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1

Global meta-analysis of wood decomposition rates: a role for trait variation among tree species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbon flux from woody debris, a crucial uncertainty within global carbon-climate models, is simultaneously affected by climate, site environment and species-based variation in wood quality. In the first global analysis attempting to explicitly tease out the wood quality contribution to decomposition, we found support for our hypothesis that, under a common climate, interspecific differences in wood traits affect woody

James T. Weedon; William K. Cornwell; Johannes H. C. Cornelissen; Amy E. Zanne; Christian Wirth; David A. Coomes

2009-01-01

2

Breeding for Grain Quality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding for complex multigenic phenotypic quality characters in cereals by chemical analyses and functional pilot tests is\\u000a traditionally a slow and expensive process. The development of new instrumental screening methods for complex quality traits\\u000a evaluated by multivariate data analysis has during the last decades revolutionised the economy and scale in breeding for quality.\\u000a The traditional explorative plant breeding view is

Lars Munck

3

Association Genetics of Wood Physical Traits in the Conifer White Spruce and Relationships With Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Marker-assisted selection holds promise for highly influencing tree breeding, especially for wood traits, by considerably reducing breeding cycles and increasing selection accuracy. In this study, we used a candidate gene approach to test for associations between 944 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers from 549 candidate genes and 25 wood quality traits in white spruce. A mixed-linear model approach, including a weak but nonsignificant population structure, was implemented for each marker–trait combination. Relatedness among individuals was controlled using a kinship matrix estimated either from the known half-sib structure or from the markers. Both additive and dominance effect models were tested. Between 8 and 21 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be significantly associated (P ? 0.01) with each of earlywood, latewood, or total wood traits. After controlling for multiple testing (Q ? 0.10), 13 SNPs were still significant across as many genes belonging to different families, each accounting for between 3 and 5% of the phenotypic variance in 10 wood characters. Transcript accumulation was determined for genes containing SNPs associated with these traits. Significantly different transcript levels (P ? 0.05) were found among the SNP genotypes of a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, a ?-tonoplast intrinsic protein, and a long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 9. These results should contribute toward the development of efficient marker-assisted selection in an economically important tree species. PMID:21385726

Beaulieu, Jean; Doerksen, Trevor; Boyle, Brian; Clément, Sébastien; Deslauriers, Marie; Beauseigle, Stéphanie; Blais, Sylvie; Poulin, Pier-Luc; Lenz, Patrick; Caron, Sébastien; Rigault, Philippe; Bicho, Paul; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John

2011-01-01

4

Dietary effects of a mix derived from oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil and sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood extract on pig performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits.  

PubMed

The effects of a pre-formulated commercial plant extract mix, composed of equal parts of oregano essential oil and sweet chestnut wood extract, on performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits were evaluated. In two 155-d studies, 60 pigs (mean live weight: 42.9kg) were assigned to either a control diet (CTR) or an identical diet supplemented (0.2%) with the plant extract mix (OC). No differences in the growth rate were observed. Glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the OC muscles (Longissimus lumborum) were higher than in CTR muscles. The lipid oxidation of meat was lower in the OC group. In the cooked meat samples, OC animals had the lowest L* and H° values and the highest a* values. The OC meat received higher scores for colour, taste and overall liking in both the blind and the labelled consumer tests. PMID:25454470

Ranucci, D; Beghelli, D; Trabalza-Marinucci, M; Branciari, R; Forte, C; Olivieri, O; Badillo Pazmay, G V; Cavallucci, C; Acuti, G

2014-10-22

5

Spatial patterns of wood traits in China are controlled by phylogeny and  

E-print Network

RESEARCH PAPER Spatial patterns of wood traits in China are controlled by phylogeny, Yunnan 650223, China ABSTRACT Aim Wood properties are related to tree physiology and mechanical stability the influences of phylogeny and the environment on spatial trends in wood traits. Location China. Methods We

Slik, Ferry

6

Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar  

SciTech Connect

Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F2 progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar.

Tuskan, G.A.

2001-06-20

7

Wood quality in alleycropped eastern black walnut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thinnings from a 15-year-old eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) agroforestry plantation in SW Missouri (USA) were evaluated to determine the influence of cropping practices on wood quality. Growth rate was found to be strongly affected by weed control and cropping practices while specific gravity and fiber length (measured in selected stems) were found to be weakly affected. of Missouri's

B. E. Cutter; H. E. Garrett

1993-01-01

8

Indoor Wood-Burning Can Affect Air Quality  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Indoor Wood-Burning Can Affect Air Quality U.S. Environmental Protection ... a fire isn't burning efficiently. Smoke from wood contains fine particles, known as fine particle pollution. ...

9

Original article The possible status of wood quality  

E-print Network

Original article The possible status of wood quality in oak breeding programs (Quercus petraea of the wood (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) (density, shrinkage, color, etc) and technological properties of the phenotypic variabil- ity in the wood of oak is likely to be under genetic control (individual level

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

10

Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling variation in forage quality traits in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley forage quality has a direct relationship to animal performance, but forage quality traits are often neglected or not\\u000a accessible to the plant breeders. Doubled haploid lines (145) from the cross Steptoe × Morex were grown in 2 years of trails\\u000a under irrigated conditions to evaluate the variation in forage quality characteristics, identify quantitative trait loci (QTL)\\u000a for these traits and determine if

Lisa Surber; Hussein Abdel-Haleem; Jack Martin; Pat Hensleigh; Dennis Cash; Jan Bowman; Tom Blake

2011-01-01

11

Functional multi-locus QTL mapping of temporal trends in Scots pine wood traits.  

PubMed

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of wood properties in conifer species has focused on single time point measurements or on trait means based on heterogeneous wood samples (e.g., increment cores), thus ignoring systematic within-tree trends. In this study, functional QTL mapping was performed for a set of important wood properties in increment cores from a 17-yr-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) full-sib family with the aim of detecting wood trait QTL for general intercepts (means) and for linear slopes by increasing cambial age. Two multi-locus functional QTL analysis approaches were proposed and their performances were compared on trait datasets comprising 2 to 9 time points, 91 to 455 individual tree measurements and genotype datasets of amplified length polymorphisms (AFLP), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The first method was a multilevel LASSO analysis whereby trend parameter estimation and QTL mapping were conducted consecutively; the second method was our Bayesian linear mixed model whereby trends and underlying genetic effects were estimated simultaneously. We also compared several different hypothesis testing methods under either the LASSO or the Bayesian framework to perform QTL inference. In total, five and four significant QTL were observed for the intercepts and slopes, respectively, across wood traits such as earlywood percentage, wood density, radial fiberwidth, and spiral grain angle. Four of these QTL were represented by candidate gene SNPs, thus providing promising targets for future research in QTL mapping and molecular function. Bayesian and LASSO methods both detected similar sets of QTL given datasets that comprised large numbers of individuals. PMID:25305041

Li, Zitong; Hallingbäck, Henrik R; Abrahamsson, Sara; Fries, Anders; Gull, Bengt Andersson; Sillanpää, Mikko J; García-Gil, M Rosario

2014-12-01

12

Functional Multi-Locus QTL Mapping of Temporal Trends in Scots Pine Wood Traits  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of wood properties in conifer species has focused on single time point measurements or on trait means based on heterogeneous wood samples (e.g., increment cores), thus ignoring systematic within-tree trends. In this study, functional QTL mapping was performed for a set of important wood properties in increment cores from a 17-yr-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) full-sib family with the aim of detecting wood trait QTL for general intercepts (means) and for linear slopes by increasing cambial age. Two multi-locus functional QTL analysis approaches were proposed and their performances were compared on trait datasets comprising 2 to 9 time points, 91 to 455 individual tree measurements and genotype datasets of amplified length polymorphisms (AFLP), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The first method was a multilevel LASSO analysis whereby trend parameter estimation and QTL mapping were conducted consecutively; the second method was our Bayesian linear mixed model whereby trends and underlying genetic effects were estimated simultaneously. We also compared several different hypothesis testing methods under either the LASSO or the Bayesian framework to perform QTL inference. In total, five and four significant QTL were observed for the intercepts and slopes, respectively, across wood traits such as earlywood percentage, wood density, radial fiberwidth, and spiral grain angle. Four of these QTL were represented by candidate gene SNPs, thus providing promising targets for future research in QTL mapping and molecular function. Bayesian and LASSO methods both detected similar sets of QTL given datasets that comprised large numbers of individuals. PMID:25305041

Li, Zitong; Hallingbäck, Henrik R.; Abrahamsson, Sara; Fries, Anders; Gull, Bengt Andersson; Sillanpää, Mikko J.; García-Gil, M. Rosario

2014-01-01

13

Xenomic networks variability and adaptation traits in wood decaying fungi  

PubMed Central

Fungal degradation of wood is mainly restricted to basidiomycetes, these organisms having developed complex oxidative and hydrolytic enzymatic systems. Besides these systems, wood-decaying fungi possess intracellular networks allowing them to deal with the myriad of potential toxic compounds resulting at least in part from wood degradation but also more generally from recalcitrant organic matter degradation. The members of the detoxification pathways constitute the xenome. Generally, they belong to multigenic families such as the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and the glutathione transferases. Taking advantage of the recent release of numerous genomes of basidiomycetes, we show here that these multigenic families are extended and functionally related in wood-decaying fungi. Furthermore, we postulate that these rapidly evolving multigenic families could reflect the adaptation of these fungi to the diversity of their substrate and provide keys to understand their ecology. This is of particular importance for white biotechnology, this xenome being a putative target for improving degradation properties of these fungi in biomass valorization purposes. PMID:23279857

Morel, Mélanie; Meux, Edgar; Mathieu, Yann; Thuillier, Anne; Chibani, Kamel; Harvengt, Luc; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Gelhaye, Eric

2013-01-01

14

Impact of EPA wood stove regulations on air quality  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the national regulation of wood stoves. The primary purpose of this paper is to present an opinion on the probable effectiveness of the regulation, and to discuss possible additional regulatory actions. The author conducted research on residential wood-burning systems for 15 years. According to this analysis, in the long run wood heating will survive only if it does not contribute seriously to air quality problems. Regulation of residential wood combustion emissions must work in the real world in order to preserve the enterprise of burning wood and the industry which supports it.

Shelton, J. (Sheldon Research Inc., Santa Fe, NM (USA))

1988-01-01

15

Wood-burning appliances and indoor air quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood heating represents an interesting economic alternative to electrical or heating oil and gas systems. However, many people are concerned about poor indoor air quality in homes equipped with wood-burning appliances. We conducted a study in the Quebec City region (Canada) to verify the extent of indoor air contamination, and to examine the frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses among

Benoit Lévesque; Sylvain Allaire; Denis Gauvin; Petros Koutrakis; Suzanne Gingras; Marc Rhainds; Henri Prud'Homme; Jean-François Duchesne

2001-01-01

16

Quantitative Trait Loci Influencing End-use Quality Traits of Hard Red Spring Wheat Breeding Lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat end-product quality is determined by a complex group of traits including dough visco-elastic characteristics and bread-making properties. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and analysis were conducted for endosperm texture and polymeric proteins, dough mixing strength and bread-making prop...

17

IMPACT OF ALFALFA GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT ON FORAGE QUALITY TRAITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alfalfa is generally considered to be among the highest quality forages for feeding ruminant livestock. Among the positive quality attributes of alfalfa are high protein and calcium concentrations, low cell wall concentration, and rapidly digested cell wall material. These cell wall traits contrib...

18

Wood-burning appliances and indoor air quality.  

PubMed

Wood heating represents an interesting economic alternative to electrical or heating oil and gas systems. However, many people are concerned about poor indoor air quality in homes equipped with wood-burning appliances. We conducted a study in the Quebec City region (Canada) to verify the extent of indoor air contamination, and to examine the frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses among occupants of wood-heated homes. One child attending primary school (median = 8 years old; range = 5-14 years old) and an adult (median = 37 years old; range = 23-52 years old) were recruited in each eligible house. Eligible houses were without known sources of combustion products (smokers, attached garage, oil or gas furnace, gas stove, etc.) except for wood-burning appliance. Out of the 89 houses included in the study, 59 had wood-burning appliances. Formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, respirable particles (PM10) and carbon monoxide were measured in a sub-set of 49 houses (41 with a wood-burning appliance and 8 without). The frequency of respiratory symptoms and diseases among participants were documented using a daily symptom diary. Concentrations of contaminants were low in most houses, both with or without a wood-burning appliance. Globally, there was no consistent relationship between the presence of a wood-burning appliance and respiratory morbidity in residents. Nevertheless, residents who mentioned being exposed to fumes emitted by such an appliance reported more respiratory illnesses and symptoms. The presence of animals or molds, and keeping windows closed most of the time in winter were other factors associated with respiratory problems. We conclude that wood burning appears to be a respiratory health risk for occupants if the appliance is not maintained and used properly. PMID:11778959

Lévesqu, B; Allaire, S; Gauvin, D; Koutrakis, P; Gingras, S; Rhainds, M; Prud'Homme, H; Duchesne, J F

2001-12-17

19

QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTL) ANALYSIS OF CANNING QUALITY TRAITS IN KIDNEY BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Canning quality of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), of which the degree of splitting (SPLT) and overall appearance (APP) if canned beans are major components, is a complex trait that exhibits quantitative. The objectives of this study were to identify major genes that affect APP and SPLT in kidney...

20

Genetic Control of Meat Quality Traits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meat was originally produced from non-specialized animals that were used for a variety of purposes, in addition to being a source of food. However, selective breeding has resulted in “improved” breeds of cattle that are now used to produce either milk or beef, and specialized chicken lines that produce eggs or meat. These improved breeds are very productive under appropriate management systems. The selection methods used to create these specialized breeds were based on easily measured phenotypic variations, such as growth rate or physical size. Improvement in the desired trait was achieved by breeding directly from animals displaying the desired phenotype. However, more recently sophisticated genetic models have been developed using statistical approaches that consider phenotypic information collected, not only from individual animals but also from their parents, sibs, and progeny.

Williams, John L.

21

Intraspecific Relationships among Wood Density, Leaf Structural Traits and Environment in Four Co-Occurring Species of Nothofagus in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Plant functional traits capture important variation in plant strategy and function. Recent literature has revealed that within-species variation in traits is greater than previously supposed. However, we still have a poor understanding of how intraspecific variation is coordinated among different traits, and how it is driven by environment. We quantified intraspecific variation in wood density and five leaf traits underpinning the leaf economics spectrum (leaf dry matter content, leaf mass per unit area, size, thickness and density) within and among four widespread Nothofagus tree species in southern New Zealand. We tested whether intraspecific relationships between wood density and leaf traits followed widely reported interspecific relationships, and whether variation in these traits was coordinated through shared responses to environmental factors. Sample sites varied widely in environmental variables, including soil fertility (25–900 mg kg–1 total P), precipitation (668–4875 mm yr–1), temperature (5.2–12.4 °C mean annual temperature) and latitude (41–46 °S). Leaf traits were strongly correlated with one another within species, but not with wood density. There was some evidence for a positive relationship between wood density and leaf tissue density and dry matter content, but no evidence that leaf mass or leaf size were correlated with wood density; this highlights that leaf mass per unit area cannot be used as a surrogate for component leaf traits such as tissue density. Trait variation was predicted by environmental factors, but not consistently among different traits; e.g., only leaf thickness and leaf density responded to the same environmental cues as wood density. We conclude that although intraspecific variation in wood density and leaf traits is strongly driven by environmental factors, these responses are not strongly coordinated among functional traits even across co-occurring, closely-related plant species. PMID:23527041

Richardson, Sarah J.; Allen, Robert B.; Buxton, Rowan P.; Easdale, Tomás A.; Hurst, Jennifer M.; Morse, Christopher W.; Smissen, Rob D.; Peltzer, Duane A.

2013-01-01

22

QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT  

SciTech Connect

Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

Tumuluru, J.S. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lau, A.K. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Oveisi, E. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-11-01

23

Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export  

SciTech Connect

Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

2010-11-01

24

Genetic mapping analysis of bread-making quality traits in spring wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study we assess the genetic architecture of bread-making quality traits in spring wheat. A mapping population derived from BR34 and Grandin, a soft x hard cross, was used to measure 20 end-use quality traits including six kernel characteristics, seven milling and flour traits, four dough mi...

25

Wood piece quality evaluation using Choquet integral and fuzzy merging Jeremy Jover1,2  

E-print Network

Wood piece quality evaluation using Choquet integral and fuzzy merging Jeremy Jover1,2 , Vincent,fuzzy operators, Choquet integral, divergent process Abstract: This paper presents a way to evaluate the wood (what is ideally expected). The wood industry is also concerned by these di- vergent process problems

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

26

Cold weather installation of wood flooring by adhesive bonding and its impact on indoor air quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study discusses the effect of installation of wood flooring by adhesive bonding under cold weather conditions on indoor air quality (IAQ) and analyzes an onsite strategy that can ensure the adhesion strength of the wood flooring and improve IAQ. To examine the temperature effects of adhesive bonding on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from wood flooring, the emission rates

Dong Hee Choi; Dong Hwa Kang; Myoung Souk Yeo; Kwang Woo Kim

2012-01-01

27

Variation of meat quality traits among five genotypes of chicken.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to examine the diversity of meat quality traits among 5 chicken genotypes. The genotypes included 2 Chinese native breeds (Wenchang,WCH, and Xianju), 1 commercial broiler line (Avian, AV), 1 commercial layer line (Hy-Line Brown, HLB), and 1 Chinese commercial broiler line (Lingnanhuang, LNH) synthesized by exotic and native breeds, which were slaughtered at their market ages: 16, 7, 16, and 8 wk, respectively. The effects of genotype, muscle type, and sex on meat quality traits were examined. Birds from slow-growing genotypes (WCH, Xianju, and HLB) exhibited higher shear value, inosine-5'-monophosphate concentration, lower cook loss, and more fat than those from fast-growing genotypes (AV and LNH). Chickens from WCH possessed the lowest expressible moisture, cook loss, and the highest lipid (%) among the 3 slow-growing genotypes. The HLB birds were intermediate in expressible moisture and cook loss and lowest in lipid among all genotypes. The LNH cross birds were similar to AV broilers in most meat quality parameters, although they had a lower shear force value and higher fat content than AV broilers. Breast muscle had higher expressible moisture, shear force, protein (%), inosine-5'-monophosphate content, lower cook loss, and lipid (%) than leg muscle. Muscles from male chickens had higher expressible moisture than those from the females. Variability of meat quality characteristics is mainly related to genotype and muscle type differences. PMID:19762878

Tang, H; Gong, Y Z; Wu, C X; Jiang, J; Wang, Y; Li, K

2009-10-01

28

A trait based approach to defining valued mentoring qualities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graduate training in the sciences requires strong personal interactions among faculty, senior lab members and more junior members. Within the lab-group setting we learn to frame problems, to conduct research and to communicate findings. The result is that individual scientists are partly shaped by a few influential mentors. We have all been influenced by special relationships with mentors, and on reflection we may find that certain qualities have been especially influential in our career choices. In this presentation I will discuss favorable mentoring traits as determined from an informal survey of scientists in varying stages of careers and from diverse backgrounds. Respondents addressed questions about traits they value in their mentors in several categories: 1) personal qualities such as approachability, humor and encouragement; background including gender, ethnicity, and family status; 2) scientific qualities including discipline or specialization, perceived stature in discipline, seniority, breadth of perspective, and level of expectations; and 3) community-oriented qualities promoted by mentors, such as encouraging service contributions and peer-mentoring within the lab group. The results will be compared among respondents by gender, ethnicity, stage of career, type of work, and subdiscipline within the broadly defined Biogeoscience community. We hope to contribute to the growing discussion on building a diverse and balanced scientific workforce.

Pendall, E.

2012-12-01

29

Investigation of uniformity in pig carcass and meat quality traits.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to provide information on uniformity of commercial pigs on some of the most important traits determining pork quality: carcass, loin, ham and shoulder weights, fatness, drip loss, pH and colour. Three batches of pigs raised at the same farm and slaughtered at four different dates in the same commercial abattoir were considered. Batches included halothane-free females and castrated males, Duroc and Pietrain sire lines and two slaughter weights, but a common maternal line. The first batch was obtained using commercial Duroc sire boars, and included a total of 112 animals (56 castrated males and 56 females). The second batch used Duroc and Pietrain sire boars with the target to achieve two different final weights (105 and 115 kg live weight); 128 animals were controlled (64 castrated males and 64 females), 16 for each combination of sire boar, sex and final weight. The last batch used only Pietrain sire boars with 96 controlled pigs (48 castrated males and 48 females). The uniformity was measured by the coefficient of variation (CV) and the coefficient of dispersion (CD) for all data available, and for groups of common sex, sire breed and slaughter weight. Differences in uniformity were tested among traits and groups by using confidence intervals (CIs) at 95% confidence level (CI95%) for the CV and CD. Results showed a significantly lower uniformity for drip loss (CV = 40.4%, CI95% 36.9% to 44.7%; CD = 32.1%, CI95% 28.7% to 35.4%) and backfat (CV = 22.8%, CI95% 21.1% to 24.8%; CD = 18.3%, CI95% 17.1% to 20.2%) the pH being the most uniform trait (CV = 3.2%, CI95% 3.0% to 3.5%; CD = 2.6%, CI95% 2.4% to 2.9%). When comparing different 'sire breed-sex-slaughter weight' groups, no consistent sex and slaughter weight differences in uniformity were found, but animals from Pietrain sire breed showed a tendency to be less uniform for carcass traits than animals from Duroc sire breed. Nevertheless, variability within those groups was very high and often similar to that observed when considering all the animals from all the groups. Small differences were found comparing uniformity when using the CV or the CD. CIs of these coefficients have proved to be a simple and useful tool for testing differences in uniformity. PMID:22445128

Alfonso, L; Zudaire, G; Sarries, M V; Viguera, J; Flamarique, F

2010-10-01

30

Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for fiber quality and yield trait by RIL approach in Upland cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improvement of cotton fiber quality has become more important because of changes in spinning technology. Stable quantitative\\u000a trait loci (QTLs) for fiber quality will enable molecular marker-assisted selection to improve fiber quality of future cotton\\u000a cultivars. A simple sequence repeat (SSR) genetic linkage map consisting of 156 loci covering 1,024.4 cM was constructed using\\u000a a series of recombinant inbred lines

Xinlian Shen; Wangzhen Guo; Qiongxian Lu; Xiefei Zhu; Youlu Yuan; Tianzhen Zhang

2007-01-01

31

Functional Interactions Among Morphologic and Tissue Quality Traits Define Bone Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Advances in diagnostic and treatment regimens that aim to reduce fracture incidence will benefit from a better understanding\\u000a of how bone morphology and tissue quality define whole-bone mechanical properties.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  The goal of this article was to review what is known about the interactions among morphologic and tissue quality traits and\\u000a how these interactions contribute to bone quality (ie, whole-bone mechanical

Karl J. Jepsen

32

QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES: METHOD 28 CERTIFICATION AND AUDITING OF WOOD HEATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Quality assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing particulate matter sampling of wood heaters according to EPA protocol, Method 28. These procedures may be u...

33

Describing variation in carcass quality traits of crossbred cattle.  

PubMed

In order to investigate variation in carcass quality traits, during a four-year period, mature Hereford cows (637) were mated to 97 sires from seven breeds (Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin and Belgian Blue), resulting in 1144 calves. Carcass production traits (carcass weight = HCWt, fat depth = P8, eye muscle area = EMA, intramuscular fat = IMF) were obtained from these cattle that constitute the Australia's Southern Crossbreeding Project. Data were analysed using multi-variate sire model containing fixed effects of sex, sire breed, slaughter age nested within sexes. Random effects were sire, dam, management (location-year-post-weaning groups) and environmental effects. HCWt of South Devon, Belgian Blue, Limousin and unexpectedly, Angus were the heaviest on the average. Hereford calves were intermediate and Jersey and Wagyu were lighter on the average than others. Carcasses of the Belgian Blue and Limousin had low P8 and IMF, carcasses of Hereford and South Devon were intermediate and Angus, Jersey and Wagyu had high P8 and IMF. Management group effects were greatest especially for EMA and IMF. The sire variation was about 6, 6, 4 and 2% of total variation for HCWt, P8, EMA and IMF. Heritability ranged from 0.20 to 0.37 (carcass weight). The genetic correlation between the two fat depots was not as high (0.18) as expected. Results from this study suggest that strategies to increase genetic potential for HCWt would increase the genetic potential for EMA but may reduce marbling and tend to slightly increase P8. All phenotypic correlations were positive, although not large. PMID:19579950

Mirzaei, H R; Verbyla, A P; Deland, M P B; Pitchford, W S

2009-02-01

34

Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Kernel and Malting Quality Traits Using Historical European Barley Records  

PubMed Central

Malting quality is an important trait in breeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). It requires elaborate, expensive phenotyping, which involves micro-malting experiments. Although there is abundant historical information available for different cultivars in different years and trials, that historical information is not often used in genetic analyses. This study aimed to exploit historical records to assist in identifying genomic regions that affect malting and kernel quality traits in barley. This genome-wide association study utilized information on grain yield and 18 quality traits accumulated over 25 years on 174 European spring and winter barley cultivars combined with diversity array technology markers. Marker-trait associations were tested with a mixed linear model. This model took into account the genetic relatedness between cultivars based on principal components scores obtained from marker information. We detected 140 marker-trait associations. Some of these associations confirmed previously known quantitative trait loci for malting quality (on chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 5H). Other associations were reported for the first time in this study. The genetic correlations between traits are discussed in relation to the chromosomal regions associated with the different traits. This approach is expected to be particularly useful when designing strategies for multiple trait improvements. PMID:25372869

Röder, Marion S.; van Eeuwijk, Fred

2014-01-01

35

Muscle protein changes post mortem in relation to pork quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between post-mortem traits of muscle proteins and water loss traits was investigated using 84 pork loins representing the four quality traits of PSE, RSE (reddishpink, soft, exudative), RFN (reddish-pink, firm, non-exudative) and DFD. Protein solubility measurements (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and total) were lower and myosin denaturation (quantified by myofibrillar ATPase activity) was higher for PSE samples compared with samples

R. D. Warner; R. G. Kauffman; M. L. Greaser

1997-01-01

36

Genetic Diversity for Morphological and Quality Traits in Quinoa( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty nine germplasm lines of Chenopodium quinoa and two of Chenopodium berlandieri subsp. nuttalliae were evaluated for 12 morphological and 7 quality traits for two test seasons. The 19 traits were analyzed for cluster and principal component analysis. The first four PCs contributed 78.70 % of the variability among the germplasm lines. The first PC accounted for 39.5% of the

A. Bhargava; S. Shukla; S. Rajan; D. Ohri

2007-01-01

37

Association of eight EST-derived SNPs with carcass and meat quality traits in pigs.  

PubMed

The identification of genetic markers associated with important economic traits is fundamental to improving the productivity and quality of livestock. In this investigation, we searched for 177 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) putatively involved in meat quality from the available pig EST database, and detected eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight ESTs. We investigated the associations of these SNPs with 18 carcass and meat quality traits in a Landrace?×?Lantang F2 resource population (n?=?257). Association analysis revealed that seven SNPs (except E42) were associated with some of the carcass- and meat quality-related traits. Particularly, significant associations of three SNPs (E53, E82, and E36) with backfat thickness traits were observed. Further, the genetic effects of E53 on four live backfat thickness traits were validated in an independent population (n?=?221). More investigations about E53 sequence characteristics were performed, i.e., radiation hybrid (RH) mapping, 3'-RACE, and screening analysis of the positive BAC clones. Our research identified the genetic effects of eight EST-derived SNPs on carcass and meat quality traits, and suggested that E53 may be a useful marker for live backfat thickness traits in pig breeding programs. PMID:25081836

Tong, Xiong; Zhang, Zhe; Jiao, Yiren; Xu, Jian; Dang, Hongquyen; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Zhiguo; Duan, Junli; Zhang, Hao; Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Chong

2015-02-01

38

How do drought and warming influence survival and wood traits of Picea mariana saplings?  

PubMed

Warming and drought will occur with increased frequency and intensity at high latitudes in the future. How heat and water stress can influence tree mortality is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate how carbon resources, stem hydraulics, and wood anatomy and density determine the ability of black spruce saplings to survive daytime or night-time warming (+ 6 °C in comparison with control) in combination with a drought period. Plant water relations, the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates and starch, mortality rate, and wood anatomy and density of saplings were monitored. Warming, in conjunction with 25 d of water deficit, increased sapling mortality (10% and 20% in night-time and daytime warming, respectively) compared with the control conditions (0.8%). Drought substantially decreased gas exchange, and also pre-dawn and mid-day leaf water potential to values close to -3MPa which probably induced xylem embolism (xylem air entry point, P 12, being on average around -3MPa for this species). In addition, the recovery of gas exchange never reached the initial pre-stress levels, suggesting a possible loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity associated with cavitation. Consequently, mortality may be due to xylem hydraulic failure. Warmer temperatures limited the replenishment of starch reserves after their seasonal minimum. Lighter wood was formed during the drought period, reflecting a lower carbon allocation to cell wall formation, preventing the adaptation of the hydraulic system to drought. Saplings of black spruce experienced difficulty in adapting under climate change conditions, which might compromise their survival in the future. PMID:25371502

Balducci, Lorena; Deslauriers, Annie; Giovannelli, Alessio; Beaulieu, Marilène; Delzon, Sylvain; Rossi, Sergio; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K

2015-01-01

39

Gene Discovery and Product Development for Grain Quality Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The composition of oils, proteins, and carbohydrates in seeds of corn, soybean, and other crops has been modified to produce grains with enhanced value. Both plant breeding and molecular technologies have been used to produce plants carrying the desired traits. Genomics-based strategies for gene discovery, coupled with high-throughput transformation processes and miniaturized, automated analytical and functionality assays, have accelerated the identification of product candidates. Molecular markerâ??based breeding strategies have been used to accelerate the process of moving trait genes into high-yielding germplasm for commercialization. These products are being tested for applications in food, feed, and industrial markets.

Barbara Mazur (DuPont Agricultural Products Experimental Station; )

1999-07-16

40

Detection of quantitative trait loci for meat quality traits in cattle.  

PubMed

A whole-genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting sensory, organoleptic, physical and chemical properties of meat. The study used phenotypic data from 235 second-generation cross-bred bull calves of a Charolais x Holstein experimental population. Loin muscle samples were evaluated for yield force, intramuscular fat and nitrogen contents, myofibrillar fragmentation index, haem pigment concentration, moisture content and pH at 24 h postmortem. A sensory assessment was performed on grilled loin and roasted silverside joints by trained panellists. A linear regression analysis based on 165 markers revealed 35 QTL at the 5% chromosome-wide significance level (20 for sensory traits and 15 for physical and chemical traits), five of which were highly significant (F-value: > or =9). The most significant QTL was located on chromosome 6 (with the best likely position at 39 cM) and affected haem pigment concentration. The Holstein allele for this QTL was associated with an increase of 0.53 SD in the haem scores. A QTL for pH(24h) was identified on chromosome 14 (at 40 cM) and a QTL for moisture content was identified on chromosome 22 (at 21 cM). Two highly significant QTL were identified for sensory panel-assessed traits: beef odour intensity (grilled sample) on chromosome 10 (at 119 cM), and juiciness (roast sample) on chromosome 16 (at 70 cM). The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the significant QTL ranged from 3.6% (for nitrogen content on chromosome 10) to 9.5% (for juiciness, roast sample on chromosome 16). PMID:18254735

Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Wiener, P; Nute, G R; Burton, D; Gill, J L; Wood, J D; Williams, J L

2008-02-01

41

QTL analysis of fruit quality traits in muscadine grapes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia) are an important native fruit crop grown in the southeastern United States. To facilitate the breeding of improved cultivars of muscadine grapes a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted on several flower and fruit characteristics of two segregatin...

42

The impact of wood stove technology upgrades on indoor residential air quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) air pollution has been linked to adverse health impacts, and combustion sources including residential wood-burning may play an important role in some regions. Recent evidence suggests that indoor air quality may improve in homes where older, non-certified wood stoves are exchanged for lower emissions EPA-certified alternatives. As part of a wood stove exchange program in northern British Columbia, Canada, we sampled outdoor and indoor air at 15 homes during 6-day sampling sessions both before and after non-certified wood stoves were exchanged. During each sampling session two consecutive 3-day PM 2.5 samples were collected onto Teflon filters, which were weighed and analyzed for the wood smoke tracer levoglucosan. Residential PM 2.5 infiltration efficiencies ( Finf) were estimated from continuous light scattering measurements made with nephelometers, and estimates of Finf were used to calculate the outdoor- and indoor-generated contributions to indoor air. There was not a consistent relationship between stove technology and outdoor or indoor concentrations of PM 2.5 or levoglucosan. Mean Finf estimates were low and similar during pre- and post-exchange periods (0.32 ± 0.17 and 0.33 ± 0.17, respectively). Indoor sources contributed the majority (˜65%) of the indoor PM 2.5 concentrations, independent of stove technology, although low indoor-outdoor levoglucosan ratios (median ? 0.19) and low indoor PM 2.5-levoglucosan correlations ( r ? 0.19) suggested that wood smoke was not a major indoor PM 2.5 source in most of these homes. In summary, despite the potential for extensive wood stove exchange programs to reduce outdoor PM 2.5 concentrations in wood smoke-impacted communities, we did not find a consistent relationship between stove technology upgrades and indoor air quality improvements in homes where stoves were exchanged.

Allen, Ryan W.; Leckie, Sara; Millar, Gail; Brauer, Michael

2009-12-01

43

Genetic trend estimates of meat quality traits in a male broiler line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research was conducted to estimate the genetic trends for meat quality traits in a male broiler line. The traits analyzed were initial pH, pH at 6 h after slaughter, final pH, initial range of falling pH, final range of falling pH, lightness, redness, yellowness, weep loss, drip loss, shrink loss, and shear force. The number of observations varied

G. B. Mourao; L. G. Gaya; J. B. S. Ferraz; E. C. Mattos; A. M. M. A. Costa; T. Michelan Filho; O. C. Cunha Neto; A. M. Felicio; J. P. Eler

2008-01-01

44

Both additivity and epistasis control the genetic variation for fruit quality traits in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a gene involved in the variation of a quantitative trait may change due to epistatic interactions with the overall\\u000a genetic background or with other genes through digenic interactions. The classical populations used to map quantitative trait\\u000a loci (QTL) are poorly efficient to detect epistasis. To assess the importance of epistasis in the genetic control of fruit\\u000a quality

Mathilde Causse; Jamila Chaïb; Laurent Lecomte; Michel Buret

2007-01-01

45

Quantitative trait locus mapping in an F2 Duroc x Pietrain resource population: II. Carcass and meat quality traits.  

PubMed

Pigs from the F(2) generation of a Duroc x Pietrain resource population were evaluated to discover QTL affecting carcass composition and meat quality traits. Carcass composition phenotypes included primal cut weights, skeletal characteristics, backfat thickness, and LM area. Meat quality data included LM pH, temperature, objective and subjective color information, marbling and firmness scores, and drip loss. Additionally, chops were analyzed for moisture, protein, and fat composition as well as cook yield and Warner-Bratzler shear force measurements. Palatability of chops was determined by a trained sensory panel. A total of 510 F(2) animals were genotyped for 124 microsatellite markers evenly spaced across the genome. Data were analyzed with line cross, least squares regression interval, mapping methods using sex and litter as fixed effects and carcass weight or slaughter age as covariates. Significance thresholds of the F-statistic for single QTL with additive, dominance, or imprinted effects were determined on chromosome- and genome-wise levels by permutation tests. A total of 94 QTL for 35 of the 38 traits analyzed were found to be significant at the 5% chromosome-wise level. Of these 94 QTL, 44 were significant at the 1% chromosome-wise, 28 of these 44 were also significant at the 5% genome-wise, and 14 of these 28 were also significant at the 1% genome-wise significance thresholds. Putative QTL were discovered for 45-min pH and pH decline from 45 min to 24 h on SSC 3, marbling score and carcass backfat on SSC 6, carcass length and number of ribs on SSC 7, marbling score on SSC 12, and color measurements and tenderness score on SSC 15. These results will facilitate fine mapping efforts to identify genes controlling carcass composition and meat quality traits that can be incorporated into marker-assisted selection programs to accelerate genetic improvement in pig populations. PMID:17965326

Edwards, D B; Ernst, C W; Raney, N E; Doumit, M E; Hoge, M D; Bates, R O

2008-02-01

46

Wood Fiber Quality and Kraft Pulping Efficiencies of Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) Clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural variation in wood and pulp fiber quality of 15 aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) clones, represented by 47 trees, was assessed from 4 different sites in British Columbia, Canada. Kraft pulping trials revealed substantial variation in the pulping efficiencies, illustrated by differences of 6% in total pulp yield, ?30% differences in H?factor required to attain a target kappa of

Shawn D. Mansfield; Henrik Weineisen

2007-01-01

47

Association studies of dormancy and cooking quality traits in direct-seeded indica rice.  

PubMed

Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Assam rice (indica) using 98 SSR markers for dormancy-related traits and cooking quality. Analysis of population structure revealed 10 subgroups in the population. The mean r(2) and D' value for all intrachromosomal loci pairs was 0.24 and 0.51, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium between linked markers decreased with distance. Marker-trait associations were investigated using the unified mixed-model approach, considering both population structure (Q) and kinship (K). Genome-wide scanning, detected a total of seven significant marker-trait associations (P < 0.01), with the R(2) values ranging from 12.0 to 18.0%. The significant marker associations were for grain dormancy (RM27 on chromosome 2), ?-amylase activity (RM27 and RM234 on chromosomes 2 and 7, respectively), germination (RM27 and RM106 on chromosome 2), amylose (RM282 on chromosome 3) and grain length elongation ratio (RM142 on chromosome 4). The present study revealed the association of marker RM27 with traits like dormancy, ?-amylase activity and germination. Simple correlation analysis of these traits revealed that these traits were positively correlated with each other and this marker may be useful for simultaneous improvement of these traits. The study indicates the presence of novel QTLs for a few traits under consideration. The study reveals association of traits like dormancy, ?-amylase activity, germination, amylose content, grain length elongation ratio with SSR markers indicating the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization. PMID:24840818

Rathi, Sunayana; Pathak, K; Yadav, R N S; Kumar, B; Sarma, R N

2014-04-01

48

Genetic and phenotypic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits in commercial crossbred pigs.  

PubMed

Pork quality and carcass characteristics are now being integrated into swine breeding objectives because of their economic value. Understanding the genetic basis for these traits is necessary for this to be accomplished. The objective of this study was to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits in 2 Canadian swine populations. Data from a genomic selection study aimed at improving meat quality with a mating system involving hybrid Landrace × Large White and Duroc pigs were used to estimate heritabilities and phenotypic and genetic correlations among them. Data on 2,100 commercial crossbred pigs for meat quality and carcass traits were recorded with pedigrees compromising 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Significant fixed effects (company, sex, and slaughter batch), covariates (cold carcass weight and slaughter age), and random additive and common litter effects were fitted in the models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASReml to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters. Heritability estimates (±SE) for carcass traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.22 ± 0.08 for longissimus dorsi muscle area to 0.63 ± 0.04 for trimmed ham weight, except for firmness, which was low. Heritability estimates (±SE) for meat quality traits varied from 0.10 ± 0.04 to 0.39 ± 0.06 for the Minolta b* of ham quadriceps femoris muscle and shear force, respectively. Generally, most of the genetic correlations were significant (P < 0.05) and ranged from low (0.18 ± 0.07) to high (-0.97 ± 0.35). There were high negative genetic correlations between drip loss with pH and shear force and a positive correlation with cooking loss. Genetic correlations between carcass weight (both hot and cold) with carcass marbling were highly positive. It was concluded that selection for increasing primal and subprimal cut weights with better pork quality may be possible. Furthermore, the use of pH is confirmed as an indicator for pork water-holding capacity and cooking loss. The heritabilities of carcass and pork quality traits indicated that they can be improved using traditional breeding methods and genomic selection, respectively. The estimated genetic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits can be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations. PMID:24778330

Miar, Y; Plastow, G S; Moore, S S; Manafiazar, G; Charagu, P; Kemp, R A; Van Haandel, B; Huisman, A E; Zhang, C Y; McKay, R M; Bruce, H L; Wang, Z

2014-07-01

49

SHORT COMMUNICATION A note on meat quality traits of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus)  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION A note on meat quality traits of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) Peter Hofbauer-Verlag 2010 Abstract Meat yield, proximate composition, pH and drip loss of breast and thigh muscles were 30 N/cm2 . Keywords Pheasant meat . Proximate composition . Drip loss . pH . Cooking loss . Colour

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

50

Impact of operating wood-burning fireplace ovens on indoor air quality.  

PubMed

The use of combustion heat sources like wood-burning fireplaces has regained popularity in the past years due to increasing energy costs. While the outdoor emissions from wood ovens are strictly regulated in Germany, the indoor release of combustion products is rarely considered. Seven wood burning fireplaces were tested in private homes between November 2012 and March 2013. The indoor air quality was monitored before, during and after operation. The following parameters were measured: ultra-fine particles (5.6-560 nm), fine particles (0.3-20 ?m), PM2.5, NOx, CO, CO2, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Most ovens were significant sources of particulate matter. In some cases, an increase of benzene and BaP concentrations was observed in the indoor air. The results illustrate that wood-burning fireplaces are potential sources of indoor air contaminants, especially ultra-fine particles. Under the aspect of lowering indoor air exchange rates and increasing the use of fuels with a net zero-carbon footprint, indoor combustion sources are an important topic for the future. With regards to consumer safety, product development and inspection should consider indoor air quality in addition to the present fire protection requirements. PMID:24364889

Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Wientzek, Sebastian; Wensing, Michael

2014-05-01

51

QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES: METHOD 5G DETERMINATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM WOOD HEATERS FROM A DILUTION TUNNEL SAMPLING LOCATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Quality assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing particulate matter sampling of wood heaters according to EPA protocol, Method 5G. These procedures may be u...

52

One trait, many signals: different information on male quality is enclosed within the same trait in a blenny fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colourful ornaments are traditionally evaluated as one trait. However, they could consist of several components, such as total size, colour intensity and extension, each possibly bearing its own message about one aspect of quality. Males of the blenny Salaria pavo exhibit a colourful head crest and solely care for eggs. During the breeding season, the head crest shows a yellow colouration, the intensity and relative extension of which are independent of crest size. Here, we show that: (1) carotenoids are responsible for the head crest yellow patch; (2) activating the immune system by injecting the bacterial antigen lipopolysaccharides affects both the intensity and extent of the yellow colouration; and (3) females assess males on the basis of colour patch expression. However, the response of the yellow patch to the immune challenge was dependent on head crest size. Indeed, males with a larger head crest reacted better to the simulated infection, sustaining a level of yellow patch close to pre-challenge size.

Locatello, Lisa; Pizzolon, Matteo; Rasotto, Maria Berica

2012-10-01

53

Meat quality traits of commercial hybrid pigs in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the meat quality of two INTA hybrids (hybrid females) sired by Duroc (D) or Yorkshire (Y) boars and a third one from PIC (S), a cross of females C22 to 412 boars. Starting at 30kg live weight, 18 barrows and 18 gilts of each genotype were kept in identical conditions until slaughtered at 110kg. Longissimus dorsi muscles

M. R. Lloveras; P. R. Goenaga; M. Irurueta; F. Carduza; G. Grigioni; P. T. García; A. Améndola

2008-01-01

54

Japanese quail meat quality: characteristics, heritabilities, and genetic correlations with some slaughter traits.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic parameters of several breast meat quality traits and their genetic relationships with some slaughter traits [BW, breast yield (BRY), and abdominal fat yield (AFY)]. In total, 1,093 pedigreed quail were slaughtered at 35 d of age to measure BRY, AFY, and breast meat quality traits [ultimate pH (pHU), Commission Internationale d'Eclairage color parameters (L*, lightness; a*, redness; and b*, yellowness), thawing and cooking loss (TL and CL, respectively), and Warner-Bratzler shear value (WB)]. The average pHU, L*, a*, and b* were determined to be 5.94, 43.09, 19.24, and 7.74, respectively. In addition, a very high WB average (7.75 kg) indicated the firmness of breast meat. High heritabilities were estimated for BW, BRY, and AFY (0.51, 0.49, and 0.35). Genetic correlations of BW between BRY and AFY were found to be high (0.32 and 0.58). On the other hand, the moderate negative relationship between BRY and AFY (-0.24) implies that selection for breast yield should not increase abdominal fat. The pHU was found to be the most heritable trait (0.64), whereas the other meat quality traits showed heritabilities in the range of 0.39 to 0.48. Contrary to chickens, the genetic correlation between pHU and L* was low. The pHU exhibited a negative and high correlation with BW and AFY, whereas L* showed a positive but smaller relationship with these traits. Moreover, pHU exhibited high negative correlations (-0.43 and -0.62) with TL and WB, whereas L* showed a moderate relationship (0.24) with CL. This genetic study confirmed that the multi-trait selection could be used to improve meat quality traits. Further, the ultimate pH of breast meat is a relevant selection criterion due to its strong relationships with either water-holding capacity and texture or low abdominal fatness. PMID:23776259

Narinc, Dogan; Aksoy, Tulin; Karaman, Emre; Aygun, Ali; Firat, Mehmet Ziya; Uslu, Mustafa Kemal

2013-07-01

55

Phenotypic diversity and association mapping for fruit quality traits in cultivated tomato and related species.  

PubMed

Association mapping has been proposed as an efficient approach to assist in the identification of the molecular basis of agronomical traits in plants. For this purpose, we analyzed the phenotypic and genetic diversity of a large collection of tomato accessions including 44 heirloom and vintage cultivars (Solanum lycopersicum), 127 S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (cherry tomato) and 17 Solanum pimpinellifolium accessions. The accessions were genotyped using a SNPlex™ assay of 192 SNPs, among which 121 were informative for subsequent analysis. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) of pairwise loci and population structure were analyzed, and the association analysis between SNP genotypes and ten fruit quality traits was performed using a mixed linear model. High level of LD was found in the collection at the whole genome level. It was lower when considering only the 127 S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme accessions. Genetic structure analysis showed that the population was structured into two main groups, corresponding to cultivated and wild types and many intermediates. The number of associations detected per trait varied, according to the way the structure was taken into account, with 0-41 associations detected per trait in the whole collection and a maximum of four associations in the S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme accessions. A total of 40 associations (30 %) were co-localized with previously identified quantitative trait loci. This study thus showed the potential and limits of using association mapping in tomato populations. PMID:23124430

Xu, Jiaxin; Ranc, Nicolas; Muños, Stéphane; Rolland, Sophie; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Desplat, Nelly; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Liang, Yan; Brunel, Dominique; Causse, Mathilde

2013-03-01

56

Effects of a natural extract of chestnut wood on digestibility, performance traits, and nitrogen balance of broiler chicks.  

PubMed

Currently, feed ingredients containing tannin are attracting more interest as substitutes for antibiotic growth promoters in animal and poultry feeding. This study investigated the influence of a natural extract of chestnut wood (Silvafeed ENC) on broiler digestibility (experiment 1) and on the growth performance, carcass quality, and nitrogen balance of broilers (experiment 2). Results showed that the inclusion of ENC did not influence the apparent digestibility of organic matter, CP, and ether extract. Chick growth performance showed a quadratic or cubic response with increasing levels of ENC. When chicks were fed ENC from 14 to 56 d of age, the ENC had a positive effect on average daily gain in the first 2 wk of addition, whereas this effect was not evident in the last 2 wk compared with the control group. Similar trends were also shown for daily feed intake. Overall, the chicks fed 0.20% ENC had significantly better growth performance than the control group. Carcass analysis showed no gross lesions in organs and no significant differences in thigh and breast composition among groups. Noteworthy is the fact that the ENC-treated groups had less total litter nitrogen; in particular, chicks fed 0.15 and 0.20% ENC showed a significant difference in total litter nitrogen compared with the control group. No significant difference in nitrogen balance was observed. Addition of 0.20% ENC seemed to have a positive influence on chick feeding. PMID:18281579

Schiavone, A; Guo, K; Tassone, S; Gasco, L; Hernandez, E; Denti, R; Zoccarato, I

2008-03-01

57

Proopiomelanocortin gene polymorphisms and its association with meat quality traits by ultrasound measurement in Chinese cattle.  

PubMed

Ultrasound technology was used to measure live animal meat traits instead of true carcass meat traits for beef production and cattle breeding by an increasing number of institutions. In this study, we analyzed the association between genetic polymorphisms of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and ultrasound measurement traits in Chinese cattle. Using direct DNA sequencing in 322 individuals of 7 different cattle subpopulation, 7 SNPs were identified for genotyping within 790bp region of intron 2 and exon 3 of POMC. 6586 T>G in intron 2 and 6769 C>T and 7216 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ultrasound backfat thickness (UBF) (P<0.05) and ultrasound loin muscle area (ULMA) (P<0.01) in the total population; 6694 C>T, 6706 T>C, 6796 C>T and 6810 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ULMA (P<0.0001) in the total population. These results clearly suggest that these SNPs of POMC be benefit for selection of individuals with good quality meat in Chinese cattle breeding program. Following validation in other populations and breeds, these markers could be incorporated into breeding programs to increase the rate of improvement in carcass and meat quality traits. PMID:23872232

Liu, Yongfeng; Zan, Linsen; Li, Linqiang; Xin, Yaping

2013-10-15

58

Preliminary studies on combiners and combinations for quality traits in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).  

PubMed

Line x Tester analysis of 2 testers and 10 lines was conducted for fruit quality characters. Though both general (gca) and specific combining ability (sca) variances contributed significantly for these traits, the contribution of sca variance was more prominent for titratable acidity, total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content, while for pericarp thickness gca variance was more important. The highest gca effects for pericarp thickness, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid content and titratable acidity were recorded by the lines SM, Sioux, TT and SW 72, respectively. Based on pooled gca score, SW 72 was recognised as a good combiner for quality traits. The magnitude and significance of sca effects varied with the characters. Two superior crosses were identified and the implication of combining ability effects on handling these crosses are discussed. PMID:3231592

Patil, A A; Patil, S S

1988-01-01

59

Fattening performance, slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of Karayaka lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to verify the fattening performance, slaughter and carcass characteristics and to investigate the changes in some\\u000a meat quality traits of Karayaka lambs weaned at 3 months of age, 39 lambs (23 males and 16 females) were used as experimental\\u000a animals. The lambs were fed a concentrate mixture and alfalfa hay (120 and 168 g crude protein and 2,700 and 1,951 ME\\/kg,

Ugur Sen; Emre Sirin; Zafer Ulutas; Mehmet Kuran

2011-01-01

60

Prediction model of a joint analysis of beef growth and carcass quality traits.  

PubMed

A joint growth-carcass analysis was conducted to develop equations for predicting carcass quality traits associated with variation in growth path of crossbred cattle. During a four-year period (1994-1997) of the Australian "Southern Crossbreeding Project", mature Hereford cows (r = 581) were mated to 97 sires of Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin, and Belgian Blue breeds, resulting in 1141 calves. Data included body weight measurements of steers and heifers from birth until slaughter and four carcass quality traits: hot standard carcass weight, rump fat depth, rib eye muscle area, and intramuscular fat content. The model provides nine outputs: median and mean of carcass quality traits, predicted means, and lower and upper confidence intervals, as well as predicted intervals of carcass quality traits (95%) and economic values for domestic market and export markets. Input to the model consists of sex, sire breeds, age (in days)-weight (kg) pairs and slaughter age (500 days for heifer and 700 days for steers). The prediction model is able to accommodate different sexes across seven sire breeds and various management groups at any slaughter age. Its strength lies in its simplicity and flexibility, desirable to accommodate producers with different management schemes. In general, fat depth and intramuscular fat were found to be more affected by differences in growth rate than hot carcass weight and eye muscle area. Also, export market value was more sensitive to growth rate modifications than domestic market value. This model provides a tool by which the producer can estimate the impact of management decisions. PMID:21425095

Mirzaei, H R; Verbyla, A P; Pitchford, W S

2011-01-01

61

Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations of egg quality traits in brown-egg dwarf layers.  

PubMed

Albumen height, albumen weight (AW), eggshell color (ESC), eggshell index, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, eggshell weight (ESW), egg weight (EW), Haugh units, and yolk weight (YW) were measured in 2,272 eggs collected 3 d sequentially from 920 brown-egg dwarf layers caged individually. The restricted maximum likelihood procedure was applied to estimate heritabilities and genotypic and phenotypic correlations for these egg quality traits. Heritabilities of albumen height, AW, ESC, eggshell index, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, ESW, EW, Haugh units, and YW were 0.51, 0.59, 0.46, 0.40, 0.24, 0.34, 0.64, 0.63, 0.41, and 0.45, respectively. The genetic correlations between EW and AW, YW, and ESW were high ranging from 0.67 to 0.97, whereas those for ESC with external and internal egg quality traits were low ranging from -0.23 to 0.13. Thus although heritabilities for these traits were moderate to high, genetic correlations with ESC were low, suggesting a minor relationship between shell color and physical attributes of the shell as well as internal egg quality in brown-egg dwarf layers. PMID:16156204

Zhang, L C; Ning, Z H; Xu, G Y; Hou, Z C; Yang, N

2005-08-01

62

Genetic variation of chemical and mechanical traits of maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster Aiton). Correlations with wood density components  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Background\\u000a   Genetic selection for one trait can have an impact on other important traits for final use; thus, it is important to assess\\u000a the correlation between traits.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • Methods\\u000a   Genetic control and relationships among lignin content predicted by near infrared spectroscopy, radial modulus of elasticity\\u000a (MOERad) and the radial modulus of rupture (MORRad), as well as its correlations with

Maria J. Gaspar; Ana Alves; José L. Louzada; José Morais; Antonio Santos; Claudia Fernandes; Maria H. Almeida; José C. Rodrigues

2011-01-01

63

Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) Associated with Maintenance of Bread Making Quality under Heat Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)  

E-print Network

IDENTIFICATION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTLs) ASSOCIATED WITH MAINTENANCE OF BREAD MAKING QUALITY UNDER HEAT STRESS IN WHEAT (Triticum aestivum) A Thesis by FRANCIS WARD BEECHER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2009 Major Subject: Molecular and Environmental Plan Sciences IDENTIFICATION OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTLs) ASSOCIATED WITH MAINTENANCE OF BREAD MAKING QUALITY UNDER HEAT...

Beecher, Francis Ward

2010-10-12

64

Detection of QTL controlling metabolism, meat quality, and liver quality traits of the overfed interspecific hybrid mule duck.  

PubMed

The mule duck, an interspecific hybrid obtained by crossing common duck (Anas platyrhynchos) females with Muscovy (Cairina moschata) drakes, is widely used for fatty liver production. The purpose of the present study was to detect and map single and pleiotropic QTL that segregate in the common duck species, and influence the expression of traits in their overfed mule duck offspring. To this end, we generated a common duck backcross (BC) population by crossing Kaiya and heavy Pekin experimental lines, which differ notably in regard to the BW and overfeeding ability of their mule progeny. The BC females were mated to Muscovy drakes and, on average, 4 male mule ducks hatched per BC female (1600 in total) and were measured for growth, metabolism during growth and the overfeeding period, overfeeding ability, and the quality of their breast meat and fatty liver. The phenotypic value of BC females was estimated for each trait by assigning to each female the mean value of the phenotypes of her offspring. Estimations allowed for variance, which depended on the number of male offspring per BC and the heritability of the trait considered. The genetic map used for QTL detection consisted of 91 microsatellite markers aggregated into 16 linkage groups (LG) covering a total of 778 cM. Twenty-two QTL were found to be significant at the 1% chromosome-wide threshold level using the single-trait detection option of the QTLMap software. Most of the QTL detected were related to the quality of breast meat and fatty liver: QTL for meat pH 20 min post mortem were mapped to LG4 (at the 1% genome-wide significance level), and QTL for meat lipid content and cooking losses were mapped to LG2a. The QTL related to fatty liver weight and liver protein and lipid content were for the most part detected on LG2c and LG9. Multitrait analysis highlighted the pleiotropic effects of QTL in these chromosome regions. Apart from the strong QTL for plasma triglyceride content at the end of the overfeeding period mapped to chromosome Z using single-trait analysis, all metabolic trait QTL were detected with the multitrait approach: the QTL mapped to LG14 and LG21 affected the plasma cholesterol and triglyceride contents, whereas the QTL mapped to LG2a seemed to impact glycemia and the basal plasma corticosterone content. A greater density genetic map will be needed to further fine map the QTL. PMID:23148259

Kileh-Wais, M; Elsen, J M; Vignal, A; Feves, K; Vignoles, F; Fernandez, X; Manse, H; Davail, S; André, J M; Bastianelli, D; Bonnal, L; Filangi, O; Baéza, E; Guéméné, D; Genêt, C; Bernadet, M D; Dubos, F; Marie-Etancelin, C

2013-02-01

65

Effect of Hybridization on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Erlang Mountainous Chickens  

PubMed Central

Native chickens hold a significant share of the market in China. In response to the huge demand from the market, the productivity of Chinese native chickens needs to be improved. Cross breeding is an effective method to increase productivity, although it might affect meat quality. In this study, two pure lines (SD02 and SD03) of Erlang mountainous chickens were hybridized with a yellow feather and faster growing line (SD01). The effect of hybridization on carcass and meat quality (physiochemical and textural traits) was measured in the F1 population at d 91 of age. The hybrids exhibited higher body weight and dressed weight, and amount of semi-eviscerated, eviscerated, breast muscle and abdominal fat (p<0.05). Abdominal fat yield also increased (p<0.05) compared to the offspring of the two pure-lines. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in meat quality traits except for the myofiber diameter and density and the shear force of the breast muscle. Overall, the offspring of cross-lines were similar to pure lines in meat color, pH value, inosinic acid, crude protein, crude fat, dry matter, moisture content and amino acid composition in the breast muscle. These results suggest that productivity can be improved via cross-breeding while maintaining meat quality of the Erlang mountainous chicken. PMID:25049734

Yin, H. D.; Gilbert, E. R.; Chen, S. Y.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Z. C.; Zhao, X. L.; Zhang, Yao; Zhu, Q.

2013-01-01

66

Genetic parameters of egg quality traits on different pedigree layers with special focus on dynamic stiffness.  

PubMed

Egg quality traits are of utmost importance in layer breeding programs due to their effect on profitability in the egg production industry and on the production of quality chicks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and estimate genetic parameters of different quality traits: egg weight, breaking strength, dynamic stiffness (Kdyn), egg shape index, eggshell thickness, and albumen height. Eggs were obtained from 4 pure lines of birds. Two different tests were performed: a white breeding program, with eggs from a male and female line of a white egg layer program that were analyzed at 67 to 70 wk of age, and a brown breeding program, with eggs from a male and female line of a brown egg layer program that were analyzed at 32 to 36 wk of age. In general, heritabilities were moderate to high for all traits (h(2) = 0.23 to 0.71). A high genetic correlation was estimated in both tests between breaking strength and Kdyn (rg = +0.40 to +0.61). Shell thickness was also positively correlated with breaking strength (rg = +0.50 to +0.63) and Kdyn (rg = +0.28 to +0.69). These moderate relationships demonstrate that the strength of an egg not only relies on the shell thickness but also on the quality and uniformity of eggshell construction. Dynamic stiffness might be preferred for breeding purposes due to its lower negative genetic correlation with egg weight and its higher heritability (h(2) = 0.35 to 0.70) compared with breaking strength (h(2) = 0.23 to 0.35). Breaking strength and Kdyn were positively correlated with shape index, which confirms that round eggs will show higher shell stability. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor egg shape to maintain an optimal form. PMID:25104763

Blanco, A E; Icken, W; Ould-Ali, D; Cavero, D; Schmutz, M

2014-10-01

67

The use of levoglucosan to assess the environmental impact of residential wood-burning on air quality  

SciTech Connect

Levoglucosan, a product of the incomplete combustion of cellulose, is present in relatively high concentrations in the particle matter generated from wood-burning stoves. This fact has been exploited to develop a source apportionment method whereby measurements of levoglucosan in ambient air may be used to estimate the contribution of residential wood-burning activities to the Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. Analysis of the emissions from wood-burning stoves, both in controlled laboratory burns and from stoves as actually operated in the field, indicates that the percentage of levoglucosan on wood smoke particles is relatively insensitive to burn rate and operating conditions. For a representative group of stoves operated in the home under actual operating conditions, they found that typical wood smoke particles contain 4.6 ({plus minus} 1.7) percent w/w levoglucosan. The average PAH contribution to wood smoke particulate composition was also determined for the field operated stoves and results were used for source assessment of ambient PAH. This application to PAH estimates is complicated by the fact that PAH emissions are sensitive to stove operating conditions. Under controlled laboratory dilution tunnel conditions it was demonstrated that the PAH emission factor from wood-burning stoves increased with increasing burn rate. Application of their source assessment method to the winter-time ambient Hanover, NH airshed indicates that up to 60 ({plus minus} 21)% of the ambient TSP and 70 ({plus minus} 25)% of the PAH may be attributed to wood-burning activities. Given the current concern regarding the contribution of wood-burning to air quality, it should be noted that this analytical scheme provides a rapid and convenient method of determining the environmental impact of residential wood combustion.

Locker, H.B.

1988-01-01

68

Neck blast disease influences grain yield and quality traits of aromatic rice.  

PubMed

A critical investigation was conducted to find out the effect of neck blast disease on yield-contributing characters, and seed quality traits of aromatic rice in Bangladesh. Both healthy and neck-blast-infected panicles of three aromatic rice cultivars (high-yielding and local) were collected and investigated at Plant Pathology Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Gazipur, Bangladesh. All of the tested varieties were highly susceptible to neck blast disease under natural conditions, though no leaf blast symptoms appear on leaves. Neck blast disease increased grain sterility percentages, reduced grain size, yield and quality traits of seeds. The degrees of yield and seed quality reduction depended on disease severity and variety's genetic make-up. Unfilled grains were the main source of seed-borne pathogen, especially for blast in the seed lot. Transmission of blast pathogen from neck (panicle base) to seed was very poor. These findings are important, especially concerning the seed certification programme in which seed lots are certified on the basis of field inspection. Finally, controlled experiments are needed to draw more critical conclusions. PMID:25444707

Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Bhuiyan, Md Rejwan; Hossain, Md Shahadat; Sen, Partha Pratim; Ara, Anjuman; Siddique, Md Abubakar; Ali, Md Ansar

2014-11-01

69

Epistatic QTL pairs associated with meat quality and carcass composition traits in a porcine Duroc × Pietrain population  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses in pig have revealed numerous individual QTL affecting growth, carcass composition, reproduction and meat quality, indicating a complex genetic architecture. In general, statistical QTL models consider only additive and dominance effects and identification of epistatic effects in livestock is not yet widespread. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize epistatic effects between common and novel QTL regions for carcass composition and meat quality traits in pig. Methods Five hundred and eighty five F2 pigs from a Duroc × Pietrain resource population were genotyped using 131 genetic markers (microsatellites and SNP) spread over the 18 pig autosomes. Phenotypic information for 26 carcass composition and meat quality traits was available for all F2 animals. Linkage analysis was performed in a two-step procedure using a maximum likelihood approach implemented in the QxPak program. Results A number of interacting QTL was observed for different traits, leading to the identification of a variety of networks among chromosomal regions throughout the porcine genome. We distinguished 17 epistatic QTL pairs for carcass composition and 39 for meat quality traits. These interacting QTL pairs explained up to 8% of the phenotypic variance. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate the significance of epistasis in pigs. We have revealed evidence for epistatic relationships between different chromosomal regions, confirmed known QTL loci and connected regions reported in other studies. Considering interactions between loci allowed us to identify several novel QTL and trait-specific relationships of loci within and across chromosomes. PMID:20977705

2010-01-01

70

Phenotypic Data Collection and Sample Preparation for Genomics of Wood Formation and Cellulosic Biomass Traits in Sunflower: Ames, IA location.  

SciTech Connect

Three fields were planted in Ames in 2010, two association mapping fields, N3 and A, and a recombinant inbred line field, N13. Phenotype data and images were transferred to UGA to support genetic and genomic analyses of woody biomass-related traits.

Marek, Laura F.

2011-06-17

71

Wood stove effects on indoor air quality in Brazilian homes: carcinogens, suspended particulate matter, and nitrogen dioxide analysis.  

PubMed

The effects of wood burning stoves on indoor air quality was investigated in a rural community of southern Brazil, during the winter season of 1991. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were assessed in houses with wood stoves and the results compared with levels found in houses with gas stoves. Strikingly higher (p < 0.01) levels of PAHs, and much higher (p = 0.07) levels of SPM were found in the kitchens with wood stoves. In contrast, NO2 concentrations in the kitchen as well in personal exposure, were found to be slightly higher in houses with gas stoves. All these differences were minimally affected by smoking, outdoor air pollution or other emissions from indoor combustion products. These findings appear to support the hypothesis that domestic wood burning stoves are risk factors for some upper digestive and respiratory tract cancers in Brazil. PMID:1300673

Hamada, G S; Kowalski, L P; Murata, Y; Matsushita, H; Matsuki, H

1992-10-01

72

Physically Challenging Song Traits, Male Quality, and Reproductive Success in House Wrens  

PubMed Central

Physically challenging signals are likely to honestly indicate signaler quality. In trilled bird song two physically challenging parameters are vocal deviation (the speed of sound frequency modulation) and trill consistency (how precisely syllables are repeated). As predicted, in several species, they correlate with male quality, are preferred by females, and/or function in male-male signaling. Species may experience different selective pressures on their songs, however; for instance, there may be opposing selection between song complexity and song performance difficulty, such that in species where song complexity is strongly selected, there may not be strong selection on performance-based traits. I tested whether vocal deviation and trill consistency are signals of male quality in house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), a species with complex song structure. Males’ singing ability did not correlate with male quality, except that older males sang with higher trill consistency, and males with more consistent trills responded more aggressively to playback (although a previous study found no effect of stimulus trill consistency on males’ responses to playback). Males singing more challenging songs did not gain in polygyny, extra-pair paternity, or annual reproductive success. Moreover, none of the standard male quality measures I investigated correlated with mating or reproductive success. I conclude that vocal deviation and trill consistency do not signal male quality in this species. PMID:23527137

Cramer, Emily R. A.

2013-01-01

73

Physically challenging song traits, male quality, and reproductive success in house wrens.  

PubMed

Physically challenging signals are likely to honestly indicate signaler quality. In trilled bird song two physically challenging parameters are vocal deviation (the speed of sound frequency modulation) and trill consistency (how precisely syllables are repeated). As predicted, in several species, they correlate with male quality, are preferred by females, and/or function in male-male signaling. Species may experience different selective pressures on their songs, however; for instance, there may be opposing selection between song complexity and song performance difficulty, such that in species where song complexity is strongly selected, there may not be strong selection on performance-based traits. I tested whether vocal deviation and trill consistency are signals of male quality in house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), a species with complex song structure. Males' singing ability did not correlate with male quality, except that older males sang with higher trill consistency, and males with more consistent trills responded more aggressively to playback (although a previous study found no effect of stimulus trill consistency on males' responses to playback). Males singing more challenging songs did not gain in polygyny, extra-pair paternity, or annual reproductive success. Moreover, none of the standard male quality measures I investigated correlated with mating or reproductive success. I conclude that vocal deviation and trill consistency do not signal male quality in this species. PMID:23527137

Cramer, Emily R A

2013-01-01

74

Trait Mindfulness and Work-Family Balance among Working Parents: The Mediating Effects of Vitality and Sleep Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the relationship between trait mindfulness and work-family balance among a sample of working parents. Sleep quality and vitality are tested as mediators of this relationship. Results indicate that those with greater mindfulness report greater work-family balance, better sleep quality, and greater vitality. As…

Allen, Tammy D.; Kiburz, Kaitlin M.

2012-01-01

75

Stability over genetic backgrounds, generations and years of quantitative trait locus (QTLs) for organoleptic quality in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of marker-assisted backcross for the introgression of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) from a donor line into\\u000a a recipient line depends on the stability of QTL expression. QTLs for six quality traits in tomato (fruit weight, firmness,\\u000a locule number, soluble solid content, sugar content and titratable acidity) were studied in order to investigate their individual\\u000a effect and their

J. Chaïb; L. Lecomte; M. Buret; M. Causse

2006-01-01

76

Pre-freezing raw hams affects quality traits in cooked hams: potential influence of protein oxidation.  

PubMed

The influence of protein carbonylation and lipid oxidation on colour and texture changes in cooked hams from fresh and pre-frozen (frozen/thawed) raw material was studied. Samples from three muscles, biceps femoris (BF) quadriceps femoris (QF) and semimembranosus (SM) were analysed for the gain of specific protein carbonyls, ?-aminoadipic and ?-glutamic semialdehydes, the gain of TBA-RS and their colour and texture properties by instrumental and sensory techniques. The formation of protein carbonyls occurred concomitantly with an intense loss of redness and increase of hardness. Both phenomena were found to be more intense in QF and SM muscles in cooked hams elaborated from frozen material. Lipid oxidation played a negligible role on the impaired quality traits observed in cooked hams as a result of pre-freezing. Plausible mechanisms by which protein carbonylation may be implicated in the loss of quality in cooked hams produced from pre-frozen material are discussed. PMID:22748310

Utrera, M; Armenteros, M; Ventanas, S; Solano, F; Estévez, M

2012-12-01

77

Neuroticism personality trait is associated with Quality of Life in patients with Chronic Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate Quality of life (QoL) in chronic heart failure (CHF) in relation to Neuroticism personality trait and CHF severity. METHODS: Thirty six consecutive, outpatients with Chronic Heart Failure (6 females and 30 males, mean age: 54 ± 12 years), with a left ventricular ejection fraction ? 45% at optimal medical treatment at the time of inclusion, were asked to answer the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) for Quality of Life assessment and the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory for personality assessment. All patients underwent a symptom limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle-ergometer, in order to access CHF severity. A multivariate linear regression analysis using simultaneous entry of predictors was performed to examine which of the CHF variables and of the personality variables were correlated independently to QoL scores in the two summary scales of the KCCQ, namely the Overall Summary Scale and the Clinical Summary Scale. RESULTS: The Neuroticism personality trait score had a significant inverse correlation with the Clinical Summary Score and Overall Summary Score of the KCCQ (r = -0.621, P < 0.05 and r = -0.543, P < 0.001, respectively). KCCQ summary scales did not show significant correlations with the personality traits of Extraversion, Openness, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness. Multivariate linear regression analysis using simultaneous entry of predictors was also conducted to determine the best linear combination of statistically significant univariate predictors such as Neuroticism, VE/VCO2 slope and VO2 peak, for predicting KCCQ Clinical Summary Score. The results show Neuroticism (? = -0.37, P < 0.05), VE/VCO2 slope (? = -0.31, P < 0.05) and VO2 peak (? = 0.37, P < 0.05) to be independent predictors of QoL. In multivariate regression analysis Neuroticism (b = -0.37, P < 0.05), the slope of ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide output during exercise, (VE/VCO2 slope) (b = -0.31, P < 0.05) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), (b = 0.37, P < 0.05) were independent predictors of QoL (adjusted R2 = 0.64; F = 18.89, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Neuroticism is independently associated with QoL in CHF. QoL in CHF is not only determined by disease severity but also by the Neuroticism personality trait. PMID:25349656

Samartzis, Lampros; Dimopoulos, Stavros; Manetos, Christos; Agapitou, Varvara; Tasoulis, Athanasios; Tseliou, Eleni; Pozios, Iraklis; Kaldara, Elisavet; Terrovitis, John; Nanas, Serafim

2014-01-01

78

Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock*  

PubMed Central

Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5?-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

2013-01-01

79

Comparison between the three porcine RN genotypes for growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits  

PubMed Central

A three-step experimental design has been carried out to add evidence about the existence of the RN gene, with two segregating alleles RN- and rn+, having major effects on meat quality in pigs, to estimate its effects on production traits and to map the RN locus. In the present article, the experimental population and sampling procedures are described and discussed, and effects of the three RN genotypes on growth and carcass traits are presented. The RN genotype had no major effect on growth performance and killing out percentage. Variables pertaining to carcass tissue composition showed that the RN- allele is associated with leaner carcasses (about 1 s.d. effect without dominance for back fat thickness, 0.5 s.d. effect with dominance for weights of joints). Muscle glycolytic potential (GP) was considerably higher in RN- carriers, with a maximum of a 6.85 s.d. effect for the live longissimus muscle GP. Physico-chemical characteristics of meat were also influenced by the RN genotype in a dominant way, ultimate pH differing by about 2 s.d. between homozygous genotypes and meat colour by about 1 s.d. Technological quality was also affected, with a 1 s.d. decrease in technological yield for RN- carriers. The RN genotype had a more limited effect on eating quality. On the whole, the identity between the acid meat condition and the RN- allele effect is clearly demonstrated (higher muscle GP, lower ultimate pH, paler meat and lower protein content), and the unfavourable relationship between GP and carcass lean to fat ratio is confirmed. PMID:14736400

Le Roy, Pascale; Elsen, Jean-Michel; Caritez, Jean-Claude; Talmant, André; Juin, Hervé; Sellier, Pierre; Monin, Gabriel

2000-01-01

80

Fattening performance, slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of Karayaka lambs.  

PubMed

In order to verify the fattening performance, slaughter and carcass characteristics and to investigate the changes in some meat quality traits of Karayaka lambs weaned at 3 months of age, 39 lambs (23 males and 16 females) were used as experimental animals. The lambs were fed a concentrate mixture and alfalfa hay (120 and 168 g crude protein and 2,700 and 1,951 ME/kg, respectively) for a period of 60 days of fattening period. Male lambs were superior (p < 0.05) to female lambs in terms of daily weight gain (270.4 vs. 205.4 g; SEM = 9.46), hot and cold carcass weights (16.7 and 16.0 vs. 14.1 and 13.4 kg, respectively; SEM = 0.35), intra-muscular fat ratios (1.9% vs. 2.5%; SEM = 0.12) and dripping loss of semitendinosus muscle 3 days postmortem (8.1% vs. 10.2%; SEM = 0.36). The relative weights of some organs, the meat quality traits (pH, cooking loss, shear force, CIELab colour characteristics) and proximate analyses (dry matter, protein and ash) of longissimus dorsi and semitendinosus muscle samples from lambs were not affected by sex (p > 0.05). Dripping loss, pH and colour characteristics were affected by storage time (p < 0.05). These results provide a basic understanding of performance and meat quality of Karayaka sheep which may have potentials in improving sheep production using an indigenous sheep breed in Turkey. PMID:20938737

Sen, Ugur; Sirin, Emre; Ulutas, Zafer; Kuran, Mehmet

2011-02-01

81

Exercise addiction: a study of eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachment styles.  

PubMed

Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels of excitement-seeking and achievement striving whereas scores on straightforwardness and compliance were lower than in the exercise control group. The addiction group reported more bodily pain and injuries. This study supports the hypothesis that exercise addiction is separate to an eating disorder, but shares some of the concerns of body and performance. It is driven by a striving for high goals and excitement which results in pain and injuries from overuse. PMID:24342179

Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask; Bilenberg, Niels; Støving, René Klinky

2014-02-28

82

The identification of 14 new genes for meat quality traits in chicken using a genome-wide association study  

PubMed Central

Background Meat quality is an important economic trait in chickens. To identify loci and genes associated with meat quality traits, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of F2 populations derived from a local Chinese breed (Beijing-You chickens) and a commercial fast-growing broiler line (Cobb-Vantress). Results In the present study, 33 association signals were detected from the compressed mixed linear model (MLM) for 10 meat quality traits: dry matter in breast muscle (DMBr), dry matter in thigh muscle (DMTh), intramuscular fat content in breast muscle (IMFBr), meat color lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values, skin color L*, a* (redness) and b* values, abdominal fat weight (AbFW) and AbFW as a percentage of eviscerated weight (AbFP). Relative expressions of candidate genes identified near significant signals were compared using samples of chickens with High and Low phenotypic values. A total of 14 genes associated with IMFBr, meat color L*, AbFW, and AbFP, were differentially expressed between the High and Low phenotypic groups. These genes are, therefore, prospective candidate genes for meat quality traits: protein tyrosine kinase (TYRO3) and microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST1) for IMFBr; collagen, type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2) for meat color L*; and RET proto-oncogene (RET), natriuretic peptide B (NPPB) and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) for the abdominal fat (AbF) traits. Conclusions Based on the association signals and differential expression of nearby genes, 14 candidate loci and genes for IMFBr, meat L* and b* values, and AbF are identified. The results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying meat quality traits in chickens. PMID:23834466

2013-01-01

83

Association of growth hormone (GH) gene polymorphism with carcass and meat quality traits in PIC hybrid pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presented study was aimed at determining the association of growth hormone (GH) gene polymorphism with the traits that characterise carcass and meat quality and meat basic chemical composition in porkers with genotype CC with respect to RYR1 locus. The study was carried out on 126 PIC porkers originating after Camborough 22 sows and PIC 337 boars. The polymorphism of

ARTUR RYBARCZYK; TADEUSZ KARAMUCKI; ARKADIUSZ TERMAN

2007-01-01

84

Epistatic QTL pairs associated with meat quality and carcass composition traits in a porcine Duroc × Pietrain population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses in pig have revealed numerous individual QTL affecting growth, carcass composition, reproduction and meat quality, indicating a complex genetic architecture. In general, statistical QTL models consider only additive and dominance effects and identification of epistatic effects in livestock is not yet widespread. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize epistatic effects

Christine Große-Brinkhaus; Elisabeth Jonas; Heiko Buschbell; Chirawath Phatsara; Dawit Tesfaye; Heinz Jüngst; Christian Looft; Karl Schellander; Ernst Tholen

2010-01-01

85

Effect of nutritive level on carcass traits and meat quality of IHDH foals  

PubMed Central

The present work describes the effect of nutritive level on horse carcass traits and on meat quality. Eighteen male Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH) breed foals were employed in the study. Soon after foaling they were randomly subdivided into three groups according to three nutritive level classes: 150%, 180% and 200% of maintenance requirements. Live weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of each animal were recorded. After slaughtering, meat samples were collected from Longissimus dorsi muscle. The right half carcass of each animal was then divided into cuts. Each one was subdivided into lean, fat and bones. Live weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage were not affected by nutritive level (P > 0.05). Horses fed with the lower nutritive level showed a higher incidence of lean and a lower incidence of fat (P < 0.01). Moreover, fatty acid profile was not affected by nutritive level (P > 0.05). Probably the tendency of IHDH foals to concentrate adipogenesis in the subcutaneous district could explain the lack of influence of nutritive level on meat quality parameters and its influence on carcass and cut composition, which tend to be richer in fat. PMID:24961285

De Palo, Pasquale; Tateo, Alessandra; Maggiolino, Aristide; Centoducati, Pasquale

2014-01-01

86

RNA-Seq Using Two Populations Reveals Genes and Alleles Controlling Wood Traits and Growth in Eucalyptus nitens  

PubMed Central

Eucalyptus nitens is a perennial forest tree species grown mainly for kraft pulp production in many parts of the world. Kraft pulp yield (KPY) is a key determinant of plantation profitability and increasing the KPY of trees grown in plantations is a major breeding objective. To speed up the breeding process, molecular markers that can predict KPY are desirable. To achieve this goal, we carried out RNA-Seq studies on trees at extremes of KPY in two different trials to identify genes and alleles whose expression correlated with KPY. KPY is positively correlated with growth measured as diameter at breast height (DBH) in both trials. In total, six RNA bulks from two treatments were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq platform. At 5% false discovery rate level, 3953 transcripts showed differential expression in the same direction in both trials; 2551 (65%) were down-regulated and 1402 (35%) were up-regulated in low KPY samples. The genes up-regulated in low KPY trees were largely involved in biotic and abiotic stress response reflecting the low growth among low KPY trees. Genes down-regulated in low KPY trees mainly belonged to gene categories involved in wood formation and growth. Differential allelic expression was observed in 2103 SNPs (in 1068 genes) and of these 640 SNPs (30%) occurred in 313 unique genes that were also differentially expressed. These SNPs may represent the cis-acting regulatory variants that influence total gene expression. In addition we also identified 196 genes which had Ka/Ks ratios greater than 1.5, suggesting that these genes are under positive selection. Candidate genes and alleles identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for future association studies aimed at identifying molecular markers for KPY and growth. PMID:24967893

Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; Southerton, Simon; Thumma, Bala

2014-01-01

87

Air-quality-impact potential from residential wood-burning stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is renewed interest in use of wood for residential space heating in the Tennessee Valley region because of the increasing electric rates, and uncertain future availability of oil, and natural gas. The Tennessee Valley Authority Biomass for Energy program plan proposes the installation of 100,000 wood heaters in the region over a 5-year period from 1980 to 1984. Coupled

J. R. Duncan; K. M. Morkin; M. P. Schmierbach

1980-01-01

88

Genotypic variation and relationships between quality traits and trace elements in traditional and improved rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes.  

PubMed

In this study, we assessed the extent of genotypic differences among rice genotypes for grain size, milling quality, cooking properties, protein, and the mineral contents of Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu in unpolished rice varieties. Further, relationship among grain quality traits and mineral contents was determined. The results showed that the visible difference could be found in the mineral contents among rice genotypes studied. The contents of Fe and Zn in traditional genotypes were significantly higher than those of improved cultivars. There was a negative correlation between grain yield and mineral contents. However, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu contents appeared to be positively correlated. The relationships between mineral element contents and cooking quality traits viz., kernel length after cooking and kernel linear elongation ratio were positively correlated, indicated the role of micronutrients in cooking quality traits. Both Fe and Cu contents were correlated positively and significantly with head rice recovery. The eigen values of 1st 6 principal components (PC) were > 1.0. The present study suggests that breeding for high minerals will be probably realistic. PMID:22417360

Anandan, A; Rajiv, G; Eswaran, R; Prakash, M

2011-05-01

89

Effects of bovine SMO gene polymorphisms on the body measurement and meat quality traits of Qinchuan cattle.  

PubMed

Beef cattle breeding programs focus on improving important economic traits, including growth rates, and meat quantity and quality. Molecular marker-assisted selection based on genetic variation represents a potential method for breeding genetically improved livestock with better economic traits. Smoothened (SMO) protein is a signal transducer that contributes to the regulation of both osteogenesis and adipogenesis through the hedgehog pathway. In this study, we detected polymorphisms in the bovine SMO gene of Qinchuan cattle, and we analyzed their associations with body measurement traits (BMTs) and meat quality traits (MQTs). Using DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, 3 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the SMO gene of 562 cattle: 1 G > C mutation on exon 9 (G21234C) and 2 C > T mutations on exon 11 (C22424T and C22481T). Association analysis showed that polymorphisms on both the G21234C and C22424T loci significantly affected certain BMTs and MQTs (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), whereas those on the C22481T locus did not (P > 0.05). Therefore, the SMO gene could be used as a candidate gene to alter BMTs and MQTs in Qinchuan cattle or for marker-assisted selection to breed cattle with superior BMTs and MQTs. PMID:25299195

Zhang, Y R; Li, Y K; Fu, C Z; Wang, J L; Wang, H B; Zan, L S

2014-01-01

90

The effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles could prove to be a valuable alternative raw material for antibiotics and disinfectants as it is relatively free of adverse effects. Nanosilver is now been put to practical use in commonly used items, such as, clothes, electric home appliances, and electronic industry, but has not been widely applied in the medical or pharmacological fields. This study was designed to investigate the effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail in completely randomized design with four treatments and six repetitions at 0, 4, 8 and 12 ppm of silver nanoparticle levels. Eggs collected daily and egg parameters, including egg weight, length, width; yolk weight and eggshell thickness were examined. The effect of the different silver nanoparticle levels was determined using the General Linear Model of SAS procedure, whilst differences between the groups were determined using least significant difference test. Results indicated that silver nanoparticles at all levels caused significantly reduce of yolk weight and hen-day egg production for each week than the control treatment ( P < 0.05), whilst silver nanoparticle had no significant effect on egg weight, egg length and width and eggshell thickness.

Farzinpour, Amjad; Karashi, Naser

2013-04-01

91

Association of blood glucose, blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, muscle metabolites, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of blood glucose levels with blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, postmortem muscle glycogen and lactate content, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits. Compared to pigs with lower blood glucose levels, pigs with higher blood glucose levels showed higher blood lactate and serum cortisol levels at exsanguination, and they had lower residual glycogen and higher lactate content in the muscle at 45min postmortem. In addition, pigs with higher blood glucose levels had higher type IIB and lower type I area composition and finally exhibited lower muscle pH, paler color, and excessive loss of fluid on surface. These results imply that measuring blood glucose levels at exsanguination can be useful to indicate early glycolytic rates during postmortem and thus may be of value in the identification of pork with undesirable quality traits. PMID:24576772

Choe, J H; Kim, B C

2014-06-01

92

Impact of residential wood burning on indoor air quality Corinne Mandin1,2  

E-print Network

, ketones, and tracers of wood combustion such as levoglucosan and methoxyphenols on PM10 fraction, were gravimetric analysis. Levoglucosan and methoxyphenols were also sampled on quartz fiber filters in the PM10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

93

Impacts of air cleaners on indoor air quality in residences impacted by wood smoke.  

PubMed

Residential wood combustion is an important source of ambient air pollution, accounting for over 25% of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Canada. In addition to these ambient contributions, wood smoke pollutants can enter the indoor environment directly when loading or stoking stoves, resulting in a high potential for human exposure. A study of the effectiveness of air cleaners at reducing wood smoke-associated PM2.5 of indoor and outdoor origin was conducted in 31 homes during winter 2009-10. Day 1, the residents' wood burning appliance operated as usual with no air cleaner. Days 2 and 3, the wood burning appliance was not operational and the air cleaner was randomly chosen to operate in "filtration" or "placebo filtration" mode. When the air cleaner was operating, total indoor PM2.5 levels were significantly lower than on placebo filtration days (p = 0.0001) resulting in a median reduction of 52%. There was also a reduction in the median PM2.5 infiltration factor from 0.56 to 0.26 between these 2 days, suggesting the air cleaner was responsible for increased PM2.5 deposition on filtration days. Our findings suggest that the use of an air cleaner reduces exposure to indoor PM2.5 resulting from both indoor and ambient wood smoke sources. PMID:25247985

Wheeler, Amanda J; Gibson, Mark D; MacNeill, Morgan; Ward, Tony J; Wallace, Lance A; Kuchta, James; Seaboyer, Matt; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Guernsey, Judith Read; Stieb, David M

2014-10-21

94

Joint analysis of beef growth and carcass quality traits through calculation of co-variance components and correlations.  

PubMed

A joint growth-carcass model using random regression was used to estimate the (co)variance components of beef cattle body weights and carcass quality traits and correlations between them. During a four-year period (1994-1997) of the Australian "southern crossbreeding project", mature Hereford cows (N = 581) were mated to 97 sires of Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin, and Belgian Blue breeds, resulting in 1141 calves. Data included 13 (for steers) and 8 (for heifers) body weight measurements approximately every 50 days from birth until slaughter and four carcass quality traits: hot standard carcass weight, rump fat depth, rib eye muscle area, and intramuscular fat content. The mixed model included fixed effects of sex, sire breed, age (linear, quadratic and cubic), and their interactions between sex and sire breed with age. Random effects were sire, dam, management (birth location, year, post-weaning groups), and permanent environmental effects, and their interactions with linear, quadratic and cubic growth, when possible. Phenotypic, sire and dam correlations between body weights and hot standard carcass weight and rib eye muscle area were positive and moderate to high from birth to feedlot period. Management variation accounted for the largest proportion of total variation in both growth and carcass traits. Management correlations between carcass traits were high, except between rump fat depth and intramuscular fat (r = 0.26). Management correlations between body weight and carcass traits during the pre-weaning period were positive except for intramuscular fat. The correlations were low from birth to weaning, then increased dramatically and were high during the feedlot period. PMID:21425094

Mirzaei, H R; Verbyla, A P; Pitchford, W S

2011-01-01

95

Panic disorder and health-related quality of life: The predictive roles of anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety.  

PubMed

Panic disorder (PD) is a very common anxiety disorder and is often a chronic disabling condition. However, little is known about the factors that predict health-related quality of life (HRQOL) other than sociodemographic factors and illness-related symptomatology that explain HRQOL in only small to modest degrees. This study explored whether anxiety-related individual traits including anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety can predict independently HRQOL in panic patients. Patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (N=230) who met the diagnostic criteria in the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were recruited. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the factors that predict HRQOL in panic disorder. HRQOL was assessed by the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Anxiety sensitivity was an independent predictor of bodily pain and social functioning whereas trait anxiety independently predicted all of the eight domains of the SF-36. Our data suggests that the assessment of symptomatology as well as individual anxiety-related trait should be included in the evaluation of HRQOL in panic patients. PMID:25466228

Kang, Eun-Ho; Kim, Borah; Choe, Ah Young; Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Tai Kiu; Lee, Sang-Hyuk

2015-01-30

96

Genetics of osteochondral disease and its relationship with meat quality and quantity, growth, and feed conversion traits in pigs.  

PubMed

The main objective of this research was to estimate heritabilities of seven osteochondrosis (OC) lesions in station-tested pigs and their genetic and phenotypic correlations with four meat quality (MQ) traits, the percentage of premium cuts (PPC), daily weight gain (DWG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Observed OC lesions were on the head of humerus (HK), condylus medialis humeri (CMH), condylus lateralis humeri (CLH), radius and ulna proximal (RUP), distal epiphyseal cartilage of ulna (DEU), head of femur (FK), and condylus medialis femoris (CMF). Meat quality traits were i.m. fat (IMF), muscle pH at 1 h after slaughter (pH1), muscle pH at 30 h after slaughter (pH30), and light reflectance on muscle (H30). The data set comprised 2,710 animals, of which 1,291 animals had OC records. All traits were analyzed by multiple-trait linear mixed model, with the animal's genetic and common litter effects as random. Fixed effects in the model varied between traits. Each OC lesion was further analyzed by a univariate generalized linear mixed model or, equivalently, "threshold models," assuming logistic, probit (normal), and Poisson distributions of the underlying "liability" to the disease. For OC lesions, estimates of heritability were low on the original "incidence" scale (0.06 for HK to 0.16 for CLH) and moderate to high on the liability scale (0.08 to 0.42). Genetic correlations (r(g)) between OC lesions and most MQ traits and PPC were generally unfavorable. Significant r(g) were -0.44 for DWG-CMH, 0.31 for DWG-CMF, 0.40 for FCR-HK, 0.21 for PPC-CLH, 0.32 for PPC-RUP, 0.30 for PPC-CMF, -0.54 for pH1-CLH, 0.47 for pH1-DEU, -0.34 for pH30-CMH, 0.58 for pH30-DEU, -0.50 for H30-HK, -0.31 for H30-DEU, and 0.31 for H30-CMF. Genetic susceptibilities to some OC lesions within the front leg were positively related to each other (r(g) range = 0.57 to 0.69), but r(g) between front and hind leg OC lesions were mostly negative (range = -0.21 to -0.40). Estimated h2 was 0.60 for PPC, and ranged from 0.12 to 0.66 for MQ traits, 0.28 for DWG, and 0.42 for FCR. Genetic correlations among meat quality and quantity traits ranged from -0.66 to 0.37. This is the first study to report genetic and phenotypic correlations between OC lesions and several meat quality and quantity traits in pigs. These findings will be useful to pig industry, especially in designing breeding programs for robust pigs. PMID:15542457

Kadarmideen, H N; Schwörer, D; Ilahi, H; Malek, M; Hofer, A

2004-11-01

97

Identification of Associated SSR Markers for Yield Component and Fiber Quality Traits Based on Frame Map and Upland Cotton Collections  

PubMed Central

Detecting QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that enhance cotton yield and fiber quality traits and accelerate breeding has been the focus of many cotton breeders. In the present study, 359 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were used for the association mapping of 241 Upland cotton collections. A total of 333 markers, representing 733 polymorphic loci, were detected. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distances were 8.58 cM (r2 > 0.1) and 5.76 cM (r2 > 0.2). 241 collections were arranged into two subgroups using STRUCTURE software. Mixed linear modeling (MLM) methods (with population structure (Q) and relative kinship matrix (K)) were applied to analyze four phenotypic datasets obtained from four environments (two different locations and two years). Forty-six markers associated with the number of bolls per plant (NB), boll weight (BW), lint percentage (LP), fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber micornaire value (FM) were repeatedly detected in at least two environments. Of 46 associated markers, 32 were identified as new association markers, and 14 had been previously reported in the literature. Nine association markers were near QTLs (at a distance of less than 1–2 LD decay on the reference map) that had been previously described. These results provide new useful markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs and new insights for understanding the genetic basis of Upland cotton yields and fiber quality traits at the whole-genome level. PMID:25635680

Qin, Hongde; Chen, Min; Yi, Xianda; Bie, Shu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Youchang; Lan, Jiayang; Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Youlu; Jiao, Chunhai

2015-01-01

98

M. Ivkovich and M. KoshyOptimization of multiple trait selection Original article  

E-print Network

of multiple trait selection in western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) including pulp and paper different selection indices in multiple breeding populations. Tsuga heterophylla / wood quality / index propriétés de la pâte et du papier chez (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.). Nous avons étudié plusieurs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

99

Analysis of a slow-growing line reveals wide genetic variability of carcass and meat quality-related traits  

PubMed Central

Background Slow-growing lines are widely used in France for the production of high quality free-range chickens. While such production is mainly dedicated to the whole carcass market, new prospects are opening up for the development of cuts and processed products. Whether the body composition and meat quality of slow-growing birds can be improved by selection has thus become an important issue. The genetic parameters of growth, body composition and breast meat quality traits were evaluated in relation to behaviour at slaughter in a large pedigree population including 1022 male and female slow-growing birds. Results The heritability coefficients (h2) of body weight and body composition traits varied from 0.3 to 0.5. Abdominal fat percentage was genetically positively correlated with body weight but negatively correlated with breast muscle yield. The characteristics of the breast meat (i.e., post-mortem fall in pH, colour, drip loss, shear-force and lipid content) were all heritable, with h2 estimates ranging from 0.18 to 0.48. The rate and extent of the fall in pH were under different genetic control. Strong negative genetic correlations were found between the ultimate pH and the lightness, yellowness and drip loss of the meat. Wing flapping on the shackle line was significantly heritable and exhibited marked genetic correlations with the pH at 15 min post-slaughter and the redness of the meat. The genetic relationships between meat quality traits, body weight and body composition appeared slightly different between males and females. Conclusion This study suggested that there are a number of important criteria for selection on carcass and breast meat quality in slow-growing birds. Selection for reduced abdominal fatness and increased breast muscle yield should be effective as both traits were found to be highly heritable and favourably correlated. Substantial improvement in meat quality could be achieved by selection on ultimate pH which was highly heritable and strongly correlated with the colour and water-holding capacity of the meat. Moreover, this study revealed for the first time that the behaviour at slaughter is partly genetically determined in the chicken. PMID:23088779

2012-01-01

100

Genetic parameters and prediction of genotypic values for root quality traits in cassava using REML/BLUP.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and predict the genotypic values of root quality traits in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). A total of 471 cassava accessions were evaluated over two years of cultivation. The evaluated traits included amylose content (AML), root dry matter (DMC), cyanogenic compounds (CyC), and starch yield (StYi). Estimates of the individual broad-sense heritability of AML were low (hg(2) = 0.07 ± 0.02), medium for StYi and DMC, and high for CyC. The heritability of AML was substantially improved based on mean of accessions (hm(2) = 0.28), indicating that some strategies such as increasing the number of repetitions can be used to increase the selective efficiency. In general, the observed genotypic values were very close to the predicted average of the improved population, most likely due to the high accuracy (>0.90), especially for DMC, CyC, and StYi. Gains via selection of the 30 best genotypes for each trait were 4.8 and 3.2% for an increase and decrease for AML, respectively, an increase of 10.75 and 74.62% for DMC for StYi, respectively, and a decrease of 89.60% for CyC in relation to the overall mean of the genotypic values. Genotypic correlations between the quality traits of the cassava roots collected were generally favorable, although they were low in magnitude. The REML/BLUP method was adequate for estimating genetic parameters and predicting the genotypic values, making it useful for cassava breeding. PMID:25177949

Oliveira, E J; Santana, F A; Oliveira, L A; Santos, V S

2014-01-01

101

Quality has been the operative word when it comes to describing Wood-  

E-print Network

miss an item or to drop off too many items at a delivery site, requiring the driver to backtrack/Logistics Application: Parcel Delivery Case study Crafting Efficiencies Wood-Mode #12;North America Corporate Internet www.intermec.com Worldwide Locations: www.intermec.com/locations Sales Toll Free NA: (800) 934

102

Relationship between pectoralis major muscle histology and quality traits of chicken meat.  

PubMed

A trial was conducted to evaluate the influence of myodegeneration of pectoralis major muscle on quality traits and chemical composition of breast meat of heavy-size male broilers. For this purpose, a total of 72 pectoralis major muscles were randomly collected from broilers farmed under homogeneous conditions and graded into three categories (mild, n = 22; moderate, n = 33; and severe, n = 17) based on the presence of abnormal fibers (giant fibers, fibers with hyaline degeneration, and damaged and/or necrotic fibers) evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Color, pH, drip loss, Allo-Kramer shear values, and chemical composition (moisture, proteins, total lipids, ashes, and collagen) were determined on nonmarinated breast meat. Purge loss and cook loss, total yield, and Allo-Kramer shear values were measured on vacuum-tumbled samples. Samples showing moderate myodegeneration had the highest mean cross-sectional area of the fibers, while samples with severe myodegeneration had myofibers of different diameter and without the characteristic polygonal shape, multifocal degeneration and necrosis, as well as infiltration of CD3-immunoreactive cells. Cooking losses of nonmarinated meat were lower in the mild group with respect to moderate and severe groups (21.4 vs. 24.7 and 24.7%; P < 0.001). Breast muscles with severe damage, in comparison with mild degenerated samples, showed higher moisture (75.4 vs. 74.4%; P < 0.05) and lower protein percentages (21.1 vs. 22.6%; P < 0.001). The lipid percentage of severely degenerated samples was higher than that from moderate group (2.94 vs. 2.36; P < 0.05), while collagen content was not modified by histological lesion levels. Marinated meat from the mild group had higher uptake and total marinade yield after cooking. In conclusion, almost all breast fillets of heavy broiler chickens produced under intensive farming systems had histological lesions, which reflected on the chemical composition of the meat and the impaired water holding/binding capacities of the meat. PMID:25577799

Mazzoni, M; Petracci, M; Meluzzi, A; Cavani, C; Clavenzani, P; Sirri, F

2015-01-01

103

The enduring impact of maladaptive personality traits on relationship quality and health in later life.  

PubMed

Over the past 5 years, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) has been collecting data on personality in later life with an emphasis on maladaptive personality, social integration, and health outcomes in a representative sample of 1,630 adults aged 55-64 living in the St. Louis area. This program has confirmed the importance of considering both the normal range of personality and in particular the role of maladaptive traits in order to understand individuals' relationships, life events, and health outcomes. In the current article, we discuss the explanatory benefits of considering maladaptive traits or traits associated with personality disorders when discussing the role of personality in social and health outcomes, with an emphasis on adults in middle to later life, and integrate these findings into the greater literature. PMID:23998798

Gleason, Marci E J; Weinstein, Yana; Balsis, Steve; Oltmanns, Thomas F

2014-12-01

104

In large litters birth weight and gender is decisive for growth performance but less for carcass and pork quality traits.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine whether growth performance, carcass and meat quality traits differed among high (H), medium (M) and low (L) birth weight (BtW) gilts and barrows born from large litters (>16 piglets born alive). Regardless of gender, H pigs grew faster (P<0.05) during the suckler period than L and M pigs. From weaning to slaughter at 113 kg catch-up growth was observed in M barrows. In gilts and barrows percentage ham was greater (P<0.05) and percentage total subcutaneous fat was lower (P<0.10) in H compared to M and L pigs. Compared to L and M pigs, H pigs displayed in general better quality in the longissimus muscle whereas the opposite was observed in the semitendinosus muscle. The superiority of H compared to M and L BtW littermates regarding carcass and meat quality appears to be less evident when pigs originate from large litters. PMID:20696531

Bérard, J; Kreuzer, M; Bee, G

2010-11-01

105

Impact of proximal cytoplasmic droplets on quality traits and in-vitro embryo production efficiency of cryopreserved bull spermatozoa  

PubMed Central

Background Proximal cytoplasmic droplets (PCDs), a remnant of germ cell cytoplasm, are common non-specific morphological defects in bovine semen. This study evaluated the effect of higher percentages of PCDs on the quality of frozen-thawed bovine semen, embryo production and early embryo development. Methods Three ejaculates from each of five (group 1: PCD ? 1%, control) and eight adult Bos indicus bulls (group 2: PCD ? 24%) were analysed. Semen samples were examined for: post-thaw motility, vigour of movement, concentration, sperm morphology, slow thermoresistance test (STT), membrane integrity, acrosome status, mitochondrial function using fluorescent probes association (FITC-PSA, PI and JC-1) and sperm chromatin integrity using acridine orange assay. Two bulls from group 2, with 28.5% and 48.5% PCD, respectively, and three bulls from the control group, each with 0% PCD, were selected for IVF (in vitro fertilisation). Results Semen analyses revealed a significant correlation (P < 0.01) between increased rates of PCD and sperm quality traits. Nevertheless, no differences were observed in sperm motility and vigour either before or after the STT or in the percentage of intact acrosomes (analysed by differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) after STT), but membrane integrity, acrosome status (evaluated with FITC-PSA staining method after thawing) and mitochondrial function were reduced, when compared with group 1 (P < 0.05). The higher incidence of PCD was positively correlated to chromatin damage, especially after three hours of incubation at 37°C. IVF showed similar results for bull C2 (group 1, control) and bull P2 (group 2, group with higher PCDs). Conclusion Higher PCD levels influenced spermatozoa quality traits. IVF and embryo development data showed that cleavage, blastocyst formation and blastocyst hatching may have been influenced by the interaction of morphology traits and individual bull effects. PMID:22240071

2012-01-01

106

Effect of polymorphisms in candidate genes on carcass and meat quality traits in double muscled Piemontese cattle.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between 10 candidate genes and carcass weight and conformation, carcass daily gain, and meat quality (pH, color, cooking loss, drip loss and shear force) in 990 double-muscled Piemontese young bulls. Animals were genotyped at each of the following genes: growth hormone, growth hormone receptor, pro-opiomelanocortin, pro-opiomelanocortin class 1 homeobox 1, melanocortin-4 receptor, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, thyroglobulin, carboxypeptidase E and gamma-3 regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase. All the investigated SNPs had additive effects which were relevant for at least one of the traits. Relevant associations between the investigated SNPs and carcass weight, carcass daily gain and carcass conformation were detected, whereas associations of SNPs with meat quality were moderate. Results confirmed some of previously reported associations, but diverged for others. Validation in other cattle breeds is required to use these SNPs in gene-assisted selection programs for enhancement of carcass traits and meat quality. PMID:24361557

Ribeca, C; Bonfatti, V; Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Gallo, L; Carnier, P

2014-03-01

107

Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) polymorphisms are associated with growth and meat quality traits in sheep.  

PubMed

The involvement of melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R) in food intake and body weight regulation is well characterized. MC4R mutations are the most frequent monogenic cause of human obesity. Significant associations have been revealed between MC4R mutations and productive traits in pigs, cattle and poultry. Herein, fluorescence-based conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis was used to identify two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region (93G>A and 292G>A) and two SNPs in the 3'-UTR area (1016G>A and 1240T>C) of MC4R gene in 132 German Merino sheep. We found that the 1016G>A mutation in the 3'-UTR was significantly associated with body weight at 120 and 180 days, average daily gain, back fat thickness and loin-eye area. Allele A located at the 292th position of MC4R gene representing Arg98 was associated with significantly higher loin-eye area in sheep. For the synonymous 93G>A mutation, A allele carrier animals had higher back fat thickness. Our results provide evidence that the MC4R gene may be a candidate gene for growth and meat quality traits with MC4R SNPs being potentially valuable as genetic markers for economic traits in German Merino sheep. PMID:25048291

Zuo, Beiyao; Liu, Guiqiong; Peng, Yuqin; Qian, Hongguang; Liu, Jiasen; Jiang, Xunping; Mara, Adama

2014-10-01

108

GENETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATES FOR PERFORMANCE, COMPOSITION, AND MEAT QUALITY TRAITS IN LANDRACE PIG  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Data from a purebred Landrace resource population, developed to represent current U.S. breed genetic and phenotypic diversity, were utilized to derive restricted maximum likelihood estimates of genetic parameters using single and multiple trait animal models for days to 113.4 kg (DAYS), 10th rib bac...

109

Selected Malaysian Wood CO2Laser Cutting Parameters And Cut Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser has been used to cut most non-metallic materials very efficiently and successfully because these materials are highly absorptive by the CO2 laser wavelength of 10.6?m. Laser cutting process has been found to be reliable in loads of applications, with several advantages over other mechanical means in producing successful cut of even thermally sensitive materials such as wood. Various works

Nukman Yusoff; Saiful Rizal Ismail; Azuddin Mamat; Aznijar Ahmad-Yazid

110

Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P < 0.001) and yolk percentage (P < 0.05) as well as yolk cholesterol and ?-carotene contents (P < 0.001), which were improved in hens fed the LFA diet. Including LFA increased serum ?-carotene and reduced serum cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.001). Our results suggest that partially replacing conventional SBM as protein source with low-fiber alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits. PMID:24864286

Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

2014-07-01

111

A comprehensive meta QTL analysis for fiber quality, yield, yield related and morphological traits, drought tolerance, and disease resistance in tetraploid cotton  

PubMed Central

Background The study of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in cotton (Gossypium spp.) is focused on traits of agricultural significance. Previous studies have identified a plethora of QTL attributed to fiber quality, disease and pest resistance, branch number, seed quality and yield and yield related traits, drought tolerance, and morphological traits. However, results among these studies differed due to the use of different genetic populations, markers and marker densities, and testing environments. Since two previous meta-QTL analyses were performed on fiber traits, a number of papers on QTL mapping of fiber quality, yield traits, morphological traits, and disease resistance have been published. To obtain a better insight into the genome-wide distribution of QTL and to identify consistent QTL for marker assisted breeding in cotton, an updated comparative QTL analysis is needed. Results In this study, a total of 1,223 QTL from 42 different QTL studies in Gossypium were surveyed and mapped using Biomercator V3 based on the Gossypium consensus map from the Cotton Marker Database. A meta-analysis was first performed using manual inference and confirmed by Biomercator V3 to identify possible QTL clusters and hotspots. QTL clusters are composed of QTL of various traits which are concentrated in a specific region on a chromosome, whereas hotspots are composed of only one trait type. QTL were not evenly distributed along the cotton genome and were concentrated in specific regions on each chromosome. QTL hotspots for fiber quality traits were found in the same regions as the clusters, indicating that clusters may also form hotspots. Conclusions Putative QTL clusters were identified via meta-analysis and will be useful for breeding programs and future studies involving Gossypium QTL. The presence of QTL clusters and hotspots indicates consensus regions across cultivated tetraploid Gossypium species, environments, and populations which contain large numbers of QTL, and in some cases multiple QTL associated with the same trait termed a hotspot. This study combines two previous meta-analysis studies and adds all other currently available QTL studies, making it the most comprehensive meta-analysis study in cotton to date. PMID:24215677

2013-01-01

112

Wood Gasification Facility : Quality Assurance Project Plan : Facility Located at North Powder, Oregon.  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Biomass Energy Program, managed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), proposes to develop appropriate methodologies and conduct a testing program of a commercial-scale biomass gasifier to establish: (1) the validity of the test procedures; and (2) the performance of the gasification facility. It is proposed to conduct the testing at the wood gasification plant located at North Powder, Oregon, now operated by Idaho Timber Products of Boise, Idaho. The North Powder wood gasifier is an air-oxidized unit producing about 100 million Btu's per hour in the form of high temperature low-Btu gas (LBG). The gasifier utilizes a fluidized bed to partially combust and gasify mill wastes. Such units hold promise for making the energy of solid biomass available to a broader range of end uses, since the fuel gas created can be readily used by a wide variety of combustion devices or other process equipment. 5 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs.

Freeburn, Scott A.; Houck, James E.

1989-05-05

113

Association Analysis of Soft Wheat Quality Traits in Eastern US Soft Winter Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soft wheat quality is highly heritable, is controlled by multiple loci, and has been mapped in a number of bi-parental crosses. We extended the mapping information on soft wheat quality by using association analysis between genetic markers and quality phenotyping in 192 soft winter wheat cultivars ...

114

Polymorphisms in twelve candidate genes are associated with growth, muscle lipid profile and meat quality traits in eleven European cattle breeds.  

PubMed

Current customers' demands focus on the nutritional and sensory quality of cattle meat. Candidate gene approach allows identification of genetic polymorphisms that have a measurable effect on traits of interest. The aim of this work is to identify new molecular markers for beef production through an association study using 27 candidate genes and 314 purebred bulls from 11 European cattle breeds. Twelve genes were found associated with different lipid and meat quality traits, and among these stand out the considerable effect of CAST on fatness score, CGGBP1 on growth traits, HSPB1 on the percentage of lauric acid (12:0) and phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6 n - 3), RORA on the ratio of light absorption (K) to light scattering (S) (K/S), and TNFA on lightness (L*). Most of these traits are related to post-mortem muscle biochemical changes, which are key factors controlling meat quality and consumers' acceptance. Also, the variations produced on muscle fatty acid profiles, such as those of AANAT, CRH, CSN3, HSPB1, and TNFA, give insights into the genetic networks controlling these complex traits and the possibility of future improvement of meat nutritional quality. PMID:24718780

Sevane, N; Armstrong, E; Wiener, P; Pong Wong, R; Dunner, S

2014-07-01

115

High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of the Opitutaceae Bacterium Strain TAV1, a Symbiont of the Wood-Feeding Termite Reticulitermes flavipes  

SciTech Connect

Microbial communities in the termite hindgut are essential for degrading plant material. We present the high-quality draft genome sequence of the Opitutaceae bacterium strain TAV1, the first member of the phylum Verrucomicrobia to be isolated from wood-feeding termites. The genomic analysis reveals genes coding for lignocellulosic degradation and nitrogen fixation.

Isanapong, Jantiya [University of Texas, Arlington; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pennacchio, Len [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Rodrigues, Jorge L.M. [University of Texas, Arlington

2012-01-01

116

QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES: METHOD 28A MEASUREMENT OF AIR TO FUEL RATIO AND MINIMUM BURN RATE FOR WOOD-FIRED APPLIANCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Quality assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing measurement of air-to-fuel ratio and minimum burn rate determinations according to EPA protocol, Method 28A...

117

Investigation of indoor thermal environment, air quality, and energy consumption in a new detached houses of wood-frame construction in a small city in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated indoor thermal environment, airtightness, indoor air quality, and energy consumption in thirteen new houses of wood-frame construction in a local city of Japan in the winter of 1985. All houses had thermally-insulated walls, ceilings, and floors, except for one house which had a concrete floor without insulation under the floor. Eight houses had concrete floors on the

Hiroshi Yoshino; Hiroshi Matsumoto; Kazushi Makita; Fusao Hasegawa; Yasuo Utsumi; Shinichi Akabayashi

1990-01-01

118

The effect of diet quality on physiological and life-history traits in the harvestman Pachylus paessleri.  

PubMed

The balance between energy acquisition and expenditure is critical to the survival and reproductive success of animals. Here we investigate the long-term effects of diet quality on physiological and life-history flexibility in the harvestman, Pachylus paessleri. We used cow meal as a protein-rich diet and potatoes as a carbohydrate-rich diet in order to reproduce two extreme conditions regarding food quality in harvestmen natural habitat. As proxy variables of the energy expenditure process, we quantified standard metabolic rate (maintenance), changes in body mass (somatic condition), and fecundity (reproduction). We found that animals consuming the protein-rich diet were able to increase both their body condition and fecundity. However, the increment in these two life-history traits was correlated with higher maintenance costs. In contrast, the carbohydrate-rich diet did not provide enough specific nutrients for reproductive events, although it may have allowed animals to survive for a long time. Thus, according to the quality of the diet available in the environment, harvestman females can adopt different life-history strategies correlated with phenotypic adjustments at anatomical and physiological levels. In the Mediterranean region, spatial and temporal changes in food quality are typical, so greater phenotypic flexibility is expected to cope with this kind of environmental variation. PMID:17196974

Naya, Daniel E; Lardies, Marco A; Bozinovic, Francisco

2007-02-01

119

Fatty acid profile, carcass and quality traits of meat from Nellore young bulls on pasture supplemented with crude glycerin.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (279.5±16.3 initial body weight) raised on pasture supplemented with crude glycerin at 0%, 7%, 14%, 21% or 28% (DM basis). The diets were similar in energy and protein levels, and the glycerin replaced corn in the supplement. After slaughter, the carcass characteristics were measured, and the longissimus muscle was collected to determine the meat quality. The inclusion of crude glycerin in the supplement did not change (P>0.05) any of the carcass characteristics and meat quality assessed; however, the pH decreased linearly (P=0.03), and margaric acid (17:0) increased (P=0.02) in the longissimus muscle with the addition of glycerin in the diet. Our conclusion is that the inclusion of crude glycerin up to the level of 28% of dry matter in the supplement does not alter the carcass characteristics or the meat quality from animals raised on pasture. PMID:25290759

San Vito, E; Lage, J F; Ribeiro, A F; Silva, R A; Berchielli, T T

2015-02-01

120

Expression profiling of potato germplasm differentiated in quality traits leads to the identification of candidate flavour and texture genes.  

PubMed

Quality traits such as flavour and texture are assuming a greater importance in crop breeding programmes. This study takes advantage of potato germplasm differentiated in tuber flavour and texture traits. A recently developed 44,000-element potato microarray was used to identify tuber gene expression profiles that correspond to differences in tuber flavour and texture as well as carotenoid content and dormancy characteristics. Gene expression was compared in two Solanum tuberosum group Phureja cultivars and two S. tuberosum group Tuberosum cultivars; 309 genes were significantly and consistently up-regulated in Phureja, whereas 555 genes were down-regulated. Approximately 46% of the genes in these lists can be identified from their annotation and amongst these are candidates that may underpin the Phureja/Tuberosum trait differences. For example, a clear difference in the cooked tuber volatile profile is the higher level of the sesquiterpene alpha-copaene in Phureja compared with Tuberosum. A sesquiterpene synthase gene was identified as being more highly expressed in Phureja tubers and its corresponding full-length cDNA was demonstrated to encode alpha-copaene synthase. Other potential 'flavour genes', identified from their differential expression profiles, include those encoding branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase and a ribonuclease suggesting a mechanism for 5'-ribonucleotide formation in potato tubers on cooking. Major differences in the expression levels of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis (and potentially texture) were also identified, including genes encoding pectin acetylesterase, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase and pectin methylesterase. Other gene expression differences that may impact tuber carotenoid content and tuber life-cycle phenotypes are discussed. PMID:18987392

Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Wayne L; Prosser, Ian M; Morris, Jenny A; Beale, Michael H; Wright, Frank; Shepherd, Tom; Bryan, Glenn J; Hedley, Pete E; Taylor, Mark A

2008-01-01

121

Muscle characteristics and meat quality traits are affected by divergent selection on residual feed intake in pigs.  

PubMed

Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed feed intake and that expected based on requirements for maintenance and production. A divergent selection was conducted during 4 generations in Large White male pigs to produce low and high RFI lines. The present study aims at determining the influence of this selection on biochemical and histological traits of skeletal muscle, and relating these changes to correlated effects on growth, carcass composition, and meat quality traits. At 8 d preslaughter, biopsies from the LM were taken in the fed state on 14 females from each RFI line fed ad libitum. Animals were slaughtered at 107.8 ± 8.0 kg of BW without any previous fasting. Samples of LM, semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BFM), and rhomboideus muscles were taken at both 30 min and 24 h postmortem. Myofiber typing was only assessed in LM. Low RFI pigs ("efficient") had leaner carcasses with greater muscle content (P < 0.001), less backfat thickness (P < 0.001), and less intramuscular fat content in all 4 muscles (P < 0.01 to P = 0.04). Their greater muscle content was associated with hypertrophy of all fast-twitch fibers. Glycogen content in all glycolytic muscles (i.e., LM, SM and BFM), was greater in low than high RFI pigs. The greater accumulation of glycogen in LM of low RFI pigs was specifically located in the fast-twitch glycolytic IIBW fibers, which correspond to fibers containing IIb, IIb + IIx, or IIx myosin heavy chains. The difference in muscle glycogen content between RFI line pigs was more significant in the living animals (P = 0.0003) than at 30 min postmortem (P = 0.08). This was associated with a decreased ultimate pH (P = 0.001), and greater lightness of color (P = 0.002) and drip loss (P = 0.04) in LM of low than high RFI line pigs, suggesting that selection for reduced RFI may impair some meat quality traits, such as water-holding capacity. Pigs from the low RFI line exhibited a greater (P = 0.02) percentage of IIBW fibers in LM and tended (P < 0.10) to have less lipid ?-oxidative capacity in LM, SM, and BFM. In contrast, no difference (P > 0.10) between lines was found for citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, mitochondrial activity, and expression of genes coding for uncoupling proteins 2 and 3. Differences between RFI pigs in plasma leptin, cortisol, and thyroid hormone concentrations are presented and discussed. In conclusion, selection for low RFI influenced muscle properties in a way favoring muscle mass, but likely impairing meat quality. PMID:21148787

Lefaucheur, L; Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Louveau, I; Damon, M; Prunier, A; Billon, Y; Sellier, P; Gilbert, H

2011-04-01

122

Quality traits of Indian peanut cultivars and their utility as nutritional and functional food.  

PubMed

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is considered as a highly nutritious foodstuff. Of late, the importance of peanut as a functional food has been growing. Kernels of forty-one Indian peanut cultivars were analyzed for their oil, fatty acid profiles, sucrose, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs); phenolics, and free amino acids contents along with antioxidant capacity. The range and the mean value (given in parenthesis) for each of the traits analysed were, oil: 44.1-53.8% (50.1%), O/L ratio: 0.9-2.8 (1.4), sucrose: 2.61-6.5% (4.63%), RFOs: 0.12-0.76% (0.47%), phenolics: 0.14-0.39% (0.23%), free amino acids: 0.052-0.19% (0.12%) and antioxidant capacity: 1.05-6.97 (3.40) ?mol TEg(-1). The significant correlation between phenol content and antioxidant capacity suggests phenol content as an easy marker for rapid screening of genotypes for their antioxidant capacity. A few cultivars with desirable traits and their prospective utility were identified which would be useful for future breeding programme to develop nutritional superior peanuts. PMID:25148966

Bishi, S K; Lokesh, Kumar; Mahatma, M K; Khatediya, N; Chauhan, S M; Misra, J B

2015-01-15

123

QTL analysis for grain quality traits in 2 BC2F2 populations derived from crosses between Oryza sativa cv Swarna and 2 accessions of O. nivara.  

PubMed

The appearance and cooking quality of rice determine its acceptability and price to a large extent. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 12 grain quality traits were mapped in 2 mapping populations derived from Oryza sativa cv Swarna × O. nivara. The BC(2)F(2) population of the cross Swarna × O. nivara IRGC81848 (population 1) was evaluated during 2005 and that from Swarna × O. nivara IRGC81832 (population 2) was evaluated during 2006. Linkage maps were constructed using 100 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in population 1 and 75 SSR markers in population 2. In all, 21 QTLs were identified in population 1 (43% from O. nivara) and 37 in population 2 (38% QTLs from O. nivara). The location of O. nivara-derived QTLs mp1.2 for milling percent, kw6.1 for kernel width, and klac12.1 for kernel length after cooking coincided in the 2 populations and appear to be useful for Marker Assisted Selection (MAS). Four QTLs for milling percent, 1 QTL each for amylose content, water uptake, elongation ratio, 2 QTLs for kernel width, and 3 QTLs for gel consistency, each explained more than 20% phenotypic variance. Three QTL clusters for grain quality traits were close to the genes/QTLs for shattering and seed dormancy. QTLs for 4 quality traits were associated with 5 of the 7 major yield QTLs reported in the same 2 mapping populations. Useful introgression lines have been developed for several agronomic traits. It emerges that 40% O. nivara alleles were trait enhancing in both populations, and QTLs for grain quality overlapped with yield meta-QTLs and QTLs for dormancy and seed shattering. PMID:22312119

Swamy, B P Mallikarjuna; Kaladhar, K; Shobha Rani, N; Prasad, G S V; Viraktamath, B C; Reddy, G Ashok; Sarla, N

2012-01-01

124

Genetic Improvement of Mentha arvensis Based on Essential Oil Yield and Quality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic divergence among 38 genotypes of Japanese mint Mentha arvensis, studied under the climatic conditions of northern India, could be grouped into eight clusters based on essential oil yield and quality components. Genotypes with relatively high essential oil yields could be identified and suggest the possibility of developing high-yielding, Japanese mint plants having good oil quality. Identification of genotype performance

S. P. Singh; Srikant Sharma; R. K. Tewari

1998-01-01

125

Performance and meat quality traits of beef heifers fed with two levels of concentrate and ruminally undegradable protein.  

PubMed

The effects of two levels of concentrate and ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) on performance, intake, digestibility, carcass characteristics, meat quality traits, and commercial cuts yield were assessed. Twenty crossbred heifers (240 kg average body weight) were used. At the beginning of the trial, four animals were slaughtered as reference group and the 16 remaining animals were randomly assigned to four treatments, in a 2?×?2 factorial design: two levels of concentrate (40% and 80%, dry matter (DM) basis) and two levels of RUP (48.79% and 27.19% of CP). At the end of the trial, all the animals were slaughtered. There was no interaction (P?>?0.05) between concentrate and RUP levels. Dry matter intake and nutrients digestibility was not affected (P?>?0.05) by RUP level. Heifers fed the highest RUP level had greater (P??0.05) DMI and ADG. Heifers fed diets with 80% concentrate had greater intake of TDN and EE, and lower intake of NDF (P??0.05) the carcass characteristics and carcass gain composition. Heifers fed 80% concentrate diets had larger (P??0.05) the composition of carcass gain. There was no effect (P?>?0.05) of RUP and concentrate levels on meat quality traits and commercial cut yields. PMID:21225459

Duarte, Marcio de Souza; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; Zervoudakis, Joanis Tilemahos; Monnerat, João Paulo Ismerio dos Santos; Viana, Gabriel da Silva; Silva, Luiz Henrique P; Serão, Nicola Vergara Lopes

2011-04-01

126

Divergent selection for intramuscular fat content in rabbits. II. Correlated responses on carcass and meat quality traits.  

PubMed

Correlated responses on carcass and meat quality characteristics after 3 generations of divergent selection for intramuscular fat (IMF) content were assessed by comparing the high and low lines. Selection was based on the phenotypic value of IMF content of LM, measured in 2 full sibs of the first parity. Traits measured were: BW, HCW, commercial carcass weight (CCW), reference carcass weight (RCW), scapular (SF) and perirenal fat (PF) content, meat-to-bone ratio (M:B) of the hind leg, pH of LM, color (lightness, L*; redness, a*; and yellowness, b*) of the carcass and of a LM section, protein content, and fatty acid (FA) composition of LM. A total of 174 records was used to estimate the correlated selection response. Data were analyzed using Bayesian methodology. We considered one-third of the phenotypic SD of a trait as a relevant value for the difference between lines. Then, the probability of the difference being greater than a relevant value (PR) was calculated. A low PR implies that the lines compared are similar. Carcass weights (PR between 0.24 and 0.31) and M:B of the hind leg (PR = 0.15) were not modified by selection for IMF content. There was a slight negative correlated response for BW, although evidence of its relevance was low (PR = 0.48). Scapular fat content was similar between lines (PR = 0.03). There were differences for PF content, although there was low evidence for showing its relevance (PR = 0.47). Color traits of the carcass were not affected by selection (PR between 0.04 and 0.30). In muscle, L* was also similar between lines (PR = 0.26). There were differences for a* and b*, although there was little evidence of their relevance (PR = 0.35 and 0.40, respectively). There was a positive correlated response on muscle pH and differences could be relevant (PR = 0.77). Protein content of LM was similar between lines (PR = 0.13), whereas FA composition was affected by selection. There were relevant differences between lines for MUFA (PR = 0.99), n-3 (PR = 0.95), and n-6 (PR = 0.98) percentages. For individual FA, differences were relevant for C18:1n-9 (PR = 0.97) and C20:5 n-3 (PR = 0.98). In conclusion, selection for IMF content may modify carcass quality by increasing PF content. Moreover, it led to some modifications in pH and FA composition of LM. PMID:23825330

Zomeño, C; Blasco, A; Hernández, P

2013-09-01

127

Gas composition in controlled atmosphere stunning affects turkey meat quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Investigations were made into the breast and leg muscle energy metabolism, and the quality of breast meat of turkeys after controlled atmosphere stunning or stun-killing (CAS) with various gas mixtures. In addition, the effect on meat quality of an increase in the chilling rate of turkey breast meat after hypercapnic or anoxic stun-killing was studied.2. A total of 35

M. Ylä-Ajos; S. Tuominen; L. Hänninen; M. Ruusunen; E. Puolanne; A. Valros

2012-01-01

128

Study of wood defects recognition based on Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image Processing of wood defects is important for wood defects recognition. Wood defects influence on wood production quality. X-ray testing system was adopted to detect wood defects. Because it not only can detect wood seeming defects, but also can detect inner defects. The collected images with defects were done median filter processing and edge detection so that the position, size

Hongbo Mu; Dawei Qi; Mingming Zhang

2010-01-01

129

Genetic analyses of carcass composition, as assessed by X-ray computer tomography, and meat quality traits in Scottish Blackface sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic parameters for carcass composition and meat quality traits were estimated in Scottish Blackface sheep, previously divergently selected for carcass lean content (LEAN and FAT lines). Computerized X-ray tomography (CT) was used to obtain non-destructive in vivo estimates of the carcass composition of 700 lambs, at ca. 24 weeks of age, with tissue areas and image densities obtained for fat,

E. Karamichou; R. I. Richardson; G. R. Nute; K. A. McLean; S. C. Bishop

2006-01-01

130

Wood and Wood Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood has been utilized by humans since antiquity. Trees provided a source of many products required by early humans such as food, medicine, fuel, and tools. For example, the bark of the willow tree, when chewed, was used as a painkiller in early Greece and was the precursor of the present-day aspirin. Wood served as the primary fuel in the United States until about the turn of the 19th century, and even today over one-half of the wood now harvested in the world is used for heating fuel.

Young, Raymond A.

131

Malic enzyme 1 genotype is associated with backfat thickness and meat quality traits in pigs.  

PubMed

Malic enzyme 1 (ME1) is a part of the tricarboxylate shuttle that provides NADPH and acetyl-CoA required in fatty acid biosynthesis. The pig ME1 locus maps on the proximal end of chromosome 1, where a quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fat deposition has been previously described. We amplified fragments of 1457 and 1459 bp that corresponded to the complete coding region and the 3'-untranslated region (UTR), respectively, of the pig ME1 gene. The sequences of these two fragments in pigs from three breeds (Landrace, Large White and Piétrain) contained five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the 3'-UTR: C1706T, G1762T, A1807C, C1857A and T1880A. Three haplotypes were found in two generations of a selected Landrace population: H1 (C1706 G1762 A1807 C1857 A1880), H2 (C1706 G1762 A1807 C1857 T1880) and H3 (T1706 T1762 C1807 A1857 T1880). Using Bayesian association analyses, significant associations (highest posterior density at 95%) between ME1 genotype and backfat (BF) thickness at 171 days and muscular pH were found in a Landrace population. PMID:16441292

Vidal, O; Varona, L; Oliver, M A; Noguera, J L; Sànchez, A; Amills, M

2006-02-01

132

Direct and social genetic effects on body weight at 270 days and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to estimate covariance components for BW at 270 d (BW270) and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs using models accounting for social effects and to compare the ability of such models to fit the data relative to models ignoring social interactions. Phenotypic records were from 9,871 pigs sired by 293 purebred boars mated to 456 crossbred sows. Piglets were born and reared at the same farm and randomly assigned at 60 d of age to groups (6.1 pigs per group on average) housed in finishing pens, each having an area of 6 m(2). The average additive genetic relationship among group mates was 0.11. Pigs were slaughtered at 277 ± 3 d of age and 169.7 ± 13.9 kg BW in groups of nearly 70 animals each. Four univariate animal models were compared: a basic model (M1) including only direct additive genetic effects, a model (M2) with nonheritable social group (pen) effects in addition to effects in M1, a model (M3) accounting for litter effects in addition to M2, and a model (M4) accounting for social genetic effects in addition to effects in M3. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of covariance components were obtained for BW270; carcass backfat depth; carcass lean meat content (CLM); iodine number (IOD); and linoleic acid content (LIA) of raw ham subcutaneous fat; subcutaneous fat depth in the proximity of semimembranosus muscle (SFD1) and quadriceps femoris muscle (SFD2); and linear scores for ham round shape (RS), subcutaneous fat (SF), and marbling. Likelihood ratio tests indicated that, for all traits, M2 fit the data better than M1 and that M3 was superior to M2 except for SFD1 and SFD2. Model M4 was significantly better than M3 for BW270 (P < 0.001) and CLM, IOD, RS, and SF (P < 0.05). The contribution of social genetic effects to the total heritable variance was large for CLM and BW270, ranging from 33.2 to 35%, whereas the one for ham quality traits ranged from 6.8 (RS) to 11.2% (SF). Direct and social genetic effects on BW270 were uncorrelated, whereas there was a negative genetic covariance between direct and social effects on CLM, IOD, RS, and SF, which reduced the total heritable variance. This variance, measured relative to phenotypic variance, ranged from 21 (CLM) to 54% (BW270). Results indicate that social genetic effects affect variation in traits relevant for heavy pigs used in dry-cured hams manufacturing. Such effects should be exploited and taken into account in design of breeding programs for heavy pigs. PMID:25412749

Rostellato, R; Sartori, C; Bonfatti, V; Chiarot, G; Carnier, P

2015-01-01

133

Effects of Variants in Proopiomelanocortin and Neuropeptide Y Genes on Growth, Carcass, and Meat Quality Traits in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Appetite-related neuropeptides proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) are essential for regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of variants in POMC and NPY genes on growth, carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits. A total of six SNPs were identified for POMC (n = 2) and NPY (n = 4) genes by direct sequencing. Three SNPs were subsequently genotyped by using MassArray system (Sequenom iPLEXassay) in 235 individuals, which belong to three meat rabbit breeds, including 93 Ira rabbits; 81 Champagne rabbits and 61 Tianfu black rabbits. The SNP c.112-12G>T was in intron-exon boundaries (intron 1) of POMC gene, and the association analysis showed that individuals with TT genotype had a greater 84 d body weight (BW84), eviscerated weight and semi-eviscerated weight than those with GT genotype (p<0.05); the TT individuals were also higher than those GG in the ripe meat ratio (RMR) (p<0.05). The g.1778G>C SNP, which was in complete linkage with other three SNPs (g.1491G>A, g.1525G>T and g.1530C>T) in intron 1 of NPY gene, was significantly correlated with eviscerated slaughter percentage and semi-eviscerated slaughter percentage in rabbits, and the individuals with CC genotype had a better performance than CG genotype (p<0.05). These findings would provide primary clues for the biological roles of POMC and NPY underlying the rabbit growth-related traits. PMID:25049995

Liu, Wen-Chao; Chen, Shi-Yi; Jia, Xian-Bo; Wang, Jie; Lai, Song-Jia

2014-01-01

134

Upgrading producer gas quality from rubber wood gasification in a radio frequency tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor.  

PubMed

This study focused on improving the producer gas quality using radio frequency (RF) tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor. The producer gas containing tar, particles and water was directly passed at a particular flow rate into the RF reactor at various temperatures for catalytic and thermal treatments. Thermal treatment generates higher heating value of 5.76 MJ Nm(-3) at 1200°C. Catalytic treatments using both dolomite and Y-zeolite provide high tar and particles conversion efficiencies of about 97% on average. The result also showed that light poly-aromatic hydrocarbons especially naphthalene and aromatic compounds particularly benzene and toluene were still found even at higher reaction temperatures. Low energy intensive RF tar thermocatalytic treatment was found to be effective for upgrading the producer gas quality to meet the end user requirements and increasing its energy content. PMID:24185417

Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A

2013-12-01

135

Comparison of NIRS approach for prediction of internal quality traits in three fruit species.  

PubMed

NIR Spectroscopy ability was investigated to assess the fruit structure effect (passion fruit, tomato and apricot) on prediction performance of soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA). Relationships between spectral wavelengths and SSC and TA were evaluated through the application of chemometric techniques based on partial least squares (PLS). Good prediction performance was obtained for apricot with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.95 for SSC and TA and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP%) of 3.3% and 14.2%, respectively. For the passion fruit and tomato, the prediction models were not satisfactorily accurate due to the high RMSEP. Results showed that NIR technology can be used to evaluate apricot internal quality, however, it was not appropriate to evaluate internal quality in fruits with thick skin, (passion fruit), and/or heterogeneous internal structure (tomato). PMID:24054234

de Oliveira, Gabrieli Alves; Bureau, Sylvie; Renard, Catherine Marie-Geneviève Claire; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; de Castilhos, Fernanda

2014-01-15

136

Beef quality traits of heifer in comparison with steer, bull and cow at various feeding environments.  

PubMed

The present review has been focused largely on the sex type differences in beef quality among heifers, cows, steers and bulls in various feeding environments. Genetic groups, feeding systems and gender are the major factors that change carcass characteristics and fatty acid profiles of cattle. Studies identified that heifer beef has super characteristics in eating quality and a better healthy composition in fatty acids than steer, cow and bull. Diet influences the variation of fatty acid profile; particularly the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) interacts with breed and sex. Animals finished in pasture systems were reported to show better ratios of PUFA/ saturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3. Carcasses of roughage-fed beef are lighter and have less marbling and lower quality grades but have higher cutability than carcasses of grain-fed bulls. Heifers and cows are reported to deposit more fat than steers and bulls. Among males, lower production of testosterone by steers favors more fat thickness compared with bulls. Marbling greatly varies among cattle belonging to different sexes, and particularly, females have genetic makeup that efficiently controls deposition. The current review identified that heifers can be a premium beef brand, while steer beef currently take a large part of market share across the world. PMID:25236779

Venkata Reddy, Bandugula; Sivakumar, Allur S; Jeong, Dawoon W; Woo, Yang-Byung; Park, Sang-June; Lee, So-Young; Byun, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Chang-Ho; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Hwang, Inho

2014-09-19

137

Effects of Crossbreeding and Gender on the Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Korean Native Black Pig and Duroc Crossbred  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to observe the effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of Korean Native Black Pig (KNP) and KNP×Duroc crossbred (KNP×D). A total of 50 pigs comprising seven KNP barrows, eight KNP gilts, twenty KNP×D barrows and fifteen KNP×D gilts were used in this study. Animals were reared in the same housing condition with same feed diet for six months prior to slaughter. After an overnight chilling, the carcasses were graded, and samples of Musculus longissimus dorsi were obtained for meat quality analysis. The slaughter and carcass weights and dressing percentage of KNP×D were higher (p<0.001) than those of KNP. The slaughter and carcass weights and backfat thickness of barrows were higher (p<0.01) than those of gilts. There were no significant difference in carcass conformation and quality grade between KNP and KNP×D as well as barrow and gilt. Fat content of KNP×D was higher (p<0.001) than that of KNP. Fat content of barrow was higher (p<0.001) than that of gilt. There was interaction between crossbreeding and gender on the fat content. KNP gilt showed higher fat content than KNP barrow whereas KNP×D barrow showed higher fat content than KNP×D gilt. Lightness, redness, yellowness, chroma and hue angle values and color preference of meat of KNP×D were lower (p<0.001) than those of KNP. Redness, yellowness and chroma values of meat of barrow were lower (p<0.05) than those of gilt. It is concluded that crossbreeding KNP with Duroc increases carcass productivity and meat fat but decreases meat color values and preference. Crossbreeding of KNP with Duroc produces a better fat deposition in meat of barrows than in gilts. PMID:25050045

Muhlisin; Panjono; Lee, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jeong Koo; Lee, Sung Ki

2014-01-01

138

The use of levoglucosan to assess the environmental impact of residential wood-burning on air quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levoglucosan, a product of the incomplete combustion of cellulose, is present in relatively high concentrations in the particle matter generated from wood-burning stoves. This fact has been exploited to develop a source apportionment method whereby measurements of levoglucosan in ambient air may be used to estimate the contribution of residential wood-burning activities to the Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) and Polycyclic

Locker

1988-01-01

139

Identification of QTL controlling meat quality traits in an F2 cross between two chicken lines selected for either low or high growth rate  

PubMed Central

Background Meat technological traits (i.e. meat pH, water retention and color) are important considerations for improving further processing of chicken meat. These quality traits were originally characterized in experimental lines selected for high (HG) and low (LG) growth. Presently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits were analyzed in an F2 population issued from the HG × LG cross. A total of 698 animals in 50 full-sib families were genotyped for 108 microsatellite markers covering 21 linkage groups. Results The HG and LG birds exhibit large differences in body weight and abdominal fat content. Several meat quality traits [pH at 15 min post-slaughter (pH15) and ultimate pH (pHu), breast color-redness (BCo-R) and breast color-yellowness (BCo-Y)] were lower in HG chickens. In contrast, meat color-lightness (BCo-L) was higher in HG chickens, whereas meat drip loss (DL) was similar in both lines. HG birds were more active on the shackle line. Association analyses were performed using maximum-likelihood interval mapping in QTLMAP. Five genome-wide significant QTLs were revealed: two for pH15 on GGA1 and GGA2, one for DL on GGA1, one for BCo-R and one for BCo-Y both on GGA11. In addition, four suggestive QTLs were identified by QTLMAP for BCo-Y, pHu, pH15 and DL on GGA1, GGA4, GGA12 and GGA14, respectively. The QTL effects, averaged on heterozygous families, ranged from 12 to 31% of the phenotypic variance. Further analyses with QTLExpress confirmed the two genome-wide QTLs for meat color on GGA11, failed to identify the genome-wide QTL for pH15 on GGA2, and revealed only suggestive QTLs for pH15 and DL on GGA1. However, QTLExpress qualified the QTL for pHu on GGA4 as genome-wide. Conclusion The present study identified genome-wide significant QTLs for all meat technological traits presently assessed in these chickens, except for meat lightness. This study highlights the effects of divergent selection for growth rate on some behavioral traits, muscle biochemistry and ultimately meat quality traits. Several QTL regions were identified that are worthy of further characterization. Some QTLs may in fact co-localize, suggesting pleiotropic effects for some chromosomal regions. PMID:17559654

Nadaf, Javad; Gilbert, Hélène; Pitel, Frédérique; Berri, Cécile M; Feve, Katia; Beaumont, Catherine; Duclos, Michel J; Vignal, Alain; Porter, Tom E; Simon, Jean; Aggrey, Samuel E; Cogburn, Larry A; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth

2007-01-01

140

Untargeted Metabolic Quantitative Trait Loci Analyses Reveal a Relationship between Primary Metabolism and Potato Tuber Quality1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in -omics technologies such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics along with genotypic profiling have permitted dissection of the genetics of complex traits represented by molecular phenotypes in nonmodel species. To identify the genetic factors underlying variation in primary metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum), we have profiled primary metabolite content in a diploid potato mapping population, derived from crosses between S. tuberosum and wild relatives, using gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry. In total, 139 polar metabolites were detected, of which we identified metabolite quantitative trait loci for approximately 72% of the detected compounds. In order to obtain an insight into the relationships between metabolic traits and classical phenotypic traits, we also analyzed statistical associations between them. The combined analysis of genetic information through quantitative trait locus coincidence and the application of statistical learning methods provide information on putative indicators associated with the alterations in metabolic networks that affect complex phenotypic traits. PMID:22223596

Carreno-Quintero, Natalia; Acharjee, Animesh; Maliepaard, Chris; Bachem, Christian W.B.; Mumm, Roland; Bouwmeester, Harro; Visser, Richard G.F.; Keurentjes, Joost J.B.

2012-01-01

141

Effects of allelic variations in starch synthesis-related genes on grain quality traits of Korean nonglutinous rice varieties under different temperature conditions.  

PubMed

Influences of allelic variations in starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs) on rice grain quality were examined. A total of 187 nonglutinous Korean rice varieties, consisting of 170 Japonica and 17 Tongil-type varieties, were grown in the field and in two greenhouse conditions. The percentages of head rice and chalky grains, amylose content, alkali digestion value, and rapid visco-analysis characteristics were evaluated in the three different environments. Among the 10 previously reported SSRG markers used in this study, seven were polymorphic, and four of those showed subspecies-specific allele distributions. Six out of the seven polymorphic SSRG markers were significantly associated with at least one grain quality trait (R (2) > 0.1) across the three different environments. However, the association level and significance were markedly lower when the analysis was repeated using only the 170 Japonica varieties. Similarly, the significant associations between SSRG allelic variations and changes in grain quality traits under increased temperature were largely attributable to the biased allele frequency between the two subpopulations. Our results suggest that within Korean Japonica varieties, these 10 major SSRG loci have been highly fixed during breeding history and variations in grain quality traits might be influenced by other genetic factors. PMID:24987303

Mo, Young-Jun; Jeung, Ji-Ung; Shin, Woon-Chul; Kim, Ki-Young; Ye, Changrong; Redoña, Edilberto D; Kim, Bo-Kyeong

2014-06-01

142

Effects of allelic variations in starch synthesis-related genes on grain quality traits of Korean nonglutinous rice varieties under different temperature conditions  

PubMed Central

Influences of allelic variations in starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs) on rice grain quality were examined. A total of 187 nonglutinous Korean rice varieties, consisting of 170 Japonica and 17 Tongil-type varieties, were grown in the field and in two greenhouse conditions. The percentages of head rice and chalky grains, amylose content, alkali digestion value, and rapid visco-analysis characteristics were evaluated in the three different environments. Among the 10 previously reported SSRG markers used in this study, seven were polymorphic, and four of those showed subspecies-specific allele distributions. Six out of the seven polymorphic SSRG markers were significantly associated with at least one grain quality trait (R2 > 0.1) across the three different environments. However, the association level and significance were markedly lower when the analysis was repeated using only the 170 Japonica varieties. Similarly, the significant associations between SSRG allelic variations and changes in grain quality traits under increased temperature were largely attributable to the biased allele frequency between the two subpopulations. Our results suggest that within Korean Japonica varieties, these 10 major SSRG loci have been highly fixed during breeding history and variations in grain quality traits might be influenced by other genetic factors. PMID:24987303

Mo, Young-Jun; Jeung, Ji-Ung; Shin, Woon-Chul; Kim, Ki-Young; Ye, Changrong; Redoña, Edilberto D.; Kim, Bo-Kyeong

2014-01-01

143

A Whole Genome Association Study on Meat Quality Traits Using High Density SNP Chips in a Cross between Korean Native Pig and Landrace.  

PubMed

A whole genome association (WGA) study was performed to detect significant polymorphisms for meat quality traits in an F2 cross population (N = 478) that were generated with Korean native pig sires and Landrace dams in National Livestock Research Institute, Songwhan, Korea. The animals were genotyped using Illumina porcine 60k SNP beadchips, in which a set of 46,865 SNPs were available for the WGA analyses on ten carcass quality traits; live weight, crude protein, crude lipids, crude ash, water holding capacity, drip loss, shear force, CIE L, CIE a and CIE b. Phenotypes were regressed on additive and dominance effects for each SNP using a simple linear regression model, after adjusting for sex, sire and slaughter stage as fixed effects. With the significant SNPs for each trait (p<0.001), a stepwise regression procedure was applied to determine the best set of SNPs with the additive and/or dominance effects. A total of 106 SNPs, or quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected, and about 32 to 66% of the total phenotypic variation was explained by the significant SNPs for each trait. The QTL were identified in most porcine chromosomes (SSCs), in which majority of the QTL were detected in SSCs 1, 2, 12, 13, 14 and 16. Several QTL clusters were identified on SSCs 12, 16 and 17, and a cluster of QTL influencing crude protein, crude lipid, drip loss, shear force, CIE a and CIE b were located between 20 and 29 Mb of SSC12. A pleiotropic QTL for drip loss, CIE L and CIE b was also detected on SSC16. These QTL need to be validated in commercial pig populations for genetic improvement in meat quality via marker-assisted selection. PMID:25049513

Lee, K-T; Lee, Y-M; Alam, M; Choi, B H; Park, M R; Kim, K-S; Kim, T-H; Kim, J-J

2012-11-01

144

Delineation of interspecific epistasis on fiber quality traits in Gossypium hirsutum by ADAA analysis of intermated G. barbadense chromosome substitution lines.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity is the foundation of any crop improvement program, but the most cultivated Upland cotton [Gossypium hirsutum L., 2n = 52, genomic formula 2(AD)(1)] has a very narrow gene pool resulting from its evolutionary origin and domestication history. Cultivars of this cotton species (G. hirsutum L.) are prized for their combination of exceptional yield, other agronomic traits, and good fiber properties, whereas the other cultivated 52-chromosome species, G. barbadense L. [2n = 52, genomic formula 2(AD)(2)], is widely regarded as having the opposite attributes. It has exceptionally good fiber qualities, but generally lower yield and less desirable agronomic traits. Breeders have long aspired to combine the best attributes of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, but have had limited success. F(1) hybrids are readily created and largely fertile, so the limited success may be due to cryptic biological and technical challenges associated with the conventional methods of interspecific introgression. We have developed a complementary alternative approach for introgression based on chromosome substitution line, followed by increasingly sophisticated genetic analyses of chromosome-derived families to describe the inheritance and breeding values of the chromosome substitution lines. Here, we analyze fiber quality traits of progeny families from a partial diallel crossing scheme among selected chromosome substitution lines (CS-B lines). The results provide a more detailed and precise QTL dissection of fiber traits, and an opportunity to examine allelic interaction effects between two substituted chromosomes versus one substituted chromosome. This approach creates new germplasm based on pair wise combinations of quasi-isogenic chromosome substitutions. The relative genetic simplicity of two-chromosome interactions departs significantly from complex or RIL-based populations, in which huge numbers of loci are segregating in all 26 chromosome pairs. Data were analyzed according to the ADAA genetic model, which revealed significant additive, dominance, and additive-by-additive epistasis effects on all of the fiber quality traits associated with the substituted chromosome or chromosome arm of CS-B lines. Fiber of line 3-79, the donor parent for the substituted chromosomes, had the highest Upper Half Mean length (UHM), uniformity ratio, strength, elongation, and lowest micronaire among all parents and hybrids. CS-B16 and CS-B25 had significant additive effects for all fiber traits. Assuming a uniform genetic background of the CS-B lines, the comparative analysis of the double-heterozygous hybrid combinations (CS-B × CS-B) versus their respective single heterozygous combinations (CS-B × TM-1) demonstrated that interspecific epistatic effects between the genes in the chromosomes played a major role in most of the fiber quality traits. Results showed that fiber of several hybrids including CS-B16 × CS-B22Lo, CS-B16 × CS-B25 and CS-B16 × TM-1 had significantly greater dominance effects for elongation and hybrid CS-B16 × CS-B17 had higher fiber strength than their parental lines. Multiple antagonistic genetic effects were also present for fiber quality traits associated with most of the substituted chromosomes and chromosome arms. Results from this study highlight the vital importance of epistasis in fiber quality traits and detected novel effects of some cryptic beneficial alleles affecting fiber quality on the 3-79 chromosomes, whose effects were not detected in the 3-79 parental lines. PMID:21301803

Saha, S; Wu, J; Jenkins, J N; McCarty, J C; Hayes, R; Stelly, D M

2011-05-01

145

Chemical and bioactive quality traits during fruit ripening in eggplant (S. melongena L.) and allied species.  

PubMed

A chemical and bioactive quality evaluation of phytochemicals content of 10 eggplant lines and three allied species (S. sodomaeum, S. aethiopicum and S. integrifolium) was performed. The eggplant lines were divided into the two subgroups of delphinidin-3-rutinoside (D3R) and nasunin (NAS) typologies, on the basis of the anthocyanin detected in their fruit skin. The allied species had higher glycoalkaloids content, lower soluble solids and PPO activity and absence of anthocyanins compared to the eggplant lines; S. sodomaeum stood out for high phenols content. Orthogonal contrast revealed a higher sugar content and low PPO activity in NAS- compared to D3R-typologies, whereas higher chlorogenic acid and anthocyanin contents were present in D3R-typologies. The main effect of the ripening was a decrease in phenols and in the PPO activity, not evidenced in S. sodomaeum, and an increase of glycoalkaloids in overripe fruits. A good relationship was found between superoxide anion scavenging capacity and chlorogenic acid. This study highlighted the pattern of accumulation, also evidencing variations, of several phytochemicals during the eggplant fruit development and ripening. PMID:23134376

Mennella, Giuseppe; Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Fibiani, Marta; D'Alessandro, Antonietta; Francese, Gianluca; Toppino, Laura; Acciarri, Nazzareno; de Almeida, Adelia Emilia; Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo

2012-11-28

146

The effect of combining scald resistance genes on disease levels, yield and quality traits in barley.  

PubMed

Pairwise combinations of genes for resistance to scald in barley were developed using linked isozyme markers to test whether such combinations conferred improved resistance to the pathogen, Rhynchosporium secalis. The resistance genes originally derived from Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum. The combinations were bred into an essentially similar genetic background because the scald-susceptible, Australian barley cultivar 'Clipper' was the recurrent backcross parent in their ancestry. In field tests of the recombinants over 2 years, disease levels were lower in three of six doubly resistant lines than in backcross lines carrying a single resistance gene, which in turn were less diseased than either 'Clipper' or recombinants that lacked the marked resistance genes. All resistant lines significantly outyielded 'Clipper' but did not themselves differ significantly. Lines resistant to scald had significantly higher grain size and grain weight. Gains for malt yield of about 1 % were detected in the higher disease environment. Resistance was not accompanied by any obvious "cost" in terms of yield or quality. Protection against scald is therefore a significant requirement for new malting barley cultivars in scald-prone areas. PMID:24162292

Brown, A H; Burdon, J J; Garvin, D F; Abbott, D C; Read, B J

1996-08-01

147

Diversity and relationships in key traits for functional and apparent quality in a collection of eggplant: fruit phenolics content, antioxidant activity, polyphenol oxidase activity, and browning.  

PubMed

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) varieties with increased levels of phenolics in the fruit present enhanced functional quality, but may display greater fruit flesh browning. We evaluated 18 eggplant accessions for fruit total phenolics content, chlorogenic acid content, DPPH scavenging activity, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, liquid extract browning, and fruit flesh browning. For all the traits we found a high diversity, with differences among accessions of up to 3.36-fold for fruit flesh browning. Variation in total content in phenolics and in chlorogenic acid content accounted only for 18.9% and 6.0% in the variation in fruit flesh browning, and PPO activity was not significantly correlated with fruit flesh browning. Liquid extract browning was highly correlated with chlorogenic acid content (r = 0.852). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified four groups of accessions with different profiles for the traits studied. Results suggest that it is possible to develop new eggplant varieties with improved functional and apparent quality. PMID:23972229

Plazas, Mariola; López-Gresa, María P; Vilanova, Santiago; Torres, Cristina; Hurtado, Maria; Gramazio, Pietro; Andújar, Isabel; Herráiz, Francisco J; Bellés, José M; Prohens, Jaime

2013-09-18

148

Alkaline and Alkaline\\/oxidation pre-treatments of spruce wood ( Picea abies) – Impact on the quality of kraft pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparable series of specimens from spruce wood were pre-treated with sodium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide, or per-acetic acid sequences. The pre-treatments reduced the yield of pulps and their Kappa number noticeably, diminished the degree of polymerization moderately, and increased their brightness. One-step peroxide bleaching of pulps from the pre-treated spruce wood resulted in their higher brightness compared

R. Solár; J. Dibdiaková; M. Mamo?; F. Ka?ík; Z. Rázgová; V. Vacek; J. Sivák; M. Gaff

2011-01-01

149

QTL analysis for eating quality-related traits in an F2:3 population derived from waxy corn × sweet corn cross.  

PubMed

In order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the eating quality of waxy corn and sweet corn (Zea mays L.), QTL analysis was conducted on an F2 population derived from a cross between a waxy corn inbred line and a sweet corn inbred line. Ten QTLs for pericarp thickness (PER), amylose content (AMY), dextrose content (DEX) and sucrose content (SUC) were found in the 158 F2 families. Among them, four QTLs, qAMY4 (10.43%), qAMY9 (19.33%), qDEX4 (21.31%) and qSUC4 (30.71%), may be considered as major QTLs. Three of these, qAMY4, qDEX4 and qSUC4, were found to be located within a region flanked by two adjacent SSR markers on chromosome 4 (umc1088 and bnlg1265), making this SSR marker pair a useful selection tool for screening the eating quality traits of AMY, DEX and SUC. The QTL for amylose content was found to be located between markers phi027 and umc1634, raising the possibility of its identity being the Wx1 gene, which encodes a granule-bound amylose synthase. The new QTLs identified by the present study could serve as useful molecular markers for selecting important eating quality traits in subsequent waxy corn breeding studies. PMID:24273428

Park, Ki Jin; Sa, Kyu Jin; Koh, Hee-Jong; Lee, Ju Kyong

2013-09-01

150

Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity.  

PubMed

Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential and limitations of a fungal bio-treatment of Norway spruce chips with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Different fungal treatment conditions were compared. A 4-week fungal treatment reduced the concentration of resin acids and triglycerides by 40% and 100%, respectively, but neither lowered the energy requirements of the TMP process nor significantly affected the morphological fiber characteristics and the physical pulp properties. The pre-treatment led to slightly poorer optical properties. The Trametes versicolor fungal treatment contributed to a less toxic effluent and improved the biodegradability. A treatment of 2-3 weeks appears optimal. PMID:16517156

van Beek, Teris A; Kuster, Bram; Claassen, Frank W; Tienvieri, Taisto; Bertaud, Frédérique; Lenon, Gilles; Petit-Conil, Michel; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

2007-01-01

151

Identification of QTLs for fruit quality traits in Japanese apples: QTLs for early ripening are tightly related to preharvest fruit drop.  

PubMed

Many important apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit quality traits are regulated by multiple genes, and more information about quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits is required for marker-assisted selection. In this study, we constructed genetic linkage maps of the Japanese apple cultivars 'Orin' and 'Akane' using F1 seedlings derived from a cross between these cultivars. The 'Orin' map consisted of 251 loci covering 17 linkage groups (LGs; total length 1095.3 cM), and the 'Akane' map consisted of 291 loci covering 18 LGs (total length 1098.2 cM). We performed QTL analysis for 16 important traits, and found that four QTLs related to harvest time explained about 70% of genetic variation, and these will be useful for marker-assisted selection. The QTL for early harvest time in LG15 was located very close to the QTL for preharvest fruit drop. The QTL for skin color depth was located around the position of MYB1 in LG9, which suggested that alleles harbored by 'Akane' are regulating red color depth with different degrees of effect. We also analyzed soluble solids and sugar component contents, and found that a QTL for soluble solids content in LG16 could be explained by the amount of sorbitol and fructose. PMID:25320559

Kunihisa, Miyuki; Moriya, Shigeki; Abe, Kazuyuki; Okada, Kazuma; Haji, Takashi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kim, Hoytaek; Nishitani, Chikako; Terakami, Shingo; Yamamoto, Toshiya

2014-09-01

152

Identification of QTLs for fruit quality traits in Japanese apples: QTLs for early ripening are tightly related to preharvest fruit drop  

PubMed Central

Many important apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit quality traits are regulated by multiple genes, and more information about quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits is required for marker-assisted selection. In this study, we constructed genetic linkage maps of the Japanese apple cultivars ‘Orin’ and ‘Akane’ using F1 seedlings derived from a cross between these cultivars. The ‘Orin’ map consisted of 251 loci covering 17 linkage groups (LGs; total length 1095.3 cM), and the ‘Akane’ map consisted of 291 loci covering 18 LGs (total length 1098.2 cM). We performed QTL analysis for 16 important traits, and found that four QTLs related to harvest time explained about 70% of genetic variation, and these will be useful for marker-assisted selection. The QTL for early harvest time in LG15 was located very close to the QTL for preharvest fruit drop. The QTL for skin color depth was located around the position of MYB1 in LG9, which suggested that alleles harbored by ‘Akane’ are regulating red color depth with different degrees of effect. We also analyzed soluble solids and sugar component contents, and found that a QTL for soluble solids content in LG16 could be explained by the amount of sorbitol and fructose. PMID:25320559

Kunihisa, Miyuki; Moriya, Shigeki; Abe, Kazuyuki; Okada, Kazuma; Haji, Takashi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kim, Hoytaek; Nishitani, Chikako; Terakami, Shingo; Yamamoto, Toshiya

2014-01-01

153

Growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits as affected by different growth promoters.  

PubMed

The aim of the article was to study the effect of different growth promoters on growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits. A total number of 105 male growing NZW rabbits during 35-91 days of age were randomly distributed among 7 groups fed the same basal diet and submitted to different dietary treatments: the first group was unsupplemented and used as control; the other groups were supplemented respectively with bee pollen and/or propolis at 200 mg/kg BW of each and inulin and/or mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) at 35 mg/kg BW of each. Body weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), biochemical and haematological blood parameters, carcass characteristics, histological studies of ileum and spleen and economical efficiency were measured. Bee pollen administered alone or with propolis significantly (p < 0.01) the body weight gain and improved FCR in respect of the control group. Inulin with MOS significantly improved just FCR than the control group. Bee pollen with propolis and MOS supplemented-groups resulted in significantly higher (7.96 and 8.41% respectively) white blood cells compared to the control group. Plasma total cholesterol was significantly higher for the MOS group in respect of the control, bee pollen, inulin and inulin with MOS supplemented-groups. Propolis resulted in significantly higher dressed carcass percentage than the control group and higher carcass index than only bee pollen with propolis supplemented-group. Bee pollen, in particular if in combination with propolis, could be used as a supplement in the growing rabbits during days 35-91 of age with positive effects on growth rate and feed conversion ratio. PMID:23419029

Attia, Y A; El-Hanoun, A M; Bovera, F; Monastra, G; El-Tahawy, W S; Habiba, H I

2014-02-01

154

The use of thyme and orange essential oils blend to improve quality traits of marinated chicken meat.  

PubMed

Poultry meat contains large quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which lead to oxidative deterioration. Plant essential oils (EO) and natural compounds, with antioxidant properties, may be used to alleviate this problem. Two replications were conducted to evaluate the effects of a mixture (1:1) of thyme and orange oils (EO) on the quality characteristics and the oxidative stability of chicken meat (breast and wing). For each replication, 24 fresh breast fillets and 24 wings were procured from a local grocery store. The EO were added to marinade solution to achieve a final concentration of 0.55% sodium chloride, 0.28% polyphosphate, and 0.05% wt/vol of EO blend. Breasts and wings were split in 2 different groups with homogenous pH and lightness and vacuum tumbled in 2 treatments, a 0.5% EO and a control (CON, no EO). Each group was tested for pH, Commission Internationale d'Eclairage color (lightness, L*; redness, a*; yellowness, b*), moisture content, marinade uptake, purge loss, cook yield, and shear force. Susceptibility to lipid oxidation was determined on fresh and frozen meat by TBA reactive substance analysis (induced oxidation from 0 to 150 min at 37°C). The EO breasts had lower purge loss compared with CON meat. Breast did not show any color, pH, marinade uptake, cooking yield, shear force, or moisture differences due to treatment, although cooked EO breast was slightly less red than CON. The EO wings presented higher a* and b* values after marination and lower purge loss and shear force than CON. No differences were detected on wings for color, pH, marinade uptake, cooking yield, or moisture between EO and CON wings. Both fresh and frozen EO breasts and EO wings were less susceptible to the lipid oxidation during all induced oxidation times compared with CON breasts and wings. In conclusion, EO had a positive effect on broiler breast and wing lipid oxidation without negatively affecting meat quality traits. PMID:24902698

Rimini, Simone; Petracci, Massimiliano; Smith, Douglas P

2014-08-01

155

Altruism as an indicator of good parenting quality in long-term relationships: further investigations using the Mate Preferences Towards Altruistic Traits Scale.  

PubMed

Research has shown that altruism plays a role in mate choice, and recent studies suggest it is most important for long-term relationships. This study examined whether altruism is preferred for long-term relationships for both males and females. This was achieved using two versions of the Mate Preferences Towards Altruistic Traits (MPAT) scale that assessed preferences for short-term and long-term relationships. Both males and females significantly preferred altruistic mates for long-term relationships, and the size of this preference was greater than for other traits in mate choice. This provides support for previous findings that state that altruism conveys information about an individual's partner/parenting qualities or good character. PMID:23951948

Farrelly, Daniel

2013-01-01

156

Accuracy of pedigree and genomic predictions of carcass and novel meat quality traits in multi-breed sheep data assessed by cross-validation  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic predictions can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. This is especially useful for meat quality traits in sheep. Carcass and novel meat quality traits were predicted in a multi-breed sheep population that included Merino, Border Leicester, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk sheep and their crosses. Methods Prediction of breeding values by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) based on pedigree information was compared to prediction based on genomic BLUP (GBLUP) and a Bayesian prediction method (BayesR). Cross-validation of predictions across sire families was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictions based on the correlation of predicted and observed values and the regression of observed on predicted values was used to evaluate bias of methods. Accuracies and regression coefficients were calculated using either phenotypes or adjusted phenotypes as observed variables. Results and conclusions Genomic methods increased the accuracy of predicted breeding values to on average 0.2 across traits (range 0.07 to 0.31), compared to an average accuracy of 0.09 for pedigree-based BLUP. However, for some traits with smaller reference population size, there was no increase in accuracy or it was small. No clear differences in accuracy were observed between GBLUP and BayesR. The regression of phenotypes on breeding values was close to 1 for all methods, indicating little bias, except for GBLUP and adjusted phenotypes (regression = 0.78). Accuracies calculated with adjusted (for fixed effects) phenotypes were less variable than accuracies based on unadjusted phenotypes, indicating that fixed effects influence the latter. Increasing the reference population size increased accuracy, indicating that adding more records will be beneficial. For the Merino, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk breeds, accuracies were greater than for the Border Leicester breed due to the smaller sample size and limited across-breed prediction. BayesR detected only a few large marker effects but one region on chromosome 6 was associated with large effects for several traits. Cross-validation produced very similar variability of accuracy and regression coefficients for BLUP, GBLUP and BayesR, showing that this variability is not a property of genomic methods alone. Our results show that genomic selection for novel difficult-to-measure traits is a feasible strategy to achieve increased genetic gain. PMID:23146144

2012-01-01

157

Indoor air quality impacts of an improved wood stove in Ghana and an ethanol stove in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to assess the potential of two types of improved cookstoves to reduce indoor air pollution in African homes. An ethanol stove, the CleanCook, was tested in three locations in Ethiopia: the city of Addis Ababa and the Bonga and Kebribeyah Refugee Camps, while a wood-burning rocket stove, the Gyapa, was evaluated in Accra, Ghana. In both

David Pennise; Simone Brant; Seth Mahu Agbeve; Wilhemina Quaye; Firehiwot Mengesha; Wubshet Tadele; Todd Wofchuck

2009-01-01

158

A genome-wide SNP scan reveals novel loci for egg production and quality traits in white leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers.  

PubMed

Availability of the complete genome sequence as well as high-density SNP genotyping platforms allows genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in chickens. A high-density SNP array containing 57,636 markers was employed herein to identify associated variants underlying egg production and quality traits within two lines of chickens, i.e., White Leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers. For each individual, age at first egg (AFE), first egg weight (FEW), and number of eggs (EN) from 21 to 56 weeks of age were recorded, and egg quality traits including egg weight (EW), eggshell weight (ESW), yolk weight (YW), eggshell thickness (EST), eggshell strength (ESS), albumen height(AH) and Haugh unit(HU) were measured at 40 and 60 weeks of age. A total of 385 White Leghorn females and 361 brown-egg dwarf dams were selected to be genotyped. The genome-wide scan revealed 8 SNPs showing genome-wise significant (P<1.51E-06, Bonferroni correction) association with egg production and quality traits under the Fisher's combined probability method. Some significant SNPs are located in known genes including GRB14 and GALNT1 that can impact development and function of ovary, but more are located in genes with unclear functions in layers, and need to be studied further. Many chromosome-wise significant SNPs were also detected in this study and some of them are located in previously reported QTL regions. Most of loci detected in this study are novel and the follow-up replication studies may be needed to further confirm the functional significance for these newly identified SNPs. PMID:22174844

Liu, Wenbo; Li, Dongfeng; Liu, Jianfeng; Chen, Sirui; Qu, Lujiang; Zheng, Jiangxia; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

2011-01-01

159

Association of TNP2 Gene Polymorphisms of the bta-miR-154 Target Site with the Semen Quality Traits of Chinese Holstein Bulls  

PubMed Central

Transition protein 2 (TNP2) participates in removing nucleohistones and the initial condensation of spermatid nucleus during spermiogenesis. This study investigated the relationship between the variants of the bovine TNP2 gene and the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls. We detected three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNP2 gene in 392 Chinese Holstein bulls, namely, g.269 G>A (exon 1), g.480 C>T (intron 1), and g.1536 C>T (3?-UTR). Association analysis showed that the semen quality traits of the Chinese Holstein bulls was significantly affected by the three SNPs. The bulls with the haplotypic combinations H6H4, H6H6, and H6H8 had higher initial semen motility than those with the H7H8 and H8H4 haplotypic combinations (P<0.05). SNPs in the microRNA (miRNA) binding region of the TNP2 gene 3?-UTR may have contributed to the phenotypic differences. The phenotypic differences are caused by the altered expression of the miRNAs and their targets. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the g.1536 C>T site in the TNP2 3?-UTR is located in the bta-miR-154 binding region. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that the TNP2 mRNA relative expression in bulls with the CT and CC genotypes was significantly higher than those with the TT genotype (P<0.05) in the g.1536 C>T site. The luciferase assay also indicated that bta-miR-154 directly targets TNP2 in a murine Leydig cell tumor cell line. The SNP g.1536 C>T in the TNP2 3?-UTR, which altered the binding of TNP2 with bta-miR-154, was found to be associated with the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls. PMID:24416221

Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaojian; Qi, Chao; Li, Jianbin; Zhong, Jifeng; Li, Guorong; Wang, Changfa

2014-01-01

160

Human Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate variations in human traits. This allows learners' natural curiosity about their identity to draw them into the study of heredity. Learners can investigate traits such as earlobe attachment, tongue rolling, hair and eye color, and hair texture. Through these traits, learners get an introduction to different inheritance patterns such as simple and incomplete dominance. Activity is usually done over multiple days to give learners time to survey people about their traits.

Irene Salter

2012-06-26

161

A complete genetic linkage map and QTL analyses for bast fibre quality traits, yield and yield components in jute (Corchorus olitorius L.).  

PubMed

We report the first complete microsatellite genetic map of jute (Corchorus olitorius L.; 2n = 2x = 14) using an F6 recombinant inbred population. Of the 403 microsatellite markers screened, 82 were mapped on the seven linkage groups (LGs) that covered a total genetic distance of 799.9 cM, with an average marker interval of 10.7 cM. LG5 had the longest and LG7 the shortest genetic lengths, whereas LG1 had the maximum and LG7 the minimum number of markers. Segregation distortion of microsatellite loci was high (61%), with the majority of them (76%) skewed towards the female parent. Genomewide non-parametric single-marker analysis in combination with multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL)-models (MQM) mapping detected 26 definitive QTLs for bast fibre quality, yield and yield-related traits. These were unevenly distributed on six LGs, as colocalized clusters, at genomic sectors marked by 15 microsatellite loci. LG1 was the QTL-richest map sector, with the densest colocalized clusters of QTLs governing fibre yield, yield-related traits and tensile strength. Expectedly, favorable QTLs were derived from the desirable parents, except for nearly all of those of fibre fineness, which might be due to the creation of new gene combinations. Our results will be a good starting point for further genome analyses in jute. PMID:23821949

Topdar, N; Kundu, A; Sinha, M K; Sarkar, D; Das, M; Banerjee, S; Kar, C S; Satya, P; Balyan, H S; Mahapatra, B S; Gupta, P K

2013-01-01

162

Boar fertility and semen quality characteristics in lines of pigs selected for component traits of female reproduction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Selection for 11 generations for ovulation rate (OR) or uterine capacity (UC) resulted in significant changes in component traits of litter size. Our objective was to characterize male fertility as a correlated response to selection compared to an unselected control line (CO). Each boar (n=60) fro...

163

A Muscle Hypertrophy Condition in Lamb (Callipyge): Characterization of Effects on Muscle Growth and Meat Quality Traits1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiment was con- ducted to determine the effect of the callipyge phenotype on traits affecting muscle growth and meat tenderness. Dorset wethers (n = 40) that were either carriers or non-carriers were fed grain and slaugh- tered at 169 d of age. Callipyge phenotype did not affect ( P > .05) slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, or weights

M. Koohmaraie; S. D. Shackelford; T. L. Wheeler; S. M. Lonergan; M. E. Doumit; Roman L. Hruska

2010-01-01

164

Linkage Disequilibrium Based Association Mapping of Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton Using Diverse Cotton Germplasm from Uzbekistan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

QTL-mapping, a now-classical approach to identify molecular markers linked to complex traits in specific experimental populations, is extremely time-consuming, high-risk, and expensive work - prohibitively expensive if dozens, let alone hundreds or thousands, of germplasm accessions are to be examin...

165

Allelic Variation in PtGA20Ox Associates with Growth and Wood Properties in Populus spp  

PubMed Central

Populus tomentosa is an economically important tree crop that produces wood for lumber, pulp, paper, and biofuels. Wood quality traits are likely to be strongly affected by the plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA), which regulates growth. GA20Ox encodes one of the major regulatory enzymes of GA biosynthesis and may therefore play a large role in growth and wood quality. Here, linkage disequilibrium (LD) studies were used to identify significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within PtGA20Ox and growth and wood-quality traits of P. tomentosa. We isolated a full-length GA20Ox cDNA from Populus tomentosa by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR; this 1401 bp cDNA clone had an open reading frame of 1158 bp and encoded a protein of 385 amino acids. PtGA20Ox transcripts were maximally expressed in the mature xylem of vascular tissues, suggesting that PtGA20Ox is highly expressed and specifically associated with secondary xylem formation. Resequencing the PtGA20Ox locus of 36 individuals identified 55 SNPs, and the frequency of SNPs was 1/31 bp. The 29 most common SNPs (frequency>0.1) were genotyped in an association population (426 individuals) that was also phenotyped for key growth and wood quality traits. LD did not extend over the entire gene (r2<0.1, within 500 bp), demonstrating that a candidate-gene-based LD approach may the best way to understand the molecular basis underlying quantitative variation in this species. SNP- and haplotype-based association analyses indicated that four SNPs (false discovery rate Q<0.05) and 14 haplotypes (P<0.05) were significantly associated with growth and wood properties. The phenotypic variance explained by each SNP ranged from 3.44% to 14.47%. The SNP markers identified in this study can be applied to breeding programs for the improvement of growth and wood-property traits by marker-assisted selection. PMID:23300875

Tian, Jiaxing; Du, Qingzhang; Chang, Mengqi; Zhang, Deqiang

2012-01-01

166

PRKAG3 and CAST genetic polymorphisms and quality traits of dry-cured hams--I. Associations in Spanish dry-cured ham Jamón Serrano.  

PubMed

The functional single polymorphisms identified in the calpastatin (CAST) gene have been related to the rate of meat tenderization and the protein turnover after slaughter, and the Ile199Val polymorphism identified in the coding region of the protein kinase AMP-activated (PRKAG3) gene has been proven to affect ultimate pH in muscle. The aim of the present study was to show the effects of these genetic polymorphisms on the quality traits of Spanish dry-cured ham Jamón Serrano. A tissue sample from 665 crossbreed pigs were genotyped for PRKAG3 Ile199Val, CAST Arg249Lys and CAST Ser638Arg polymorphisms, and a subsample of 120 dry cured hams was selected to perform physico-chemical, rheological, instrumental colour and sensory analyses. Associations between the polymorphisms and several quality traits of dry-cured ham, mainly related to flavour and texture, were found. The genotypes PRKAG3 Ile/Ile, CAST249 Arg/Arg and CAST638 Arg/Arg, and the haplotype CAST 249Arg-638Arg were the most favourable for Jamón Serrano production. PMID:22762995

Gou, P; Zhen, Z Y; Hortós, M; Arnau, J; Diestre, A; Robert, N; Claret, A; ?andek-Potokar, M; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

2012-12-01

167

Sequence variants in the bovine silent information regulator 6, their linkage and their associations with body measurements and carcass quality traits in Qinchuan cattle.  

PubMed

Silent information regulator 6 (SIRT6) belongs to the family of class III nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase and plays an essential role in DNA repair and metabolism. This study was conducted to detect potential polymorphisms of the bovine SIRT6 gene and explore their relationships with body measurement and carcass quality in Qinchuan cattle. Four sequence variants (SVs) were identified in intron 6, exon 7, exon 9, and 3' UTR, via sequencing technology conducted in 468 individual Qinchuan cattle. Eleven different haplotypes were identified, of which two major haplotypes had a frequency of 45.7% (-CACT-) and 14.8% (-CGTC-). Three SVs (SV2, SV3 and SV4) were significantly associated with some of the body measurements and carcass quality traits (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the H2H7 (CC-GA-TT-TC) diplotype had better performance than other combinations. Our results suggest that some polymorphisms in SIRT6 are associated with production traits and may be used as candidates for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and management in beef cattle breeding programs. PMID:25576955

Gui, Linsheng; Jiang, Bijie; Zhang, Yaran; Zan, Linsen

2015-03-15

168

A functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) focusing on tree architecture and wood quality  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds and Aims Functional–structural models are interesting tools to relate environmental and management conditions with forest growth. Their three-dimensional images can reveal important characteristics of wood used for industrial products. Like virtual laboratories, they can be used to evaluate relationships among species, sites and management, and to support silvicultural design and decision processes. Our aim was to develop a functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) given its economic importance in many countries. Methods The plant model uses the L-system language. The structure of the model is based on operational units, which obey particular rules, and execute photosynthesis, respiration and morphogenesis, according to their particular characteristics. Plant allometry is adhered to so that harmonic growth and plant development are achieved. Environmental signals for morphogenesis are used. Dynamic turnover guides the normal evolution of the tree. Monthly steps allow for detailed information of wood characteristics. The model is independent of traditional forest inventory relationships and is conceived as a mechanistic model. For model parameterization, three databases which generated new information relating to P. radiata were analysed and incorporated. Key Results Simulations under different and contrasting environmental and management conditions were run and statistically tested. The model was validated against forest inventory data for the same sites and times and against true crown architectural data. The performance of the model for 6-year-old trees was encouraging. Total height, diameter and lengths of growth units were adequately estimated. Branch diameters were slightly overestimated. Wood density values were not satisfactory, but the cyclical pattern and increase of growth rings were reasonably well modelled. Conclusions The model was able to reproduce the development and growth of the species based on mechanistic formulations. It may be valuable in assessing stand behaviour under different environmental and management conditions, assisting in decision-making with regard to management, and as a research tool to formulate hypothesis regarding forest tree growth and development. PMID:21987452

Fernández, M. Paulina; Norero, Aldo; Vera, Jorge R.; Pérez, Eduardo

2011-01-01

169

ORIGINAL PAPER Determining the transition from juvenile to mature wood  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Determining the transition from juvenile to mature wood microfibril angle 2012 Abstract & Context The transition of microfibril angle (MFA) values from juvenile to mature wood marks the change from var- iable, low-quality wood to stronger and more consistent wood that can produce

Boyer, Edmond

170

Quantification of amylose, amylopectin, and ?-glucan in search for genes controlling the three major quality traits in barley by genome-wide association studies  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan concentration in a collection of 254 European spring barley varieties allowed to identify 20, 17, and 21 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers, respectively, associated with these important grain quality traits. Negative correlations between the content of amylose and ?-glucan (R = ?0.62, P < 0.01) and amylopectin and ?-glucan (R = ?0.487, P < 0.01) were found in this large collection of spring barley varieties. Besides HvCslF6, amo1 and AGPL2, sex6, and waxy were identified among the major genes responsible for ?-glucan, amylose and amylopectin content, respectively. Several minor genes like HvGSL4, HvGSL3, and HvCesA6, PWD were also detected by GWAS for the first time. Furthermore, the gene encoding ?-fructofuranosidase, located on the short arm of chromosome 7H at 1.49 cM, and SRF6, encoding “leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase protein” on chromosome 2 H, are proposed to be new candidate genes for amylopectin formation in barley endosperm. Several of the associated SNPs on chromosome 1, 5, 6, and 7H mapped to overlapping regions containing QTLs and genes controlling the three grain constituents. In particular chromosomes 5 and 7H carry many QTLs controlling barley grain quality. Amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan were interacted among each other through a metabolic network connected by UDP showing pleiotropic effects. Taken together, these results showed that cereal quality traits related each other and regulated through an interaction network, the identified major genes and genetic regions for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan is a helpful for further research on carbohydrates and barley breeding. PMID:24860587

Shu, Xiaoli; Rasmussen, Søren K.

2014-01-01

171

PRKAG3 and CAST genetic polymorphisms and quality traits of dry-cured hams--II. Associations in French dry-cured ham Jambon de Bayonne and their dependence on salt reduction.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of PRKAG3 Ile199Val and CAST Arg249Lys and CAST Ser638Arg polymorphisms on the quality traits of the French dry-cured ham Jambon de Bayonne and their interaction with salt reduction. Significant (p<0.05) and suggestive associations (p<0.10) between the polymorphisms and several quality traits of dry-cured ham, mainly related to processing and textural properties, were found. PRKAG3 Ile/Val and CAST 249Lys/638Arg presented the highest scores for sensory and processing properties, whatever the salt content. PMID:22819170

Santé-Lhoutellier, V; Robert, N; Martin, J F; Gou, P; Hortós, M; Arnau, J; Diestre, A; Candek-Potokar, M

2012-12-01

172

Bayesian inference of genetic parameters for test-day milk yield, milk quality traits, and somatic cell score in Burlina cows.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to infer (co)variance components for daily milk yield, fat and protein contents, and somatic cell score (SCS) in Burlina cattle (a local breed in northeast Italy). Data consisted of 13,576 monthly test-day records of 666 cows (parities 1 to 8) collected in 10 herds between 1999 and 2009. Repeatability animal models were implemented using Bayesian methods. Flat priors were assumed for systematic effects of herd test date, days in milk, and parity, as well as for permanent environmental, genetic, and residual effects. On average, Burlina cows produced 17.0 kg of milk per day, with 3.66 and 3.33 percent of fat and protein, respectively, and 358,000 cells per mL of milk. Marginal posterior medians (highest posterior density of 95%) of heritability were 0.18 (0.09-0.28), 0.28 (0.21-0.36), 0.35 (0.25-0.49), and 0.05 (0.01-0.11) for milk yield, fat content, protein content, and SCS, respectively. Marginal posterior medians of genetic correlations between the traits were low and a 95 percent Bayesian confidence region included zero, with the exception of the genetic correlation between fat and protein contents. Despite the low number of animals in the population, results suggest that genetic variance for production and quality traits exists in Burlina cattle. PMID:21063066

Penasa, M; Cecchinato, A; Battagin, M; De Marchi, M; Pretto, D; Cassandro, M

2010-01-01

173

Effects of genotype and dietary oil supplementation on performance, carcass traits, pork quality and fatty acid composition of backfat and intramuscular fat.  

PubMed

A 42-day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of genotype: terminal sire line Duroc×F1 (DC×F1); terminal sire line Embrapa MS-115×F1 (MS-115×F1); and MS-115×Moura (MS-115×MO) and three dietary oil sources: soybean; canola; and canola+flax, on performance, carcass traits, pork quality, and fatty acid composition. Genotype affected the technological quality of pork and fatty acid profile. MS-115-sired pigs had better meat color and Duroc-sired pigs had higher intramuscular fat content, more saturated fat and better omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Moura breed influenced positively meat tenderness and intramuscular fat. Diet did not affect the technological quality of the meat. Canola or canola+flax oil diet supplementations increased monounsaturated and C18:3 and decreased C18:2 fatty acids, reducing the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The best omega-6/omega-3 ratio was obtained through supplementation with canola+flax. PMID:23273458

Bertol, T M; de Campos, R M L; Ludke, J V; Terra, N N; de Figueiredo, E A P; Coldebella, A; dos Santos Filho, J I; Kawski, V L; Lehr, N M

2013-03-01

174

Use of near infrared spectroscopy for estimating meat chemical composition, quality traits and fatty acid content from cattle fed sunflower or flaxseed.  

PubMed

This study tested the ability of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict meat chemical composition, quality traits and fatty acid (FA) composition from 63 steers fed sunflower or flaxseed in combination with high forage diets. NIRS calibrations, tested by cross-validation, were successful for predicting crude protein, moisture and fat content with coefficients of determination (R(2)) (RMSECV, g·100g(-1) wet matter) of 0.85 (0.48), 0.90 (0.60) and 0.86 (1.08), respectively, but were not reliable for meat quality attributes. This technology accurately predicted saturated, monounsaturated and branched FA and conjugated linoleic acid content (R(2): 0.83-0.97; RMSECV: 0.04-1.15mg·g(-1) tissue) and might be suitable for screening purposes in meat based on the content of FAs beneficial to human health such as rumenic and vaccenic acids. Further research applying NIRS to estimate meat quality attributes will require the use on-line of a fibre-optic probe on intact samples. PMID:24976561

Prieto, N; López-Campos, O; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Juárez, M; Uttaro, B

2014-10-01

175

Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and potential for water-supply contamination near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrogeologic and ground-water-quality data were collected near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee to determine the extent and magnitude of ground-water contamination in offsite areas and to assess the potential for contamination of nearby water-supply wells. New methods were used to collect ground-water samples from the alluvial aquifer at six offsite stations at depths of less than about 40 feet below land surface. In addition, 36 offsite wells were installed at these stations to collect samples from the alluvial aquifer and to depths of about 150 feet in the deeper Fort Pillow aquifer. Ground-water samples collected by the new methods and from the 36 offsite wells were analyzed for selected volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The samples collected from the 36 wells also were analyzed for major and trace inorganic constituents. Naphthalene and some volatile organic compounds were detected at low concentrations in samples from both the alluvial aquifer and the Fort Pillow aquifer. To assess the potential for water-supply contamination from the site, four water-supply wells to the east (upgradient) and three wells to the west (down- gradient) of the abandoned plant site were sampled. These samples were analyzed for the same analytes as the samples from the 36 wells. Although volatile organic compounds and elevated concentrations of trace and major inorganic constituents were measured in samples from some wells east of the site, no organic compounds associated with the wood- preserving process were detected. No contaminants from the site were detected in samples from wells west of the site.

Parks, W.S.; Mirecki, J.E.; Kingsbury, J.A.

1993-01-01

176

WoodChemistry Wood Degradation & Preservation  

E-print Network

31 WoodChemistry Wood Degradation & Preservation Chemical Utilization of Wood Pulp & Paper and carbohydrates is of considerable interest in connection with a number of issues in wood chemistry, such as the reactions taking place during the formation of wood, the natural molecular weight distribution of lignin

Geldenhuys, Jaco

177

The transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in conifers.  

PubMed

In the last years, forestry scientists have adapted genomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to the search for candidate genes related to the transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in several tree species. Gymnosperms, in particular, the conifers, are ecologically and economically important, namely, for the production of wood and other forestry end products. Until very recently, no whole genome sequencing of a conifer genome was available. Due to the gradual improvement of the NGS technologies and inherent bioinformatics tools, two draft assemblies of the whole genomes sequence of Picea abies and Picea glauca arose in the current year. These draft genome assemblies will bring new insights about the structure, content, and evolution of the conifer genomes. Furthermore, new directions in the forestry, breeding and research of conifers will be discussed in the following. The identification of genes associated with the xylem transcriptome and the knowledge of their regulatory mechanisms will provide less time-consuming breeding cycles and a high accuracy for the selection of traits related to wood production and quality. PMID:24288610

Carvalho, Ana; Paiva, Jorge; Louzada, José; Lima-Brito, José

2013-01-01

178

A Six-Month Prospective Evaluation of Personality Traits, Psychiatric Symptoms and Quality of Life in Ayahuasca-Naïve Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors assessed 23 subjects immediately before and six months (27.5 weeks) after their first ayahuasca experience in an urban Brazilian religious setting, either Santo Daime (N = 15) or Uni?o do Vegetal (N = 8). Measures included scores on instruments assessing psychiatric symptoms, personality variables and quality of life. Independent variables were the frequency of ayahuasca use throughout the

Paulo Cesar Ribeiro Barbosa; Irene Maurício Cazorla; Joel Sales Giglio; Rick Strassman

2009-01-01

179

Response to Phenotypic and Marker-Assisted Selection for Yield and Quality Component Traits in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Even though the potential benefits of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for line and population development to improve yield in cucumber have been demonstrated, its application during tandem selection for yield and quality components has not been investigated. Therefore, two cucumber recombinant inbr...

180

Comparison of grain sources for swine diets and their effect on meat and fat quality traits1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary grain sources on various compositional and quality characteristics of pork from pigs reared in a commercial environment. Pigs were fed 1 of 5 dietary treatments containing the following single or blended grain sources throughout most of the grow-finish pe- riod: 1) yellow corn, 2) white corn, 3) 1\\/3 yellow corn

J. F. Lampe; T. J. Baas; J. W. Mabry

181

Wood marks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are several insects that can cause damage to trees and wooden structures. Carpenter ants have attacked this truss by chewing small holes in it. Termites also chew holes in wood and will commonly infest houses. They weaken the structure of the house by chewing the wooden beams.

Bjørn Fritsche (None;)

2005-08-23

182

Evaluation of subsurface exploration, sampling, and water-quality-analysis methods at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Direct Push Technology (DPT) and a modified-auger method of sampling were used at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, to collect lithologic data and ground-water samples in an area known to be affected by a subsurface creosote plume. The groundwater samples were analyzed using (1) gas chromatography with photo-ionization detection (GS/PID), (2) high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (3) colonmetric phenol analysis, and (4) toxicity bioassay. DPT piezocone and cone-penetrometer-type tools provided lithologic data and ground-water samples at two onsite stations to a depth of refusal of about 35 feet below land surface. With the assistance of an auger rig, this depth was extended to about 65 feet by pushing the tools in advance of the augers. Following the DPT work, a modified-auger method was tested by the USGS. This method left doubt as to the integrity of the samples collected once zones of contamination were penetrated. GC/PID and HPLC methods of water-quality analysis provided the most data concerning contaminants in the ground-water and proved to be the most effective in creosote plume detection. Analyses from these methods showed that the highest concentrations of contaminants were detected at depths less than about 35 feet below land surface. Phenol analyses provided data supplemental to the HPLC analyses. Bioassay data indicated that toxicity associated with the plume extended to depths of about 55 feet below land surface.

Parks, W.S.; Carmichael, J.K.; Mirecki, J.E.

1993-01-01

183

Colour, composition and quality of M. longissimus dorsi and M. extensor carpi radialis of steers housed on straw or concrete slats or accommodated outdoors on wood-chips.  

PubMed

Forty-five Charolais crossbred steers were offered a common diet and accommodated either outside on wood-chips (OWP, 18m(2)/head) or in a naturally-ventilated building in slatted-floor pens (SLA, 2.5m(2)/500kg bodyweight) or in straw-bedded pens (STR, 4m(2)/head) for 132 days. Carcass weight averaged 351, 362, and 372 (sed 6.63)kg (P<0.05), for SLA, STR and OWP, respectively. Accommodation system did not affect the colour, drip loss, shear force or composition of Musculus longissimus dorsi (LD) or Musculus extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles or the sensory characteristics of LD. The ultimate pH of ECR was highest (P<0.05) for OWP steers, while their LD was darker at 2 days post-mortem than LD from STR steers. It is concluded that accommodating cattle on OWP had a minor transient effect on beef colour and no impact on beef composition or eating quality. PMID:22063032

Dunne, P G; Rogalski, J; Moreno, T; Monahan, F J; French, P; Moloney, A P

2008-08-01

184

Biomonitoring through biological traits of benthic macroinvertebrates: how to use species trait databases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to investigate the potential use of biological and ecological traits of macroinvertebrates as indicator systems of quality conditions in freshwater ecosystems. To provide a framework for the trait analysis, a data base was developed; it stored biological information about 472 benthic macroinvertebrate taxa. Twenty-two variables describing biological and ecological traits were resolved into a

Philippe Usseglio-Polatera; Michel Bournaud; Philippe Richoux; Henri Tachet

2000-01-01

185

FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD COMPOSITES  

E-print Network

FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD COMPOSITES DURING CRACK PROPAGATION Noah Matsumoto Structural. Nairn* Professor and Richardson Chair Wood Science & Engineering Oregon State University Corvallis, OR, USA * Corresponding author: John.Nairn@oregonstate.edu SWST member #12;Fracture Toughness of Wood

Nairn, John A.

186

Wood Curriculum vitae 1 ERIC MATTHEW WOOD  

E-print Network

Wood ­ Curriculum vitae 1 ERIC MATTHEW WOOD Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Department/17/2014 Postdoctoral Research Associate, University of Wisconsin-Madison PUBLICATIONS Wood, E. M., A. M. Pidgeon, V. C community structure in U.S protected areas. Ecological Applications in press Wood, E. M., and A. M. Pidgeon

Mladenoff, David

187

Strategies to promote farm animal welfare in Latin America and their effects on carcass and meat quality traits.  

PubMed

Several initiatives, including research and development, increasing stakeholders' awareness and application of legislation and recommendation, have been carried out in Latin America to promote animal welfare and meat quality. Most activities focused on the impact of pre-slaughter conditions (facilities, equipment and handling procedures) on animal welfare and meat quality. The results are encouraging; data from Brazil, Chile and Uruguay showed that the application of the improved pre-slaughter handling practices reduced aggressive handling and the incidence of bruised carcasses at slaughter in cattle and pigs. These outcomes stimulated some to apply animal welfare concepts in livestock handling within the meat production chain as shown by the increasing demand for personnel training on the best. To attend this demand is important to expand local studies on farm animal welfare and to set up (or maintain) an efficient system for knowledge transfer to all stakeholders in the Latin America meat production chains. However, it is clear that to promote the long-term progress in this field is important to deliver practical solutions, assuring that they match the technical and financial conditions of those who are the target of training programs. PMID:22503613

da Costa, Mateus J R Paranhos; Huertas, Stella M; Gallo, Carmen; Dalla Costa, Osmar A

2012-11-01

188

Evaluation of relationship between oral health-related quality of life and occlusion traits among female adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of malocclusions on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) among female adolescents. Materials and Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional descriptive study. A total of 129 female students with age ranges between 14 and 17 years old were randomly selected from Mashhad (Iran) high schools and were asked to fill out an OHRQOL questionnaire included in four parts: Oral symptoms, functional limitations, emotional well-being and social well-being. Each participant was clinically examined to assess her malocclusion according to the index of complexity, outcome and need (ICON) and finally the data were entered to SPSS 11.5 and the relation between these two variables was assessed with Pearson correlation test. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: There was statistically significant correlation between ICON scores and quality of life (P = 0.0176). Being separately assessed, among four parts of the questionnaire, only emotional well-being was significantly correlated with the ICON score (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Malocclusions play a vital role in OHRQOL. However, in female adolescents among four parts of OHRQOL, emotional well-being had significant relationship with malocclusions.

Farzanegan, Fahimeh; Heravi, Farzin; Sooratgar, Aidin; Dastmalchi, Parisa

2014-01-01

189

A six-month prospective evaluation of personality traits, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in ayahuasca-naïve subjects.  

PubMed

The authors assessed 23 subjects immediately before and six months (27.5 weeks) after their first ayahuasca experience in an urban Brazilian religious setting, either Santo Daime (N = 15) or União do Vegetal (N = 8). Measures included scores on instruments assessing psychiatric symptoms, personality variables and quality of life. Independent variables were the frequency of ayahuasca use throughout the period and the length of ayahuasca wash-out after six months. Santo Daime subjects had a significant reduction of minor psychiatric symptoms, improvement of mental health, and a change in attitude towards more confidence and optimism. The União do Vegetal group had a significant decrease in physical pain, and attitude change towards more independence. Independence was positively correlated with the frequency of ayahuasca use and negatively correlated with the wash-out period. We discuss possible mechanisms by which these changes may occur and suggest areas for future research. PMID:19999673

Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Cazorla, Irene Maurício; Giglio, Joel Sales; Strassman, Rick

2009-09-01

190

Sickle Cell Trait  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease (SCD) National Center Homepage Share Compartir Sickle Cell Trait New: Sickle Cell Trait Toolkit People who ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

191

Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay  

PubMed Central

Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits. PMID:19426499

Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

2009-01-01

192

Microbial community structure and pH response in relation to soil organic matter quality in wood-ash fertilized, clear-cut or burned coniferous forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humus phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used in clear-cut, wood-ash fertilized (amounts applied: 1000, 2500, and 5000 kg ha?1), or prescribed burned (both in standing and clear-cut) coniferous forests to study the effects of treatments on microbial biomass and community structure. The microbial biomass (total PLFAs) decreased significantly due to the highest rate of wood-ash fertilization, clear-cutting, and the

Erland Bååth; Åsa Frostegård; Taina Pennanen; Hannu Fritze

1995-01-01

193

Effect of insulin-like growth factor-I on some quality traits and fertility of cryopreserved ovine semen.  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate the effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on the quality and fertility of frozen/thawed ovine semen. Five rams (five ejaculates/ram) were used for evaluation of semen parameters. Before cryopreservation, ejaculates were divided into four aliquots and extended with Tris alone or supplemented with human IGF-I (50, 100, or 250 ng/mL). Semen was evaluated immediately after thawing (T0), after 1 h (T1) and 2 h (T2) post-incubation at 37 °C. The percentage of live cells (fluorescence analysis-calcein and ethidium), acrosome integrity (NAR) and motility were analyzed, and hypo-osmotic swelling tests (HOST) were used to evaluate membrane resistance. In addition, AI was performed using 121 ewes to compare the optimal concentration of IGF-I vs. Tris alone on pregnancy rates after laparoscopic insemination. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by transrectal ultrasonography. After 1 and 2 h post-incubation, in every group, percentage motile sperm, NAR and HOST decreased compared to semen at T0. Motility was higher (P < 0.05) in the IGF-I 100 and IGF-I 250 groups when compared to the IGF-I 50 and Tris groups (76.2 and 74.4% vs. 66.2 and 64.4 percent, respectively) at T0, after 1 h (67 and 63.6% vs. 56.2 and 54.7%) and 2 h post-incubation (58.2 and 55.8% vs. 48 and 47.2%). Furthermore, viability was higher (P < 0.05) in the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) 100 and IGF-I 250 groups than in the IGF-I 50 and Tris groups (88.7 and 88.3% vs. 76.6 and 77.6%, respectively) at T0. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in NAR or hypo-osmotic swelling tests (HOST) among groups. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in fertility between the IGF-I 100 and Tris groups. In conclusion, IGF-I improved subjective sperm motility and structural integrity of the plasma membrane without a significant effect on 45-day pregnancy rates after laparoscopic insemination of ewes with frozen-thawed semen. PMID:22541171

Padilha, R T; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Cavalcante, M M; Almeida, A P; Haag, K T; Gastal, M O; Nunes, J F; Rodrigues, A P R; Figueiredo, J R; Oliveira, M A L

2012-09-01

194

Hydrologic and Water-Quality Conditions During Restoration of the Wood River Wetland, Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon, 2003-05  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Restoring previously drained wetlands is a strategy currently being used to improve water quality and decrease nutrient loading into Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. In this 2003-05 study, ground- and surface-water quality and hydrologic conditions were characterized in the Wood River Wetland. Nitrogen and phosphorus levels, primarily as dissolved organic nitrogen and ammonium (NH4) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), were high in surface waters. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations also were elevated in surface water, with median concentrations of 44 and 99 milligrams of carbon per liter (mg-C/L) in the North and South Units of the Wood River Wetland, respectively, reaching a maximum of 270 mg-C/L in the South Unit in late autumn. Artesian well water produced NH4 and SRP concentrations of about 6,000 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of 36,500 ug-N/L NH4 and 4,110 ug-P/L SRP in one 26-28 ft deep piezometer well. Despite the high ammonium concentrations, the nitrate levels were moderate to low in wetland surface and ground waters. The surface-water concentrations of NH4 and SRP increased in spring and summer, outpacing those for chloride (a conservative tracer), indicative of evapoconcentration. In-situ chamber experiments conducted in June and August 2005 indicated a positive flux of NH4 and SRP from the wetland sediments. Potential sources of NH4 and SRP include diffusion of nutrients from decomposed peat, decomposing aquatic vegetation, or upwelling ground water. In addition to these inputs, evapoconcentration raised surface-water solute concentrations to exceedingly high values by the end of summer. The increase was most pronounced in the South Unit, where specific conductance reached 2,500 uS/cm and median concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus reached 18,000-36,500 ug-N/L and about 18,000-26,000 ug-P/L, respectively. Water-column SRP and total phosphorus levels decreased during autumn and winter following inputs of irrigation water and precipitation, which have lower nutrient concentrations. The SRP concentrations, however, decreased faster than the dilution rate alone, possibly due to precipitation of phosphorus with iron, manganese, or calcium. The high concentrations of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus during the growing season give rise to a rich plant community in the wetland consisting of emergent and submergent macrophytes and algae including phytoplankton and benthic and epiphytic algae that have pronounced effects on dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH. Midday readings of surface-water DO during summer often were supersaturated (as much as 310 percent saturation) with elevated pH (as much as 9.2 units), indicative of high rates of photosynthesis. Minimum DO concentrations in the shallow ground-water piezometer wells were 0.4 mg/L in the North Unit and 0.8 mg/L in the South Unit during summer, which is probably low enough to support microbial denitrification. Denitrification was confirmed during in-situ experiments conducted at the sediment-water interface, but rates were low due to low background nitrate (NO3). Nevertheless, denitrification (and plant uptake) likely contribute to low nitrate levels. Another possible cause of low nitrate levels is dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA), a microbial process that converts and decreases nitrate to ammonia. DNRA explains the excess ammonia production measured in the chambers treated with nitrate. Surface-water levels and standing surface-water volume in the Wood River Wetland reached a maximum in early spring, inundating 80-90 percent of the wetland. Surface-water levels and standing volume then declined reaching a minimum in August through November, when the South Unit was only 10 percent inundated and the North Unit was nearly dry. The shallow ground-water levels followed a trend similar to surface-water levels and indicated a strong upward gradient. A monthly water budget was developed individually for the North

Carpenter, Kurt D.; Snyder, Daniel T.; Duff, John H.; Triska, Frank J.; Lee, Karl K.; Avanzino, Ronald J.; Sobieszczyk, Steven

2009-01-01

195

High levels of whole raw soybean in diets for Nellore bulls in feedlot: effect on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole raw soybean (WRS) in the finishing diet of Nellore cattle on productive performance, carcass traits, meat quality, fatty acid profile of meat, and blood parameters. In a completely randomized design, 52 Nellore bulls (mean body weight ± SD: 380 ± 34 kg) were allotted for 84 days. The animals received the following diets with a forage: concentrate ratio of 40/60: (i) WRS0: control diet without soybean grains; (ii) WRS8: diet containing 8% WRS in dry matter basis; (iii) WRS16: diet containing 16% WRS, and (iv) WRS24: diet containing 24% WRS. At intervals of 28 days, the animals were weighed, muscle and adipose tissue was analysed by ultrasound, and blood samples were collected. The animals were slaughtered on day 85 and liver weight and hot carcass weight were measured during slaughter. The pH and carcass dressing were calculated at 24 h after slaughter. Longissimus dorsi muscle samples were collected for the determination of fatty acid profile of meat, ether extract, tenderness and sensory analysis of meat aged for 14 days. Blood cholesterol content increased linearly with increasing proportion of whole raw soybean grains. The diet did not affect performance or carcass attributes. The WRS8 had the highest shear force values. In fatty acid profile, C14:0 decreased (p = 0.05), whereas 16:1, 20:0 and 20:1 fatty acids increased linearly with increasing proportion of WRS (p < 0.05). However, concentration of conjugated linoleic acid cis 9, trans 11 and 17:0 increased with WRS24 and WRS16. In the sensory analysis, WRS24 was more tender with respect to the other treatments (p < 0.05). Finally, the inclusion of WRS in the finishing diet of feedlot Nellore bulls only evidenced little changes in fatty acid profile and tenderness, in animals fed diets containing 16 or 24% soybean. PMID:25110114

Cônsolo, N R B; Gardinal, R; Gandra, J R; de Freitas Junior, J E; Rennó, F P; Santana, M H de A; Pflanzer Junior, S B; Pereira, A S C

2014-08-11

196

Performance, egg quality traits, and serum metabolite concentrations of laying hens affected by dietary supplemental chromium picolinate and vitamin C under a heat-stress condition.  

PubMed

A 3?×?2 factorial experiment consisting three levels (0, 200, and 400 ?g/kg) of chromium (chromium picolinate) and two levels (0 and 250 mg/kg) of vitamin C was employed to evaluate the effects of these dietary supplements on performance, egg quality traits, and serum biochemical parameters of heat-stressed laying hens (Lohmann LSL-Lite) from 66 to 74 weeks of age. Feed intake increased when birds were given either 400 ?g/kg chromium or 250 mg/kg vitamin C (P??0.05). The birds that fed on diet with chromium or vitamin C produced eggs with higher shell mass and thickness compared to the control. Both eggshell mass and thickness decreased when vitamin C and chromium were supplemented simultaneously, and birds given the diet supplemented with 400 ?g/kg chromium and 250 mg/kg vitamin C had eggshell mass and thickness similar to those of the control group. The serum concentration of chromium increased due to increasing level of dietary chromium (P?

Torki, Mehran; Zangeneh, Samira; Habibian, Mahmood

2014-02-01

197

Effect of dietary omega6/omega3 on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and fatty acid profiles of Beijing-you chicken.  

PubMed

The effects of varying the omega6 to omega3 fatty acid ratio (omega6/omega3) of diets on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and fatty acid composition of breast muscle were investigated in Beijing-you chickens grown to 92 days. A total of 360 one-day-old female BJY chickens were fed diets containing 0%, 0.12%, 0.42%, 1.00% or 1.97% linseed oil replacing equal weights of maize oil to make dietary omega6/omega3 to be approximately 30:1, 20:1, 10:1, 5:1 and 2.5:1. Subcutaneous fat thickness and intramuscular fat content increased significantly in birds fed up to 10:1 omega6/omega3. a* values (redness of meat, dimension of the CIELAB-system) progressively increased as the diets contained increasing omega3 content, up to the 10:1 omega6/omega3.The changes in b* (yellowness of meat, dimensions of the CIELAB-system) were also significant but the pattern was almost the reverse of changes in a*. Shear force increased significantly as dietary omega6/omega3 was reduced from 30:1 to 5:1. Decreasing the dietary omega6/omega3 clearly decreased the content in breast muscle of C20:1 and C22:1, but increased that of C24:1. C20:4, C20:5 and C22:5, increased significantly by decreasing the dietary omega6/omega3, and the birds fed the 10:1 diet had higher contents of C22:6 than other treatments. This study has clearly demonstrated that decreasing the dietary omega6/omega3, increases the deposition of desirable omega3 and omega6 long chain PUFA in the edible tissue, thereby achieving nutritionally enriched meat. PMID:19663971

Qi, K K; Chen, J L; Zhao, G P; Zheng, M Q; Wen, J

2010-08-01

198

Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling fibre length and lignin content in Arabidopsis thaliana stems  

PubMed Central

Fibre properties and the biochemical composition of cell walls are important traits in many applications. For example, the lengths of fibres define the strength and quality of paper, and lignin content is a critical parameter for the use of biomass in biofuel production. Identifying genes controlling these traits is comparatively difficult in woody species, because of long generation times and limited amenability to high-resolution genetic mapping. To address this problem, this study mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) defining fibre length and lignin content in the Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line population Col-4×Ler-0. Adapting high-throughput phenotyping techniques for both traits for measurements in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems identified significant QTLs for fibre length on chromosomes 2 and 5, as well as one significant QTL affecting lignin content on chromosome 2. For fibre length, total variation within the population was 208% higher than between parental lines and the identified QTLs explained 50.58% of the observed variation. For lignin content, the values were 261 and 26.51%, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis of the associated intervals identified a number of candidate genes for fibre length and lignin content. This study demonstrates that molecular mapping of QTLs pertaining to wood and fibre properties is possible in Arabidopsis, which substantially broadens the use of Arabidopsis as a model species for the functional characterization of plant genes. PMID:23136168

Berleth, Thomas

2013-01-01

199

BREEDING FOR GRAIN QUALITY TRAITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The major components of maize are protein, oil and starch. Breeders have successfully manipulating these components for more than a century, resulting in maize with a wide range of compositions. Over the last fifty years, advances in biochemistry and genetics have allowed manipulation of fractions...

200

Wood's Lamp Examination  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Wood's Lamp Examination A A A The Wood’s lamp examination is simply ultraviolet light used to show fluorescence, as in ... presence of bacteria causing erythrasma. Procedure Overview A Wood's lamp is a device that emits ultraviolet (UV) ...

201

Wood Resources International  

E-print Network

Wood Resources International Wood Raw Material Consumption on the Rise Despite Weak Global Economy UNECE Timber Committee Meeting October 7-8, 2003 Geneva, Switzerland Håkan Ekström Wood Resources International #12;Wood Resources International Outline · Roundwood Removals · Roundwood Consumption · Raw

202

TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS  

E-print Network

SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS #12;2 SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS2 #12;SCOTLAND'S TREES FOR THE ENVIRONMENT CHAPTER 4 FORESTS FOR THE ECONOMY CHAPTER 5 SCOTLAND'S REMARKABLE TREES CHAPTER 6 FINDING OUT MORE SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS #12;4 SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS4 This booklet is written

203

Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in sheep. II. Meta-assembly and identification of novel QTL for milk production traits in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

An (Awassi × Merino) × Merino backcross family of 172 ewes was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for different milk production traits on a framework map of 200 loci across all autosomes. From five previously proposed mathematical models describing lactation curves, the Wood model was considered the most appropriate due to its simplicity and its ability to determine

Herman W Raadsma; Elisabeth Jonas; David McGill; Matthew Hobbs; Mary K Lam; Peter C Thomson

2009-01-01

204

[Needles stable carbon isotope composition and traits of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in sparse wood grassland in south edge of Keerqin Sandy Land under the conditions of different precipitation].  

PubMed

A comparative study was conducted on the needles stable carbon isotope composition (delta13 C), specific leaf area (SLA), and dry matter content (DMC) of 19-year-old Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica trees in a sparse wood grassland in the south edge of Keerqin Sandy Land under the conditions of extreme drought and extreme wetness, aimed to understand the water use of Pinus sylvestris under the conditions of extreme precipitation. The soil water content and groundwater level were also measured. In the dry year (2009), the soil water content in the grassland was significantly lower than that in the wet year (2010), but the delta13C values of the current year-old needles had no significant difference between the two years and between the same months of the two years. The SLA of the current year-old needles was significantly lower in the dry year than in the wet year, but the DMC had no significant difference between the two years. Under the conditions of the two extreme precipitations, the water use efficiency of the trees did not vary remarkably, and the trees could change their needles SLA to adapt the variations of precipitation. For the test ecosystem with a groundwater level more than 3.0 m, extreme drought could have no serious impact on the growth and survival of the trees. PMID:22937627

Song, Li-Ning; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Li, Ming-Cai; Yan, Tao; Zhang, Jin-Xin

2012-06-01

205

Effect of wood on the phenolic profile and sensory properties of wine vinegars during ageing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial step in the production of high-quality wine vinegars is ageing in wood. This study aims to determine how wood barrels affect vinegar quality. For this purpose, vinegars were aged in barrels made from acacia, cherry, chestnut and oak wood. Two kinds of vinegars were studied: balsamic and red-wine vinegars. Analysis of samples included total phenol index (TPI), total

Ana B. Cerezo; Wendu Tesfaye; M. E. Soria-Díaz; M. Jesús Torija; Estíbaliz Mateo; M. Carmen Garcia-Parrilla; Ana M. Troncoso

2010-01-01

206

QTL mapping for European corn borer resistance ( Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.), agronomic and forage quality traits of testcross progenies in early-maturing European maize ( Zea mays L.) germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In hybrid breeding the performance of lines in hybrid combinations is more important than their performance per se. Little information is available on the correlation between individual line and testcross (TC) performances for the resistance to European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) in maize ( Zea mays L.). Marker assisted selection (MAS) will be successful only if quantitative trait

C. Papst; M. Bohn; H. F. Utz; A. E. Melchinger; D. Klein; J. Eder

2004-01-01

207

Wood Bond Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

1989-01-01

208

Chipper Woods Bird Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chipper Woods Bird Observatory (CWBO) is a non-profit organization committed to bringing "good science to the conservation of birds and their habitats through scientific research, scientific training and educational programs designed for all age groups." The CWBO website contains a nice variety of bird information and images for budding birders. The siteâÂÂs Bird Photos section provides good quality images and information for an extensive selection of birds including the Peregrine Falcon, Barn Swallow, Tufted Titmouse, Scarlet Tanager, and many more. Various bird-related topics -â such as migrating geese, owl pellets, West Nile Virus, and Bald Eagle Restoration -â are covered as well. The CWBO website contains checklists for Indiana birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. The site also offers a banding summary, newsletter, list of publications, and short quiz for kids. The CWBO site is available in Spanish and English.

209

Are functional traits good predictors of demographic rates? Evidence from five neotropical forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central goal of comparative plant ecology is to understand how functional traits vary among species and to what extent this variation has adaptive value. Here we evaluate relationships between four functional traits (seed volume, specific leaf area, wood density, and adult stature) and two demographic attributes (diameter growth and tree mortality) for large trees of 240 tree species from

L. Poorter; H. Paz; S. J. Wright; D. D. Ackerly; R. Condit; G. Ibarra-Manríquez; K. E. Harms; J. C. Licona; M. Martínez-Ramos; S. J. Mazer; H. C. Muller-Landau; M. Peña-Claros; C. O. Webb; I. J. Wright

2008-01-01

210

Wood's lamp illumination (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

211

WOOD STREET METERED LOT  

E-print Network

LOT E1 LOT O WOOD STREET METERED LOT LOT W5 LOT C4 LOT B4 LOT L LOT M MARSHFIELDAVENUE PAULINASTREET Clinical Sciences Building UI Hospital Wood Street Station Clinical Sciences North Grand Grounds Garden

Dai, Yang

212

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Menu About RWJF Our Work Research & Publications Grants Newsroom Blog Search Healthy Weight for All ... PRIVACY POLICY TERMS AND CONDITIONS © 2001â??2014 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. All Rights Reserved.

213

PRKAG3 and CAST genetic polymorphisms and quality traits of dry-cured hams--III. Associations in Slovenian dry-cured ham Kraški pršut and their dependence on processing.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study, the third in a series of three papers, is to show the effects of PRKAG3 and CAST gene polymorphisms on the quality traits of the Slovenian dry-cured ham "Kraški pršut" and their interaction with ham producers. Significant interaction of polymorphisms with producer in the case of salt content, lipid oxidation (PRKAG3 Ile199Val), proteolysis index (CAST Arg249Lys) and pastiness (CAST Ser638Arg) indicated that genotype manifestation was reliant on the manufacturing practice. PRKAG3 Ile199Val polymorphism affected several physico-chemical, rheological and sensory traits. The Ile/Ile genotype yielded less salty and softer hams, indicating beneficial effects on dry-cured ham quality. The effect of CAST polymorphisms was less pronounced, although the observed associations with pastiness, proteolysis index and several free amino acid concentrations indicate its possible influence on proteolysis, with haplotype CAST 249Arg/638Ser being associated with a higher degree of proteolysis. PMID:22770931

Škrlep, M; ?andek-Potokar, M; Žlender, B; Robert, N; Santé-Lhoutellier, V; Gou, P

2012-12-01

214

EVALUATION OF LEACHATE QUALITY FROM PENTACHLOROPHENOL, CREOSOTE AND ACA  

E-print Network

#12;EVALUATION OF LEACHATE QUALITY FROM PENTACHLOROPHENOL, CREOSOTE AND ACA PRESERVED WOOD PRODUCTS the leachability characteristics of pentachlorophenol (PCP), creosote and ammoniacal chromium arsenate (ACA) wood wood products. The test products included pentachlorophenol treated utility poles, creosote treated

215

CORRELATIONAL SELECTION LEADS TO GENETIC INTEGRATION OF BODY SIZE AND AN ATTRACTIVE PLUMAGE TRAIT IN DARK-EYED JUNCOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a trait's effect on fitness depends on its interaction with other traits, the resultant selection is correlational and may lead to the integration of functionally related traits. In relation to sexual selection, when an ornamental trait interacts with phenotypic quality to determine mating success, correlational sexual selection should generate genetic correlations between the ornament and quality, leading to the

Joel W. McGlothlin; Patricia G. Parker; Val Nolan; Ellen D. Ketterson

2005-01-01

216

WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION  

E-print Network

WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION V #12;#12;443USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. 1997. Section Overview Wood Products and Utilization1 John R. Shelly2 Forests are obviously a very important asset to California, and their economic and social value to the state is well documented. Wood

Standiford, Richard B.

217

Wood Durability Service & Reliability  

E-print Network

Wood Durability Laboratory Service & Reliability Equipment & Facilities Field sites for AWPA E-7 (mold) tests. Wood weathering facilities. Lab-scale pressure treating cylin- ders. X-ray preservative analyzer (Oxford Twin-X). State-of-the-art facilities for wood and plastics composites manufacturing

218

CURRICULUM VITAE Robert Wood  

E-print Network

CURRICULUM VITAE Robert Wood Assistant Professor Atmospheric Sciences, Box 351640, University. Publications [1] Wood, R., I. M. Stromberg, P. R. Jonas and C. S. Mill, 1997: Analysis of an air motion system on a light aircraft for boundary layer research. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 14, 960-968. [2] Wood, R., D. W

Wood, Robert

219

Wood-burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is the most practical, least expensive way to alternative heating. It is easy to install, non-polluting, and fun. With wood as fuel, the air can be clean. This thoroughly detailed and illustrated guide offers tips on whether one wishes to convert the home or to supplement the present heating system with wood heat. Information is included

1977-01-01

220

Identification of QTL for grain quality traits in a cross of soft wheat cultivars Pioneer brand ‘25R26’ and ‘Foster’  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

End-use quality of wheat, defined by milling, composition, and rhealogical properties, is vital to the entire wheat industry. An improved understanding of the genetics that control wheat quality is needed to efficiently improve wheat quality. Our objective was to determine the genetics of multipl...

221

Floodplains and wood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions between floodplains and wood date to the Carboniferous, when stable, multithread channel deposits appear with the evolution of tree-like plants. Foundational geologic texts, such as Lyell's, 1830Principles of Geology, describe floodplain-wood interactions, yet modern technical literature describes floodplain-wood interactions in detail for only a very limited range of environments. This likely reflects more than a century of deforestation, flow regulation, and channel engineering, including instream wood removal, which has resulted in severe wood depletion in most of the world's river networks. Instream wood affects floodplain form and process by altering flow resistance, conveyance and channel-floodplain connectivity, and influencing lateral and vertical accretion of floodplains. Instream wood reflects floodplain form and process as the floodplain influences wood recruitment via bank erosion and overbank flow, and wood transport and storage via floodplain effects on stage-discharge relations and flow resistance. Examining turnover times for instream wood at the reach scale in the context of a wood budget, floodplain characteristics influence fluvial transport and dynamics (wood recruitment), valley geometry (wood transport and storage), and hydraulics and river biota (wood decay and breakage). Accumulations of wood that vary from in situ jams and beaver dams in small channels to transport jams and log rafts in very large rivers can create stable, multithread channels and floodplain wetlands. Floodplain-wood interactions are best understood for a subset of small to medium-sized rivers in the temperate zone. We know little about these interactions on very large rivers, or on rivers in the tropical or boreal regions. This review suggests that most, if not all, channels and floodplains within forested catchments in the temperate zone historically had much greater wood loads and consequently much more obvious and important influences from wood than do heavily modified contemporary catchments. For many rivers in the temperate zone, direct and indirect removal of instream wood very likely caused a fundamental shift in channel and floodplain process and form, as has been demonstrated in detail for specific rivers of diverse size in several regions. Failure to explicitly include floodplain-wood interactions creates a misleading conceptual model of floodplain dynamics in forested catchments.

Wohl, Ellen

2013-08-01

222

Genome-wide association studies of agronomic and quality traits in a set of German winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT).  

PubMed

A set of about 100 winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, comprising diverse and economically important German barley elite germplasm released during the last six decades, was previously genotypically characterized by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using the Illumina GoldenGate BeadArray Technology to detect associations with phenotypic data estimated in three-year field trials at 12 locations. In order to identify further associations and to obtain information on whether the marker type influences the outcome of association genetics studies, the set of winter barley cultivars was re-analyzed using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. As with the analysis of the SNPs, only polymorphic markers present at an allele frequency >5% were included to detect associations in a mixed linear model (MLM) approach using the TASSEL software (P???0.001). The population structure and kinship matrix were estimated on 72 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) covering the whole barley genome. The respective average linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyzed with DArT markers was estimated at 5.73 cM. A total of 52 markers gave significant associations with at least one of the traits estimated which, therefore, may be suitable for marker-assisted breeding. In addition, by comparing the results to those generated using the Illumina GoldenGate BeadArray Technology, it turned out that a different number of associations for respective traits is detected, depending on the marker system. However, as only a few of the respective DArT and Illumina markers are present in a common map, no comprehensive comparison of the detected associations was feasible, but some were probably detected in the same chromosomal regions. Because of the identification of additional marker-trait associations, it may be recommended to use both marker techniques in genome-wide association studies. PMID:24789682

Lex, Jeannette; Ahlemeyer, Jutta; Friedt, Wolfgang; Ordon, Frank

2014-08-01

223

20 Engineered Wood Journal Spring 2004 re wood design course  

E-print Network

20 Engineered Wood Journal · Spring 2004 A re wood design course offerings in civil, architectural, just maintaining the status quo could spell trouble for a wood products industry facing ever-greater competition from non-wood building materials. University education about wood as an engineering material

Gupta, Rakesh

224

Trait Attribution to a Described Action as a Function of Changes in Salient Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a preliminary attempt to examine the nature of statements expressing traits as qualities of actions. It investigates the relative importance of five different variables in determining the trait attribution made to a described act. (Author)

Marston, Barbara J.

1976-01-01

225

Effect of High-Temperature Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) Wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat treatment is a wood modification method that has been used to some extent in improving timber quality. The high temperature thermal treatment of wood is an environmentally friendly method for wood preservation. This technique has attracted considerable attention both in Europe and in North America in recent years.This article presents the results of experimental studies on influence of heat

Süleyman Korkut; Mehmet Budakç?

2009-01-01

226

Mother`s 1993: Wood and coal stove advisory  

SciTech Connect

If you`re like me, you`ve been heating and cooking with wood long enough that you don`t want another lecture about the cozy charm of a wood fire, the money you can save over electric heat, why to clean your flue or how to stack a cord of wood. What you may want to know, however, is why you can`t get an efficient, new wood stove anymore without paying hundreds of dollars extra for a government-approved catalytic smoke combustor or {open_quotes}Hi-Tech{close_quotes} stove; how the wood smoke that we once considered benign can degrade our air quality, endangering health and property; and how the new government presence in home heating affects your use or sale of the {open_quotes}low-tech{close_quotes} Intrepid, Kodiak or Ashley airtight wood stove (or the faithful old coal-burner) that has warmed you for years.

Vivian, J.

1993-12-01

227

Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process  

E-print Network

influ- enced the compounding quality of wood­polymer blends and finally affected the interfacial bonding was effective for improving the compat- ibility and adhesion at the interface. The two-step process was better

228

Wood Frog Embryos in an Icy Wetland  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Wood frog embryos in a partly ice-covered Wisconsin wetland. Interconnected wetlands and uplands are critical elements of most North American landscapes and support our quality of life in profound ways. To provide much-needed information, the USGS is leading a growing network of U.S. and Canadian pa...

229

Wood residues: trash or treasure  

SciTech Connect

Forest residues have acquired new economic value since the growth of the wood-energy markets has prompted private woodlot owners to begin managing and harvesting their forests after nearly a century of neglect. Estimates place half the commercial forests as overstocked, with poor-quality trees and unmarketable varieties, as well as standing dead or fallen trees and slash which are aesthetically bad. Overzealous cleansing of the forest floor, however, will deplete forests soils of nutrients and expose them to erosion in addition to destroying wildlife habitat. A compromise is needed to balance the ecological and economic benefits. (DCK)

Bolgiano, C.

1983-12-01

230

FishTraits Database  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

2009-01-01

231

WOOD ANATOMY INSTRUCTIONS FOR LABORATORY  

E-print Network

.................................... 33 Exercise 9. The wood of Albizia adianthifolia from tropical Central Africa.................................... 35 Exercise 10. The wood of Manilkara fouilloyana from tropical Central Africa

Cufar, Katarina

232

Products of wood gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing problem of pollution from wood-burning stoves has prompted this examination of the basic gasification process of wood under conditions encompassing those in stoves. Other variables were sample grain orientation, thickness, exposure time, and moisture content. Sample weight was followed in some tests; sample temperature (5 thermocouples) was followed in others. In all tests, all evolved products were either

T. J. Ohlemiller; T. Kashiwagi; K. Werner

1985-01-01

233

How James Wood Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

2008-01-01

234

Big Wood River, Idaho  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Big Wood River flows through communities of the Wood River Valley of south-central Idaho. It is one of eight sites at which the USGS is conducting an ecological assessment during the summer of 2014. Study results will be published in 2015....

235

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is disclosed which includes a stove housing that defines an upper zone comprising storage and exhaust chambers, and a lower zone for accommodating a wood burning fire. The exhaust and storage chambers are separated by a divider, both chambers having bottom openings that communicate directly with the top of the lower fire zone. Covering one opening

1982-01-01

236

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is formed with double front and rear side walls of heat conductive metal interconnected by heat conductive spacer fins and providing air passageways by which room air is heated by conduction from the walls which are heated by the burning of wood deposited on a firebox grate made up of spaced bricks supported by metal holders

Willson

1981-01-01

237

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is formed with double front and rear side walls of heat conductive metal interconnected by heat conductive spacer fins and providing air passageways by which room air is heated by conduction from the walls which are heated by the burning of wood deposited on a firebox grate made up of spaced bricks supported by metal holders

Willson

1979-01-01

238

Effect of atmospheric stability on the impact of domestic wood combustion to air quality of a small urban township in winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the winter of 2011, a field campaign was undertaken in the small township of Nelson, New Zealand to measure the vertical and horizontal distribution of concentrations of airborne particulate matter. The aim of this campaign was to improve our understanding of the causal factors which result in periods of very high concentrations of particulate pollution in small townships during winter where emissions are dominated by the combustion of wood for domestic heating. The results showed that mean hourly surface concentrations of particulates throughout the airshed were characterized by a distinctive diurnal cycle, with two peaks in concentration (one in the late evening and then, unusually, a second mid-morning). Although the timing and magnitude of hourly peak concentrations was variable throughout the valley, there was no evidence to suggest that regional or topographic flows played a significant role in the build-up of pollutants at any given location. Analysis of vertical profiles of black carbon showed that high concentrations of particulates were confined to the lowest 50 m of the boundary layer. Concentrations decreased with increasing height within this polluted surface layer. The atmosphere was very stable during the evening period. After midnight, a period of increased mixing was consistently identified throughout the lowest 100 m of the boundary layer and associated with the sudden cleansing of the surface and lower layers of the boundary layer. Throughout the observational period there was no evidence for the storage of pollutants aloft. Thus the vertical mixing of pollutants to the surface could not account for increased pollutant concentrations during the morning period. However, at this time the boundary layer remained stable and concentrations of black carbon were mixed through a very shallow layer. This suggests that despite lower domestic heating emissions in the morning, the reduced mixing volume is a likely cause of the observed marked peak in morning surface concentrations.

Grange, S. K.; Salmond, J. A.; Trompetter, W. J.; Davy, P. K.; Ancelet, T.

2013-05-01

239

cell trait? Know your sickle cell trait status.  

E-print Network

What is sickle cell trait? Know your sickle cell trait status. Engage in a slow and gradual experiencing unusual physical distress. People at high risk for having sickle cell trait are those whose countries. sickle cell trait is not a disease. Sickle cell trait is the inheritance of one gene for sickle

Devoto, Stephen H.

240

Effect of feed additives on the results of fattening and selected slaughter and quality traits of pork meat of pigs with different genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

High requirements imposed on pork producers in the field of the quality of meat are favourable for the intensification of studies on feed additives, in particular substitutes of feed antibiotics (AGP) (Kjeldsen, 2002). In pig production, we may observe a constant decline of the application of feed antibi- otics, with the increase in the use of antibiotics for therapeutic purposes

A. REKIEL; J. WI?CEK; M. DZIUBA

2005-01-01

241

QTL analysis of fruit quality in fresh market tomato: a few chromosome regions control the variation of sensory and instrumental traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organoleptic quality of tomato fruit involves a set of attributes (flavour, aroma, texture) that can be evaluated either by sensory analyses or by instru- mental measures. In order to study the genetic con- trol of this characteristic, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was developed from an intraspecific cross between a cherry tomato line with a good over- all

M. Causse; V. Saliba-Colombani; L. Lecomte; P. Duffe; P. Rousselle; M. Buret

2002-01-01

242

Polymorphism of MyoD1 and Myf6 genes and associations with carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle.  

PubMed

Myogenic determination factor 1 (MyoD1) and myogenic factor 6 (Myf6) genes belong to the myogenic differentiation (MyoD) gene family, which play key roles in growth and muscle development. The study aimed to investigate the effects of variants in cattle MyoD1 and Myf6 on carcass and meat traits. We screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of both genes in 8 cattle populations, including Simmental, Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Limousin, Qinchuan, Luxi, and Jinnan by sequencing. The G782A locus was identified in exon 1 of MyoD1 (MyoD1-BglI) as well as the T186C locus in exon 1 of Myf6 (Myf6-ApaLI). For the two SNPs, the A allele was significantly more frequent than the B allele in the populations tested. The ?(2) test showed that the MyoD1-BglI locus conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the 8 populations, as did the Myf6-ApaLI locus, with the exception of the Simmental population (P > 0.05). Association analysis revealed that the MyoD1-BglI locus was significantly associated with loin muscle area (LMA) (P < 0.05), and the Myf6-ApaLI locus was significantly associated with carcass length (CL) (P < 0.05). Animals with BB and AB genotypes for the MyoD1-BglI locus had larger LMAs compared to animals with AA genotype. Individuals with BB genotype had longer CLs compared to those with AA and AB genotypes. We conclude that the two SNPs might provide useful genetic markers, opening up new possibilities for cattle breeding and improvements in gene-assisted selection. PMID:24391012

Du, X H; Gan, Q F; Yuan, Z R; Gao, X; Zhang, L P; Gao, H J; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

2013-01-01

243

Frequency profiles of residential wood burning for the northwestern United States  

SciTech Connect

Surveys report that as high as 62% of the homes in the Pacific Northwest region have wood-burning equipment (the capability to heat with wood). Most of these homes apparently make use of this heating source. For example, the Oregon Department of Energy's Residential Energy Conservation Survey estimated that 50% to 60% of Oregon's households burn at least some wood. However, the number of homes that burn wood as their primary heating source is only about 21%. While it may be unclear whether wood heating will continue to enjoy popularity in light of recent energy price declines, certainly the hardware for wood heating remains widespread throughout the Northwest. For regulation purposes it is important to understand the impact this large capacity for wood heating can have on air quality. There is very little open literature describing wood usage patterns, apparently because of the difficulty and capital cost in monitoring residences for frequency and duration of burning. Analyses have typically used homeowner surveys of wood use to determine wood heating behavior. The weakness here is that survey responses are often unreliable. For example, respondent estimated wood usage may represent more of an indicator of the propensity to burn wood than the quantity actually burned. Characterizing wood usage patterns is important in assessing its contribution to air pollution. It may even be possible to use this information to predict when wood stove emissions will have their greatest impact on air quality. In this paper we present an examination of patterns of wood use for residential space heating in the Northwest. It is taken from a study of electrical energy consumption that is concerned with wood heating behavior from a standpoint of electrical displacement rather than one of air quality. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

LeBaron, B.A.; Jo, J.; Pearson, E.W.

1989-10-01

244

Multiple trait model combining random regressions for daily feed intake with single measured performance traits of growing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A random regression model for daily feed intake and a conventional multiple trait animal model for the four traits average daily gain on test (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass lean content and meat quality index were combined to analyse data from 1 449 castrated male Large White pigs performance tested in two French central testing stations in 1997. Group

Urs Schnyder; Andreas Hofer; Florence Labroue; Niklaus Künzi

2002-01-01

245

William B. Wood Complete Publications  

E-print Network

3/24/14 William B. Wood Complete Publications Scientific Research: 1. Wood, W. B., and Berg, P protein-ribosome system from Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 48: 94-104. 2. Wood, W. B Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 23: 237-246. 3. Wood, W. B., and Berg, P. (1964) Influence of DNA secondary

Pace, Norman

246

Experimental study of wood downdraft gasification for an improved producer gas quality through an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach.  

PubMed

This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings. PMID:21292477

Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan

2011-04-01

247

Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Biomass and Wood Chemistry of Populus under Different Nitrogen Levels  

SciTech Connect

The genetic control of carbon allocation and partitioning in woody perennial plants is poorly understood despite its importance for carbon sequestration, biofuels and other wood-based industries. It is also unclear how environmental cues, such as nitrogen availability, impact the genes that regulate growth, biomass allocation and wood composition in trees. We phenotyped 396 clonally replicated genotypes of an interspecific pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus for wood composition and biomass traits in above- and below-ground organs. The loci that regulate growth, carbon allocation and partitioning under two nitrogen conditions were identified, defining the contribution of environmental cues to their genetic control. Sixty-three quantitative trait loci were identified for the 20 traits analyzed. The majority of quantitative trait loci are specific to one of the two nitrogen treatments, demonstrating significant nitrogen-dependent genetic control. A highly significant genetic correlation was observed between plant growth and lignin/cellulose composition, and quantitative trait loci co-localization identified the genomic position of potential pleiotropic regulators. Pleiotropic loci linking higher growth rates to wood with less lignin are excellent targets to engineer tree germplasm improved for pulp, paper and cellulosic ethanol production. The causative genes are being identified with a genetical genomics approach.

Novaes, E.; Osorio, L.; Drost, D. R.; Miles, B. L.; Boaventura-Novaes, C. R. D.; Benedict, C.; Dervinis, C.; Yu, Q.; Sykes, R.; Davis, M.; Martin, T. A.; Peter, G. F.; Kirst, M.

2009-01-01

248

Poplar wood formation.  

E-print Network

??Genotypical effects on wood formation in aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) have been studied at morphological, ultrastructural and micro-distributional levels. To characterize transgenically in­duced modifications,… (more)

Sandquist, David

2011-01-01

249

Woods for Health Strategy Woods for Health Strategy | 32 | Woods for Health Strategy  

E-print Network

Strategy Woods for Health #12;Woods for Health Strategy Woods for Health Strategy | 32 | Woods for Health Strategy Foreword Like the rest of the western world, Scotland experiences growing rates a key role in helping to promote better physical and mental health for all by providing greenspace

250

Transportation fuels from wood  

SciTech Connect

The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

1980-01-01

251

Impact Tests for Woods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although it is well known that the strength of wood depends greatly upon the time the wood is under the load, little consideration has been given to this fact in testing materials for airplanes. Here, results are given of impact tests on clear, straight grained spruce. Transverse tests were conducted for comparison. Both Izod and Charpy impact tests were conducted. Results are given primarily in tabular and graphical form.

1922-01-01

252

Wood burning related injuries.  

PubMed

During the past two years, 80 patients were seen in the emergency department of The Mary Imogene Bassett Hospital (Cooperstown, NY) for injuries related to the use of wood burning stoves. The types of injuries included 25 lacerations, 19 crush injuries, 10 fractures, 7 eye injuries and 7 burns. Seven of these patients required hospitalization, and five required operative procedures. There was no mortality. Physician and patient education about the potential dangers of wood stove use may help prevent these injuries. PMID:2733888

Nicholson, J J; Dietz, P A

1989-05-01

253

Wood-burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood-burning stove includes side walls joined together in an airtight manner to form a firebox and a heat chamber thereabove. The firebox contains upstanding rails to support wood logs for combustion. Streams of heated air are discharged from a manifold that extends from rail-to-rail outwardly from one terminal end of each rail between opposite side walls of the stove.

Squires

1983-01-01

254

Wood energy in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

Because of rising costs of imported oil and public support for eliminating nuclear energy, Sweden's use of wood for energy seems certain to increase from its 8% share of energy consumed in 1977. Since 21% of the value of the country's exports comes from wood products, competition from energy uses may affect the forest industry and the national economy. Sweden has established a biomass research program with emphasis on forest energy (residues) and energy forests. 6 references.

Fege, A.S.

1981-01-01

255

The genetic background affects composition, oxidative stability and quality traits of Iberian dry-cured hams: purebred Iberian versus reciprocal Iberian × Duroc crossbred pigs.  

PubMed

This study examined the physico-chemical characteristics, oxidative stability and sensory properties of Iberian cry-cured hams as affected by the genetic background of the pigs: purebred Iberian (PBI) pigs vs reciprocal cross-bred Iberian × Duroc pigs (IB × D pigs: Iberian dams × Duroc sires; D × IB pigs: Duroc dams × Iberian sires). Samples from PBI pigs contained significantly higher amounts of IMF, monounsaturated fatty acids, heme pigments and iron than those from crossbred pigs. The extent of lipid and protein oxidation was significantly larger in dry-cured hams of crossbred pigs than in those from PBI pigs. Dry-cured hams from PBI pigs were defined by positive sensory properties (i.e. redness, brightness and juiciness) while hams from crossbred pigs were ascribed to negative ones (i.e. hardness, bitterness and sourness). Hams from PBI pigs displayed a superior quality than those from crossbred pigs. The position of the dam or the sire in reciprocal Iberian × Duroc crosses had no effect on the quality of Iberian hams. PMID:24200565

Fuentes, Verónica; Ventanas, Sonia; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

2014-02-01

256

Lipids, tocopherols, and carotenoids in leaves of amaranth and quinoa cultivars and a new approach to overall evaluation of nutritional quality traits.  

PubMed

Composition of lipophilic phytochemicals including fatty acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids in leaves of 6 quinoa and 14 amaranth cultivars was analyzed. The oil yields in quinoa and amaranth leaves were only 2.72-4.18%, which contained mainly essential fatty acids and had a highly favorable ?-3/?-6 ratio (2.28-3.89). Pro-vitamin A carotenoids, mainly ?- and ?-carotenes, and xanthophylls, predominantly lutein and violaxanthin, were found in all samples. The primary tocopherol isomers present in both quinoa and amaranth leaves were ?- and ?-tocopherols. Added to the discussion on the lipophilic nutrients was the normalization of ?-3/?-6 ratio, ?-tocopherol equivalents, and carotenoids, in an attempt to establish a novel system for evaluation of the overall quality attributes of lipophilic nutrients (NQ value). The NQ value, but not the individual components, was highly correlated with all the antioxidant activities, supporting the ranking order of the potential nutritional quality of quinoa and amaranth leaves based on this new method. PMID:25465272

Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Hernandez, Marta; Zhang, Hua; Marcone, Massimo F; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

2014-12-31

257

Effects of dietary probiotic inclusion on performance, eggshell quality, cecal microflora composition, and tibia traits of laying hens in the late phase of production.  

PubMed

Ninety-six White laying hens (64 weeks old) were used to investigate the effect of dietary inclusion of Bacillus subtilis on performance and eggshell quality. Hens were randomly distributed into three treatment groups and fed basal diet (control), basal diet plus 0.5 g/kg B. subtilis (Probiotic-0.5), or basal diet plus 1 g/kg B. subtilis (Probiotic-1) for 10 weeks. Probiotic-1 group exhibited the maximum (P<0.05) increase in egg production, egg weight, egg mass, eggshell weight, and eggshell thickness, compared with Probiotic-0.5 and the control groups. During the last week of the study, eggshell densities were 94.9, 88.7, and 65.6 mg/cm(2) in Probiotic-1, Probiotic-0.5, and the control group, respectively. The average unmarketable eggs were 1.3 %, 2.2 %, and 6.4 % in Probiotic-1, Probiotic-0.5, and the control group, respectively. Tibia weight, density, and ash content increased significantly. The average time required by B. subtilis to establish a significant effect was 3 weeks for Probiotic-1and 6 weeks for Probiotic-5. B. subtilis improved gut microflora balance, which has the potential to improve gut health and absorption efficiency. It should be possible to improve egg performance and eggshell quality of aged laying hens by dietary inclusion of B. subtilis, which will be of importance for farmers. PMID:23271415

Abdelqader, Anas; Irshaid, Rabie; Al-Fataftah, Abdur-Rahman

2013-04-01

258

Wood anatomical correlates with theoretical conductivity and wood density across China: evolutionary evidence of the functional differentiation of axial and radial parenchyma  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In recent years considerable effort has focused on linking wood anatomy and key ecological traits. Studies analysing large databases have described how these ecological traits vary as a function of wood anatomical traits related to conduction and support, but have not considered how these functions interact with cells involved in storage of water and carbohydrates (i.e. parenchyma cells). Methods We analyzed, in a phylogenetic context, the functional relationship between cell types performing each of the three xylem functions (conduction, support and storage) and wood density and theoretical conductivity using a sample of approx. 800 tree species from China. Key Results Axial parenchyma and rays had distinct evolutionary correlation patterns. An evolutionary link was found between high conduction capacity and larger amounts of axial parenchyma that is probably related to water storage capacity and embolism repair, while larger amounts of ray tissue have evolved with increased mechanical support and reduced hydraulic capacity. In a phylogenetic principal component analysis this association of axial parenchyma with increased conduction capacity and rays with wood density represented orthogonal axes of variation. In multivariate space, however, the proportion of rays might be positively associated with conductance and negatively with wood density, indicating flexibility in these axes in species with wide rays. Conclusions The findings suggest that parenchyma types may differ in function. The functional axes represented by different cell types were conserved across lineages, suggesting a significant role in the ecological strategies of the angiosperms. PMID:23904446

Zheng, Jingming; Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I.

2013-01-01

259

Wye Wood: the wider wood : A project description and evaluation page 1 January 2007  

E-print Network

Wye Wood: the wider wood : A project description and evaluation page 1 January 2007 Wye Wood: the wider wood A project description and evaluation Report written by: Dr Frances Howie Associate Director Parrott Health Development Worker, Wye Wood: the wider wood #12;Wye Wood: the wider wood : A project

260

Plant Trait-Species Abundance Relationships Vary with Environmental Properties in Subtropical Forests in Eastern China  

PubMed Central

Understanding how plant trait-species abundance relationships change with a range of single and multivariate environmental properties is crucial for explaining species abundance and rarity. In this study, the abundance of 94 woody plant species was examined and related to 15 plant leaf and wood traits at both local and landscape scales involving 31 plots in subtropical forests in eastern China. Further, plant trait-species abundance relationships were related to a range of single and multivariate (PCA axes) environmental properties such as air humidity, soil moisture content, soil temperature, soil pH, and soil organic matter, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents. At the landscape scale, plant maximum height, and twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, whereas mean leaf area (MLA), leaf N concentration (LN), and total leaf area per twig size (TLA) were negatively correlated with species abundance. At the plot scale, plant maximum height, leaf and twig dry matter contents, twig and stem wood densities were positively correlated, but MLA, specific leaf area, LN, leaf P concentration and TLA were negatively correlated with species abundance. Plant trait-species abundance relationships shifted over the range of seven single environmental properties and along multivariate environmental axes in a similar way. In conclusion, strong relationships between plant traits and species abundance existed among and within communities. Significant shifts in plant trait-species abundance relationships in a range of environmental properties suggest strong environmental filtering processes that influence species abundance and rarity in the studied subtropical forests. PMID:23560114

Yan, En-Rong; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Scott X.; Wang, Xi-Hua

2013-01-01

261

Sexual selection in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata? : condition, sex traits and immune capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to test two hypotheses: (1) that condition-dependent secondary sexual traits reflect an individual's\\u000a immune capacity and (2) that immune capacity and secondary sexual traits covary with primary sex traits, specifically ejaculate\\u000a quality. We used the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata as a study species, since the traits that females find attractive in males of this

T. R. Birkhead; F. Fletcher; E. J. Pellatt

1998-01-01

262

An oligo-based microarray offers novel transcriptomic approaches for the analysis of pathogen resistance and fruit quality traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Melon (Cucumis melo) is a horticultural specie of significant nutritional value, which belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance is second only to the Solanaceae. Its small genome of approx. 450 Mb coupled to the high genetic diversity has prompted the development of genetic tools in the last decade. However, the unprecedented existence of a transcriptomic approaches in melon, highlight the importance of designing new tools for high-throughput analysis of gene expression. Results We report the construction of an oligo-based microarray using a total of 17,510 unigenes derived from 33,418 high-quality melon ESTs. This chip is particularly enriched with genes that are expressed in fruit and during interaction with pathogens. Hybridizations for three independent experiments allowed the characterization of global gene expression profiles during fruit ripening, as well as in response to viral and fungal infections in plant cotyledons and roots, respectively. Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation together with functional-enrichment analysis are presented in this study. Conclusion The platform validation and enrichment analyses shown in our study indicate that this oligo-based microarray is amenable for future genetic and functional genomic studies of a wide range of experimental conditions in melon. PMID:19821986

Mascarell-Creus, Albert; Cañizares, Joaquin; Vilarrasa-Blasi, Josep; Mora-García, Santiago; Blanca, José; Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Saladié, Montserrat; Roig, Cristina; Deleu, Wim; Picó-Silvent, Belén; López-Bigas, Nuria; Aranda, Miguel A; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Nuez, Fernando; Puigdomènech, Pere; Caño-Delgado, Ana I

2009-01-01

263

Developing Leadership Traits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines six leadership traits that are necessary to and fostered by editing a college newspaper: delegating authority, developing subordinates, motivating others, being approachable, commanding respect, and bringing out optimum performances in others. (TJ)

Hall, Susan King

1980-01-01

264

Anatomical explanations for the changes in properties of western red cedar ( Thuja plicata ) wood during heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal treatment is an alternative to the chemical treatment in wood preservation, which has been used to some extent in\\u000a improving timber quality. Despite the enormous works done so far on the effects of heat treatment on wood properties, very\\u000a little is known about the anatomical changes in the various wood species during the process. Wood samples from western red

L. Awoyemi; I. P. Jones

2011-01-01

265

Precision wood particle feedstocks  

DOEpatents

Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-07-30

266

in Wood Composites Symposium  

E-print Network

the oral presentations and posters that explore the adaptability and applicability of using nanocellulose as a potential resource to create value-added commodities and innovative bio-based composites. Presenters from around the world reviewed nanotechnology applications in developing and improving forest products in the past, present, and future. A variety of nanomaterials are obtained from wood, including nanofibrils, nanocrystals, lignin particles, and extractives. Most research efforts focus on developing continuous, highperformance composite reinforcement from cellulose nanofibrils; improving performance and value-added features of existing wood-based composites; developing coatings and additives for improved durability of wood composites; and developing films and membranes with tailored mechanical and barrier properties, sensing capabilities, and biodegradability.

United States; Forest Service; Zhiyong Cai; Kristina Oksman; Niska Abstract

2012-01-01

267

Health Effects of Wood Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... smell good, but it's not good for you. Wood smoke can affect everyone, but children, teenagers, older ... complex mixture of gases and particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. A major health ...

268

The Woods and Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities offer sudents a hands-on approach to learning about their natural surroundings. After visiting a local pond and woods area, they will recognize that pond and woods environments are ecosystems and be able to state some of the differences between the two. They will also learn to identify trees by their leaves and bark and to identify shrubs by their fruit and manner of growth. In addition, they will also learn to identify animals and plants near the pond, and learn to recognize changes in the two ecosystems over a span of months.

1998-01-01

269

William Ransom Wood Campus center  

E-print Network

William Ransom Wood Campus center Fall 2012--Summer 2013Student Employee Handbook Advice for Leaders 2 Carol Brown Outstanding Student Employee Award 2 History of Wood Center 2 Employment Policies 3-4 Getting Paid, Etc. 5 Five Fun Facts about College Unions 5 Wood Center Contact Information 6 Inside

Hartman, Chris

270

The Asian Wood Pellet Markets  

E-print Network

The Asian Wood Pellet Markets Joseph A. Roos and Allen M. Brackley United States Department.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Alaska Wood Utilization Wood Pellet plant in North Pole, Alaska. Clockwise from upper left: pelleting machine; pellets bagged

271

Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood  

E-print Network

Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood Scholarship Award Call for Nominations We are delighted to announce the Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood Scholarship Award for an Outstanding Women's, Gender, and Sexualities (WGSS Wood, a feminist mother, wife, friend, daughter, and lawyer who is remembered by her loved ones

Alpay, S. Pamir

272

A life cycle evaluation of wood pellet gasification for district heating in British Columbia.  

PubMed

The replacement of natural gas combustion for district heating by wood waste and wood pellets gasification systems with or without emission control has been investigated by a streamlined LCA. While stack emissions from controlled gasification systems are lower than the applicable regulations, compared to the current base case, 12% and 133% increases are expected in the overall human health impacts for wood pellets and wood waste, respectively. With controlled gasification, external costs and GHG emission can be reduced by 35% and 82% on average, respectively. Between wood pellets and wood waste, wood pellets appear to be the better choice as it requires less primary energy and has a much lower impact on the local air quality. PMID:21377867

Pa, Ann; Bi, Xiaotao T; Sokhansanj, Shahab

2011-05-01

273

Early View (EV): 1-EV Using trait and phylogenetic diversity to evaluate the generality of  

E-print Network

the SDH for gradients of water and soil nutrient availability. This analysis incorporated two, and wood density. We found that mean trait values were weakly correlated with water and soil nutrient-dominance hypothesis (terminology adapted from Swenson and Enquist 2007), derives from the expectation

Hurlbert, Allen

274

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning heating unit has walls defining a combustion chamber, the walls having wall cavities therein for heating a liquid; baffle means within the walls dividing the wall cavities to provide directional liquid flow paths; a heat absorption unit formed of spaced tubes communicating with the wall cavities positioned above the combustion chamber; and inlet outlet water conduit means

1982-01-01

275

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air tight wood burning stove (10) for heating a designated space comprises a housing (12) having an access opening (50) in the front wall (14) thereof and at least one glass panel (64) containing door (54, 56) hingedly mounted on the front wall for closing the opening (50). A latching mechanism (60) on the door (54, 56) engages with

1982-01-01

276

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove having a combustion chamber and a flue for removing exhaust from the chamber wherein the improvement comprises the addition of a catalytic converter means for oxidizing oxidizable species in the exhaust. In one embodiment, the catalytic converter means is situated in a flue immediately adjacent the combustion chamber. In another embodiment, the

van Dewoestine

1983-01-01

277

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue for removing exhaust therefrom and also a catalytic converter means for oxidizing oxidizable species in the exhaust. A passageway is provided for bypassing the exhaust around the catalytic converter means, the passageway being controlled by a bypass damper for controlling access to the passageway for

R. A. Allaire; W. F. Pardue; R. V. Vandewoestine

1982-01-01

278

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood or coal burning metal stove is described that is formed with a base, a top wall, a casing between the two and a lining extending completely around the lower part of the casing, the base having no openings for draft, but the draft openings being through a casing door and the lower edge of the liner. Bolts between

Bette

1978-01-01

279

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

This disclosure relates to a wood burning stove which includes an innermost combustion chamber within and generally spaced from an intermediate air-circulating chamber in turn generally within an outermost chamber, all of the chambers having generally spaced top, rear, bottom and pairs of side walls, all of the side walls having openings and ducts associated therewith through which air is

Burnette

1983-01-01

280

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved wood burning stove for providing heated air to a room or similar area includes an enclosed fire chamber, a hearth at the bottom of the fire chamber, draft inlet means at the front of the fire chamber and a flue at the rear of the fire chamber. Within the fire chamber is an enclosed air chamber having lower

1983-01-01

281

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a stove primarily for the burning of wood, but also capable of burning other combustible materials. The stove is characterized by a unique combustion chamber, together with a recirculating combustion chamber and baffle for more perfect combustion and characterized by a heat radiating chamber which may be closed so as to be used as an oven, and by

R. F. Bruce; W. W. Byrd

1980-01-01

282

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove comprises a fire chamber of which the upper part is constituted as a heat exchanger. A primary air supply is provided as is a secondary air supply, the secondary air supply permitting air to be mixed with the gaseous products of combustion to support complete combustion of those gaseous products. Both air supplies have dampers, the

Down

1982-01-01

283

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue in communication therewith for removal of exhaust from the chamber with a catalytic converter means being movably mounted in the flue whereby the impedance presented to the exhaust by the converter may be selectively varied so as to minimize the impedance presented by the converter

R. A. Allaire; R. V. Vandewoestine

1982-01-01

284

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove is disclosed which includes a stove housing that defines an upper zone comprising storage and exhaust chambers, and a lower zone for accommodating a wood burning fire. The exhaust and storage chambers are separated by a divider, both chambers having bottom openings that communicate directly with the top of the lower fire zone. Covering one opening in the housing and providing access to the fire zone is a fire door while another opening provides access at the top of the storage chamber and is covered by a wood fill door. The exhaust chamber communicates with and discharges smoke into a stovepipe or flue retaining chimney. A supply of logs is loaded into the storage chamber through its fill door. These feed automatically and sequentially by gravity from the storage chamber bottom into the fire zone for consumption by a fire burning therein. The frequency of wood loading operations is reduced in that a suitable supply of logs for burning and maintaining a continuous fire over a long period of time is provided in one loading operation.

Sullivan, P.D.

1982-07-27

285

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove having improved air flow characteristics for effective combustion and purging of gaseous combustion by-products. A primary air inlet is provided below the loading door of the stove for feeding air to the firebox proper for combustion. A plurality of opposing supplementary air inlets are provided in opposite sides of the stove, at least two of the

Halchek

1984-01-01

286

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove for providing heated air to a room or similar area is disclosed which includes a fire chamber, a hearth in the forward portion of the fire chamber, draft inlet means at the front of the fire chamber and a flue at the rear of the fire chamber. Between the hearth and the flue is an enclosed

1978-01-01

287

Wood-burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood stove is of all welded steel plate construction except for the door which is of heavy cast iron. When the door is closed, the only source of combustion air is through an adjustable air inlet on the face of the door. The door is hollow and serves to preheat the incoming air. The inner wall of the door

A. W. Hicks; G. D. Jolicoeur

1981-01-01

288

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood burning stoves are of a type having a lower chamber and an upper chamber interconnected by a port. Air inlets are located laterally of the base of a fire in the lower chamber with a natural draft therein effecting a multitude of upwardly rising air streams of which one type is hot and oxygen poor and which carry and

Nason

1984-01-01

289

Art in the Woods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art project in which sixth-grade students learned about the work of environmentalist photographer Andy Goldsworthy. Explains how the students created designs using natural materials from the woods. Designs were photographed by high-school students. The sixth-graders then wrote about their experiences. (CMK)

Webster, Sue

2000-01-01

290

Rheological Model for Wood  

E-print Network

Wood as the most important natural and renewable building material plays an important role in the construction sector. Nevertheless, its hygroscopic character basically affects all related mechanical properties leading to degradation of material stiffness and strength over the service life. Accordingly, to attain reliable design of the timber structures, the influence of moisture evolution and the role of time- and moisture-dependent behaviors have to be taken into account. For this purpose, in the current study a 3D orthotropic elasto-plastic, visco-elastic, mechano-sorptive constitutive model for wood, with all material constants being defined as a function of moisture content, is presented. The corresponding numerical integration approach, with additive decomposition of the total strain is developed and implemented within the framework of the finite element method (FEM). Moreover to preserve a quadratic rate of asymptotic convergence the consistent tangent operator for the whole model is derived. Functionality and capability of the presented material model are evaluated by performing several numerical verification simulations of wood components under different combinations of mechanical loading and moisture variation. Additionally, the flexibility and universality of the introduced model to predict the mechanical behavior of different species are demonstrated by the analysis of a hybrid wood element. Furthermore, the proposed numerical approach is validated by comparisons of computational evaluations with experimental results.

Mohammad Masoud Hassani; Falk K. Wittel; Stefan Hering; Hans J. Herrmann

2014-10-15

291

Plant functional traits predict green roof ecosystem services.  

PubMed

Plants make important contributions to the services provided by engineered ecosystems such as green roofs. Ecologists use plant species traits as generic predictors of geographical distribution, interactions with other species, and ecosystem functioning, but this approach has been little used to optimize engineered ecosystems. Four plant species traits (height, individual leaf area, specific leaf area, and leaf dry matter content) were evaluated as predictors of ecosystem properties and services in a modular green roof system planted with 21 species. Six indicators of ecosystem services, incorporating thermal, hydrological, water quality, and carbon sequestration functions, were predicted by the four plant traits directly or indirectly via their effects on aggregate ecosystem properties, including canopy density and albedo. Species average height and specific leaf area were the most useful traits, predicting several services via effects on canopy density or growth rate. This study demonstrates that easily measured plant traits can be used to select species to optimize green roof performance across multiple key services. PMID:25599106

Lundholm, Jeremy; Tran, Stephanie; Gebert, Luke

2015-02-17

292

Flavonoid insertion into cell walls improves wood properties.  

PubMed

Wood has an excellent mechanical performance, but wider utilization of this renewable resource as an engineering material is limited by unfavorable properties such as low dimensional stability upon moisture changes and a low durability. However, some wood species are known to produce a wood of higher quality by inserting mainly phenolic substances in the already formed cell walls--a process so-called heartwood formation. In the present study, we used the heartwood formation in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) as a source of bioinspiration and transferred principles of the modification in order to improve spruce wood properties (Picea abies) by a chemical treatment with commercially available flavonoids. We were able to effectively insert hydrophobic flavonoids in the cell wall after a tosylation treatment for activation. The chemical treatment reduced the water uptake of the wood cell walls and increased the dimensional stability of the bulk spruce wood. Further analysis of the chemical interaction of the flavonoid with the structural cell wall components revealed the basic principle of this bioinspired modification. Contrary to established modification treatments, which mainly address the hydroxyl groups of the carbohydrates with hydrophilic substances, the hydrophobic flavonoids are effective by a physical bulking in the cell wall most probably stabilized by ?-? interactions. A biomimetic transfer of the underlying principle may lead to alternative cell wall modification procedures and improve the performance of wood as an engineering material. PMID:23027798

Ermeydan, Mahmut A; Cabane, Etienne; Masic, Admir; Koetz, Joachim; Burgert, Ingo

2012-11-01

293

Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

Ghafghazi, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

2011-01-01

294

Application of the differential colorimetry and polyphenolic profile to the evaluation of the chromatic quality of Tempranillo red wines elaborated in warm climate. Influence of the presence of oak wood chips during fermentation.  

PubMed

The effect of adding American oak wood chips during fermentation on Tempranillo red wines elaborates in a warm climate has been studied. Our attention was focused on the tristimulus colorimetry, differential colorimetry and phenolic compounds related to wine colour. This technique was applied as an oenological alternative to the conventional winemaking for avoiding the common fall of colour of red wines elaborated in warm climates. The addition of oak wood chips promoted the colour enhancement and stabilisation, producing wines with a notably darker colour and with more bluish tonality. This fact was also related to the significantly higher content of some phenolic compounds. On the basis of the results, it could be affirmed that the addition of oak wood chips during fermentation induced visually perceptible colour changes (by the analysis of ?Eab(*), %?(2)L, %?(2)C and %?(2)H), mainly in a quantitative way, and also a lower percentage of diminution of colour. PMID:23870946

Gordillo, Belén; Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

2013-12-01

295

Wood energy fuel cycle optimization in beech and spruce forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel synergistic approach to reducing emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is presented. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization (FCO) aims to provide cleaner burning fuels through optimization of forestry and renewable energy management practices. In this work, beech and spruce forests of average and high quality were modelled and analysed to determine the volume of fuel wood and its associated bark fraction produced during typical forestry cycles. Two separate fuel wood bark production regimes were observed for beech trees, while only one production regime was observed for spruce. The single tree and stand models were combined with existing thinning parameters to replicate existing management practices. Utilizing estimates of initial seedling numbers and existing thinning patterns a dynamic model was formed that responded to changes in thinning practices. By varying the thinning parameters, this model enabled optimization of the forestry practices for the reduction of bark impurities in the fuel wood supply chain. Beech forestry cycles responded well to fuel cycle optimization with volume reductions of bark from fuel wood of between ˜10% and ˜20% for average and high quality forest stands. Spruce, on the other hand, was fairly insensitive to FCO with bark reductions of 0-5%. The responsiveness of beech to FCO further supports its status as the preferred RWC fuel in Switzerland. FCO could easily be extended beyond Switzerland and applied across continental Europe and North America.

Meyer, Nickolas K.; Mina, Marco

2012-03-01

296

A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this genetics activity, learners create and decode a âDNA recipeâ for a dog by randomly selecting strips of paper that represent DNA. Then, learners decode the DNA recipe to reveal the physical traits of their dog and create a final drawing of the organism. Learners discover that differences in the DNA recipe lead to different traits by comparing their DNA recipes and dog drawings with the rest of the group to note similarities and differences. This guide features handouts for learners in English and Spanish.

Malone, Molly; Mitchell, April; Kiger, Steven

2006-01-01

297

Traits of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Traits of Life, a new collection of exhibits and demonstrations at San Francisco's Exploratorium, offers a fascinating look at the "fundamental elements common to all living things." Culminating from 3 years of research and development, the Traits of Life collection follows four themes: cells and DNA; reproduction; evolution; and energy consumption. This companion Web site offers cool interactive features for each theme, as well as articles, movies, interviews with experts, and more. Overall, this well-designed site offers a engaging way to "see past the diversity of living things to the underlying unity connecting us all."

298

Wood-burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood-burning stove includes side walls joined together in an airtight manner to form a firebox and a heat chamber thereabove. The firebox contains upstanding rails to support wood logs for combustion. Streams of heated air are discharged from a manifold that extends from rail-to-rail outwardly from one terminal end of each rail between opposite side walls of the stove. A plate is adjusted to control the flow of air into the manifold. An access door has openings in a spacer side wall for supplying air as desired to the firebox. The spacer walls of the door support a glass panel at an outwardly spaced location from a deflector to prevent deposits of creosote and other materials on the glass.

Squires, W.

1983-09-06

299

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning heating unit has walls defining a combustion chamber, the walls having wall cavities therein for heating a liquid; baffle means within the walls dividing the wall cavities to provide directional liquid flow paths; a heat absorption unit formed of spaced tubes communicating with the wall cavities positioned above the combustion chamber; and inlet outlet water conduit means communicating with the wall cavities.

Smith, J.H.

1982-07-20

300

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue in communication therewith for removal of exhaust from the chamber with a catalytic converter means being movably mounted in the flue whereby the impedance presented to the exhaust by the converter may be selectively varied so as to minimize the impedance presented by the converter means when additional fuel is added to the stove.

Allaire, R.A.; Vandewoestine, R.V.

1982-08-24

301

DNA Extraction From Processed Wood: A Case Study for the Identification of an Endangered  

E-print Network

Protocols DNA Extraction From Processed Wood: A Case Study for the Identification of an Endangered to the extraction of whole genomic DNA from processed wood samples to explore the possibility of identifying an endangered trop- ical timber species by using DNA sequencing technology. High-yield and high-quality DNA

302

Wood Composite Adhesives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

303

Current near-to-nature forest management effects on functional trait composition of saproxylic beetles in beech forests.  

PubMed

With the aim of wood production with negligible negative effects on biodiversity and ecosystem processes, a silvicultural practice of selective logging with natural regeneration has been implemented in European beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) during the last decades. Despite this near-to-nature strategy, species richness of various taxa is lower in these forests than in unmanaged forests. To develop guidelines to minimize the fundamental weaknesses in the current practice, we linked functional traits of saproxylic beetle species to ecosystem characteristics. We used continental-scale data from 8 European countries and regional-scale data from a large forest in southern Germany and forest-stand variables that represented a gradient of intensity of forest use to evaluate the effect of current near-to-nature management strategies on the functional diversity of saproxylic beetles. Forest-stand variables did not have a statistically significant effect on overall functional diversity, but they did significantly affect community mean and diversity of single functional traits. As the amount of dead wood increased the composition of assemblages shifted toward dominance of larger species and species preferring dead wood of large diameter and in advanced stages of decay. The mean amount of dead wood across plots in which most species occurred was from 20 to 60 m(3) /ha. Species occurring in plots with mean dead wood >60 m(3) /ha were consistently those inhabiting dead wood of large diameter and in advanced stages of decay. On the basis of our results, to make current wood-production practices in beech forests throughout Europe more conservation oriented (i.e., promoting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning), we recommend increasing the amount of dead wood to >20 m(3) /ha; not removing dead wood of large diameter (50 cm) and allowing more dead wood in advanced stages of decomposition to develop; and designating strict forest reserves, with their exceptionally high amounts of dead wood, that would serve as refuges for and sources of saproxylic habitat specialists. PMID:23432190

Gossner, Martin M; Lachat, Thibault; Brunet, Jörg; Isacsson, Gunnar; Bouget, Christophe; Brustel, Hervé; Brandl, Roland; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Müller, Jörg

2013-06-01

304

Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01

305

Predicting species’ range limits from functional traits for the tree flora of North America  

PubMed Central

Using functional traits to explain species’ range limits is a promising approach in functional biogeography. It replaces the idiosyncrasy of species-specific climate ranges with a generic trait-based predictive framework. In addition, it has the potential to shed light on specific filter mechanisms creating large-scale vegetation patterns. However, its application to a continental flora, spanning large climate gradients, has been hampered by a lack of trait data. Here, we explore whether five key plant functional traits (seed mass, wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), maximum height, and longevity of a tree)—indicative of life history, mechanical, and physiological adaptations—explain the climate ranges of 250 North American tree species distributed from the boreal to the subtropics. Although the relationship between traits and the median climate across a species range is weak, quantile regressions revealed strong effects on range limits. Wood density and seed mass were strongly related to the lower but not upper temperature range limits of species. Maximum height affects the species range limits in both dry and humid climates, whereas SLA and longevity do not show clear relationships. These results allow the definition and delineation of climatic “no-go areas” for North American tree species based on key traits. As some of these key traits serve as important parameters in recent vegetation models, the implementation of trait-based climatic constraints has the potential to predict both range shifts and ecosystem consequences on a more functional basis. Moreover, for future trait-based vegetation models our results provide a benchmark for model evaluation. PMID:25225398

Stahl, Ulrike; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

2014-01-01

306

Predicting species' range limits from functional traits for the tree flora of North America.  

PubMed

Using functional traits to explain species' range limits is a promising approach in functional biogeography. It replaces the idiosyncrasy of species-specific climate ranges with a generic trait-based predictive framework. In addition, it has the potential to shed light on specific filter mechanisms creating large-scale vegetation patterns. However, its application to a continental flora, spanning large climate gradients, has been hampered by a lack of trait data. Here, we explore whether five key plant functional traits (seed mass, wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), maximum height, and longevity of a tree)--indicative of life history, mechanical, and physiological adaptations--explain the climate ranges of 250 North American tree species distributed from the boreal to the subtropics. Although the relationship between traits and the median climate across a species range is weak, quantile regressions revealed strong effects on range limits. Wood density and seed mass were strongly related to the lower but not upper temperature range limits of species. Maximum height affects the species range limits in both dry and humid climates, whereas SLA and longevity do not show clear relationships. These results allow the definition and delineation of climatic "no-go areas" for North American tree species based on key traits. As some of these key traits serve as important parameters in recent vegetation models, the implementation of trait-based climatic constraints has the potential to predict both range shifts and ecosystem consequences on a more functional basis. Moreover, for future trait-based vegetation models our results provide a benchmark for model evaluation. PMID:25225398

Stahl, Ulrike; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

2014-09-23

307

Balsa Wood Bridge Competition Sponsored by  

E-print Network

Balsa Wood Bridge Competition Sponsored by: The University of Tennessee, Department of Civil only of BALSA WOOD and ELMER'S WOOD GLUE. No other materials will be accepted. The balsa wood must be no larger than ¼" high and ¼" wide. Any dowels can not have a diameter greater than ¼". Balsa wood comes

Tennessee, University of

308

A database of lotic invertebrate traits for North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The assessment and study of stream communities may be enhanced if functional characteristics such as life-history, habitat preference, and reproductive strategy were more widely available for specific taxa. Species traits can be used to develop these functional indicators because many traits directly link functional roles of organisms with controlling environmental factors (for example, flow, substratum, temperature). In addition, some functional traits may not be constrained by taxonomy and are thus applicable at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, a comprehensive summary of traits for North American invertebrate taxa does not exist. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in cooperation with Colorado State University compiled a database of traits for North American invertebrates. A total of 14,127 records for over 2,200 species, 1,165 genera, and 249 families have been entered into the database from 967 publications, texts and reports. Quality-assurance procedures indicated error rates of less than 3 percent in the data entry process. Species trait information was most complete for insect taxa. Traits describing resource acquisition and habitat preferences were most frequently reported, whereas those describing physiological tolerances and reproductive biology were the least frequently reported in the literature. The database is not exhaustive of the literature for North American invertebrates and is biased towards aquatic insects, but it represents a first attempt to compile traits in a web-accessible database. This report describes the database and discusses important decisions necessary for identifying ecologically relevant, environmentally sensitive, non-redundant, and statistically tractable traits for use in bioassessment programs.

Vieira, Nicole K.M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Carlisle, Daren M.; Moulton, Stephen R., II; Koski, Marci L.; Kondratieff, Boris C.

2006-01-01

309

Variation in 'Hayward' kiwifruit quality characteristics .  

E-print Network

??Quantify the magnitude, sources and distribution of variation in fruit quality traits within kiwifruit populations and identify opportunities for the management of this variation. Near-infrared… (more)

Woodward, Tim J.

2007-01-01

310

Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle  

PubMed Central

Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection. PMID:25374582

Haskell, Marie J.; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P.

2014-01-01

311

Trait-mediated assembly processes predict successional changes in community diversity of tropical forests  

PubMed Central

Interspecific differences in relative fitness can cause local dominance by a single species. However, stabilizing interspecific niche differences can promote local diversity. Understanding these mechanisms requires that we simultaneously quantify their effects on demography and link these effects to community dynamics. Successional forests are ideal systems for testing assembly theory because they exhibit rapid community assembly. Here, we leverage functional trait and long-term demographic data to build spatially explicit models of successional community dynamics of lowland rainforests in Costa Rica. First, we ask what the effects and relative importance of four trait-mediated community assembly processes are on tree survival, a major component of fitness. We model trait correlations with relative fitness differences that are both density-independent and -dependent in addition to trait correlations with stabilizing niche differences. Second, we ask how the relative importance of these trait-mediated processes relates to successional changes in functional diversity. Tree dynamics were more strongly influenced by trait-related interspecific variation in average survival than trait-related responses to neighbors, with wood specific gravity (WSG) positively correlated with greater survival. Our findings also suggest that competition was mediated by stabilizing niche differences associated with specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). These drivers of individual-level survival were reflected in successional shifts to higher SLA and LDMC diversity but lower WSG diversity. Our study makes significant advances to identifying the links between individual tree performance, species functional traits, and mechanisms of tropical forest succession. PMID:24706791

Lasky, Jesse R.; Uriarte, María; Boukili, Vanessa K.; Chazdon, Robin L.

2014-01-01

312

Wood-burning stove and method for burning wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood-burning stove utilizes a volatilization chamber inserted within the combustion chamber of the stove. The volatilization chamber contains a charge of wood which is heated to drive off combustible gases and vapors. The combustible gases and vapors are thereafter burned in the combustion chamber of the stove by being passed through a layer of solid fuel W hich includes

Van Der Linden

1983-01-01

313

Wood and combination wood-fired boiler ash characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ashes resulting from the combustion of wood residues in industrial boilers are characterized relative to (i) macroelement compositions, (ii) trace and heavy metal microelement compositions, (iii) organics, and (iv) polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans (PCDD\\/Fs). Ash compositions, both macro- and microelements, are compared with coal ash and limestone. Microelements in wood ashes are also compared with other potential soil amendments such

Arun V. Someshwar

1996-01-01

314

Clines in polygenic traits.  

PubMed

This article outlines theoretical models of clines in additive polygenic traits, which are maintained by stabilizing selection towards a spatially varying optimum. Clines in the trait mean can be accurately predicted, given knowledge of the genetic variance. However, predicting the variance is difficult, because it depends on genetic details. Changes in genetic variance arise from changes in allele frequency, and in linkage disequilibria. Allele frequency changes dominate when selection is weak relative to recombination, and when there are a moderate number of loci. With a continuum of alleles, gene flow inflates the genetic variance in the same way as a source of mutations of small effect. The variance can be approximated by assuming a Gaussian distribution of allelic effects; with a sufficiently steep cline, this is accurate even when mutation and selection alone are better described by the 'House of Cards' approximation. With just two alleles at each locus, the phenotype changes in a similar way: the mean remains close to the optimum, while the variance changes more slowly, and over a wider region. However, there may be substantial cryptic divergence at the underlying loci. With strong selection and many loci, linkage disequilibria are the main cause of changes in genetic variance. Even for strong selection, the infinitesimal model can be closely approximated by assuming a Gaussian distribution of breeding values. Linkage disequilibria can generate a substantial increase in genetic variance, which is concentrated at sharp gradients in trait means. PMID:10689800

Barton, N H

1999-12-01

315

DIVISION 6 -WOOD AND PLASTICS 06000 GENERAL  

E-print Network

DIVISION 6 - WOOD AND PLASTICS ________________________________________________________________________ 06000 GENERAL 1. For both woods and plastics, special attention is called to matters of flame spread-dried. 3. For exterior wood or plastic framed structures, see Division 4 for dimensions of Sample Panel

316

Causes and Control of Wood Decay,  

E-print Network

1 Causes and Control of Wood Decay, Degradation & Stain #12;2 Contents Moisture .................................................................................3 Wood Degradation: Causes and Control..............................4 Weathering......................................................................................................4 Naturally Decay-resistant Species...........................................................5 Wood

317

Investigating the molecular underpinnings underlying morphology and changes in carbon partitioning during tension wood formation in Eucalyptus.  

PubMed

Tension wood has distinct physical and chemical properties, including altered fibre properties, cell wall composition and ultrastructure. It serves as a good system for investigating the genetic regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis and wood formation. The reference genome sequence for Eucalyptus grandis allows investigation of the global transcriptional reprogramming that accompanies tension wood formation in this global wood fibre crop. We report the first comprehensive analysis of physicochemical wood property changes in tension wood of Eucalyptus measured in a hybrid (E. grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla) clone, as well as genome-wide gene expression changes in xylem tissues 3 wk post-induction using RNA sequencing. We found that Eucalyptus tension wood in field-grown trees is characterized by an increase in cellulose, a reduction in lignin, xylose and mannose, and a marked increase in galactose. Gene expression profiling in tension wood-forming tissue showed corresponding down-regulation of monolignol biosynthetic genes, and differential expression of several carbohydrate active enzymes. We conclude that alterations of cell wall traits induced by tension wood formation in Eucalyptus are a consequence of a combination of down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis and hemicellulose remodelling, rather than the often proposed up-regulation of the cellulose biosynthetic pathway. PMID:25388807

Mizrachi, Eshchar; Maloney, Victoria J; Silberbauer, Janine; Hefer, Charles A; Berger, Dave K; Mansfield, Shawn D; Myburg, Alexander A

2014-11-12

318

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove having improved air flow characteristics for effective combustion and purging of gaseous combustion by-products. A primary air inlet is provided below the loading door of the stove for feeding air to the firebox proper for combustion. A plurality of opposing supplementary air inlets are provided in opposite sides of the stove, at least two of the supplementary inlets being on the level of the primary air inlet, for introducing air into the firebox supplemental to the air flow through the primary inlet.

Halchek, J.

1984-09-18

319

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

This is a stove primarily for the burning of wood, but also capable of burning other combustible materials. The stove is characterized by a unique combustion chamber, together with a recirculating combustion chamber and baffle for more perfect combustion and characterized by a heat radiating chamber which may be closed so as to be used as an oven, and by a unique damper placement in combination with the exhaust flue pipe so adapted as to automatically activate in order to cool the flue pipe in the event it should exceed safe heat limits.

Bruce, R.F.; Byrd, W.W.

1980-01-08

320

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue for removing exhaust therefrom and also a catalytic converter means for oxidizing oxidizable species in the exhaust. A passageway is provided for bypassing the exhaust around the catalytic converter means, the passageway being controlled by a bypass damper for controlling access to the passageway for varying impedance otherwise presented to the exhaust by the converter, for example, during the addition of fuel to the stove. Such an arrangement minimizes back pressure caused by the converter means.

Allaire, R.A.; Pardue, W.F.; Vandewoestine, R.V.

1982-05-18

321

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove having a combustion chamber and a flue for removing exhaust from the chamber wherein the improvement comprises the addition of a catalytic converter means for oxidizing oxidizable species in the exhaust. In one embodiment, the catalytic converter means is situated in a flue immediately adjacent the combustion chamber. In another embodiment, the catalytic converter means is situated in the combustion chamber itself. In addition, the nature and structure of a catalytic converter means have been determined for marginal acceptable and optimum performance with adequate pressure drop thereacross.

van Dewoestine, R.V.

1983-02-15

322

Wood-based Energy Technologies Michigan offers some significant advantages  

E-print Network

on municipal solid waste. Both district heating and CHP plants can also pro- duce pellets for local housing quality stan- dards. Wood pellets are an attractive alternative for home heating or for larger individual build- ings. Pellets are used in furnaces built for fairly high combustion temperatures. This technology

323

Comprehensive genetic dissection of wood properties in a widely-grown tropical tree: Eucalyptus  

PubMed Central

Background Eucalyptus is an important genus in industrial plantations throughout the world and is grown for use as timber, pulp, paper and charcoal. Several breeding programmes have been launched worldwide to concomitantly improve growth performance and wood properties (WPs). In this study, an interspecific cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis was used to identify major genomic regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL) controlling the variability of WPs. Results Linkage maps were generated for both parent species. A total of 117 QTLs were detected for a series of wood and end-use related traits, including chemical, technological, physical, mechanical and anatomical properties. The QTLs were mainly clustered into five linkage groups. In terms of distribution of QTL effects, our result agrees with the typical L-shape reported in most QTL studies, i.e. most WP QTLs had limited effects and only a few (13) had major effects (phenotypic variance explained > 15%). The co-locations of QTLs for different WPs as well as QTLs and candidate genes are discussed in terms of phenotypic correlations between traits, and of the function of the candidate genes. The major wood property QTL harbours a gene encoding a Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR), a structural enzyme of the monolignol-specific biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions Given the number of traits analysed, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the genetic architecture of wood properties in this Eucalyptus full-sib pedigree. At the dawn of Eucalyptus genome sequence, it will provide a framework to identify the nature of genes underlying these important quantitative traits. PMID:21651758

2011-01-01

324

Intraspecific variability in functional traits matters: case study of Scots pine.  

PubMed

Although intraspecific trait variability is an important component of species ecological plasticity and niche breadth, its implications for community and functional ecology have not been thoroughly explored. We characterized the intraspecific functional trait variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Catalonia (NE Spain) in order to (1) compare it to the interspecific trait variability of trees in the same region, (2) explore the relationships among functional traits and the relationships between them and stand and climatic variables, and (3) study the role of functional trait variability as a determinant of radial growth. We considered five traits: wood density (WD), maximum tree height (H max), leaf nitrogen content (Nmass), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf biomass-to-sapwood area ratio (B L:A S). A unique dataset was obtained from the Ecological and Forest Inventory of Catalonia (IEFC), including data from 406 plots. Intraspecific trait variation was substantial for all traits, with coefficients of variation ranging between 8% for WD and 24% for B L:A S. In some cases, correlations among functional traits differed from those reported across species (e.g., H max and WD were positively related, whereas SLA and Nmass were uncorrelated). Overall, our model accounted for 47% of the spatial variability in Scots pine radial growth. Our study emphasizes the hierarchy of factors that determine intraspecific variations in functional traits in Scots pine and their strong association with spatial variability in radial growth. We claim that intraspecific trait variation is an important determinant of responses of plants to changes in climate and other environmental factors, and should be included in predictive models of vegetation dynamics. PMID:24850418

Laforest-Lapointe, Isabelle; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Retana, Javier

2014-08-01

325

Environmental Impacts of Treated Wood  

E-print Network

Environmental Impacts of Treated Wood 6495_C000.fm Page iii Wednesday, February 1, 2006 5:48 PM #12 through the Florida Center for Environmental Solutions, National Science Foundation Grant No. 0126172. Any of treated-wood research and their efforts in organizing the con- ference entitled Environmental Impacts

Florida, University of

326

Lightweight wood chipping concrete durability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling of wood chippings, an industrial waste product, has a potential use in the production of a lightweight mortar. In developing countries, the low cost and the proximity of supply makes this material a good candidate for local building applications. This study aims at examining the durability of a wood fibre lightweight concrete. Samples have been stored in humid

Pascale Coatanlem; Raoul Jauberthie; Frank Rendell

2006-01-01

327

Fuel Properties of Wood Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is the most important renewable energy option at present and is expected to maintain that position during the first half of this century. Forest and wood process residues can be converted into useful bioenergy. The structural components of wood are cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Fuelwoods are composed of biopolymers that consist of various types of cells and the cell

T. Demirbas; C. Demirbas

2009-01-01

328

Wood burning stove and fireplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove, a free standing fireplace or fireplace insert is constructed to receive one of three possible types of inserts to make the unit adaptable to a convection, hot air or hot water heating system. The wood or like fuel combustion rate is automatically controlled by a temperature sensor and draft control system. The insert may be a

Kolb

1980-01-01

329

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove is formed with double front and rear side walls of heat conductive metal interconnected by heat conductive spacer fins and providing air passageways by which room air is heated by conduction from the walls which are heated by the burning of wood deposited on a firebox grate made up of spaced bricks supported by metal holders secured in heat conducting relation to said inner side walls. The rear side air passageway is divided into central and outer vertical sections, the central one of which is closed at the bottom end and communicates with the atmosphere through an opening in the outer wall intermediate to its vertical ends and with the stove interior above the firebox and below the grate through openings in the inner wall intermediate to its vertical ends and adjacent to its bottom end, respectively. A vertical baffle between these inner and outer walls separates said intermediate openings from each other, and a thermostatically controlled damper associated with the opening in the outer wall controls the amount of room air delivered either under the firebox grate or above it. The front side air passageway is divided into upper and lower sections separated by a viewing box closed at its outer end by a glass window and removably closed at its inner end by a pair of hinged doors.

Willson, A.C.

1981-02-03

330

Variation in life-history characteristics among populations of North American wood turtles: a view from the north  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-history traits such as age at maturity, body size and clutch size tend to vary across a species' distribution. The purpose of our study was to describe the demography of a newly discovered population of North American wood turtles Glyptemys insculpta at the species' northern range limit, and to compare our findings to those of other studies to test hypotheses

W. F. Greaves; J. D. Litzgus

2009-01-01

331

[Biological effect of wood dust].  

PubMed

The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis. PMID:8231799

Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Doma?ska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mo?ocznik, A

1993-01-01

332

Relationship of various incoming cattle traits with feedlot performance and carcass traits.  

PubMed

Steers (n = 15,631) and heifers (n = 5,897) fed at 18 feedlots (total confinement, partial confinement, or open lots) in southwest Iowa between 2002 and 2006 as part of the Tri-County Steer Carcass Futurity sponsored by Iowa State University were used to correlate various phenotypic traits with feedlot performance and carcass traits. Dependent variables [ADG, respiratory morbidity, HCW, fat thickness, calculated yield grade, marbling score, presence or absence of lung damage, loin muscle area (LMA), and LMA x 100/HCW] were evaluated on the basis of various phenotypic traits [initial BW, disposition score (1 = calm, 6 = extremely excitable), muscle score, frame score, BCS, number of treatments for respiratory disease, presence of lung lesions, breed makeup, and percentage Angus genetics]. Subjectively evaluated phenotypic traits were evaluated by Iowa State University or USDA personnel. Cattle with greater disposition score (more excitable) had decreased initial BW, final BW, ADG, HCW, yield grade, quality grade, marbling score, and mortality (P < 0.01). Respiratory morbidity was negatively correlated with initial BW, ADG, yield grade, HCW, and marbling score (P < 0.01). As initial BW increased, final BW and HCW increased and respiratory morbidity decreased (P < 0.01). Cattle with greater BCS on arrival had greater initial BW but were lighter at slaughter (P < 0.01). Increased number of treatments for respiratory disease was associated with decreased ADG, greater mortality rate, and greater incidence of lung lesions (P < 0.01). Body weight gain was similar between English- and Continental-breed cattle (P > 0.05), although final BW and HCW were greater and yield grade and yield grade-adjusted marbling score were less for Continental-breed cattle (P < 0.01). Cattle with a poorer muscling score had reduced HCW and LMA and greater yield grade, marbling score, and quality grade (P < 0.01). Animal disposition, health, breed type, and frame score have dramatic effects on live feedlot performance and carcass traits. PMID:19465501

Reinhardt, C D; Busby, W D; Corah, L R

2009-09-01

333

A Tree of Genetic Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners mark their traits for tongue rolling, PTC tasting (a harmless, bitter chemical), and earlobe attachment on tree leaf cut-outs. They then place their leaves on a large tree with branches, in which each each branch represents a different combination of traits. When completed, the tree forms a visual representation of the frequency of trait combinations within the group. Included are handouts in English and Spanish. This resource also contains information about PTC safety.

Molly Malone

2006-01-01

334

Air-coupled ultrasonic assessment of wood veneer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air-coupled ultrasound (ACU) provides a valuable tool to evaluate wood samples of small or moderate thickness (<30 mm) thereby avoiding direct contact or liquid coupling. Results of through-transmission ACU measurements on wood veneer samples and related products are reported with respect to a wide variety of quality aspects. Fluctuations in the averaged received signal levels appear to be correlated to the presence of thickness and density variations, flaws and grain damage, insufficient bonding on a substrate, etc. In addition the variability of the signal levels enables to distinguish between quarter and crown areas.

Blomme, Erik; Bulcaen, Dirk; Cool, Tijl; Declercq, Filip; Lust, Pieter

2010-01-01

335

Wood-burning stove and method for burning wood  

SciTech Connect

A wood-burning stove utilizes a volatilization chamber inserted within the combustion chamber of the stove. The volatilization chamber contains a charge of wood which is heated to drive off combustible gases and vapors. The combustible gases and vapors are thereafter burned in the combustion chamber of the stove by being passed through a layer of solid fuel W hich includes a substantial amount of charcoal residue from previous volatilized wood. The heat generated by burning the volatile material is used to produce additional volatiles as well as to heat the stove.

Van Der Linden, R.E.

1983-02-08

336

Plant traits are the predominant control on litter decomposition rates within biomes worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide decomposition rates depend both on climate and the legacy of plant functional traits as litter quality. To quantify the degree to which functional differentiation among species affects their litter decomposition rates, we brought together leaf trait and litter mass loss data for 818 species from 66 decomposition experiments on six continents. We show that: (i) the magnitude of species-driven

William K. Cornwell; Johannes H. C. Cornelissen; K. Amatangalo; Ellen Dorrepaal; Valerie T. Eviner; Oscar Godoy; S. E. Hobbir; Bart Hoorens; Hiroko Kurokawa; N. Perez-Harguindeguy; Helen M. Quested; Louis S. Santiago; David A. Wardle; Ian J. Wright; Rien Aerts; Steven D. Allison; Bodegom van P. M; Victor Brovkin; Alex Chatain; Terry V. Callaghan; S. Diaz; Eric Garnier; Diego E. Gurvich; Elena Kazakou; Julia A. Klein; Jenny Read; Peter B. Reich; Nadejda A. Soudzilovskaia; M. Victoria Vaieretti; Mark Westoby

2008-01-01

337

Power and Robustness of Linkage Tests for Quantitative Traits in General Pedigrees  

E-print Network

tests satisfy all of the other qualities of an ideal quantitative trait linkage analysis method. Genet). Others are gen- erally viewed as dichotomous (e.g., diabetes) but are closely associated). A statistically signifi- cant negative slope in the regression indicates linkage to a quantitative trait locus

Broman, Karl W.

338

Rufus Woods Photographs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The photographer Rufus Woods documented the vast transformation of the area around what became the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State. This massive project was not without controversy, and many people were upset that they had to move their worldly possessions and homes for the construction of this massive dam. North central Washington was dramatically changed, and this digital collection provides some remarkable evidence of the process. Staff members at the Central Washington University Libraries completed the collection, and there are several hundred photographs in this archive. Visitors can browse through the items by date or by title, and they can also perform more detailed searches as well. Some of the highlights here include visitors parading across the top of the completed dam, power transmission towers, and some of the buildings that would later be swept under the water as the reservoir behind the dam filled up.

339

Wood-burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A wood stove is of all welded steel plate construction except for the door which is of heavy cast iron. When the door is closed, the only source of combustion air is through an adjustable air inlet on the face of the door. The door is hollow and serves to preheat the incoming air. The inner wall of the door divides the incoming air into lower and upper, primary and secondary, respectively, combustion air flows. The stove has an internal upper baffle running from rear to front which helps to promote air flow and combustion efficiency and to knock out entrained matter from the products of combustion. The flue connection is in the rear of the stove above the baffle and is stepped into the back of the stove to allow the stove to be fitted against a wall.

Hicks, A.W.; Jolicoeur, G.D.

1981-05-19

340

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

Wood burning stoves are of a type having a lower chamber and an upper chamber interconnected by a port. Air inlets are located laterally of the base of a fire in the lower chamber with a natural draft therein effecting a multitude of upwardly rising air streams of which one type is hot and oxygen poor and which carry and heat another type of air stream which is oxygen rich. The port is so dimensioned and spaced in relation to the lower chamber and to the flue outlet of the upper chamber that a secondary combustion zone is provided in which the upwardly rising streams are suddenly contracted, expanded and intermingled with simultaneous heat loss minimized ensuring the maintenance of a temperature adequate to result in the combustion of pyrolitic products.

Nason, M.L.

1984-09-25

341

Justin Anderson Justin Woods  

E-print Network

as well as manufacturing, and to the public sector as well as private enterprise. 6. In order was a proponent of quality management as a key to this country's prosperity and long-term strength. He took.S. organizations for their achievements in quality and business performance and to raise awareness about

Vardeman, Stephen B.

342

Quantitative trait loci associated with seed and seedling traits in Lactuca.  

PubMed

Seed and seedling traits related to germination and stand establishment are important in the production of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Six seed and seedling traits segregating in a L. sativa cv. Salinas x L. serriola recombinant inbred line population consisting of 103 F8 families revealed a total of 17 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) resulting from three seed production environments. Significant QTL were identified for germination in darkness, germination at 25 and 35 degrees C, median maximum temperature of germination, hypocotyl length at 72 h post-imbibition, and plant (seedling) quality. Some QTL for germination and early seedling growth characteristics were co-located, suggestive of pleiotropic loci regulating these traits. A single QTL (Htg6.1) described 25 and 23% of the total phenotypic variation for high temperature germination in California- and Netherlands-grown populations, respectively, and was significant between 33 and 37 degrees C. Additionally, Htg6.1 showed significant epistatic interactions with other Htg QTL and a consistent effect across all the three seed production environments. L. serriola alleles increased germination at these QTL. The estimate of narrow-sense heritability (h2) of Htg6.1 was 0.84, indicating potential for L. serriola as a source of germination thermotolerance for lettuce introgression programs. PMID:16177902

Argyris, Jason; Truco, María José; Ochoa, Oswaldo; Knapp, Steven J; Still, David W; Lenssen, Ger M; Schut, Johan W; Michelmore, Richard W; Bradford, Kent J

2005-11-01

343

Relationships Among Ecologically Important Dimensions of Plant Trait Variation in Seven Neotropical Forests  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims When ecologically important plant traits are correlated they may be said to constitute an ecological ‘strategy’ dimension. Through identifying these dimensions and understanding their inter-relationships we gain insight into why particular trait combinations are favoured over others and into the implications of trait differences among species. Here we investigated relationships among several traits, and thus the strategy dimensions they represented, across 2134 woody species from seven Neotropical forests. Methods Six traits were studied: specific leaf area (SLA), the average size of leaves, seed and fruit, typical maximum plant height, and wood density (WD). Trait relationships were quantified across species at each individual forest as well as across the dataset as a whole. ‘Phylogenetic’ analyses were used to test for correlations among evolutionary trait-divergences and to ascertain whether interspecific relationships were biased by strong taxonomic patterning in the traits. Key Results The interspecific and phylogenetic analyses yielded congruent results. Seed and fruit size were expected, and confirmed, to be tightly related. As expected, plant height was correlated with each of seed and fruit size, albeit weakly. Weak support was found for an expected positive relationship between leaf and fruit size. The prediction that SLA and WD would be negatively correlated was not supported. Otherwise the traits were predicted to be largely unrelated, being representatives of putatively independent strategy dimensions. This was indeed the case, although WD was consistently, negatively related to leaf size. Conclusions The dimensions represented by SLA, seed/fruit size and leaf size were essentially independent and thus conveyed largely independent information about plant strategies. To a lesser extent the same was true for plant height and WD. Our tentative explanation for negative WD–leaf size relationships, now also known from other habitats, is that the traits are indirectly linked via plant hydraulics. PMID:16595553

Wright, Ian J.; Ackerly, David D.; Bongers, Frans; Harms, Kyle E.; Ibarra-Manriquez, Guillermo; Martinez-Ramos, Miguel; Mazer, Susan J.; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Paz, Horacio; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Poorter, Lourens; Silman, Miles R.; Vriesendorp, Corine F.; Webb, Cam O.; Westoby, Mark; Wright, S. Joseph

2007-01-01

344

USANS study of wood structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood performs a vascular and structural function in trees. In this study we used the double-crystal diffractometer BT5 at the NIST Center for Neutron Scattering (Gaithersburg, USA) to study the pore structure inside wood sections. The slit-smeared intensity of scattered neutrons was measured from wood sections in directions parallel, orthogonal and transverse to the tree's trunk axis over a scattering vector range 0.00004-0.002 Å -1. The interpretation of the data in terms of a reductionist model consisting of infinitely long cylinders (cell lumens) is discussed.

Garvey, Christopher J.; Knott, Robert B.; Searson, Matthew; Conroy, Jann P.

2006-11-01

345

Getting wood to burn clean  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to decrease their dependence on expensive foreign and domestic oil supplies, an increasing number of U.S. citizens are using wood stoves to heat their residences. Air pollution resulting from this new heating trend in several U.S. locations is discussed. Steps that individual wood stove users can take to make their stoves pollute less include burning seasoned hardwood, allowing each new load of burn to burn briskly for at least 15 minutes before changing the draft control, burning small loads of wood, installing a stack thermometer to determine peak stove efficiencies, and keeping chimneys clean.

Lafavore, M.

1980-11-01

346

FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

PURCELL, FRANK X.

347

Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

Oatman, Olan

1975-01-01

348

Lignin structure in Buxus sempervirens reaction wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical structure of lignins in Buxus sempervirens wood samples showing a progressive grading from normal wood to reaction wood was investigated by thioacidolysis. The mechanical states of the various samples were assessed quantitatively by measuring the growth strains at the stem surface. Sample woods with the more pronounced compression character showed the highest lignin contents. Buxus lignins are composed

Henri Baillères; Marielle Castan; Bernard Monties; Brigitte Pollet; Catherine Lapierre

1997-01-01

349

Studies on the wood tissue substitution by silica and calcite during the preservation of fossil wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three representative samples of petrified wood were investigated: wood from King George Island, Antarctica; wood from Bio-Bio province, middle Chile and wood from ?uków, Poland. Microdiffraction measurements of the Chilean and ?uków wood were made at LURE. Chilean and Antarctic samples were permineralised by silica material, but the share of undefined calcium silicates in construction of some intracellular locations in

Jakub Siurek; Pierre Chevallier; Chul-Un Ro; Hee Young Chun; Hwa Shik Youn; Emil Zi?ba; Andrzej Kuczumow

2004-01-01

350

Global Timber and Wood Products Market Update -a news brief from Wood Resources International LLC  

E-print Network

Global Timber and Wood Products Market Update - a news brief from Wood Resources International LLC to be the major destination for Latin American wood chips, reports the Wood Resource Quarterly In late 2011 wood chips from only three countries: Vietnam, Indonesia and Australia, who together shipped 1

351

Experimental analysis and simulation modeling of forest management impacts on wood thrushes, Hylocichla mustelina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

North American Breeding Bird Survey data show that wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) populations in eastern U.S. forests have declined 1.8% per year during 1966-95. The declining quality of breeding forest tracts in North America is one possible cause for the apparent decline of some neotropical migratory birds, such as the wood thrush. In Georgia, however, wood thrush populations have declined during a period of increasing pine forest area and larger patch sizes. We hypothesized that forest management practices such as thinning and prescribed burning might create unsuitable habitat for wood thrushes. We conducted a four-year before/after, treatment/control experiment at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia to study to the effects of a treatment of thinning and prescribed burning on wood thrush demographic parameters. We simultaneously monitored wood thrush adults and juveniles with mark-recapture, radio-telemetry, nest searches, and plot-map surveys. Our analyses showed that wood thrushes were less likely to emigrate from the study compartments after the treatment, and wood thrushes exhibited some tendency to increase preference for hardwood habitats and decrease preference for pine habitats following the treatment. However, we observed no effects of treatment on nest success, adult survival, and adult and juvenile dispersal distances. We also found that female wood thrushes had lower survival rates than males during the breeding season, and we documented large-scale, within-year dispersal movements of adult (up to 17 km) and juvenile (up to 7 km) wood thrushes. We conclude that landscape level habitat quantity and quality must be considered during songbird management decisions. The documentation of sex- and age-specific wood thrush survival and movement rates was critical for construction of a set of population models. We used three stochastic models to learn more about wood thrush population dynamics and make predictions about population growth rates, reproductive success, and the effect of habitat changes on wood thrush populations. The simplest source/sink population model suggests that the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge's wood thrush population is probably stable or increasing, and wood thrush populations in treated areas had higher growth rates than birds in untreated areas. We were able to use the individual-based model of wood thrush productivity to predict fecundity, a parameter that we could not measure directly in the field. Again, females on treated areas had higher fecundity than birds on untreated areas. Our spatially-based model predicted that wood thrush populations should respond positively to predicted changes in the age/size class structure of the Refuge's pine forests. Our model also showed that most wood thrushes leave the Refuge's forest compartments during the breeding season, and these dispersal movements are extremely important to understanding and managing wood thrush populations. The use of prescribed burning and retention shelterwood silviculture at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge does not appear to negatively affect the local wood thrush population. Continued use of the current management regime should result in adequate nesting, foraging, and escape habitats for wood thrushes. However, landscape-level habitat availability and quality, including lands outside the Refuge, must be considered when making management decisions that may affect wood thrushes.

Banks, R.C.

1998-01-01

352

An Inventory of My Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this genetics meets math activity, learners take inventories of their own easily-observable genetic traits and compare those inventories with other learners in groups. Then, learners make data tables and bar graphs showing the most and least common traits in their group. This guide features activity sheets in English and Spanish.

Malone, Molly; Mitchell, April; Stark, Louisa; Starr, Harmony

2006-01-01

353

Dog DNA---A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will discover how DNA will "code" for traits by performing a lab activity where segments of paper DNA (genes) are picked at random, a list of traits is made, and a dog is drawn featuring its genetic traits.

Perrault, Tanya

2012-02-20

354

Genetic Heteroscedasticity for Domestic Animal Traits  

E-print Network

Genetic Heteroscedasticity for Domestic Animal Traits Majbritt Felleki Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics Uppsala Doctoral Thesis Swedish #12;Genetic Heteroscedasticity for Domestic Animal Traits Abstract Animal traits differ not only

355

Multiple transgene traits may create un-intended fitness effects in Brassica napus  

EPA Science Inventory

Increasingly, genetically modified crops are being developed to express multiple ?stacked? traits for different types of transgenes, for example, herbicide resistance, insect resistance, crop quality and resistance to environmental factors. The release of crops that express mult...

356

Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh  

SciTech Connect

The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

1997-07-01

357

Coarse particulate matter and airborne endotoxin within wood stove homes.  

PubMed

Emissions from indoor biomass burning are a major public health concern in developing areas of the world. Less is known about indoor air quality, particularly airborne endotoxin, in homes burning biomass fuel in residential wood stoves in higher income countries. A filter-based sampler was used to evaluate wintertime indoor coarse particulate matter (PM????.?) and airborne endotoxin (EU/m³, EU/mg) concentrations in 50 homes using wood stoves as their primary source of heat in western Montana. We investigated number of residents, number of pets, dampness (humidity), and frequency of wood stove usage as potential predictors of indoor airborne endotoxin concentrations. Two 48-h sampling events per home revealed a mean winter PM????.? concentration (± s.d.) of 12.9 (± 8.6) ?g/m³, while PM?.? concentrations averaged 32.3 (± 32.6) ?g/m³. Endotoxin concentrations measured from PM????.? filter samples were 9.2 (± 12.4) EU/m³ and 1010 (± 1524) EU/mg. PM????.? and PM?.? were significantly correlated in wood stove homes (r = 0.36, P < 0.05). The presence of pets in the homes was associated with PM????.? but not with endotoxin concentrations. Importantly, none of the other measured home characteristics was a strong predictor of airborne endotoxin, including frequency of residential wood stove usage. PMID:23551341

McNamara, M; Thornburg, J; Semmens, E; Ward, T; Noonan, C

2013-12-01

358

Exaggerated trait growth in insects.  

PubMed

Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size the surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles (Lucanidae), the claspers of praying mantids (Mantidae), the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Caelifera), and the giant heads of soldier ants (Formicidae) and termites (Isoptera). Developmentally, disproportionate growth can arise through trait-specific modifications to the activity of at least four pathways: the sex determination pathway, the appendage patterning pathway, the insulin/IGF signaling pathway, and the juvenile hormone/ecdysteroid pathway. Although most exaggerated traits have not been studied mechanistically, it is already apparent that distinct developmental mechanisms underlie the evolution of the different types of exaggerated traits. We suggest this reflects the nature of selection in each instance, revealing an exciting link between mechanism, form, and function. We use this information to make explicit predictions for the types of regulatory pathways likely to underlie each type of exaggerated trait. PMID:25341090

Lavine, Laura; Gotoh, Hiroki; Brent, Colin S; Dworkin, Ian; Emlen, Douglas J

2015-01-01

359

The design of complex sexual traits in male barn swallows: associations between signal attributes.  

PubMed

Variation in the expression of sexually selected traits among individuals is widely investigated on the premise that these traits evolved to signal male quality. Significant repeatabilities of sexual signals and their associations with condition, mating success, survivorship and age may be the signatures of sexual selection. However, little is known about the relationship between these sexual attributes. Here we studied 28 acoustic and visual traits in the barn swallow, Hirundo rustica, that may potentially function in sexual selection. Based on effect sizes calculated at the between-individual level, we assessed the relationship between repeatability, condition-dependence, attractiveness, age-dependence and viability indicator value of sexual traits using sexual signals as the units of analyses. Those traits that showed high within-year repeatability also showed high between-year repeatability, indicating that between-individual variation is consistent within and among seasons. In addition, age-dependence of traits, probably causing between-year variation, was negatively related to between-year repeatability. Condition-dependence was negatively correlated with effect sizes for the extent to which traits predicted viability. Therefore, traits that are positively related to immediate condition are those that are negatively related to survival, which may be the signature of a trade-off between current and future reproductive success ultimately reflecting signal reliability. No other significant relationship was found between trait attributes. We conclude that multiple sexual signals reflect different aspects of male quality in the barn swallow. PMID:17040402

Garamszegi, L Z; Hegyi, G; Heylen, D; Ninni, P; de Lope, F; Eens, M; Møller, A P

2006-11-01

360

Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification  

E-print Network

This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

1983-01-01

361

Treatment of Wood Preserving Wastewater  

E-print Network

The wastewater produced by the wood preserving industry presents a difficult problem to treat economically. A review of the literature indicates the size of the industry has limited the pursuit of an orderly and economic solution. Atmospheric...

Reynolds, T. D.; Shack, P. A.

362

WoodPhysics Surface Degradation  

E-print Network

charcoal production A low cost pyrolysis unit was developed to produce charcoal from wood waste. The coal. In this way the charcoal can be sufficiently used for cooking, but at the same time the danger of shack

Geldenhuys, Jaco

363

Delay discounting: Trait variable?  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting refers to the tendency for outcomes that are remote in time to have less value than more immediate outcomes. Steep discounting of delayed outcomes is associated with a variety of social maladies. The degree of sensitivity to delayed outcomes may be a stable and pervasive individual characteristic. In analyses of archival data, the present study found positive correlations between the degree of delay discounting for one outcome (as measured by the Area Under the Curve), and the degree of discounting for other outcomes. Along with additional evidence reviewed, these data suggest that delay discounting may be considered a personality trait. Recent research in epigenetics, neuroscience, and behavior suggests delay discounting may prove to be a beneficial target for therapeutic attempts to produce global reductions in impulsivity related to delay discounting. PMID:21385637

Odum, Amy L.

2012-01-01

364

Granulated sorbents from wood waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated study of various wood-utilization wastes as raw materials for the production of carbon adsorbents was performed.\\u000a A technology was developed, and granulated sorbents from various wood wastes were prepared and characterized. The regularities\\u000a of pore-structure formation and the physicochemical properties of sorbents were found depending on the used raw material,\\u000a binding agents, granulation conditions, and the process parameters

I. N. Malikov; Yu. A. Noskova; M. S. Karaseva; M. A. Perederii

2007-01-01

365

Wood burning stove and fireplace  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove, a free standing fireplace or fireplace insert is constructed to receive one of three possible types of inserts to make the unit adaptable to a convection, hot air or hot water heating system. The wood or like fuel combustion rate is automatically controlled by a temperature sensor and draft control system. The insert may be a baffle structure, an air to air heat exchanger or an air to water heat exchanger.

Kolb, R.C.

1980-04-29

366

Fluctuating Asymmetry and Environmental Stress: Understanding the Role of Trait History  

PubMed Central

While fluctuating asymmetry (FA; small, random deviations from perfect symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits) is widely regarded as a proxy for environmental and genetic stress effects, empirical associations between FA and stress are often weak or heterogeneous among traits. A conceptually important source of heterogeneity in relationships with FA is variation in the selection history of the trait(s) under study, i.e. traits that experienced a (recent) history of directional change are predicted to be developmentally less stable, potentially through the loss of canalizing modifiers. Here we applied X-ray photography on museum specimens and live captures to test to what extent the magnitude of FA and FA-stress relationships covary with directional shifts in traits related to the flight apparatus of four East-African rainforest birds that underwent recent shifts in habitat quality and landscape connectivity. Both the magnitude and direction of phenotypic change varied among species, with some traits increasing in size while others decreased or maintained their original size. In three of the four species, traits that underwent larger directional changes were less strongly buffered against random perturbations during their development, and traits that increased in size over time developed more asymmetrically than those that decreased. As we believe that spurious relationships due to biased comparisons of historic (museum specimens) and current (field captures) samples can be ruled out, these results support the largely untested hypothesis that directional shifts may increase the sensitivity of developing traits to random perturbations of environmental or genetic origin. PMID:23472123

De Coster, Greet; Van Dongen, Stefan; Malaki, Phillista; Muchane, Muchai; Alcántara-Exposito, Angelica; Matheve, Hans; Lens, Luc

2013-01-01

367

Dominant impact of residential wood burning on particulate matter in Alpine valleys during winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the project AEROWOOD (Aerosols from wood burning versus other sources), particulate matter was collected at two Swiss Alpine valleys during winter. Apportionment of aerosols from transit traffic and residential wood burning was performed using radiocarbon (14C) determinations of the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) fractions. On daily average, 88% and 65% of the total carbonaceous matter (including all other atoms than carbon) originated from non-fossil sources inside and outside of the village, respectively, which is mainly attributed to wood burning. These proportions were generally higher during the evening compared to morning hours, when traffic intensity waned and heating activities increased. 14C measurements of EC indicated episodes of both nearly pure traffic and wood-burning sources, respectively, of which the latter extreme has not been observed for EC under ambient conditions before. Results show that regulatory measures for the improvement of air quality must consider residential wood burning as an important source even in industrialized countries.

Szidat, Sönke; Prévôt, André S. H.; Sandradewi, Jisca; Alfarra, M. Rami; Synal, Hans-Arno; Wacker, Lukas; Baltensperger, Urs

2007-03-01

368

Pristine Early Eocene Wood Buried Deeply in Kimberlite from Northern Canada  

PubMed Central

We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada’s Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose ?18O and ?2H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12–17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information. PMID:23029080

Wolfe, Alexander P.; Csank, Adam Z.; Reyes, Alberto V.; McKellar, Ryan C.; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

2012-01-01

369

Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.  

PubMed

We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose ?(18)O and ?(2)H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information. PMID:23029080

Wolfe, Alexander P; Csank, Adam Z; Reyes, Alberto V; McKellar, Ryan C; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

2012-01-01

370

Mapping epistatic quantitative trait loci underlying endosperm traits using all markers on the entire genome in a random hybridization design.  

PubMed

Triploid endosperm is of great economic importance owing to its nutritious quality. Mapping endosperm trait loci (ETL) can provide an efficient way to genetically improve grain quality. However, most triploid ETL mapping methods do not produce unbiased estimates of the two dominant effects of ETL. A random hybridization design is an alternative method that may be used to overcome this problem. However, epistasis has an important role in the dissection of genetic architecture for complex traits. In this study, therefore, an attempt was made to map epistatic ETL (eETL) under a triploid genetic model of endosperm traits in a random hybridization design. The endosperm trait means of random hybrid lines, together with known marker genotype information from their corresponding parental F(2) plants, were used to estimate, efficiently and without bias, the positions and all of the effects of eETL using a penalized maximum likelihood method. The method proposed in this article was verified by a series of Monte Carlo simulation experiments. Results from the simulated studies show that the proposed method provides accurate estimates of eETL parameters with a low false-positive rate and a relatively short running time. This new method enables us to map triploid eETL in the same way as diploid quantitative traits. PMID:18461088

He, X-H; Zhang, Y-M

2008-07-01

371

Condition-dependent expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits in guppies  

PubMed Central

Female choice can impose persistent directional selection on male sexually selected traits, yet such traits often exhibit high levels of phenotypic variation. One explanation for this paradox is that if sexually selected traits are costly, only the fittest males are able to acquire and allocate the resources required for their expression. Furthermore, because male condition is dependent on resource allocation, condition dependence in sexual traits is expected to underlie trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history functions. In this study we test these ideas by experimentally manipulating diet quality (carotenoid levels) and quantity in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing freshwater fish that is an important model for understanding relationships between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits. Specifically, we test for condition dependence in the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits (behavior, ornamentation, sperm traits) and determine whether diet manipulation mediates relationships among these traits. Consistent with prior work we found a significant effect of diet quantity on the expression of both pre- and postcopulatory male traits; diet-restricted males performed fewer sexual behaviors and exhibited significant reductions in color ornamentation, sperm quality, sperm number, and sperm length than those fed ad libitum. However, contrary to our expectations, we found no significant effect of carotenoid manipulation on the expression of any of these traits, and no evidence for a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection. Our results further underscore the sensitivity of behavioral, ornamental, and ejaculate traits to dietary stress, and highlight the important role of condition dependence in maintaining the high variability in male sexual traits. PMID:23919162

Rahman, Md Moshiur; Kelley, Jennifer L; Evans, Jonathan P

2013-01-01

372

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

An improved wood burning stove for providing heated air to a room or similar area includes an enclosed fire chamber, a hearth at the bottom of the fire chamber, draft inlet means at the front of the fire chamber and a flue at the rear of the fire chamber. Within the fire chamber is an enclosed air chamber having lower and upper portions; the lower portion communicates at the bottom of the stove with the ambient air and extends upwardly adjacent the rear wall of the fire chamber to a point below the flue, where it joins with the upper portion. The upper portion of the air chamber extends upwardly toward the front of the fire chamber at an acute angle with the horizontal, preferably between five and twenty-five degrees; at the forward end of the upper portion the air chamber communicates with one or more air pipes which extend to the front of the stove and there open to the ambient air. Ambient air is heated by passing it through the air chamber and air pipes after they have been heated by hot gases rising from a fire burning on the hearth; the hot gases contact the air pipes and the bottom surface of the air chamber's upper portion and, because their normal path of travel to the flue is altered by the positioning of the upper portion of the air chamber, contact the top surface of the air chamber's upper portion as well.

Baker, A.L.

1983-02-08

373

Wood burning stove  

SciTech Connect

This disclosure relates to a wood burning stove which includes an innermost combustion chamber within and generally spaced from an intermediate air-circulating chamber in turn generally within an outermost chamber, all of the chambers having generally spaced top, rear, bottom and pairs of side walls, all of the side walls having openings and ducts associated therewith through which air is introduced into the combustion chamber, all of the top walls having openings housing a duct through which products of combustion are exhausted from the combustion chamber, openings in the bottom walls of the intermediate and outermost chambers through which hot air is directed from the hot-air chamber for subsequent utilization, damper means associated with the top wall of the combustion chamber and the bottom wall of the intermediate chamber for respectively regulating the flow of gases through the openings or ducts associated therewith, and openings in the rear walls of the outermost and intermediate chambers through which air is blown by an associated blower for circulating within the hot-air chamber and being blown outwardly therefrom through the openings of the bottom walls and the ducts associated therewith as well as front openings in a front wall of the stove.

Burnette, C.S.

1983-01-25

374

Students' Evaluation of Teaching Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' evaluations of teaching quality are one of the crucial components of the teaching quality evaluation (along with external evaluation, opinions of colleagues, etc.). According to our research and professional experience, the teaching quality has to be examined in correlation with personality traits of a lecturer. Students' surveys (aiming…

Vevere, Nina; Kozlinskis, Vulfs

2011-01-01

375

Respiratory diseases in wood workers.  

PubMed Central

A survey was carried out on wood workers and on a group of unexposed, healthy controls. One group of wood workers (group A) were asymptomatic and another (group B) had symptoms either of chronic cough and dyspnoea on exertion (B1) or dyspnoea at work and bronchial hyperreactivity (B2). The control group (group C) was randomly selected from among a population of laboratory workers. No significant differences were found among the groups with respect to the frequency of atopy but the prevalence of a positive skin reaction to wood extracts was significantly higher in the asthmatic subjects. The adjusted FVC and FEV1/FVC% were significantly higher in B1 than in the other groups; the FEV1 was lower in B1 than in B2 and in B2 than in the other groups; TLCO and KCO differed significantly in all four groups. A significant negative correlation was observed between FEV1, MEF50, TLCO and KCO and duration of exposure to wood dusts. The alveolar volumes were not significantly different between the groups and were not correlated with duration of exposure. These results confirm the observation that exposure to wood dust or to some bronchoreactive substances linked with wood working can induce chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD). Some cases of wood dust asthma seem to be related to an immediate allergic reaction, but precipitating antibodies appear to be an index of exposure rather than of disease. The decrease in diffusion capacity can be ascribed to a thickening of the alveolar capillary membranes secondary to an alveolitis like, non-symptomatic, allergic reaction. PMID:3814535

Carosso, A; Ruffino, C; Bugiani, M

1987-01-01

376

The effect of moisture content in fibre laser cutting of pine wood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a statistical analysis of the multiple-pass laser cutting of wet and dry pine wood with a Ytterbium fibre laser. As multiple factors affect the laser wood cutting process, finding the optimal combination of process parameters is necessary to achieve good quality and high process efficiency. Design of experiments (DOE) and statistical modelling were used in this study to investigate the significant process parameters and their interactions. A high brightness, 1 kW IPG single mode, continuous wave Ytterbium doped fibre laser was employed to cut wet and dry pine wood samples. The parameters investigated are laser power, traverse speed, focal plane position (f.p.p.), gas pressure, number of passes, direction of cut (normal or parallel to wood's tracheids) and the moisture content. The experimental results were compared against process responses defining the efficiency (i.e. kerf depth and energy consumption) and quality of the cut section (i.e. kerf width, heat affected zone—HAZ, edge surface roughness and perpendicularity). It has been found that the laser cutting process was mainly affected by the moisture content and the cut direction with respect to the wood's tracheids, followed by traverse speed, laser power and the number of passes. The effect of moisture content on energy consumption in the laser cutting process of both wet and dry wood is analysed. The wood cutting results with fibre laser are compared with those from a CO 2 laser.

Carlos Hernández-Castañeda, Juan; Kursad Sezer, Huseyin; Li, Lin

2011-09-01

377

Covariation in plant functional traits and soil fertility within two species-rich forests.  

PubMed

The distribution of plant species along environmental gradients is expected to be predictable based on organismal function. Plant functional trait research has shown that trait values generally vary predictably along broad-scale climatic and soil gradients. This work has also demonstrated that at any one point along these gradients there is a large amount of interspecific trait variation. The present research proposes that this variation may be explained by the local-scale sorting of traits along soil fertility and acidity axes. Specifically, we predicted that trait values associated with high resource acquisition and growth rates would be found on soils that are more fertile and less acidic. We tested the expected relationships at the species-level and quadrat-level (20 × 20 m) using two large forest plots in Panama and China that contain over 450 species combined. Predicted relationships between leaf area and wood density and soil fertility were supported in some instances, but the majority of the predicted relationships were rejected. Alternative resource axes, such as light gradients, therefore likely play a larger role in determining the interspecific variability in plant functional traits in the two forests studied. PMID:22509355

Liu, Xiaojuan; Swenson, Nathan G; Wright, S Joseph; Zhang, Liwen; Song, Kai; Du, Yanjun; Zhang, Jinlong; Mi, Xiangcheng; Ren, Haibao; Ma, Keping

2012-01-01

378

Evaluation of Three Electronic Noses for Detecting Incipient Wood Decay  

PubMed Central

Tree assessment methodologies, currently used to evaluate the structural stability of individual urban trees, usually involve a visual analysis followed by measurements of the internal soundness of wood using various instruments that are often invasive, expensive, or inadequate for use within the urban environment. Moreover, most conventional instruments do not provide an adequate evaluation of decay that occurs in the root system. The intent of this research was to evaluate the possibility of integrating conventional tools, currently used for assessments of decay in urban trees, with the electronic nose–a new innovative tool used in diverse fields and industries for various applications such as quality control in manufacturing, environmental monitoring, medical diagnoses, and perfumery. Electronic-nose (e-nose) technologies were tested for the capability of detecting differences in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by wood decay fungi and wood from healthy and decayed trees. Three e-noses, based on different types of operational technologies and analytical methods, were evaluated independently (not directly compared) to determine the feasibility of detecting incipient decays in artificially-inoculated wood. All three e-nose devices were capable of discriminating between healthy and artificially-inoculated, decayed wood with high levels of precision and confidence. The LibraNose quartz microbalance (QMB) e-nose generally provided higher levels of discrimination of sample unknowns, but not necessarily more accurate or effective detection than the AromaScan A32S conducting polymer and PEN3 metal-oxide (MOS) gas sensor e-noses for identifying and distinguishing woody samples containing different agents of wood decay. However, the conducting polymer e-nose had the greater advantage for identifying unknowns from diverse woody sample types due to the associated software capability of utilizing prior-developed, application-specific reference libraries with aroma pattern-recognition and neural-net training algorithms. PMID:22205858

Baietto, Manuela; Wilson, Alphus D.; Bassi, Daniele; Ferrini, Francesco

2010-01-01

379

Dietary flavonoids enhance conspicuousness of a melanin-based trait in male blackcaps but not of the female homologous trait or of sexually monochromatic traits.  

PubMed

Signalling theory predicts that signals should fulfil three fundamental requirements: high detectability, discriminability and, most importantly, reliability. Melanins are the most common pigments in animals. Correlations between genotypic and phenotypic qualities of the sender and size and morph of melanin-based traits are known, but it is contentious whether melanin-based colouration may signal any quality. We examined the effect of supplementing blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) with flavonoids, potent plant antioxidants, on plumage colouration. We demonstrate that melanin-based colour can fulfil all requirements of signals of phenotypic condition. As predicted by sexual selection theory, flavonoid supplementation influenced only the sexually dichromatic black cap of males, whereas the female homologous trait and the sexually monochromatic back colouration remained unaffected. Using avian vision models we show that birds can estimate male flavonoid intake from colouration of males' black cap. Because flavonoid ingestion can increase immune responsiveness in blackcaps, melanin head colouration may signal environmentally determined immune condition. PMID:19555443

Catoni, C; Peters, A; Schaefer, H M

2009-08-01

380

Pattern of inbreeding depression, condition dependence, and additive genetic variance in Trinidadian guppy ejaculate traits  

PubMed Central

In polyandrous species, a male's reproductive success depends on his fertilization capability and traits enhancing competitive fertilization success will be under strong, directional selection. This leads to the prediction that these traits should show stronger condition dependence and larger genetic variance than other traits subject to weaker or stabilizing selection. While empirical evidence of condition dependence in postcopulatory traits is increasing, the comparison between sexually selected and ‘control’ traits is often based on untested assumption concerning the different strength of selection acting on these traits. Furthermore, information on selection in the past is essential, as both condition dependence and genetic variance of a trait are likely to be influenced by the pattern of selection acting historically on it. Using the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing fish with high levels of multiple paternity, we performed three independent experiments on three ejaculate quality traits, sperm number, velocity, and size, which have been previously shown to be subject to strong, intermediate, and weak directional postcopulatory selection, respectively. First, we conducted an inbreeding experiment to determine the pattern of selection in the past. Second, we used a diet restriction experiment to estimate their level of condition dependence. Third, we used a half-sib/full-sib mating design to estimate the coefficients of additive genetic variance (CVA) underlying these traits. Additionally, using a simulated predator evasion test, we showed that both inbreeding and diet restriction significantly reduced condition. According to predictions, sperm number showed higher inbreeding depression, stronger condition dependence, and larger CVA than sperm velocity and sperm size. The lack of significant genetic correlation between sperm number and velocity suggests that the former may respond to selection independently one from other ejaculate quality traits. Finally, the association between sperm number and condition suggests that this trait may mediate the genetic benefits of polyandry which have been shown in this species. PMID:24455127

Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Dosselli, Ryan; Pilastro, Andrea

2013-01-01

381

Geological Substrates Shape Tree Species and Trait Distributions in African Moist Forests  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the factors that shape the distribution of tropical tree species at large scales is a central issue in ecology, conservation and forest management. The aims of this study were to (i) assess the importance of environmental factors relative to historical factors for tree species distributions in the semi-evergreen forests of the northern Congo basin; and to (ii) identify potential mechanisms explaining distribution patterns through a trait-based approach. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the distribution patterns of 31 common tree species in an area of more than 700,000 km2 spanning the borders of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and the Republic of Congo using forest inventory data from 56,445 0.5-ha plots. Spatial variation of environmental (climate, topography and geology) and historical factors (human disturbance) were quantified from maps and satellite records. Four key functional traits (leaf phenology, shade tolerance, wood density, and maximum growth rate) were extracted from the literature. The geological substrate was of major importance for the distribution of the focal species, while climate and past human disturbances had a significant but lesser impact. Species distribution patterns were significantly related to functional traits. Species associated with sandy soils typical of sandstone and alluvium were characterized by slow growth rates, shade tolerance, evergreen leaves, and high wood density, traits allowing persistence on resource-poor soils. In contrast, fast-growing pioneer species rarely occurred on sandy soils, except for Lophira alata. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate strong environmental filtering due to differential soil resource availability across geological substrates. Additionally, long-term human disturbances in resource-rich areas may have accentuated the observed patterns of species and trait distributions. Trait differences across geological substrates imply pronounced differences in population and ecosystem processes, and call for different conservation and management strategies. PMID:22905127

Fayolle, Adeline; Engelbrecht, Bettina; Freycon, Vincent; Mortier, Frédéric; Swaine, Michael; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Fauvet, Nicolas; Cornu, Guillaume; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie

2012-01-01

382

Analyzing global carbon uptake patterns using plant trait data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environment and climate are two important factors in determining global terrestrial CO2 flux patterns, as well as vegetation type and structure. At the moment, in many global CO2 flux analyses the vegetation is represented by plant functional types (PFTs). However, the variance in plant traits within PFTs is as large as between them, suggesting that PFTs do not necessary represent patterns of plant traits as found world wide. And while the correlations between plant traits (e.g. foliar nutrients, leaf mass per area) and CO2 uptake are well established at plant level, this is not the case at ecosystem level. The recently established plant trait database TRY (www.TRY-db.org), together with FLUXNET data give us now new opportunities to analyze ecosystem CO2fluxes at global scale using species plant traits rather than PFTs. Analyzing worldwide CO2 flux data with plant traits comes with some challenges regarding the different spatio-and temporal nature of both data types. Therefore, rather than directly using CO2 fluxes (for which each FLUXNET sites has a different seasonality and different diurnal pattern), we can derive so called ecosystem functional properties (EFPs), which are emergent properties of the ecosystem in response to environmental drivers and are influenced by the structural and physiological properties of the ecosystem. The plant traits in turn are scaled up in a way they become an average representative value for the sites in the analysis, and become suitable to compare to EFPs. Here we present the results of a first study that analyzed global patterns of the EFP GPP1000 max (the maximum gross primary productivity at light saturation) with plant traits measured in situ and derived from the TRY database. In addition to presenting the results we discuss the importance of differences in data origins and data quality (e.g. in situ traits vs. database derived traits, leaf area index (LAI) data from auxiliary FLUXNET data vs remotely sensed LAI, etc.) for this type of analysis.

van de Weg, M. J.; Musavi, T. S.; Van Bodegom, P.; Kattge, J.; Mahecha, M. D.; Reichstein, M.; Bahn, M.

2013-12-01

383

Industry focus: industrial wood energy  

SciTech Connect

A special feature including a buyers' guide for wood energy equipment and 5 articles by separate authors: Beijer, J. Reforestation plan aims to make steel from trees. 11-12. Eucalypts grown on the Minas Gerais hills in south-central Brazil will soon become the prime source of charcoal for the blast furnaces of Florestal Acesita steel mill. Simpson, W.; Tschernitz, J. Low-cost solar dry kiln gets trial in Sri Lanka. p. 13 Fraser, H.R. Wood-fueled power plant heats debate in Germany. 14-15. Orr, A. Cogeneration - how to get double duty from energy. 16-17. Fraser, H.R. Energy (methanol) from wood is goal of ambitious Brazilian plant. p.18.

Not Available

1982-01-01

384

The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

Tiemann, Harry D

1919-01-01

385

Strange Creatures: An Additive Wood Sculpture Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project where students create strange creatures using scraps of wood. Discusses how the students use the wood and other materials. Explains that the students also write about the habitat characteristics of their creatures. Includes learning objectives. (CMK)

Wales, Andrew

2002-01-01

386

SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

387

Wood burning space heating stove  

SciTech Connect

The design of a space heating wood burning stove, formed as a rectangular fire box, having a plurality of horizontal flue ducts leading to a flue manifold, adapted to generate substantial vertical convection currents of air, and further including vertical fins to enhance said convection currents, and further including a plurality of draft valves in substantial alignment with respective ones of said flue ducts for efficient burning of wood within said fire box is presented. Assembly of the fire box of the stove is completed under stressed conditions to prevent warping of the fire box panels from heating and cooling cycles.

Bane, J.H.

1981-08-04

388

WoodPolymer Composites Prepared by the In Situ Polymerization of Monomers Within Wood  

E-print Network

Wood­Polymer Composites Prepared by the In Situ Polymerization of Monomers Within Wood Yong-Feng Li in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). ABSTRACT: Wood­polymer composites (WPCs) were prepared from poplar wood (P. ussuriensis Komarov) in a two-step procedure. Maleic anhydride (MAN) was first dis

389

Wood density measurement protocol J Chave Page 1 Measuring wood density for tropical forest trees  

E-print Network

Wood density measurement protocol ­ J Chave Page 1 Measuring wood density for tropical forest trees Diversité Biologique Université Paul Sabatier 31000 Toulouse, France 1. Introduction Wood is a biological, that transport the sap along the stem and they are filled by water. The density of tree wood is an interesting

Chave, Jérôme

390

Seneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC "Illegal" Logging and Global Wood Markets  

E-print Network

Seneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC SUMMARY "Illegal" Logging and Global Wood Markets: The Competitive Impacts on the U.S. Wood Products Industry Prepared for: American Forest Phone: 1-202-463-2713 Fax: 1-202- 463-4703 E-mail: agoetzl@sencreek.com Wood Resources International

391

Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood  

E-print Network

Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood estimated that about 5 million tons of spent preservative treated wood istons of spent preservative treated wood is disposed of annually into landfills in thedisposed of annually into landfills in the United

392

Invited review: overview of new traits and phenotyping strategies in dairy cattle with a focus on functional traits.  

PubMed

For several decades, breeding goals in dairy cattle focussed on increased milk production. However, many functional traits have negative genetic correlations with milk yield, and reductions in genetic merit for health and fitness have been observed. Herd management has been challenged to compensate for these effects and to balance fertility, udder health and metabolic diseases against increased production to maximize profit without compromising welfare. Functional traits, such as direct information on cow health, have also become more important because of growing concern about animal well-being and consumer demands for healthy and natural products. There are major concerns about the impact of drugs used in veterinary medicine on the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria that can negatively impact human health. Sustainability and efficiency are also increasingly important because of the growing competition for high-quality, plant-based sources of energy and protein. Disruptions to global environments because of climate change may encourage yet more emphasis on these traits. To be successful, it is vital that there be a balance between the effort required for data recording and subsequent benefits. The motivation of farmers and other stakeholders involved in documentation and recording is essential to ensure good data quality. To keep labour costs reasonable, existing data sources should be used as much as possible. Examples include the use of milk composition data to provide additional information about the metabolic status or energy balance of the animals. Recent advances in the use of mid-infrared spectroscopy to measure milk have shown considerable promise, and may provide cost-effective alternative phenotypes for difficult or expensive-to-measure traits, such as feed efficiency. There are other valuable data sources in countries that have compulsory documentation of veterinary treatments and drug use. Additional sources of data outside of the farm include, for example, slaughter houses (meat composition and quality) and veterinary labs (specific pathogens, viral loads). At the farm level, many data are available from automated and semi-automated milking and management systems. Electronic devices measuring physiological status or activity parameters can be used to predict events such as oestrus, and also behavioural traits. Challenges concerning the predictive biology of indicator traits or standardization need to be solved. To develop effective selection programmes for new traits, the development of large databases is necessary so that high-reliability breeding values can be estimated. For expensive-to-record traits, extensive phenotyping in combination with genotyping of females is a possibility. PMID:25387784

Egger-Danner, C; Cole, J B; Pryce, J E; Gengler, N; Heringstad, B; Bradley, A; Stock, K F

2015-02-01

393

Wood Properties and Kinds; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. This booklet is concerned largely with the physical composition and…

Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

394

Thermochemical pretreatment of underutilized woody biomass for manufacturing wood composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prescribed fires, one method for reducing hazardous fuel loads from forest lands in the US, are limited by geographical, environmental, and social impacts. Mechanical operations are an alternative type of fuel treatment but these processes are constrained by the difficulty of economically harvesting and/or using large amounts of low-value woody biomass. Adoption and integration of new technologies into existing wood composite facilities offer better utilization of this material. A pretreatment that enables integration of technologies in a typical composite facility will aid with diversification of product portfolio (e.g. wood composites, fuel pellets, liquid fuels, chemicals). Hot water extraction (HWE) is an option for wood pretreatment. This work provides a fundamental understanding of the physicochemical changes to wood resulting from HWE, and how these changes impact processing and performance of composites. Specific objectives were to: 1) review literature on studies related to the manufacture of composites produced with thermally pretreated wood, 2) manufacture wood plastic composites (WPC) and particleboard using HWE wood and evaluate the impacts of pretreatment on product properties, 3) develop an understanding of the effect of HWE on lignin properties, specifically lignin at the cells surface level after migration from cell walls and middle lamella, 4) discern the influence of lignin on the fiber surface on processing WPCs, and, 5) investigate the effect of changing the pretreatment environment (inert gas instead of water) on lignin behavior. Results show that HWE enhances the resistance of both WPCs and particleboard to water with positive or no effect on mechanical properties. Reduction of hemicelluloses and lignin property changes are suggested as the main reasons for enhancing interaction between wood fiber and resins during composite processing. Lignin on the surface of particles after HWE interacts with thermoplastics during WPCs compounding, thus improving bond quality between the constituents and maintaining the mechanical properties of the composites. The amount and properties of lignin on the fiber surfaces depends on the pretreatment conditions. Thus, it seems possible to control the pretreatment process to increase or decrease the amount of lignin on particles surfaces, which is of great interest for managing downstream processes within biorefinery concepts.

Pelaez Samaniego, Manuel Raul

395

Updated 1-12 Bryan H. Wood  

E-print Network

Updated 1-12 Bryan H. Wood UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS DIRECTOR, PACIFIC DIVISION PLANS, POLICIES, OPERATIONS DEPARTMENT U.S. Marine Corps Mr. Bryan H. Wood is the Director, Pacific Division under the Deputy-Japan International Agreement. Mr. Wood was appointed to his current position in 2010 following 24 years

396

Donald L. Wood Professional Conference Travel Grants  

E-print Network

Donald L. Wood Professional Conference Travel Grants for Engineering Undergraduates APPLICATION by a generous donation from the estate of Donald L. Wood. The student application and final report will be used to describe our accomplishments to the family of this sponsor. #12;Donald L. Wood Professional Conference

Mahon, Bradford Z.

397

Generating Textures of New Zealand Native Wood  

E-print Network

1 Generating Textures of New Zealand Native Wood Jack Wang Abstract - This report explores algorithms for computer generated textures simulating New Zealand native wood, we out line procedural and Ray tracing. The main goal of this research is to study New Zealand native wood in depth and to gather

Goodman, James R.

398

School of Biological Sciences Juvenile wood  

E-print Network

School of Biological Sciences Juvenile wood What is it and why should we be concerned? #12;School of Biological Sciences What is juvenile wood? A brief recap. There is no universally accepted definition of juvenile wood. It is typically described as follows · zone near to the pith · displays marked

399

Strengthen Wood Education through a Comprehensive Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wood education programs across the nation, at and below the secondary levels of education, have declined in enrollment in recent years. To many, wood education means only carpentry or woodworking. A systematic approach to the subject, as a part of a materials science course, can reverse the material's negative connotation and make wood education…

Mative, John M.

2005-01-01

400

Wood Futures Conference 8 November 2007, London  

E-print Network

Wood Futures Conference 8 November 2007, London Today's and tomorrow's timber resources: Can we #12;Wood Futures Conference 8 November 2007, London Subjects I. Forest resources II. Forest products markets III. Certified forest products IV. Wood energy V. Conclusions VI. Recommendations VII. Questions

401

Original article Growth stresses in tension wood  

E-print Network

that the high tensile longitudinal growth stress is mainly due to the tensile stresses of cellulose microfibrils in normal and ten- sion wood. The compressive stress from the deposition of lignin controls the level of the longitudinal compressive stress in com- pression wood and the tangential com- pressive stress of normal wood

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

402

Properties of commonly used New Hampshire woods  

E-print Network

, before any wood is burned or moved. Questions? If you have general questions feel free to call UNH ­ cord or fraction of cord · Length of the pieces ­ short enough to fit in your wood stove or fireplaceProperties of commonly used New Hampshire woods Pine, Hemlock, Spruce, Aspen Dries and splits

New Hampshire, University of

403

Management alternatives of energy wood thinning stands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy wood thinning has become a feasible treatment alternative of young stands in Finland. Energy wood thinnings have been carried out mainly in stands where precommercial thinning has been neglected and the harvesting conditions for industrial wood thinning are difficult. Despite of its positive effects on harvesting costs and on renewable energy potential, whole-tree harvesting has been constantly criticized for

Jani Heikkilä; Matti Sirén; ja Olli Äijälä

2007-01-01

404

Update for 1995: Wood heat  

SciTech Connect

A conflict exists between stewardship of the land and waters including strong support for laws and government agencies created to correct environmental mistakes and encouraging self-reliance and independence on the land. This article discusses the current EPA`s very restrictive regulations on wood stoves, where reforms could/should take place, and what will result if regulations are lifted.

NONE

1995-10-01

405

Fire-resistant wood composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hot pressed wood panels made with modified novolak resins have burnthrough time of 450 s as compared to 280 s for products using conventional novolak resins. Incorporation of inorganic filler reduces flame spread index of panels from more than 200 to 60 or 70.

Sawko, P. M.

1979-01-01

406

Longer life for wood poles  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least 160 electric utilities are using liquid fumigants to prolong the life of wood poles beyond the 15 to 25-year service life to as long as 40 years. Over 225 species of fungi attack poles despite pressure treating with chemicals. Vapam, Vorlex, and chloropicrin offer the most advantages in terms of effectiveness, ease and cost of treatment, and dispersion

J. Hopkinson; R. Tackaberry

1982-01-01

407

Taking Cisco Dr Lloyd Wood  

E-print Network

Taking Cisco to space Dr Lloyd Wood Cisco Systems space team Global Government Solutions Group (GGSG) Cisco Forum 2009 Zakopane, Poland 26 March 2009 #12;Taking Cisco to space 2Cisco Public A space;Taking Cisco to space 3Cisco Public Steps in taking Cisco into spaceSteps in taking Cisco into space

Wood, Lloyd

408

Wood burning space heating stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a space heating wood burning stove, formed as a rectangular fire box, having a plurality of horizontal flue ducts leading to a flue manifold, adapted to generate substantial vertical convection currents of air, and further including vertical fins to enhance said convection currents, and further including a plurality of draft valves in substantial alignment with respective ones

Bane

1981-01-01

409

Wood stove air flow regulating  

SciTech Connect

A wood stove has primary and secondary air regulator doors at the bottom and top, respectively, of the stove door each rotating about the axis of a tightening knob in the center of the door opposite a baffle plate that defines with the door inside an air channel open at the top and bottom.

Brefka, P.E.

1983-10-04

410

Wood and coal burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stove for burning wood, coal and other fuels comprised of flammable solids that among other things produce one or more flammable gases when heating or burning. The preferred form of the stove has three modes of operation-a rapid burning mode, a normal or medium burning mode and a banked mode. The user makes a preliminary decision as to whether

G. H. Barsness; R. A. Kleine

1985-01-01

411

Self feeding wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove is described which consists of: an upright housing, the bottom portion of which defines a sump, the opposite side walls of which are symmetrically arrayed about a generally horizontal axis, substantially in parallel therewith, and slope downwardly toward the bottom line of the sump disposed in the vertical plane of the axis: means in the housing

Steindal

1986-01-01

412

Self loading wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self loading wood burning stove is described which comprises: (a) a fire box having an air intake vent for supplying a flow of combustible air therin an an exhaust conduit in flow communication with the fire box for exhausting combustion gases therefrom: (b) a storage bin for retaining a plurality of logs, the storage bin having a generally zig-zag

E. Gonzales; G. Spector

1987-01-01

413

Low emissions wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a wood burning stove. It comprises firebox means for forming a primary chamber for primary combustion of fuel received therein; catalytic cell means communicating with the primary chamber for forming a secondary chamber within the stove, the catalytic cell means having an inlet and an outlet; catalytic combustor means disposed in the secondary chamber for catalytically combusting

1989-01-01

414

Low emission wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a wood burning stove. It comprises: firebox means for forming a chamber for primary combustion of fuel received therein; door means comprising a door which may be opened and closed for selectively accessing the firebox means; stationary grate means defining a first series of openings located in fixed position below the firebox means; ash pan means comprising

1991-01-01

415

Wood burning stove and oven  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is a wood burning stove comprising an essentially air tight firebox module having three or more sides, an essentially horizontal cooking top and a bottom, both of said cooking top and bottom extending outwardly from a side to form firebox oven flanges, to which may be secured an oven module, a fire door at the front of the

DAlessandro

1984-01-01

416

Wood burning stove heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wood burning stove includes a water circulating grate within the stove fire chamber which includes horizontally extending, vertically spaced, first and second tubular manifolds. Fuel supporting pipes, including bottom portions which define a ''V'', physically and fluidly interconnect the manifolds. An inlet pipe extends throughout the majority of the length of the bottom manifold, and the top manifold is

Manno

1985-01-01

417

Automatic wood burning heating stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic wood burning heating stove has a fire chamber, a fuel feeding opening, closeably by an airtight door which is removable to convert the heater to an open fireplace. The door has a reflective ceramic surface on its inner face to direct heat toward preheating tubes having outlets directed above the fire zone. The door also reflects heat toward

K. H. McIntire; J. E. McIntire

1978-01-01

418

Are secondary sex traits, parasites and immunity related to variation in primary sex traits in the Arctic charr?  

PubMed Central

Primary and secondary sex traits are influenced by the same sex hormones, and the expression of secondary sex traits may consequently signal males' capacity for sperm production. Sperm quality may also be influenced by immune activity, as sperm are non-self to the male. Parasite infections alter immune activity and may thus reduce ejaculate quality. In the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) the red abdominal colour is considered an ornament that signals important information in mate choice. We captured and individually caged sexually mature male Arctic charr during the spawning period. Afterwards we estimated abdominal colour, parasite infections, gonad mass and several spermatological and immunological variables. Intensity of abdominal colour was positively correlated to testes mass, milt mass and sperm cell numbers produced. Additionally, males with low parasite intensities had high testes mass and produced milt with high sperm density, indicating a trade-off between parasite resistance and development of primary sex traits. Our measures of immunity were, however, not related to primary sex traits. We conclude that females evaluating male abdominal coloration may obtain information about differences between males in fertilization potential and parasite resistance. PMID:15101414

Måsvaer, Marthe; Liljedal, Ståle; Folstad, Ivar

2004-01-01

419

Linking size-dependent growth and mortality with architectural traits across 145 co-occurring tropical tree species.  

PubMed

Tree architecture, growth, and mortality change with increasing tree size and associated light conditions. To date, few studies have quantified how size-dependent changes in growth and mortality rates co-vary with architectural traits, and how such size-dependent changes differ across species and possible light capture strategies. We applied a hierarchical Bayesian model to quantify size-dependent changes in demographic rates and correlated demographic rates and architectural traits for 145 co-occurring Malaysian rain-forest tree species covering a wide range of tree sizes. Demographic rates were estimated using relative growth rate in stem diameter (RGR) and mortality rate as a function of stem diameter. Architectural traits examined were adult stature measured as the 95-percentile of the maximum stem diameter (upper diameter), wood density, and three tree architectural variables: tree height, foliage height, and crown width. Correlations between demographic rates and architectural traits were examined for stem diameters ranging from 1 to 47 cm. As a result, RGR and mortality varied significantly with increasing stem diameter across species. At smaller stem diameters, RGR was higher for tall trees with wide crowns, large upper diameter, and low wood density. Increased mortality was associated with low wood density at small diameters, and associated with small upper diameter and wide crowns over a wide range of stem diameters. Positive correlations between RGR and mortality were found over the whole range of stem diameters, but they were significant only at small stem diameters. Associations between architectural traits and demographic rates were strongest at small stem diameters. In the dark understory of tropical rain forests, the limiting amount of light is likely to make the interspecific difference in the effects of functional traits on demography more clear. Demographic performance is therefore tightly linked with architectural traits such as adult stature, wood density, and capacity for horizontal crown expansion. The enhancement of a demographic trade-off due to interspecific variation in functional traits in the understory helps to explain species coexistence in diverse rain forests. PMID:24669729

Iida, Yoshiko; Poorter, Lourens; Sterck, Frank; Kassim, Abd Rahman; Potts, Matthew D; Kubo, Takuya; Kohyama, Takashi S

2014-02-01

420

New wood stoves are tops for efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the new efficient wood stoves and discusses problems in nomenclature with some prefabricated fireplaces that include baffles, catalytic combustors and other devices previously associated with the wood stove. Wood stoves are subject to strict US EPA emission control regulations and fireplaces are not. Officials at the EPA evaluate wood burners on a case-by-case basis to determine if they should be subject to the stove regulations. To date, there are over 100 EPA-approved wood stoves on the market.

Barnhart, R.

1989-09-01

421

Health risks of residential wood heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resurgence in the use of wood in the United States for residential heating has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in deaths and injuries from residential fires. Toxic materials present in woodsmoke also appear to present a significant public health hazard. As a result of these factors, production of residential wood heat can be up to two orders of magnitude more hazardous than generation of an equivalent amount of electric energy at a coal-fired power plant. Proper care in installation and operation of wood stoves, as well as technological innovations that control wood-stove emissions, can greatly reduce the health and safety hazards of residential heating with wood.

Travis, Curtis C.; Etnier, Elizabeth L.; Meyer, H. Robert

1985-05-01

422

Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components  

SciTech Connect

A textbook containing 22 chapters by various authors covers the structure of wood, the localization of polysaccharides and lignins in wood cell walls, metabolism and synthetic function of cambial tissue, cell organelles and their function in the biosynthesis of cell wall components, biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides, lignin, cutin, suberin and associated waxes, phenolic acids and monolignols, quinones, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes and terpenoid wood extractives, the occurrence of extractives, the metabolism of phenolic acids, wood degradation by micro-organisms and fungi, and biodegradation of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and aromatic extractives of wood. An index is included.

Higuchi, T. (ed.)

1985-01-01

423

Long-term Impact of Formaldehyde and VOC Emissions from Wood-based Products on Indoor Environments; and Issues with Recycled Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the emission of formaldehyde and VOCs from wood-based panel products and the effect on indoor air quality (IAQ). The formaldehyde concentration monitored in four energy efficient test houses over a 7-year period has been included to illustrate the long-term effect of emissions from E1 wood-based panels used in dwellings. Formaldehyde emissions from wood-based floorboard obtained from investigation

Chuck W. F. Yu; Jeong Tai Kim

2012-01-01

424

Durability of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite-wood hybrid products fabricated using the composites pressure resin infusion system (ComPRIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful application of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite reinforcement to wood products requires that a high quality, durable bond be developed between two dissimilar materials. In this study, the adhesive bonding properties of two FRP-wood composite materials were investigated. The newly developed Composites Pressure Resin Infusion System (ComPRIS) was used to produce an E-glass\\/vinyl ester FRP material directly on a wood

Benjamin Herzog; Barry Goodell; Roberto Lopez-Anido; Douglas J. Gardner

425

Analytical pyrolysis vs. classical wet chemical analysis to assess the decay of archaeological waterlogged wood.  

PubMed

The macromolecular complexity of wood limits the possibility of obtaining complete chemical information on its alteration in archaeological objects. This paper compares the results obtained in the characterisation of the components of archaeological wood by a classical wet chemical method and by an instrumental method based on pyrolysis in presence of hexamethyldisilazane coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, Py(HMDS)-GC/MS. We compare the results obtained with the two methods quantitatively. This enables us to evaluate the efficiency of Py(HMDS)-GC/MS in assessing the chemical composition and the state of conservation of degraded wood. The material analysed consisted of reference sound wood and waterlogged wood from the ?ó?te historical site, located on a small island on Lake Zara?skie in Poland. The samples are from the remains of settlements dating to a period between the 9th and the 12th centuries AD. The results obtained by Py(HMDS)-GC/MS analysis are consistent in the determination of the level of degradation of archaeological wood with the results obtained using traditional techniques. The pyrolysis method is faster, reproducible, and reveals not only the amount but also the quality of the wood constituents, needing a much smaller sample. PMID:22938608

Lucejko, Jeannette J; Zborowska, Magdalena; Modugno, Francesca; Colombini, Maria P; Pr?dzy?ski, W?odzimierz

2012-10-01

426

Autism traits in the RASopathies  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/MAPK) pathway genes lead to a class of disorders known as RASopathies, including neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome (NS), Costello syndrome (CS), and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC). Previous work has suggested potential genetic and phenotypic overlap between dysregulation of Ras/MAPK signalling and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although the literature offers conflicting evidence for association of NF1 and autism, there has been no systematic evaluation of autism traits in the RASopathies as a class to support a role for germline Ras/MAPK activation in ASDs. Methods We examined the association of autism traits with NF1, NS, CS and CFC, comparing affected probands with unaffected sibling controls and subjects with idiopathic ASDs using the qualitative Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the quantitative Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Results Each of the four major RASopathies showed evidence for increased qualitative and quantitative autism traits compared with sibling controls. Further, each RASopathy exhibited a distinct distribution of quantitative social impairment. Levels of social responsiveness show some evidence of correlation between sibling pairs, and autism-like impairment showed a male bias similar to idiopathic ASDs. Conclusions Higher prevalence and severity of autism traits in RASopathies compared to unaffected siblings suggests that dysregulation of Ras/MAPK signalling during development may be implicated in ASD risk. Evidence for sex bias and potential sibling correlation suggests that autism traits in the RASopathies share characteristics with autism traits in the general population and clinical ASD population and can shed light on idiopathic ASDs. PMID:24101678

Adviento, Brigid; Corbin, Iris L; Widjaja, Felicia; Desachy, Guillaume; Enrique, Nicole; Rosser, Tena; Risi, Susan; Marco, Elysa J; Hendren, Robert L; Bearden, Carrie E; Rauen, Katherine A; Weiss, Lauren A

2014-01-01

427

Interview with quality leaders: Dr. Donna E. Shalala and Dr. Linda Burnes Bolton on the committee on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation initiative on The Future of Nursing at the Institute of Medicine. Interviewed by Diane Storer Brown.  

PubMed

The Institute of Medicine released a consensus report in October 2010, titled The Future of Nursing (FON): Leading Change, Advancing Health, which concluded significant change was needed in nurses' roles, responsibilities, and education to meet the increased demand for care that will be created by health care reform and to advance improvements in America's increasingly complex health system (http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2010/The-Future-of-Nursing-Leading-Change-Advancing-Health.aspx). Dr. Donna Shalala, Chair of the study, and Dr. Linda Burnes Bolton, Vice Chair of the study, spoke about the Future of Nursing (FON) at the Collaborative Alliance for Nursing Outcomes (CALNOC) conference to a predominately nursing and quality professional audience. This follow-up interview expands the discussion specifically for quality professionals, many of whom are nurses. PMID:22103740

Shalala, Donna E; Bolton, Linda Burnes

2012-01-01

428

ESCA study of oxidized wood surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Results of a preliminary study of the surface of wood exposed to outdoor weathering as well as to UV irradiation showed that ESCA provides valuable information and insight into the manifestation of weathering and photooxidation. From the ESCA spectra, the increase in signal intensities of carbon-oxygen bonds and oxygen-carbon-oxygen bonds (or unsaturated carbon oxygen bond) and oxygen-to-carbon ratio, and the decrease in carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds of weathered and UV-irradiated wood surfaces suggested that wood surface was oxidized. Nevertheless, it was a superficial effect. Only a slow oxidation was observed at 100 ..mu..m under the exposed wood surfaces. From the oxygen-to-carbon ratio data, it revealed that weathered wood surface was rich in cellulose, poor in lignin. The leached-away degradation products from weathered wood surface accounted for the discrepancy between the ESCA line shapes of UV-irradiated and weathered wood surfaces.

Hon, D.N.S.

1984-09-01

429

Functions and ecological status of eight Italian lagoons examined using biological traits analysis (BTA).  

PubMed

The soft-bottom communities of eight Italian lagoons were analyzed for eight biological traits (feeding, mobility, adult life habitat, body size, life span, reproductive technique, type of larva and reproductive frequency) in order to identify the dominant traits in different transitional environments. We considered the ecological quality status (EcoQS) of the stations, assessed by two biotic indices, AMBI and Bentix. Stations were categorized into EcoQS classes to investigate the relationship between biological functions and ecological quality. The results indicate that the variability of the data was governed by traits linked to resource utilization rather than to life cycle. Lagoons affected by chronic disturbance displayed a poor functional composition, which usually corresponded to poor EcoQS in some cases, correlations between ecological groups and traits modalities were ecologically relevant; however, classes of EcoQS were found to be relatively independent from the functional structure of the considered stations. PMID:18455198

Marchini, Agnese; Munari, Cristina; Mistri, Michele

2008-06-01

430

Callous-Unemotional traits in youth from a DSM-5 trait perspective.  

PubMed

The current study investigated how the Callous-Unemotional (CU) trait specifier is empirically associated with the proposed trait system for personality pathology in DSM-5, and addressed the use of multiple raters in the assessment of CU traits and additional maladaptive traits in an adolescent community sample. Both mothers and adolescents (N = 197) participated in the present study. Results showed that CU traits are located in different parts of the personality space, and are significantly associated with four broad maladaptive trait dimensions, Negative Affect, Detachment, Antagonism, and Disinhibition. Despite moderate agreement between raters, self- and maternal-rated CU traits were related in a congruent manner with PID-5 traits, and adolescents provided incremental information in CU trait assessment above maternal ratings. The present results have clear implications for the conceptualization of CU traits within the overarching model of personality pathology, proposed in DSM-5, and partially supported the application of a multi-informant approach in CU trait assessment. PMID:24344839

Decuyper, Mieke; De Caluwé, Elien; De Clercq, Barbara; De Fruyt, Filip

2014-06-01

431

Personality traits and anxiety symptoms: the multilevel trait predictor model.  

PubMed

Investigation of relations between personality traits and mental disorders can inform key issues in psychopathology research. However, it has been hindered by extensive correlations among the traits. Building on studies of affect-psychopathology relations (e.g., the tripartite model), an organizational framework is proposed to solve this problem with respect to anxiety pathology. To test the resulting model, associations between four traits (negative emotionality, positive emotionality, anxiety sensitivity, and negative evaluation sensitivity) and four anxiety symptoms (chronic worry, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, panic, and social anxiety) were examined in an undergraduate sample (N=907). Confirmatory factor analyses supported operationalizations of the constructs in this study. Examination of the trait-symptom links using hierarchical multiple regression analyses supported most of the predicted relations. Specifically, negative emotionality emerged as a general predictor that was significantly related to all four symptom dimensions. In contrast, anxiety sensitivity was specific to panic and worry, whereas negative evaluation sensitivity was specific to social anxiety and worry. Finally, positive emotionality was uniquely related to social anxiety. The model accounted for a substantial amount of variance in the symptoms and almost all of the covariation among them. PMID:17240351

Kotov, Roman; Watson, David; Robles, Jennifer P; Schmidt, Norman B

2007-07-01

432

Combined Expression Trait Correlations and Expression Quantitative Trait  

E-print Network

, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America, 2 Department of Statistics, University of Wisconsin, Madison segregating for obesity and diabetes. By combining the correlation results with linkage mapping information otherwise be missed if we studied only mRNA traits with statistically significant linkages in this small

Yandell, Brian S.

433

Plant traits that determine water use in wet tropical trees - do universal rules apply?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the global scale, evapotranspiration is the strongest predictor of species richness compared with other climatic and non-climatic variables, resulting in higher diversity in wet regions. In water limited climates, evapotranspiration has been shown to drive functional convergence in plant traits such as leaf vein density and wood density that are associated with water usage. However, functional convergence has yet to be demonstrated in wet tropical forests where water is unlimited. In this study, we compared and contrasted structural traits, leaf traits, and transpiration in nine tree species found in a wet tropical montane forest in Costa Rica. Transpiration was determined using three years of data collected from heat dissipation sap flow sensors. Among the nine species we studied, leaf architecture and size varied markedly, but leaf shapes were generally ovate or lancelate (Figure 1). Relationships between secondary and tertiary venation and leaf surface area at the local scale were similar to published relationships at the global scale, except for compound leaves and an outlier species, Calophyllum brasilense, which had dense parallel veins. Despite wide-ranging traits, sap flux was fairly consistent across species, ranging from 380 to 982 kg m-2 d-1. Sap flux was positively correlated with specific leaf area. Similar to global trends, specific leaf area was shown to be positively correlated to tertiary venation but not related to secondary venation. Leaves of wet tropical species tended to have lower leaf mass per unit area than those of dry tropical species. Unlike studies in dry tropical regions, wood density was unrelated to wood sapflux and only weakly related to specific leaf area. It is possible that trees in wetter climates without water deficits do not adhere as closely to universal scaling relationships. In addition, wood density adjustments to guard against water stress might not be as important in wet climates. As we continue to seek universal rules in plant traits, more work is needed to expand these relationships to larger leaves and those with compound leaf structure. Figure 1

Miller, G. T.; Moore, G. W.

2013-12-01

434

GeneLink: a database to facilitate genetic studies of complex traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In contrast to gene-mapping studies of simple Mendelian disorders, genetic analyses of complex traits are far more challenging, and high quality data management systems are often critical to the success of these projects. To minimize the difficulties inherent in complex trait studies, we have developed GeneLink, a Web-accessible, password-protected Sybase database. RESULTS: GeneLink is a powerful tool for complex

Elizabeth M Gillanders; Anthony Masiello; Derek Gildea; Lowell Umayam; Priya Duggal; Mary Pat Jones; Alison P Klein; Diana Freas-Lutz; Grace Ibay; Ken Trout; Tyra G Wolfsberg; Jeffrey M Trent; Joan E Bailey-Wilson; Andreas D Baxevanis

2004-01-01

435

A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revised classification of the Parulidae (Aves)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The birds in the family Parulidae-commonly termed the New World warblers or wood-warblers-are a classic model radiation for studies of ecological and behavioral differentiation. Although the monophyly of a 'core' wood-warbler clade is well established, no phylogenetic hypothesis for this group has included a full sampling of wood-warbler species diversity. We used parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods to reconstruct relationships among all genera and nearly all wood-warbler species, based on a matrix of mitochondrial DNA (5840 nucleotides) and nuclear DNA (6 loci, 4602 nucleotides) characters. The resulting phylogenetic hypotheses provide a highly congruent picture of wood-warbler relationships, and indicate that the traditional generic classification of these birds recognizes many non-monophyletic groups. We recommend a revised taxonomy in which each of 14 genera (Seiurus, Helmitheros, Mniotilta, Limnothlypis, Protonotaria, Parkesia, Vermivora, Oreothlypis, Geothlypis, Setophaga, Myioborus, Cardellina, Basileuterus, Myiothlypis) corresponds to a well-supported clade; these nomenclatural changes also involve subsuming a number of well-known, traditional wood-warbler genera (Catharopeza, Dendroica, Ergaticus, Euthlypis, Leucopeza, Oporornis, Parula, Phaeothlypis, Wilsonia). We provide a summary phylogenetic hypothesis that will be broadly applicable to investigations of the historical biogeography, processes of diversification, and evolution of trait variation in this well studied avian group. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Lovette, I.J.; Perez-Eman, J. L.; Sullivan, J.P.; Banks, R.C.; Fiorentino, I.; Cordoba-Cordoba, S.; Echeverry-Galvis, M.; Barker, F.K.; Burns, K.J.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, S.M.; Bermingham, E.

2010-01-01

436

Genetic Analyses of Age at Onset Traits   

E-print Network

The identification of factors underlying complex trait variation is a major goal in the field of genetics. For normally distributed, fully observed trait data there are many well established statistical methods for ...

Anderson, Carl

2007-01-01

437

Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in sheep. II. Meta-assembly and identification of novel QTL for milk production traits in sheep.  

PubMed

An (Awassi x Merino) x Merino backcross family of 172 ewes was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for different milk production traits on a framework map of 200 loci across all autosomes. From five previously proposed mathematical models describing lactation curves, the Wood model was considered the most appropriate due to its simplicity and its ability to determine ovine lactation curve characteristics. Derived milk traits for milk, fat, protein and lactose yield, as well as percentage composition and somatic cell score were used for single and two-QTL approaches using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. A total of 15 significant (P < 0.01) and additional 25 suggestive (P < 0.05) QTL were detected across both single QTL methods and all traits. In preparation of a meta-analysis, all QTL results were compared with a meta-assembly of QTL for milk production traits in dairy ewes from various public domain sources and can be found on the ReproGen ovine gbrowser http://crcidp.vetsci.usyd.edu.au/cgi-bin/gbrowse/oaries_genome/. Many of the QTL for milk production traits have been reported on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 16 and 20. Those on chromosomes 3 and 20 are in strong agreement with the results reported here. In addition, novel QTL were found on chromosomes 7, 8, 9, 14, 22 and 24. In a cross-species comparison, we extended the meta-assembly by comparing QTL regions of sheep and cattle, which provided strong evidence for synteny conservation of QTL regions for milk, fat, protein and somatic cell score data between cattle and sheep. PMID:19849860

Raadsma, Herman W; Jonas, Elisabeth; McGill, David; Hobbs, Matthew; Lam, Mary K; Thomson, Peter C

2009-01-01

438

Fetal testosterone and autistic traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of amniotic testosterone in humans suggest that fetal testosterone (fT) is related to specific (but not all) sexually dimorphic aspects of cognition and behaviour. It has also been suggested that autism may be an extreme manifestation of some male-typical traits, both in terms of cognition and neuroanatomy. In this paper, we examine the possibility of a link between autistic

Bonnie Auyeung; Simon Baron-Cohen; Emma Ashwin; Rebecca Knickmeyer; Kevin Taylor; Gerald Hackett

2009-01-01

439

Afterburner for a wood stove  

SciTech Connect

An afterburner for a wood stove for use as a retrofit assembly comprises a rectangular housing having openings in the upper and lower surfaces provided with cylindrical collars for cooperation with the flue duct and with the opening in the top of the wood stove respectively. The openings are positioned at the rear of the housing so as to provide a forward section spaced from the openings. A catalytic combuster mounted in a cylindrical support is movable from a position directly above the opening in the bottom surface into the front section by a manually operable handle extending through the front face of the housing. A baffle mounted on the support and arranged at a shallow angle to the horizontal overlies the major part of the combuster so as to direct gases into the front section of the housing for heat exchange contact with the walls thereof.

Dorach, E.H.; Dorsch, H.

1984-08-21

440

Wood by-pass furnace  

SciTech Connect

This wood by-pass furnace is designed in such a manner, as to have the oxygen for combustion controlled, to the extent that the wood does not blaze, but only produces red, glowing coals for heating a home, and the outside cover will not burn anyone when touched. It primarily consists of am inside fire chamber of cylindrical shape, to distribute heat to the top, and it includes a top baffle, that extends from the front of the fire chamber, to the rear of the furnace. It further includes the side baffles, to protect the sides of the heat chamber, and smoke and heat travels up and over the top of the top baffle, to the front of the stove or furnace, and passes out an eight inch pipe. The top baffle further serves to condense the black smoke into liquid, which will dry out and will burn in its dry form.

Stephenson, P.S. Sr.

1983-08-30

441

Wood stove having catalytic converter  

SciTech Connect

A wood burning stove is formed with double front and rear side walls of heat conductive metal spaced apart by heat conductive spacer fins and providing air passageways by which room air is heated by conduction from the walls which are heated by the burning of wood deposited on a firebox floor supported in heat conducting relationship with the inner side walls. A catalytic converter is disposed over the fire area in the upper portion of the stove, and is arranged to receive preheated fresh secondary air which mixes with hot, incompletely combusted compounds from the fire and, in the presence of the catalyst, induces a secondary combustion of the substances. This mixture is channeled into a heat extraction chamber where the secondary combustion is completed and the resultant heat is transferred to the metal body of the stove. An exhaust passageway is provided for releasing the products of complete combustion into the atmosphere.

Willson, A.C.

1982-12-14

442

FINE MAPPING OF A MALTING-QUALITY QTL COMPLEX NEAR THE CHROMOSOME 4H S TELOMERE IN BARLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malting quality has long been an active objective in barley breeding programs. However it is difficult for breeders to manipulate malting quality traits because of inheritance complexity and difficulty in evaluation of these quantitative traits. Quantitative trait Locus (QTL) mapping provides breede...

443

[Frost-resistance of subtropical evergreen woody plants: an evaluation based on plant functional traits].  

PubMed

Evaluating the frost-resistance of evergreen woody plants is of significance in guiding the species selection in forest management in subtropical region. In this paper, an investigation was made on the functional traits (including specific leaf area, stem wood density, leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf relative electrical conductance, and twig wood density) of 64 common evergreen broad-leaved and coniferous woody plant species in the Ningbo region of Zhejiang Province, East China, after a severe snowstorm in early 2008, aimed to select the evergreen woody plants with high ability of freeze-tolerance, and to establish a related evaluation system. By using a hierarchy analysis approach, the weight values of the functional traits of each species were determined, and an index system for evaluating the plants tolerance ability against freeze and mechanical damage was established. Based on this system, 23 evergreen plant species with high tolerance ability against freeze and mechanical damage, such as Cyclobalanopsis gilva, Cyclobalanopsis nubium, Neolitsea aurata, and Vacciniuim mandarinorum, were selected. In the meantime, on the basis of the ordering with each of the functional traits, the ordering of the tolerance ability of the 64 plant species against freeze and mechanical damage was made, and a list for the frost-resistance ability of the subtropical evergreen woody plant species in Ningbo region was constituted. PMID:23479868

Xu, Yi-Lu; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Yue; Xie, Yi-Ming; Wang, Liang-Yan; Yan, En-Rong

2012-12-01

444

Exploring the Natural Variation for Seedling Traits and Their Link with Seed Dimensions in Tomato  

PubMed Central

The success of germination, growth and final yield of every crop depends to a large extent on the quality of the seeds used to grow the crop. Seed quality is defined as the viability and vigor attribute of a seed that enables the emergence and establishment of normal seedlings under a wide range of environments. We attempt to dissect the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of seed quality, through a combined approach of physiology and genetics. To achieve this goal we explored the genetic variation found in a RIL population of Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Moneymaker) x Solanum pimpinellifolium through extensive phenotyping of seed and seedling traits under both normal and nutrient stress conditions and root system architecture (RSA) traits under optimal conditions. We have identified 62 major QTLs on 21 different positions for seed, seedling and RSA traits in this population. We identified QTLs that were common across both conditions, as well as specific to stress conditions. Most of the QTLs identified for seedling traits co-located with seed size and seed weight QTLs and the positive alleles were mostly contributed by the S. lycopersicum parent. Co-location of QTLs for different traits might suggest that the same locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. We show that seed weight has a strong effect on seedling vigor and these results are of great importance for the isolation of the corresponding genes and elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22952841

Willems, Leo A. J.; van Heusden, Adriaan W.; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W. M.

2012-01-01

445

Carbon Sequestration via Wood Burial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forest dead wood or old trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It was estimated that the carbon sequestration potential of forest wood harvest and burial is 10GtC y-1 with an uncertainty range of 5-15 GtC y-1. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost was crudely estimated at $50/tC, significantly lower than the cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage, a carbon sequestration technique currently under most serious consideration. The low cost is largely because the CO2 capture is achieved at little cost by the natural process of photosynthesis. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe and can be stopped or reversed at any time. The relatively low cost may soon be competitive enough for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon trading market. In tropical regions with ongoing deforestation, wood burial instead of burning will immediately reduce that portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emission.

Zeng, N.

2007-12-01

446

Blood parasites of wood ducks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O., Jr.; Knipling, G.D.

1971-01-01

447

Wood Burning Stove (Olin College)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is aimed at improving an existing wood burning stove design by Estufas Ixiles Stove Co., an initiative of Community Enterprise Solutions. There are two primary focuses to this project.\\u000aThe first is to improve the design, making it: Less expensive Easier to assemble Appeal to the design values of our users Be at least as energy efficient as

Christopher Carrick; Ryan Hubbard; Melina Martinez; Carmelle Tsai; Stephen Westwood

2008-01-01

448

Densified fuels from wood waste  

SciTech Connect

Wood compressed to a specific gravity of about 1.2 constitutes an excellent clean burning fuel. {open_quotes}Prestologs{close_quotes} were marketed before 1940, but in the past ten years a much larger and growing market is densified pellet fuel has developed. The market for pellet fuel is about 90% residential, using special pellet burning stoves. Initial sales were almost entirely in the northwest, but sales in other parts of the country are now growing rapidly. Approximately 300,000 stoves are in use. Note that this industry developed from the private sector with little or no support from federal or state governments. Densified fuel is manufactured by drying and compressing sawdust feedstock. Combustion is different than that of normal wood. For example, wood pellets require ample supplies of air. They then burn with a hot flame and very low particulate emissions. Volatile organic compounds are burned almost completely and carbo