainly for kraft pulp production in many parts of the world. Kraft pulp yield (KPY) is a key determinant of plantation profitability and increasing the KPY of trees grown in plantations is a major breeding objective. To speed up the breeding process, molecular markers that can predict KPY are desirable. To achieve this goal, we carried out RNA-Seq studies on trees at extremes of KPY in two different trials to identify genes and alleles whose expression correlated with KPY. KPY is positively correlated with growth measured as diameter at breast height (DBH) in both trials. In total, six RNA bulks from two treatments were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq platform. At 5% false discovery rate level, 3953 transcripts showed differential expression in the same direction in both trials; 2551 (65%) were down-regulated and 1402 (35%) were up-regulated in low KPY samples. The genes up-regulated in low KPY trees were largely involved in biotic and abiotic stress response reflecting the low growth among low KPY trees. Genes down-regulated in low KPY trees mainly belonged to gene categories involved in wood formation and growth. Differential allelic expression was observed in 2103 SNPs (in 1068 genes) and of these 640 SNPs (30%) occurred in 313 unique genes that were also differentially expressed. These SNPs may represent the cis-acting regulatory variants that influence total gene expression. In addition we also identified 196 genes which had Ka/Ks ratios greater than 1.5, suggesting that these genes are under positive selection. Candidate genes and alleles identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for future association studies aimed at identifying molecular markers for KPY and growth. PMID:24967893

  18. Influence of Autism Traits and Executive Functioning on Quality of Life in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Marieke; Geurts, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) often experience a low Quality of Life (QoL). We studied if IQ, early language development, current autism traits, and daily Executive Functions (EFs) are related to QoL in children (aged 8-12 years) with ASD (N = 120) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 76). Children with ASD showed a lower…

  19. Association between ADSL, GARS-AIRS-GART, DGAT1, and DECR1 expression levels and pork meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X D; Zhang, S J; Ding, Y Y; Feng, Y F; Zhu, H Y; Huang, L; Wu, T; Zhou, J; Yin, Z J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, meat quality traits were compared between Chinese lard- and European lean-type pigs. The association between expression of four genes (ADSL, GARS-AIRS-GART, DGAT1, and DECR1) and meat quality traits was also investigated. Meat quality traits were found to differ significantly between pig breeds. Meat color parameter values (a* and b*) and intramuscular fat content in Anqingliubai were significantly higher than those in Landrace (P < 0.01). Meat pH at 1 and 24 h following slaughter was significantly higher in Landrace than in Wei pigs, and meat inosine monophosphate (IMP) content was significantly higher in Landrace than in Wei and Anqingliubai pigs (both P < 0.01). Expression levels of ADSL, GARS-AIRS-GART, and DGAT1 were higher in longissimus lumborum muscle than in heart or liver tissues. ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART expression levels were correlated with meat IMP content and pH levels. The results of this study will contribute to the understanding of meat quality traits in Chinese lard- and European lean-type pigs. PMID:26600543

  20. Assessing the impact of a wood stove replacement program on air quality and children's health.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J; Navidi, William; Sheppard, Lianne; Bergauff, Megan; Palmer, Chris

    2011-12-01

    Many rural mountain valley communities experience elevated ambient levels of fine particulate matter (PM*) in the winter, because of contributions from residential wood-burning appliances and sustained temperature inversion periods during the cold season. A wood stove change-out program was implemented in a community heavily affected by wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of this intervention program on ambient and indoor PM2.5 concentrations and to identify possible corresponding changes in the frequency of childhood respiratory symptoms and infections and illness-related school absences. Over 1100 old wood stoves were replaced with new EPA-certified wood stoves or other heating sources. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations were 30% lower in the winter after the changeout program, compared with baseline winters, which brought the community's ambient air within the PM2.5 standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The installation of a new wood stove resulted in an overall reduction in indoor PM2.5 concentrations in a small sample of wood-burning homes, but the effects were highly variable across homes. Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were associated with decreased reports of childhood wheeze and of other childhood respiratory health conditions. The association was not limited to children living in homes with wood stoves nor does it appear to be limited to susceptible children (e.g., children with asthma). Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were also associated with lower illness-related school absences among older children, but this finding was not consistent across all age-groups. This community-level intervention provided a unique opportunity to prospectively observe exposure and outcome changes resulting from a targeted air pollution reduction strategy. PMID:22852484

  1. Phytochrome RNAi enhances major fibre quality and agronomic traits of the cotton Gossypium hirsutum L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y.; Buriev, Zabardast T.; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Johnie N.; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E.

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous improvement of fibre quality, early-flowering, early-maturity and productivity in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) is a challenging task for conventional breeding. The influence of red/far-red light ratio on the fibre length prompted us to examine the phenotypic effects of RNA interference (RNAi) of the cotton PHYA1 gene. Here we show a suppression of up to ~70% for the PHYA1 transcript, and compensatory overexpression of up to ~20-fold in the remaining phytochromes in somatically regenerated PHYA1 RNAi cotton plants. Two independent transformants of three generations exhibited vigorous root and vegetative growth, early-flowering, significantly improved upper half mean fibre length and an improvement in other major fibre characteristics. Small decreases in lint traits were observed but seed cotton yield was increased an average 10-17% compared with controls. RNAi-associated phenotypes were heritable and transferable via sexual hybridization. These results should aid in the development of early-maturing and productive Upland cultivars with superior fibre quality.

  2. Association of calpastatin gene polymorphisms and meat quality traits in pig.

    PubMed

    Ropka-Molik, K; Bereta, A; Tyra, M; Ró?ycki, M; Piórkowska, K; Szyndler-N?dza, M; Szmato?a, T

    2014-06-01

    Calpastatin is associated with the rate of post mortem degradation of structural proteins due to the regulation of calpain activity. In the present research, the associations between polymorphisms within 6th intron of porcine CAST gene and several meat quality traits were analyzed. The CAST gene polymorphisms affected meat colour, pH, water holding-capacity (WHC) and texture parameters (toughness, firmness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience) measured in longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles. The analysis performed on the most numerous breeds maintained in Poland, suggested that the most interesting polymorphisms were CAST/HpaII and CAST/RsaI, which had the greatest effect on WHC regardless of the breed analyzed and had an effect on meat pH, firmness and toughness for most breeds. Interestingly, for almost all breeds, the significant effect of both mutations on intramuscular fat content (IMF) was detected. The provided data confirmed the use of CAST gene as a genetic marker in breeding programmes which allows performing a selection focussed on improving the quality of pork. PMID:24583321

  3. Bayesian Statistical Analyses for Presence of Single Genes Affecting Meat Quality Traits in a Crossed Pig Population

    PubMed Central

    Janss, LLG.; Van-Arendonk, JAM.; Brascamp, E. W.

    1997-01-01

    Presence of single genes affecting meat quality traits was investigated in F(2) individuals of a cross between Chinese Meishan and Western pig lines using phenotypic measurements on 11 traits. A Bayesian approach was used for inference about a mixed model of inheritance, postulating effects of polygenic background genes, action of a biallelic autosomal single gene and various nongenetic effects. Cooking loss, drip loss, two pH measurements, intramuscular fat, shearforce and back-fat thickness were traits found to be likely influenced by a single gene. In all cases, a recessive allele was found, which likely originates from the Meishan breed and is absent in the Western founder lines. By studying associations between genotypes assigned to individuals based on phenotypic measurements for various traits, it was concluded that cooking loss, two pH measurements and possibly backfat thickness are influenced by one gene, and that a second gene influences intramuscular fat and possibly shearforce and drip loss. Statistical findings were supported by demonstrating marked differences in variances of families of fathers inferred as carriers and those inferred as noncarriers. It is concluded that further molecular genetic research effort to map single genes affecting these traits based on the same experimental data has a high probability of success. PMID:9071593

  4. Impacts of air cleaners on indoor air quality in residences impacted by wood smoke.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Amanda J; Gibson, Mark D; MacNeill, Morgan; Ward, Tony J; Wallace, Lance A; Kuchta, James; Seaboyer, Matt; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Guernsey, Judith Read; Stieb, David M

    2014-10-21

    Residential wood combustion is an important source of ambient air pollution, accounting for over 25% of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Canada. In addition to these ambient contributions, wood smoke pollutants can enter the indoor environment directly when loading or stoking stoves, resulting in a high potential for human exposure. A study of the effectiveness of air cleaners at reducing wood smoke-associated PM2.5 of indoor and outdoor origin was conducted in 31 homes during winter 2009-10. Day 1, the residents' wood burning appliance operated as usual with no air cleaner. Days 2 and 3, the wood burning appliance was not operational and the air cleaner was randomly chosen to operate in "filtration" or "placebo filtration" mode. When the air cleaner was operating, total indoor PM2.5 levels were significantly lower than on placebo filtration days (p = 0.0001) resulting in a median reduction of 52%. There was also a reduction in the median PM2.5 infiltration factor from 0.56 to 0.26 between these 2 days, suggesting the air cleaner was responsible for increased PM2.5 deposition on filtration days. Our findings suggest that the use of an air cleaner reduces exposure to indoor PM2.5 resulting from both indoor and ambient wood smoke sources. PMID:25247985

  5. Assessment of Ecological Quality of the Tajan River in Iran Using a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index and Species Traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aazami, Jaber; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Abdoli, Asghar; Sohrabi, Hormoz; Van den Brink, Paul J.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obtained for 17 sites. The Shahid-Rajaie dam divides the Tajan River into an up- and downstream part, with different land uses. Eighteen metrics were used to represent four components of ecosystem quality, including tolerance (Hilsenhoff, SIGNAL), diversity (Margalef, Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, and Evenness), abundance (total number of taxa, individuals, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, EPT, and Insects), and composition of assemblages (% Ephemeroptera, % Plecoptera, % Trichoptera, and % EPT Taxa). The integrated MMI was calculated by averaging the obtained scores of all indices. In the next step, we gathered information on 22 biological traits of macroinvertebrates to evaluate whether (group of) traits could be identified that are indicative for specific or general stress. Result showed a decrease in MMI from upstream (very good water quality) to downstream (bad) due to human activities. Industrial activities like pulping and papermaking operations or sand mining in the downstream part had more effects than agriculture and fish ponds in the upstream part. A redundancy analysis biplot showed the variation between the modalities of trait of macroinvertebrates and their correlation with physico-chemical parameters in Tajan River. The findings show that traits can be indicative for different kind of stress but that more effort has to be put in gathering data sets to disentangle the effect of habitat quality, pollution, and the physico-chemical properties of high- versus lowland rivers.

  6. Comparison of Physicochemical and Functional Traits of Hanwoo Steer Beef by the Quality Grade

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong-Gyun; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Kyung Haeng; Kim, Jong-Ju

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical and functional traits for loin muscles of Hanwoo steers were compared by quality grade (QG). A total of 500 Hanwoo steers were slaughtered, their carcasses were categorized into four groups (QG 1++, 1+, 1, and 2), and the longissimus dorsi muscles were analyzed. QG 1++ group had the highest fat and lowest moisture content (p<0.05). QG 1++ showed higher L* and b* color values, higher cooking loss, and lower shear force values, compared with the other groups (p<0.05). The flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and preference scores by sensory evaluation were highly ranked for premium QG groups (1++ and 1+). Regarding the micro compounds, QG 1 and QG 2 had greater amounts of inosine monophosphate, and QG 2 had greater amounts of anserine, carnosine, and creatine, than QG 1++ (p<0.05). QG 1++ and 1+ had higher percentages of oleic acid (C18:1) than QG 2 (p<0.05). Within premium QG 1++ and 1+, the results of the nucleotides, free amino acids, dipeptides, and fatty acids did not show any distinctive differences. Hanwoo beef as determined by the current grading system was not significantly different in terms of functional components; the only significant difference was in intramuscular fat content.

  7. Effect of housing conditions on production, carcass and meat quality traits of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Matics, Zs; Szendr?, Zs; Odermatt, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Nagy, I; Radnai, I; Dalle Zotte, A

    2014-01-01

    Production, carcass traits and meat quality of rabbits housed in cages or in different pens were compared. Rabbits (n=579) were sorted into 5 groups: C=cage (2 rabbits/cage); pen without platform: P11=9 rabbits/pen; P16=14 rabbits/pen; pen with platform: PW=wire net platform, 14 rabbits/pen; PD=platform with straw-litter, 14 rabbits/pen. Feed intake and average daily gain between 5 and 11 weeks, and body weight at 11 weeks were significantly higher in C rabbits than that of the mean of pen-housed groups, while the PD group had the lowest growth performance. C rabbits had the smallest hind part to reference carcass (P<0.001) and the largest percentage of perirenal and scapular fat (P<0.001). The meat/bone ratio was the largest in group C (P<0.05). Differences were recorded in a* value and lipid content of m. Longissimus dorsi. Rabbits housed in cages generally had the best performance whereas those housed in pens with platform exhibited the worst. PMID:23896135

  8. The effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzinpour, Amjad; Karashi, Naser

    2013-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles could prove to be a valuable alternative raw material for antibiotics and disinfectants as it is relatively free of adverse effects. Nanosilver is now been put to practical use in commonly used items, such as, clothes, electric home appliances, and electronic industry, but has not been widely applied in the medical or pharmacological fields. This study was designed to investigate the effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail in completely randomized design with four treatments and six repetitions at 0, 4, 8 and 12 ppm of silver nanoparticle levels. Eggs collected daily and egg parameters, including egg weight, length, width; yolk weight and eggshell thickness were examined. The effect of the different silver nanoparticle levels was determined using the General Linear Model of SAS procedure, whilst differences between the groups were determined using least significant difference test. Results indicated that silver nanoparticles at all levels caused significantly reduce of yolk weight and hen-day egg production for each week than the control treatment ( P < 0.05), whilst silver nanoparticle had no significant effect on egg weight, egg length and width and eggshell thickness.

  9. Utility of Metabolomics toward Assessing the Metabolic Basis of Quality Traits in Apple Fruit with an Emphasis on Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Daniel; Andrews, Preston K.; Reganold, John P.; Davies, Neal M.; Lange, B. Markus

    2012-01-01

    A gas chromatography–mass spectrometry approach was employed to evaluate the use of metabolite patterns to differentiate fruit from six commercially grown apple cultivars harvested in 2008. Principal component analysis (PCA) of apple fruit peel and flesh data indicated that individual cultivar replicates clustered together and were separated from all other cultivar samples. An independent metabolomics investigation with fruit harvested in 2003 confirmed the separate clustering of fruit from different cultivars. Further evidence for cultivar separation was obtained using a hierarchical clustering analysis. An evaluation of PCA component loadings revealed specific metabolite classes that contributed the most to each principal component, whereas a correlation analysis demonstrated that specific metabolites correlate directly with quality traits such as antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and total anthocyanins, which are important parameters in the selection of breeding germplasm. These data sets lay the foundation for elucidating the metabolic basis of commercially important fruit quality traits. PMID:22881116

  10. Association of blood glucose, blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, muscle metabolites, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits.

    PubMed

    Choe, J H; Kim, B C

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of blood glucose levels with blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, postmortem muscle glycogen and lactate content, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits. Compared to pigs with lower blood glucose levels, pigs with higher blood glucose levels showed higher blood lactate and serum cortisol levels at exsanguination, and they had lower residual glycogen and higher lactate content in the muscle at 45min postmortem. In addition, pigs with higher blood glucose levels had higher type IIB and lower type I area composition and finally exhibited lower muscle pH, paler color, and excessive loss of fluid on surface. These results imply that measuring blood glucose levels at exsanguination can be useful to indicate early glycolytic rates during postmortem and thus may be of value in the identification of pork with undesirable quality traits. PMID:24576772

  11. Polymorphisms of the bovine MC3R gene and their associations with body measurement traits and meat quality traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Yang, W-C; Wang, Y-N; Cui, A; Zan, L-S

    2015-01-01

    The melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R) gene, which belongs to the rhodopsin-like family A of the G protein-coupled receptor family, plays a crucial role in feed efficiency and energy homeostasis. The aim of this study was to examine associations between bovine MC3R gene polymorphisms and body measurement traits (BMTs) and meat quality traits (MQTs). We identified three synonymous mutations (T429C, T537C, and T663C) in exon 1 of the MC3R gene in Chinese Qinchuan beef cattle (N = 271) by sequencing. D' and r(2) values revealed that these three SNPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r(2) > 0.33); the T429C and T537C SNPs were in complete LD (D' = 1 and r(2) = 1). Association analyses revealed that the SNPs were significantly associated with BMTs and MQTs in Qinchuan cattle. Individuals with the wild homozygotic genotypes g.TTTT and g.TT had significantly higher values of chest depth, heart girth, back fat thickness, intramuscular fat content, and loin muscle area than the mutant heterozygotic genotypes g.TCTC and g.TC. These results suggest that the MC3R gene affects MQTs in Qinchuan cattle, and that it may be a good candidate gene for marker-assisted selection. PMID:26505335

  12. New QTL alleles for quality-related traits in spring wheat revealed by RIL population derived from supernumerary x non-supernumerary spikelet genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying new quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and alleles in exotic germplasm is paramount for further improvement of quality traits in wheat. In the present study, a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a cross between an elite wheat line (WCB414) and an exotic genotype wi...

  13. Molecular characterization, expression analysis and association study with meat quality traits of porcine TTID gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Deng, Chang-Yan; Xiong, Yuan-Zhu; Zuo, Bo

    2013-02-01

    Titin immunoglobulin domain protein (TTID) is localized to the Z-line and binds to alpha-actinin, gamma-filamin. It plays an indispensable role in stabilization and anchorage of thin filaments. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence was isolated by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The TTID sequence was deposited into the Genbank under the accession no. DQ157551. The deduced protein of 499 amino acids showed 93 % identity to the corresponding human and rat sequence. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed porcine TTID gene was expressed highest level in skeletal muscle, at second-highest level in the heart, but only low expression in the fat was detected. Bioinformatics analysis shows the molecular weight of the TTID protein is 55.747 kD with a PI of 9.26. It contains the protein function site of two potential Ig-like domain profiles, six N-myristoylation sites, six potential Casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, eight protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, three N-glycosylation sites, a tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site and a cell attachment sequence site. No putative base substitution was detected in the coding region by comparing sequences of Large White, Landrace and Meishan pig breeds. A T978C single nucleotide polymorphism in the intron 6 of porcine TTID gene was detected by a HinfI PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Study showed allele frequency differences among four purebreds. Association of the genotypes with meat quality traits showed that different genotypes of porcine TTID gene were significantly associated with meat pH (m.Biceps Femoris) (P < 0.05), meat color value (m.longissimus Dorsi) (P < 0.05) and Water Moisture (m.longissimus Dorsi) (P < 0.05). PMID:23096086

  14. Genetic divergence of physiological-quality traits of seeds in a population of peppers.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, A M S; Barroso, P A; do Rêgo, E R; Medeiros, G D A; Bruno, R L A; do Rêgo, M M

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has a great diversity of Capsicum peppers that can be used in breeding programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate genetic variation in traits related to the physiological quality of seeds of Capsicum annuum L. in a segregating F2 population and its parents. A total of 250 seeds produced by selfing in the F1 generation resulting from crosses between UFPB 77.3 and UFPB 76 were used, with 100 seeds of both parents used as additional controls, totaling 252 genotypes. The seeds were germinated in gerboxes containing substrate blotting paper moistened with distilled water. Germination and the following vigor tests were evaluated: first count, germination velocity index, and root and shoot lengths. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, and means were compared by Scott and Knott's method at 1% probability. Tocher's clustering based on Mahalanobis distance and canonical variable analysis with graphic dispersion of genotypes were performed, and genetic parameters were estimated. All variables were found to be significant by the F test (P ? 0.01) and showed high heritability and a CVg/CVe ratio higher than 1.0, indicating genetic differences among genotypes. Parents (genotypes 1 and 2) formed distinct groups in all clustering methods. Genotypes 3, 104, 153, and 232 were found to be the most divergent according to Tocher's clustering method, and this was mainly due to early germination, which was observed on day 14, and would therefore be selected. Understanding the phenotypic variability among these 252 genotypes will serve as a basis for continuing the breeding program within this family. PMID:26505398

  15. Influence of rearing system on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of Yangzhou geese.

    PubMed

    Liu, B Y; Wang, Z Y; Yang, H M; Wang, J M; Xu, D; Zhang, R; Wang, Q

    2011-03-01

    An experiment was conducted using a total of 540 one-day-old Yangzhou geese to study the effect of rearing system on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of male and female Yangzhou geese. The birds were divided into homogeneous groups according to initial BW and sex. The male and female geese were raised in separate pens under 5 different treatments, with 3 replicate pens of 18 male or 18 female geese per pen for each treatment. This experiment included 2 stages, with geese at 1 to 28 d of age (the first stage) and 29 to 70 d of age (the second stage). The 5 different treatments were 1) system A (geese raised on a wire floor), 2) system B (geese raised on the floor), 3) system C (geese raised on the floor and transferred to to a wire floor), 4) system D (geese raised on a wire floor and transferred to the floor), and 5) system E (geese raised on the floor and transferred to a free range). Results showed that feed conversion rate, BW, and BW gain were significantly affected by rearing system and sex (P < 0.05). For carcass yield, results suggested that eviscerated carcass yield and heart yield were affected by rearing system (P < 0.05) but not by sex (P > 0.05). Differences between sexes, but not rearing systems, were observed for only breast yield, thigh yield, and liver yield (P < 0.05). Rearing system and sex had a remarkable effect (P < 0.05) on subcutaneous fat thickness, abdominal fat yield, and gizzard yield. The nutrient composition (water, protein, and fat), water-holding capacity, shear force, and pH of the pectoralis major muscle were not affected (P > 0.05) by the rearing system, and only water, protein, and pH of the meat were affected by sex (P < 0.05). This study indicates that rearing system A, in which Yangzhou geese were raised on a wire floor, improved growth performance but had little effect on meat quality, implying that the use of rearing system A, using a wire floor, might be feasible and effective for Yangzhou geese. PMID:21325238

  16. Carcass composition, bone mechanical properties, and meat quality traits in relation to growth rate in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gondret, F; Larzul, C; Combes, S; de Rochambeau, H

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize correlated responses in carcass composition, bone mechanical properties, and meat quality indicators to divergent selection for growth rate. Rabbits from low (LOW) or high (HIGH) lines divergently selected over five generations on 63-d BW and a control group (CONT) were used. Rabbits were slaughtered at an average BW of 2,306 +/- 65 g, corresponding to 63, 58, or 52 d of age in LOW (n = 41), CONT (n = 43), and HIGH (n = 44) groups, respectively. Postweaning ADG and G:F increased (P < 0.001) in the order LOW < CONT < HIGH groups. The lengths of the tibia and femur in rabbit legs decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing growth rate. Tibia and femur bone intrinsic stiffness, as assessed by a three-point flexure test, followed the order (P < 0.001) of HIGH < CONT < LOW groups. At the same BW, HIGH rabbits and CONT rabbits showed many similarities for dressing percent, carcass composition, and color and chemical composition of muscles or meat parts. In contrast, carcass yield and the relative proportion of hind part were 3% greater (P < 0.01) in LOW rabbits than in CONT and HIGH rabbits. The meat-to-bone ratio in the hind leg was 11% greater (P < 0.001) in the LOW group compared with the CONT and HIGH groups. Yellow color index and moisture content in LM, a fast-twitch glycolytic muscle, were lower (P < 0.05) in LOW rabbits than in HIGH rabbits, but ultimate pH, WHC, and cooking loss did not differ between the two growth-selected lines. Ultimate pH in semitendinosus, a mixed slow- and fast-twitch oxidoglycolytic muscle, was less (P < 0.001) in HIGH rabbits than in CONT and LOW rabbits. However, lactate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase activities in this muscle (n = 21 per group), assessed at the time of slaughter as markers of glycolytic and oxidative capacities, respectively, did not differ among groups. Growth rate did not modify mean cross-sectional area and type frequency of myofibers in semitendinosus muscle. Finally, Warner-Bratzler shear force and total energy needed to achieve rupture did not differ among groups in semitendinosus muscle (n = 21 per group), whereas they were the least (P < 0.001) in LM (n = 128) from HIGH rabbits. Results from this study indicate that improvement of growth rate by selection has little effect in rabbit carcass and meat quality traits. PMID:15956460

  17. Analysis of a slow-growing line reveals wide genetic variability of carcass and meat quality-related traits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Slow-growing lines are widely used in France for the production of high quality free-range chickens. While such production is mainly dedicated to the whole carcass market, new prospects are opening up for the development of cuts and processed products. Whether the body composition and meat quality of slow-growing birds can be improved by selection has thus become an important issue. The genetic parameters of growth, body composition and breast meat quality traits were evaluated in relation to behaviour at slaughter in a large pedigree population including 1022 male and female slow-growing birds. Results The heritability coefficients (h2) of body weight and body composition traits varied from 0.3 to 0.5. Abdominal fat percentage was genetically positively correlated with body weight but negatively correlated with breast muscle yield. The characteristics of the breast meat (i.e., post-mortem fall in pH, colour, drip loss, shear-force and lipid content) were all heritable, with h2 estimates ranging from 0.18 to 0.48. The rate and extent of the fall in pH were under different genetic control. Strong negative genetic correlations were found between the ultimate pH and the lightness, yellowness and drip loss of the meat. Wing flapping on the shackle line was significantly heritable and exhibited marked genetic correlations with the pH at 15 min post-slaughter and the redness of the meat. The genetic relationships between meat quality traits, body weight and body composition appeared slightly different between males and females. Conclusion This study suggested that there are a number of important criteria for selection on carcass and breast meat quality in slow-growing birds. Selection for reduced abdominal fatness and increased breast muscle yield should be effective as both traits were found to be highly heritable and favourably correlated. Substantial improvement in meat quality could be achieved by selection on ultimate pH which was highly heritable and strongly correlated with the colour and water-holding capacity of the meat. Moreover, this study revealed for the first time that the behaviour at slaughter is partly genetically determined in the chicken. PMID:23088779

  18. Mapping of markers related to self-incompatibility, disease resistance, and quality traits in Lolium perenne L.

    PubMed

    Van Daele, Inge; Muylle, Hilde; Van Bockstaele, Erik; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel

    2008-08-01

    Several linkage maps, mainly based on anonymous markers, are now available for Lolium perenne. The saturation of these maps with markers derived from expressed sequences would provide information useful for QTL mapping and map alignment. Therefore, we initiated a study to develop and map DNA markers in genes related to self-incompatibility, disease resistance, and quality traits such as digestibility and sugar content in two L. perenne families. In total, 483 and 504 primer pairs were designed and used to screen the ILGI and CLO-DvP mapping populations, respectively, for length polymorphisms. Finally, we were able to map 67 EST markers in at least one mapping population. Several of these markers coincide with previously reported QTL regions for the traits considered or are located in the neighbourhood of the self-incompatibility loci, S and Z. The markers developed expand the set of gene-derived markers available for genetic mapping in ryegrasses. PMID:18650954

  19. Genetic parameters and prediction of genotypic values for root quality traits in cassava using REML/BLUP.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E J; Santana, F A; Oliveira, L A; Santos, V S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and predict the genotypic values of root quality traits in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). A total of 471 cassava accessions were evaluated over two years of cultivation. The evaluated traits included amylose content (AML), root dry matter (DMC), cyanogenic compounds (CyC), and starch yield (StYi). Estimates of the individual broad-sense heritability of AML were low (hg(2) = 0.07 ± 0.02), medium for StYi and DMC, and high for CyC. The heritability of AML was substantially improved based on mean of accessions (hm(2) = 0.28), indicating that some strategies such as increasing the number of repetitions can be used to increase the selective efficiency. In general, the observed genotypic values were very close to the predicted average of the improved population, most likely due to the high accuracy (>0.90), especially for DMC, CyC, and StYi. Gains via selection of the 30 best genotypes for each trait were 4.8 and 3.2% for an increase and decrease for AML, respectively, an increase of 10.75 and 74.62% for DMC for StYi, respectively, and a decrease of 89.60% for CyC in relation to the overall mean of the genotypic values. Genotypic correlations between the quality traits of the cassava roots collected were generally favorable, although they were low in magnitude. The REML/BLUP method was adequate for estimating genetic parameters and predicting the genotypic values, making it useful for cassava breeding. PMID:25177949

  20. Genetic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits and their relationships to liveweight and wool production in hogget Merino rams.

    PubMed

    Greeff, J C; Safari, E; Fogarty, N M; Hopkins, D L; Brien, F D; Atkins, K D; Mortimer, S I; van der Werf, J H J

    2008-06-01

    Genetic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits of about 18-month-old Merino rams (n = 5870), the progeny of 543 sires from three research resource flocks, were estimated. The estimates of heritability for hot carcass weight (HCW) and the various fat and muscle dimension measurements were moderate and ranged from 0.20 to 0.37. The brightness of meat (colour L*, 0.18 +/- 0.03 standard error) and meat pH (0.22 +/- 0.03) also had moderate estimates of heritability, although meat relative redness (colour a*, 0.10 +/- 0.03) and relative yellowness (colour b*, 0.10 +/- 0.03) were lower. Heritability estimates for live weights were moderate and ranged from 0.29 to 0.41 with significant permanent maternal environmental effects (0.13 to 0.10). The heritability estimates for the hogget wool traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.27 to 0.60. The ultrasound measurements of fat depth (FATUS) and eye muscle depth (EMDUS) on live animals were highly genetically correlated with the corresponding carcass measurements (0.69 +/- 0.09 FATC and 0.77 +/- 0.07 EMD). Carcass tissue depth (FATGR) had moderate to low genetic correlations with carcass muscle measurements [0.18 +/- 0.10 EMD and 0.05 +/- 0.10 eye muscle area (EMA)], while those with FATC were negative. The genetic correlation between EMD and eye muscle width (EMW) was 0.41 +/- 0.08, while EMA was highly correlated with EMD (0.89 +/- 0.0) and EMW (0.78 +/- 0.04). The genetic correlations for muscle colour with muscle measurements were moderately negative, while those with fat measurements were close to zero. Meat pH was positively correlated with muscle measurements (0.14 to 0.17) and negatively correlated with fat measurements (-0.06 to -0.18). EMDUS also showed a similar pattern of correlations to EMD with meat quality indicator traits, although FATUS had positive correlations with these traits which were generally smaller than their standard error. The genetic correlations among the meat colour traits were high and positive while those with meat pH were high and negative, which were all in the favourable direction. Generally, phenotypic correlations were similar or slightly lower than the corresponding genetic correlations. There were generally small to moderate negative genetic correlations between clean fleece weight (CFW) and carcass fat traits while those with muscle traits were close to zero. As the Merino is already a relatively lean breed, this implies that particular attention should be given to this relationship in Merino breeding programmes to prevent the reduction of fat reserves as a correlated response to selection for increased fleece weight. The ultrasound scan traits generally showed a similar pattern to the corresponding carcass fat and muscle traits. There was a small unfavourable genetic correlation between CFW and meat pH (0.19 +/- 0.07). PMID:18479272

  1. Relationship between pectoralis major muscle histology and quality traits of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, M; Petracci, M; Meluzzi, A; Cavani, C; Clavenzani, P; Sirri, F

    2015-01-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the influence of myodegeneration of pectoralis major muscle on quality traits and chemical composition of breast meat of heavy-size male broilers. For this purpose, a total of 72 pectoralis major muscles were randomly collected from broilers farmed under homogeneous conditions and graded into three categories (mild, n=22; moderate, n=33; and severe, n=17) based on the presence of abnormal fibers (giant fibers, fibers with hyaline degeneration, and damaged and/or necrotic fibers) evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Color, pH, drip loss, Allo-Kramer shear values, and chemical composition (moisture, proteins, total lipids, ashes, and collagen) were determined on nonmarinated breast meat. Purge loss and cook loss, total yield, and Allo-Kramer shear values were measured on vacuum-tumbled samples. Samples showing moderate myodegeneration had the highest mean cross-sectional area of the fibers, while samples with severe myodegeneration had myofibers of different diameter and without the characteristic polygonal shape, multifocal degeneration and necrosis, as well as infiltration of CD3-immunoreactive cells. Cooking losses of nonmarinated meat were lower in the mild group with respect to moderate and severe groups (21.4 vs. 24.7 and 24.7%; P<0.001). Breast muscles with severe damage, in comparison with mild degenerated samples, showed higher moisture (75.4 vs. 74.4%; P<0.05) and lower protein percentages (21.1 vs. 22.6%; P<0.001). The lipid percentage of severely degenerated samples was higher than that from moderate group (2.94 vs. 2.36; P<0.05), while collagen content was not modified by histological lesion levels. Marinated meat from the mild group had higher uptake and total marinade yield after cooking. In conclusion, almost all breast fillets of heavy broiler chickens produced under intensive farming systems had histological lesions, which reflected on the chemical composition of the meat and the impaired water holding/binding capacities of the meat. PMID:25577799

  2. Identification of haplotypes in promoter of prolactin gene and their effect on egg production and quality traits in layer chicken.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, T K; Chatterjee, R N; Sharma, R P; Niranjan, M; Rajkumar, U; Reddy, B L N

    2011-04-01

    Expression of prolactin hormone is a crucial event in regulating egg production in chickens for which promoter plays the vital role in expressing the prolactin gene. The objective of the present study was to identify haplotypes in the prolactin promoter and their effects on egg production and egg quality traits in White Leghorn chicken. Single stranded conformation polymorphism followed by sequencing was conducted to explore polymorphism at 561 bp promoter of prolactin gene. The effect of haplotype combinations on egg production and quality traits were estimated following general linear model technique. The expression of prolactin by different haplogroups was quantified by qPCR. Total 28 haplotypes were found in White Leghorn chicken of which h1 haplotype possessed the highest frequency of 0.46 and h8, h14, h16, h25, h26, and h28 haplotypes had the lowest frequency (0.1%). The egg production up to 52 and 64 weeks of age were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) associated with haplotype combinations where the highest 52-w (52 weeks) egg production was found in animals with h1/h22 combination and the lowest production was observed in the birds with h1/h2 haplogroup. The haplotype combinations had the significant effect (p < 0.05) on Haugh Unit, yolk index and albumen weight at 40 weeks of age; Haugh Unit and albumen weight at 52 weeks of age and Haugh unit, yolk weight and yolk percentage at 64 weeks of age. The prolactin expression in h1/h22 birds was found to be the lowest and in h1/h5 birds to be the highest. The prolactin expression showed significant effect on 52-w egg production and albumin weight at 52 weeks age. In conclusion, it may be stated that the prolactin promoter was highly polymorphic and had the significant association with egg production and quality traits in White Leghorn chicken. PMID:21500109

  3. Genomic selection accuracy for grain quality traits in biparental wheat populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection (GS) is a promising tool for plant and animal breeding that uses genome wide molecular marker data to capture small and large effect quantitative trait loci and predict the genetic value of selection candidates. Genomic selection has been shown previously to have higher prediction ...

  4. GENETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATES FOR PERFORMANCE, COMPOSITION, AND MEAT QUALITY TRAITS IN LANDRACE PIG

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from a purebred Landrace resource population, developed to represent current U.S. breed genetic and phenotypic diversity, were utilized to derive restricted maximum likelihood estimates of genetic parameters using single and multiple trait animal models for days to 113.4 kg (DAYS), 10th rib bac...

  5. Evaluation of temperament and transportation stress on body composition traits and meat quality in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the first study was to evaluate the combined effects of transportation stress and animal temperament on real-time ultrasound body composition traits (primarily percentage of intramuscular fat) in Angus Crossbred (n = 68) and Brahman (n = 60) steers. Temperament scores (1 to 5 scale)...

  6. Identification of Genetic Loci Associated with Quality Traits in Almond via Association Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Font i Forcada, Carolina; Oraguzie, Nnadozie; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Espiau, Maria Teresa; Socias i Company, Rafael; Fernández i Martí, Angel

    2015-01-01

    To design an appropriate association study, we need to understand population structure and the structure of linkage disequilibrium within and among populations as well as in different regions of the genome in an organism. In this study, we have used a total of 98 almond accessions, from five continents located and maintained at the Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA; Spain), and 40 microsatellite markers. Population structure analysis performed in ‘Structure’ grouped the accessions into two principal groups; the Mediterranean (Western-Europe) and the non-Mediterranean, with K = 3, being the best fit for our data. There was a strong subpopulation structure with linkage disequilibrium decaying with increasing genetic distance resulting in lower levels of linkage disequilibrium between more distant markers. A significant impact of population structure on linkage disequilibrium in the almond cultivar groups was observed. The mean r2 value for all intra-chromosomal loci pairs was 0.040, whereas, the r2 for the inter-chromosomal loci pairs was 0.036. For analysis of association between the markers and phenotypic traits, five models comprising both general linear models and mixed linear models were selected to test the marker trait associations. The mixed linear model (MLM) approach using co-ancestry values from population structure and kinship estimates (K model) as covariates identified a maximum of 16 significant associations for chemical traits and 12 for physical traits. This study reports for the first time the use of association mapping for determining marker-locus trait associations in a world-wide almond germplasm collection. It is likely that association mapping will have the most immediate and largest impact on the tier of crops such as almond with the greatest economic value. PMID:26111146

  7. Comparison and heritability of major rice end-use quality traits among diverse accessions grown in both tropical and temperate USA environments and genetic marker implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing environment has been well-documented as playing a large role in effecting the end-use quality traits of rice. Apparent amylose content (AAC) and gelatinization temperature (GT) are considered to be the two most important end-use quality characteristics in rice, defining the major classes tha...

  8. Correlated responses in growth, carcass, and meat quality traits to divergent selection for testosterone production in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bender, J M; See, M T; Hanson, D J; Lawrence, T E; Cassady, J P

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this project was to characterize changes in growth, carcass yield, and meat quality traits in castrates and gilts in response to divergent selection for testosterone production. In generation 21, endogenous testosterone concentrations in Duroc boars of the high (HTL) and low (LTL) testosterone lines averaged 49.0 and 27.8 ng/mL (P < 0.01), respectively. Eight LTL and 10 HTL boars were used to sire 29 LTL and 33 HTL litters. To remove the effects of inbreeding, these same boars were mated to females of a Large White x Landrace composite (WC) to generate 11 WC by LTL litters (WLT) and 23 WC by HTL litters (WHT). Castrates and gilts were then allotted to LTL (n = 53), HTL (n = 61), WLT (n = 102), and WHT (n = 101) for testing. Growth and carcass traits analyzed included days to 114 kg (D114), ADG, backfat adjusted to 114 kg (ABF), LM area adjusted to 114 kg and predicted percent lean (PPL). Fat-O-Meater data collected were adjusted fat depth (AFD), adjusted loin depth, and percent lean. Meat quality traits characterized at 24 h postmortem included marbling score, percent lipid, pH, drip loss, color score, and Minolta L*, a*, and b*. Data were analyzed with a mixed model including fixed effects of line, mating type (purebred or crossbred), sex, and the random effect of sire nested within line. All possible interactions among fixed effects were tested. The HTL had fewer D114 (P < 0.05), greater ADG (P < 0.01), greater ABF (P < 0.01), and lower PPL (P < 0.01) than LTL. The WHT and WLT did not differ for D114, ADG, or ABF. The WHT had smaller LM area adjusted to 114 kg (P < 0.05) and greater drip loss (P < 0.05) than WLT. The WLT had lower adjusted loin depth (P < 0.05) than LTL and HTL. The LTL and HTL had greater subjective scores for marbling (P < 0.05) compared with WLT and WHT. The least squares mean for percent lipid for HTL and LTL was 4.00. The WHT had greater means for L*, a*, and b* (P < 0.05) than WLT. Pigs selected for increased testosterone production grew faster and produced fatter carcasses than pigs selected for decreased testosterone. Changes in growth, carcass yield, and meat quality traits were detected in castrates and gilts in response to divergent selection for testosterone production. PMID:16699090

  9. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES: METHOD 28A MEASUREMENT OF AIR TO FUEL RATIO AND MINIMUM BURN RATE FOR WOOD-FIRED APPLIANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quality assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing measurement of air-to-fuel ratio and minimum burn rate determinations according to EPA protocol, Method 28A...

  10. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of the Opitutaceae Bacterium Strain TAV1, a Symbiont of the Wood-Feeding Termite Reticulitermes flavipes

    SciTech Connect

    Isanapong, Jantiya; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Bruce, David; Chen, Amy; Detter, J. Chris; Han, James; Han, Cliff; Held, Brittany; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, N; Land, Miriam L; Mavromatis, K; Nolan, Matt; Pati, Amrita; Pennacchio, Len; Pitluck, Sam; Szeto, Ernest; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Rodrigues, Jorge L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial communities in the termite hindgut are essential for degrading plant material. We present the high-quality draft genome sequence of the Opitutaceae bacterium strain TAV1, the first member of the phylum Verrucomicrobia to be isolated from wood-feeding termites. The genomic analysis reveals genes coding for lignocellulosic degradation and nitrogen fixation.

  11. Comparison of Quality Traits of Meat from Korean Native Chickens and Broilers Used in Two Different Traditional Korean Cuisines

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Jun Heon; Kim, Jong Geun; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC) and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL), KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS), broiler for baeksuk (BL), and broiler for samgyetang (BS) were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5’-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines. PMID:25049883

  12. Polymorphisms and expression analysis of SOX-6 in relation to porcine growth, carcass, and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine; Heidt, Hanna; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Neuhoff, Christiane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and expression of SOX-6 to support its candidacy for growth, carcass, and meat quality traits in pigs. The first SNP, rs81358375, was associated with pH 45 min post mortem in loin (pH1L), the thickness of backfat and side fat, and carcass length in Pietrain (Pi) population, and related with backfat thickness and daily gain in Duroc × Pietrain F2 (DuPi) population. The other SNP, rs321666676, was associated with meat colour in Pi population. In DuPi population, the protein, not mRNA, level of SOX-6 in high pH1L pigs was significantly less abundant compared with low pH1L pigs, where microRNAs targeting SOX-6 were also differently regulated. This paper shows that SOX-6 could be a potential candidate gene for porcine growth, carcass, and meat quality traits based on genetic association and gene expression. PMID:25935846

  13. The Impact of Ripening Time on Technological Quality Traits, Chemical Change and Sensory Characteristics of Dry-cured Loin

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kyoung Mi; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ripening time on the technological quality traits, fatty acid compositions and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin was studied. Pork loins (n = 102) at 24 h post-mortem were used to produce dry-cured loins. The dry-cured loins were assessed at 30, 60, and 90 days of ripening for the aforementioned characteristics. Our results showed that the water activity (aw) decreased (p<0.05) up to 60 days and did not change thereafter. The lipid oxidation and weight loss levels significantly (p<0.05) increased with increased ripening time. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) L* decreased for 90 days while CIE a* increased for 60 days and did not increase thereafter. More noticeably, the levels of most of unsaturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased as increasing ripening time up to 90 days. The 30 days-ripened loins had lower (p<0.05) color, flavor and overall acceptability scores than the loins ripened for 60 and 90 days, however, no differences in sensory traits occurred between the 60 and 90 day-ripened samples. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it is suggested that the ripening duration between 30 and 60 days could be more appropriate for producing dry-cured loin product with higher quality and economic benefits. PMID:25715685

  14. Quality trait variations in [??Co]-irradiated wheat and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit mutant identification.

    PubMed

    Lai, D-E; Wang, M; Zhang, C-Y

    2014-01-01

    With 300 Gy of [(60)Co] ?-ray radiation of dry wheat seeds of Vortex 9722, the protein content, wet gluten content, sedimentation value, and hardness variation were analyzed in 341 lines in M4. Using over population mean ± 2X standard deviation as the screening standard, 8 lines with higher protein and wet gluten content and 4 lines with lower protein and wet gluten content were selected. In the M5 generation, the quality traits - silty parameters and high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) - were further analyzed in these 12 lines. The results showed that in the M5 generation, the quality traits in some variants were significantly different from those in the parents; the farinograms varied greatly. Eleven variants had significantly different HMW-GS bands compared to their parents. The parents had a HMW-GS composition of 5 + 14 + 15 + 12 + 9, and the variants had HMW-GS of 11 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 12 subunits or 1 + 5 + 7 + 8 + 12 subunits, indicating that the glutenin loci of these lines were mutated. PMID:25366793

  15. A comparison between slaughter traits and meat quality of various sheep breeds: wool, dual-purpose and mutton.

    PubMed

    Cloete, J J E; Hoffman, L C; Cloete, S W P

    2012-07-01

    The slaughter and meat quality traits of 20-month-old wool (Merino), dual-purpose (Dohne Merino and South African Mutton Merino [SAMM]) and mutton (Dormer) type sheep were compared. Average live weights of SAMM and Dormer sheep were 23% heavier than those of Dohne Merinos which were 28% heavier than Merinos. Fat depths at the thirteenth rib and lumbar regions of Merino and Dohne Merino sheep were lower than those of SAMM and Dormer sheep. The cooking loss, drip loss and shearing value from the M. longissimus dorsi did not differ between breeds. The initial juiciness and sustained juiciness of meat from Merinos were rated significantly lower by sensory analysis. Meat from Dohne Merino was rated significantly more tender for the attribute first bite. It was demonstrated that Dormer and SAMM sheep had heavier but fatter carcasses than Merinos and Dohne Merinos, with differences in meat quality between breeds. PMID:22391055

  16. Correlative responses for carcass and meat quality traits to selection for ovulation rate or prenatal survival in French Large White pigs.

    PubMed

    Rosendo, A; Druet, T; Péry, C; Bidanel, J P

    2010-03-01

    Correlated effects of selection for components of litter size on carcass and meat quality traits were estimated using data from 3 lines of pigs derived from the same Large White base population. Two lines were selected for 6 generations on high ovulation rate at puberty (OR) or high prenatal survival corrected for ovulation rate in the first 2 parities (PS). The third line was an unselected control (CON). The 3 lines were kept for a 7th generation, but without any selection. Carcass and meat quality traits were recorded on the 5th to 7th generation of the experiment. Carcass traits included dressing percentage, carcass length (LGTH), average backfat thickness (ABT), estimated lean meat content, and 8 carcass joint weight traits. Meat quality traits included pH recorded 24 h after slaughter (pH24) of LM, gluteus superficialis (GS), biceps femoris (BF), and adductor femoris (AD) muscles, as well as reflectance and water-holding capacity (WHC) of GS and BF muscles. Heritabilities of carcass and meat quality traits and their genetic correlations with OR and PS were estimated using REML methodology applied to a multiple trait animal model. Correlated responses to selection were then estimated by computing differences between OR or PS and CON lines at generations 5 to 7 using least squares and mixed model methodology. Heritability (h(2)) estimates were 0.08 +/- 0.04, 0.58 +/- 0.10, 0.70 +/- 0.10, and 0.74 +/- 0.10 for dressing percentage, LGTH, ABT, and lean meat content, respectively, ranged from 0.28 to 0.72 for carcass joint traits, from 0.28 to 0.45 for pH24 and reflectance measurements, and from 0.03 to 0.11 for WHC measurements. Both OR and PS had weak genetic correlations with carcass (r(G) = -0.09 to 0.17) and most meat quality traits. Selection for OR did not affect any carcass composition or meat quality trait. Correlated responses to selection for PS were also limited, with the exception of a decrease in pH24 of GS and BF muscles (-0.12 to -0.14 after 6 generations; P < 0.05), in WHC of GS muscle (-18.9 s after 6 generations; P < 0.05) and a tendency toward an increase in loin weight (0.44 kg after 6 generations; P < 0.10) . PMID:19966169

  17. Wood and Wood Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Raymond A.

    Wood has been utilized by humans since antiquity. Trees provided a source of many products required by early humans such as food, medicine, fuel, and tools. For example, the bark of the willow tree, when chewed, was used as a painkiller in early Greece and was the precursor of the present-day aspirin. Wood served as the primary fuel in the United States until about the turn of the 19th century, and even today over one-half of the wood now harvested in the world is used for heating fuel.

  18. Wood products What is wood?

    E-print Network

    Slik, Ferry

    with WD of 0.35-0.50 Fine furniture will use wood with WD > 0.60 Burning properties also differ betweenWood products #12;What is wood? Woody plants have two rings of growing cells around the stem called compressed and become wood - Sapwood, is water conducting xylem - Heart wood is no longer transporting water

  19. Fatty acid profile, carcass and quality traits of meat from Nellore young bulls on pasture supplemented with crude glycerin.

    PubMed

    San Vito, E; Lage, J F; Ribeiro, A F; Silva, R A; Berchielli, T T

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (279.5±16.3 initial body weight) raised on pasture supplemented with crude glycerin at 0%, 7%, 14%, 21% or 28% (DM basis). The diets were similar in energy and protein levels, and the glycerin replaced corn in the supplement. After slaughter, the carcass characteristics were measured, and the longissimus muscle was collected to determine the meat quality. The inclusion of crude glycerin in the supplement did not change (P>0.05) any of the carcass characteristics and meat quality assessed; however, the pH decreased linearly (P=0.03), and margaric acid (17:0) increased (P=0.02) in the longissimus muscle with the addition of glycerin in the diet. Our conclusion is that the inclusion of crude glycerin up to the level of 28% of dry matter in the supplement does not alter the carcass characteristics or the meat quality from animals raised on pasture. PMID:25290759

  20. Expression profiling of potato germplasm differentiated in quality traits leads to the identification of candidate flavour and texture genes

    PubMed Central

    Ducreux, Laurence J. M.; Morris, Wayne L.; Prosser, Ian M.; Morris, Jenny A.; Beale, Michael H.; Wright, Frank; Shepherd, Tom; Bryan, Glenn J.; Hedley, Pete E.; Taylor, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Quality traits such as flavour and texture are assuming a greater importance in crop breeding programmes. This study takes advantage of potato germplasm differentiated in tuber flavour and texture traits. A recently developed 44 000-element potato microarray was used to identify tuber gene expression profiles that correspond to differences in tuber flavour and texture as well as carotenoid content and dormancy characteristics. Gene expression was compared in two Solanum tuberosum group Phureja cultivars and two S. tuberosum group Tuberosum cultivars; 309 genes were significantly and consistently up-regulated in Phureja, whereas 555 genes were down-regulated. Approximately 46% of the genes in these lists can be identified from their annotation and amongst these are candidates that may underpin the Phureja/Tuberosum trait differences. For example, a clear difference in the cooked tuber volatile profile is the higher level of the sesquiterpene ?-copaene in Phureja compared with Tuberosum. A sesquiterpene synthase gene was identified as being more highly expressed in Phureja tubers and its corresponding full-length cDNA was demonstrated to encode ?-copaene synthase. Other potential ‘flavour genes’, identified from their differential expression profiles, include those encoding branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase and a ribonuclease suggesting a mechanism for 5?-ribonucleotide formation in potato tubers on cooking. Major differences in the expression levels of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis (and potentially texture) were also identified, including genes encoding pectin acetylesterase, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase and pectin methylesterase. Other gene expression differences that may impact tuber carotenoid content and tuber life-cycle phenotypes are discussed. PMID:18987392

  1. Muscle characteristics and meat quality traits are affected by divergent selection on residual feed intake in pigs.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, L; Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Louveau, I; Damon, M; Prunier, A; Billon, Y; Sellier, P; Gilbert, H

    2011-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed feed intake and that expected based on requirements for maintenance and production. A divergent selection was conducted during 4 generations in Large White male pigs to produce low and high RFI lines. The present study aims at determining the influence of this selection on biochemical and histological traits of skeletal muscle, and relating these changes to correlated effects on growth, carcass composition, and meat quality traits. At 8 d preslaughter, biopsies from the LM were taken in the fed state on 14 females from each RFI line fed ad libitum. Animals were slaughtered at 107.8 ± 8.0 kg of BW without any previous fasting. Samples of LM, semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BFM), and rhomboideus muscles were taken at both 30 min and 24 h postmortem. Myofiber typing was only assessed in LM. Low RFI pigs ("efficient") had leaner carcasses with greater muscle content (P < 0.001), less backfat thickness (P < 0.001), and less intramuscular fat content in all 4 muscles (P < 0.01 to P = 0.04). Their greater muscle content was associated with hypertrophy of all fast-twitch fibers. Glycogen content in all glycolytic muscles (i.e., LM, SM and BFM), was greater in low than high RFI pigs. The greater accumulation of glycogen in LM of low RFI pigs was specifically located in the fast-twitch glycolytic IIBW fibers, which correspond to fibers containing IIb, IIb + IIx, or IIx myosin heavy chains. The difference in muscle glycogen content between RFI line pigs was more significant in the living animals (P = 0.0003) than at 30 min postmortem (P = 0.08). This was associated with a decreased ultimate pH (P = 0.001), and greater lightness of color (P = 0.002) and drip loss (P = 0.04) in LM of low than high RFI line pigs, suggesting that selection for reduced RFI may impair some meat quality traits, such as water-holding capacity. Pigs from the low RFI line exhibited a greater (P = 0.02) percentage of IIBW fibers in LM and tended (P < 0.10) to have less lipid ?-oxidative capacity in LM, SM, and BFM. In contrast, no difference (P > 0.10) between lines was found for citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, mitochondrial activity, and expression of genes coding for uncoupling proteins 2 and 3. Differences between RFI pigs in plasma leptin, cortisol, and thyroid hormone concentrations are presented and discussed. In conclusion, selection for low RFI influenced muscle properties in a way favoring muscle mass, but likely impairing meat quality. PMID:21148787

  2. Effects of conventional and alternative curing methods on processed turkey quality traits.

    PubMed

    Redfield, A L; Sullivan, G A

    2015-12-01

    Deli-style turkey breast cured with pre-converted celery juice powder (CP) or sodium nitrite (SN) was manufactured with ingoing SN concentrations or equivalent of 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 ppm. Cured and total meat pigment, salt, and water activity were measured on d 0; color, pH, and residual nitrite were measured on d 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. Untrained panelists evaluated sensory traits of 50, 100, 150, and 200 ppm products. The interaction of nitrite concentration and source affected (P ? 0.05) b*, pH, and residual nitrite values. Less ingoing nitrite and increased storage resulted in less (P ? 0.05) residual nitrite in products. Sensory results suggested products made with 200 ppm nitrite from CP were less acceptable. Overall, CP and SN products were similar for several traits, but this study suggests that the inclusion of ingoing nitrite from CP may be limited to 100 ppm nitrite (0.46% addition) for acceptable deli-style turkey breast. PMID:26467014

  3. Effect of a c-MYC Gene Polymorphism (g.3350G>C) on Meat Quality Traits in Berkshire

    PubMed Central

    Oh, J. D.; Kim, E. S.; Lee, H. K.; Song, K. D.

    2015-01-01

    c-MYC (v-myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homologue) is a transcription factor that plays important role in many biological process including cell growth and differentiation, such as myogenesis and adipogenesis. In this study, we aimed to detect MYC gene polymorphisms, their genotype frequencies and to determine associations between these polymorphisms and meat quality traits in Berkshire pigs. We identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in intron 2 of MYC gene by Sanger sequencing, i.e., g.3350G>C (rs321898326), that is only found in Berkshire pigs, but not in other breeds including Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire pigs that were used in this study. Genotypes of total 378 Berkshire pigs (138 sows and 240 boars) were determined using Hha I restriction enzyme digestion after polymerase chain reaction. Observed allele frequencies of GG, GC, and CC genotypes were 0.399, 0.508, and 0.093 respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the g.3350G>C polymorphism was significantly associated with pH45min and cooking loss (p<0.05), suggesting that g.3350G>C SNP can be used for pre-selection of pH45min and cooking loss traits in Berkshire pigs. PMID:26580277

  4. SNP variation in the promoter of the PRKAG3 gene and association with meat quality traits in pig

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The PRKAG3 gene encodes the ?3 subunit of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), a protein that plays a key role in energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene such as I199V are associated with important pork quality traits. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of the PRKAG3 gene, SNP variation in the PRKAG3 promoter and meat quality phenotypes in pork. Results PRKAG3 gene expression was found to correlate with a number of traits relating to glycolytic potential (GP) and intramuscular fat (IMF) in three phenotypically diverse F1 crosses comprising of 31 Large White, 23 Duroc and 32 Pietrain sire breeds. The majority of associations were observed in the Large White cross. There was a significant association between genotype at the g.-311A>G locus and PRKAG3 gene expression in the Large White cross. In the same population, ten novel SNPs were identified within a 1.3 kb region spanning the promoter and from this three major haplotypes were inferred. Two tagging SNPs (g.-995A>G and g.-311A>G) characterised the haplotypes within the promoter region being studied. These two SNPs were subsequently genotyped in larger populations consisting of Large White (n?=?98), Duroc (n?=?99) and Pietrain (n?=?98) purebreds. Four major haplotypes including promoter SNP’s g.-995A>G and g.-311A>G and I199V were inferred. In the Large White breed, HAP1 was associated with IMF% in the M. longissmus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and driploss%. HAP2 was associated with IMFL% GP-influenced traits pH at 24 hr in LTL (pHULT), pH at 45 min in LTL (pH45LT) and pH at 45 min in the M. semimembranosus muscle (pH45SM). HAP3 was associated with driploss%, pHULT pH45LT and b* Minolta. In the Duroc breed, associations were observed between HAP1 and driploss% and pHUSM. No associations were observed with the remaining haplotypes (HAP2, HAP3 and HAP4) in the Duroc breed. The Pietrain breed was monomorphic in the promoter region. The I199V locus was associated with several GP-influenced traits across all three breeds and IMF% in the Large White and Pietrain breed. No significant difference in promoter function was observed for the three main promoter haplotypes when tested in vitro. Conclusion Gene expression levels of the porcine PRKAG3 are associated with meat quality phenotypes relating to glycolytic potential and IMF% in the Large White breed, while SNP variation in the promoter region of the gene is associated with PRKAG3 gene expression and meat quality phenotypes. PMID:22831392

  5. The effect of selection for growth rate and slaughter age on carcass composition and meat quality traits in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hernández, P; Aliaga, S; Pla, M; Blasco, A

    2004-11-01

    The effect of selection for growth rate on carcass and meat quality was assessed by comparing selected and control populations of rabbits measured at the same stage of maturity and slaughtered at 9 and 13 wk of age. Embryos belonging to Generation 7 were frozen, thawed, and implanted in does to produce the control group. The control group was formed from the offspring of the embryos belonging to the Generation 7. Selected animals belonging to Generation 18 (S) were compared with contemporary animals of the control group (C). Carcasses were dissected and measured according to World Rabbit Science Association recommended practices. When animals were compared at similar degrees of maturity, selection for growth rate did not produce a negative effect on carcass and meat quality. There was no increase in fat content of the carcass, and there was an improvement of the meat:bone ratio with selection, with a difference between C and S groups of -0.42. However, the carcasses of S animals have 1.45% lower water-holding capacity. Carcass quality changed markedly with animal age. Heavy rabbit carcasses had lower organ percents and a higher loin percent. Dissectible and i.m. fat content were higher in older rabbits, with older animals having 0.97 and 0.79% more dissectible and i.m. fat content, respectively. Meat quality traits improved with age of slaughter, although there was an increase in glycolytic metabolism. Results from this study indicate that selection for growth rate has little effect in carcass and meat quality when rabbits are measured at the same stage of maturity. PMID:15542459

  6. Individual and epistatic genetic effects of quantitative trait loci affecting growth, feed intake, body composition and meat quality in pigs 

    E-print Network

    Duthie, Carol-Anne

    2009-01-01

    Selection of pigs has focussed on the improvement of lean growth with simultaneous reduction in fat tissue, due to the high economic importance of these traits. As a consequence, a large number of quantitative trait loci ...

  7. New QTL alleles for quality-related traits in spring wheat revealed by RIL population derived from supernumerary x non-supernumerary spikelet genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying new QTLs and alleles in exotic germplasm is paramount for further improvement of quality traits in wheat. In the present study, a RIL population developed from a cross of an elite wheat line (WCB414) and an exotic genotype with supernumerary spikelets (SS) was used to identify QTLs and n...

  8. Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits...

  9. Carcass and meat quality traits of chickens fed diets concurrently supplemented with vitamins C and E under constant heat stress.

    PubMed

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair-fed chickens, meat color was similar to the heat stressed group. Shear force was not influenced by heat stress, but pair-fed chickens showed the tenderest meat. In conclusion, reduction in growth performance and negative changes in meat color in heat stressed chickens were attributed to depression in feed intake, whereas negative changes in body composition, higher meat pH and cooking loss were credited to high ambient temperature per se. Diet supplementation with vitamins C and E as antioxidants did not mitigate any of these negative effects. PMID:26677935

  10. Direct and social genetic effects on body weight at 270 days and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Rostellato, R; Sartori, C; Bonfatti, V; Chiarot, G; Carnier, P

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate covariance components for BW at 270 d (BW270) and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs using models accounting for social effects and to compare the ability of such models to fit the data relative to models ignoring social interactions. Phenotypic records were from 9,871 pigs sired by 293 purebred boars mated to 456 crossbred sows. Piglets were born and reared at the same farm and randomly assigned at 60 d of age to groups (6.1 pigs per group on average) housed in finishing pens, each having an area of 6 m(2). The average additive genetic relationship among group mates was 0.11. Pigs were slaughtered at 277 ± 3 d of age and 169.7 ± 13.9 kg BW in groups of nearly 70 animals each. Four univariate animal models were compared: a basic model (M1) including only direct additive genetic effects, a model (M2) with nonheritable social group (pen) effects in addition to effects in M1, a model (M3) accounting for litter effects in addition to M2, and a model (M4) accounting for social genetic effects in addition to effects in M3. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of covariance components were obtained for BW270; carcass backfat depth; carcass lean meat content (CLM); iodine number (IOD); and linoleic acid content (LIA) of raw ham subcutaneous fat; subcutaneous fat depth in the proximity of semimembranosus muscle (SFD1) and quadriceps femoris muscle (SFD2); and linear scores for ham round shape (RS), subcutaneous fat (SF), and marbling. Likelihood ratio tests indicated that, for all traits, M2 fit the data better than M1 and that M3 was superior to M2 except for SFD1 and SFD2. Model M4 was significantly better than M3 for BW270 (P < 0.001) and CLM, IOD, RS, and SF (P < 0.05). The contribution of social genetic effects to the total heritable variance was large for CLM and BW270, ranging from 33.2 to 35%, whereas the one for ham quality traits ranged from 6.8 (RS) to 11.2% (SF). Direct and social genetic effects on BW270 were uncorrelated, whereas there was a negative genetic covariance between direct and social effects on CLM, IOD, RS, and SF, which reduced the total heritable variance. This variance, measured relative to phenotypic variance, ranged from 21 (CLM) to 54% (BW270). Results indicate that social genetic effects affect variation in traits relevant for heavy pigs used in dry-cured hams manufacturing. Such effects should be exploited and taken into account in design of breeding programs for heavy pigs. PMID:25412749

  11. Effect of genotype, housing system and hay supplementation on carcass traits and meat quality of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dalle Zotte, A; Szendr?, K; Gerencsér, Zs; Szendr?, Zs; Cullere, M; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Matics, Zs

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of genotype (Pannon Large×Pannon Ka/Large/or Hungarian Giant×Pannon Ka/Hung), housing system (Cage or small Pen) and hay supplementation (Pellet without or with Hay/P+Hay/) on carcass and meat (Longissimus dorsi/LD/ and hind leg/HL/) quality of growing rabbits. Large rabbits showed higher carcass weights, as well as higher fatness and meatiness compared to Hung rabbits. Caged rabbits were heavier, with higher prevalence of the mid part of the carcass, and showed higher fatness and lower meat toughness than Penned rabbits. Caged rabbits meat was richer in MUFA, but poorer in PUFA and ? n-6 FA. Hay supplementation impaired carcass weight, carcass fatness, L* and a* color, and lipids content. P+Hay increased the HL meat content of C18:3 n-6 and C20:5 n-3 FA. Overall results offer further information on how alternative breeds, housing systems and feeding strategies can affect carcass traits and meat quality. PMID:26210883

  12. Relationship between Quality Traits of Soft Red Winter Wheat and Cookie Diameter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-seven soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes including two cultivars released in Jiangsu Province and 55 advanced lines were subjected to quality tests of sixteen parameters, such as solvent retention capacity (SRC) and RVA viscosity parameters. The results showed that there we...

  13. Quantitative Trait Loci for Endosperm Modification and Amino Acid Contents in Quality Protein Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The deficient protein quality of corn grain can be improved by replacing the normal Opaque2 (O2) alleles with non-functional mutant alleles o2. Unfortunately, o2 alleles are associated with a very soft endosperm texture, poor yield and susceptibility to diseases and insects. Plant breeders have been...

  14. How Personality Traits and Job Satisfaction Influence Service Quality in Housing Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Donna E.

    2010-01-01

    Human service organizations are intended to stabilize low-income families and promote self-sufficiency by providing much needed services and benefits. Recipients, however, often do not get everything they need in terms of either benefits or service quality. Understandably, clients want the help they are entitled to and promised from providers who…

  15. Analysis of fiber quality traits in a seven-parent upland cotton diallel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to raising yields, improving the quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber has become an increasingly important component of the value of cotton, especially for marketing in the international trade. The objectives of this study were to identify sources of variation for fiber quali...

  16. MAPPING OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTL) FOR FORAGE QUALITY IN PERENNIAL RYEGRASS (LOLIUM PERENNE L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) has been widely used as a forage crop in temperate regions. Improvement of forage quality has important effect on ruminant animal nutrition and is an important forage breeding objective. A segregating population of 170 progenies derived from a cross between “Ma...

  17. Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Agronomic and Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The superior fiber properties of Gossypium barbadense L. serve as a source of novel variation for improving fiber quality in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.), but introgression from G. barbadense has been largely unsuccessful due to hybrid breakdown and a lack of genetic and genomic resources. In an e...

  18. Geohydrology and quality of water in aquifers in Lucas, Sandusky, and Wood counties, northwestern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breen, K.J.; Dumouchelle, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The hydrology and quality of ground water were evaluated for the surficial sand and carbonate aquifers in northwestern Ohio. A locally important surficial sand aquifer in western Lucas County was evaluated on the basis of data from 10 wells completed in undeveloped and developed areas. The carbonate aquifer in Silurian and Devonian bedrock at its northernmost extent on the Ohio mainland was evaluated on the basis of data from previous studies and data from 466 wells and 11 springs. Most data are for the period 1985-88. The unconfined surficial sand aquifer is less than 50 ft. (feet) thick. Clay-rich drift, which restricts vertical movement of water, underlines the aquifer. Recharge is from precipitation, and discharge is by evapotranspiration and by flow to local streams and drainage ditches. Water levels are generally 2 to 8 ft. below land surface and fluctuate a total of about 3.5 ft. seasonally in a forested area. Concentrations of iron and manganese in ground water are excessive in some areas. Waters from shallow drive-point wells in residential areas contained larger concentrations of dissolved solids, hardness, sodium, and chloride than did waters from identical wells in undeveloped areas. The presence of nitrate nitrogen an other selected constituents in ground water in residential areas, and the absence of these constituents in ground water in undeveloped areas, indicate that the surficial sand aquifer has been affected by development. In carbonate aquifer, fractures, bedding-plane joints, and other secondary openings are the principal water-bearing zones. These zones can be areally and stratigraphically separated by low-permeability rock. Leaky artesian or semiconfined conditions predominate beneath most of the 1,400-mi? study area. The aquifer is confined by relatively impermeable underlying shale of Silurian age and overlying clay-rich drift of Quaternary age. Unproductive strata, including evaporites, within the sequence of carbonate rocks also confine some water-bearing zones. The carbonate aquifer is part of a regional ground-water-flow system; however, subsystems such as the eastern karst and central outcrops are locally important. The potentiometric surface indicates that recharge from areas south and west of the study area flows toward discharge areas along major rivers (Maumee, Portage, and Sandusky) , to a buried bedrock valley in central Sandusky County, and to springs and flowing wells. The potentiometric surface flattens markedly near the southern shore of Lake Erie, where ground-water levels approximate those of the lake, indicating a hydraulic connection between the lake and the aquifer. Hydrogeologic characteristics and water-quality data indicate that Lake Erie is not a major source of recharge to the aquifer. Ground-water ages inferred from tritium concentrations and potentiometric-surface maps indicate that recharge from precipitation enters the aquifer by subsurface drainage in karstified strata in eastern Sandusky County and by infiltration in shallow bedrock areas where drift is less than 20 ft. thick. The quality of water in the carbonate aquifer is described with reference to 52 properties and constituents that characterize chemical, radiochemical, bacteriologic, and physical conditions. Ground-water samples from 135 wells and 11 springs are used in the characterization. On the basis of these data, water from the aquifer is generally suitable for drinking and for most domestic purposes. The most areally widespread aesthtic factors limiting the use of ground water are hardness, concentrations of dissolved solids, sulfate and iron, and the presence of hydrogen sulfide. Selected bacteria are commonly present and may compromise the potability of water from the aquifer. Coliform bacteria from surface sources were found in 47 of 143 water samples. Analyses for total coliform bacteria indicate that 36 of the 125 samples from wells maintained for potable supply have bacteria counts of 4

  19. Effects of the Plane of Nutrition on Physicochemical Characteristics and Sensory Quality Traits of the Muscle in Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chai Hyun; Jung, Dae-Yun; Choi, Jung Seok; Jin, Sang-Keun

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the feasibility of using the low plane of nutrition (LPN) as a means of improving the meat quality of crossbred finishing pigs with a medium weight gain potential. Twenty-four barrows and 24 gilts weighing approximately 48 kg were placed on LPN [a finisher (2.86 Mcal ME/kg and 0.67% lysine) for 91 d] or on a high plane of nutrition [HPN; a commercial grower for 38 d and a finisher (3.35 Mcal ME/kg and 0.9% lysine) for 46 d]. Five barrows and five gilts per treatment weighing approximately 125 kg were slaughtered after the indicated days on the respective diets, followed by physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation on their muscles. Overall average daily gain was 12.6% less in the LPN group vs. the HPN group (p<0.05). The redness (a*) of fresh longissimus muscle (LM) from the loin as well as from Boston butt was greater in the LPN group vs. HPN whereas the shear force for fresh LM from these primals and semimembranosus muscle was lower in the former. In sensory evaluation for cooked LM, no treatment effect was detected in any of the quality traits examined, except for a lower color score in the LPN vs. HPN group. Results suggest that meat quality of the finishing pigs can be improved to some extent by using LPN. However, the present pigs, whose backfat thickness was 24 mm at 125 kg, are thought not to be lean enough to be fattened over 120 kg.

  20. Characterization of composition traits related to organoleptic and functional quality for the differentiation, selection and enhancement of local varieties of tomato from different cultivar groups.

    PubMed

    Figàs, Maria R; Prohens, Jaime; Raigón, María D; Fita, Ana; García-Martínez, María D; Casanova, Cristina; Borràs, Dionís; Plazas, Mariola; Andújar, Isabel; Soler, Salvador

    2015-11-15

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) local varieties are having an increasing demand. We characterized 69 local tomato accessions from eight cultivar groups for proximate composition traits, major sugars, acids and antioxidants. A large diversity was found, with differences among accessions of almost tenfold for lycopene. Significant differences were found among cultivar group means for most traits. The Cherry and Penjar groups generally presented higher dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, taste index, ?-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity that the other groups. Wide ranges of variation were found within each cultivar group. Positive correlations were found between proximate traits related to taste and antioxidants. The multivariate principal components analysis confirms the distinct profile of the Cherry and Penjar groups and the large variation within groups. The results will be useful for the differentiation, enhancement and selection of local tomato varieties with improved organoleptic properties and functional quality. PMID:25977058

  1. Influence of production system in local and conventional pig breeds on stress indicators at slaughter, muscle and meat traits and pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Bonhomme, N; Méteau, K; Prunier, A

    2015-08-01

    Sensory quality of pork is a complex phenotype determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study aimed at describing the respective influences of breed and production system on the development of pork quality. Plasma stress indicators and Longissimus muscle (LM) composition, physicochemical and sensory quality traits were determined in two contrasted breeds - the conventional Large White (LW, n=40) and the French local Basque (B, n=60). Pigs were reared in either a conventional (C; n=20 per breed), alternative (A; sawdust bedding and outdoor area, n=20 per breed) or extensive system (E; free-range, n=20 B). All the pigs from A and C systems were slaughtered at the same slaughterhouse, whereas B pigs from the E system were slaughtered at a local commercial abattoir. Major breed differences were found for almost all traits under study. LM from B pigs exhibited higher lipid, lower water and collagen concentrations, as well as lower collagen thermal solubility (P0.05) influence plasma stress indicators, LM chemical composition and physicochemical or sensory traits of pork. In contrast, within the B pigs, the E system affected the meat quality more. Lower plasma cortisol levels (P<0.05), but higher plasma lactate, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and more skin lesions (P<0.05), indicating higher muscular activity during pre-slaughter handling, were found in pigs produced in the E compared with the C system. E pigs exhibited higher meat pH1 and pHu values and shear force (P<0.01) and exhibited lower lightness, hue angle and drip and thawing losses (P<0.01) compared with the C pigs, whereas LM lipid, protein or collagen concentrations were not affected. Regarding sensory traits, the E system produced redder meat, but did not impact the eating quality of pork. Altogether, this study demonstrates that differences in meat quality between B and LW breeds can be modulated by extensive pig production system. PMID:25908582

  2. Identification of QTL controlling meat quality traits in an F2 cross between two chicken lines selected for either low or high growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Nadaf, Javad; Gilbert, Hélène; Pitel, Frédérique; Berri, Cécile M; Feve, Katia; Beaumont, Catherine; Duclos, Michel J; Vignal, Alain; Porter, Tom E; Simon, Jean; Aggrey, Samuel E; Cogburn, Larry A; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background Meat technological traits (i.e. meat pH, water retention and color) are important considerations for improving further processing of chicken meat. These quality traits were originally characterized in experimental lines selected for high (HG) and low (LG) growth. Presently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits were analyzed in an F2 population issued from the HG × LG cross. A total of 698 animals in 50 full-sib families were genotyped for 108 microsatellite markers covering 21 linkage groups. Results The HG and LG birds exhibit large differences in body weight and abdominal fat content. Several meat quality traits [pH at 15 min post-slaughter (pH15) and ultimate pH (pHu), breast color-redness (BCo-R) and breast color-yellowness (BCo-Y)] were lower in HG chickens. In contrast, meat color-lightness (BCo-L) was higher in HG chickens, whereas meat drip loss (DL) was similar in both lines. HG birds were more active on the shackle line. Association analyses were performed using maximum-likelihood interval mapping in QTLMAP. Five genome-wide significant QTLs were revealed: two for pH15 on GGA1 and GGA2, one for DL on GGA1, one for BCo-R and one for BCo-Y both on GGA11. In addition, four suggestive QTLs were identified by QTLMAP for BCo-Y, pHu, pH15 and DL on GGA1, GGA4, GGA12 and GGA14, respectively. The QTL effects, averaged on heterozygous families, ranged from 12 to 31% of the phenotypic variance. Further analyses with QTLExpress confirmed the two genome-wide QTLs for meat color on GGA11, failed to identify the genome-wide QTL for pH15 on GGA2, and revealed only suggestive QTLs for pH15 and DL on GGA1. However, QTLExpress qualified the QTL for pHu on GGA4 as genome-wide. Conclusion The present study identified genome-wide significant QTLs for all meat technological traits presently assessed in these chickens, except for meat lightness. This study highlights the effects of divergent selection for growth rate on some behavioral traits, muscle biochemistry and ultimately meat quality traits. Several QTL regions were identified that are worthy of further characterization. Some QTLs may in fact co-localize, suggesting pleiotropic effects for some chromosomal regions. PMID:17559654

  3. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225?oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles. PMID:26610612

  4. Genome-wide Association Study (GWAS) and Its Application for Improving the Genomic Estimated Breeding Values (GEBV) of the Berkshire Pork Quality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Sup; Jeong, Hyeonsoo; Taye, Mengistie; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Ka, Sojeong; Ryu, Youn-Chul; Cho, Seoae

    2015-01-01

    The missing heritability has been a major problem in the analysis of best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). We introduced the traditional genome-wide association study (GWAS) into the BLUP to improve the heritability estimation. We analyzed eight pork quality traits of the Berkshire breeds using GWAS and BLUP. GWAS detects the putative quantitative trait loci regions given traits. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained using GWAS results with p value <0.01. BLUP analyzed with significant SNPs was much more accurate than that with total genotyped SNPs in terms of narrow-sense heritability. It implies that genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) of pork quality traits can be calculated by BLUP via GWAS. The GWAS model was the linear regression using PLINK and BLUP model was the G-BLUP and SNP-GBLUP. The SNP-GBLUP uses SNP-SNP relationship matrix. The BLUP analysis using preprocessing of GWAS can be one of the possible alternatives of solving the missing heritability problem and it can provide alternative BLUP method which can find more accurate GEBVs. PMID:26580278

  5. Comparison of Bioactive Compounds and Quality Traits of Breast Meat from Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hyo; Heo, Kang Nyung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the bioactive compound content and quality traits of breast meat from male and female Korean native ducks (KND) and commercial ducks (CD, Cherry Valley). Meat from three 6-wk old birds of each sex from KND and CD were evaluated for carcass and breast weights, pH, color, cooking loss, shear force, and bioactive compound (creatine, carnosine, anserine, betaine, and L-carnitine) content. KND showed significantly higher carcass weights than CD whereas no such difference (p>0.05) was found between male and female ducks. The breed and sex had no significant effects on the breast weight, pH value, and shear force. However, KND had significantly lower cooking loss values than did CD. Creatine, anserine, and L-carnitine contents were significantly higher in KND than in CD and were predominant in female ducks compared to males. The results of this study provide rare information regarding the amounts and the determinants of several bioactive compounds in duck meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing indigenous duck meat.

  6. Quality of life and personality traits in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma and their first-degree caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Granieri, Antonella; Tamburello, Stella; Tamburello, Antonino; Casale, Silvia; Cont, Chiara; Guglielmucci, Fanny; Innamorati, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos exposure causes significant pleural diseases, including malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Taking into account the impact of MPM on emotional functioning and wellbeing, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of life and personality traits in patients with MPM and their first-degree caregivers through the World Health Organization Quality of Life–BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). The sample was composed of 27 MPM patients, 55 first-degree relatives enrolled in Casale Monferrato and Monfalcone (Italy), and 40 healthy controls (HC). Patients and relatives reported poorer physical health than the HC. Patients had a higher overall sense of physical debilitation and poorer health than relatives and the HC, more numerous complaints of memory problems and difficulties in concentrating, and a greater belief that goals cannot be reached or problems solved, while often claiming that they were more indecisive and inefficacious than the HC. First-degree relatives reported lower opinions of others, a greater belief that goals cannot be reached or problems solved, support for the notion that they are indecisive and inefficacious, and were more likely to suffer from fear that significantly inhibited normal activities than were HC. In multinomial regression analyses, partial models indicated that sex, physical comorbidities, and the True Response Inconsistency (TRIN-r), Malaise (MLS), and Behavior-Restricting Fears (BRF) dimensions of the MMPI-2-RF had significant effects on group differences. In conclusion, health care providers should assess the ongoing adjustment and emotional wellbeing of people with MPM and their relatives, and provide support to reduce emotional distress. PMID:23983468

  7. Diversity and relationships in key traits for functional and apparent quality in a collection of eggplant: fruit phenolics content, antioxidant activity, polyphenol oxidase activity, and browning.

    PubMed

    Plazas, Mariola; López-Gresa, María P; Vilanova, Santiago; Torres, Cristina; Hurtado, Maria; Gramazio, Pietro; Andújar, Isabel; Herráiz, Francisco J; Bellés, José M; Prohens, Jaime

    2013-09-18

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) varieties with increased levels of phenolics in the fruit present enhanced functional quality, but may display greater fruit flesh browning. We evaluated 18 eggplant accessions for fruit total phenolics content, chlorogenic acid content, DPPH scavenging activity, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, liquid extract browning, and fruit flesh browning. For all the traits we found a high diversity, with differences among accessions of up to 3.36-fold for fruit flesh browning. Variation in total content in phenolics and in chlorogenic acid content accounted only for 18.9% and 6.0% in the variation in fruit flesh browning, and PPO activity was not significantly correlated with fruit flesh browning. Liquid extract browning was highly correlated with chlorogenic acid content (r = 0.852). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified four groups of accessions with different profiles for the traits studied. Results suggest that it is possible to develop new eggplant varieties with improved functional and apparent quality. PMID:23972229

  8. Diversity in quality traits amongst Indian wheat varieties II: Paste, dough and muffin making properties.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Katyal, Mehak; Bhinder, Seerat; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-04-15

    The relationship between protein molecular weight (MW) distribution, quality characteristics and muffin making properties amongst Indian wheat varieties were evaluated. Flours from varieties with higher grain weight showed lower proportion of fine particles. Lactic acid solvent retention capacity (LASRC), sedimentation value (SV) and dough stability (DS) correlated with the proportion of 0-55?m size particles. Paste peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity showed positive correlation with polymeric protein and negatively with monomeric protein, ?-amylase activity and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacity (NaSRC). Gluten strength indicators such as DS, dough development time (DDT), LASRC and gluten index (GI) were positively related to polymeric protein and negatively to monomeric protein. Both G' and G? were correlated significantly with GI, LASRC, DS and DDT. The varieties that possesses high MW glutenin subunits combinations of 91kDa+84kDa+78kDa+74kDa showed lower G' and G?. Muffin volume was positively correlated with gluten content and LASRC. PMID:26616955

  9. Effect of soybean meal substitution by different concentrations of sunflower meal on egg quality traits of white and coloured dwarf dam lines.

    PubMed

    Das, S K; Biswas, A; Neema, R P; Maity, B

    2010-06-01

    1. The effect of soybean meal substitution by different concentrations of sunflower meal on egg quality traits of white and coloured dwarf dam lines was investigated. 2. A total of 144 dwarf hens (38 weeks of age) from the same hatch were randomly divided into 12 groups of 12 birds (4 dietary treatments x 3 replicates). 3. A 2 x 4 factorial design was used to study the effect of 2 lines (Factor A) and substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with 4 concentrations (0, 10, 15 and 20%) of sunflower meal (SFM) [Factor B] on egg quality traits of dwarf dam line hens. 4. All the diets were designed to be isocaloric (113 MJ ME/kg) and isonitrogenous (180 g/kg crude protein) The duration of the experiment was 12 weeks. 5. Analysis of variance indicated a highly significant line effect. There were non-significant effects of substitution of soybean meal with different concentrations of sunflower meal on egg quality traits except for Haugh unit. 6. White plumaged dwarf broiler breeder dam line produced significantly fewer, but larger, eggs than coloured dwarf dam line hens. PMID:20680878

  10. Implications of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities on quality traits of raw and marinated chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Mudalal, S; Lorenzi, M; Soglia, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2015-04-01

    One of the consequences of intense genetic selection for growth of poultry is the recent appearance of abnormalities in chicken breast muscles, such as white striping (characterised by superficial white striations) and wooden breast (characterised by pale and bulged areas with substantial hardness). The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality traits of chicken fillets affected by white striping and wooden breast abnormalities. In two replications, 192 fillets were divided into the following four classes: normal (n=48; absence of any visual defects), white striping (n=48, presence of white striations), wooden breast (n=48; diffusely presence of hardened areas) and white striping/wooden breast (n=48; fillets affected by both abnormalities). Morphology, raw meat texture and technological properties were assessed in both unprocessed (pH, colour, drip loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force) and marinated meat (marinade uptake, purge loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force). Fillets affected by white striping, wooden breast or both abnormalities exhibited higher breast weights compared with normal fillets (305.5, 298.7, 318.3 and 244.7 g, respectively; P<0.001). Wooden breast, either alone or in combination with white striping, was associated with a significant (P<0.001) increase of fillet thickness in the caudal area and raw meat hardness compared with both normal and the white striping abnormality, for which there was no difference. Overall, the occurrence of the individual and combined white striping and wooden breast abnormalities resulted in substantial reduction in the quality of breast meat, although these abnormalities are associated with distinct characteristics. Wooden breast fillets showed lower marinade uptake and higher cooking losses than white-striped fillets for both unprocessed and marinated meats. On the other hand, white-striped fillets showed a moderate decline in marinade and cooking yield. Fillets affected by both abnormalities had the highest (P<0.001) ultimate pH values. In contrast, the effects on colour of raw and cooked meat, drip loss, purge loss and cooked meat shear force were negligible or relatively low and of little practical importance. Thus, the presence of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities impair not only breast meat appearance but also the quality of both raw and marinated meats mainly by reducing water holding/binding abilities. PMID:25500004

  11. Identification of QTLs for fruit quality traits in Japanese apples: QTLs for early ripening are tightly related to preharvest fruit drop

    PubMed Central

    Kunihisa, Miyuki; Moriya, Shigeki; Abe, Kazuyuki; Okada, Kazuma; Haji, Takashi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kim, Hoytaek; Nishitani, Chikako; Terakami, Shingo; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    Many important apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit quality traits are regulated by multiple genes, and more information about quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits is required for marker-assisted selection. In this study, we constructed genetic linkage maps of the Japanese apple cultivars ‘Orin’ and ‘Akane’ using F1 seedlings derived from a cross between these cultivars. The ‘Orin’ map consisted of 251 loci covering 17 linkage groups (LGs; total length 1095.3 cM), and the ‘Akane’ map consisted of 291 loci covering 18 LGs (total length 1098.2 cM). We performed QTL analysis for 16 important traits, and found that four QTLs related to harvest time explained about 70% of genetic variation, and these will be useful for marker-assisted selection. The QTL for early harvest time in LG15 was located very close to the QTL for preharvest fruit drop. The QTL for skin color depth was located around the position of MYB1 in LG9, which suggested that alleles harbored by ‘Akane’ are regulating red color depth with different degrees of effect. We also analyzed soluble solids and sugar component contents, and found that a QTL for soluble solids content in LG16 could be explained by the amount of sorbitol and fructose. PMID:25320559

  12. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 gene (STAT3) associated with body measurement and carcass quality traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Song, N; Gui, L S; Xu, H C; Wu, S; Zan, L S

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 gene (STAT3) is involved in lipid storage and energy metabolism, suggesting that STAT3 is a potential candidate gene that affects body measurement and carcass quality traits in animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms in bovine STAT3 and to analyze their possible associations with body measurement and carcass quality traits in 493 individuals of 2 native Chinese cattle breeds: Qinchuan (N = 371) and Jiaxian cattle (N = 122). DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) were employed to detect STAT3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We found 5 SNPs: 1 in an exon (g.65812G>A: exon 16) and 4 in introns (g.43591G>A: 13 intron, g.67492T>G: 19 intron, g.67519T>C: 19 intron, and g.68964G>A: 20 intron). Both g.65812G>A and g.68964G>A were not in Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), whereas individual frequencies of each genotype were consistent with HWE for other SNPs in Qinchuan cattle populations. For the Jiaxian cattle, the genotype distributions of the 4 mutations were in HWE except for g.67519T>C. The results indicate that these SNPs have a significant association with some body measurements and carcass quality traits (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Therefore, STAT3 might have potential effects on production traits in beef cattle populations and could be used for marker-assisted selection. PMID:26400355

  13. The use of thyme and orange essential oils blend to improve quality traits of marinated chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Rimini, Simone; Petracci, Massimiliano; Smith, Douglas P

    2014-08-01

    Poultry meat contains large quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which lead to oxidative deterioration. Plant essential oils (EO) and natural compounds, with antioxidant properties, may be used to alleviate this problem. Two replications were conducted to evaluate the effects of a mixture (1:1) of thyme and orange oils (EO) on the quality characteristics and the oxidative stability of chicken meat (breast and wing). For each replication, 24 fresh breast fillets and 24 wings were procured from a local grocery store. The EO were added to marinade solution to achieve a final concentration of 0.55% sodium chloride, 0.28% polyphosphate, and 0.05% wt/vol of EO blend. Breasts and wings were split in 2 different groups with homogenous pH and lightness and vacuum tumbled in 2 treatments, a 0.5% EO and a control (CON, no EO). Each group was tested for pH, Commission Internationale d'Eclairage color (lightness, L*; redness, a*; yellowness, b*), moisture content, marinade uptake, purge loss, cook yield, and shear force. Susceptibility to lipid oxidation was determined on fresh and frozen meat by TBA reactive substance analysis (induced oxidation from 0 to 150 min at 37°C). The EO breasts had lower purge loss compared with CON meat. Breast did not show any color, pH, marinade uptake, cooking yield, shear force, or moisture differences due to treatment, although cooked EO breast was slightly less red than CON. The EO wings presented higher a* and b* values after marination and lower purge loss and shear force than CON. No differences were detected on wings for color, pH, marinade uptake, cooking yield, or moisture between EO and CON wings. Both fresh and frozen EO breasts and EO wings were less susceptible to the lipid oxidation during all induced oxidation times compared with CON breasts and wings. In conclusion, EO had a positive effect on broiler breast and wing lipid oxidation without negatively affecting meat quality traits. PMID:24902698

  14. Immune-spaying as an alternative to surgical spaying in Iberian×Duroc females: effect on carcass traits and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Negrón, Rafael; Sánchez del Pulgar, José; Ventanas, Jesús; García, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of immune-spaying on production traits and meat quality characteristics of fresh loin (longissimus dorsi) by comparing 3 groups of Iberian×Duroc females (N=12 per batch): surgically spayed, immune-spayed and entire females. Carcass traits and physicochemical parameters, including fatty acid profile, were investigated. The only carcass trait significantly affected by castration was the ham fat thickness, where both immune-spayed and surgically spayed females showed higher values against entire females (57±9.5mm, 62±2.5mm and 51±10.1mm, respectively; p<0.05). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the quality parameters of fresh meat. These results are important regarding animal welfare, since in Europe, there is a plan to voluntarily end the surgical castration of pigs by 2018. Therefore, with an adequate vaccination protocol, immune-spaying might represent a good alternative to surgical spaying. The reliability of immune-spaying over long periods should be evaluated. PMID:25443969

  15. The relationship between traits optimism and anxiety and health-related quality of life in patients hospitalized for chronic diseases: data from the SATISQOL study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of psychological factors is often taken into account in the evaluation of quality of life. However, the effect of optimism and trait anxiety remains controversial and they are rarely studied simultaneously. We aimed to study the effect of this factor on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients after a hospitalization in relation with their chronic disease. Methods Using cross-sectional data from the SATISQOL cohort, we conducted a multicentric study, including patients hospitalized for an intervention in connection with their chronic disease. Six months after hospitalization, patients completed a generic HRQOL questionnaire (SF-36), and the STAI and LOT-R questionnaires to evaluate optimism and trait anxiety. We studied the effect of each trait on HRQOL separately, and simultaneously, taking account of their interaction in 3 models, using an ANOVA. Results In this study, 1529 patients were included in three participating hospitals and there existed wide diversity in the chronic diseases in our population. The HRQOL score increased for all dimensions of SF36 between 15,8 and 44,5 when the level of anxiety decreased (p?trait anxiety appeared to be significantly correlated with HRQOL. Furthermore, an interaction existed between the trait anxiety and optimism for some dimensions of SF36. Contrary to optimism, it seems essential to evaluate trait anxiety in future studies about HRQOL, since it could represent a confounding factor. PMID:23914779

  16. Growth performance, meat quality traits, and genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci in 3 generations of Japanese quail populations (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Tavaniello, S; Maiorano, G; Siwek, M; Knaga, S; Witkowski, A; Di Memmo, D; Bednarczyk, M

    2014-08-01

    The current research was conducted to compare growth, carcass traits, pH, intramuscular collagen (IMC) properties, and genetic bases of IMC and carcasses (breast-muscle weight) of different lines and generations of adult males and females of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Forty-four quails (generation F0), 22 Pharaoh (F-33) meat-type males and 22 Standard (S-22) laying-type females, were crossed to produce the F1 hybrids generation. The F2 generation was created by mating one F1 male with one F1 female, full siblings. The birds, randomly chosen from F0 (22 males and 22 females), F1 (22 males and 22 females), and F2 (84 males and 152 females) were raised to 20 wk of age in collective cages. Quails were fed ad libitum commercial diets. At slaughter, all birds were individually weighed (after a fasting period of 12 h) and dressing yield (without giblets) was calculated. The carcasses were then dissected. Genomic DNA was extracted from all of the blood, and 30 microsatellite markers located on 2 quail chromosomes were genotyped. The F -: 33 quails had higher in vivo and postmortem performances and a higher abdominal fat percentage than those of the egg line. Meat from S -: 22 quails had a slower collagen maturation (hydroxylysylpyridinoline crosslink/collagen) and a higher ultimate pH. The F1 and F2 generations showed an evident sexual dimorphism, and an additional effect could be due to hybrid heterosis evident in F2. Meat from quails of F1 and F2 generations had a lower IMC amount with a higher degree of collagen maturation compared with parental lines. Two statistically significant QTL have been detected on quail chromosome 2 (CJA02): a QTL with an additive effect (0.50) for IMC in the marker bracket GUJ0037 and GUJ0093; a second QTL with additive (1.32) and dominant (1.91) effects for breast-muscle weight in the marker bracket GUJ0084 and GUJ0073. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a QTL associated with breast-muscle weight and IMC in quail and poultry species, respectively. PMID:24931963

  17. A Genome-Wide SNP Scan Reveals Novel Loci for Egg Production and Quality Traits in White Leghorn and Brown-Egg Dwarf Layers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenbo; Li, Dongfeng; Liu, Jianfeng; Chen, Sirui; Qu, Lujiang; Zheng, Jiangxia; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2011-01-01

    Availability of the complete genome sequence as well as high-density SNP genotyping platforms allows genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in chickens. A high-density SNP array containing 57,636 markers was employed herein to identify associated variants underlying egg production and quality traits within two lines of chickens, i.e., White Leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers. For each individual, age at first egg (AFE), first egg weight (FEW), and number of eggs (EN) from 21 to 56 weeks of age were recorded, and egg quality traits including egg weight (EW), eggshell weight (ESW), yolk weight (YW), eggshell thickness (EST), eggshell strength (ESS), albumen height(AH) and Haugh unit(HU) were measured at 40 and 60 weeks of age. A total of 385 White Leghorn females and 361 brown-egg dwarf dams were selected to be genotyped. The genome-wide scan revealed 8 SNPs showing genome-wise significant (P<1.51E-06, Bonferroni correction) association with egg production and quality traits under the Fisher's combined probability method. Some significant SNPs are located in known genes including GRB14 and GALNT1 that can impact development and function of ovary, but more are located in genes with unclear functions in layers, and need to be studied further. Many chromosome-wise significant SNPs were also detected in this study and some of them are located in previously reported QTL regions. Most of loci detected in this study are novel and the follow-up replication studies may be needed to further confirm the functional significance for these newly identified SNPs. PMID:22174844

  18. A genome-wide SNP scan reveals novel loci for egg production and quality traits in white leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbo; Li, Dongfeng; Liu, Jianfeng; Chen, Sirui; Qu, Lujiang; Zheng, Jiangxia; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2011-01-01

    Availability of the complete genome sequence as well as high-density SNP genotyping platforms allows genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in chickens. A high-density SNP array containing 57,636 markers was employed herein to identify associated variants underlying egg production and quality traits within two lines of chickens, i.e., White Leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers. For each individual, age at first egg (AFE), first egg weight (FEW), and number of eggs (EN) from 21 to 56 weeks of age were recorded, and egg quality traits including egg weight (EW), eggshell weight (ESW), yolk weight (YW), eggshell thickness (EST), eggshell strength (ESS), albumen height(AH) and Haugh unit(HU) were measured at 40 and 60 weeks of age. A total of 385 White Leghorn females and 361 brown-egg dwarf dams were selected to be genotyped. The genome-wide scan revealed 8 SNPs showing genome-wise significant (P<1.51E-06, Bonferroni correction) association with egg production and quality traits under the Fisher's combined probability method. Some significant SNPs are located in known genes including GRB14 and GALNT1 that can impact development and function of ovary, but more are located in genes with unclear functions in layers, and need to be studied further. Many chromosome-wise significant SNPs were also detected in this study and some of them are located in previously reported QTL regions. Most of loci detected in this study are novel and the follow-up replication studies may be needed to further confirm the functional significance for these newly identified SNPs. PMID:22174844

  19. Detection of Epistatic and Gene-Environment Interactions Underlying Three Quality Traits in Rice Using High-Throughput Genome-Wide Data

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiming; Jiang, Beibei; Cao, Yujie; Zhang, Yingxin; Zhan, Xiaodeng; Shen, Xihong; Cheng, Shihua; Lou, Xiangyang; Cao, Liyong

    2015-01-01

    With development of sequencing technology, dense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been available, enabling uncovering genetic architecture of complex traits by genome-wide association study (GWAS). However, the current GWAS strategy usually ignores epistatic and gene-environment interactions due to absence of appropriate methodology and heavy computational burden. This study proposed a new GWAS strategy by combining the graphics processing unit- (GPU-) based generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) algorithm with mixed linear model approach. The reliability and efficiency of the analytical methods were verified through Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that a population size of nearly 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) had a reasonable resolution for the scenarios considered. Further, a GWAS was conducted with the above two-step strategy to investigate the additive, epistatic, and gene-environment associations between 701,867 SNPs and three important quality traits, gelatinization temperature, amylose content, and gel consistency, in a RIL population with 138 individuals derived from super-hybrid rice Xieyou9308 in two environments. Four significant SNPs were identified with additive, epistatic, and gene-environment interaction effects. Our study showed that the mixed linear model approach combining with the GPU-based GMDR algorithm is a feasible strategy for implementing GWAS to uncover genetic architecture of crop complex traits. PMID:26345334

  20. A complete genetic linkage map and QTL analyses for bast fibre quality traits, yield and yield components in jute (Corchorus olitorius L.).

    PubMed

    Topdar, N; Kundu, A; Sinha, M K; Sarkar, D; Das, M; Banerjee, S; Kar, C S; Satya, P; Balyan, H S; Mahapatra, B S; Gupta, P K

    2013-01-01

    We report the first complete microsatellite genetic map of jute (Corchorus olitorius L.; 2n = 2x = 14) using an F6 recombinant inbred population. Of the 403 microsatellite markers screened, 82 were mapped on the seven linkage groups (LGs) that covered a total genetic distance of 799.9 cM, with an average marker interval of 10.7 cM. LG5 had the longest and LG7 the shortest genetic lengths, whereas LG1 had the maximum and LG7 the minimum number of markers. Segregation distortion of microsatellite loci was high (61%), with the majority of them (76%) skewed towards the female parent. Genomewide non-parametric single-marker analysis in combination with multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL)-models (MQM) mapping detected 26 definitive QTLs for bast fibre quality, yield and yield-related traits. These were unevenly distributed on six LGs, as colocalized clusters, at genomic sectors marked by 15 microsatellite loci. LG1 was the QTL-richest map sector, with the densest colocalized clusters of QTLs governing fibre yield, yield-related traits and tensile strength. Expectedly, favorable QTLs were derived from the desirable parents, except for nearly all of those of fibre fineness, which might be due to the creation of new gene combinations. Our results will be a good starting point for further genome analyses in jute. PMID:23821949

  1. Linkage Disequilibrium Based Association Mapping of Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton Using Diverse Cotton Germplasm from Uzbekistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    QTL-mapping, a now-classical approach to identify molecular markers linked to complex traits in specific experimental populations, is extremely time-consuming, high-risk, and expensive work - prohibitively expensive if dozens, let alone hundreds or thousands, of germplasm accessions are to be examin...

  2. Genome-wide linkage disequilibruim revealed by microsatellite markers and association study of fiber quality traits in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of association mapping based on existing genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) between DNA polymorphisms and genes underlying traits is becoming powerful tool that overcome many limitations (high cost, poor resolution, requirement for bi-parentally crossed lines assessing only two ...

  3. [Associations of PRLR/AluI gene polymorphism with reproductive, growth and meat quality traits in pigs].

    PubMed

    Mikha?lov, N V; Usatov, A V; Getmantseva, L V; Bakoev, S Iu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine associations between genotypes for the prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene and swine reproductive, growth and meat traits. 210 sows of three genetic groups: Large White (LW), Danish Landrace (LD) and Landrace x Yorkshire x Duroc (L x x Y x D) were included. The studied reproductive traits included the total number of born (TNB), number born alive (NBA). The growth traits were the number of days to 100-kg, average daily gains (ADG). The meat traits were the average backfat thickness (BFT), half carcass weight (HCW), area of M. longissimus dorsi (MLT) and lean meat content (LM). The polymorphism was detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. It was shown that BB genotype is associated with the best NBA on 1.9 and 0.7 piglets at sows LW and LD, respectively. AB genotype is associated with best number of days to 100-kg at sows LD on 3.1 days and AA genotype with less BFT on 1.7 mm, bigger HCW on 0.5 kg and MLT on 5, 4 cm I at L x Y x D. PMID:25318178

  4. Boar fertility and semen quality characteristics in lines of pigs selected for component traits of female reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection for 11 generations for ovulation rate (OR) or uterine capacity (UC) resulted in significant changes in component traits of litter size. Our objective was to characterize male fertility as a correlated response to selection compared to an unselected control line (CO). Each boar (n=60) fro...

  5. A functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) focusing on tree architecture and wood quality

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, M. Paulina; Norero, Aldo; Vera, Jorge R.; Pérez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims Functional–structural models are interesting tools to relate environmental and management conditions with forest growth. Their three-dimensional images can reveal important characteristics of wood used for industrial products. Like virtual laboratories, they can be used to evaluate relationships among species, sites and management, and to support silvicultural design and decision processes. Our aim was to develop a functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) given its economic importance in many countries. Methods The plant model uses the L-system language. The structure of the model is based on operational units, which obey particular rules, and execute photosynthesis, respiration and morphogenesis, according to their particular characteristics. Plant allometry is adhered to so that harmonic growth and plant development are achieved. Environmental signals for morphogenesis are used. Dynamic turnover guides the normal evolution of the tree. Monthly steps allow for detailed information of wood characteristics. The model is independent of traditional forest inventory relationships and is conceived as a mechanistic model. For model parameterization, three databases which generated new information relating to P. radiata were analysed and incorporated. Key Results Simulations under different and contrasting environmental and management conditions were run and statistically tested. The model was validated against forest inventory data for the same sites and times and against true crown architectural data. The performance of the model for 6-year-old trees was encouraging. Total height, diameter and lengths of growth units were adequately estimated. Branch diameters were slightly overestimated. Wood density values were not satisfactory, but the cyclical pattern and increase of growth rings were reasonably well modelled. Conclusions The model was able to reproduce the development and growth of the species based on mechanistic formulations. It may be valuable in assessing stand behaviour under different environmental and management conditions, assisting in decision-making with regard to management, and as a research tool to formulate hypothesis regarding forest tree growth and development. PMID:21987452

  6. Association between ovocalyxin-32 gene haplotypes and eggshell quality traits in an F2 intercross between two chicken lines divergently selected for eggshell strength.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Sasaki, O; Nirasawa, K; Furukawa, T

    2010-10-01

    Broken and cracked eggshells contribute significantly to economic losses in the egg production industry. We previously identified ovocalyxin-32 as a potential gene influencing eggshell traits, by analysing an intercross between two parent lines developed from the same founder population by a two-way selection for eggshell strength with non-destructive deformation (DEF) conducted over 14 generations. We determined the nucleotide sequences of six ovocalyxin-32 exons in the parent individuals and analysed the association between ovocalyxin-32 and eggshell traits in the F2 individuals. We identified three haplotypes (W, M and S) of ovocalyxin-32 in the parent individuals. A mismatch amplification mutation assay was performed to distinguish six diplotype individuals (WW, MM, SS, WM, MS and WS) inthe F2 population. The egg weight (EW) of SS-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that of WW-, WM- and WS-diplotypes. Short length of the egg (SLE) of SS-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that of WW-, WM- and MS-diplotypes. Long length of the egg (LLE) of SS-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that of WM and WS-diplotypes. DEF of WW-diplotype individuals was significantly higher than that ofSS-, WM, MS and WM-diplotypes. Haplotypic effect analyses showed significant differences between the W-haplotype and the S-haplotypes in the EW, SLE, LLE and DEF. The DEF of M-haplotype was significantly lower than that of W- and S-haplotypes. These results suggest that S- and M-haplotypes are critical for high quality of eggshells in the F2 population. In conclusion, ovocalyxin-32 is a useful marker of eggshell traits and can be used to develop strategies for improving eggshell traits in commercial layer houses. PMID:20331600

  7. The influence of somatotype components and personality traits on the playing position and the quality of top Croatian female cadet handball players.

    PubMed

    Cavala, Marijana; Trnini?, Viktorija; Jasi?, Dajana; Tomljanovi?, Mario

    2013-05-01

    The research was conducted with the aim to establish the structure and the differences of morphological features and personality traits between different age groups of female cadet handball players grouped by their playing quality and playing positions. Further on, the research was done on 70 handball players aged 15, 31 on average, who were grouped according to their positions on goalkeepers, outside players, wings and pivots. Furthermore, according to the quality of playing, they were divided in two quality groups of players, those from the wider cadet national team, thus characterised as top female players in Croatia, and those who had never been invited into the cadet national team and thus can be referred to as low-quality, i.e. average female handball players. The structure of predictor variables has indicated the existence of general morphological factor assessing the players' constitution and two personality features factors - neuroticism and extraversion. The variance analysis showed no statistically significant differences of somatotype variables with relation to quality and playing position. By observing basic personality traits, a statistically significant difference was confirmed only in introversion-extraversion with a lower score in goalkeepers than in other positions, which indicates a higher level of introversion in this playing position. Such result was expected since this particular position abounds in specific tasks and demands in the game in relation to all other playing positions. Further on, it has been concluded that the selection of players must not be based only on the stated physical and psychological characteristics, but on relevant anthropological complexes determining performance and sport achievement. PMID:23914494

  8. A comparison of selection and breeding strategies for incorporating wood properties into a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) elite population breeding program 

    E-print Network

    Myszewski, Jennifer Helen

    2004-09-30

    were not significantly different from each other (average difference of less than 0.3°). Latewood MFAs in the core wood were significantly different between rings 4 and 5 at both sites (average differences of 1.5° and 0.5° at GP065 and GP258... at 23 Table 2. Range of full-sib family means (with standard deviations) for wood quality and growth traits in loblolly pine. GP065 GP258 Earlywood 4 MFAa 38.8 ± 3.2 to 43.7 ± 3.3 37.0 ± 3.9 to 41.8 ± 4.7 Latewood 4 MFA 39...

  9. Changes in muscle cell cation regulation and meat quality traits are associated with genetic selection for high body weight and meat yield in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sandercock, Dale A; Barker, Zoe E; Mitchell, Malcolm A; Hocking, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    Between-breed genetic variation for muscle and meat quality traits was determined at eight weeks of age in 34 lines of purebred commercial broiler and layer lines and traditional breeds (categories) of chickens. Between-breed genetic variation for plasma ion concentrations and element concentration in muscle dry matter and ash were determined. Plasma from broilers had higher concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg++, total and free Ca++ and lower free:total Ca++ than plasma from layer and traditional lines. Muscle from broilers contained more Na and higher concentrations of K, Mg and Ca per mg of ash but not of dry matter compared with layer and traditional lines. In comparison with layer and traditional lines, broiler genotypes were over three times heavier, their plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), a marker of muscle tissue damage, was higher, their breast muscle colour was lighter (L*) and less red (a*) and yellow (b*) in appearance, the initial and final pH of their muscles were lower, the pH change was higher and their breast muscle was more tender. Thus, genetic selection for broiler traits has markedly altered cation regulation in muscle cells and may be associated with changes in muscle cell function and the development of pathology and meat quality problems. PMID:19284683

  10. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  11. Industrial uses of wood char

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Gupta, R.C.

    1998-08-01

    The quality and feasibility of wood char utilization in various industries are reported. Wood char provides fuel not only for cooking and domestic heating but also for many industrial purposes, such as manufacture of iron and some ferro-alloys, recovery of gold and other nonferrous metals from their leached solutions, manufacture of chemicals and medicines, burning of bricks and glass, and removal of toxic substances from their solutions. The selection of wood char for these purposes is made on the basis of its properties, such as chemical composition, reactivity, heating value, electrical resistivity, adsorption capacity, and strength.

  12. The Transcriptomics of Secondary Growth and Wood Formation in Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ana; Paiva, Jorge; Louzada, José; Lima-Brito, José

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, forestry scientists have adapted genomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to the search for candidate genes related to the transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in several tree species. Gymnosperms, in particular, the conifers, are ecologically and economically important, namely, for the production of wood and other forestry end products. Until very recently, no whole genome sequencing of a conifer genome was available. Due to the gradual improvement of the NGS technologies and inherent bioinformatics tools, two draft assemblies of the whole genomes sequence of Picea abies and Picea glauca arose in the current year. These draft genome assemblies will bring new insights about the structure, content, and evolution of the conifer genomes. Furthermore, new directions in the forestry, breeding and research of conifers will be discussed in the following. The identification of genes associated with the xylem transcriptome and the knowledge of their regulatory mechanisms will provide less time-consuming breeding cycles and a high accuracy for the selection of traits related to wood production and quality. PMID:24288610

  13. Association study and expression analysis of MTNR1A as a candidate gene for body measurement and meat quality traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wucai; Wang, Yaning; Fu, Changzhen; Zan, Lin-Seng

    2015-10-10

    Melatonin receptors, which mediate the functions of melatonin, play an important role in adipocyte differentiation, energy, and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in bovine melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) and to determine if these SNPs are associated with body measurement traits (BMTs) and meat quality traits (MQTs) in Qinchuan cattle. We identified three synonymous mutations (A455G, A497G, and C635T) and one missense mutation (G489A) p.Asp224Asn in MTNR1A gene in 420 Qinchuan cattle by sequencing. Association analysis indicated that these four SNPs were associated with some of the BMTs and MQTs (P<0.05). Further, 6 combined haplotypes were constructed to guarantee the reliability of analysis results. Individuals with diplotypes H2H2 (AA-GG-GG-CC) had greater chest depth, heart girth, loin muscle area, and more back fat than the other combinations (P<0.05). Pertaining to G489A mutation, RT-PCR study exhibited a higher mRNA expression of MTNR1A gene among individuals with SNP1/2/4-AG-GA-CT genotype than those with SNP1/2/4-AA-GG-CC genotype (P<0.05). These results suggest that the genotype H2H2 could be used as a molecular marker of the combined genotype for future selection for BMTs and MQTs in Qinchuan cattle. PMID:26067916

  14. Genetic variants in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors are associated with concentrations of plasma cortisol, muscle glycogen content, and meat quality traits in male Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Poleti, M D; DeRijk, R H; Rosa, A F; Moncau, C T; Oliveira, P S; Coutinho, L L; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C

    2015-04-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) are key components in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine axis and coordinate the physiological response to stress agents to reestablish homeostasis. Genetic variations of GR (NR3C1) and MR (NR3C2) genes could explain the alterations in animals to adapt to challenges, and therefore, their influence on production traits. The present study aimed to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine NR3C1 and NR3C2 genes and explore their associations to relevant traits of beef cattle production. Genotypes and phenotypes were collected from 241 male Nellore cattle (119 noncastrated and 122 castrated surgically) with an average of 24 ± 1.2 mo of age and live weight of 508 ± 39 kg. The traits evaluated were concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol, muscle glycogen and lactate content, and pH, color, cooking loss, and shear force of longissimus thoracis measured on the 1st, 7th, and 14th days postmortem. Five SNPs were identified, 2 in the NR3C1 gene and 3 in the NR3C2 gene. There was an associative relationship between the SNP NR3C1_1 g.3293A>G and postmortem plasma concentration of cortisol (P = 0.0008). The SNPs NR3C2_1 g.115T>C and NR3C2_2 g.570T>C were associated with muscle glycogen content (P = 0.0306 and P = 0.0158), postmortem plasma concentration of ACTH (P = 0.0118 and P = 0.0095), and cooking loss of the steak aged 1 d (P = 0.0398 and P = 0.0423). Haplotype analysis showed associations of GR haplotypes with postmortem plasma concentrations of cortisol and MR haplotypes with meat color, cooking losses, muscle glycogen content, and plasma concentrations of ACTH. The associations observed in the present study show that SNPs in GR and MR genes are related with changes of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and metabolic profile in cattle, leading to individual variation in meat quality traits. PMID:25617989

  15. Woods Residence 

    E-print Network

    Raiford Stripling Associates, Inc.; Stripling, Raiford L.

    2011-08-29

    Coal and wood co-fired boiler technology has improved significantly over the years. The term "co-firing", when used by members of the biomass or utility communities, has come to mean mixing a modest amount of clean, dry sawdust with coal and burning...

  16. Polymorphisms in luteinizing hormone receptor and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes and their effects on sperm quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Ping; Du, Qing-Zhi; Song, Ya-Pan; Yu, Jun-Na; Wang, Shu-Juan; Sang, Lei; Song, Luo-Wen; Yue, Yao-Min; Lian, Yu-Ze; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Hua, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Yang, Li-Guo

    2012-06-01

    Genes of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis play a key role in male reproductive performance. This study evaluated the polymorphisms of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) genes and their effects on sperm quality traits including semen volume per ejaculate (VOL), sperm density (SD), fresh sperm motility (FSM), thawed sperm motility (TSM), acrosome integrity rate (AIR), and abnormal sperm rate (ASR) collected from 205 Chinese Hostein bulls. The study bulls consisted of 205 mature Chinese Holstein, 27 Simmental, 28 Charolais, and 14 German yellow cattle. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A883G) in exon 2 of GnRH and two SNPs (A51703G and G51656T) in intron 9 of LHR were identified in 274 bulls. Analysis of variance in 205 Chinese Holstein bulls showed that age had significant effect on both SD and FSM (P < 0.01), and ASR (P < 0.05). With regards to genotype and its interaction with age, only the SNP of G51656T in LHR gene had significant effect on SD (P < 0.05, P < 0.01; respectively). The association result showed that bulls with AG genotype had higher FSM than bulls with AA and GG genotype in LHR at 51,703 locus (P < 0.10), and bulls with GG genotype had higher SD than bulls with TT genotype in LHR at G51656T locus (P < 0.10). Phenotypic correlation among the traits revealed that significant negative correlations were observed between ASR and AIR (r = -0.736, P < 0.01), ASR and AIR (r = -0.500, P < 0.01). There were moderate positive correlations between VOL and SD (r = 0.422, P < 0.01), as well as FSM (r = 0.411, P < 0.01). In conclusion, LHR may be a potential marker for sperm quality of SD and FSM. PMID:22327646

  17. Polymorphisms in the regulatory region of the porcine MYLPF gene are related to meat quality traits in the Large White breed.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M T; O'Halloran, A M; Hamill, R M; Davey, G C; Gil, M; Southwood, O I; Sweeney, T

    2016-03-01

    The MYLPF gene encodes fast myosin regulatory light chain, and is a positional and functional candidate gene for meat quality. The aim of this study was to identify associations between SNPs in the promoter region of the porcine MYLPF gene and meat quality traits. A total of 22 SNPs were identified in a population of crossbred animals (n=86) and based on minor allele frequency and proximity to the transcription start site, five SNPs were genotyped in purebred; Large White (n=98), Duroc (n=99) and Pietrain (n=98) pigs. No associations were observed in the Pietrain breed, while the Duroc breed was almost monomorphic for all SNPs. In the Large White breed SNP g-1314A>G and linked SNPS g.-871T>G, g.-566T>C, g.-403C>G were associated with ultimate pH and driploss (P<0.05). This study identified associations between MYLPF and meat quality and highlights the importance of considering the genetic background within gene-assisted selection programmes. PMID:26638021

  18. FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD COMPOSITES

    E-print Network

    Nairn, John A.

    FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD COMPOSITES DURING CRACK PROPAGATION Noah Matsumoto Structural, USA * Corresponding author: John.Nairn@oregonstate.edu SWST member #12;Fracture Toughness of Wood and Wood Composites During Crack Propagation ABSTRACT The mode I fracture toughness as a function of crack

  19. Pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    After devastating vast areas of pine forests in Asian countries, the pine wilt disease spread into European forests in 1999 and is causing worldwide concern. This disease involves very complicated interactions between a pathogenic nematode, its vector beetle, host pine species, and fungi in dead hosts. Pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode is determined not only by its physical and chemical traits but also by its behavioral traits. Most life history traits of the pine wood nematode, such as its phoretic relationship with vector beetles, seem to be more effective in virulent than in avirulent isolates or species. As the pathogenicity determinants, secreted enzymes, and surface coat proteins are very important, they have therefore been studied intensively. The mechanism of quick death of a large pine tree as a result of infection by a tiny nematode could be ascribed to the dysfunction of the water-conducting system caused by the death of parenchyma cells, which must have originally evolved as an inherent resistant system. PMID:23663004

  20. Proceedings of the 19th Central Hardwood Forest Conference GTR-NRS-P-142 202 eFFeCTS oF PReSCRIbeD FIRe oN THe wooD QUALITy

    E-print Network

    SCRIbeD FIRe oN THe wooD QUALITy AND MARkeTAbILITy oF FoUR HARDwooD SPeCIeS IN THe CeNTRAL APPALACHIAN ReGIoN's Eastern Region have revised their planning documents to include fire as a restoration tool (Nowacki et al 2012) indicates that the acres to which prescribed fire has been applied in the central Appalachian

  1. Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves.

    PubMed

    Tait, R G; Downey, E D; Mayes, M S; Park, C A; Ridpath, J F; Garrick, D J; Reecy, J M

    2013-11-01

    There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits in Angus beef cattle. Final antibody level and response to vaccination were based on neutralizing serum antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2). Calves were followed through development and the feedlot phase, with collection of yearling ultrasound (n=957), preharvest (n=762), and carcass (n=673) data. In this study, 48% of the animals were observed to have positively responded to the vaccine, as evidenced by higher final antibody levels compared to prevaccination antibody levels. Increased final antibody levels were significantly (P<0.05) associated with increased yearling weight and increased subcutaneous fat over the rump. An interaction between final antibody level and weaning time also was associated (P<0.05) with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and meat pH, with a favorable, negative relationship between final antibody and WBSF in calves weaned at initial vaccination. Overall antibody response by wean time interaction had a significant (P<0.05) association with ADG and meat pH, with calves weaned at initial vaccination having a favorable, positive relationship between overall antibody response and ADG. Under both the final antibody and overall antibody response models, animals weaned at initial vaccination had significantly (P<0.05) lower intramuscular fat at yearling time and conversely higher harvest weight than animals weaned at the booster vaccination. When antibody response was grouped (none, low, high), a significant interaction (P<0.05) between antibody response group and weaning time was identified for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW. Animals weaned at the initial vaccination in the high antibody response group had the advantage for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW compared to animals in the high-response group that were weaned at booster vaccination. Linear increases in antibody response generally did not have negative effects on performance or carcass quality traits in finished cattle (P>0.05). Therefore, producers should not be concerned about decreased production or quality attributes as a result of developing a robust antibody response to vaccination for BVDV2 in beef cattle. PMID:24045477

  2. Comparison of Carcass and Sensory Traits and Free Amino Acid Contents among Quality Grades in Loin and Rump of Korean Cattle Steer

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Min Yu; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ko, Jong-Youl; Baik, Myunggi

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to compare carcass traits, sensory characteristics, physiochemical composition, and contents of nucleotides, collagen, and free amino acids among quality grades (QG) and to understand the association between QG and above parameters in loin and rump of Korean cattle steer. Loin and rump samples were obtained from 48 Korean cattle steers with each of four QG (QG 1++, 1+, 1, and 2; average 32 months of age). Carcass weight and marbling score (MS) were highest in QG 1++, whereas texture score measured by a meat grader was highest in QG 2. A correlation analysis revealed that MS (r = 0.98; p<0.01) and fat content (r = 0.73; p<0.01) had strong positive correlations with QG and that texture had a strong negative correlation (r = ?0.78) with QG. Fat content in loin was highest but protein and moisture contents were lowest in QG 1++. Our results confirmed that a major determinant of QG is the MS; thus, intramuscular fat content. The International Commission on Illumination L*, a*, and b* values in loin were highest in QG 1++. Numeric values of shear force in loin were lowest in QG 1++, whereas those of tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability tended to be highest in QG 1++ without statistical significance. QG was strongly correlated with juiciness (r = 0.81; p<0.01) and overall acceptability (r = 0.87; p<0.001). All sensory characteristics were higher (p<0.05) in loin than those in rump. Adenosine-5?-monophosphate (AMP) and inosine-5?-monophosphate (IMP) contents in both loin and rump did not differ among QGs. No nucleotide (AMP, IMP, inosine, hypoxanthine) was correlated with any of the sensory traits. Total, soluble, and insoluble collagen contents in loin were higher in QG 1++ than those in QG 1. All three collagens had lower content in loin than that in rump. All three collagens were positively correlated with tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. Glutamic acid content did not significantly differ among the four QGs in either loin or rump. In conclusion, it is confirmed that QG is associated with sensory traits but nucleotide contents in beef may not be a major factor determining meat palatability in the present study. PMID:26333668

  3. Gender- and Age-Related Differences in the Association between Social Relationship Quality and Trait Levels of Salivary Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Granger, Douglas A.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of studies linking individual differences in the quality of social relationships and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have focused on the early development of attachment between infants and their caregivers. Later in development, during middle childhood and adolescence, the parallel HPA links to…

  4. Response to Phenotypic and Marker-Assisted Selection for Yield and Quality Component Traits in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though the potential benefits of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for line and population development to improve yield in cucumber have been demonstrated, its application during tandem selection for yield and quality components has not been investigated. Therefore, two cucumber recombinant inbr...

  5. Association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in candidate genes and QTL regions with pork quality traits in commercial pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous reports have described genetic markers or genomic regions (QTL) associated with pork quality and/or palatability. Validation of these associations in other commercial populations is necessary before these markers should be used. Therefore, 156 SNP markers from 45 candidate genes and 8 QTL r...

  6. Wood Resources International

    E-print Network

    Material Trade · Sawlog & Pulpwood Costs #12;Wood Resources International Roundwood Removals ­Industrial Europe CIS North America TOTAL Source: UNECE/FAO #12;Wood Resources International Wood raw material trade ­ Roundwood ­ Wood chips #12;Wood Resources International Roundwood Trade in the UNECE Source: UNECE/FAO 0 20

  7. Polymorphism of fat metabolism genes as candidate markers for meat quality and production traits in heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Renaville, B; Bacciu, N; Lanzoni, M; Corazzin, M; Piasentier, E

    2015-12-01

    High meat quality is required for dry-cured ham production, which quality depends on meat fat quantity and composition. The aim was to study the polymorphisms of six genes involved in fat metabolism, namely, Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2 (DGAT1 &DGAT2), Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), Fatty acid synthase (FASN) and Heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in two traditional (Large White or Duroc×(Landrace×Large White)) and two industrial hybrids (Goland and Danbred), which are used for dry-cured ham production. Significant associations of SCD and MTTP were found with carcass weight. DGAT2 was associated with back fat thickness and L* fat colour (objective white colour score). Several genes (DGAT2, MTTP &FASN) were associated with weight loss during salting, first step in dry-cured ham production, affecting final yield. Finally, MTTP was associated with shear force. Our findings suggest that the SCD, DGAT2, MTTP and FASN polymorphisms are associated with quality of heavy pig meat products. PMID:26255706

  8. Effects of dietary supplementation with creatine monohydrate during the finishing period on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and muscle glycolytic potential of broilers subjected to transport stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Li, J L; Gao, T; Lin, M; Wang, X F; Zhu, X D; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2014-12-01

    A total of 320 male Arbor Acres broiler chickens (28 days old) were randomly allotted to one of the three experimental diets supplemented with 0 (160 birds), 600 (80 birds) or 1200 mg/kg (80 birds) creatine monohydrate (CMH) for 14 days. On the morning of 42 day, after an 8-h fast, the birds of CMH-free group were divided into two equal groups, and all birds of these four groups were transported according to the follow protocol: 0.75-h transport without CMH supplementation (as a lower stress control group), 3-h transport without CMH supplementation, 3-h transport with 600 or 1200 mg/kg CMH supplementation. Each treatment group was composed of 8 replicates with 10 birds each. The results showed that supplementation of CMH for 14 days before slaughter did not affect the overall growth performance and carcass traits of stressed broilers (P>0.05). A 3-h transport decreased plasma glucose concentration, elevated plasma corticosterone concentration, increased bird live weight loss, breakdown of muscle glycogen, as well as the accumulation of muscle lactate (P<0.05), which induced some detrimental changes to breast meat quality (lower ultimate pH and higher drip loss, P<0.05). Nevertheless, supplementation of 1200 mg/kg CMH reduced chicken weight loss, decreased the contents of lactate and glycolytic potential in pectoralis major of 3-h transported broilers (P<0.05), which is beneficial to maintain breast meat quality by reducing the drip loss (P<0.05). These findings suggest that the reduction of muscle glycolysis is probably the reason for maintainance of meat quality by supplementation of CMH in transported broilers. PMID:25075432

  9. Birth weight alters the response to postnatal high-fat diet-induced changes in meat quality traits and skeletal muscle proteome of pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbo; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Yu, Bing; Chen, Daiwen

    2014-05-28

    Low birth weight (LBW) exerts persistent effects on the growth and development of offspring. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that LBW alters the response of pigs to high-fat (HF) diet-induced changes in meat quality and skeletal muscle proteome. Normal-birth weight (NBW) and LBW piglets were fed a control diet or a HF diet from weaning to slaughter at 110 kg body weight. Most of the meat quality traits were influenced by LBW. Meat quality analysis revealed that LBW piglets had a greater ability to deposit intramuscular lipids than their heavier littermates when fed a HF diet. Increased shear force, lower pH45 min and drip loss were observed in the skeletal muscle of LBW piglets compared with NBW piglets. Proteomic analysis revealed forty-six differentially expressed proteins in the skeletal muscle of LBW and NBW piglets fed the control diet or HF diet. These proteins play a central role in cell structure and motility, glucose and energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, and cellular apoptosis, as well as stress response. Of particular interest is the finding that LBW altered the response to HF diet-induced changes in the expression of proteins related to stress response (heat shock protein) and glucose and energy metabolism (pyruvate kinase, phosphoglycerate mutase, enolase and triosephosphate isomerase). Taken together, our findings revealed that the HF diet-induced changes in the expression of glucose and energy metabolism-related proteins varied between NBW and LBW piglets, which provides a possible mechanism to explain higher intramuscular fat store in LBW pigs when fed a HF diet. PMID:24480424

  10. Through-thickness ultrasonic characterization of wood and

    E-print Network

    Through-thickness ultrasonic characterization of wood and agricultural fiber composites Ronnie YOSBusingathroughtransmission ultrasonic technique. This evaluation presents a potential quality control tool for the manufacturing

  11. A six-month prospective evaluation of personality traits, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in ayahuasca-naïve subjects.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Cazorla, Irene Maurício; Giglio, Joel Sales; Strassman, Rick

    2009-09-01

    The authors assessed 23 subjects immediately before and six months (27.5 weeks) after their first ayahuasca experience in an urban Brazilian religious setting, either Santo Daime (N = 15) or União do Vegetal (N = 8). Measures included scores on instruments assessing psychiatric symptoms, personality variables and quality of life. Independent variables were the frequency of ayahuasca use throughout the period and the length of ayahuasca wash-out after six months. Santo Daime subjects had a significant reduction of minor psychiatric symptoms, improvement of mental health, and a change in attitude towards more confidence and optimism. The União do Vegetal group had a significant decrease in physical pain, and attitude change towards more independence. Independence was positively correlated with the frequency of ayahuasca use and negatively correlated with the wash-out period. We discuss possible mechanisms by which these changes may occur and suggest areas for future research. PMID:19999673

  12. Is mind-mindedness trait-like or a quality of close relationships? Evidence from descriptions of significant others, famous people, and works of art.

    PubMed

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; Harris-Waller, Jayne

    2014-03-01

    The four studies reported here sought to explore the nature of the construct of mind-mindedness. In Study 1, involving 37 mothers of 5- to 8-year-old children, mothers' verbal mind-minded descriptions of their children were positively correlated with their mind-minded descriptions of their current romantic partner. Participants in Studies 2 (N=114), 3 (N=173), and 4 (N=153) were young adults who provided written descriptions of: a close friend and their current romantic partner (Study 2); two specified famous people, two works of art, and a close friend (Study 3); a specified famous person, a famous person of the participant's choice, and a close friend (Study 4). Study 2 obtained paper-and-pen written descriptions, whereas participants completed descriptions in electronic format in Studies 3 and 4. Mind-minded descriptions of friends and partners were positively correlated, but there was no relation between mind-minded descriptions of a friend and the tendency to describe famous people or works of art in mind-minded terms. Levels of mind-mindedness were higher in descriptions of friends compared with descriptions of famous people or works of art. Administration format was unrelated to individuals' mind-mindedness scores. The results suggest that mind-mindedness is a facet of personal relationships rather than a trait-like quality. PMID:24448488

  13. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    PubMed Central

    Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2009-01-01

    Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits. PMID:19426499

  14. Effects of different rearing systems on muscle and meat quality traits of slow- and medium-growing male chickens.

    PubMed

    Almasi, A; Andrassyne, B G; Milisits, G; Kustosne, P O; Suto, Z

    2015-01-01

    1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of production system on the meat quality of slow- and medium-growing chickens. A total of 1075 1-d-old male chicks were equally divided into 6 experimental groups, represented by three strains (SG: TETRA-H, MG1: TETRA HB Color, MG2: Shaver Farm) and were reared in a poultry house in floor pens (12 males/m(2)). 2. On d 49, 150 healthy birds (50/genotype) were placed in a free-range family farm while the rest of the birds remained indoors. All birds were fed ad libitum and consumed the same diet. On d 70, 20 birds of each experimental group were slaughtered and muscle samples were taken from the left breast and thigh muscles. 3. Thigh muscle of SG males kept on free range was darker (L* = 75.12 vs. 78.33) with lower frying loss (45.9% vs. 55.9%) compared with the indoor group. Similar results were obtained from the MG1 group. Free-range MG2 males had lighter thigh meat (L* = 50.7 vs. 57.8) and lower frying loss compared to the indoor group. 4. In general, the indoor treatment had a lower impact on breast meat than the outdoor system. Regardless of the rearing system, genotypic differences were more pronounced in thigh than in breast muscle. PMID:25680005

  15. Association of Allelic Variation in PtoXET16A with Growth and Wood Properties in Populus tomentosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bowen; Zhang, Deqiang

    2014-01-01

    Xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases (XETs) modify the xyloglucan-cellulose framework of plant cell walls and, thus, affect cell wall expansion and strength. Dissecting the mechanism by which natural variation in XETs affects wood properties can inform breeding efforts to improve wood quality and yield traits. To this end, we isolated a full-length PtoXET16A cDNA clone from Populus tomentosa. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PtoXET16A was maximally expressed in the root, followed by phloem, cambium, and developing xylem, suggesting that PtoXET16A plays important roles in the development of vascular tissues. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed that PtoXET16A has high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity (? = 0.01266 and ?w = 0.01392) and low linkage disequilibrium (r2 ? 0.1, within 900 bp). SNP- and haplotype-based association analyses of 426 individuals from a natural population indicated that nine SNPs (including two non-synonymous markers and one splicing variant) (p ? 0.05, false discovery rate Q ? 0.01), and nine haplotypes (p ? 0.05) were significantly associated with growth and wood properties, each explaining from 3.40%–10.95% of phenotypic variance. This work shows that examination of allelic variation and linkage disequilibrium by a candidate-gene-based approach can help to decipher the genetic basis of wood formation. Moreover, the SNP markers identified in this study can potentially be applied for marker-assisted selection to improve growth and wood-property traits in Populus. PMID:25250912

  16. Genetic Variation in the Chemical Components of Eucalyptus globulus Wood

    PubMed Central

    Stackpole, Desmond J.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Alves, Ana; Rodrigues, José; Potts, Brad M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of lignin and other wood chemical components, there are few studies of the natural genetic variation that exists within plant species and its adaptive significance. We used models developed from near infra-red spectroscopy to study natural genetic variation in lignin content and monomer composition (syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio [S/G]) as well as cellulose and extractives content, using a 16-year-old field trial of an Australian tree species, Eucalyptus globulus. We sampled 2163 progenies of 467 native trees from throughout the native geographic range of the species. The narrow-sense heritability of wood chemical traits (0.25–0.44) was higher than that of growth (0.15), but less than wood density (0.51). All wood chemical traits exhibited significant broad-scale genetic differentiation (QST = 0.34–0.43) across the species range. This differentiation exceeded that detected with putatively neutral microsatellite markers (FST = 0.09), arguing that diversifying selection has shaped population differentiation in wood chemistry. There were significant genetic correlations among these wood chemical traits at the population and additive genetic levels. However, population differentiation in the S/G ratio of lignin in particular was positively correlated with latitude (R2 = 76%), which may be driven by either adaptation to climate or associated biotic factors. PMID:22384327

  17. Effects of environmental temperature and dietary manganese on egg production performance, egg quality, and some plasma biochemical traits of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y W; Xie, J J; Li, W X; Lu, L; Zhang, L Y; Ji, C; Lin, X; Liu, H C; Odle, J; Luo, X G

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of environmental temperature and dietary Mn on egg production performance, egg quality, and some plasma biochemical traits of broiler breeders. A completely randomized factorial design involved 2 environmental temperatures (a normal temperature, 21 ± 1°C, and a high temperature, 32 ± 1°C) × 3 dietary Mn treatments (a Mn-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 120 mg of Mn/kg of diet as either MnSO·HO or manganese proteinate). There were 6 treatments with 6 replicates (4 birds per replicate). High temperature decreased egg weight ( < 0.0001), laying rate ( < 0.0001), egg yield ( < 0.0001), feed intake ( < 0.0001), egg:feed ratio ( < 0.0001), eggshell strength ( < 0.05) and thickness ( < 0.0001), plasma triiodothyronine level ( < 0.05), and alkaline phosphatase activity ( < 0.04) whereas it increased rectal temperature ( < 0.0001); plasma malondialdehyde level ( < 0.02); and activities ( < 0.002) of lactic dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase. Broiler breeders fed the diets supplemented with Mn regardless of source had greater ( < 0.05) eggshell strength and lower ( ? 0.05) plasma triiodothyronine level and protein carbonyl content than those fed the control diet. The broiler breeders fed the diet supplemented with the organic Mn had greater ( < 0.01) eggshell thickness than those fed the control diet. There were interactions ( < 0.05) between environmental temperature and dietary Mn in laying rate, egg yield, feed intake, and egg:feed ratio. Under normal temperature, dietary Mn did not affect the above 4 parameters; however, under high temperature, broiler breeders fed the diet supplemented with the organic Mn showed greater ( < 0.03) improvements in these 4 parameters than those fed the control diet. The results from this study indicated that high temperature significantly impaired egg production performance and eggshell quality and induced lipid peroxidation and tissue damage whereas dietary supplementation of either organic or inorganic Mn improved eggshell strength and thermotolerance and reduced protein oxidation and that the organic Mn could alleviate the negative effect of high temperature on egg production performance of broiler breeders at the period of 32 to 45 wk of age. PMID:26440012

  18. Selecting broiler chickens for ultimate pH of breast muscle: analysis of divergent selection experiment and phenotypic consequences on meat quality, growth, and body composition traits.

    PubMed

    Alnahhas, N; Berri, C; Boulay, M; Baéza, E; Jégo, Y; Baumard, Y; Chabault, M; Le Bihan-Duval, E

    2014-09-01

    Genetic parameters for ultimate pH of pectoralis major muscle (PM-pHu) and sartorius muscle (SART-pHu); color parameters L*, a*, b*; logarithm of drip loss (LogDL) of pectoralis major (PM) muscle; breast meat yield (BMY); thigh and drumstick yield (TY); abdominal fat percentage (AFP); and BW at 6 wk (BW6) were estimated in 2 lines of broiler chickens divergently selected for PM-pHu. Effects of selection on all the previous traits and on glycolytic potential, pectoralis major muscle pH at 15 min postmortem, curing-cooking yield (CCY), cooking loss (CL), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of the PM muscle were also analyzed after 5 generations. Strong genetic determinism of PM-pHu was observed, with estimated h(2) of 0.57 ± 0.02. There was a significant positive genetic correlation (rg) between PM-pHu and SART-pHu (0.54 ± 0.04), indicating that selection had a general rather than a specific effect on energy storage in skeletal muscles. The h(2) estimates of L*, a*, and b* parameters were 0.58 ± 0.02, 0.39 ± 0.02, and 0.48 ± 0.02, respectively. Heritability estimates for TY, BMY, and AFP were 0.39 ± 0.04, 0.52 ± 0.01, and 0.71 ± 0.02, respectively. Our results indicated different genetic control of LogDL and L* of the meat between the 2 lines; these traits had a strong rg with PM-pHu in the line selected for low ultimate pH (pHu) value (pHu-; -0.80 and -0.71, respectively), which was not observed in the line selected for high pHu value (pHu+; -0.04 and -0.29, respectively). A significant positive rg (0.21 ± 0.04) was observed between PM-pHu and BMY but not between PM-pHu and BW6, AFP, or TY. Significant phenotypic differences were observed after 5 generations of selection between the 2 lines. The mean differences (P < 0.001) in pHu between the 2 lines were 0.42 and 0.21 pH units in the breast and thigh muscle, respectively. Breast meat in the pHu+ line exhibited lower L* (-5 units; P < 0.001), a* (-0.22 units; P < 0.001), b* (-1.53 units; P < 0.001), and drip loss (-1.6 units; P < 0.001) than in the pHu- line. Breast meat of the pHu+ line was also characterized by greater CCY (+6.1 units; P < 0.001), lower CL (-1.66 units; P < 0.01), and lower WBSF after cooking (-5.1 units; P < 0.001) compared to the pHu- line. This study highlighted that selection based on pHu can be effective in improving the processing ability of breast meat and reducing the incidence of meat quality defects without affecting chicken growth performance. PMID:25006074

  19. Wood used by Stradivari and Guarneri.

    PubMed

    Nagyvary, Joseph; DiVerdi, Joseph A; Owen, Noel L; Tolley, H Dennis

    2006-11-30

    Whether or not the great Italian violin-makers used wood that had been chemically processed in order to preserve it and enhance the instrument's sound quality has long been a contentious issue. Here we use nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy to analyse organic matter in wood taken from antique instruments made by Stradivari and Guarneri del Gesu. Our results indicate that the wood used by the masters could indeed have been chemically treated, a technique that may inspire an approach to violin making that is more chemistry-based. PMID:17136084

  20. Wood Bond Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

  1. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Topics About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Areas of Focus Discovering ... winners For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation supports research and programs throughout the nation ...

  2. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  3. Wood [Read-Only

    Cancer.gov

    Habits and Intentions Habits and Intentions Guide Behavior Guide Behavior Wendy Wood, Judith Ouellette, Wendy Wood, Judith Ouellette, Jeffrey Quinn, Leona Tam, Jeffrey Quinn, Leona Tam, Melissa Guerrero Melissa Guerrero- -Witt Witt ? ?Most of the

  4. The Elasticity of Wood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, James

    1993-01-01

    A simple experiment concerning the elasticity of wood is described that can easily be performed at home. The forces needed to produce a stress in wood are measured and compared. Provides a mathematical discussion of the elasticity and stress of wood. (MVL)

  5. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325 Section 148.325 Shipping...for Certain Materials § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies...

  6. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325 Section 148.325 Shipping...for Certain Materials § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies...

  7. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325 Section 148.325 Shipping...for Certain Materials § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies...

  8. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325 Section 148.325 Shipping...for Certain Materials § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies...

  9. Economics of wood dust

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, J.A.

    1980-11-01

    This article reviews the economic effects of wood dust. The most important use of wood today is a fuel, and wood chips and shavings are sources of feedstock for boilers. Other uses include wood chips in the manufacture of particleboard, wood dust as bedding in riding stables and race tracks, as mulch for florists, and as an absorbent in the meat packing industry. The installation of dust collection systems is strongly urged as the consequences of inadequate collection include rapid machine wear, poor environmental conditions for workers, general interference with work, and its combustibility makes it a constant fire hazard.

  10. Interspecific relationships among growth, mortality and xylem traits of woody species from New Zealand

    E-print Network

    Uriarte, Maria

    Interspecific relationships among growth, mortality and xylem traits of woody species from New several vascular properties of wood, including the diameter and frequency of xylem conduits. 2. We aimed the covariation between xylem anatomical traits among woody species of New Zealand and whether that covariation

  11. Signature Wood Modifications Reveal Decomposer Community History

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Jonathan S.; Kaffenberger, Justin T.; Liew, Feng Jin; Song, Zewei

    2015-01-01

    Correlating plant litter decay rates with initial tissue traits (e.g. C, N contents) is common practice, but in woody litter, predictive relationships are often weak. Variability in predicting wood decomposition is partially due to territorial competition among fungal decomposers that, in turn, have a range of nutritional strategies (rot types) and consequences on residues. Given this biotic influence, researchers are increasingly using culture-independent tools in an attempt to link variability more directly to decomposer groups. Our goal was to complement these tools by using certain wood modifications as ‘signatures’ that provide more functional information about decomposer dominance than density loss. Specifically, we used dilute alkali solubility (DAS; higher for brown rot) and lignin:density loss (L:D; higher for white rot) to infer rot type (binary) and fungal nutritional mode (gradient), respectively. We first determined strength of pattern among 29 fungi of known rot type by correlating DAS and L:D with mass loss in birch and pine. Having shown robust relationships for both techniques above a density loss threshold, we then demonstrated and resolved two issues relevant to species consortia and field trials, 1) spatial patchiness creating gravimetric bias (density bias), and 2) brown rot imprints prior or subsequent to white rot replacement (legacy effects). Finally, we field-tested our methods in a New Zealand Pinus radiata plantation in a paired-plot comparison. Overall, results validate these low-cost techniques that measure the collective histories of decomposer dominance in wood. The L:D measure also showed clear potential in classifying ‘rot type’ along a spectrum rather than as a traditional binary type (brown versus white rot), as it places the nutritional strategies of wood-degrading fungi on a scale (L:D=0-5, in this case). These information-rich measures of consequence can provide insight into their biological causes, strengthening the links between traits, structure, and function during wood decomposition. PMID:25811364

  12. Emissions Characterization of Residential Wood-Fired Hydronic Heater Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential wood-fired hydronic heaters (RWHHs) can negatively impact the local ambient air quality and thus are of major environmental concern in wood burning areas of the U. S. Few studies have been conducted which characterize the emissions from RWHHs. To address the lack of e...

  13. RESEARCH AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-VOC WOOD COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a project, cofunded by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and the U.S. EPA, to develop a new, low volatile organic compound (VOC) wood coating. Traditional wood furniture coating technologies contain organic solvents which become air pol...

  14. MODELING OF ALKANE EMISSIONS FROM A WOOD STAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses full-scale residential house tests to evaluate the effects of organic emissions from a wood finishing product--wood stain--on indoor air quality (IAQ). The test house concentrations of three alkane species, nonane, decane, and undecane, were measured as a fu...

  15. Uncertainty quantified trait predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazayeli, Farideh; Kattge, Jens; Banerjee, Arindam; Schrodt, Franziska; Reich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Functional traits of organisms are key to understanding and predicting biodiversity and ecological change, which motivates continuous collection of traits and their integration into global databases. Such composite trait matrices are inherently sparse, severely limiting their usefulness for further analyses. On the other hand, traits are characterized by the phylogenetic trait signal, trait-trait correlations and environmental constraints, all of which provide information that could be used to statistically fill gaps. We propose the application of probabilistic models which, for the first time, utilize all three characteristics to fill gaps in trait databases and predict trait values at larger spatial scales. For this purpose we introduce BHPMF, a hierarchical Bayesian extension of Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF). PMF is a machine learning technique which exploits the correlation structure of sparse matrices to impute missing entries. BHPMF additionally utilizes the taxonomic hierarchy for trait prediction. Implemented in the context of a Gibbs Sampler MCMC approach BHPMF provides uncertainty estimates for each trait prediction. We present comprehensive experimental results on the problem of plant trait prediction using the largest database of plant traits, where BHPMF shows strong empirical performance in uncertainty quantified trait prediction, outperforming the state-of-the-art based on point estimates. Further, we show that BHPMF is more accurate when it is confident, whereas the error is high when the uncertainty is high.

  16. Floods and Fluvial Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comiti, F.

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have recently addressed the complex interactions existing at various spatial scales among riparian vegetation, channel morphology and wood storage. The majority of these investigations has been carried out in relatively natural river systems, focusing mostly on the long-term vegetation-morphology dynamics under "equilibrium" conditions. Little is still known about the role of flood events - of different frequency/magnitude - on several aspects of such dynamics, e.g. entrainment conditions of in-channel wood, erosion rates of vegetation from channel margins and from islands, transport distances of wood elements of different size along the channel network. Even less understood is how the river's evolutionary trajectory may affect these processes, and thus the degree to which conceptual models derivable from near-natural systems could be applicable to human-disturbed channels. Indeed, the different human pressures - present on most river basins worldwide - have greatly impaired the morphological and ecological functions of fluvial wood, and the attempts to "restore" in-channel wood storage are currently carried out without a sufficient understanding of wood transport processes occurring during floods. On the other hand, the capability to correctly predict the magnitude of large wood transport during large floods is now seen as crucial - especially in mountain basins - for flood hazard mapping, as is the identification of the potential wood sources (e.g. landslides, floodplains, islands) for the implementation of sound and effective hazard mitigation measures. The presentation will first summarize the current knowledge on fluvial wood dynamics and modelling at different spatial and temporal scales, with a particular focus on mountain rivers. The effects of floods of different characteristics on vegetation erosion and wood transport will be then addressed presenting some study cases from rivers in the European Alps and in the Italian Apennines featuring different degrees of human alteration. Finally, several conclusions about the applicability of wood transport modelling and on rationale vegetation/wood management strategies will be drawn.

  17. Wood pellet production

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Southern Energy Limited's wood pellet refinery, Bristol, Florida, produces wood pellets for fuel from scrap wood from a nearby sawmill and other hog fuel delivered to the plant from nearby forest lands. The refinery will provide 50,000 tons of pellets per year to the Florida State Hospital at Chattahoochee to fire recently converted boilers in the central power plant. The pellets are densified wood, having a moisture content of about 10% and a heating value of 8000 Btu/lb. They are 0.5 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 inches in length.

  18. The use of wood for wind turbine blade construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.

    1979-01-01

    The interrelationships between moisture and wood, conditions for dry rot spore activity, the protection of wood fibers from moisture, wood resin composites, wood laminating, quality control, and the mechanical properties of wood are discussed. The laminated veneer and the bonded sawn stock fabrication techniques, used in the construction of a turbine blade with a monocoque 'D' section forming the leading edge and a built up trailing edge section, are described. A 20 foot root end sample complete with 24 bonded-in studs was successfully subjected to large onetime loads in both the flatwise and edgewise directions, and to fatigue tests. Results indicate that wood is both a viable and advantageous material for use in wind turbine blades. The basic material is reasonably priced, domestically available, ecologically sound, and easily fabricated with low energy consumption.

  19. Mother`s 1993: Wood and coal stove advisory

    SciTech Connect

    Vivian, J.

    1993-12-01

    If you`re like me, you`ve been heating and cooking with wood long enough that you don`t want another lecture about the cozy charm of a wood fire, the money you can save over electric heat, why to clean your flue or how to stack a cord of wood. What you may want to know, however, is why you can`t get an efficient, new wood stove anymore without paying hundreds of dollars extra for a government-approved catalytic smoke combustor or {open_quotes}Hi-Tech{close_quotes} stove; how the wood smoke that we once considered benign can degrade our air quality, endangering health and property; and how the new government presence in home heating affects your use or sale of the {open_quotes}low-tech{close_quotes} Intrepid, Kodiak or Ashley airtight wood stove (or the faithful old coal-burner) that has warmed you for years.

  20. Genome-wide association studies of agronomic and quality traits in a set of German winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT).

    PubMed

    Lex, Jeannette; Ahlemeyer, Jutta; Friedt, Wolfgang; Ordon, Frank

    2014-08-01

    A set of about 100 winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, comprising diverse and economically important German barley elite germplasm released during the last six decades, was previously genotypically characterized by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using the Illumina GoldenGate BeadArray Technology to detect associations with phenotypic data estimated in three-year field trials at 12 locations. In order to identify further associations and to obtain information on whether the marker type influences the outcome of association genetics studies, the set of winter barley cultivars was re-analyzed using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. As with the analysis of the SNPs, only polymorphic markers present at an allele frequency >5% were included to detect associations in a mixed linear model (MLM) approach using the TASSEL software (P???0.001). The population structure and kinship matrix were estimated on 72 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) covering the whole barley genome. The respective average linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyzed with DArT markers was estimated at 5.73 cM. A total of 52 markers gave significant associations with at least one of the traits estimated which, therefore, may be suitable for marker-assisted breeding. In addition, by comparing the results to those generated using the Illumina GoldenGate BeadArray Technology, it turned out that a different number of associations for respective traits is detected, depending on the marker system. However, as only a few of the respective DArT and Illumina markers are present in a common map, no comprehensive comparison of the detected associations was feasible, but some were probably detected in the same chromosomal regions. Because of the identification of additional marker-trait associations, it may be recommended to use both marker techniques in genome-wide association studies. PMID:24789682

  1. Wood Frog Embryos in an Icy Wetland

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wood frog embryos in a partly ice-covered Wisconsin wetland. Interconnected wetlands and uplands are critical elements of most North American landscapes and support our quality of life in profound ways. To provide much-needed information, the USGS is leading a growing network of U.S. and Canadian pa...

  2. Wood residues: trash or treasure

    SciTech Connect

    Bolgiano, C.

    1983-12-01

    Forest residues have acquired new economic value since the growth of the wood-energy markets has prompted private woodlot owners to begin managing and harvesting their forests after nearly a century of neglect. Estimates place half the commercial forests as overstocked, with poor-quality trees and unmarketable varieties, as well as standing dead or fallen trees and slash which are aesthetically bad. Overzealous cleansing of the forest floor, however, will deplete forests soils of nutrients and expose them to erosion in addition to destroying wildlife habitat. A compromise is needed to balance the ecological and economic benefits. (DCK)

  3. Laser applications in wood processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broenstad, B. M.; Auman, N.; Toennessen, K.

    1993-08-01

    Lasers have been used for special woodprocessing purposes for more than twenty years. Besides dieboard manufacturing, which was one of the earliest applications, CO2 lasers are also used for different cutting, marking and engraving operations. High quality slots in varying depths are produced in wood and different plywood materials at high cutting speeds and with excellent accuracy. Decorative marking operations are performed by means of masking techniques, or by moving a defocused beam over the workpiece. Formerly collected and stored data is directly used for laser cutting of card-board and 3D map modeling. Examples of products are shown, processing data given and limitations discussed.

  4. Superior wood for violins--wood decay fungi as a substitute for cold climate.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Francis W M R; Spycher, Melanie; Fink, Siegfried

    2008-01-01

    Violins produced by Antonio Stradivari during the late 17th and early 18th centuries are reputed to have superior tonal qualities. Dendrochronological studies show that Stradivari used Norway spruce that had grown mostly during the Maunder Minimum, a period of reduced solar activity when relatively low temperatures caused trees to lay down wood with narrow annual rings, resulting in a high modulus of elasticity and low density. The main objective was to determine whether wood can be processed using selected decay fungi so that it becomes acoustically similar to the wood of trees that have grown in a cold climate (i.e. reduced density and unchanged modulus of elasticity). This was investigated by incubating resonance wood specimens of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) with fungal species that can reduce wood density, but lack the ability to degrade the compound middle lamellae, at least in the earlier stages of decay. Microscopic assessment of the incubated specimens and measurement of five physical properties (density, modulus of elasticity, speed of sound, radiation ratio, and the damping factor) using resonance frequency revealed that in the wood of both species there was a reduction in density, accompanied by relatively little change in the speed of sound. Thus, radiation ratio was increased from 'poor' to 'good', on a par with 'superior' resonance wood grown in a cold climate. PMID:18554266

  5. Effects of Graded Levels of Chromium Methionine on Performance, Carcass Traits, Meat Quality, Fatty Acid Profiles of Fat, Tissue Chromium Concentrations, and Antioxidant Status in Growing-Finishing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yao-Yao; Gong, Li-Min; Xue, Jian-Xiang; Cao, Jun; Zhang, Li-Ying

    2015-11-01

    A 97-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary chromium methionine (CrMet) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, fatty acid profiles of fat, tissue chromium concentrations, and antioxidant status in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 180 crossbred pigs with a mean initial body weight (BW) 30.18?±?0.28 kg were allotted to 5 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment and 6 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design based on BW and sex. Treatments were added with 0 (control), 100, 200, 400, and 800 ?g/kg chromium as CrMet. Blood samples were obtained from the anterior vena cava on days 97. Carcass characteristics, pork quality, and tissue chromium concentration data were collected from one pig per pen. The results indicated that supplemental CrMet did not significantly affect growth performance, carcass traits, or meat amino acid profiles. Chromium at 100, 400, and 800 ?g/kg decreased drip loss but increased shear force (P?traits, but improved meat quality at the expense of tenderness. Therefore, the long-term exposure to 800 ?g/kg chromium affected fatty acid compositions and reduced serum antioxidant capacity. PMID:25947934

  6. Big Wood River, Idaho

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Big Wood River flows through communities of the Wood River Valley of south-central Idaho. It is one of eight sites at which the USGS is conducting an ecological assessment during the summer of 2014. Study results will be published in 2015....

  7. How James Wood Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  8. Fibre wall and lumen fractions drive wood density variation across 24 Australian angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Ziemi?ska, Kasia; Butler, Don W.; Gleason, Sean M.; Wright, Ian J.; Westoby, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Wood density is considered a key plant trait, affecting mechanical and physiological performance, yet its biological meaning is still rather unclear. Accordingly we investigated the anatomical underpinnings of wood density in trees and shrubs. We measured wood density and anatomical traits in distal stems 4–10 mm diameter under bark in 24 Australian species. Proportions of wood components that are functionally distinct were analysed, including fibre wall and lumen, vessel wall and lumen, and axial and ray parenchyma. Wood density was mainly driven by the density of wood outside vessel lumens (densityNV) rather than by vessel lumen fraction. In turn, densityNV variation was chiefly affected by fibre wall and lumen fractions. Considerable anatomical variation was observed at a given densityNV, especially among medium-densityNV species (0.60–0.85 g cm?3); this range of medium densityNV roughly translates to 0.50–0.75 g cm?3 of overall density. The anatomy of these species formed a continuum from low fibre lumen and medium parenchyma fractions to medium fibre lumen and low parenchyma fractions. Our data suggest that wood density is an emergent property influenced by a complex anatomy rather than an unambiguous functional trait, particularly in medium-density species. With much anatomical variation, they likely represent a wide range of ecological strategies.

  9. Broad Anatomical Variation within a Narrow Wood Density Range—A Study of Twig Wood across 69 Australian Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Ziemi?ska, Kasia; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Just as people with the same weight can have different body builds, woods with the same wood density can have different anatomies. Here, our aim was to assess the magnitude of anatomical variation within a restricted range of wood density and explore its potential ecological implications. Methods Twig wood of 69 angiosperm tree and shrub species was analyzed. Species were selected so that wood density varied within a relatively narrow range (0.38–0.62 g cm-3). Anatomical traits quantified included wood tissue fractions (fibres, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, vessels, and conduits with maximum lumen diameter below 15 ?m), vessel properties, and pith area. To search for potential ecological correlates of anatomical variation the species were sampled across rainfall and temperature contrasts, and several other ecologically-relevant traits were measured (plant height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity). Results Despite the limited range in wood density, substantial anatomical variation was observed. Total parenchyma fraction varied from 0.12 to 0.66 and fibre fraction from 0.20 to 0.74, and these two traits were strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.86, P < 0.001). Parenchyma was weakly (0.24 ?|r|? 0.35, P < 0.05) or not associated with vessel properties nor with height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity (0.24 ?|r|? 0.41, P < 0.05). However, vessel traits were fairly well correlated with height and leaf area to sapwood area ratio (0.47 ?|r|? 0.65, all P < 0.001). Modulus of elasticity was mainly driven by fibre wall plus vessel wall fraction rather than by the parenchyma component. Conclusions Overall, there seem to be at least three axes of variation in xylem, substantially independent of each other: a wood density spectrum, a fibre-parenchyma spectrum, and a vessel area spectrum. The fibre-parenchyma spectrum does not yet have any clear or convincing ecological interpretation. PMID:25906320

  10. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  11. Frequency profiles of residential wood burning for the northwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    LeBaron, B.A.; Jo, J.; Pearson, E.W.

    1989-10-01

    Surveys report that as high as 62% of the homes in the Pacific Northwest region have wood-burning equipment (the capability to heat with wood). Most of these homes apparently make use of this heating source. For example, the Oregon Department of Energy's Residential Energy Conservation Survey estimated that 50% to 60% of Oregon's households burn at least some wood. However, the number of homes that burn wood as their primary heating source is only about 21%. While it may be unclear whether wood heating will continue to enjoy popularity in light of recent energy price declines, certainly the hardware for wood heating remains widespread throughout the Northwest. For regulation purposes it is important to understand the impact this large capacity for wood heating can have on air quality. There is very little open literature describing wood usage patterns, apparently because of the difficulty and capital cost in monitoring residences for frequency and duration of burning. Analyses have typically used homeowner surveys of wood use to determine wood heating behavior. The weakness here is that survey responses are often unreliable. For example, respondent estimated wood usage may represent more of an indicator of the propensity to burn wood than the quantity actually burned. Characterizing wood usage patterns is important in assessing its contribution to air pollution. It may even be possible to use this information to predict when wood stove emissions will have their greatest impact on air quality. In this paper we present an examination of patterns of wood use for residential space heating in the Northwest. It is taken from a study of electrical energy consumption that is concerned with wood heating behavior from a standpoint of electrical displacement rather than one of air quality. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Wood specific gravity and anatomy of branches and roots in 113 Amazonian rainforest tree species across environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Fortunel, Claire; Ruelle, Julien; Beauchêne, Jacques; Fine, Paul V A; Baraloto, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    Wood specific gravity (WSG) is a strong predictor of tree performance across environmental gradients. Yet it remains unclear how anatomical elements linked to different wood functions contribute to variation in WSG in branches and roots across tropical forests. We examined WSG and wood anatomy in white sand, clay terra firme and seasonally flooded forests in French Guiana, spanning broad environmental gradients found throughout Amazonia. We measured 15 traits relating to branches and small woody roots in 113 species representing the 15 most abundant species in each habitat and representative species from seven monophyletic lineages occurring in all habitats. Fiber traits appear to be major determinants of WSG, independent of vessel traits, in branches and roots. Fiber traits and branch and root WSG increased from seasonally flooded species to clay terra firme species and lastly to white sand species. Branch and root wood traits were strongly phylogenetically constrained. Lineages differed in wood design, but exhibited similar variation in wood structure across habitats. We conclude that tropical trees can invest differently in support and transport to respond to environmental conditions. Wind disturbance and drought stress represent significant filters driving tree distribution of Amazonian forests; hence we suggest that biophysical explanations should receive more attention. PMID:24329812

  13. Wood pelletization sourcebook

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, S.; Whittier, J.; Fisher, J.

    1994-12-31

    The Wood Pelletization Sourcebook is a document that provides business guidelines and technical information to those considering entering the wood pelleting business. Also, the sourcebook is a useful supplementary document for lenders to refer to in their analysis of a potential manufacturer`s business plan. A survey of wood pellet manufacturers was conducted during the spring and summer of 1994 to gather information on marketing, pelletization technology, environmental regulations, raw material supply and costs, production costs, and the overall outlook of the industry. The study characterizes different sized pelleting operations, creates a sample business plan for potential manufacturers, and identifies key industry success factors.

  14. Wood Materials Science Research Profile

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    Wood Materials Science Research Profile Wood is a natural and renewable resource with excellent by unfa- vorable properties such as low dimensional stability and durability. The Wood Materials Science@ethz.ch www.ifb.ethz.ch/woodscience The Wood Materials Science group is part of the Com- petence Center

  15. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  16. The Relationship Between Parent Trait Anxiety and Parent-reported Pain, Solicitous Behaviors, and Quality of Life Impairment in Children With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Link, Christopher J; Fortier, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    Pain-related disability in youth has been shown to be associated with parental psychological distress and solicitous behaviors. This study sought to investigate how parental anxiety may impact children's functioning with respect to pain and health-related quality of life in a sample of children with cancer. A total of 353 parents of children treated for cancer completed measures of anxiety, behavioral responses to children's pain, and of their child's quality of life and pain. Children ages 8 to 18 completed measures of their own quality of life and pain. Parent anxiety was significantly associated with parent ratings of children's pain severity (P=0.004) and frequency (P=0.008), as well as parent solicitous responses (P=0.041) and child quality of life. Regression analysis revealed that parent anxiety significantly predicted solicitous behaviors (P=0.006), pain frequency (P=0.043), and child quality of life (P?0.004). These findings suggest parent anxiety plays a significant role in parent perception of children's pain and quality of life in pediatric cancer patients. Future research is needed to further clarify the nature of these relationships, which will help identify how parent anxiety may be an important target for pain management in children with cancer. PMID:26056789

  17. Rose Garden Frederic Wood

    E-print Network

    Leander, Brian

    Math Rose Garden Parkade Belkin Art Gallery Frederic Wood Theatre School of Journalism Graduate Student Centre Buchanan KOERNER LIBRARY Geography Mathematics Annex Nitobe Memorial Garden Fraser River Residence Swing Space Michael Smith Labs Health Sciences Mall CERC Chemical & Biological Engineering

  18. Wood's Lamp Examination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dermatologists to assist in the diagnosis of various pigment and infectious disorders. The examination is performed in ... lamp. If a fungal or bacterial infection or pigment disorder is present, Wood's lamp examination can strengthen ...

  19. Biomechanics and transgenic wood.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Lothar; Telewski, Frank W

    2006-10-01

    Wood, or secondary xylem, is composed mostly of three components-cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Yet this apparent simplicity is deceiving because the sophisticated arrangement of the components on various structural levels, ranging from intricate molecular architecture to defined cellular arrangements to tissue morphology, makes wood a challenging and interesting subject of biomechanical investigation. Recent advances in genetic transformation, providing easier access to wood of specifically altered composition or structure, have opened new opportunities for research on the intricate relation between material structure and composition and mechanical properties. At the same time, investigations into the mechanical properties have provided new information regarding the structural configuration of wood. The present paper reviews the work conducted in this field and outlines future perspectives and prospects for research. PMID:21642090

  20. Customer Service Alesia Woods

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Customer Service Manager Alesia Woods Enforcement Unit Parking Ops and Enforcement Supervisor Mario Randall Pollard Customer Service/ Revenue Assistants Melvin Lee Evangeline Rabara Assistant William Tom .5 FTE Luis Zelidon .5 FTE Field Operations Manager Fred Johnson Citations Services Gloria

  1. Piney Woods HTC 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    After a storm has knocked out utility services, cooking can be a problem or even hazardous if basic safety measures are not taken. This publication explains how to cook safely using charcoal or gas grills, camp stoves or wood fires....

  2. Effect of species and wood to bark ratio on pelleting of southern woods

    SciTech Connect

    Bradfield, J.; Levi, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    Six common southern hardwoods and loblolly pine were pelleted in a laboratory pellet mill. The pellet furnishes were blended to test the effect of different wood to bark ratios on pellet durability and production rate. Included was a ratio chosen to simulate the wood to bark ratio found in whole-tree chips. This furnish produced good quality pellets for all species tested. Pelleting of the pure wood of hardwoods was not successful; furnish routinely blocked the pellet mill dies. Pure pine wood, however, did produce acceptable pellets. It was noted that, as lignin and extractive content increased above a threshold level, the precentage of fines produced in a pellet durability test increased. Thus, all pine and tupelo wood/bark mixes produces high fines. This reduces the desirability of the pellets in the marketplace. Further research is necessary to confirm this relationship. This study suggests that both tree species and wood/bark ratio affect the durability of pellets and the rate with which they can be produced in a laboratory pellet mill. 9 references.

  3. Laser processing of phenolic wood substitutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Lusquiños, F.; Penide, J.; Arias-González, F.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Phenolic resin boards (PRB) are wood substitutes that comprises of a thick core exclusively made of phenolic resin covered by a thin sheet of melamine resin imitating the aspect of natural wood. The use of these materials in furniture and in construction industry has proliferated during last years. Boards made of phenolic resins are dense, hard and very difficult to cut using band saws, disc saws, or milling cutters. Nevertheless, these difficulties can be overcome by means of laser cutting, which is one of the most firmly established techniques for separating materials. This is due to the great advantages of this technique over traditional cutting methods, such as its versatility and flexibility that allow effective cutting. Nevertheless, charring of the cut edge surface caused by laser induced thermal degradation degrades the cut quality under non-optimized processing conditions. In this research work the viability and quality of CO2 laser cutting process of phenolic resin boards and wood particleboard panels has been evaluated. The present work validates the cut of phenolic resin boards by CO2 lasers using a high laser power and elevated cutting speeds. Moreover, this process involves a serious health hazard since the combustion and decomposition of wood may produce fumes and vapors, which can be toxic and carcinogenic according to the International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC). Therefore, this work was complemented by the assessment of the potential toxicity of the condensed residues formed on the cut edges, and assessment of the chemistry of the generated fumes by chromatography.

  4. Experimental study of wood downdraft gasification for an improved producer gas quality through an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach.

    PubMed

    Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan

    2011-04-01

    This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings. PMID:21292477

  5. Wood anatomical correlates with theoretical conductivity and wood density across China: evolutionary evidence of the functional differentiation of axial and radial parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jingming; Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims In recent years considerable effort has focused on linking wood anatomy and key ecological traits. Studies analysing large databases have described how these ecological traits vary as a function of wood anatomical traits related to conduction and support, but have not considered how these functions interact with cells involved in storage of water and carbohydrates (i.e. parenchyma cells). Methods We analyzed, in a phylogenetic context, the functional relationship between cell types performing each of the three xylem functions (conduction, support and storage) and wood density and theoretical conductivity using a sample of approx. 800 tree species from China. Key Results Axial parenchyma and rays had distinct evolutionary correlation patterns. An evolutionary link was found between high conduction capacity and larger amounts of axial parenchyma that is probably related to water storage capacity and embolism repair, while larger amounts of ray tissue have evolved with increased mechanical support and reduced hydraulic capacity. In a phylogenetic principal component analysis this association of axial parenchyma with increased conduction capacity and rays with wood density represented orthogonal axes of variation. In multivariate space, however, the proportion of rays might be positively associated with conductance and negatively with wood density, indicating flexibility in these axes in species with wide rays. Conclusions The findings suggest that parenchyma types may differ in function. The functional axes represented by different cell types were conserved across lineages, suggesting a significant role in the ecological strategies of the angiosperms. PMID:23904446

  6. Generalized Latent Trait Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

  7. Quantitative genetics of growth, carcass-quality traits, and disease resistance in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops [female] x Morone saxatilis [male]) 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiaoxue

    2009-05-15

    breeding has played an important role in increasing yield and survival and in improving product quality of farmed animals and plants (Dekkers and Hospital, 2002). In finfish aquaculture, however, commercial interest in selective breeding has been... overshadowed by efforts to develop optimal husbandry practices 4 (Gjedrem, 1983). Until recently, only a few fish species have been evaluated in terms of a selective breeding program, the primary species being salmonids and tilapia (Sonesson, 2003...

  8. Photodegradation of thermally modified wood.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Kavyashree; Pandey, Krishna K

    2012-12-01

    Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (?E(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers. PMID:23123593

  9. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  10. Causes and Control of Wood Decay,

    E-print Network

    of Dry Wood.......................................................................................12. As population increases, so does our need for wood. Steel, concrete and aluminum are some alternatives

  11. Wood energy-commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  12. TROPICAL WOOD Ethics and pragmatism

    E-print Network

    EVOLUTION OF AFRICAN TROPICAL WOOD MARKETS Ethics and pragmatism for a sustainable development of forest resources #12;EVOLUTION OF AFRICAN TROPICAL WOOD MARKETS Ethics and pragmatism for a sustainable

  13. Plant Trait-Species Abundance Relationships Vary with Environmental Properties in Subtropical Forests in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, En-Rong; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Scott X.; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how plant trait-species abundance relationships change with a range of single and multivariate environmental properties is crucial for explaining species abundance and rarity. In this study, the abundance of 94 woody plant species was examined and related to 15 plant leaf and wood traits at both local and landscape scales involving 31 plots in subtropical forests in eastern China. Further, plant trait-species abundance relationships were related to a range of single and multivariate (PCA axes) environmental properties such as air humidity, soil moisture content, soil temperature, soil pH, and soil organic matter, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents. At the landscape scale, plant maximum height, and twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, whereas mean leaf area (MLA), leaf N concentration (LN), and total leaf area per twig size (TLA) were negatively correlated with species abundance. At the plot scale, plant maximum height, leaf and twig dry matter contents, twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, but MLA, specific leaf area, LN, leaf P concentration and TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. Plant trait-species abundance relationships shifted over the range of seven single environmental properties and along multivariate environmental axes in a similar way. In conclusion, strong relationships between plant traits and species abundance existed among and within communities. Significant shifts in plant trait-species abundance relationships in a range of environmental properties suggest strong environmental filtering processes that influence species abundance and rarity in the studied subtropical forests. PMID:23560114

  14. Plant trait-species abundance relationships vary with environmental properties in subtropical forests in eastern china.

    PubMed

    Yan, En-Rong; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Scott X; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how plant trait-species abundance relationships change with a range of single and multivariate environmental properties is crucial for explaining species abundance and rarity. In this study, the abundance of 94 woody plant species was examined and related to 15 plant leaf and wood traits at both local and landscape scales involving 31 plots in subtropical forests in eastern China. Further, plant trait-species abundance relationships were related to a range of single and multivariate (PCA axes) environmental properties such as air humidity, soil moisture content, soil temperature, soil pH, and soil organic matter, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents. At the landscape scale, plant maximum height, and twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, whereas mean leaf area (MLA), leaf N concentration (LN), and total leaf area per twig size (TLA) were negatively correlated with species abundance. At the plot scale, plant maximum height, leaf and twig dry matter contents, twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, but MLA, specific leaf area, LN, leaf P concentration and TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. Plant trait-species abundance relationships shifted over the range of seven single environmental properties and along multivariate environmental axes in a similar way. In conclusion, strong relationships between plant traits and species abundance existed among and within communities. Significant shifts in plant trait-species abundance relationships in a range of environmental properties suggest strong environmental filtering processes that influence species abundance and rarity in the studied subtropical forests. PMID:23560114

  15. Avalanches in Wood Compression.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, T; Miksic, A; Ovaska, M; Alava, Mikko J

    2015-07-31

    Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free. PMID:26274428

  16. Avalanches in wood compression

    E-print Network

    Tero Mäkinen; Amandine Miksic; Markus Ovaska; Mikko J. Alava

    2015-06-15

    Wood is a multi-scale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power-laws. The stress- strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using Digital Image Correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  17. Avalanches in Wood Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, T.; Miksic, A.; Ovaska, M.; Alava, Mikko J.

    2015-07-01

    Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  18. Lipids, tocopherols, and carotenoids in leaves of amaranth and quinoa cultivars and a new approach to overall evaluation of nutritional quality traits.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Hernandez, Marta; Zhang, Hua; Marcone, Massimo F; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2014-12-31

    Composition of lipophilic phytochemicals including fatty acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids in leaves of 6 quinoa and 14 amaranth cultivars was analyzed. The oil yields in quinoa and amaranth leaves were only 2.72-4.18%, which contained mainly essential fatty acids and had a highly favorable ?-3/?-6 ratio (2.28-3.89). Pro-vitamin A carotenoids, mainly ?- and ?-carotenes, and xanthophylls, predominantly lutein and violaxanthin, were found in all samples. The primary tocopherol isomers present in both quinoa and amaranth leaves were ?- and ?-tocopherols. Added to the discussion on the lipophilic nutrients was the normalization of ?-3/?-6 ratio, ?-tocopherol equivalents, and carotenoids, in an attempt to establish a novel system for evaluation of the overall quality attributes of lipophilic nutrients (NQ value). The NQ value, but not the individual components, was highly correlated with all the antioxidant activities, supporting the ranking order of the potential nutritional quality of quinoa and amaranth leaves based on this new method. PMID:25465272

  19. Management of ancient wood pasture

    E-print Network

    Guidance Management of ancient wood pasture Summary Ancient wood pasture is recognised. This guidance note provides an introduction to the restoration and management of ancient wood pastures in Scotland. It is aimed at land managers, their advisers and agency staff involved in land management

  20. Creating Value Wood Products Industry

    E-print Network

    1 Creating Value for the Wood Products Industry Creating Value for the Wood Products Industry for the Wood Products Industry The forest industry contributes more than 50 percent of the total value of all agricul- tural, animal and fish/wildlife commodities in Louisiana. In addition to lumber, valuable

  1. Carcass quality, physico-chemical parameters, muscle fibre traits and myosin heavy chain composition of m. longissimus lumborum from Pu?awska and Polish Large White pigs.

    PubMed

    Wojtysiak, Dorota; Po?towicz, Katarzyna

    2014-08-01

    In 54 Pu?awska pigs and 60 Polish Large White pigs (PLW), slaughtered at 30 and 100 kg body weight, carcass and meat quality of m. longissimus lumborum were studied. Analysis revealed that in both examined body weight groups, hot carcass weight, carcass yield percentage, meat content, and weight of ham and carcass ham percentage were significantly lower and backfat thickness higher for Pu?awska pigs compared to PLW pigs, while PLW pigs exhibited significantly longer carcasses, greater loin eye area, and, in the case of lighter pigs, smaller proportion of loin in the carcass. Muscles of Pu?awska pigs, in the lighter group, had higher IMF content and a* value, while in the heavier group they exhibited higher pH(45), pH(24) and a* values, lower L*, drip loss, WHC, and thermal loss compared with PLW pigs. PLW pigs had higher WB and hardness values and more glycolytic muscles characterised by higher TNF. PMID:24769095

  2. Long-term performance evaluation of wood fibre fills. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kilian, A.P.; Ferry, C.D.

    1992-08-01

    The paper presents the results of a research project to determine the long-term performance of wood fiber embankments, that were constructed by the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) beginning in 1972. At the time of their construction, concern existed that wood fiber fills would only provide a 15 to 20 year service life. Performance of existing wood fiber fills was evaluated based on the quality of the wood fiber material, quality of the effluent, and condition of the pavement. A visual classification system rating the wood fiber from fresh to completely decomposed was developed and used in order to establish a criteria from which all wood fiber material could be rated. Visual examination in conjunction with laboratory tests were used as determining aspects for the effluent quality. The WSDOT Pavement Management System was used to evaluate relative pavement performance. Site descriptions are presented giving specific characteristics and properties of the fills inventoried. An analysis of this information was done to determine the effectiveness of the fills. Over half the wood fiber samples were found to be nearly fresh or fresh and none were found to be completely decomposed. In all but one case, the pavement quality over the wood fiber fills surpassed the comparative highway segment rating indicating the wood fill's performance exceeded that of the surrounding area.

  3. Single and combined effects of peppermint and thyme essential oils on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding peppermint essential oil (PEO), thyme essential oil (TEO), or their combination to diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-lite laying hens. Significant interactions between PEO and TEO on FCR, EP, and EM were observed (P < 0.05). The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased (P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. Also, increased EW and FI were observed in the laying hens fed the diet added by PEO compared to the birds fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between PEO and TEO on the serum level of cholesterol, shell thickness, and Hough unit of egg (P < 0.05), so that serum content of cholesterol decreased, but egg shell thickness and Hough unit increased in the hens fed the diet supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined form of PEO and TEO could have beneficial effects on performance parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  4. A life cycle evaluation of wood pellet gasification for district heating in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Pa, Ann; Bi, Xiaotao T; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2011-05-01

    The replacement of natural gas combustion for district heating by wood waste and wood pellets gasification systems with or without emission control has been investigated by a streamlined LCA. While stack emissions from controlled gasification systems are lower than the applicable regulations, compared to the current base case, 12% and 133% increases are expected in the overall human health impacts for wood pellets and wood waste, respectively. With controlled gasification, external costs and GHG emission can be reduced by 35% and 82% on average, respectively. Between wood pellets and wood waste, wood pellets appear to be the better choice as it requires less primary energy and has a much lower impact on the local air quality. PMID:21377867

  5. Rose Garden Frederic Wood

    E-print Network

    Leander, Brian

    #12;Math Rose Garden Parkade Belkin Art Gallery Frederic Wood Theatre School of Journalism Graduate Student Centre Buchanan KOERNER LIBRARY Geography Mathematics Annex Nitobe Memorial Garden Fraser River College Forest Sciences Centre MacMillan (Land and Food Systems) MacLeod Electrical Engineering B­1 Lot

  6. Woods Hole Passage

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photograph is of the seafloor in the Woods Hole Passage and shows a mussel reef and boring sponge. This photograph was collected as part of the Southeastern Massachusetts Mapping Cooperative between the USGS and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) during a sampling survey...

  7. WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION

    E-print Network

    is perhaps one of the world's most environmentally friendly raw materials. Besides being renewable, it does in the oak-woodland/urban-interface regions. The trees found in woodland areas are not normally considered and winding up in landfills or as a low-value wood product such as firewood or compost. Urban expansion

  8. Developing Leadership Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Susan King

    1980-01-01

    Defines six leadership traits that are necessary to and fostered by editing a college newspaper: delegating authority, developing subordinates, motivating others, being approachable, commanding respect, and bringing out optimum performances in others. (TJ)

  9. Multiple interval mapping for quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, C H; Zeng, Z B; Teasdale, R D

    1999-01-01

    A new statistical method for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL), called multiple interval mapping (MIM), is presented. It uses multiple marker intervals simultaneously to fit multiple putative QTL directly in the model for mapping QTL. The MIM model is based on Cockerham's model for interpreting genetic parameters and the method of maximum likelihood for estimating genetic parameters. With the MIM approach, the precision and power of QTL mapping could be improved. Also, epistasis between QTL, genotypic values of individuals, and heritabilities of quantitative traits can be readily estimated and analyzed. Using the MIM model, a stepwise selection procedure with likelihood ratio test statistic as a criterion is proposed to identify QTL. This MIM method was applied to a mapping data set of radiata pine on three traits: brown cone number, tree diameter, and branch quality scores. Based on the MIM result, seven, six, and five QTL were detected for the three traits, respectively. The detected QTL individually contributed from approximately 1 to 27% of the total genetic variation. Significant epistasis between four pairs of QTL in two traits was detected, and the four pairs of QTL contributed approximately 10.38 and 14.14% of the total genetic variation. The asymptotic variances of QTL positions and effects were also provided to construct the confidence intervals. The estimated heritabilities were 0.5606, 0.5226, and 0. 3630 for the three traits, respectively. With the estimated QTL effects and positions, the best strategy of marker-assisted selection for trait improvement for a specific purpose and requirement can be explored. The MIM FORTRAN program is available on the worldwide web (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/chkao/). PMID:10388834

  10. Linking Tropical Forest Function to Hydraulic Traits in a Size-Structured and Trait-Based Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersen, B. O.; Gloor, E. U.; Fauset, S.; Fyllas, N.; Galbraith, D.; Baker, T. R.; Rowland, L.; Fisher, R.; Binks, O.; Mencuccini, M.; Malhi, Y.; Stahl, C.; Wagner, F. H.; Bonal, D.; da Costa, A. C. L.; Ferreira, L.; Meir, P.

    2014-12-01

    A major weakness of forest ecosystem models applied to Amazonia is their inability to capture the diversity of responses to changes in water availability commonly observed within and across forest communities, severely hampering efforts to predict the fate of Amazon forests under climate change. Such models often prescribe moisture sensitivity using heuristic response functions which are uniform across all individuals and lack important knowledge about trade-offs in hydraulic traits. We address this weakness by implementing a process representation of plant hydraulics into an individual- and trait-based model (Trait Forest Simulator; TFS) intended for application at discrete sites across Amazonia. The model represents a trade-off in the safety and efficiency of water conduction in xylem tissue through hydraulic traits, which then lead to variation in plant water use and growth dynamics. The model accounts for the buffering effects of leaf and stem capacitance on leaf water potential at short time scales, and cavitation-induced reductions in whole-plant conductance over longer periods of water stress. We explore multiple possible links between this hydraulic trait spectrum and other whole-plant traits, such as maximum photosynthetic capacity and wood density. The model is shown to greatly improve the diversity of tree response to seasonal changes in water availability as well as response to drought, as determined by comparison with sap flux and stem dendrometry measurements. Importantly, this individual- and trait-based framework provides a testbed for identifying both critical processes and functional traits needed for inclusion in coarse-scale Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, which will lead to reduced uncertainty in the future state of Amazon tropical forests.

  11. Environmental Influences on Wood Chemistry and Density of Populus and Loblolly Pine

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, G.A.

    2006-08-11

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) determine the degree to which physical and chemical wood properties vary in association with environmental and silvicultural practices in Populus and loblolly pine and (2) develop and verify species-specific empirical models in an effort to create a framework for understanding environmental influences on wood quality.

  12. DNA Extraction From Processed Wood: A Case Study for the Identification of an Endangered

    E-print Network

    Protocols DNA Extraction From Processed Wood: A Case Study for the Identification of an Endangered to the extraction of whole genomic DNA from processed wood samples to explore the possibility of identifying an endangered trop- ical timber species by using DNA sequencing technology. High-yield and high-quality DNA

  13. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  14. April, 2006 Allen W. Wood

    E-print Network

    Zalta, Edward N.

    Guggenheim Fellowship, 1983 Fulbright Fellowship, 1983 (declined) Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship, 1983 Tradition". With critical essays by J. B. Schneewind, Marcia Baron, Allen Wood and Shelly Kagan. Yale

  15. Adaptive Traits, 1 Running Head: ADAPTIVE TRAITS ASSOCIATED WITH PSYCHOPATHY

    E-print Network

    Scholl, Brian

    Adaptive Traits, 1 Running Head: ADAPTIVE TRAITS ASSOCIATED WITH PSYCHOPATHY Adaptive Traits Associated with Psychopathy in a "Successful," Non-Criminal Population Scott A. Snyder Advisor: Kristi-institutionalized in society. Using the PPI- R, a self-report measure of psychopathy, this study investigated which

  16. Wood and combination wood-fired boiler ash characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Someshwar, A.V.

    1996-09-01

    Ashes resulting from the combustion of wood residues in industrial boilers are characterized relative to (i) macroelement compositions, (ii) trace and heavy metal microelement compositions, (iii) organics, and (iv) polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs). Ash compositions, both macro- and microelements, are compared with coal ash and limestone. Microelements in wood ashes are also compared with other potential soil amendments such as pulp mill sludges. The impact of burning sludge and combinations of coal and wood residue on ash metal concentrations is presented. Levels of PCDD/Fs in ash resulting from combustion of 100% inland wood residue are reviewed, as are the levels of PCDD/Fs in ashes and soot resulting from residential wood combustion. The concentrations of metals in wood ash are comparable to other potential soil amendments. The concentration in wood ash of common organics of environmental concern appears to be negligible. The levels of PCDD/Fs in the ash appear to have a direct correlation with extraneous sources of chloride in the wood fuel. 48 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Evolving Trait Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1983-01-01

    Redefines intelligence as a useful, comprehensive, and flexible construct that allows its modifiability as a function of age and culture. Reviews theories on two-factor, multiple-factor, facet, and hierarchical models of trait formation based on research in developmental, cross-cultural, learning, and cognitive psychology. (Author/AOS)

  18. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R.B.; Gerin, M.; Raatgever, J.W.; de Bruyn, A.

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  19. Exposure to wood smoke particles produces an inflammation in healthy volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Human exposure to wood smoke particles (WSP) is of consequence in indoor air quality, exposures from wild fires, burning ofbiomass, and air pollution. This investigation tested the postulate that healthy volunteers exposed to WSP would demonstrate pulmonary and cardio...

  20. Ghosting in Anaglyphic Stereoscopic Images Andrew J. Woods*

    E-print Network

    Ghosting in Anaglyphic Stereoscopic Images Andrew J. Woods* , Tegan Rourke Centre for Marine quality. A common problem with anaglyphic 3D images is ghosting. Ghosting (or crosstalk) is the leaking of an image to one eye, when it is intended exclusively for the other eye. Ghosting degrades the ability

  1. Healthy volunteers exposed to wood stove particles demonstrate inflammatory changes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction. Human exposure to particles associated with wood burning is of great consequence in both indoor air quality and air pollution and has been listed by the World Health Organization as one of the world's ten greatest health concerns. This investigation tested the postu...

  2. EVALUATION OF DIOXIN-LIKE EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BAAQMD (Bay Area Air Quality Management District) has estimated that the largest source of dioxins in the San Francisco Bay Areas is emitted from burning wood in residential fireplaces. But the basis of the EPA emission factor used in the BAAMQD estimate was derived from onl...

  3. MODEL G0621 WOOD/METAL BANDSAW

    E-print Network

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    MODEL G0621 WOOD/METAL BANDSAW OWNER'S MANUAL COPYRIGHT © FEBRUARY, 2007 BY GRIZZLY INDUSTRIAL, INC...................................... 13 Assembly ..................................................... 14 Dust Collection.......................................... 24 Basic Controls.............................................. 24 Workpiece Inspection (Wood

  4. GLOBAL WOOD SUPPLY Sten Nilsson

    E-print Network

    · Increasing demand for wood through population and economic growth · More expensive wood · Where should Is probably at production ceiling under current conditions Japan Deficit China Huge deficit New Zealand #12;JAPAN Source: http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/photo77800.htm #12;JAPAN Source: http

  5. Bachelor of Science wood products

    E-print Network

    British Columbia, University of

    and intramural sports, social functions and community events. More support Study at Canada's national centre to support students'academic and professional success. Develop contacts and mentors through employer events's Department of Wood Science. "The Wood Products Processing program is the most dynamic, marketable

  6. Environmental Impacts of Treated Wood

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Environmental Impacts of Treated Wood 6495_C000.fm Page iii Wednesday, February 1, 2006 5:48 PM #12 through the Florida Center for Environmental Solutions, National Science Foundation Grant No. 0126172. Any of treated-wood research and their efforts in organizing the con- ference entitled Environmental Impacts

  7. Effect of Habitat Conditions and Plant Traits on Leaf Damage in the Carduoideae Subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Münzbergová, Zuzana; Skuhrovec, Ji?í

    2013-01-01

    Plant traits are the key factors that determine herbivore foraging selection. The traits serving as defense traits against herbivores represent a wide range of traits, such as chemical, physiological, morphological and life-history traits. While many studies considered plant defense traits at the within-species scale, much less is known from comparisons of a wide range of closely related species. The aim of this study was to identify factors responsible for the intensity of leaf damage in the Carduoideae subfamily of Asteraceae, which hosts many invasive species and thus is potential candidate plant species that could be controlled by biological control. Specifically, we wanted to see the relative importance of habitat characteristics, plant size and plants traits in determining the degree of folivory. The study identified several defense traits able to explain differences in herbivory between species after accounting for differences in the habitats in which the species occur and the plant size. Specifically, the most important traits were traits related to the quality of the leaf tissue expressed as the content of phosphorus, water and specific leaf area, which suggests that the leaf quality had a more important effect on the degree of herbivory than the presence of specific defense mechanisms such as spines and hair. Leaf quality is thus a candidate factor that drives herbivore choice when selecting which plant to feed on and should be considered when assessing the danger that a herbivore will switch hosts when introduced to a new range. PMID:23717643

  8. A database of lotic invertebrate traits for North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vieira, Nicole K.M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Carlisle, Daren M.; Moulton, Stephen R., II; Koski, Marci L.; Kondratieff, Boris C.

    2006-01-01

    The assessment and study of stream communities may be enhanced if functional characteristics such as life-history, habitat preference, and reproductive strategy were more widely available for specific taxa. Species traits can be used to develop these functional indicators because many traits directly link functional roles of organisms with controlling environmental factors (for example, flow, substratum, temperature). In addition, some functional traits may not be constrained by taxonomy and are thus applicable at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, a comprehensive summary of traits for North American invertebrate taxa does not exist. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in cooperation with Colorado State University compiled a database of traits for North American invertebrates. A total of 14,127 records for over 2,200 species, 1,165 genera, and 249 families have been entered into the database from 967 publications, texts and reports. Quality-assurance procedures indicated error rates of less than 3 percent in the data entry process. Species trait information was most complete for insect taxa. Traits describing resource acquisition and habitat preferences were most frequently reported, whereas those describing physiological tolerances and reproductive biology were the least frequently reported in the literature. The database is not exhaustive of the literature for North American invertebrates and is biased towards aquatic insects, but it represents a first attempt to compile traits in a web-accessible database. This report describes the database and discusses important decisions necessary for identifying ecologically relevant, environmentally sensitive, non-redundant, and statistically tractable traits for use in bioassessment programs.

  9. Fitness components are complex Genes & Quantitative Traits Quantitative traits = Complex traits, w/ many factors

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    10/7/14 1 Fitness components are complex Genes & Quantitative Traits · Quantitative traits differ in quantity rather than type, they are distributed on a continuous scale. ­ effected by both genes of interactions among the traits · Inheritance of grain color in wheat (Nilsson-Ehle, 1909) · Three independently

  10. [Biological effect of wood dust].

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Doma?ska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mo?ocznik, A

    1993-01-01

    The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis. PMID:8231799

  11. Ontogenetic shifts in trait-mediated mechanisms of plant community assembly.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Jesse R; Bachelot, Bénédicte; Muscarella, Robert; Schwartz, Naomi; Forero-Montaña, Jimena; Nytch, Christopher J; Swenson, Nathan G; Thompson, Jill; Zimmerman, Jess K; Uriarte, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Identifying the processes that maintain highly diverse plant communities remains a central goal in ecology. Species variation in growth and survival rates across ontogeny, represented by tree size classes and life history stage-specific niche partitioning, are potentially important mechanisms for promoting forest diversity. However, the role of ontogeny in mediating competitive dynamics and promoting functional diversity is not well understood, particular in high-diversity systems such as tropical forests. The interaction between interspecific functional trait variation and ontogenetic shifts in competitive dynamics may yield insights into the ecophysiological mechanisms promoting community diversity. We investigated how functional trait (seed size, maximum height, SLA, leaf N, and wood density) associations with growth, survival, and response to competing neighbors differ among seedlings and two size classes of trees in a subtropical rain forest in Puerto Rico. We used a hierarchical Bayes model of diameter growth and survival to infer trait relationships with ontogenetic change in competitive dynamics. Traits were more strongly associated with average growth and survival than with neighborhood interactions, and were highly consistent across ontogeny for most traits. The associations between trait values and tree responses to crowding by neighbors showed significant shifts as trees grew. Large trees exhibited greater growth as the difference in species trait values among neighbors increased, suggesting trait-associated niche partitioning was important for the largest size class. Our results identify potential axes of niche partitioning and performance-equalizing functional trade-offs across ontogeny, promoting species coexistence in this diverse forest community. PMID:26405741

  12. Trait-mediated assembly processes predict successional changes in community diversity of tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Jesse R; Uriarte, María; Boukili, Vanessa K; Chazdon, Robin L

    2014-04-15

    Interspecific differences in relative fitness can cause local dominance by a single species. However, stabilizing interspecific niche differences can promote local diversity. Understanding these mechanisms requires that we simultaneously quantify their effects on demography and link these effects to community dynamics. Successional forests are ideal systems for testing assembly theory because they exhibit rapid community assembly. Here, we leverage functional trait and long-term demographic data to build spatially explicit models of successional community dynamics of lowland rainforests in Costa Rica. First, we ask what the effects and relative importance of four trait-mediated community assembly processes are on tree survival, a major component of fitness. We model trait correlations with relative fitness differences that are both density-independent and -dependent in addition to trait correlations with stabilizing niche differences. Second, we ask how the relative importance of these trait-mediated processes relates to successional changes in functional diversity. Tree dynamics were more strongly influenced by trait-related interspecific variation in average survival than trait-related responses to neighbors, with wood specific gravity (WSG) positively correlated with greater survival. Our findings also suggest that competition was mediated by stabilizing niche differences associated with specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). These drivers of individual-level survival were reflected in successional shifts to higher SLA and LDMC diversity but lower WSG diversity. Our study makes significant advances to identifying the links between individual tree performance, species functional traits, and mechanisms of tropical forest succession. PMID:24706791

  13. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Haskell, Marie J.; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection. PMID:25374582

  14. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  15. Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in

    E-print Network

    of conversion light oil boilers into wood pellets burning boilers by installation of wood pellets burnersSuccessful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in Estonia Biomass Utilisation of Local of primary energy in Estonia ! Wood fuels production ! Pellet firing projects in Estonia ­ SIDA Demo East

  16. On the role of CFRP reinforcement for wood beams stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianasi, A. C.

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, carbon fiber composites have been increasingly used in different ways in reinforcing structural elements. Specifically, the use of composite materials as a reinforcement for wood beams under bending loads requires paying attention to several aspects of the problem such as the number of the composite layers applied on the wood beams. Study consolidation of composites revealed that they are made by bonding fibrous material impregnated with resin on the surface of various elements, to restore or increase the load carrying capacity (bending, cutting, compression or torque) without significant damage of their rigidity. Fibers used in building applications can be fiberglass, aramid or carbon. Items that can be strengthened are concrete, brick, wood, steel and stone, and in terms of structural beams, walls, columns and floors. This paper describes an experimental study which was designed to evaluate the effect of composite material on the stiffness of the wood beams. It proposes a summary of the fundamental principles of analysis of composite materials and the design and use. The type of reinforcement used on the beams is the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheet and plates and also an epoxy resin for bonding all the elements. Structural epoxy resins remain the primary choice of adhesive to form the bond to fiber-reinforced plastics and are the generally accepted adhesives in bonded CFRP-wood connections. The advantages of using epoxy resin in comparison to common wood-laminating adhesives are their gap-filling qualities and the low clamping pressures that are required to form the bond between carbon fiber plates or sheets and the wood beams. Mechanical tests performed on the reinforced wood beams showed that CFRP materials may produce flexural displacement and lifting increases of the beams. Observations of the experimental load-displacement relationships showed that bending strength increased for wood beams reinforced with CFRP composite plates and sheets compared to those without CFRP reinforcement. The main conclusion of the tests is that the tensioning forces allow beam taking a maximum load for a while, something that is particularly useful when we consider a real construction, so in case of excess lift beam, we have time to take strengthening measures and when is about a catastrophic request (earthquake) the construction remain partially functional. The experiments have shown that the method of increasing resistance of wood constructions with composite materials is good for it. The solution is easy to implement and has low costs.

  17. Experimental analysis and simulation modeling of forest management impacts on wood thrushes, Hylocichla mustelina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    North American Breeding Bird Survey data show that wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) populations in eastern U.S. forests have declined 1.8% per year during 1966-95. The declining quality of breeding forest tracts in North America is one possible cause for the apparent decline of some neotropical migratory birds, such as the wood thrush. In Georgia, however, wood thrush populations have declined during a period of increasing pine forest area and larger patch sizes. We hypothesized that forest management practices such as thinning and prescribed burning might create unsuitable habitat for wood thrushes. We conducted a four-year before/after, treatment/control experiment at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia to study to the effects of a treatment of thinning and prescribed burning on wood thrush demographic parameters. We simultaneously monitored wood thrush adults and juveniles with mark-recapture, radio-telemetry, nest searches, and plot-map surveys. Our analyses showed that wood thrushes were less likely to emigrate from the study compartments after the treatment, and wood thrushes exhibited some tendency to increase preference for hardwood habitats and decrease preference for pine habitats following the treatment. However, we observed no effects of treatment on nest success, adult survival, and adult and juvenile dispersal distances. We also found that female wood thrushes had lower survival rates than males during the breeding season, and we documented large-scale, within-year dispersal movements of adult (up to 17 km) and juvenile (up to 7 km) wood thrushes. We conclude that landscape level habitat quantity and quality must be considered during songbird management decisions. The documentation of sex- and age-specific wood thrush survival and movement rates was critical for construction of a set of population models. We used three stochastic models to learn more about wood thrush population dynamics and make predictions about population growth rates, reproductive success, and the effect of habitat changes on wood thrush populations. The simplest source/sink population model suggests that the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge's wood thrush population is probably stable or increasing, and wood thrush populations in treated areas had higher growth rates than birds in untreated areas. We were able to use the individual-based model of wood thrush productivity to predict fecundity, a parameter that we could not measure directly in the field. Again, females on treated areas had higher fecundity than birds on untreated areas. Our spatially-based model predicted that wood thrush populations should respond positively to predicted changes in the age/size class structure of the Refuge's pine forests. Our model also showed that most wood thrushes leave the Refuge's forest compartments during the breeding season, and these dispersal movements are extremely important to understanding and managing wood thrush populations. The use of prescribed burning and retention shelterwood silviculture at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge does not appear to negatively affect the local wood thrush population. Continued use of the current management regime should result in adequate nesting, foraging, and escape habitats for wood thrushes. However, landscape-level habitat availability and quality, including lands outside the Refuge, must be considered when making management decisions that may affect wood thrushes.

  18. Wood fuel systems: design and application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Twelve papers from the wood fuel systems trade show range from a general discussion of why wood is a good fuel to details in procuring, handling, preparing, storing, and burning wood fuels. Other papers cover the subjects of alternative financing, air permitting requirements, boiler conversion from oil or gas to wood, and an example of a wood-fired boiler plant. 12 references, 8 figures, 6 tables.

  19. Treatment of Wood Preserving Wastewater 

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, T. D.; Shack, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    The wastewater produced by the wood preserving industry presents a difficult problem to treat economically. A review of the literature indicates the size of the industry has limited the pursuit of an orderly and economic solution. Atmospheric...

  20. Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

    1997-07-01

    The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

  1. Coarse particulate matter and airborne endotoxin within wood stove homes.

    PubMed

    McNamara, M; Thornburg, J; Semmens, E; Ward, T; Noonan, C

    2013-12-01

    Emissions from indoor biomass burning are a major public health concern in developing areas of the world. Less is known about indoor air quality, particularly airborne endotoxin, in homes burning biomass fuel in residential wood stoves in higher income countries. A filter-based sampler was used to evaluate wintertime indoor coarse particulate matter (PM????.?) and airborne endotoxin (EU/m³, EU/mg) concentrations in 50 homes using wood stoves as their primary source of heat in western Montana. We investigated number of residents, number of pets, dampness (humidity), and frequency of wood stove usage as potential predictors of indoor airborne endotoxin concentrations. Two 48-h sampling events per home revealed a mean winter PM????.? concentration (± s.d.) of 12.9 (± 8.6) ?g/m³, while PM?.? concentrations averaged 32.3 (± 32.6) ?g/m³. Endotoxin concentrations measured from PM????.? filter samples were 9.2 (± 12.4) EU/m³ and 1010 (± 1524) EU/mg. PM????.? and PM?.? were significantly correlated in wood stove homes (r = 0.36, P < 0.05). The presence of pets in the homes was associated with PM????.? but not with endotoxin concentrations. Importantly, none of the other measured home characteristics was a strong predictor of airborne endotoxin, including frequency of residential wood stove usage. PMID:23551341

  2. Mapping quantitative trait loci for kernel composition in almond

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Almond breeding is increasingly taking into account kernel quality as a breeding objective. Information on the parameters to be considered in evaluating almond quality, such as protein and oil content, as well as oleic acid and tocopherol concentration, has been recently compiled. The genetic control of these traits has not yet been studied in almond, although this information would improve the efficiency of almond breeding programs. Results A map with 56 simple sequence repeat or microsatellite (SSR) markers was constructed for an almond population showing a wide range of variability for the chemical components of the almond kernel. A total of 12 putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling these chemical traits have been detected in this analysis, corresponding to seven genomic regions of the eight almond linkage groups (LG). Some QTL were clustered in the same region or shared the same molecular markers, according to the correlations already found between the chemical traits. The logarithm of the odds (LOD) values for any given trait ranged from 2.12 to 4.87, explaining from 11.0 to 33.1?% of the phenotypic variance of the trait. Conclusions The results produced in the study offer the opportunity to include the new genetic information in almond breeding programs. Increases in the positive traits of kernel quality may be looked for simultaneously whenever they are genetically independent, even if they are negatively correlated. We have provided the first genetic framework for the chemical components of the almond kernel, with twelve QTL in agreement with the large number of genes controlling their metabolism. PMID:22720975

  3. Plant species traits are the predominant control on litter decomposition rates within biomes worldwide

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    LETTER Plant species traits are the predominant control on litter decomposition rates within biomes decomposition rates depend both on climate and the legacy of plant functional traits as litter quality. To quantify the degree to which functional differentiation among species affects their litter decomposition

  4. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Alexander P; Csank, Adam Z; Reyes, Alberto V; McKellar, Ryan C; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2012-01-01

    We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose ?(18)O and ?(2)H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information. PMID:23029080

  5. Pristine Early Eocene Wood Buried Deeply in Kimberlite from Northern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Alexander P.; Csank, Adam Z.; Reyes, Alberto V.; McKellar, Ryan C.; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2012-01-01

    We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada’s Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose ?18O and ?2H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12–17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information. PMID:23029080

  6. Role of levoglucosan as a tracer of wood combustion in an alpine region.

    PubMed

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Malloci, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    Wood is the most used renewable energy source in the Italian Alpine regions but is one of the major sources of particulate matter too. In order to contribute to the assessment of the role of wood combustion in atmospheric pollution, some measurements of the concentration of a specific wood combustion tracer, levoglucosan, were performed and are presented and discussed in this paper, in the frame of a multi-step approach useful for decision makers. The experimental study presented in this paper was conducted in two urban sites, located in the same alpine town, during summer and winter, and in three mountain sites, where wood was expected to be widely used for domestic heating, during winter. Results showed differences between rural and urban areas and between winter and summer seasons. As explained in this paper, these analyses are useful when the role of wood combustion has to be studied and strategies for air quality improvement have to be planned and monitored. PMID:22720425

  7. Congeners in sugar cane spirits aged in casks of different woods.

    PubMed

    Bortoletto, Aline M; Alcarde, André R

    2013-08-15

    The profile of volatile compounds and aging markers in sugar cane spirits aged for 36 months in casks made of 10 types of wood were studied. The ethanol content, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters, higher alcohols, and methanol were determined. In addition, gallic, vanilic and syringic acids, siringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, vanillin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural were identified and quantified. The profile of volatile compounds characterised aging in each type of wood. The beverage aged in oak cask achieved the highest contents of maturation-related congeners. The Brazilian woods, similar to oak, were jequitibá rosa and cerejeira, which presented the highest contents of some maturation-related compounds, such as vanillin, vanilic acid, syringaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. Although oak wood conferred more chemical complexity to the beverage, Brazilian woods, singly or complementarily, present potential for spirit characterisation and for improving the quality of sugar cane spirits. PMID:23561163

  8. FERTILITY TRAIT ECONOMICS AND CORRELATIONS WITH OTHER TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correlations of fertility traits (heifer fertility, interval from calving to first insemination, cow nonreturn rate, and calving interval) with yield traits (milk, fat, and protein), longevity, and somatic cell score (SCS) were compared for 11 countries. Correlations were consistent and small but al...

  9. Evaluation of two Indian native chicken breeds for reproduction traits and heritability of juvenile growth traits.

    PubMed

    Haunshi, Santosh; Shanmugam, Murugesan; Padhi, Mahendra Kumar; Niranjan, Matam; Rajkumar, Ullengala; Reddy, Maddula Ramakoti; Panda, Arun Kumar

    2012-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate two Indian native chicken breeds, namely, Aseel and Kadaknath for fertility, hatchability, genetic parameters of juvenile growth traits, and semen quality traits at the onset of sexual maturity. The fertility was similar in Aseel (86.96%) and Kadaknath (85.15%); however, a relatively higher hatchability was observed in Kadaknath (77.94%) than Aseel (70.74%). Heritability estimates of body weights at 4 weeks of age were almost similar in Aseel (0.37) and Kadaknath (0.39), while the estimate of body weight at 6 weeks of age was higher in Aseel (0.42) than Kadaknath (0.31). The heritability estimate of shank length at 6 weeks of age was lower in Aseel (0.16) compared to Kadaknath (0.35). The age at first egg in the flock was comparable in Aseel (148 days) and Kadaknath (150 days). Aseel breed with significantly (P ? 0.001) higher body weight, absolute and relative testes weights had significantly higher semen volume (P ? 0.05) and sperm motility (P ? 0.01) but had lower seminal plasma cholesterol level (P ? 0.05) as compared to Kadaknath. It can be concluded that there is a scope for genetic improvement of these two native breeds for juvenile growth traits since heritability estimates of these traits were relatively high. PMID:22068634

  10. Association between Occupational Exposure to Wood Dust and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Sardón, Montserrat; Chamorro, Antonio-J.; Hernández-García, Ignacio; Iglesias-de-Sena, Helena; Martín-Rodero, Helena; Herrera, Cristian; Marcos, Miguel; Mirón-Canelo, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review to analyze the association between occupational exposure to wood dust and cancer. Methods A systematic literature search of entries made in the MEDLINE-PubMed database between 1957 and 2013 was conducted to identify studies that had assessed the relationship between occupational exposure to wood dust and different types of cancer. A meta-analysis of selected case-control and cohort studies was subsequently performed. Results A total of 114 studies were identified and 70 were selected for review. Of these, 42 studies focused on the relationship between wood dust and nasal cancer (n = 22), lung cancer (n = 11), and other types of cancer (n = 9). Low-to-moderate quality evidence that wood dust acts as a carcinogen was obtained, and a stronger association between wood dust and nasal adenocarcinoma was observed. A lesser association between wood dust exposure and lung cancer was also observed. Several studies suggested that there is a relationship between wood dust and the onset of other cancers, although there was no evidence to establish an association. A meta-analysis that included four case-controls studies showed that workers exposed to wood dust exhibited higher rates of nasal adenocarcinoma than other workers (odds ratio = 10.28; 95% confidence interval: 5.92 and 17.85; P<0,0001), although a large degree of heterogeneity was found. Conclusions Low-to-moderate quality evidence supports a causal association between cancer and occupational exposure to wood dust, and this association was stronger for nasal adenocarcinoma than for lung cancer. There was no evidence of an association between wood dust exposure and the other cancers examined. PMID:26191795

  11. Acoustic and adsorption properties of submerged wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilde, Calvin Patrick

    Wood is a common material for the manufacture of many products. Submerged wood, in particular, is used in niche markets, such as the creation of musical instruments. An initial study performed on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, provided results that showed that the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. This thesis re-examined the submerged wood samples. After allowing the wood to age unabated in a laboratory setting, the wood was retested under the hypothesis that the physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that the acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to sit. The adsorption properties of the submerged wood were examined to show that the submerged wood had a larger accessible area of wood than that of control wood samples. This implied a lower amount of crystalline area within the submerged wood. From the combined adsorption and acoustic data for the submerged wood, relationships between the moisture content and speed of sound were created and combined with previous research to create a proposed model to describe how the speed of sound varies with temperature, moisture content and the moisture content corresponding to complete hydration of sorption sites within the wood.

  12. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood. PMID:21194917

  13. Trait Modification in Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of beneficial traits such as virulence, reproductive potential, and environmental tolerance are key factors in determining an organism’s ability to produce high levels of efficacy in biological control. Beneficial traits in entomopathogenic nematodes have been enhanced through molecular me...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD MALUS POPULATIONS USING GENOTYPIC AND PHENOTYPIC TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malus sieversii, a wild relative of domestic apple, represents an important source of genetic variation for several horticulturally important traits including fruit quality and disease resistance. Collections made by the USDA in Kazakhstan have now been analyzed to determine the extent of diversity...

  15. Paternity testing and delivering trait-predictive genotypic data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the RosBREED project, the Genotyping Team (Team Leader: Nahla Bassil) leads the effort to obtain DNA data needed to enable marker-assisted breeding for critical fruit quality traits. These data are obtained from reference genotypes of apple, peach, cherry and strawberry carefully chosen to repres...

  16. Exaggerated trait growth in insects.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Laura; Gotoh, Hiroki; Brent, Colin S; Dworkin, Ian; Emlen, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size the surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles (Lucanidae), the claspers of praying mantids (Mantidae), the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Caelifera), and the giant heads of soldier ants (Formicidae) and termites (Isoptera). Developmentally, disproportionate growth can arise through trait-specific modifications to the activity of at least four pathways: the sex determination pathway, the appendage patterning pathway, the insulin/IGF signaling pathway, and the juvenile hormone/ecdysteroid pathway. Although most exaggerated traits have not been studied mechanistically, it is already apparent that distinct developmental mechanisms underlie the evolution of the different types of exaggerated traits. We suggest this reflects the nature of selection in each instance, revealing an exciting link between mechanism, form, and function. We use this information to make explicit predictions for the types of regulatory pathways likely to underlie each type of exaggerated trait. PMID:25341090

  17. Multiple transgene traits may create un-intended fitness effects in Brassica napus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, genetically modified crops are being developed to express multiple “stacked” traits for different types of transgenes, for example, herbicide resistance, insect resistance, crop quality and resistance to environmental factors. The release of crops that express mult...

  18. Quantitative trait loci affecting oil content, oil composition, and other agronomically important traits in Oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groat oil content and composition are important determinants of oat quality. We investigated these traits in a population of 146 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between 'Dal' (high oil) and 'Exeter' (low oil). A linkage map consisting of 475 DArT markers spanning 1271.8 cM across 40 linkage gr...

  19. Correlation among commercial traits and the possible maternal effects for these traits in the reciprocal populations of Atlantic and Superior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reciprocal populations of Atlantic and Superior were created with the objective of combining the desired traits of the two parents and selecting a new variety with similar characteristics as Atlantic but with improved internal quality. Both parents have contrasting characteristics for yield, specifi...

  20. Fluctuating Asymmetry and Environmental Stress: Understanding the Role of Trait History

    PubMed Central

    De Coster, Greet; Van Dongen, Stefan; Malaki, Phillista; Muchane, Muchai; Alcántara-Exposito, Angelica; Matheve, Hans; Lens, Luc

    2013-01-01

    While fluctuating asymmetry (FA; small, random deviations from perfect symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits) is widely regarded as a proxy for environmental and genetic stress effects, empirical associations between FA and stress are often weak or heterogeneous among traits. A conceptually important source of heterogeneity in relationships with FA is variation in the selection history of the trait(s) under study, i.e. traits that experienced a (recent) history of directional change are predicted to be developmentally less stable, potentially through the loss of canalizing modifiers. Here we applied X-ray photography on museum specimens and live captures to test to what extent the magnitude of FA and FA-stress relationships covary with directional shifts in traits related to the flight apparatus of four East-African rainforest birds that underwent recent shifts in habitat quality and landscape connectivity. Both the magnitude and direction of phenotypic change varied among species, with some traits increasing in size while others decreased or maintained their original size. In three of the four species, traits that underwent larger directional changes were less strongly buffered against random perturbations during their development, and traits that increased in size over time developed more asymmetrically than those that decreased. As we believe that spurious relationships due to biased comparisons of historic (museum specimens) and current (field captures) samples can be ruled out, these results support the largely untested hypothesis that directional shifts may increase the sensitivity of developing traits to random perturbations of environmental or genetic origin. PMID:23472123

  1. Condition-dependent expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits in guppies.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Moshiur; Kelley, Jennifer L; Evans, Jonathan P

    2013-07-01

    Female choice can impose persistent directional selection on male sexually selected traits, yet such traits often exhibit high levels of phenotypic variation. One explanation for this paradox is that if sexually selected traits are costly, only the fittest males are able to acquire and allocate the resources required for their expression. Furthermore, because male condition is dependent on resource allocation, condition dependence in sexual traits is expected to underlie trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history functions. In this study we test these ideas by experimentally manipulating diet quality (carotenoid levels) and quantity in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing freshwater fish that is an important model for understanding relationships between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits. Specifically, we test for condition dependence in the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits (behavior, ornamentation, sperm traits) and determine whether diet manipulation mediates relationships among these traits. Consistent with prior work we found a significant effect of diet quantity on the expression of both pre- and postcopulatory male traits; diet-restricted males performed fewer sexual behaviors and exhibited significant reductions in color ornamentation, sperm quality, sperm number, and sperm length than those fed ad libitum. However, contrary to our expectations, we found no significant effect of carotenoid manipulation on the expression of any of these traits, and no evidence for a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection. Our results further underscore the sensitivity of behavioral, ornamental, and ejaculate traits to dietary stress, and highlight the important role of condition dependence in maintaining the high variability in male sexual traits. PMID:23919162

  2. Condition-dependent expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits in guppies

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Moshiur; Kelley, Jennifer L; Evans, Jonathan P

    2013-01-01

    Female choice can impose persistent directional selection on male sexually selected traits, yet such traits often exhibit high levels of phenotypic variation. One explanation for this paradox is that if sexually selected traits are costly, only the fittest males are able to acquire and allocate the resources required for their expression. Furthermore, because male condition is dependent on resource allocation, condition dependence in sexual traits is expected to underlie trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history functions. In this study we test these ideas by experimentally manipulating diet quality (carotenoid levels) and quantity in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing freshwater fish that is an important model for understanding relationships between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits. Specifically, we test for condition dependence in the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits (behavior, ornamentation, sperm traits) and determine whether diet manipulation mediates relationships among these traits. Consistent with prior work we found a significant effect of diet quantity on the expression of both pre- and postcopulatory male traits; diet-restricted males performed fewer sexual behaviors and exhibited significant reductions in color ornamentation, sperm quality, sperm number, and sperm length than those fed ad libitum. However, contrary to our expectations, we found no significant effect of carotenoid manipulation on the expression of any of these traits, and no evidence for a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection. Our results further underscore the sensitivity of behavioral, ornamental, and ejaculate traits to dietary stress, and highlight the important role of condition dependence in maintaining the high variability in male sexual traits. PMID:23919162

  3. Properties of commonly used New Hampshire woods

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    the total by 12 to get cubic feet. Here is an example: Dry, Seasoned or Green? Unless the wood is kiln dried dries faster · Dry or not? ­ kiln dry wood is about 20% moisture content, seasoned around 30% · Where

  4. Decreasing the leachibility of boron wood preservatives 

    E-print Network

    Gezer, Engin Derya

    1996-01-01

    The use of boron in wood preservatives has been growing since the 1930s, primarily in various boric acid/borax mixtures. Boron preservatives have several advantages for application as wood preservatives including a broad spectrum of activity...

  5. The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiemann, Harry D

    1919-01-01

    This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

  6. FAO Forestry Department Wood Energy WISDOM Slovenia

    E-print Network

    FAO ­ Forestry Department ­ Wood Energy WISDOM ­ Slovenia Spatial woodfuel production Rudi Drigo Forestry Specialist - Wood energy planning and forest resources monitoring Zivan Veseli, and follow-up actions undertaken by the Slovenia Forest Service and Slovenia Forestry Institute January 2006

  7. Strange Creatures: An Additive Wood Sculpture Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project where students create strange creatures using scraps of wood. Discusses how the students use the wood and other materials. Explains that the students also write about the habitat characteristics of their creatures. Includes learning objectives. (CMK)

  8. Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles 

    E-print Network

    Jackman, John A.

    2006-03-28

    Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others....

  9. Wood Properties and Kinds; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. This booklet is concerned largely with the physical composition and…

  10. Industrial/commercial wood energy conversion: A guide to wood burning, fuel storage and handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    During the past decade, more than 400 organizations in the Great Lakes region have cut expenditures by implementing energy conservation measures and converting their facilities to wood fuel. The Great Lakes states have vast acreages of forestland which contain large amounts of wood resources available for energy use. The technology for efficiently harvesting and burning wood fuel is readily available and has been utilized by the forest-products industry for many years. This handbook is intended to assist those interested in wood energy to make preliminary decisions regarding their potential for utilizing wood. Each section covers a different aspect of the total wood energy system; wood fuel, fuel procurement, fuel storage and handling, combustion equipment, emissions, economics and financing. While the sections explaining wood fuel and wood fuel technology should be considered as they relate to the users's specific application, saving money is the primary factor determining the feasibility of wood energy conversions. 17 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Strengthen Wood Education through a Comprehensive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mative, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Wood education programs across the nation, at and below the secondary levels of education, have declined in enrollment in recent years. To many, wood education means only carpentry or woodworking. A systematic approach to the subject, as a part of a materials science course, can reverse the material's negative connotation and make wood education…

  12. Proactive climate protection Building with wood =

    E-print Network

    = Proactive climate protectionBuilding with wood = CO 2 products, carbon storage p. 3 Forests = Natural;products, carbon storage Forests = Natural ecosystems, wildlife habitat, renewable Unlike mines and farms carbon (CO2 ) to produce wood, and that products made from wood continue to store carbon for as long

  13. Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in

    E-print Network

    ! The practical experience of conversion light oil boilers into wood pellets burning boilers by installationSuccessful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in Estonia Biomass Utilisation of Local of primary energy in Estonia ! Wood fuels production ! Pellet firing projects in Estonia ­ SIDA Demo East

  14. Thermochemical pretreatment of underutilized woody biomass for manufacturing wood composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaez Samaniego, Manuel Raul

    Prescribed fires, one method for reducing hazardous fuel loads from forest lands in the US, are limited by geographical, environmental, and social impacts. Mechanical operations are an alternative type of fuel treatment but these processes are constrained by the difficulty of economically harvesting and/or using large amounts of low-value woody biomass. Adoption and integration of new technologies into existing wood composite facilities offer better utilization of this material. A pretreatment that enables integration of technologies in a typical composite facility will aid with diversification of product portfolio (e.g. wood composites, fuel pellets, liquid fuels, chemicals). Hot water extraction (HWE) is an option for wood pretreatment. This work provides a fundamental understanding of the physicochemical changes to wood resulting from HWE, and how these changes impact processing and performance of composites. Specific objectives were to: 1) review literature on studies related to the manufacture of composites produced with thermally pretreated wood, 2) manufacture wood plastic composites (WPC) and particleboard using HWE wood and evaluate the impacts of pretreatment on product properties, 3) develop an understanding of the effect of HWE on lignin properties, specifically lignin at the cells surface level after migration from cell walls and middle lamella, 4) discern the influence of lignin on the fiber surface on processing WPCs, and, 5) investigate the effect of changing the pretreatment environment (inert gas instead of water) on lignin behavior. Results show that HWE enhances the resistance of both WPCs and particleboard to water with positive or no effect on mechanical properties. Reduction of hemicelluloses and lignin property changes are suggested as the main reasons for enhancing interaction between wood fiber and resins during composite processing. Lignin on the surface of particles after HWE interacts with thermoplastics during WPCs compounding, thus improving bond quality between the constituents and maintaining the mechanical properties of the composites. The amount and properties of lignin on the fiber surfaces depends on the pretreatment conditions. Thus, it seems possible to control the pretreatment process to increase or decrease the amount of lignin on particles surfaces, which is of great interest for managing downstream processes within biorefinery concepts.

  15. Wood identification with PCR targeting noncoding chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoshu; Zhao, Guangjie; Ping, Liyan

    2011-12-01

    Wood identification is extremely important in the modern forest industry. It also has significant applications in forensics, as well as in archeology and ecological research. In this study, five universal primer pairs amplifying chloroplast noncoding sequences of 300-1,200 bp were designed. Sequencing these amplicons in combination can lead to reliable identification of logs and wood products to cultivar, ecotype, or even the falling population. These primer pairs work on both gymnosperms and angiosperm trees. They also are potentially applicable to accurately identify shrubs and herbaceous species. In addition, a wood DNA purification method is proposed in which N-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB) is used to increase the quality and quantity of extracted DNA. This method was first validated using air-dried timber disks from three different tree species that were felled 4 years ago. The sapwood and outer heartwood provided the best locations for DNA extraction. The method was also successfully applied to extract DNA from the recalcitrant processed white oak wood, randomly selected staves of wine barrels. The single nucleotide polymorphism detected on the oak DNA sequences showed correlation to their geographical origins. PMID:22038094

  16. Personality Traits and User Behavior 

    E-print Network

    King, Christopher Ronald

    2012-02-14

    Psychologists and human resources personnel have used personality profiling as a predictor of human behavior in various environments for many decades. Knowing the personality traits of a particular individual allows ...

  17. Let's Get the Wood Out!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, John W.

    1977-01-01

    The forestry program at the Foster Vocational Center, Framington, Maine, serving more than 90 percent forested Franklin County, trains students bused from their home schools for three periods daily in harvesting the raw materials for local wood-using industries. During the winter, one period weekly is in the classroom but most classes are held…

  18. Fire-resistant wood composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    Hot pressed wood panels made with modified novolak resins have burnthrough time of 450 s as compared to 280 s for products using conventional novolak resins. Incorporation of inorganic filler reduces flame spread index of panels from more than 200 to 60 or 70.

  19. Students' Evaluation of Teaching Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vevere, Nina; Kozlinskis, Vulfs

    2011-01-01

    Students' evaluations of teaching quality are one of the crucial components of the teaching quality evaluation (along with external evaluation, opinions of colleagues, etc.). According to our research and professional experience, the teaching quality has to be examined in correlation with personality traits of a lecturer. Students' surveys (aiming…

  20. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  1. Dietary flavonoids enhance conspicuousness of a melanin-based trait in male blackcaps but not of the female homologous trait or of sexually monochromatic traits.

    PubMed

    Catoni, C; Peters, A; Schaefer, H M

    2009-08-01

    Signalling theory predicts that signals should fulfil three fundamental requirements: high detectability, discriminability and, most importantly, reliability. Melanins are the most common pigments in animals. Correlations between genotypic and phenotypic qualities of the sender and size and morph of melanin-based traits are known, but it is contentious whether melanin-based colouration may signal any quality. We examined the effect of supplementing blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) with flavonoids, potent plant antioxidants, on plumage colouration. We demonstrate that melanin-based colour can fulfil all requirements of signals of phenotypic condition. As predicted by sexual selection theory, flavonoid supplementation influenced only the sexually dichromatic black cap of males, whereas the female homologous trait and the sexually monochromatic back colouration remained unaffected. Using avian vision models we show that birds can estimate male flavonoid intake from colouration of males' black cap. Because flavonoid ingestion can increase immune responsiveness in blackcaps, melanin head colouration may signal environmentally determined immune condition. PMID:19555443

  2. Pattern of inbreeding depression, condition dependence, and additive genetic variance in Trinidadian guppy ejaculate traits.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Dosselli, Ryan; Pilastro, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    In polyandrous species, a male's reproductive success depends on his fertilization capability and traits enhancing competitive fertilization success will be under strong, directional selection. This leads to the prediction that these traits should show stronger condition dependence and larger genetic variance than other traits subject to weaker or stabilizing selection. While empirical evidence of condition dependence in postcopulatory traits is increasing, the comparison between sexually selected and 'control' traits is often based on untested assumption concerning the different strength of selection acting on these traits. Furthermore, information on selection in the past is essential, as both condition dependence and genetic variance of a trait are likely to be influenced by the pattern of selection acting historically on it. Using the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing fish with high levels of multiple paternity, we performed three independent experiments on three ejaculate quality traits, sperm number, velocity, and size, which have been previously shown to be subject to strong, intermediate, and weak directional postcopulatory selection, respectively. First, we conducted an inbreeding experiment to determine the pattern of selection in the past. Second, we used a diet restriction experiment to estimate their level of condition dependence. Third, we used a half-sib/full-sib mating design to estimate the coefficients of additive genetic variance (CVA) underlying these traits. Additionally, using a simulated predator evasion test, we showed that both inbreeding and diet restriction significantly reduced condition. According to predictions, sperm number showed higher inbreeding depression, stronger condition dependence, and larger CVA than sperm velocity and sperm size. The lack of significant genetic correlation between sperm number and velocity suggests that the former may respond to selection independently one from other ejaculate quality traits. Finally, the association between sperm number and condition suggests that this trait may mediate the genetic benefits of polyandry which have been shown in this species. PMID:24455127

  3. Pattern of inbreeding depression, condition dependence, and additive genetic variance in Trinidadian guppy ejaculate traits

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Dosselli, Ryan; Pilastro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species, a male's reproductive success depends on his fertilization capability and traits enhancing competitive fertilization success will be under strong, directional selection. This leads to the prediction that these traits should show stronger condition dependence and larger genetic variance than other traits subject to weaker or stabilizing selection. While empirical evidence of condition dependence in postcopulatory traits is increasing, the comparison between sexually selected and ‘control’ traits is often based on untested assumption concerning the different strength of selection acting on these traits. Furthermore, information on selection in the past is essential, as both condition dependence and genetic variance of a trait are likely to be influenced by the pattern of selection acting historically on it. Using the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing fish with high levels of multiple paternity, we performed three independent experiments on three ejaculate quality traits, sperm number, velocity, and size, which have been previously shown to be subject to strong, intermediate, and weak directional postcopulatory selection, respectively. First, we conducted an inbreeding experiment to determine the pattern of selection in the past. Second, we used a diet restriction experiment to estimate their level of condition dependence. Third, we used a half-sib/full-sib mating design to estimate the coefficients of additive genetic variance (CVA) underlying these traits. Additionally, using a simulated predator evasion test, we showed that both inbreeding and diet restriction significantly reduced condition. According to predictions, sperm number showed higher inbreeding depression, stronger condition dependence, and larger CVA than sperm velocity and sperm size. The lack of significant genetic correlation between sperm number and velocity suggests that the former may respond to selection independently one from other ejaculate quality traits. Finally, the association between sperm number and condition suggests that this trait may mediate the genetic benefits of polyandry which have been shown in this species. PMID:24455127

  4. Response of Microtermes mycophagus (Isoptera: Termitidae) to twenty one wood species

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Shafqat

    2015-01-01

    The responses of termite species to bait depend upon the quality of the food used in the stations. Woods are the most common food sources for termites but different termite species behave differently to different wood species and types. The knowledge of the preference status of different wood species to a termite species helps in effective monitoring and baiting program. The current study was carried out to evaluate the preference of 21 wood species to the termite, Microtermes mycophagus in the field by no-choice and choice feeding tests. The results indicated silk cotton tree and sacred fig woods as the most preferred wood species with mean mass losses of 71.21 ± 5.09% and 68.38 ± 7.27% in no-choice test and 95.02 ± 1.65% and 91.69 ± 2.07% in choice tests, respectively. White cedar was the least preferred wood species with mean mass losses of 7.49 ± 1.64% and 13.92 ± 1.89% in no choice and choice feeding tests, respectively. Based on present studies, sapwood of silk cotton tree and sacred fig may be used in effective monitoring and baiting program against M. mycophagus. PMID:26312171

  5. Life cycle assessment of wood wastes: A case study of ephemeral architecture.

    PubMed

    Rivela, Beatriz; Moreira, María Teresa; Muñoz, Iván; Rieradevall, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2006-03-15

    One of the most commonly used elements in ephemeral architecture is a particleboard panel. These types of wood products are produced from wood wastes and they are used in temporary constructions such as trade fairs. Once the event is over, they are usually disposed into landfills. This paper intends to assess the environmental effects related to the use of these wood wastes in the end-of-life stage. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of two scenarios was performed, considering the recycling of wood waste for particleboard manufacture and energy generation from non-renewable resources (Scenario 1) versus the production of energy from the combustion of wood waste and particleboard manufacture with conventional wooden resources (Scenario 2). A sensitive analysis was carried out taking into account the influence of the percentage of recycled material and the emissions data from wood combustion. According to Ecoindicator 99 methodology, Damage to Human Health and Ecosystem Quality are more significant in Scenario 2 whereas Scenario 1 presents the largest contribution to Damage to Resources. Between the two proposed alternatives, the recycling of wood waste for particleboard manufacture seems to be more favorable under an environmental perspective. PMID:15922411

  6. Design of methodology for wood chips moisture estimation determined for gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luká?, Ladislav; Kuna, Štefan; Kizek, Ján; Repášová, Magdaléna

    2014-03-01

    The moisture content of the charged wood chips is a significant factor affecting the gasification process. The increased moisture content increases the demand on the energy consumption, which is needed to cover the heat consumption related to the water evaporation and adversely affects the wood gas quality and input fuel amount. Monitoring of the moisture content in wood chips is therefore the diagnostic tools suitable to evaluate the operational parameters of the whole gasification process. Present paper describes the design of the suitable methodology to measure and estimate the wood chips moisture content. The issues related to the moisture content estimation include preliminary the selection of the suitable methodology based on the assumed moisture content in the wood chips. Further factor which needs to be considered is the fact that the moisture content in wood chips is time dependent due to the changing parameters of the ambient air (as temperature, pressure and air humidity). Correctly estimated moisture content will enable to improve the wood chips gasification process.

  7. Wood species affect the degradation of crude oil in beach sand.

    PubMed

    Jandl, Gerald; Rodríguez Arranz, Alberto; Baum, Christel; Leinweber, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The addition of wood chips as a co-substrate can promote the degradation of oil in soil. Therefore, in the present study, the tree species-specific impact of wood chips of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and Western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa L.) on the degradation of crude oil was tested in beach sand in a 4-week incubation experiment. The CO2-C release increased in the order of control without wood chips < +spruce < +pine < +poplar. Initial and final hydrocarbon concentrations (C10 to C40), as indicators for the oil degradation, were determined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The degradation increased for the light fraction (C10 to C22), the heavy fraction (C23 to C40) as well as the whole range (C10 to C40) in the order of control without wood chips (f(degrad.) = 23% vs. 0% vs. 12%) < +poplar (f(degrad.) = 49% vs. 19% vs. 36%) < +spruce (f(degrad.) = 55% vs. 34% vs. 46%) < +pine (f(degrad.) = 60% vs. 44% vs. 53%), whereas the heavy fraction was less degraded in comparison to the light fraction. It can be concluded, that the tree species-specific wood quality is a significant control of the impact on the degradation of hydrocarbons, and pine wood chips might be promising, possibly caused by their lower decomposability and lower substrate replacement than the other wood species. PMID:26305901

  8. Functional traits, convergent evolution, and periodic tables of niches.

    PubMed

    Winemiller, Kirk O; Fitzgerald, Daniel B; Bower, Luke M; Pianka, Eric R

    2015-08-01

    Ecology is often said to lack general theories sufficiently predictive for applications. Here, we examine the concept of a periodic table of niches and feasibility of niche classification schemes from functional trait and performance data. Niche differences and their influence on ecological patterns and processes could be revealed effectively by first performing data reduction/ordination analyses separately on matrices of trait and performance data compiled according to logical associations with five basic niche 'dimensions', or aspects: habitat, life history, trophic, defence and metabolic. Resultant patterns then are integrated to produce interpretable niche gradients, ordinations and classifications. Degree of scheme periodicity would depend on degrees of niche conservatism and convergence causing species clustering across multiple niche dimensions. We analysed a sample data set containing trait and performance data to contrast two approaches for producing niche schemes: species ordination within niche gradient space, and niche categorisation according to trait-value thresholds. Creation of niche schemes useful for advancing ecological knowledge and its applications will depend on research that produces functional trait and performance datasets directly related to niche dimensions along with criteria for data standardisation and quality. As larger databases are compiled, opportunities will emerge to explore new methods for data reduction, ordination and classification. PMID:26096695

  9. Polysaccharides and lignin from oak wood used in cooperage: Composition, interest, assays: A review.

    PubMed

    Le Floch, Alexandra; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2015-11-19

    It is widely accepted that alcoholic beverage quality depends on their ageing in premium quality oak wood. From the choice of wood to beverage ageing, through the different steps in cask manufacturing, many factors should be considered. One of the biggest challenge in cooperages is to take into account all these factors. Most of the studies are interested in phenolic compounds, extracted during ageing and especially involved in wine oxidation, colour, and sensory properties such as astringency and bitterness. Oak aroma volatile compounds have also been the subject of numerous studies. These compounds of interest are part of low molecular weight compounds which represent 2%-10% of oak wood composition. However, three polymers constitute the main part of oak wood: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. As far as we are aware, few studies concerning the role of these major macromolecules in oak wood have been published previously. This article reviews oak wood polysaccharides and lignin, their potential interest and different assays used to determine their content. PMID:26454166

  10. Quantitative trait loci for biofortification traits in maize grain.

    PubMed

    Simi?, Domagoj; Mladenovi? Drini?, Snezana; Zduni?, Zvonimir; Jambrovi?, Antun; Ledencan, Tatjana; Brki?, Josip; Brki?, Andrija; Brki?, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Detecting genes that influence biofortification traits in cereal grain could help increase the concentrations of bioavailable mineral elements in crops to solve the global mineral malnutrition problem. The aims of this study were to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations in maize grain in a mapping population, as well as QTLs for bioavailable Fe, Zn, and Mg, by precalculating their respective ratios with P. Elemental analysis of grain samples was done by coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry in 294 F(4) lines of a biparental population taken from field trials of over 3 years. The population was mapped using sets of 121 polymorphic markers. QTL analysis revealed 32 significant QTLs detected for 7 traits, of which some were colocalized. The Additive-dominant model revealed highly significant additive effects, suggesting that biofortification traits in maize are generally controlled by numerous small-effect QTLs. Three QTLs for Fe/P, Zn/P, and Mg/P were colocalized on chromosome 3, coinciding with simple sequence repeats marker bnlg1456, which resides in close proximity to previously identified phytase genes (ZM phys1 and phys2). Thus, we recommend the ratios as bioavailability traits in biofortification research. PMID:22071312

  11. Invited review: overview of new traits and phenotyping strategies in dairy cattle with a focus on functional traits.

    PubMed

    Egger-Danner, C; Cole, J B; Pryce, J E; Gengler, N; Heringstad, B; Bradley, A; Stock, K F

    2015-02-01

    For several decades, breeding goals in dairy cattle focussed on increased milk production. However, many functional traits have negative genetic correlations with milk yield, and reductions in genetic merit for health and fitness have been observed. Herd management has been challenged to compensate for these effects and to balance fertility, udder health and metabolic diseases against increased production to maximize profit without compromising welfare. Functional traits, such as direct information on cow health, have also become more important because of growing concern about animal well-being and consumer demands for healthy and natural products. There are major concerns about the impact of drugs used in veterinary medicine on the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria that can negatively impact human health. Sustainability and efficiency are also increasingly important because of the growing competition for high-quality, plant-based sources of energy and protein. Disruptions to global environments because of climate change may encourage yet more emphasis on these traits. To be successful, it is vital that there be a balance between the effort required for data recording and subsequent benefits. The motivation of farmers and other stakeholders involved in documentation and recording is essential to ensure good data quality. To keep labour costs reasonable, existing data sources should be used as much as possible. Examples include the use of milk composition data to provide additional information about the metabolic status or energy balance of the animals. Recent advances in the use of mid-infrared spectroscopy to measure milk have shown considerable promise, and may provide cost-effective alternative phenotypes for difficult or expensive-to-measure traits, such as feed efficiency. There are other valuable data sources in countries that have compulsory documentation of veterinary treatments and drug use. Additional sources of data outside of the farm include, for example, slaughter houses (meat composition and quality) and veterinary labs (specific pathogens, viral loads). At the farm level, many data are available from automated and semi-automated milking and management systems. Electronic devices measuring physiological status or activity parameters can be used to predict events such as oestrus, and also behavioural traits. Challenges concerning the predictive biology of indicator traits or standardization need to be solved. To develop effective selection programmes for new traits, the development of large databases is necessary so that high-reliability breeding values can be estimated. For expensive-to-record traits, extensive phenotyping in combination with genotyping of females is a possibility. PMID:25387784

  12. Mapping QTL main and interaction influences on milling quality in elite U.S. rice germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) head-rice yield (HR) is a key export and domestic quality trait whose genetic control is poorly understood. With the goal of identifying genomic regions influencing HR, quantitative-trait-locus (QTL) mapping was carried out for quality-related traits in recombinant inbred line...

  13. Photodegradation and photostabilization of weathered wood flour filled polyethylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Nicole M.

    2003-06-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPCs) have gained popularity as building materials because of their usefulness in replacing solid wood in a variety of applications. These composites are promoted as being low-maintenance, high-durability products. However, it has been shown that WPCs exposed to weathering may experience a color change and/or loss in mechanical properties. An important requirement for building materials used in outdoor applications is the retention of their aesthetic qualities and mechanical properties during service life. Therefore, it is critical to understand the photodegradation mechanisms of WPCs exposed to UV radiation and to develop approaches to stabilize these composites against ultraviolet light. In this dissertation, the surface chemistries of weathered composites (both unstabilized and stabilized) as well as the effect of weathering on the color fade and the retention of mechanical properties were characterized. Since different methods of manufacturing WPCs lead to different surface characteristics, which can influence weathering, the effect of manufacturing method on the photodegradation of WPCs was investigated first. Wood flour (WF) filled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composite samples were either injection molded, extruded, or extruded and then planed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to monitor the surface chemistry of the manufactured composites. The spectra showed that the surface of planed samples had more wood component than extruded and injection molded samples, respectively. After weathering, the samples were analyzed for color fade, and loss of flexural properties. The final lightness of the composites was not dependent upon the manufacturing method. However the mechanical property loss was dependent upon manufacturing method. The samples with more wood component at the surface (planed samples) experienced a larger percent of total loss in flexural properties after weathering due to a greater effect of moisture on the samples. The change in surface chemistry of HDPE and WF/HDPE composites after weathering was studied using spectroscopic techniques. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  14. Rapid analysis of wood using transient infrared spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy with PLS regression

    SciTech Connect

    Bajic, Stanley J.; Jones, Roger W.; McClelland, John F.; Meglen, Robert R.

    1998-06-01

    In the forest products industry, improved methods are needed for rapid analysis of wood and paper products. Currently, the best methods for determining chemical and physical properties of wood-based materials require considerable sample preparation and analysis time. Consequently, quantitative information is often not obtained on a time scale suitable for process monitoring, control, and quality assurance. The primary barriers to practical utilization of conventional infrared methods are the opaqueness and poor reflection properties of the wood-based materials. This paper demonstrates how photoacoustic and transient infrared spectroscopies have been combined with chemometric techniques to overcome the limitations of conventional infrared spectroscopies and to permit rapid chemical and physical characterization of wood chips. Both photoacoustic and transient infrared spectroscopic methods are examined as rapid at- and on-line techniques for feedstock identification and chemical composition analysis prior to processing. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revised classification of the Parulidae (Aves)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovette, I.J.; Perez-Eman, J. L.; Sullivan, J.P.; Banks, R.C.; Fiorentino, I.; Cordoba-Cordoba, S.; Echeverry-Galvis, M.; Barker, F.K.; Burns, K.J.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, S.M.; Bermingham, E.

    2010-01-01

    The birds in the family Parulidae-commonly termed the New World warblers or wood-warblers-are a classic model radiation for studies of ecological and behavioral differentiation. Although the monophyly of a 'core' wood-warbler clade is well established, no phylogenetic hypothesis for this group has included a full sampling of wood-warbler species diversity. We used parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods to reconstruct relationships among all genera and nearly all wood-warbler species, based on a matrix of mitochondrial DNA (5840 nucleotides) and nuclear DNA (6 loci, 4602 nucleotides) characters. The resulting phylogenetic hypotheses provide a highly congruent picture of wood-warbler relationships, and indicate that the traditional generic classification of these birds recognizes many non-monophyletic groups. We recommend a revised taxonomy in which each of 14 genera (Seiurus, Helmitheros, Mniotilta, Limnothlypis, Protonotaria, Parkesia, Vermivora, Oreothlypis, Geothlypis, Setophaga, Myioborus, Cardellina, Basileuterus, Myiothlypis) corresponds to a well-supported clade; these nomenclatural changes also involve subsuming a number of well-known, traditional wood-warbler genera (Catharopeza, Dendroica, Ergaticus, Euthlypis, Leucopeza, Oporornis, Parula, Phaeothlypis, Wilsonia). We provide a summary phylogenetic hypothesis that will be broadly applicable to investigations of the historical biogeography, processes of diversification, and evolution of trait variation in this well studied avian group. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  16. Linking size-dependent growth and mortality with architectural traits across 145 co-occurring tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yoshiko; Poorter, Lourens; Sterck, Frank; Kassim, Abd Rahman; Potts, Matthew D; Kubo, Takuya; Kohyama, Takashi S

    2014-02-01

    Tree architecture, growth, and mortality change with increasing tree size and associated light conditions. To date, few studies have quantified how size-dependent changes in growth and mortality rates co-vary with architectural traits, and how such size-dependent changes differ across species and possible light capture strategies. We applied a hierarchical Bayesian model to quantify size-dependent changes in demographic rates and correlated demographic rates and architectural traits for 145 co-occurring Malaysian rain-forest tree species covering a wide range of tree sizes. Demographic rates were estimated using relative growth rate in stem diameter (RGR) and mortality rate as a function of stem diameter. Architectural traits examined were adult stature measured as the 95-percentile of the maximum stem diameter (upper diameter), wood density, and three tree architectural variables: tree height, foliage height, and crown width. Correlations between demographic rates and architectural traits were examined for stem diameters ranging from 1 to 47 cm. As a result, RGR and mortality varied significantly with increasing stem diameter across species. At smaller stem diameters, RGR was higher for tall trees with wide crowns, large upper diameter, and low wood density. Increased mortality was associated with low wood density at small diameters, and associated with small upper diameter and wide crowns over a wide range of stem diameters. Positive correlations between RGR and mortality were found over the whole range of stem diameters, but they were significant only at small stem diameters. Associations between architectural traits and demographic rates were strongest at small stem diameters. In the dark understory of tropical rain forests, the limiting amount of light is likely to make the interspecific difference in the effects of functional traits on demography more clear. Demographic performance is therefore tightly linked with architectural traits such as adult stature, wood density, and capacity for horizontal crown expansion. The enhancement of a demographic trade-off due to interspecific variation in functional traits in the understory helps to explain species coexistence in diverse rain forests. PMID:24669729

  17. Utilization of flavonoid compounds from bark and wood: a review.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    Flavonoid compounds, which are extracted from bark and wood and used commercially, are flavan 3-ols as monomers and their polymers, which are called "condensed tannins". Reactions of the condensed tannins with formaldehyde are the basis for wood adhesives. In the late 1940s, tannin research for wood adhesives was begun and the world-first commercial use of wattle tannin from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark as wood adhesives occurred in Australia in the 1960s. In addition, wattle tannin-based adhesives were further developed in South Africa and the uses of these adhesives have been continuing to date. The success of wattle tannin in wood adhesives is demonstrated by the collaboration of the ACIAR with the CAF in the early 1990s. Although radiata pine bark (Pinus radiata) could be a useful resource for the production of wood adhesives, three problems prevented its use in this application: low extractive yields from the bark, variable quality of the tannin extracts and excessive viscosity of the formulated tannin adhesives. In order to overcome these problems, various extraction methods have been proposed. Studies on tannin adhesives from bark of other pine species are also described. Furthermore, the use of the tannin in the bark without extraction is described as "bark adhesives" from radiata pine and black wattle. The use of radiata tannin without formaldehyde for moulded wood products is also described. Owing to the strong antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds, bark extracts from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, synonym P. maritima) and radiata pine have been commercialized as nutritional supplements: Pycnogenol and Enzogenol, respectively. The background and the development of Pycnogenol and the basic difference in the preparation processes between Pycnogenol and Enzogenol are described. On the basis of the discovery that the SOSA value for wattle tannin is approximately 10 times that of extracts from pine bark supplements (Pycnogenol and Enzogenol), chemical, biochemical and clinical studies on wattle tannin were conducted. Results from these studies are outlined. Wattle tannin has been developed as a nutritional supplement and marketed as Acapolia in Japan. PMID:25924541

  18. Blood parasites of wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O., Jr.; Knipling, G.D.

    1971-01-01

    Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

  19. EFFECT OF THE HIGH-OLEIC TRAIT AND PASTE STORAGE VARIABLES ON SENSORY ATTRIBUTE STABILITY OF ROASTED PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been much interest in the effect of the high-oleic acid trait of peanuts on various quality factors since discovery of high levels of oleic acid in a peanut mutant genotype. The trait provides greater oxidative stability for the high-oleic oil and seed. Several research groups have investi...

  20. Meta-Analysis of High-Density SNP Associations for Beef Cattle Production Traits from Three Countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 50,000 SNP were evaluated for associations with growth, carcass, and meat quality traits in three populations of cattle in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Regression coefficients for each SNP were independently estimated within each country. Coefficients for similar traits were stand...

  1. Densified fuels from wood waste

    SciTech Connect

    Pickering, W.H.

    1995-11-01

    Wood compressed to a specific gravity of about 1.2 constitutes an excellent clean burning fuel. {open_quotes}Prestologs{close_quotes} were marketed before 1940, but in the past ten years a much larger and growing market is densified pellet fuel has developed. The market for pellet fuel is about 90% residential, using special pellet burning stoves. Initial sales were almost entirely in the northwest, but sales in other parts of the country are now growing rapidly. Approximately 300,000 stoves are in use. Note that this industry developed from the private sector with little or no support from federal or state governments. Densified fuel is manufactured by drying and compressing sawdust feedstock. Combustion is different than that of normal wood. For example, wood pellets require ample supplies of air. They then burn with a hot flame and very low particulate emissions. Volatile organic compounds are burned almost completely and carbon monoxide can also be kept very low. Stoves burning pellets easily meet EPA standards. This paper discusses technical and economic factors associated with densified fuel and considers the future of the industry.

  2. Reproductive traits of Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Naves, P; de Sousa, E; Quartau, J A

    2006-06-01

    The pine sawyer Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier) is the vector of the introduced pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Bührer) Nickle in Portugal, and until recently was considered a secondary forest insect. Under laboratory conditions, a study of biological and reproductive traits of 37 insect pairs was conducted. The longevity of both sexes was similar, being 61.2+/-6.5 days for males and 64.0+/-6.3 days for females (mean+/-SE). Sixteen small-sized insects (22% of the population) died within 20 days and before starting to reproduce. The sexual maturation period (without egg laying) was 20.4+/-0.7 days (mean+/-SE), while the oviposition period lasted 54.0+/-4.2 days (mean+/-SE). The oviposition rate increased very quickly during the first weeks of life, peaking to almost two eggs per day during days 30-44, and gradually dropping in the following weeks. The females laid an average of 67.0+/-5.96 (mean+/-SE) eggs through their lives. The hatch rate was 92.6+/-1.0% (mean+/-SE). There were large individual variations in longevity and fecundity parameters, and principal component analysis based on 16 morphological and biological parameters separated the breeding insects into four distinct groups. Almost half of the reproducing beetles were large-sized insects, with high longevity and fecundity traits. Overall, the reproductive potential of the Portuguese population of M. galloprovincialis seems to be smaller than that described for other Monochamus vectors of the pine wood nematode both in North America and Japan. PMID:16768817

  3. Autism traits in the RASopathies

    PubMed Central

    Adviento, Brigid; Corbin, Iris L; Widjaja, Felicia; Desachy, Guillaume; Enrique, Nicole; Rosser, Tena; Risi, Susan; Marco, Elysa J; Hendren, Robert L; Bearden, Carrie E; Rauen, Katherine A; Weiss, Lauren A

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations in Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/MAPK) pathway genes lead to a class of disorders known as RASopathies, including neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome (NS), Costello syndrome (CS), and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC). Previous work has suggested potential genetic and phenotypic overlap between dysregulation of Ras/MAPK signalling and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although the literature offers conflicting evidence for association of NF1 and autism, there has been no systematic evaluation of autism traits in the RASopathies as a class to support a role for germline Ras/MAPK activation in ASDs. Methods We examined the association of autism traits with NF1, NS, CS and CFC, comparing affected probands with unaffected sibling controls and subjects with idiopathic ASDs using the qualitative Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the quantitative Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Results Each of the four major RASopathies showed evidence for increased qualitative and quantitative autism traits compared with sibling controls. Further, each RASopathy exhibited a distinct distribution of quantitative social impairment. Levels of social responsiveness show some evidence of correlation between sibling pairs, and autism-like impairment showed a male bias similar to idiopathic ASDs. Conclusions Higher prevalence and severity of autism traits in RASopathies compared to unaffected siblings suggests that dysregulation of Ras/MAPK signalling during development may be implicated in ASD risk. Evidence for sex bias and potential sibling correlation suggests that autism traits in the RASopathies share characteristics with autism traits in the general population and clinical ASD population and can shed light on idiopathic ASDs. PMID:24101678

  4. Plant traits that determine water use in wet tropical trees - do universal rules apply?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, G. T.; Moore, G. W.

    2013-12-01

    At the global scale, evapotranspiration is the strongest predictor of species richness compared with other climatic and non-climatic variables, resulting in higher diversity in wet regions. In water limited climates, evapotranspiration has been shown to drive functional convergence in plant traits such as leaf vein density and wood density that are associated with water usage. However, functional convergence has yet to be demonstrated in wet tropical forests where water is unlimited. In this study, we compared and contrasted structural traits, leaf traits, and transpiration in nine tree species found in a wet tropical montane forest in Costa Rica. Transpiration was determined using three years of data collected from heat dissipation sap flow sensors. Among the nine species we studied, leaf architecture and size varied markedly, but leaf shapes were generally ovate or lancelate (Figure 1). Relationships between secondary and tertiary venation and leaf surface area at the local scale were similar to published relationships at the global scale, except for compound leaves and an outlier species, Calophyllum brasilense, which had dense parallel veins. Despite wide-ranging traits, sap flux was fairly consistent across species, ranging from 380 to 982 kg m-2 d-1. Sap flux was positively correlated with specific leaf area. Similar to global trends, specific leaf area was shown to be positively correlated to tertiary venation but not related to secondary venation. Leaves of wet tropical species tended to have lower leaf mass per unit area than those of dry tropical species. Unlike studies in dry tropical regions, wood density was unrelated to wood sapflux and only weakly related to specific leaf area. It is possible that trees in wetter climates without water deficits do not adhere as closely to universal scaling relationships. In addition, wood density adjustments to guard against water stress might not be as important in wet climates. As we continue to seek universal rules in plant traits, more work is needed to expand these relationships to larger leaves and those with compound leaf structure. Figure 1

  5. Directory of Wisconsin wood burning facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    This directory contains detailed information on 125 Wisconsin businesses and institutions which are burning wood to meet their energy needs. The information was collected during a 1988 Energy Bureau survey of wood energy facilities in the state. We estimate that there are at least 160 such facilities in Wisconsin and hope that publication of this information will encourage increased participation in future surveys. This is the first edition of wood burning facilities. A companion directory lists Wisconsin companies which produce wood waste in their business operations. The two directories are meant to complement each other; to provide wood burners with information on possible fuel supplies and wood waste producers with information on possible markets for their waste.

  6. TraitBank: An Open Digital Repository for Organism Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TraitBank currently serves over 11 million measurements and facts for more than 1.7 million taxa. These data are mobilized from major biodiversity information systems (e.g., International Union for Conservation of Nature, Ocean Biogeographic Information System, Paleobiology Database), literature sup...

  7. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI FOR WINTER HARDINESS COMPONENT TRAITS IN OAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter hardiness is an important limitation to winter oat (Avena byzantina and A. sativa) production in much of North America, but field evaluation of winter hardiness is difficult. The discovery of quantitative trait loci for winter hardiness should allow markers assisted selection for winter hard...

  8. Genetics of reproductive traits: Antagonisms with production traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science, because artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. The addition of genetic techn...

  9. Insight into trade-off between wood decay and parasitism from the genome of a fungal forest pathogen

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Ake; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred; Belbahri, Lassaad; Bouzid, Ourdia; Broberg, Anders; Canback, Bjorn; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Dalman, Kerstin; Deflorio, Giuliana; van Diepen, Linda T. A.; Dunand, Christophe; Duplessis, Sebastien; Durling, Mikael; Gonthier, Paolo; Grimwood, Jane; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar; Hansson, David; Henrissat, Bernard; Hietala, Ari; Himmelstrand, Kajsa; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hogberg, Nils; James, Timothy Y.; Karlsson, Magnus; Kohler, Annegret; Lucas, Susan; Lunden, Karl; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Park, Jongsun; Raffaello, Tommaso; Rouze, Pierre; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Solheim, Halvor; Stahlberg, Jerry; Velez, Heriberto; de Vries, Ronald P.; Wiebenga, Ad; Woodward, Steve; Yakovlev, Igor; Garbelotto, Matteo; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Stenlid, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism and saprotrophic wood decay are two fungal strategies fundamental for succession and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. An opportunity to assess the trade-off between these strategies is provided by the forest pathogen and wood decayer Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. We report the annotated genome sequence and transcript profiling, as well as the quantitative trait loci mapping, of one member of the species complex: H. irregulare. Quantitative trait loci critical for pathogenicity, and rich in transposable elements, orphan and secreted genes, were identified. A wide range of cellulose-degrading enzymes are expressed during wood decay. By contrast, pathogenic interaction between H. irregulare and pine engages fewer carbohydrate-active enzymes, but involves an increase in pectinolytic enzymes, transcription modules for oxidative stress and secondary metabolite production. Our results show a trade-off in terms of constrained carbohydrate decomposition and membrane transport capacity during interaction with living hosts. Our findings establish that saprotrophic wood decay and necrotrophic parasitism involve two distinct, yet overlapping, processes.

  10. Structural wood panels with improved fire resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, P. M. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Structural wood paneling or other molded wood compositions consisting of finely divided wood chips, flour, or strands are bound together and hot pressed with a modified novolac resin which is the cured product of a prepolymer made from an aralkyl ether or halide with a phenol and a hardening agent such as hexamethylene tetramine. The fire resistance of these articles is further improved by incorporating in the binder certain inorganic fillers, especially a mixture of ammonium oxalate and ammonium phosphate.

  11. The Wood-Growth-and-Burial Process (WGBP) Permanent Wood Sequestration to Solve the Global Carbon Dioxide Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, F.; Hasse, U.

    2008-12-01

    Among all global environmental problems there is one which dominates over all others: this is the excessive release of carbon dioxide due to burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil, and gas. The only way to achieve a permanent removal of anthropogenic CO2 must make use of photosynthesis since, so-far, no other technology is able to bind the necessary huge amounts of carbon. Therefore, we propose to grow wood on any available areas, and to bury the wood under anaerobic conditions, e.g., in emptied open pits of coal mining, any other available pits, and possibly also in emptied underground mines. At these places the wood will keep for practically unlimited times, undergoing only very slow carbonization reactions. Simple calculations allow concluding that humans could already now scavenge even all the released CO2, but a more realistic goal may be to bind 20, 30, or 60 percent. This is more a political question than a scientific one. General features of the WGBP are: The growth of woods will transform deforested areas and fallow land to some kind of natural vegetation with the accompanying positive side effects of restoring biotopes, improving the water balance and thus also improving the climate. The growth of woods will produce enormous amounts of oxygen and thus it will add to a sound oxygen balance. It will improve the air quality because of the filtering effect of woods. The growth of woods will improve the soil quality because leaves and roots will stay on and in the ground when the wood is harvested. The WGBP will create jobs in areas where there is an urgent demand for these. The WGBP will offer the opportunity to re-cultivate open pit mining areas. The WGBP will offer the possibility to fill underground mines in a way to prevent earth quakes caused by collapsing mine shafts. The WGBP will enable mankind to survive the time span ahead of us in which mankind will still use fossil fuels. The WGBP can be easily financed by societies via very small additional taxes, or/and via very slightly increased energy prices. It is a great advantage of the WGBP that it will not be competitive with the agriculture, as the areas most suitable for the process are not attractive for the growth of food or energy plants. The WGBP does not need fertilizers and irrigation, and it does not need genetically engineered plants. It is completely ecological and environmentally friendly. The WGBP can be performed at almost any place of the world, and it is not necessary to perform the process at the sites of carbon dioxide emission. The WGBP will contribute to a fair international trade. The WGBP will be equally available to all countries and societies of the world. There is no discrimination of poorer or less advanced societies. The WGBP will produce wood deposits for future generation, which once may become sources for biomass processing technologies, be it for the production of chemicals of energy. The burial sites will be saving banks of precious material. Ref.: F. Scholz, U. Hasse: ChemSusChem 1 (2008) 381-384 greifswald.de/~analytik/

  12. Oxygen consumption by conserved archaeological wood.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin N; Matthiesen, Henning

    2013-07-01

    Rates of oxygen consumption have been measured over extended time periods for 29 whole samples of conserved, archaeological wood and four samples of fresh, unconserved wood, at 50% relative humidity and room temperature. Samples from the Swedish Warship Vasa and the Danish Skuldelev Viking ships are included. Most rates were close to 1 ?g O2 (g wood)(-1) day(-1) and the process persisted for several years at least. Consumption of oxygen is related to change in chemical composition, which is, in turn, related to degradation. It is thus demonstrated that despite conservation, waterlogged archaeological wood continues to degrade in a museum climate. PMID:23715675

  13. Components of Young Children's Trait Understanding: Behavior-to-Trait Inferences and Trait-to-Behavior Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, David; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2007-01-01

    Trait attribution is central to people's naive theories of people and their actions. Previous developmental research indicates that young children are poor at predicting behaviors from past trait-relevant behaviors. We propose that the cognitive process of behavior-to-behavior predictions consists of two component processes: (1) behavior-to-trait

  14. Seneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC "Illegal" Logging and Global Wood Markets

    E-print Network

    Seneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC SUMMARY "Illegal" Logging and Global Resources International, LLC Illegal Logging and Global Wood Markets: The Competitive Impacts on the U.S. Wood Products Industry1 Summary Study Objectives Illegal logging and illegal forest activities, in one

  15. EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

  16. Genetic Analyses of Age at Onset Traits 

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The identification of factors underlying complex trait variation is a major goal in the field of genetics. For normally distributed, fully observed trait data there are many well established statistical methods for ...

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP OF FEED EFFICIENCY WITH PERFORMANCE, ULTRASOUND, CARCASS AND NON-CARCASS TRAITS IN BEEF CATTLE 

    E-print Network

    Ribeiro, Flavio

    2010-07-14

    are anabolic steroids and ?-adrenergic agonists (BAA). There have been numerous studies that have looked at the effects of anabolic steroids on carcass-quality traits. There have been some inconsistencies; but most can be explained by the frequencies, doses...

  18. Exaggerated trait growth in insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size other, surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles, the claspers of praying mantises, the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers, and the giant heads of soldie...

  19. Heritability of drought resistance traits and correlation of drought resistance and agronomic traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inheritance of traits is important for developing effective breeding schemes for improving desired traits. The aims of this study were to estimate the heritabilities (h2) of drought resistance traits and the genotypic (rG) and phenotypic (rP) correlations between drought resistance traits under str...

  20. DETECTION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING MILK PRODUCTION, HEALTH, AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report putative quantitative trait loci affecting female fertility and milk production traits using the merged data from groups that conducted independent genome scans in Dairy Bull DNA Repository grandsire families to identify quantitative trait loci affecting economically important traits. Six ...

  1. Dendroarchaeology -dendrochronological investigations of archaeological wood from Ljubljansko barje

    E-print Network

    Cufar, Katarina

    Dendroarchaeology - dendrochronological investigations of archaeological wood from Ljubljansko amounts of wood from the past are preserved underwater or buried in ground. Veluscek (1999) reports and 2500 BC. Our work is focused towards dendrochronological investigations of archaeological wood

  2. 76 FR 76435 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ...731-TA-1179 (Final)] Multilayered Wood Flooring From China Determinations On the...those imports from China of multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings...of U.S. manufacturers of multilayered wood flooring. The following companies...

  3. 75 FR 66126 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ...731-TA-1179 (Preliminary)] Multilayered Wood Flooring From China AGENCY: United States...reason of imports from China of multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings...of U.S. manufacturers of multilayered wood flooring. The following companies...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral...Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood products which are permanently installed...

  5. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515 Section 178.515...178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction...

  6. 78 FR 30329 - Multilayered Wood Flooring from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ...731-TA-1179 (Final) (Remand)] Multilayered Wood Flooring from China AGENCY: United States...731-TA-1179 (Final) concerning multilayered wood flooring (``MLWF'') from China...Floors, Inc.; BR Custom Surface; Real Wood Floors, LLC; Galleher Corp.; and...

  7. 75 FR 79019 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ...731-TA-1179 (Preliminary)] Multilayered Wood Flooring From China Determinations On the...reason of imports from China of multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings...of U.S. manufacturers of multilayered wood flooring. The following companies...

  8. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10...NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of...

  9. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

  10. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  11. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  12. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  13. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  14. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  15. 75 FR 75157 - Importation of Wood Packaging Material From Canada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ...North American Perimeter Approach Wood and Wood Products Steering Committee to develop...removing the exemption that allows wood packaging material to move from Canada...Protection Organization's Forestry Panel. Based on the information...

  16. Using DoD Maps to Examine the Influence of Large Wood on Channel Morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, L. C.; Eaton, B. C.

    2012-12-01

    Since the advent of logging and slash burning, many streams in British Columbia have experienced changes to the amount of large wood added to or removed from these systems, which has, in turn, influenced the storage and movement of sediment within these channels. This set of flume experiments examines and quantifies the impacts of large wood on the reach-scale morphodynamics. Understanding the relation between the wood load and channel morphodynamics is important when assessing the quality of the aquatic habitat of a stream. The experiments were conducted using a fixed-bank, mobile bed Froude-scaled physical model of Fishtrap Creek, British Columbia, built in a shallow flume that is 1.5 m wide and 11 m long. The stream table was run without wood until it reached equilibrium at which point wood pieces of varying sizes were added to the channel. The bed morphology was surveyed using a laser profiling system at five-hour intervals. The laser profiles were then interpolated to create digital elevation models (DEM) from which DEM of difference (DoD) maps were produced. Analysis of the DoD maps focused on quantifying and locating differences in the distribution of sediment storage, erosion, and deposition between the runs as well as those induced by the addition of large wood into the stream channel. We then assessed the typical influence of individual pieces and of jams on pool frequency, size and distribution along the channels.

  17. Exploring the Natural Variation for Seedling Traits and Their Link with Seed Dimensions in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Leo A. J.; van Heusden, Adriaan W.; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W. M.

    2012-01-01

    The success of germination, growth and final yield of every crop depends to a large extent on the quality of the seeds used to grow the crop. Seed quality is defined as the viability and vigor attribute of a seed that enables the emergence and establishment of normal seedlings under a wide range of environments. We attempt to dissect the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of seed quality, through a combined approach of physiology and genetics. To achieve this goal we explored the genetic variation found in a RIL population of Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Moneymaker) x Solanum pimpinellifolium through extensive phenotyping of seed and seedling traits under both normal and nutrient stress conditions and root system architecture (RSA) traits under optimal conditions. We have identified 62 major QTLs on 21 different positions for seed, seedling and RSA traits in this population. We identified QTLs that were common across both conditions, as well as specific to stress conditions. Most of the QTLs identified for seedling traits co-located with seed size and seed weight QTLs and the positive alleles were mostly contributed by the S. lycopersicum parent. Co-location of QTLs for different traits might suggest that the same locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. We show that seed weight has a strong effect on seedling vigor and these results are of great importance for the isolation of the corresponding genes and elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22952841

  18. Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

  19. A Multicomponent Latent Trait Model for Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.; Yang, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a noncompensatory latent trait model, the multicomponent latent trait model for diagnosis (MLTM-D), for cognitive diagnosis. In MLTM-D, a hierarchical relationship between components and attributes is specified to be applicable to permit diagnosis at two levels. MLTM-D is a generalization of the multicomponent latent trait

  20. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biological traits. The database combines several existing traits databases into an online format. The database is also augmented with additional traits that are relevant to detecting climate change-related ef...

  1. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS ANALYSIS AND METABOLIC PATHWAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of molecular markers for crop plants has enabled research on the genetic basis of quantitative traits. However, despite more than a decade of these studies, called quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, the molecular basis for variation in most agronomic traits is still largely unk...

  2. Intelligence and Intelligence-Related Personality Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A 76-item test of intellect-related personality traits was developed and administered to 46 gifted 13 year olds, 51 undergraduates, and 53 seventh and eighth graders. Three component-based traits were obtained: intellectual absorption, apathy, and pleasure. These traits were found to be related to intellectual performance. (TJH)

  3. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as a contributing source in London. Overall, the source of biomass burning in London was likely a background regional source from mainland Europe overlaid by high contributions from local domestic burning emissions. This could have implications when considering future control strategies during winter. References Fuller, G.W., Sciare, J., Lutz, M., Moukhtar, S., Wagener, S., 2013. New Directions: Time to tackle urban wood burning? Atmospheric Environment 68, 295-296.

  4. Long-term priority effects among insects and fungi colonizing decaying wood

    PubMed Central

    Weslien, Jan; Djupström, Line B; Schroeder, Martin; Widenfalk, Olof

    2011-01-01

    1. Priority effects have been hypothesized to have long-lasting impact on community structure in natural ecosystems. Long-term studies of priority effects in natural ecosystems are however sparse, especially in terrestrial ecosystems. 2. Wood decay is a slow process involving a high diversity of insect and fungus species. Species interactions that drive change in communities of insects and fungi during wood decay are poorly understood because of a lack of sufficient long-term studies. 3. In this paper, we followed the colonization and succession of wood-living insects and fungi on cut trees during 15 years, from tree death and onwards, in a boreal forest landscape. We test the long-term priority effects hypothesis that the identity and abundance of species that colonize first affect the colonization success of later-arriving species. We also hypothesize that species interact in both facilitative and inhibitory ways, which ultimately affect habitat quality for a red-listed late-succession beetle species. 4. Possible causal associations between species were explored by path analysis. The results indicate that one bark beetle species, Hylurgops palliatus, and one wood-borer species, Monochamus sutor, which colonized the wood during the first year after cutting, influenced the occurrence of a rare, wood-living beetle, Peltis grossa, that started to emerge from the stumps about 10 years later. The positive effects of Hylurgops palliatus and negative effects of M. sutor were largely mediated through the wood-decaying fungus species Fomitopsis pinicola. 5. The study shows that variable priority effects may have long-lasting impact on community assembly in decaying wood. The study also exemplifies new possibilities for managing populations of threatened species by exploring links between early, well-understood species guilds and late, more poorly understood species guilds. PMID:21569031

  5. Allelic variation in a cellulose synthase gene (PtoCesA4) associated with growth and wood properties in Populus tomentosa.

    PubMed

    Du, Qingzhang; Xu, Baohua; Pan, Wei; Gong, Chenrui; Wang, Qingshi; Tian, Jiaxing; Li, Bailian; Zhang, Deqiang

    2013-11-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass from trees provides a renewable feedstock for biofuels, lumber, pulp, paper, and other uses. Dissecting the mechanism underlying natural variation of the complex traits controlling growth and lignocellulose biosynthesis in trees can enable marker-assisted breeding to improve wood quality and yield. Here, we combined linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based association analysis with traditional linkage analysis to detect the genetic effect of a Populus tomentosa cellulose synthase gene, PtoCesA4. PtoCesA4 is strongly expressed in developing xylem and leaves. Nucleotide diversity and LD in PtoCesA4, sampled from the P. tomentosa natural distribution, revealed that PtoCesA4 harbors high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity (?T = 0.0080 and ?w = 0.0098) and low LD (r(2) ? 0.1, within 1400 bp), demonstrating that the potential of a candidate-gene-based LD approach in understanding the molecular basis underlying quantitative variation in this species. By combining single SNP, multi-SNP, and haplotype-based associations in an association population of 460 individuals with single SNP linkage analysis in a family-based linkage populations (1200 individuals), we identified three strong associations (false discovery rate Q < 0.05) in both populations. These include two nonsynonymous markers (SNP49 associated with ?-cellulose content and SNP59 associated with fiber width) and a noncoding marker (SNP18 associated with ?-cellulose content). Variation in RNA transcript abundance among genotypic classes of SNP49 was confirmed in these two populations. Therefore, combining different methods allowed us to examine functional PtoCesA4 allelic variation underlying natural variation in complex quantitative traits related to growth and lignocellulosic biosynthesis. PMID:24048648

  6. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF ENHANCED COMBUSTION VIA IMPROVED WOOD STOVE FIREBOX DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an examination of materials that might be used within the firebox of a wood-burning stove to produce more uniform and complete combustion. Although many materials were initially considered, refractory materials appear to possess the qualities desired re...

  7. Page 1 of 2 "The wood industry presents an environment that allows me to be

    E-print Network

    British Columbia, University of

    the Canadian Mill Services Association) Work Environment: Casual work environment; 75% of the time workPage 1 of 2 Jake Power "The wood industry presents an environment that allows me to be independent of quality Western Red Cedar products based in Surrey, BC. Jake began working in the family business at age

  8. TRY – a global database of plant traits

    PubMed Central

    Kattge, J; Díaz, S; Lavorel, S; Prentice, I C; Leadley, P; Bönisch, G; Garnier, E; Westoby, M; Reich, P B; Wright, I J; Cornelissen, J H C; Violle, C; Harrison, S P; Van Bodegom, P M; Reichstein, M; Enquist, B J; Soudzilovskaia, N A; Ackerly, D D; Anand, M; Atkin, O; Bahn, M; Baker, T R; Baldocchi, D; Bekker, R; Blanco, C C; Blonder, B; Bond, W J; Bradstock, R; Bunker, D E; Casanoves, F; Cavender-Bares, J; Chambers, J Q; Chapin, F S; Chave, J; Coomes, D; Cornwell, W K; Craine, J M; Dobrin, B H; Duarte, L; Durka, W; Elser, J; Esser, G; Estiarte, M; Fagan, W F; Fang, J; Fernández-Méndez, F; Fidelis, A; Finegan, B; Flores, O; Ford, H; Frank, D; Freschet, G T; Fyllas, N M; Gallagher, R V; Green, W A; Gutierrez, A G; Hickler, T; Higgins, S I; Hodgson, J G; Jalili, A; Jansen, S; Joly, C A; Kerkhoff, A J; Kirkup, D; Kitajima, K; Kleyer, M; Klotz, S; Knops, J M H; Kramer, K; Kühn, I; Kurokawa, H; Laughlin, D; Lee, T D; Leishman, M; Lens, F; Lenz, T; Lewis, S L; Lloyd, J; Llusià, J; Louault, F; Ma, S; Mahecha, M D; Manning, P; Massad, T; Medlyn, B E; Messier, J; Moles, A T; Müller, S C; Nadrowski, K; Naeem, S; Niinemets, Ü; Nöllert, S; Nüske, A; Ogaya, R; Oleksyn, J; Onipchenko, V G; Onoda, Y; Ordoñez, J; Overbeck, G; Ozinga, W A; Patiño, S; Paula, S; Pausas, J G; Peñuelas, J; Phillips, O L; Pillar, V; Poorter, H; Poorter, L; Poschlod, P; Prinzing, A; Proulx, R; Rammig, A; Reinsch, S; Reu, B; Sack, L; Salgado-Negret, B; Sardans, J; Shiodera, S; Shipley, B; Siefert, A; Sosinski, E; Soussana, J-F; Swaine, E; Swenson, N; Thompson, K; Thornton, P; Waldram, M; Weiher, E; White, M; White, S; Wright, S J; Yguel, B; Zaehle, S; Zanne, A E; Wirth, C

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation – but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models.

  9. 21 CFR 866.2600 - Wood's fluorescent lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2600 Wood's fluorescent lamp. (a) Identification. A Wood's...

  10. 21 CFR 866.2600 - Wood's fluorescent lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2600 Wood's fluorescent lamp. (a) Identification. A Wood's...

  11. 21 CFR 866.2600 - Wood's fluorescent lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2600 Wood's fluorescent lamp. (a) Identification. A Wood's...

  12. A Better Way to Burn Wood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Rita

    1979-01-01

    Wood pyrolysis is a process that burns wood without air, producing gas and oil that are then burned for heat. Now being tested at Maryville College, Tennessee, the process is expected to cut fuel costs, solve a waste disposal problem, and produce charcoal for sale. (Author/MLF)

  13. CAMP LEJEUNE ENERGY FROM WOOD (CLEW) PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses EPA's Camp Lejeune Energy from Wood (CLEW) project, a demonstration project that converts wood energy to electric power, and provides waste utilization and pollution alleviation. The 1-MWe plant operates a reciprocating engine-generator set on synthetic gas f...

  14. Norrth Fork Big Wood River, Idaho

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Big Wood River flows through communities of the Wood River Valley of south-central Idaho. It is one of eight sites at which the USGS is conducting an ecological assessment during the summer of 2014. Study results will be published in 2015....

  15. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. wo processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt-...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF RESIDENTIAL WOOD CONSUMPTION ESTIMATION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives data on the distribution and usage of firewood, obtained from a pool of household wood use surveys. ased on a series of regression models developed using the STEPWISE procedure in the SAS statistical package, two variables appear to be most predictive of wood use...

  17. Autonomy for Aurora's Mars Missions Mark Woods,

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Michael

    Autonomy for Aurora's Mars Missions Mark Woods, SciSys Ltd., Clothier Road, Bristol, UK BS4 5SS Email: mark.woods@scisys.co.uk Tel: +44 117 9717251 ESA's Aurora programme incorporates a strategy for European involvement in future robotic and human exploration of our Solar System. The Aurora roadmap calls

  18. Energie-Cits 2001 BIOMASS-WOOD

    E-print Network

    Energie-Cités 2001 BIOMASS-WOOD Power plant LIENZ Austria By the year 2010, 12% of the gross inland awareness-raising activities with regard to energy. #12;Biomass-wood Lienz (Austria) Energie-Cités 2001 the Energy Council, with the remit to put out to tender a biomass-fired, central district heat project

  19. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  20. INDEPENDENT POWER PLANT USING WOOD WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 1 MWe power plant using waste wood is to be installed at a U.S. Marine Corps base, which will supply all the wood for the plant from a landfill site. The core energy conversion technology is a down-draft gasifier supplying approximately 150 Btu/scf gas to both spark ignition an...

  1. An alternative to arsenic disposal: Wood preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Robert M.

    1999-09-01

    Arsenic serves as a key active ingredient for preserving wood from attack by fungus and other wood-destroying microorganisms. The use of arsenic trioxide in water-borne preservative systems such as chromated copper arsenate provides a major market for arsenic-trioxide production from the nonferrous roasting and smelting industry.

  2. Wood mimetic hydrogel beads for enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Park, Saerom; Kim, Sung Hee; Won, Keehoon; Choi, Joon Weon; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Hyung Joo; Yang, Yung-Hun; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-22

    Wood component-based composite hydrogels have potential applications in biomedical fields owing to their low cost, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. The controllable properties of wood mimetic composites containing three major wood components are useful for enzyme immobilization. Here, lipase from Candida rugosa was entrapped in wood mimetic beads containing cellulose, xylan, and lignin by dissolving wood components with lipase in [Emim][Ac], followed by reconstitution. Lipase entrapped in cellulose/xylan/lignin beads in a 5:3:2 ratio showed the highest activity; this ratio is very similar to that in natural wood. The lipase entrapped in various wood mimetic beads showed increased thermal and pH stability. The half-life times of lipase entrapped in cellulose/alkali lignin hydrogel were 31- and 82-times higher than those of free lipase during incubation under denaturing conditions of high temperature and low pH, respectively. Owing to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and controllable properties, wood mimetic hydrogel beads can be used to immobilize various enzymes for applications in the biomedical, bioelectronic, and biocatalytic fields. PMID:25439889

  3. Evaluation of Paulownia elongata wood polyethylene composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paulownia wood flour (PWF), a byproduct of milling lumber, was employed as a bio-filler and blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) via extrusion. Paulownia wood (PW) shavings were milled through a 1-mm screen then separated via shaking into various particle fractions using sieves (#30 - < #2...

  4. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  5. DEVELOPING A NO-VOC WOOD TOPCOAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports an evaluation of a new low-VOC (volatile organic compound) wood coating technology, its performance characteristics, and its application and emissions testing. The low-VOC wood coating selected for the project was a two-component, water-based epoxy coating. Poly...

  6. Aircraft woods: their properties, selection, and characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markwardt, L J

    1931-01-01

    Strength values of various woods for aircraft design for a 15 per cent moisture condition of material and a 3-second duration of stress are presented, and also a discussion of the various factors affecting the values. The toughness-test method of selecting wood is discussed, and a table of acceptance values for several species is given.

  7. WOOD PRESERVING INDUSTRY MULTIMEDIA EMISSION INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restriction of the discharge of wastewater generated during the preservation of wood has resulted in the increased use of evaporation techniques by the wood preserving industry. This report discusses emissions that may occur during evaporation and projects the pollutant burden on...

  8. Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital Hamilton

    E-print Network

    Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital Hamilton Located on a beautiful 68-acre campus, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital Hamilton (RWJ Hamilton) is a private, not-for-profit acute care hospital-foot hospital includes services for medical, surgical, obstetric, cardiac, orthopedic, emergency, and intensive

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMSUMPTION ESTIMATION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives data on the distribution and usage of firewood, obtained from a pool of household wood use surveys. ased on a series of regression models developed using the STEPWISE procedure in the SAS statistical package, two variables appear to be most predictive of wood use...

  10. Thermal decomposition of wood: influence of wood components and cellulose crystallite size.

    PubMed

    Poletto, Matheus; Zattera, Ademir J; Forte, Maria M C; Santana, Ruth M C

    2012-04-01

    The influence of wood components and cellulose crystallinity on the thermal degradation behavior of different wood species has been investigated using thermogravimetry, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. Four wood samples, Pinus elliottii (PIE), Eucalyptus grandis (EUG), Mezilaurus itauba (ITA) and Dipteryx odorata (DIP) were used in this study. The results showed that higher extractives contents associated with lower crystallinity and lower cellulose crystallite size can accelerate the degradation process and reduce the wood thermal stability. On the other hand, the thermal decomposition of wood shifted to higher temperatures with increasing wood cellulose crystallinity and crystallite size. These results indicated that the cellulose crystallite size affects the thermal degradation temperature of wood species. PMID:22306076

  11. Swedish recovered wood waste: linking regulation and contamination.

    PubMed

    Krook, J; Mårtensson, A; Eklund, M; Libiseller, C

    2008-01-01

    In Sweden, large amounts of wood waste are generated annually from construction and demolition activities, but also from other discarded products such as packaging and furniture. A large share of this waste is today recovered and used for heat production. However, previous research has found that recovered wood waste (RWW) contains hazardous substances, which has significant implications for the environmental performance of recycling. Improved sorting is often suggested as a proper strategy to decrease such implications. In this study, we aim to analyse the impacts of waste regulation on the contamination of RWW. The occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, which contains several hazardous substances, was used as an indicator for contamination. First the management of RWW during 1995-2004 was studied through interviews with involved actors. We then determined the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood in RWW for that time period for each supplier (actor). From the results, it can be concluded that a substantially less contaminated RWW today relies on extensive source separation. The good news is that some actors, despite several obstacles for such upstream efforts, have already today proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation. In most cases, however, the existing waste regulation has not succeeded in establishing strong enough incentives for less contaminated waste in general, nor for extensive source separation in particular. One important factor for this outcome is that the current market forces encourage involved actors to practice weak quality requirements and to rely on end-of-pipe solutions, rather than put pressure for improvements on upstream actors. Another important reason is that there is a lack of communication and oversight of existing waste regulations. Without such steering mechanisms, the inherent pressure from regulations becomes neutralized. PMID:17509861

  12. Differential Growth Responses to Water Balance of Coexisting Deciduous Tree Species Are Linked to Wood Density in a Bolivian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    Mendivelso, Hooz A.; Camarero, J. Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability. PMID:24116001

  13. Differential growth responses to water balance of coexisting deciduous tree species are linked to wood density in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Mendivelso, Hooz A; Camarero, J Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability. PMID:24116001

  14. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Bolling

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  15. Developmental associations between traits: covariance and beyond.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Sean H

    2004-01-01

    Statistical associations between phenotypic traits often result from shared developmental processes and include both covariation between the trait values and more complex associations between higher moments of the joint distribution of traits. In this article, an analytical technique for calculating the covariance between traits is presented on the basis of (1). the distribution of underlying genetic and environmental variation that jointly influences the traits and (2). the mechanics of how these underlying factors influence the development of each trait. It is shown that epistasis can produce patterns of covariation between traits that are not seen in additive models. Applying this approach to a trait in parents and the same trait in their offspring allows us to study the consequences of epistasis for the evolution of additive genetic variance and heritability. This analysis is then extended to the study of more complicated associations between traits. It is shown that even traits that are not correlated may exhibit developmental associations that influence their joint evolution. PMID:15020440

  16. VibroColorTest: equipment for nondestructive testing of wood for musical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urgela, Stanislav

    2001-06-01

    Wood for musical instruments is a very valuable material. Subjective testing methods are widely established to evaluate quality of such a material. For this purpose, the evaluation of visual characteristics such as texture and color, and also physical and acoustical characteristics may be applied. To perform the measuring, data evaluation and material quality classification, the method VibroColorTest method is being developed. The equipment consists of two parts: VibroVizer and Colimet.

  17. Meat Quality and Disposition of F2 Nellore x Angus Cross Cattle 

    E-print Network

    Nicholson, Kristin Leigh

    2009-05-15

    Correlations between cattle disposition and meat quality were expected to be found, as well as differences in meat quality traits among contemporary groups, sires, and families nested within sires. Temperament effects on meat quality were evaluated...

  18. Effects of nutrient enrichment on the decomposition of wood and associated microbial activity in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulis, V.; Rosemond, A.D.; Suberkropp, K.; Weyers, H.S.; Benstead, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    1. We determined the effects of nutrient enrichment on wood decomposition rates and microbial activity during a 3-year study in two headwater streams at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, NC, U.S.A. After a 1-year pretreatment period, one of the streams was continuously enriched with inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) for 2 years while the other stream served as a reference. We determined the effects of enrichment on both wood veneers and sticks, which have similar carbon quality but differ in physical characteristics (e.g. surface area to volume ratios, presence of bark) that potentially affect microbial colonisation and activity. 2. Oak wood veneers (0.5 mm thick) were placed in streams monthly and allowed to decompose for approximately 90 days. Nutrient addition stimulated ash-free dry mass loss and increased mean nitrogen content, fungal biomass and microbial respiration on veneers in the treatment stream compared with the reference. The magnitude of the response to enrichment was great, with mass loss 6.1 times, and per cent N, fungal biomass and microbial respiration approximately four times greater in the treatment versus reference stream. 3. Decomposition rate and nitrogen content of maple sticks (ca. 1-2 cm diameter) also increased; however, the effect was less pronounced than for veneers. Wood response overall was greater than that determined for leaves in a comparable study, supporting the hypothesis that response to enrichment may be greater for lower quality organic matter (high C:N) than for higher quality (low C:N) substrates. 4. Our results show that moderate nutrient enrichment can profoundly affect decomposition rate and microbial activity on wood in streams. Thus, the timing and availability of wood that provides retention, structure, attachment sites and food in stream ecosystems may be affected by nutrient concentrations raised by human activities.

  19. The importance of quality in softwood lumber: a review 

    E-print Network

    Oguz, Hakan

    1999-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to review quality in wood products. For the purpose of this paper, definitions of quality, dimensions of quality, and some past research projects related to the topic have been reviewed. The importance of quality...

  20. Functional Traits Help Predict Post-Disturbance Demography of Tropical Trees

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Olivier; Hérault, Bruno; Delcamp, Matthieu; Garnier, Éric; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    How tropical tree species respond to disturbance is a central issue of forest ecology, conservation and resource management. We define a hierarchical model to investigate how functional traits measured in control plots relate to the population change rate and to demographic rates for recruitment and mortality after disturbance by logging operations. Population change and demographic rates were quantified on a 12-year period after disturbance and related to seven functional traits measured in control plots. The model was calibrated using a Bayesian Network approach on 53 species surveyed in permanent forest plots (37.5 ha) at Paracou in French Guiana. The network analysis allowed us to highlight both direct and indirect relationships among predictive variables. Overall, 89% of interspecific variability in the population change rate after disturbance were explained by the two demographic rates, the recruitment rate being the most explicative variable. Three direct drivers explained 45% of the variability in recruitment rates, including leaf phosphorus concentration, with a positive effect, and seed size and wood density with negative effects. Mortality rates were explained by interspecific variability in maximum diameter only (25%). Wood density, leaf nitrogen concentration, maximum diameter and seed size were not explained by variables in the analysis and thus appear as independent drivers of post-disturbance demography. Relationships between functional traits and demographic parameters were consistent with results found in undisturbed forests. Functional traits measured in control conditions can thus help predict the fate of tropical tree species after disturbance. Indirect relationships also suggest how different processes interact to mediate species demographic response. PMID:25226586

  1. How spectroscopy and microspectroscopy of degraded wood contribute to understand fungal wood decay.

    PubMed

    Fackler, Karin; Schwanninger, Manfred

    2012-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance, mid and near infrared, and ultra violet (UV) spectra of wood contain information on its chemistry and composition. When solid wood samples are analysed, information on the molecular structure of the lignocellulose complex of wood e.g. crystallinity of polysaccharides and the orientation of the polymers in wood cell walls can also be gained. UV and infrared spectroscopy allow also for spatially resolved spectroscopy, and state-of-the-art mapping and imaging systems have been able to provide local information on wood chemistry and structure at the level of wood cells (with IR) or cell wall layers (with UV). During the last decades, these methods have also proven useful to follow alterations of the composition, chemistry and physics of the substrate wood after fungi had grown on it as well as changes of the interactions between the wood polymers within the lignocellulose complex caused by decay fungi. This review provides an overview on how molecular spectroscopic methods could contribute to understand these degradation processes and were able to characterise and localise fungal wood decay in its various stages starting from the incipient and early ones even if the major share of research focussed on advanced decay. Practical issues such as requirements in terms of sample preparation and sample form and present examples of optimised data analysis will also be addressed to be able to detect and characterise the generally highly variable microbial degradation processes within their highly variable substrate wood. PMID:22983562

  2. Properties of Wood Fibre-Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Wood Fibre Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butylina, Svetlana; Martikka, Ossi; Kärki, Timo

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the effect of type of wood fibre source on the physical and mechanical properties of wood fibre-polypropylene composites. Wood flour, fibres of heat-treated wood and pellets were used as sources of wood fibres in the manufacturing process. All studied wood fibre-polypropylene composites were made from 75% wood, 22% recycled polypropylene (PP) and 3% maleated polypropylene (MAPP). Wood fibre-polypropylene composites were compounded in a conical twin-screw extruder. Water absorption and thickness swelling were studied. Mechanical properties of the composites were characterised by tensile, flexural, and impact testing. Micromechanical deformation processes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy done on the fractured surfaces of broken samples. The durability of composites exposed to three accelerated cycles of water immersion, freezing and thawing was examined. The results showed that the density of the composites was a key factor governing water absorption and thickness swelling. A significant improvement in tensile strength, flexural strength, and Charpy impact strength was observed for composites reinforced with heat-treated fibre compared to composites reinforced with pellets and especially to wood flour reinforced composites. The flexural strength and dimensional stability performance reduced after exposure to freeze-thaw cycling for all composites, but the degree of these changes was dependent on the wood fibre source.

  3. Polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci within cellulose synthase (PtoCesA) genes are associated with growth and wood properties in Populus tomentosa.

    PubMed

    Du, Qingzhang; Pan, Wei; Xu, Baohua; Li, Bailian; Zhang, Deqiang

    2013-02-01

    Chinese white poplar (Populus tomentosa), an important commercial tree species for timber and pulp production in northern China, has been used to examine the individual genes and allelic diversity responsible for complex traits controlling growth and lignocellulosic biosynthesis. Taking advantage of the low degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) within P. tomentosa association populations, we examined associations between 15 cellulose synthase (PtoCesA) genes and traits including growth and wood properties. Thirty-six novel simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers within PtoCesA genes were detected by re-sequencing and genotyped in an association population (460 individuals). Single-marker and haplotype-based LD approaches were used to identify significant marker-trait associations. Family-based linkage studies and real-time PCR testing were conducted to validate the functional significance of SSR variation. Fifteen single-marker associations from seven PtoCesA genes and nine haplotype-based associations within six genes were identified in the association population (false discovery rate Q < 0.05). Next, five SSR marker-trait associations (Q < 0.05) from four PtoCesA genes were successfully validated in a linkage mapping population (1200 individuals). The results imply a functional role for these genes in mediating wood properties, demonstrating the potential of combining single-marker and haplotype-based LD approaches to detect functional allelic variation underlying quantitative traits in a low-LD population. PMID:23278184

  4. Modeling Mediterranean Forests Dynamics using an Individual-Trait-Based Simulator (TFS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyllas, Nikolaos; Michelaki, Chrysanthi; Galanidis, Alexandros; Evangelou, Eleftherios; Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis; Arianoutsou, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    There is currently an effort to replace the use of plant functional types with traits continua in the next generation of vegetation dynamics models. This study presents the application of a new individual and trait based forest dynamics model (TFS) at Mediterranean Forest. Four key functional characters are used to express different life strategies in the model that represent a continuum of fast to slow plant economics. These functional traits are leaf dry mass per area (MA), leaf N and P concentrations (NL, PL) and wood density (DW). TFS has originally been developed for tropical forests and in this study is parameterised for different forest types found in Greece along altitudinal gradients. In particular data from approximately 500 individual trees at 50 different sites ranging from 350 to 1650 m asl are used 1) to force the model with site specific trait distributions and 2) to define associations between leaf maximum carboxylation Vmax and electron transport rate Jmax with MA, NL and PL. The model is applied at four different forest types and it is validated against field observations of gross and net primary productivity. Overall and adequate model performance is observed.

  5. Wood fuel in suspension burners

    SciTech Connect

    Wolle, P.C.

    1982-01-01

    Experience and criteria for solid fuel suspension burning is presented based on more than ten years of actual experience with commercially installed projects. Fuel types discussed range from dried wood with less than 15% moisture content, wet basis, to exotic biomass material such as brewed tea leaves and processed coffee grounds. Single burner inputs range from 1,465 kW (5,000 Mbh) to 13,771 kW (47,000 Mbh) as well as multiple burner applications with support burning using fuel oil and/or natural gas. General requirements for self-sustaining combustion will be reviewed as applied to suspension solid fuel burning, together with results of what can happen if these requirements are not met. Solid fuel preparation, sizing, transport, storage, and metering control is essential for proper feed. Combustion chamber volume, combustion air requirements, excess air, and products of combustion are reviewed, together with induced draft fan sizing. (Refs. 7).

  6. Analysis of associations between the prion protein genotypes and production traits in East Friesian milk sheep.

    PubMed

    De Vries, F; Hamann, H; Drögemüller, C; Ganter, M; Distl, O

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze associations between ovine prion protein genotypes and production traits in East Friesian milk sheep. Production traits included the type traits scores for muscle mass, wool quality, and type; the reproduction traits age at first lambing, first lambing interval, second lambing interval, and total number of lambs born; the milk performance traits; milk, fat, and protein yields; fat and protein contents; and somatic cell scores. Prion protein genotypes were available for 658 East Friesian milk sheep. Linear animal models were used for the analysis of the prion protein genotype effects. The scores of the genotyped sheep for muscle mass, type, wool quality, and fat yield were significantly superior to those of the nongenotyped animals. An explanation for this might be that breeders seek to minimize genotyping costs by preselecting animals that do not meet the top breeding requirements. No significant associations were found between the prion protein genotypes and milk performance, type, or reproduction traits. PMID:15591404

  7. Environmental risk assessments for transgenic crops producing output trait enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Tuttle, Ann; Shore, Scott; Stone, Terry

    2009-01-01

    The environmental risks from cultivating crops producing output trait enzymes can be rigorously assessed by testing conservative risk hypotheses of no harm to endpoints such as the abundance of wildlife, crop yield and the rate of degradation of crop residues in soil. These hypotheses can be tested with data from many sources, including evaluations of the agronomic performance and nutritional quality of the crop made during product development, and information from the scientific literature on the mode-of-action, taxonomic distribution and environmental fate of the enzyme. Few, if any, specific ecotoxicology or environmental fate studies are needed. The effective use of existing data means that regulatory decision-making, to which an environmental risk assessment provides essential information, is not unnecessarily complicated by evaluation of large amounts of new data that provide negligible improvement in the characterization of risk, and that may delay environmental benefits offered by transgenic crops containing output trait enzymes. PMID:19924556

  8. Thermal behavior of biodegraded lime wood.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Manoliu, Alexandru; Lisa, Gabriela; Gradinariu, Petronela; Vasile, Cornelia

    2010-06-16

    The effects of the soft-rot fungus Trichoderma viride Pers., on the thermal behavior of lime wood (Tillia cordata Mill.) were investigated. The lime wood pieces were inoculated with the fungus over a 12-week period. At pre-established time intervals two samples were withdrawn from the medium and analyzed by thermogravimetry and differential calorimetry, and the results were correlated with mass loss. Fungal activity was indicated by continuous decrease of sample mass. Modification of the wood because of the presence of the fungus was evidenced by structural changes that affected its thermal properties, both in respect to the hydrophilicity of the wood (evidenced mainly in desorption process) and in its decomposition behavior. The shape of DTG curves depends on the exposure time of wood to the action of microorganisms. The peak temperature assigned to the decomposition of wood components increases, while the global kinetic parameters for the main peak decrease with increasing exposure time of the wood to the attack by microorganisms. The increased characteristic temperatures of water desorption and cellulose decomposition processes and lower thermal stability could be explained by newly formed structures, mainly the oxidized ones. PMID:20451899

  9. Wood biosynthesis and typologies: a molecular rhapsody.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Gea; Sergeant, Kjell; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2014-08-01

    Wood represents one of the most important renewable commodities for humanity and plays a crucial role in terrestrial ecosystem carbon-cycling. Wood formation is the result of a multitude of events that require the concerted action of endogenous and exogenous factors under the influence of photoperiod, for instance genes and plant growth regulators. Beyond providing mechanical support and being responsible for the increase in stem radial diameter, woody tissues constitute the vascular system of trees and are capable of reacting to environmental stimuli, and as such are therefore quite plastic and responsive. Despite the ecological and economic importance of wood, not all aspects of its formation have been unveiled. Many gaps in our knowledge are still present, which hinder the maximal exploitation of this precious bioresource. This review aims at surveying the current knowledge of wood formation and the available molecular data addressing the relationship between wood production and environmental factors, which have crucial influences on the rhythmic regulation of cambial activity and exert profound effects on tree stem growth, wood yield and properties. We will here go beyond wood sensu stricto, i.e., secondary xylem, and extend our survey to other tissues, namely vascular cambium, phloem and fibres. The purpose is to provide the reader with an overview of the complexity of the topic and to highlight the importance of progressing in the future towards an integrated knowledge on the subject. PMID:24876292

  10. Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.M.

    1982-04-01

    Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

  11. Application of a multiple-trait, multiple-country genetic evaluation model for female fertility traits.

    PubMed

    Nilforooshan, M A; Jakobsen, J H; Fikse, W F; Berglund, B; Jorjani, H

    2010-12-01

    The need to implement a method that can handle multiple traits per country in international genetic evaluations is evident. Today, many countries have implemented multiple-trait national genetic evaluations and they may expect to have their traits simultaneously analyzed in international genetic evaluations. Traits from the same country are residually correlated and the method currently in use, single-trait multiple across-country evaluation (ST-MACE), cannot handle nonzero residual correlations. Therefore, multiple-trait, multiple across-country evaluation (MT-MACE) was proposed to handle several traits from the same country simultaneously. To test the robustness of MT-MACE on real data, female fertility was chosen as a complex trait with low heritability. Data from 7 Holstein populations, 3 with 2 traits and 4 with 1 trait, were used. The differences in the estimated genetic correlations by MT-MACE and the single ST-MACE analysis (average absolute deviation of 0.064) were due to the bias of considering several traits from the same country in the ST-MACE analysis. However, the differences between the estimated genetic correlations by MT-MACE and multiple ST-MACE analyses avoiding more than one trait per country in each analysis (average absolute deviation of 0.066) were due to the lack of analysis of the correlated traits from the same country together and using the reported within-country genetic correlations. Applying MT-MACE resulted in reliability gain in international genetic evaluations, which was different from trait to trait and from bull to bull. The average reliability gain by MT-MACE over ST-MACE was 3.0 points for domestic bulls and 6.3 points for foreign bulls. Even countries with 1 trait benefited from the joint analysis of traits from the 2-trait countries. Another superiority of MT-MACE over ST-MACE is that the bulls that do not have national genetic evaluation for some traits from multiple trait countries will receive international genetic evaluations for those traits. Rank correlations were high between ST-MACE and MT-MACE when considering all bulls. However, the situation was different for the top 100 bulls. Simultaneous analysis of traits from the same country affected bull ranks, especially for top 100 bulls. Multi-trait MACE is a recommendable and robust method for international genetic evaluations and is appropriate for handling multiple traits per country, which can increase the reliability of international genetic evaluations. PMID:21094772

  12. Downed wood in Micronesian mangrove forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Ewel, K.C.; Keeland, B.D.; Tara, T.; Smith, T. J., III

    2000-01-01

    Dead, downed wood is an important component of upland forest and aquatic ecosystems, but its role in wetland ecosystems, including mangroves, is poorly understood. We measured downed wood in ten sites on the western Pacific islands of Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap, all located within the Federated States of Micronesia. Our goals were to examine patterns of variability in the quantity of downed wood in these mangrove ecosystems, provide a general characterization of downed wood in a region with no previously published accounts, and investigate the relationship between harvesting practices and the amount of downed wood. The overall mean volume of downed wood at our study sites was estimated to be 60.8 m3 ha-1 (20.9 t ha-1), which is greater than most published data for forested wetlands. There were significant differences among islands, with the sites on Kosrae (104.2 m3 ha-1) having a much greater mean volume of downed wood than those on Pohnpei (43.1 m3 ha-1) or Yap (35.1 m3 ha-1). Part of the difference among islands may be attributable to differences in stand age and structure, but the most important factor seems to be the greater amount of wood harvesting on Kosrae, coupled with a low efficiency of use of cut trees. Of a total of 45 cut trees examined on Kosrae, no wood had been removed from 18 (40%); these are believed to be trees cut down because other, more valuable, trees were caught on them as they were felled. Of the other 27 trees, only 24 to 42% of the stem volume (to a 10 cm top) was removed from the forest, the amount varying by species. The impacts of current harvesting practices are unknown but may include important effects on tree regeneration and the abundance and species composition of crab populations.

  13. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

    PubMed

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8?±?3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed (P?

  14. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed ( P < 0.05). The EP, EM, and EW increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (as single or combined form) compared to those fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between Ci and Zn on the serum level of glucose and triglycerides as well as plasma concentration of zinc ( P < 0.05), so that serum content of glucose and triglyceride decreased and the plasma content of zinc increased in the hens fed the diets including Ci and Zn (together) compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by the combined form of Ci and Zn could have beneficial effects on performance and blood parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  15. Comparison of VOC emissions between air-dried and heat-treated Norway spruce ( Picea abies), Scots pine ( Pinus sylvesteris) and European aspen ( Populus tremula) wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyttinen, Marko; Masalin-Weijo, Marika; Kalliokoski, Pentti; Pasanen, Pertti

    2010-12-01

    Heat-treated wood is an increasingly popular decoration material. Heat-treatment improves dimensional stability of the wood and also prevents rot fungus growth. Although production of heat-treated wood has been rapidly increasing, there is only little information about the VOC emissions of heat-treated wood and its possible influences on indoor air quality. In the present study, VOC emissions from three untreated (air-dried) and heat-treated wood species were compared during a four weeks test period. It appeared that different wood species had clearly different VOC emission profiles. Heat-treatment was found to decrease VOC emissions significantly and change their composition. Especially, emissions of terpenes decreased from softwood samples and aldehydes from European aspen samples. Emissions of total aldehydes and organic acids were at the same level or slightly higher from heat treated than air-dried softwood samples. In agreement with another recent study, the emissions of furfural were found to increase and those of hexanal to decrease from all the wood species investigated. In contrast to air-dried wood samples, emissions of VOCs were almost in steady state from heat treated wood samples even in the beginning of the test.

  16. The Accelerated Degradation of Conserved Waterlogged Wood 

    E-print Network

    Martindale, Karen Elizabeth

    2015-05-07

    , with each species showing varying levels of change, restricted to the surface of the wood; however, she notes, no studies have been conducted on wood that has been treated with waxes, resins, or other coatings, which are far more likely to be affected... by which the water content within degraded wood is slowly replaced with PEG, a wax– like substance which can be liquid or solid at room temperature, depending on the molecular weight: the greater the molecular weight, the more solid PEG is at room...

  17. California Wood Energy Program1 Gary Brittner2

    E-print Network

    California Wood Energy Program1 Gary Brittner2 The California Department of Forestry Wood Energy wood energy. California is rich in wood energy; forests and brushlands have been producing this natural and renewable energy resource for centuries. The timber industry in California has for many

  18. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  19. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  20. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements for reconstituted wood boxes are as follows: (1) The walls of boxes must be made of...

  1. Electrical properties and X-ray diffraction of wood and wood plastic composite (WPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad Khan, Mubarak; Idriss Ali, K. M.; Wang, W.

    Wood plastic composite (WPC) of kadom, simul, mango and debdaro were prepared with two monomers, methylmethacrylate (MMA) and butylmethacrylate (BMA) using high energy ionizing radiation. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies reveal that significant grafting occurred with wood fiber. Electric properties like resistivity and dielectric constant of both wood and WPC were measured under different moisture contents and relative humidities. The resistivities of wood decreased dramatically with increase of moisture content, but those of WPC decreased very slowly with moisture content. The dielectric constant of wood increased significantly with moisture content but no significant difference was observed in the case of WPC within the range of moisture contents studied. The dielectric constants of untreated wood also increased with their densities.

  2. Multi-trait mimicry and the relative salience of individual traits.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Baharan; Gamberale-Stille, Gabriella; Leimar, Olof

    2015-11-01

    Mimicry occurs when one species gains protection from predators by resembling an unprofitable model species. The degree of mimic-model similarity is variable in nature and is closely related to the number of traits that the mimic shares with its model. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that the relative salience of traits, as perceived by a predator, is an important determinant of the degree of mimic-model similarity required for successful mimicry. We manipulated the relative salience of the traits of a two-trait artificial model prey, and subsequently tested the survival of mimics of the different traits. The unrewarded model prey had two colour traits, black and blue, and the rewarded prey had two combinations of green, brown and grey shades. Blue tits were used as predators. We found that the birds perceived the black and blue traits to be similarly salient in one treatment, and mimic-model similarity in both traits was then required for high mimic success. In a second treatment, the blue trait was the most salient trait, and mimic-model similarity in this trait alone achieved high success. Our results thus support the idea that similar salience of model traits can explain the occurrence of multi-trait mimicry. PMID:26511051

  3. Process for agglomerating particulate wood material and products obtained thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, J.R.; Pelletier, M.P.; Tremblay, G.B.

    1980-10-28

    The disclosure describes a process for agglomerating particulate wood material such as saw dust, wood shavings, fines, bark, tree needles, wood chips, wood dust, newspaper and cardboard material, impurities normally encountered therein and mixtures thereof. The process comprises providing a particulate wood material with a moisture content of between about 10 to 40 percent by weight calculated on a dry basis. Then, the moisture containing particulate wood material is dry mixed with dry powdered lignosulfonate to form a substantially homogeneous mixture which is compressed under a pressure of at least about 400 lbs/inch2 until the particulate wood material is agglomerated. The product obtained is resilient, easily ignitable and combustible.

  4. Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, E. A.; Krapf, M.; Orasche, J.; Huang, Y.; Zimmermann, R.; Drinovec, L.; Mo?nik, G.; El-Haddad, I.; Slowik, J. G.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2014-10-01

    Residential wood burning contributes significantly to the total atmospheric aerosol burden; however, large uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. Primary emissions are influenced by a variety of parameters, including appliance type, burner wood load and wood type. In addition to directly emitted particles, previous laboratory studies have shown that oxidation of gas phase emissions produces compounds with sufficiently low volatility to readily partition to the particles, forming significant quantities of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, relatively little is known about wood burning SOA and the effects of burn parameters on SOA formation and composition are yet to be determined. There is clearly a need for further study of primary and secondary wood combustion aerosols to advance our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols and their impacts on health, air quality and climate. For the first time, smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of wood loading on both primary and secondary wood combustion products. Products were characterized using a range of particle and gas phase instrumentation, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). A novel approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) quantification from AMS data was developed and results were compared to those from GC-MS analysis of filter samples. Similar total particle mass emission factors were observed under high and average wood loadings, however, high fuel loadings were found to generate significantly higher contributions of PAHs to the total organic aerosol (OA) mass compared to average loadings. PAHs contributed 15 ± 4% (mean ± 2 sample standard deviations) to the total OA mass in high load experiments, compared to 4 ± 1% in average load experiments. With aging, total OA concentrations increased by a factor of 3 ± 1 for high load experiments compared to 1.6 ± 0.4 for average load experiments. In the AMS, an increase in PAH and aromatic signature ions at lower m/z values, likely fragments from larger functionalized PAHs, was observed with aging. Filter samples also showed an increase in functionalized PAHs in the particles with aging, particularly oxidized naphthalene species. As PAHs and their oxidation products are known to have deleterious effects on health, this is a significant finding to aid in the mitigation of negative wood burning impacts by improving burner operation protocols.

  5. Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, E. A.; Krapf, M.; Orasche, J.; Huang, Y.; Zimmermann, R.; Drinovec, L.; Mo?nik, G.; El-Haddad, I.; Slowik, J. G.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Residential wood burning contributes to the total atmospheric aerosol burden; however, large uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. Primary emissions are influenced by a variety of parameters, including appliance type, burner wood load and wood type. In addition to directly emitted particles, previous laboratory studies have shown that oxidation of gas-phase emissions produces compounds with sufficiently low volatility to readily partition to the particles, forming considerable quantities of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, relatively little is known about wood burning SOA, and the effects of burn parameters on SOA formation and composition are yet to be determined. There is clearly a need for further study of primary and secondary wood combustion aerosols to advance our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols and their impacts on health, air quality and climate. For the first time, smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of wood loading on both primary and secondary wood combustion products. Products were characterized using a range of particle- and gas-phase instrumentation, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). A novel approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) quantification from AMS data was developed and results were compared to those from GC-MS analysis of filter samples. Similar total particle mass emission factors were observed under high and average wood loadings; however, high fuel loadings were found to generate significantly higher contributions of PAHs to the total organic aerosol (OA) mass compared to average loadings. PAHs contributed 15 ± 4% (mean ±2 sample standard deviations) to the total OA mass in high-load experiments, compared to 4 ± 1% in average-load experiments. With aging, total OA concentrations increased by a factor of 3 ± 1 for high load experiments compared to 1.6 ± 0.4 for average-load experiments. In the AMS, an increase in PAH and aromatic signature ions at lower m / z values, likely fragments from larger functionalized PAHs, was observed with aging. Filter samples also showed an increase in functionalized PAHs in the particles with aging, particularly oxidized naphthalene species. As PAHs and their oxidation products are known to have deleterious effects on health, this is a noteworthy finding to aid in the mitigation of negative wood burning impacts by improving burner operation protocols.

  6. LCA-based optimization of wood utilization under special consideration of a cascading use of wood.

    PubMed

    Höglmeier, Karin; Steubing, Bernhard; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele; Richter, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Cascading, the use of the same unit of a resource in multiple successional applications, is considered as a viable means to improve the efficiency of resource utilization and to decrease environmental impacts. Wood, as a regrowing but nevertheless limited and increasingly in demand resource, can be used in cascades, thereby increasing the potential efficiency per unit of wood. This study aims to assess the influence of cascading wood utilization on optimizing the overall environmental impact of wood utilization. By combining a material flow model of existing wood applications - both for materials provision and energy production - with an algebraic optimization tool, the effects of the use of wood in cascades can be modelled and quantified based on life cycle impact assessment results for all production processes. To identify the most efficient wood allocation, the effects of a potential substitution of non-wood products were taken into account in a part of the model runs. The considered environmental indicators were global warming potential, particulate matter formation, land occupation and an aggregated single score indicator. We found that optimizing either the overall global warming potential or the value of the single score indicator of the system leads to a simultaneous relative decrease of all other considered environmental impacts. The relative differences between the impacts of the model run with and without the possibility of a cascading use of wood were 7% for global warming potential and the single score indicator, despite cascading only influencing a small part of the overall system, namely wood panel production. Cascading led to savings of up to 14% of the annual primary wood supply of the study area. We conclude that cascading can improve the overall performance of a wood utilization system. PMID:25660355

  7. Copolymer resins made of agricultural and forest residues extracts for wood laminating adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.M.

    1995-11-01

    Extracts of Southern pine bark, peanut hulls, pecan nut pitch, and pecan shell flour were used to synthesize copolymer resins using resorcinol, phenol, and formaldehyde. The test joints of both southern pine and oak were laminated in room temperature. The gluability of these copolymer resins were evaluated with shear compression loading test. The effects of resorcinol level, the molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenolic, and the composition of the hardener on bonding quality were investigated. With a more than 80% wood failure after vacuum pressure treatment, several copolymer resins provided good bonding quality as a wood laminating adhesive. Different extracts required different formulations of copolymer resin and hardner to obtain the best bonding quality.

  8. Acoustic Monitoring of Adhesive Bond Curing in Wood Laminates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernacki, Jacek Marek

    Challenges in manufacturing of wood products, such as glulam, include difficulty in controlling bonding variables and assessing bond quality. This dissertation investigates an ultrasonic method as a means of monitoring of curing and assessing bond quality in wood laminates. The effect of curing on ultrasonic transmission was studied using specimens of clear Douglas-fir, 100 x 200 x 600 mm, with the adhesive bond in the center of the specimen. Monitoring was performed simultaneously at normal and angular (5 ^circ nominal) incidence to the bond plane. Acoustic measurements were supplemented with destructive cure monitoring, standard bond strength measurement, monitoring of bulk viscosity curing, gel time measurement, and microscopic (SEM) examination. Angular incidence gave greater sensitivity to bond quality and curing status than did normal incidence. Analysis of wave propagation showed that displacement for transmission at a small angle (on the order of 5^circ ) was nearly parallel to the bond, which seems to explain greater sensitivity of angular incidence. Experimental results showed that this method was effective in detection of curing phases, such as spread, penetration, and hardening, defective bonds, and the effect of clamping pressure. An "unloading effect", measured as a relative transmission reduction after the clamping load was released, was sensitive to defective bonds, including uncured (kissing), underspread, and uneven spread bonds. Thick bonds (0.5 and 1.0 mm) caused the greatest increase in transmission, since waves at start of curing were highly attenuated. In angular transmission, thick-bond curing curves showed a characteristic inflection, which may be used to identify thick bonds and measure the curing rate. The results of this dissertation could be utilized to develop commercial systems in glulam manufacturing, which could evaluate: (a) phase of and completion of curing (b) bond quality (c) optimum clamping pressure. Similar systems could also be developed to monitor lumber and panel products curing at high temperature, such as LVL (laminated veneer lumber), OSB (oriented strandboard) and particleboard.

  9. North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash

    E-print Network

    -energy sector. Demand for processed fuels such as wood pellets is at record levels, resulting in shortagesNorth American wood markets hit by United States housing crash North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash 19

  10. Fracture Modeling of Crack Propagation in Wood and Wood Composites Including Crack Tip Processes and Fiber Bridging Mechanics

    E-print Network

    Nairn, John A.

    1 Fracture Modeling of Crack Propagation in Wood and Wood Composites Including Crack Tip Processes wood and wood composites develop process zones often consisting of fibers bridging the crack surfaces. After crack initiation, a process zone develops causing the toughness (or R curve) to increase

  11. Traits-based approaches in bioassessment and ecological risk assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

    PubMed

    Van den Brink, Paul J; Alexander, Alexa C; Desrosiers, Mélanie; Goedkoop, Willem; Goethals, Peter L M; Liess, Matthias; Dyer, Scott D

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the application of traits-based bioassessment approaches in retrospective bioassessment as well as in prospective ecological risk assessments in regulatory frameworks. Both approaches address the interaction between species and stressors and their consequences at different levels of biological organization, but the fact that a specific species may be less abundant in a potentially impacted site compared with a reference site is, regrettably, insufficient to provide diagnostic information. Species traits may, however, overcome the problems associated with taxonomy-based bioassessment. Trait-based approaches could provide signals regarding what environmental factors may be responsible for the impairment and, thereby, provide causal insight into the interaction between species and stressors. For development of traits-based (TBA), traits should correspond to specific types of stressors or suites of stressors. In this paper, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of TBA in both applications was used to identify challenges and potentials. This paper is part of a series describing the output of the TERA (Traits-based ecological risk assessment: Realising the potential of ecoinformatics approaches in ecotoxicology) Workshop held between 7 and 11 September, 2009, in Burlington, Ontario, Canada. The recognized strengths were that traits are transferrable across geographies, add mechanistic and diagnostic knowledge, require no new sampling methodology, have an old tradition, and can supplement taxonomic analysis. Weaknesses include autocorrelation, redundancy, and inability to protect biodiversity directly. Automated image analysis, combined with genetic and biotechnology tools and improved data analysis to solve autocorrelation problems were identified as opportunities, whereas low availability of trait data, their transferability, their quantitative interpretation, the risk of developing nonrelevant traits, low quality of historic databases, and their standardization were listed as threats. PMID:20981837

  12. On-line automatic detection of wood pellets in pneumatically conveyed wood dust flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Duo; Yan, Yong; Carter, Robert M.; Gao, Lingjun; Qian, Xiangchen; Lu, Gang

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a piezoelectric transducer based system for on-line automatic detection of wood pellets in wood dust flow in pneumatic conveying pipelines. The piezoelectric transducer senses non-intrusively the collisions between wood pellets and the pipe wall. Wavelet-based denoising is adopted to eliminate environmental noise and recover the collision events. Then the wood pellets are identified by sliding a time window through the denoised signal with a suitable threshold. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory test rig and on an industrial pneumatic conveying pipeline to assess the effectiveness and operability of the system.

  13. The Woods Hole Laboratory, 1885-1985

    E-print Network

    of Cooperation in Woods Hole Centennial Lecture III: Fisheries Research Strategies for the Future Centennial Paul R. Gross 18 Peter A. Larkin 24 William F. Royce 30 40 1. L. McHugh 41 Gilbert C. Radonski 46

  14. Wood Recognition Using Image Texture Features

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang-jun; Zhang, Guang-qun; Qi, Heng-nian

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by theories of higher local order autocorrelation (HLAC), this paper presents a simple, novel, yet very powerful approach for wood recognition. The method is suitable for wood database applications, which are of great importance in wood related industries and administrations. At the feature extraction stage, a set of features is extracted from Mask Matching Image (MMI). The MMI features preserve the mask matching information gathered from the HLAC methods. The texture information in the image can then be accurately extracted from the statistical and geometrical features. In particular, richer information and enhanced discriminative power is achieved through the length histogram, a new histogram that embodies the width and height histograms. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to the state-of-the-art HLAC approaches using the wood stereogram dataset ZAFU WS 24. By conducting extensive experiments on ZAFU WS 24, we show that our approach significantly improves the classification accuracy. PMID:24146821

  15. Plasma impregnation of wood with fire retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabeliña, Karel G.; Lumban, Carmencita O.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-01

    The efficacy of chemical and plasma treatments with phosphate and boric compounds, and nitrogen as flame retardants on wood are compared in this study. The chemical treatment involved the conventional method of spraying the solution over the wood surface at atmospheric condition and chemical vapor deposition in a vacuum chamber. The plasma treatment utilized a dielectric barrier discharge ionizing and decomposing the flame retardants into innocuous simple compounds. Wood samples are immersed in either phosphoric acid, boric acid, hydrogen or nitrogen plasmas or a plasma admixture of two or three compounds at various concentrations and impregnated by the ionized chemical reactants. Chemical changes on the wood samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while the thermal changes through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Plasma-treated samples exhibit superior thermal stability and fire retardant properties in terms of highest onset temperature, temperature of maximum pyrolysis, highest residual char percentage and comparably low total percentage weight loss.

  16. Strength of Wood Beams: An Engineering Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dengerud-Au, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Presents a lesson involving the measurement of wood beams and the prediction and testing of their stress limits. Provides an example of a problem with multiple solutions, each with different consequences. (KHR)

  17. Wood Futures Conference 8 November 2007, London

    E-print Network

    ­ Agricultural, including · Pastures for animals · Bioenergy plantations: palm oil, sugar cane ­ Urbanization · Unsustainable forest management ­ Poor harvesting practices ­ Insufficient regeneration ­ Fire, insects, disease ­ Over harvest of fuelwood · Poverty and over population #12;Wood Futures Conference 8 November 2007

  18. Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program

    E-print Network

    Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program: Exercise J Final Report Melissa M.6028/NIST.IR.7997 NISTIR 7997 #12;Dietary Supplement Laboratory Quality Assurance Program: Exercise F Final Assurance Program: Exercise J Final Report Melissa M. Phillips Catherine A. Rimmer Laura J. Wood Mary Bedner

  19. Energy Intensity Determination in Wood Processing Sawmills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddula, Ramakrishna Babu

    Energy intensity is an important aspect to wood products producing sawmills in the State of West Virginia. This research aims to facilitate the accurate measurement of electrical energy intensity in sawmills by means of energy analysis and diagnostics using various data acquisition devices on electrical motors used in the manufacturing processes. Close to 90% of the electrical energy used in a typical sawmill is consumed by motors alone. The energy intensity determination is being accomplished by data collection with respect to electrical energy consumption parameters as well as production parameters. The electrical energy consumption was recorded on all the major motors in three sawmills for a period of one month. The recorded data were analyzed with respect to the production volume and the specific energy consumption for different size lumber of varying species was developed. The specific energy allocation for different size lumber was done based on the surface area cut to manufacture that lumber. The specific energy consumption of a particular size lumber has been compared with respect to different species. The specific energy consumption of different size lumber of the same species was developed. Sawmills can evaluate the impact of their production decisions on energy consumption using the results of this research. Energy consumption of different size and species was compared among three sawmills. Specific energy consumption of hardwood species in sawmill 1 for 4/4 lumber is varying from 124 kwh to 170 kWh per 1,000 board feet, where as in sawmill 2 it is varying from 79 kwh to 118 kWh and in sawmill 3 it is varying from 90 kwh to 145 kWh. Further, results of the energy assessment conducted in each sawmill would save on average 12% of energy consumption at current operation. Finally, productivity improvement that can be achieved by sawing high quality logs and using new saw blade technologies were discussed.

  20. Wood fired fast fluid bed boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, S.A.; Johnson, H.L.; Hemmingsson, L.

    1985-08-01

    Many utilities have turned to wood wastes to counter the rise in fuel prices and to help meet sulfur and nitrogen oxide emission regulations. A recent development in boiler technology is the circulating (fast) fluid bed boiler (CFBC). It is designed to meet environmental regulations and to burn low-grade, lower-cost energy sources. The authors give a general description of CFBC technology and in particular, wood firing designs for industrial CFBC boilers.