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1

Prioritizing wood energy crop feedstock qualities for biofuel systems improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge engineering or expert systems is needed in biofuel systems to adequately prioritize wood energy crop traits on which research and development should focus. Objectives at the various stages of the total biofuel process are clarifying the demands that will be placed on feedstock qualities. These objectives are forming more clearly from developments in the growing, handling, and conversion of

Ranney

1991-01-01

2

Association Genetics of Wood Physical Traits in the Conifer White Spruce and Relationships With Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Marker-assisted selection holds promise for highly influencing tree breeding, especially for wood traits, by considerably reducing breeding cycles and increasing selection accuracy. In this study, we used a candidate gene approach to test for associations between 944 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers from 549 candidate genes and 25 wood quality traits in white spruce. A mixed-linear model approach, including a weak but nonsignificant population structure, was implemented for each marker–trait combination. Relatedness among individuals was controlled using a kinship matrix estimated either from the known half-sib structure or from the markers. Both additive and dominance effect models were tested. Between 8 and 21 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be significantly associated (P ? 0.01) with each of earlywood, latewood, or total wood traits. After controlling for multiple testing (Q ? 0.10), 13 SNPs were still significant across as many genes belonging to different families, each accounting for between 3 and 5% of the phenotypic variance in 10 wood characters. Transcript accumulation was determined for genes containing SNPs associated with these traits. Significantly different transcript levels (P ? 0.05) were found among the SNP genotypes of a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, a ?-tonoplast intrinsic protein, and a long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 9. These results should contribute toward the development of efficient marker-assisted selection in an economically important tree species.

Beaulieu, Jean; Doerksen, Trevor; Boyle, Brian; Clement, Sebastien; Deslauriers, Marie; Beauseigle, Stephanie; Blais, Sylvie; Poulin, Pier-Luc; Lenz, Patrick; Caron, Sebastien; Rigault, Philippe; Bicho, Paul; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John

2011-01-01

3

Manipulation of wood chemical traits for energy: An assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comparative assessment of the biological potential to modify wood for improved conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels identifies specific gravity, lignin and hemicellulose qualities, bark quantity, and hemicellulose content as priority research targets....

J. W. Ranney A. F. Turhollow R. J. Dinus

1989-01-01

4

Wood quality from fast-grown plantations  

SciTech Connect

As forestry becomes more intensive and as forestry operations move toward the tropical areas, an increasing proportion of the wood available to the industry will come from young, fast-grown plantations. The wood of such trees, especially from the conifers, is so different that it will have a major effect on utilization and product standards. Acceptability of wood from fast-grown plantations will change as solid wood and paper quality standards change. Some of the primary effects on wood and products from fast-grown plantations are discussed in this paper. The wood is very suitable for some products and poor for others. The paper reports on conifers and hardwoods separately, with a large section on Eucalyptus.

Zobel, B.

1981-01-01

5

Leaf photosynthetic traits scale with hydraulic conductivity and wood density in Panamanian forest canopy trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated how water transport capacity, wood density and wood anatomy were related to leaf photosynthetic traits in two lowland forests in Panama. Leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity ( k L) of upper branches was positively correlated with maximum rates of net CO 2 assimilation per unit leaf area ( A area) and stomatal conductance ( g s) across 20 species of

L. S. Santiago; G. Goldstein; F. C. Meinzer; J. B. Fisher; K. Machado; D. Woodruff; T. Jones

2004-01-01

6

Relationships between morphological traits and resistance to pine wood nematode in two Japanese pines  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that certain morphological traits of Japanese pines function as resistance factors against the pine\\u000a wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The aim of this study was to verify this concept, and to determine the relationships between traits and resistance at both\\u000a the individual and family levels. Relationships between survival rate and morphological traits of Pinus densiflora and

Taro Yamanobe

2009-01-01

7

Prioritizing wood energy crop feedstock qualities for biofuel systems improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Knowledge engineering or expert systems is needed in biofuel systems to adequately prioritize wood energy crop traits on which research and development should focus. Objectives at the various stages of the total biofuel process are clarifying the demands ...

J. W. Ranney

1991-01-01

8

Genetic properties of egg quality traits and their correlations with performance traits in Japanese quail  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Performance traits were measured on 1908 Japanese quail and egg quality traits assessed on 1800 eggs at 10 wk of age.2. Genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated using a bivariate animal model with restricted maximum likelihood using ASREML software.3. Body weight at different ages showed positive genetic correlations with egg weight and most of the internal egg quality traits,

E. Lotfi; S. Zerehdaran; Z. Raoufi

2012-01-01

9

Growth and wood quality of plantation grown Eucalyptus dunnii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests NSW manages Eucalyptus plantations on the north coast of NSW, Australia for high value timber production. Productivity, wood properties and mill recovery of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden, a species becoming increasingly important to eucalypt hardwood producers worldwide was investigated. Historic data from stands aged from 3 to 34 years were assessed for growth, and wood quality using a range of

Dane Thomas; Michael Henson; Bill Joe; Steve Boyton; Ross Dickson

10

Genetic properties of egg quality traits and their correlations with performance traits in Japanese quail.  

PubMed

1. Performance traits were measured on 1908 Japanese quail and egg quality traits assessed on 1800 eggs at 10 wk of age. 2. Genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated using a bivariate animal model with restricted maximum likelihood using ASREML software. 3. Body weight at different ages showed positive genetic correlations with egg weight and most of the internal egg quality traits, whereas their genetic correlations with eggshell thickness, eggshell strength and eggshell percentage were negative. 4. Genetic correlations of age at sexual maturity and egg number with most of external and internal traits were negative. 5. It was concluded that selection for higher body weight will result in heavier and better quality eggs. Because of the negative genetic correlation between BW and egg shell quality, a selection index including BW and eggshell strength would be the best breeding strategy for genetic improvement of egg quality in Japanese quail. PMID:23281751

Lotfi, E; Zerehdaran, S; Raoufi, Z

2012-01-01

11

Intraspecific Relationships among Wood Density, Leaf Structural Traits and Environment in Four Co-Occurring Species of Nothofagus in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Plant functional traits capture important variation in plant strategy and function. Recent literature has revealed that within-species variation in traits is greater than previously supposed. However, we still have a poor understanding of how intraspecific variation is coordinated among different traits, and how it is driven by environment. We quantified intraspecific variation in wood density and five leaf traits underpinning the leaf economics spectrum (leaf dry matter content, leaf mass per unit area, size, thickness and density) within and among four widespread Nothofagus tree species in southern New Zealand. We tested whether intraspecific relationships between wood density and leaf traits followed widely reported interspecific relationships, and whether variation in these traits was coordinated through shared responses to environmental factors. Sample sites varied widely in environmental variables, including soil fertility (25–900 mg kg–1 total P), precipitation (668–4875 mm yr–1), temperature (5.2–12.4 °C mean annual temperature) and latitude (41–46 °S). Leaf traits were strongly correlated with one another within species, but not with wood density. There was some evidence for a positive relationship between wood density and leaf tissue density and dry matter content, but no evidence that leaf mass or leaf size were correlated with wood density; this highlights that leaf mass per unit area cannot be used as a surrogate for component leaf traits such as tissue density. Trait variation was predicted by environmental factors, but not consistently among different traits; e.g., only leaf thickness and leaf density responded to the same environmental cues as wood density. We conclude that although intraspecific variation in wood density and leaf traits is strongly driven by environmental factors, these responses are not strongly coordinated among functional traits even across co-occurring, closely-related plant species.

Richardson, Sarah J.; Allen, Robert B.; Buxton, Rowan P.; Easdale, Tomas A.; Hurst, Jennifer M.; Morse, Christopher W.; Smissen, Rob D.; Peltzer, Duane A.

2013-01-01

12

QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT  

SciTech Connect

Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

Tumuluru, J.S. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lau, A.K. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Oveisi, E. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-11-01

13

Genetic diversity among mandarins in fruit-quality traits.  

PubMed

A detailed phenotypic analysis of fruit-quality traits was conducted among 46 mandarin varieties within the Israeli Citrus breeding collection, belonging to genetically different natural subgroups, including common mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), clementine (C. clementina Hort. ex. Tan), satsuma (C. unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (C. deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and tangelo (C. reticulata × C. paradisi). Evaluated qualities included physical attributes (size, shape, color, peel thickness, and seed number); physiological properties (ripening period, peelability, and segmentation); nutritional and biochemical composition (vitamin C, phenol, flavonoid, and carotenoid contents and total antioxidant activity); and sensory attributes (total soluble solids and acid levels, flavor preference, sweetness, sourness, and fruitiness). The results indicated wide genetic variability in fruit-quality traits among mandarin varieties and natural subgroups, and statistical and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed multiple correlations among attributes. Such phenomic analysis is an obligatory requirement for identification of molecular markers for distinct fruit-quality traits and for selection of appropriate parents for future breeding programs. PMID:24828369

Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Kaplunov, Tatiana; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir

2014-05-28

14

Quantitative trait loci for grain quality, productivity, morphological and agronomical traits in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain quality, yield components and other traits were investigated in two Sorghum caudatumguinea\\u000a recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. A total of 16 traits were evaluated (plant height, panicle length, panicle compactness,\\u000a number of kernels\\/panicle, thousand-kernel weight, kernel weight\\/panicle, threshing percentage, dehulling yield, kernel flouriness,\\u000a kernel friability, kernel hardness, amylose content, protein content, lipid content, germination

J.-F. Rami; P. Dufour; G. Trouche; G. Fliedel; C. Mestres; F. Davrieux; P. Blanchard; P. Hamon

1998-01-01

15

Carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits under heat stress.  

PubMed

Rabbits are very sensitive to heat stress because they have difficulty eliminating excess body heat. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress on slaughter weight, dressing percentage and carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits from two genetic groups. Ninety-six weaned rabbits were used: half were from the Botucatu genetic group and half were crossbreds between New Zealand White sires and Botucatu does. They were assigned to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (two genetic groups and three ambient temperatures: 18°C, 25°C and 30°C) and kept under controlled conditions in three environmental chambers from 5 to 10 weeks of age. Slaughter took place at 10 weeks, on 2 consecutive days. Meat quality measurements were made in the longissimus muscle. Actual average ambient temperature and relative humidity in the three chambers were 18.4°C and 63.9%, 24.4°C and 80.2% and 29.6°C and 75.9%, respectively. Purebred rabbits were heavier at slaughter and had heavier commercial and reference carcasses than crossbreds at 30°C; however, no differences between genetic groups for these traits were found at lower temperatures. No genetic group × ambient temperature interaction was detected for any other carcass or meat quality traits. The percentages of distal parts of legs, skin and carcass forepart were higher in crossbred rabbits, indicating a lower degree of maturity at slaughter in this group. The percentage of thoracic viscera was higher in the purebreds. Lightness of the longissimus muscle was higher in the purebreds, whereas redness was higher in the crossbreds. Slaughter, commercial and reference carcass weights and the percentages of thoracic viscera, liver and kidneys were negatively related with ambient temperature. Commercial and reference carcass yields, and the percentage of distal parts of legs, on the other hand, had a positive linear relationship with ambient temperature. Meat redness and yellowness diminished as ambient temperature increased, whereas cooking loss was linearly elevated with ambient temperature. Meat color traits revealed paler meat in the purebreds, but no differences in instrumental texture properties and water-holding capacity between genetic groups. Purebred rabbits were less susceptible to heat stress than the crossbreds. Heat stress resulted in lower slaughter and carcass weights and proportional reductions of organ weights, which contributed to a higher carcass yield. Moreover, it exerted a small, but negative, effect on meat quality traits. PMID:23031323

Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Fernandes, S; Sartori, J R; Teixeira, P S S; Moura, A S A M T

2013-03-01

16

Identification of quantitative trait loci influencing wood property traits in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). III. QTL Verification and candidate gene mapping.  

PubMed Central

A long-term series of experiments to map QTL influencing wood property traits in loblolly pine has been completed. These experiments were designed to identify and subsequently verify QTL in multiple genetic backgrounds, environments, and growing seasons. Verification of QTL is necessary to substantiate a biological basis for observed marker-trait associations, to provide precise estimates of the magnitude of QTL effects, and to predict QTL expression at a given age or in a particular environment. Verification was based on the repeated detection of QTL among populations, as well as among multiple growing seasons for each population. Temporal stability of QTL was moderate, with approximately half being detected in multiple seasons. Fewer QTL were common to different populations, but the results are nonetheless encouraging for restricted applications of marker-assisted selection. QTL from larger populations accounted for less phenotypic variation than QTL detected in smaller populations, emphasizing the need for experiments employing much larger families. Additionally, 18 candidate genes related to lignin biosynthesis and cell wall structure were mapped genetically. Several candidate genes colocated with wood property QTL; however, these relationships must be verified in future experiments.

Brown, Garth R; Bassoni, Daniel L; Gill, Geoffrey P; Fontana, Joseph R; Wheeler, Nicholas C; Megraw, Robert A; Davis, Mark F; Sewell, Mitchell M; Tuskan, Gerald A; Neale, David B

2003-01-01

17

A trait based approach to defining valued mentoring qualities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graduate training in the sciences requires strong personal interactions among faculty, senior lab members and more junior members. Within the lab-group setting we learn to frame problems, to conduct research and to communicate findings. The result is that individual scientists are partly shaped by a few influential mentors. We have all been influenced by special relationships with mentors, and on reflection we may find that certain qualities have been especially influential in our career choices. In this presentation I will discuss favorable mentoring traits as determined from an informal survey of scientists in varying stages of careers and from diverse backgrounds. Respondents addressed questions about traits they value in their mentors in several categories: 1) personal qualities such as approachability, humor and encouragement; background including gender, ethnicity, and family status; 2) scientific qualities including discipline or specialization, perceived stature in discipline, seniority, breadth of perspective, and level of expectations; and 3) community-oriented qualities promoted by mentors, such as encouraging service contributions and peer-mentoring within the lab group. The results will be compared among respondents by gender, ethnicity, stage of career, type of work, and subdiscipline within the broadly defined Biogeoscience community. We hope to contribute to the growing discussion on building a diverse and balanced scientific workforce.

Pendall, E.

2012-12-01

18

Genotype by environment interaction for index traits that combine growth and wood density in loblolly pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotype×environment interactions of individual traits have been assessed in numerous experiments with forest trees. However,\\u000a since breeding programs rarely aim at the improvement of a single trait, the impact of G×E on index or composite traits must\\u000a also be assessed. In a study with 12-year-old loblolly pine families in the southeastern U.S., G×E variance was of relatively\\u000a little importance compared

S. E. McKeand; G. Eriksson; J. H. Roberds

1997-01-01

19

Importance of health and environment as quality traits in the buying decision of organic products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to explore consumer preference for fresh vegetables labelled as organic in combination with health and environment related quality traits. The study decomposes organic farming into its main quality aspects and measures consumers' preference structure for organic, in general, and for specific organic quality traits in particular. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – By means of stated choice preference modelling,

Koen Mondelaers; Wim Verbeke; Guido Van Huylenbroeck

2009-01-01

20

Quantitative trait loci for egg quality and production in laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genome scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) for egg quality and produc- tion traits was carried out in laying hens. The resource population was an F2 cross and parental lines were chosen to exhibit the maximum divergence for egg quality and molecular genetic markers. Both the Rhode Island Red (RIR) and synthetic White Leghorn (WL) lines from MTT Agrifood

Maria Tuiskula-Haavisto

21

Analysis of genetic effects on nutrient quality traits in indica rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine cytoplasmic male-sterile lines and five restorer lines were used in an incomplete diallel cross to analyze seed effects, cytoplasmic effects, and maternal gene effects on nutrient quality traits of indica rice (Oryza sauva L.). The results indicated that nutrient quality traits were controlled by cytoplasmic and maternal effects as well as by seed direct effects. Maternal effects for lysine

C. H. Shi; J. M. Xue; Y. G. Yu; X. E. Yang; J. Zhu

1996-01-01

22

Genetic variation for carcass quality traits in cultured sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic parameters for carcass quality traits were estimated in 27 families of sea bass (3 dams × 9s ires factorial mating design), raised mixed in the same tanks starting before hatching. Offspring parentage was determined a posteriori using 6 microsatellite loci. Carcass quality traits were recorded at 818 days post fertilization (mean standard length: 32.6 ± 3.1 cm). Genetic parameters

Eric Saillant; Mathilde Dupont-Nivet; Marie Sabourault; Pierrick Haffray; Stanislas Laureau; Marie-Odile Vidal; Béatrice Chatain

2009-01-01

23

Genetic variation and relationships to growth traits for microfibril angle, wood density and modulus of elasticity in a Picea abies clonal trial in southern Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation in wood density, microfibril angle (MFA), wood stiffness (MOE), height, diameter and volume was investigated in a 26-year-old Norway spruce [(Picea abies (L.) Karst.] clonal trial in southern Sweden. Wood quality measurements were performed on 10 mm increment cores using SilviScan. For MFA, mean values of annual rings showed the highest value (30°) at ring 2 counting from

Daniel Gräns; Björn Hannrup; Fikret Isik; Sven-Olof Lundqvist; Steve McKeand

2009-01-01

24

Metal contaminated biochar and wood ash negatively affect plant growth and soil quality after land application.  

PubMed

Pyrolysis or combustion of waste wood can provide a renewable source of energy and produce byproducts which can be recycled back to land. To be sustainable requires that these byproducts pose minimal threat to the environment or human health. Frequently, reclaimed waste wood is contaminated by preservative-treated timber containing high levels of heavy metals. We investigated the effect of feedstock contamination from copper-preservative treated wood on the behaviour of pyrolysis-derived biochar and combustion-derived ash in plant-soil systems. Biochar and wood ash were applied to soil at typical agronomic rates. The presence of preservative treated timber in the feedstock increased available soil Cu; however, critical Cu guidance limits were only exceeded at high rates of feedstock contamination. Negative effects on plant growth and soil quality were only seen at high levels of biochar contamination (>50% derived from preservative-treated wood). Negative effects of wood ash contamination were apparent at lower levels of contamination (>10% derived from preservative treated wood). Complete removal of preservative treated timber from wood recycling facilities is notoriously difficult and low levels of contamination are commonplace. We conclude that low levels of contamination from Cu-treated wood should pose minimal environmental risk to biochar and ash destined for land application. PMID:24915641

Jones, D L; Quilliam, R S

2014-07-15

25

Detection of quantitative trait loci for meat quality in a commercial slaughter pig cross  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The primary goal of this study was to localize quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting meat quality traits in swine. In total,\\u000a 42 traits were scored on 305 F2 individuals from a commercial slaughter pig cross in Norway. F1 and F2 individuals were genotyped for 29 markers on Chromosomes (Chrs) 4, 6, and 7, since previous studies had revealed QTL

Eli Grindflek; Joanna Szyda; Zengting Liu; Sigbjørn Lien

2001-01-01

26

Association mapping for growth, straightness and wood chemistry traits in the Pinus pinaster Aquitaine breeding population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association mapping is a recommended method to dissect the genetic basis of naturally occurring trait variation in non-model\\u000a tree species with outcrossing mating systems and large population sizes. We report here the results of the first association-mapping\\u000a study in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), a conifer species of economical importance for timber and pulp production in south-western Europe. Two association

Camille Lepoittevin; Luc Harvengt; Christophe Plomion; Pauline Garnier-Géré

27

Influence of effects on quality traits and relationships between traits of the llama fleece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences owing to age, sex and coat color on fleece traits, and relationships between traits, were investigated in fiber samples of llama fleece. Fiber samples were obtained from five fleece regions of 143 llamas: withers; shoulder; ribs; loin-rump and thigh. The fleece composition was heterogenous and consisted of different proportions of unmedullated (20.2%), fragmented med (36.7%), continuous med (39.4%), and

Z. Martinez; L. C. Iniguez; T. Rodríguez

1997-01-01

28

Household Mobility, Housing Traits, Public Goods, and School Quality in Cleveland's Metropolitan Statistical Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates how selective housing traits, local government expenditures, and school district qualities influence household mobility in the Cleveland metropolitan statistical area. Overall results show that housing traits do not extensively differ among suburban municipalities, and they do not substantially affect household mobilities. However,…

Margulis, Harry L.

2001-01-01

29

Genetic parameters for lean meat yield, meat quality, reproduction and feed efficiency traits for Australian pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 1799 Large White and 1522 Landrace boars were used to obtain heritability and litter effect estimates for performance, carcass and meat quality traits applying a REML procedure fitting an animal model. Analysed traits included average daily gain from three to 18 weeks of age (ADG1) and average daily gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio from 18 to

S. Hermesch; B. G. Luxford; H.-U. Graser

2000-01-01

30

In situ wood quality assessment in Douglas-fir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic control and phenotypic and genotypic correlations among wood density, modulus of elasticity, height, diameter,\\u000a and volume were assessed using 967 trees representing 20 unrelated 32-year-old coastal Douglas-fir full-sib families growing\\u000a on four (spaced and pruned vs. control) comparable test sites. Generally, no significant differences were observed between\\u000a treatments, indicating their limited effect at assessment time. Family effect did

Yoursy A. El-Kassaby; Shawn Mansfield; Fikret Isik; Michael Stoehr

2011-01-01

31

Performance, Carcass and Meat Quality Traits of Najdi Lambs Fed Saltbush and Date Pits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sami, A., Al-Owaimer, A., Zahran, S. and Koohmaraie, M. 2010. Performance, carcass and meat quality traits of Najdi lambs fed saltbush and date pits. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 38: 77–80.To investigate the effect of feeding saltbush and ground date pits on the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality traits, 60 Najdi lambs (23±0.43 kg, 3 mo) were randomly divided into

Ahmed Sami; Abdullah Al-Owaimer; Sameir Zahran; Mohammad Koohmaraie

2010-01-01

32

Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting carcass and meat quality traits in Beijing ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).  

PubMed

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for carcass and meat quality traits were detected in a sample of 224 progeny from four males in line VI and 12 females in line V of Beijing ducks. These lines were selected for high body weight at 42 days of age (line VI) or high egg production at 360 days of age (line V). Traits were weights of the carcass, head, neck, shanks, wings, legs, thighs, breast, heart, liver, crop, gizzard, abdominal fat (AFW) and skin fat, as well as fat thickness in the tail, and pH value, shear force, drip loss (DL) (%) and cooking loss (CL) (%) of the breast. Using a half-sib analysis with a multiple QTL model, linkage between the carcass and meat quality traits and 95 microsatellite markers was investigated. Eight genome-wide significant QTL for weight of crop, skin fat, liver, neck, shanks, wings, DL were detected on linkage groups CAU4 and CAU6. One genome-wide suggestive QTL and one chromosome-wide significant QTL for weight of breast were found on CAU1 and CAU4 respectively. Fifteen chromosome-wide suggestive QTL influencing weight of AFW, breast, crop, heart, carcass, thighs, liver, shanks, gizzard, fat thickness in tail, DL (%) and CL (%) were mapped on CAU2, CAU4, CAU5, CAU6, CAU7, CAU10 and CAU13. In addition, two linked QTL for weight of liver and DL (%) were located on CAU2 and CAU7 respectively. The detection of QTL in ducks is a step towards identification of genes influencing these traits and their use for genetic improvement in this species. PMID:17403008

Huang, Y; Haley, C S; Wu, F; Hu, S; Hao, J; Wu, C; Li, N

2007-04-01

33

Sire effects on carcass and meat quality traits of young Nellore bulls.  

PubMed

Meat quality is being increasingly demanded by consumers in recent years. Several factors can affect meat quality, ranging from animal traits such as breed and genetic heritage to pre- and post-slaughter processes. This study investigated the influence of Nellore bulls on carcass and meat quality traits. We used 475 young uncastrated males, the progeny of 54 bulls, to evaluate characteristics of the following carcass traits: hot carcass weight, rib-eye area, and fat thickness. We also evaluated the following beef quality traits: marbling, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and shear force at 0, 7, and 14 days of aging. Bulls had a significant influence (P?0.05) on rib-eye area, fat thickness, marbling, drip loss at 14 days of aging and color at all aging periods. Based on these results, the use of bulls with high breeding values for these traits can provide important advances in carcass traits and meat quality in breeding programs of Nellore cattle that are raised in tropical conditions. PMID:24841657

Bonin, M N; Ferraz, J B S; Eler, J P; Rezende, F M; Cucco, D C; Carvalho, M E; Silva, R C G; Gomes, R C; Oliveira, E C M

2014-01-01

34

Gene Discovery and Product Development for Grain Quality Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The composition of oils, proteins, and carbohydrates in seeds of corn, soybean, and other crops has been modified to produce grains with enhanced value. Both plant breeding and molecular technologies have been used to produce plants carrying the desired traits. Genomics-based strategies for gene discovery, coupled with high-throughput transformation processes and miniaturized, automated analytical and functionality assays, have accelerated the identification of product candidates. Molecular markerâÂÂbased breeding strategies have been used to accelerate the process of moving trait genes into high-yielding germplasm for commercialization. These products are being tested for applications in food, feed, and industrial markets.

Barbara Mazur (DuPont Agricultural Products Experimental Station;); Enno Krebers (DuPont Agricultural Products Experimental Station;); Scott Tingey (DuPont Agricultural Products Experimental Station;)

1999-07-16

35

Polymorphisms of the bovine DKK2 and their associations with body measurement traits and meat quality traits in Qinchuan cattle.  

PubMed

The objective of this research were to detect bovine Dickkopf 2 (DKK2) gene polymorphism and analyze their associations with body measurement traits (BMT) and meat quality traits (MQT) of animals. Blood samples were taken from a total of 541 Qinchuan cattle aged from 18 to 24 months. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) was employed to find out DKK2 single-polymorphism nucleotide (SNPs) and to explore their possible association with BMT and MQT. Sequence analysis of DKK2 gene revealed 2 SNPs (C29 T and A169C) in 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of exon 1.C29T and A164T SNPs are both synonymous mutation, which showed 2 genotypes namely (CC, CT) and (AA and AC), respectively. Association analysis of polymorphism with body measurement and meat quality traits at the two locus showed that there were significant effects on CT, BL, RL, PBW, BFT, LMA, and IFC. These results suggest that the DKK2 gene might have potential effects on BMT and MQT in Qinchuan cattle population and could be used for marker-assisted selection. PMID:24057189

Zhan, Xiaoli; Gao, Jianbin; Huangfu, Yifan; Fu, Changzhen; Zan, Linsen

2013-12-01

36

Big Five personality traits and relationship quality: Self-reported, observational, and physiological evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report explored links between Big Five personality traits and the quality of romantic relationships. Interpersonal func- tioning was operationalized at three levels of analysis (self- reported quality, observed emotional tone, and physiological reactivity) in three samples (dating, engaged, and married couples). Couples completed questionnaires about their own and partners' personalities and then discussed a disagreement in their relationship while

Ashley S. Holland; Glenn I. Roisman

2008-01-01

37

Both additivity and epistasis control the genetic variation for fruit quality traits in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a gene involved in the variation of a quantitative trait may change due to epistatic interactions with the overall\\u000a genetic background or with other genes through digenic interactions. The classical populations used to map quantitative trait\\u000a loci (QTL) are poorly efficient to detect epistasis. To assess the importance of epistasis in the genetic control of fruit\\u000a quality

Mathilde Causse; Jamila Chaïb; Laurent Lecomte; Michel Buret

2007-01-01

38

More wood of better quality through intensive silviculture with rapid-growth improved Brazilian eucalyptus  

SciTech Connect

The early forests planted using Brazilian Eucalyptus seeds produced great variability in the volume of wood. In the specific case of E. saligna, the species was unable to adapt itself to the local ecological system. It was obvious that a new silviculture technique should be developed and also that new species and provenances, capable of adapting to the region, should be identified. The objective was to improve wood volume yields as well as to produce better pulp quality. The research and development work has been more successful than anticipated, mainly because a new technique of rooting cuttings which allows propagation of vigorous parent trees, including hybrids, was developed. The production of improved seeds has also been developed. A good genetic base has been established to guarantee continuous improvement for production of seedlings to be used in routine plantings. The first results have already shown good gains in volume, wood density, cellulose content, and resistance to disease.

Campinhos, E. Jr.

1980-11-01

39

More wood of better quality: intensive silviculture with rapid-growth improved Eucalyptus spp. for pulpwood  

SciTech Connect

The early forests planted using Brazilian Eucalyptus seeds produced great variability in the volume of wood. In the specific case of E. saligna, there was an inability of the species to adapt itself to the local ecological system. It was obvious that new silvicultural techniques should be developed and also new species and provenances, capable of adapting to the region, should be identified. The objective was to improve wood volume yields as well as to produce a better pulp quality. The research and development work has been more successful than anticipated mainly because of the new technique of rooting cuttings developed by Aracruz, which allows propagation of vigorous parent trees, including hybrids. The production of improved seeds has also been developed. A good genetic base has been established to guarantee continuous improvement for production of seedlings to be used in routine plantations. The first results have already enabled good gains in volume, wood density, cellulose content and resistance to disease.

Campinhos, E. Jr.

1980-01-01

40

Pericarp polypeptides and SRAP markers associated with fruit quality traits in an interspecific tomato backcross.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to detect polypeptides and genomic regions associated with fruit quality traits in a backcross generation using as parent the Argentinean cultivated tomato Caimanta of Solanum lycopersicum and the wild accession LA722 of S. pimpinellifolium. We tested two types of molecular marker: polypeptide profile (at two ripening stages, mature green and red ripe) and SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism). A polypeptide of 45 kDa present in the wild parents at the mature green stage was associated with larger fruit and long shelf life. Some amplification fragments from SRAP markers were associated with more than one quality trait such as fruit color, firmness, titratable acidity, and fruit soluble solids content. This study demonstrated for the first time the usefulness of the polypeptide profiles of pericarp and SRAP markers in finding associations with quality fruit traits in a tomato backcross generation. PMID:24615080

Pereira da Costa, J H; Rodríguez, G R; Pratta, G R; Picardi, L A; Zorzoli, R

2014-01-01

41

Soil quality in a cropland soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strategy of the European Union "Europe 2020" states that by 2020, 20% of final energy consumption must come from renewables. In this scenario, there is an increasing use of biomass utilization for energy production. Indeed, it is expected that the production of wood-ash will increase in coming years. Wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, can be applied to soil to improve the soil quality and crop production. Since the residue contains significant content of charcoal, the application of mixed wood ash may also improve the SOM content and soil quality in the long term, in soils degraded as a consequence of intensive management. The objective of this study was asses the changes in SOM quality and soil properties in a degraded soils treated with wood ash containing charcoal. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %) and fine texture. The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1, 16 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (16 Mg) and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (32 Mg). The application was carried out once. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark and branches. The wood ash is highly alkaline (pH= 10), contains 10 % of highly condensed black carbon (atomic H/C ratio < 0.5 and T50 en DSC= 500 ºC). The evolution of SOM properties were monitored over three years by solid state 13C CPMAS NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). These techniques were applied in bulk samples and aggregates of different sizes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Several physical properties, such soil aggregate distribution, hydraulic conductivity and available water contente were also determined. Three years after applications the SOM content increased lightly in the treatment receiving more than 16 Mg ha-1 of wood ash. SOM in the treated soils displayed a higher degree of aromaticity than in the untreated soils, indicating a gain in more stable SOM compounds probably as a consequence of the charcoal application. However, both methods also revealed increases in labile C compounds, probably due to the carbohydrates added through root system. Microbial biomass-C and soil respiration increased significantly. The treatments also led to increases in the functional diversity indices. The amended soils showed greater utilization of substrates and the ability of soil bacteria to utilize different C resources was also greatly altered. The application of mixed wood ash did not lead to any difference in MWD, which was around 6 mm in all cases. The application of 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1 increased significantly the hydraulic conductivity (4.07 cmh-1) when compared with in control plots (1.3 cmh-1) and mixed ash plots (1.52 and 2.45 cmh-1, 16 Mg and 32 Mg respectively). However, air-filled porosity was not higher in 16 Mg fly ash plots. AWC was not improved by wood ash application.

Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

2014-05-01

42

Combining ability of tropical maize lines for seed quality and agronomic traits.  

PubMed

Studies of genetic effects of early selection of maize based on seed quality traits are rare, especially those that use materials from different heterotic groups. These studies are also useful in tropical environments and for the advancement of sustainable agriculture with cropping during seasons not commonly used for cultivation. We estimated, through diallel crosses, the predominant genetic effects on the expression of agronomic traits and seed quality and on the general combining ability of nine maize lines from commercial hybrids and the specific combining ability of hybrid combinations among them. In the evaluation of seed quality, seven tests were used: first count and final count of seed germination, seedling vigor classification, cold tolerance, seedling emergence rate in a sand seedbed, speed of emergence in a sand seedbed, and speed of emergence index. Plant height, first ear height and grain yield were the estimated agronomic traits. In the diallel analysis, method 3 (model I) proposed by Griffing was used. There was a greater significance of non-additive genetic effects in the genetic control of seed quality of the various lines. The Flash, Dekalb 350 and P 30F80 lines combined high seed quality and high grain yield. For growth during the normal planting season, the combinations CD 3121-1 x P 30F80, Speed x CD 3121-2, Dow 8330 x AG 8080 and Dekalb 350 x CD 3121-2 were the most promising for both seed quality and agronomic traits. PMID:21968766

Moterle, L M; Braccini, A L; Scapim, C A; Pinto, R J B; Gonçalves, L S A; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Silva, T R C

2011-01-01

43

Impact of operating wood-burning fireplace ovens on indoor air quality.  

PubMed

The use of combustion heat sources like wood-burning fireplaces has regained popularity in the past years due to increasing energy costs. While the outdoor emissions from wood ovens are strictly regulated in Germany, the indoor release of combustion products is rarely considered. Seven wood burning fireplaces were tested in private homes between November 2012 and March 2013. The indoor air quality was monitored before, during and after operation. The following parameters were measured: ultra-fine particles (5.6-560 nm), fine particles (0.3-20 ?m), PM2.5, NOx, CO, CO2, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Most ovens were significant sources of particulate matter. In some cases, an increase of benzene and BaP concentrations was observed in the indoor air. The results illustrate that wood-burning fireplaces are potential sources of indoor air contaminants, especially ultra-fine particles. Under the aspect of lowering indoor air exchange rates and increasing the use of fuels with a net zero-carbon footprint, indoor combustion sources are an important topic for the future. With regards to consumer safety, product development and inspection should consider indoor air quality in addition to the present fire protection requirements. PMID:24364889

Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Wientzek, Sebastian; Wensing, Michael

2014-05-01

44

Relations between water balance, wood traits and phenological behavior of tree species from a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica--a multifactorial study.  

PubMed

Drought tolerance is a key factor for the establishment and survival of tree species in tropical ecosystems. Specific mechanisms of drought resistance can be grouped into four functional ecotypes based on differences in leaf fall behavior: deciduous, brevi-deciduous, stem succulent and evergreen. To identify the key factors influencing phenology and cambial activity and thus drought tolerance, we tested the stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and stable carbon isotopes in the leaves and wood of 12 species from a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. With wood anatomical techniques, we further studied seasonal cambial activity and a suite of wood traits related to water transport for each of the functional ecotypes. Using a principal component analysis, we identified two groups of variables that can be related to (i) hydraulic conductivity and (ii) control of transpiration and water loss. Hydraulic conductivity is controlled by vessel size as the limiting variable, water potential as the driving force and wood density as the stabilizing factor of the anatomical structure of an effective water transport system. Stomatal control plays a major role in terms of water loss or saving and is the dominant factor for differences in phenological behavior. Stem succulent species in particular developed a rarely identified but highly effective strategy against drought stress, which makes it a successful pioneer species in tropical dry forests. PMID:23629581

Worbes, Martin; Blanchart, Sofie; Fichtler, Esther

2013-05-01

45

Association studies of dormancy and cooking quality traits in direct-seeded indica rice.  

PubMed

Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Assam rice (indica) using 98 SSR markers for dormancy-related traits and cooking quality. Analysis of population structure revealed 10 subgroups in the population. The mean r(2) and D' value for all intrachromosomal loci pairs was 0.24 and 0.51, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium between linked markers decreased with distance. Marker-trait associations were investigated using the unified mixed-model approach, considering both population structure (Q) and kinship (K). Genome-wide scanning, detected a total of seven significant marker-trait associations (P < 0.01), with the R(2) values ranging from 12.0 to 18.0%. The significant marker associations were for grain dormancy (RM27 on chromosome 2), ?-amylase activity (RM27 and RM234 on chromosomes 2 and 7, respectively), germination (RM27 and RM106 on chromosome 2), amylose (RM282 on chromosome 3) and grain length elongation ratio (RM142 on chromosome 4). The present study revealed the association of marker RM27 with traits like dormancy, ?-amylase activity and germination. Simple correlation analysis of these traits revealed that these traits were positively correlated with each other and this marker may be useful for simultaneous improvement of these traits. The study indicates the presence of novel QTLs for a few traits under consideration. The study reveals association of traits like dormancy, ?-amylase activity, germination, amylose content, grain length elongation ratio with SSR markers indicating the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization. PMID:24840818

Rathi, Sunayana; Pathak, K; Yadav, R N S; Kumar, B; Sarma, R N

2014-04-01

46

Genetic and phenotypic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits in commercial crossbred pigs.  

PubMed

Pork quality and carcass characteristics are now being integrated into swine breeding objectives because of their economic value. Understanding the genetic basis for these traits is necessary for this to be accomplished. The objective of this study was to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits in 2 Canadian swine populations. Data from a genomic selection study aimed at improving meat quality with a mating system involving hybrid Landrace × Large White and Duroc pigs were used to estimate heritabilities and phenotypic and genetic correlations among them. Data on 2,100 commercial crossbred pigs for meat quality and carcass traits were recorded with pedigrees compromising 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Significant fixed effects (company, sex, and slaughter batch), covariates (cold carcass weight and slaughter age), and random additive and common litter effects were fitted in the models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASReml to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters. Heritability estimates (±SE) for carcass traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.22 ± 0.08 for longissimus dorsi muscle area to 0.63 ± 0.04 for trimmed ham weight, except for firmness, which was low. Heritability estimates (±SE) for meat quality traits varied from 0.10 ± 0.04 to 0.39 ± 0.06 for the Minolta b* of ham quadriceps femoris muscle and shear force, respectively. Generally, most of the genetic correlations were significant (P < 0.05) and ranged from low (0.18 ± 0.07) to high (-0.97 ± 0.35). There were high negative genetic correlations between drip loss with pH and shear force and a positive correlation with cooking loss. Genetic correlations between carcass weight (both hot and cold) with carcass marbling were highly positive. It was concluded that selection for increasing primal and subprimal cut weights with better pork quality may be possible. Furthermore, the use of pH is confirmed as an indicator for pork water-holding capacity and cooking loss. The heritabilities of carcass and pork quality traits indicated that they can be improved using traditional breeding methods and genomic selection, respectively. The estimated genetic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits can be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations. PMID:24778330

Miar, Y; Plastow, G S; Moore, S S; Manafiazar, G; Charagu, P; Kemp, R A; Van Haandel, B; Huisman, A E; Zhang, C Y; McKay, R M; Bruce, H L; Wang, Z

2014-07-01

47

Genome-wide Association Study of Integrated Meat Quality-related Traits of the Duroc Pig Breed  

PubMed Central

The increasing importance of meat quality has implications for animal breeding programs. Research has revealed much about the genetic background of pigs, and many studies have revealed the importance of various genetic factors. Since meat quality is a complex trait which is affected by many factors, consideration of the overall phenotype is very useful to study meat quality. For integrating the phenotypes, we used principle component analysis (PCA). The significant SNPs refer to results of the GRAMMAR method against PC1, PC2 and PC3 of 14 meat quality traits of 181 Duroc pigs. The Genome-wide association study (GWAS) found 26 potential SNPs affecting various meat quality traits. The loci identified are located in or near 23 genes. The SNPs associated with meat quality are in or near five genes (ANK1, BMP6, SHH, PIP4K2A, and FOXN2) and have been reported previously. Twenty-five of the significant SNPs also located in meat quality-related QTL regions, these result supported the QTL effect indirectly. Each single gene typically affects multiple traits. Therefore, it is a useful approach to use integrated traits for the various traits at the same time. This innovative approach using integrated traits could be applied on other GWAS of complex-traits including meat-quality, and the results will contribute to improving meat-quality of pork.

Lee, Taeheon; Shin, Dong-Hyun; Cho, Seoae; Kang, Hyun Sung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Heebal; Seo, Kang-Seok

2014-01-01

48

Economic impact of proposed boron water quality standard for Wood River, R76-18  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report proposes a petition which would exempt a 0.9 mile section of Wood River above its confluence with the Mississippi and a few hundred feet of an unnamed tributary from the current 1.0 mg\\/l boron water quality standard. This would establish a 25 mg\\/l standard for that designated reach of stream. The Illinois Power Company, whose ash pond discharge

C. B. Muchmore; W. S. OBrien

1977-01-01

49

The Evolution Of Indicator Traits For Parental Quality: The Role Of Maternal And Paternal Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In systems where individuals provide material resources to their mates or offspring, mate choice based on traits that are phenotypically correlated with the quality of resources pro- vided is expected to be adaptive. Several models have explored the evolution of mating prefer- ence where there are direct benefits to choice, but few have addressed how a phenotypic correla- tion can

1997-01-01

50

Two Personalities, One Relationship: Both Partners' Personality Traits Shape the Quality of Their Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research tested 6 models of the independent and interactive effects of stable personality traits on each partner's reports of relationship satisfaction and quality. Both members of 360 couples (N = 720) completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire and were interviewed about their relationship. Findings show that a woman's relationship happiness is predicted by her partner's low Negative Emotionality, high Positive

Richard W. Robins; Avshalom Caspi; Terrie E. Moffitt

2000-01-01

51

Neighborhood quality, environmental hazards, personality traits, and resident actions.  

PubMed

A survey of 798 New Jersey residents examined relationships among residents' neighborhood activities, perceptions of neighborhood quality, trust of experts, support for rebuilding cities and equal rights, and degree of optimism. Neighborhood activities increased with lack of trust and optimism. These personality characteristic measures were folded into multidimensional constructs that included local environmental hazards, respondents' ratings of their previous neighborhoods, and some demographic variables. Pessimism and values that support equal rights and rebuilding cities were weakly associated with poor quality neighborhood ratings. PMID:9202487

Greenberg, M; Schneider, D

1997-04-01

52

One trait, many signals: different information on male quality is enclosed within the same trait in a blenny fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colourful ornaments are traditionally evaluated as one trait. However, they could consist of several components, such as total size, colour intensity and extension, each possibly bearing its own message about one aspect of quality. Males of the blenny Salaria pavo exhibit a colourful head crest and solely care for eggs. During the breeding season, the head crest shows a yellow colouration, the intensity and relative extension of which are independent of crest size. Here, we show that: (1) carotenoids are responsible for the head crest yellow patch; (2) activating the immune system by injecting the bacterial antigen lipopolysaccharides affects both the intensity and extent of the yellow colouration; and (3) females assess males on the basis of colour patch expression. However, the response of the yellow patch to the immune challenge was dependent on head crest size. Indeed, males with a larger head crest reacted better to the simulated infection, sustaining a level of yellow patch close to pre-challenge size.

Locatello, Lisa; Pizzolon, Matteo; Rasotto, Maria Berica

2012-10-01

53

Genetic analysis of nutritional quality traits in sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sorghum is the major source of protein for millions of people in the developing countries, its low nutritional quality make it less competitive as a food and feed crop. To increase the efficiency of screening and selection of sorghum for increased levels of protein digestibility, quick and reliable assays that can be used to phenotype large populations are required.

Lexingtons Muthama Nduulu

2001-01-01

54

Effects of metabolic modifiers on carcass traits and meat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has been conducted and published about metabolic modifiers that increase growth rate, improve feed efficiency, increase carcass leanness, and decrease carcass fatness. Most of these metabolic modifiers have been developed to improve efficiency and profitability of livestock production and to improve carcass composition, with fewer of them developed and researched specifically to improve meat quality. Some of the

M. E. Dikeman

2007-01-01

55

Japanese quail meat quality: characteristics, heritabilities, and genetic correlations with some slaughter traits.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic parameters of several breast meat quality traits and their genetic relationships with some slaughter traits [BW, breast yield (BRY), and abdominal fat yield (AFY)]. In total, 1,093 pedigreed quail were slaughtered at 35 d of age to measure BRY, AFY, and breast meat quality traits [ultimate pH (pHU), Commission Internationale d'Eclairage color parameters (L*, lightness; a*, redness; and b*, yellowness), thawing and cooking loss (TL and CL, respectively), and Warner-Bratzler shear value (WB)]. The average pHU, L*, a*, and b* were determined to be 5.94, 43.09, 19.24, and 7.74, respectively. In addition, a very high WB average (7.75 kg) indicated the firmness of breast meat. High heritabilities were estimated for BW, BRY, and AFY (0.51, 0.49, and 0.35). Genetic correlations of BW between BRY and AFY were found to be high (0.32 and 0.58). On the other hand, the moderate negative relationship between BRY and AFY (-0.24) implies that selection for breast yield should not increase abdominal fat. The pHU was found to be the most heritable trait (0.64), whereas the other meat quality traits showed heritabilities in the range of 0.39 to 0.48. Contrary to chickens, the genetic correlation between pHU and L* was low. The pHU exhibited a negative and high correlation with BW and AFY, whereas L* showed a positive but smaller relationship with these traits. Moreover, pHU exhibited high negative correlations (-0.43 and -0.62) with TL and WB, whereas L* showed a moderate relationship (0.24) with CL. This genetic study confirmed that the multi-trait selection could be used to improve meat quality traits. Further, the ultimate pH of breast meat is a relevant selection criterion due to its strong relationships with either water-holding capacity and texture or low abdominal fatness. PMID:23776259

Narinc, Dogan; Aksoy, Tulin; Karaman, Emre; Aygun, Ali; Firat, Mehmet Ziya; Uslu, Mustafa Kemal

2013-07-01

56

Quality and production trait genetics of farmed European whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus.  

PubMed

We present here phenotypic and genetic parameters for the major quality and production traits of farmed European whitefish. A total of 70 families were produced by mating each of 45 sires to an average of 1.6 dams and each of the 52 dams to an average of 1.3 sires. A total of 2,100 individuals were recorded for survival, and 507 individuals for growth and quality-related traits. The 4 major results were as follows: first, all traits exhibited nonzero heritabilities except for fillet gaping and fillet protein%. The heritabilities for the production traits were harvest weight (0.42 ± 0.10), gutted weight (0.40 ± 0.10), fillet weight (0.36 ± 0.09), maturity score (0.27 ± 0.11, on liability scale), survival (0.19 ± 0.05, on liability scale), carcass% (0.14 ± 0.07), and fillet% (0.11 ± 0.06). The heritabilities for the quality traits were condition factor (0.49 ± 0.10), fillet lipid% (0.37 ± 0.10), muscle texture (0.30 ± 0.09), Distell lipid reading (0.26 ± 0.09), fillet lightness (0.16 ± 0.07), fillet gaping (0.04 ± 0.06), and fillet protein% (0.04 ± 0.06). Second, the quality traits that were significantly genetically correlated with each other were all related to lipid deposition. Increasing fillet lipid% (an undesired change in whitefish) was genetically related to desired lighter fillet color [genetic correlation (r(G)) = 0.70 ± 0.22] and to undesired greater condition factor (0.39 ± 0.17). None of the other genetic correlations between condition factor, fillet lipid%, muscle texture, fillet lightness, fillet gaping, and fillet protein% were significant. Third, BW and gutted weight were genetically related to the quality traits that were genetically related to lipid deposition. Increasing harvest weight was genetically related to high fillet lipid% (r(G) = 0.59 ± 0.14), lighter fillet color (0.61 ± 0.25), and to greater condition factor (0.60 ± 0.12). All other genetic correlations of harvest weights with the quality traits were nonsignificant, indicating that rapid growth was not genetically related to gaping and softer flesh. Fourth, none of the genetic correlations of carcass%, fillet%, maturity, and survival with the quality traits were significant, implying weak genetic integration between the traits. Yet, marginally significant genetic correlations were found for fillet lipid% with maturity score (r(G) = -0.46 ± 0.24) and survival (0.36 ± 0.19). These results provide the genetic basis for assessing the potential to improve product quality via selective breeding. PMID:21097679

Kause, A; Quinton, C; Airaksinen, S; Ruohonen, K; Koskela, J

2011-04-01

57

Wood density of young-growth western hemlock: relation to ring age, radial growth, stand density, and site quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast-high stem sections were sampled from 56 western hemlock (Tsuga heterophyUa (Raf.) Sarg.) trees growing in 15 plots representing a wide range of tree and site conditions in northwestern Oregon. Growth and wood density traits of individual rings were measured via X-ray densitometry, and relationships of ring density and its com- ponents to age and growth rate were analyzed. Ring

Dean S. DeBell; Ryan Singleton; Barbara L. Gartner; David D. Marshall

2004-01-01

58

QTL mapping of seed-quality traits in sunflower recombinant inbred lines under different water regimes.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present research were to determine the effects of water stress on seed-quality traits and to map QTLs controlling the studied traits under two different water treatments in a population of sunflower recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Two experiments were conducted in greenhouse and field conditions, each with well-watered and water-stressed treatments. The experiments consisted of a split-plot design (water treatment and RIL) with three blocks. Analyses of variance showed significant variation among genotypes, and a water treatment x genotype interaction was also observed for most of the traits. Two to 15 QTLs were found, depending on trait and growth conditions, and the percentage of phenotypic variance explained by the QTLs ranged from 5% to 31%. Several QTLs for oil content overlapped with QTLs for palmitic and stearic acid contents in all four conditions. An overlapping region on linkage group 3 (QTLs 2.OC.3.1 and 4.SA.3.1) was linked to an SSR marker (ORS657). A principal component analysis was performed on four fatty acid traits. Two principal components, P1 and P2, were used for QTL analysis. This method improved the ability to identify chromosomal regions affecting the fatty acids. We also detected the principal-component QTLs that did not overlap with the fatty acid QTLs. The results highlight genomic regions of interest in marker-based breeding programmes for increasing oil content in sunflower. PMID:18650950

Ebrahimi, A; Maury, P; Berger, M; Kiani, S Poormohammad; Nabipour, A; Shariati, F; Grieu, P; Sarrafi, A

2008-08-01

59

Use of network analysis to capture key traits affecting tomato organoleptic quality  

PubMed Central

The long-term objective of tomato breeders is to identify metabolites that contribute to defining the target flavour and to design strategies to enhance it. This paper reports the results of network analysis, based on metabolic phenotypic and sensory data, to highlight important relationships among such traits. This tool allowed a reduction in data set complexity, building a network consisting of 35 nodes and 74 links corresponding to the 74 significant (positive or negative) correlations among the variables studied. A number of links among traits contributing to fruit organoleptic quality and to the perception of sensory attributes were identified. Modular partitioning of the characteristics involved in fruit organoleptic perception captured the essential fruit parameters that regulate interactions among different class traits. The main feature of the network was the presence of three nodes interconnected among themselves (dry matter, pH, and °Brix) and with other traits, and nodes with widely different linkage degrees. Identification of strong associations between some metabolic and sensory traits, such as citric acid with tomato smell, glycine with tomato smell, and granulosity with dry matter, suggests a basis for more targeted investigations in the future.

Carli, Paola; Arima, Serena; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Tardella, Luca; Frusciante, Luigi; Ercolano, Maria R.

2009-01-01

60

Influence of dental carcass maturity on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcasses of sixty-three Nellore bulls slaughtered at a commercial beef plant were randomly selected by dental classification (2, 4, 6 or 8 permanent incisors) in order to evaluate the influence of dental maturity on carcass traits and meat quality. Carcasses with 8 permanent incisors (p.i.) had greatest values (P<0.05) of carcass weight and longissimus area. Carcasses with 4 and 6

M. S. Duarte; P. V. R. Paulino; M. A. Fonseca; L. L. Diniz; J. Cavali; N. V. L. Serão; L. A. M. Gomide; S. F. Reis; R. B. Cox

2011-01-01

61

Heritabilities and Genetic and Phenotypic Correlations of Egg Quality Traits in Brown-Egg Dwarf Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Albumen height, albumen weight (AW), eggshell color (ESC), eggshell index, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, eggshell weight (ESW), egg weight (EW),Haughunits,andyolkweight(YW)weremeasured in 2,272 eggs collected 3 d sequentially from 920 brown- egg dwarf layers caged individually. The restricted maxi- mum likelihood procedure was applied to estimate heri- tabilities and genotypic and phenotypic correlations for these egg quality traits. Heritabilities of albumen

L.-C. Zhang; Z.-H. Ning; G.-Y. Xu; Z.-C. Hou; N. Yang

62

Fattening performance, slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of Karayaka lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to verify the fattening performance, slaughter and carcass characteristics and to investigate the changes in some\\u000a meat quality traits of Karayaka lambs weaned at 3 months of age, 39 lambs (23 males and 16 females) were used as experimental\\u000a animals. The lambs were fed a concentrate mixture and alfalfa hay (120 and 168 g crude protein and 2,700 and 1,951 ME\\/kg,

Ugur Sen; Emre Sirin; Zafer Ulutas; Mehmet Kuran

2011-01-01

63

TILLING for allergen reduction and improvement of quality traits in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Allergic reactions to peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) can cause severe symptoms and in some cases can be fatal, but avoidance is difficult due to the prevalence of peanut-derived\\u000a products in processed foods. One strategy of reducing the allergenicity of peanuts is to alter or eliminate the allergenic\\u000a proteins through mutagenesis. Other seed quality traits could be improved by altering biosynthetic

Joseph E Knoll; M Laura Ramos; Yajuan Zeng; C Corley Holbrook; Marjorie Chow; Sixue Chen; Soheila Maleki; Anjanabha Bhattacharya; Peggy Ozias-Akins

2011-01-01

64

Effects of vitamin E supplementation on performance and meat quality traits of Morkaraman male lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was carried out to determine the effects of vitamin E supplementation on meat quality traits of approximate 8 months of age Morkaraman male lambs. The lambs were divided into two groups—control (CG, n=7) and experimental (VG, n=6)—at the beginning of fattening period. The diet given to the CG and VG consisted of concentrate and grass hay. In addition,

Muhlis Macit; Vecihi Aksakal; Ebru Emsen; M. Irfan Aksu; Mevlut Karaoglu; Nurinisa Esenbuga

2003-01-01

65

Identification of QTL controlling meat quality traits in an F2 cross between two chicken lines selected for either low or high growth rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Meat technological traits (i.e. meat pH, water retention and color) are important considerations for improving further processing of chicken meat. These quality traits were originally characterized in experimental lines selected for high (HG) and low (LG) growth. Presently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits were analyzed in an F2 population issued from the HG × LG cross. A

Javad Nadaf; Hélène Gilbert; Frédérique Pitel; Cécile M Berri; Katia Feve; Catherine Beaumont; Michel J Duclos; Alain Vignal; Tom E Porter; Jean Simon; Samuel E Aggrey; Larry A Cogburn; Elisabeth Le Bihan-Duval

2007-01-01

66

Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations of egg quality traits in brown-egg dwarf layers.  

PubMed

Albumen height, albumen weight (AW), eggshell color (ESC), eggshell index, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, eggshell weight (ESW), egg weight (EW), Haugh units, and yolk weight (YW) were measured in 2,272 eggs collected 3 d sequentially from 920 brown-egg dwarf layers caged individually. The restricted maximum likelihood procedure was applied to estimate heritabilities and genotypic and phenotypic correlations for these egg quality traits. Heritabilities of albumen height, AW, ESC, eggshell index, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, ESW, EW, Haugh units, and YW were 0.51, 0.59, 0.46, 0.40, 0.24, 0.34, 0.64, 0.63, 0.41, and 0.45, respectively. The genetic correlations between EW and AW, YW, and ESW were high ranging from 0.67 to 0.97, whereas those for ESC with external and internal egg quality traits were low ranging from -0.23 to 0.13. Thus although heritabilities for these traits were moderate to high, genetic correlations with ESC were low, suggesting a minor relationship between shell color and physical attributes of the shell as well as internal egg quality in brown-egg dwarf layers. PMID:16156204

Zhang, L C; Ning, Z H; Xu, G Y; Hou, Z C; Yang, N

2005-08-01

67

Litter quality and decomposability of species from a Mediterranean succession depend on leaf traits but not on nitrogen supply  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The rate of plant decomposition depends on both the decomposition environment and the functional traits of the individual species (e.g. leaf and litter quality), but their relative importance in determining interspecific differences in litter decomposition remains unclear. The aims of this study were to: (a) determine if species from different successional stages grown on soils with low and high nitrogen levels produce leaf and litter traits that decompose differently under identical conditions; and (b) assess which trait of living leaves best relates to litter quality and litter decomposability Methods The study was conducted on 17 herbaceous species representative of three stages of a Mediterranean successional sere of Southern France. Plants were grown in monocultures in a common garden under two nitrogen levels. To elucidate how different leaf traits affected litter decomposition a microcosm experiment was conducted to determine decomposability under standard conditions. Tests were also carried out to determine how successional stage and nitrogen supply affected functional traits of living leaves and how these traits then modified litter quality and subsequent litter decomposability. Key Results The results demonstrated that leaf traits and litter decomposability varied according to species and successional stage. It was also demonstrated that while nitrogen addition affected leaf and litter traits, it had no effect on decomposition rates. Finally, leaf dry matter content stood out as the leaf trait best related to litter quality and litter decomposability Conclusions In this study, species litter decomposability was affected by some leaf and litter traits but not by soil nitrogen supply. The results demonstrated the strength of a trait-based approach to predict changes in ecosystem processes as a result of species shifts in ecosystems.

Kazakou, Elena; Violle, Cyrille; Roumet, Catherine; Pintor, Cristina; Gimenez, Olivier; Garnier, Eric

2009-01-01

68

The use of levoglucosan to assess the environmental impact of residential wood-burning on air quality  

SciTech Connect

Levoglucosan, a product of the incomplete combustion of cellulose, is present in relatively high concentrations in the particle matter generated from wood-burning stoves. This fact has been exploited to develop a source apportionment method whereby measurements of levoglucosan in ambient air may be used to estimate the contribution of residential wood-burning activities to the Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. Analysis of the emissions from wood-burning stoves, both in controlled laboratory burns and from stoves as actually operated in the field, indicates that the percentage of levoglucosan on wood smoke particles is relatively insensitive to burn rate and operating conditions. For a representative group of stoves operated in the home under actual operating conditions, they found that typical wood smoke particles contain 4.6 ({plus minus} 1.7) percent w/w levoglucosan. The average PAH contribution to wood smoke particulate composition was also determined for the field operated stoves and results were used for source assessment of ambient PAH. This application to PAH estimates is complicated by the fact that PAH emissions are sensitive to stove operating conditions. Under controlled laboratory dilution tunnel conditions it was demonstrated that the PAH emission factor from wood-burning stoves increased with increasing burn rate. Application of their source assessment method to the winter-time ambient Hanover, NH airshed indicates that up to 60 ({plus minus} 21)% of the ambient TSP and 70 ({plus minus} 25)% of the PAH may be attributed to wood-burning activities. Given the current concern regarding the contribution of wood-burning to air quality, it should be noted that this analytical scheme provides a rapid and convenient method of determining the environmental impact of residential wood combustion.

Locker, H.B.

1988-01-01

69

[Correlation analysis of relationships between polymorphisms of high quality chicken myogenin gene and slaughter and meat quality traits].  

PubMed

PCR-SSCP technique was designed in this study to investigate the effect of MyoG on quality meat chicken (developed by Sichuan Dahen Poultry Breeding Company using local breeds). Four mutations at base position in promoter were detected among individuals in each line, i.e. T/C in locusA and T/A, T/C and A/G in locus B . The least square analysis showed that there were a significant difference between genotypes and breast muscle percentage and some carcass traits (P<0.05for locus A. There were a significant difference (P <0.05) in breast muscle weight between ACAA and AB geno- types; a significant difference (P <0.05) in leg muscle percentage between CC and AC for locus B, and a extremity signifi-cant difference (P <0.01) in the frequency of genotype muscle Fibre Density for Bothlocus A to locus B. There was no sig-nificant difference (P >0.05) in the other triats. It was concluded from the results that MyoG gene is the major gene affect-ing the muscle fiber traits of chicken or it links with the candidate gene, and the mutation could be used as the molecular genetic marker to select the chickens for Meat Quality traits. PMID:17855259

Wang, Qiong; Liu, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Xiao-Song; Yang, Chao-Wu; DU, Hua-Rui; Qiu, Mo-Han; Zhu, Qing

2007-09-01

70

On-line prediction of beef quality traits using near infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test the ability of visible-near infrared (Vis-NIR) reflectance spectroscopy to predict beef quality traits in the slaughterhouse by directly applying a fiber-optic probe on the carcass surface. Carcasses from 230 young bulls and heifers slaughtered in two commercial abattoirs were included in the experiment. Vis-NIR spectra were recorded on an exposed surface of M. gracilis in the abattoirs 4 to 6 and 14 to 16 h post mortem. Traits evaluated were pH, color indexes (L*, a*, b*, H, and SI), cooking loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Prediction models were satisfactory for pH and color indexes, and promising for cooking loss but not for Warner-Bratzler shear force. Results of this work show that Vis-NIR spectroscopy may be a useful tool for on-line prediction of some physical beef quality traits when applied directly on the carcass surface. PMID:23618741

De Marchi, Massimo

2013-08-01

71

Detection of QTL controlling metabolism, meat quality, and liver quality traits of the overfed interspecific hybrid mule duck.  

PubMed

The mule duck, an interspecific hybrid obtained by crossing common duck (Anas platyrhynchos) females with Muscovy (Cairina moschata) drakes, is widely used for fatty liver production. The purpose of the present study was to detect and map single and pleiotropic QTL that segregate in the common duck species, and influence the expression of traits in their overfed mule duck offspring. To this end, we generated a common duck backcross (BC) population by crossing Kaiya and heavy Pekin experimental lines, which differ notably in regard to the BW and overfeeding ability of their mule progeny. The BC females were mated to Muscovy drakes and, on average, 4 male mule ducks hatched per BC female (1600 in total) and were measured for growth, metabolism during growth and the overfeeding period, overfeeding ability, and the quality of their breast meat and fatty liver. The phenotypic value of BC females was estimated for each trait by assigning to each female the mean value of the phenotypes of her offspring. Estimations allowed for variance, which depended on the number of male offspring per BC and the heritability of the trait considered. The genetic map used for QTL detection consisted of 91 microsatellite markers aggregated into 16 linkage groups (LG) covering a total of 778 cM. Twenty-two QTL were found to be significant at the 1% chromosome-wide threshold level using the single-trait detection option of the QTLMap software. Most of the QTL detected were related to the quality of breast meat and fatty liver: QTL for meat pH 20 min post mortem were mapped to LG4 (at the 1% genome-wide significance level), and QTL for meat lipid content and cooking losses were mapped to LG2a. The QTL related to fatty liver weight and liver protein and lipid content were for the most part detected on LG2c and LG9. Multitrait analysis highlighted the pleiotropic effects of QTL in these chromosome regions. Apart from the strong QTL for plasma triglyceride content at the end of the overfeeding period mapped to chromosome Z using single-trait analysis, all metabolic trait QTL were detected with the multitrait approach: the QTL mapped to LG14 and LG21 affected the plasma cholesterol and triglyceride contents, whereas the QTL mapped to LG2a seemed to impact glycemia and the basal plasma corticosterone content. A greater density genetic map will be needed to further fine map the QTL. PMID:23148259

Kileh-Wais, M; Elsen, J M; Vignal, A; Feves, K; Vignoles, F; Fernandez, X; Manse, H; Davail, S; André, J M; Bastianelli, D; Bonnal, L; Filangi, O; Baéza, E; Guéméné, D; Genêt, C; Bernadet, M D; Dubos, F; Marie-Etancelin, C

2013-02-01

72

Effect of hybridization on carcass traits and meat quality of erlang mountainous chickens.  

PubMed

Native chickens hold a significant share of the market in China. In response to the huge demand from the market, the productivity of Chinese native chickens needs to be improved. Cross breeding is an effective method to increase productivity, although it might affect meat quality. In this study, two pure lines (SD02 and SD03) of Erlang mountainous chickens were hybridized with a yellow feather and faster growing line (SD01). The effect of hybridization on carcass and meat quality (physiochemical and textural traits) was measured in the F1 population at d 91 of age. The hybrids exhibited higher body weight and dressed weight, and amount of semi-eviscerated, eviscerated, breast muscle and abdominal fat (p<0.05). Abdominal fat yield also increased (p<0.05) compared to the offspring of the two pure-lines. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in meat quality traits except for the myofiber diameter and density and the shear force of the breast muscle. Overall, the offspring of cross-lines were similar to pure lines in meat color, pH value, inosinic acid, crude protein, crude fat, dry matter, moisture content and amino acid composition in the breast muscle. These results suggest that productivity can be improved via cross-breeding while maintaining meat quality of the Erlang mountainous chicken. PMID:25049734

Yin, H D; Gilbert, E R; Chen, S Y; Wang, Y; Zhang, Z C; Zhao, X L; Zhang, Yao; Zhu, Q

2013-10-01

73

Effect of Hybridization on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Erlang Mountainous Chickens  

PubMed Central

Native chickens hold a significant share of the market in China. In response to the huge demand from the market, the productivity of Chinese native chickens needs to be improved. Cross breeding is an effective method to increase productivity, although it might affect meat quality. In this study, two pure lines (SD02 and SD03) of Erlang mountainous chickens were hybridized with a yellow feather and faster growing line (SD01). The effect of hybridization on carcass and meat quality (physiochemical and textural traits) was measured in the F1 population at d 91 of age. The hybrids exhibited higher body weight and dressed weight, and amount of semi-eviscerated, eviscerated, breast muscle and abdominal fat (p<0.05). Abdominal fat yield also increased (p<0.05) compared to the offspring of the two pure-lines. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in meat quality traits except for the myofiber diameter and density and the shear force of the breast muscle. Overall, the offspring of cross-lines were similar to pure lines in meat color, pH value, inosinic acid, crude protein, crude fat, dry matter, moisture content and amino acid composition in the breast muscle. These results suggest that productivity can be improved via cross-breeding while maintaining meat quality of the Erlang mountainous chicken.

Yin, H. D.; Gilbert, E. R.; Chen, S. Y.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Z. C.; Zhao, X. L.; Zhang, Yao; Zhu, Q.

2013-01-01

74

Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with rice eating quality traits using a population of recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between two temperate japonica cultivars.  

PubMed

Improved eating quality is a major breeding target in japonica rice due to market demand. In this study, we performed genetic analysis to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control rice eating quality traits using 192 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two japonica cultivars, 'Suweon365' and 'Chucheongbyeo'. We evaluated the stickiness (ST) and overall evaluation (OE) of cooked rice using a sensory test, the glossiness of cooked rice (GCR) using a Toyo-taste meter, and measured the amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), alkali digestion value (ADV), and days to heading (DH) of the RILs in the years 2006 and 2007. Our analysis revealed 21 QTLs on chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 11. QTLs on chromosomes 6, 7, and 8 were detected for three traits related to eating quality in both years. QTLs for ST and OE were identified by a sensory test in the same region of the QTLs for AC, PC, ADV, GCR and DH on chromosome 8. QTL effects on the GCR were verified using QTL-NILs (near-isogenic lines) of BC(3)F(4-6) in the Suweon365 background, a low eating quality variety, and some BC(1)F(3) lines. Chucheongbyeo alleles at QTLs on chromosomes 7 and 8 increased the GCR in the NILs and backcrossed lines. The QTLs identified by our analysis will be applicable to future marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategies for improving the eating quality of japonica rice. PMID:21360198

Kwon, Soon-Wook; Cho, Young-Chan; Lee, Jeong-Heui; Suh, Jung-Pil; Kim, Jeong-Ju; Kim, Myeong-Ki; Choi, Im-Soo; Hwang, Hung-Goo; Koh, Hee-Jong; Kim, Yeon-Gyu

2011-05-01

75

Evidence for three highly significant QTL for meat quality traits in the Finnish Yorkshire pig breed.  

PubMed

Meat quality is important both to consumers and to the meat processing industry. Commonly used measures of porcine meat quality are the pH and color of the meat. The purpose of this study was to identify SNP associated with these meat quality traits in Finnish Yorkshire using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. The association of each SNP with the quality traits was tested with a weighted linear model. The relatedness of samples was accounted for by a random polygenic genetic effect with the accompanying full relationship matrix. The original EBV from single-trait evaluations were deregressed before analysis. The statistical significance of SNP was established using the Bonferroni correction to adjust for multiple testing. Three genomic regions were significant for the meat quality traits. The PRKAG3 region on chromosome 15 was significant for pH measured from loin and ham and for a* (redness) measured from loin. The smallest P-value in the region was obtained for pH measured from loin (ASGA0070634, P-value = 3.8 × 10(-13)). The allele substitution effect (-0.047) of the unfavorable allele A corresponds to 1 SD of the polygenic effect. The second significant region, on chromosome 2 at around 31 megabases (Mb), was associated with pH and L* (lightness) measured from loin. The most significant SNP (ASGA0009814, P-value = 3.89 × 10(-10)) had an allele substitution effect of 0.86, corresponding to 0.7 SD of the polygenic effect of L*. The third region, located on chromosome 6 at around 83 Mb, was significant for a* measured from ham. The P-value of the best SNP (ALGA0035896) was 8.71 × 10(-7) and the allele substitution effect -0.38, corresponding to 0.5 SD of the polygenic effect of a*. The significant association of PRKAG3 with pH was not due to the known AA substitutions. The candidate gene on chromosome 2 associated with color L* is RCN1, which has a high affinity Ca(2+)-binding motif, the EF hand. The significant region on chromosome 6 for color a* contains several genes, so more data are needed to identify the causative gene. Our results indicate that instead of the known AA substitutions of PRKAG3, some yet-unknown AA substitutions are causative for the pH variation in Finnish Yorkshire. Also, a new major QLT for L* was found on chromosome 2. The significant SNP identified in this study can be used in marker-assisted selection. PMID:23408819

Uimari, P; Sironen, A; Sevón-Aimonen, M-L

2013-05-01

76

Epistatic QTL pairs associated with meat quality and carcass composition traits in a porcine Duroc x Pietrain population  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses in pig have revealed numerous individual QTL affecting growth, carcass composition, reproduction and meat quality, indicating a complex genetic architecture. In general, statistical QTL models consider only additive and dominance effects and identification of epistatic effects in livestock is not yet widespread. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize epistatic effects between common and novel QTL regions for carcass composition and meat quality traits in pig. Methods Five hundred and eighty five F2 pigs from a Duroc × Pietrain resource population were genotyped using 131 genetic markers (microsatellites and SNP) spread over the 18 pig autosomes. Phenotypic information for 26 carcass composition and meat quality traits was available for all F2 animals. Linkage analysis was performed in a two-step procedure using a maximum likelihood approach implemented in the QxPak program. Results A number of interacting QTL was observed for different traits, leading to the identification of a variety of networks among chromosomal regions throughout the porcine genome. We distinguished 17 epistatic QTL pairs for carcass composition and 39 for meat quality traits. These interacting QTL pairs explained up to 8% of the phenotypic variance. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate the significance of epistasis in pigs. We have revealed evidence for epistatic relationships between different chromosomal regions, confirmed known QTL loci and connected regions reported in other studies. Considering interactions between loci allowed us to identify several novel QTL and trait-specific relationships of loci within and across chromosomes.

2010-01-01

77

Personality traits, education, and health-related quality of life among older adult primary care patients.  

PubMed

Both lower education and the personality trait of neuroticism have been associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among older adults, but little is known about the role of other personality traits in HRQOL. We examined the associations of all Five-Factor Model personality traits and education, above and beyond physician-rated medical burden, with different aspects of HRQOL in a sample of 442 primary care patients 65 years of age or older who completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. We used the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and the physical self-maintenance scale to assess different aspects of HRQOL. Even after statistically adjusting for age, gender, the presence of major depressive disorder, and physician-rated medical morbidity, we found that a higher neuroticism level was associated with lower functioning on the IADLs and the physical self-maintenance scale and worse HRQOL on the Social Functioning and Role Emotional subscales of the SF-36. Higher conscientiousness level was associated with better HRQOL on the SF-36 Role Physical scale and better IADL function. Higher education level was associated with better HRQOL on all measures except emotional role impairment. In exploratory moderation analyses, a higher openness level diminished the effect of medical burden on IADL impairment. Preliminary population-attributable risk comparisons suggest that--on a strictly population basis--the impairment conferred by a neuroticism level that is 1 SD above the mean may be equivalent to or greater than that of major depressive disorder. Future research aimed at understanding how personality traits are linked with HRQOL and functioning in later life may enhance the identification of at-risk older adults and inform the development of interventions. PMID:18079419

Chapman, Benjamin; Duberstein, Paul; Lyness, Jeffrey M

2007-11-01

78

Physically Challenging Song Traits, Male Quality, and Reproductive Success in House Wrens  

PubMed Central

Physically challenging signals are likely to honestly indicate signaler quality. In trilled bird song two physically challenging parameters are vocal deviation (the speed of sound frequency modulation) and trill consistency (how precisely syllables are repeated). As predicted, in several species, they correlate with male quality, are preferred by females, and/or function in male-male signaling. Species may experience different selective pressures on their songs, however; for instance, there may be opposing selection between song complexity and song performance difficulty, such that in species where song complexity is strongly selected, there may not be strong selection on performance-based traits. I tested whether vocal deviation and trill consistency are signals of male quality in house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), a species with complex song structure. Males’ singing ability did not correlate with male quality, except that older males sang with higher trill consistency, and males with more consistent trills responded more aggressively to playback (although a previous study found no effect of stimulus trill consistency on males’ responses to playback). Males singing more challenging songs did not gain in polygyny, extra-pair paternity, or annual reproductive success. Moreover, none of the standard male quality measures I investigated correlated with mating or reproductive success. I conclude that vocal deviation and trill consistency do not signal male quality in this species.

Cramer, Emily R. A.

2013-01-01

79

Microsatellite mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting meat quality, stress hormones and production traits in Duroc × Large White F2 pigs.  

PubMed

An F2 cross between Duroc and Large White pigs was carried out in order to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 11 meat quality traits (L*, a* and b* Minolta coordinates and water-holding capacity (WHC) of two ham muscles, ultimate pH of two ham and one loin muscles), 13 production traits (birth weight, average daily gain during post-weaning and fattening periods, carcass fat depths at three locations, estimated lean meat content, carcass length and weights of five carcass cuts) and three stress hormone-level traits (cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline). Animals from the three generations of the experimental design (including 456 F2 pigs) were genotyped for 91 microsatellite markers covering all the autosomes. A total of 56 QTL were detected: 49 reached the chromosome-wide level (suggestive QTL with a maximal probability of 0.05) and seven were significant at the genome-wide level (with a probability varying from 6 × 10(-4) to 3 × 10(-3)). Twenty suggestive QTL were identified for ultimate pH, colour measurements and WHC on chromosome (SSC) 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15 and 17. For production traits, 33 QTL were detected on all autosomes except SSC6, 8 and 9. Seven of these QTL, located on SSC2, 3, 10, 13, 16 and 17, exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold. Finally, three QTL were identified for levels of stress hormones: a QTL for cortisol level on SSC7 in the cortisol-binding globulin gene region, a QTL for adrenaline level on SSC10 and a QTL for noradrenaline level on SSC13. Among all the detected QTL, seven are described for the first time: a QTL for ultimate pH measurement on SSC5, two QTL affecting birth weight on SSC2 and 10, two QTL for growth rate on SSC15 (during fattening) and 17 (during post-weaning) and two QTL affecting the adrenaline and noradrenaline levels. For each QTL, only one to five of the six F1 sires were found to be heterozygous. It means that all QTL are segregating in at least one of the founder populations used in this study. These results suggest that both meat quality and production traits can be improved in purebred Duroc and Large White pigs through marker-assisted selection. It is of particular interest for meat quality traits, which are difficult to include in classical selection programmes. PMID:22440760

Sanchez, M P; Iannuccelli, N; Basso, B; Foury, A; Billon, Y; Gandemer, G; Gilbert, H; Mormède, P; Bidanel, J P; Larzul, C; Riquet, J; Milan, D; Le Roy, P

2011-02-01

80

Trait Mindfulness and Work-Family Balance among Working Parents: The Mediating Effects of Vitality and Sleep Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the relationship between trait mindfulness and work-family balance among a sample of working parents. Sleep quality and vitality are tested as mediators of this relationship. Results indicate that those with greater mindfulness report greater work-family balance, better sleep quality, and greater vitality. As…

Allen, Tammy D.; Kiburz, Kaitlin M.

2012-01-01

81

QTL analysis of fruit quality traits in two peach intraspecific populations and importance of maturity date pleiotropic effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two intraspecific peach breeding populations have been used to conduct a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of fruit\\u000a quality traits: an F1 from the cross Bolero (B) x OroA (O) and an F2 from the cross Contender (C) x Ambra (A). A total of 344 Prunus simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were analyzed in B, O, C, A parents and CxA

Iban Eduardo; Igor Pacheco; Giorgiana Chietera; Daniele Bassi; Carlo Pozzi; Alberto Vecchietti; Laura Rossini

2011-01-01

82

The effects of soybean selenium proteinate on tissue selenium and meat quality traits in finishing pigs.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of soybean selenium proteinate on Se tissue retention and meat quality in pigs. In group A (n = 11) the mixtures were supplemented with soybean selenium proteinate, in group B (n = 11) with sodium selenite and in group C (n = 11) with Se-enriched yeast (0.3 mg Se per kg in all groups). The use of soybean selenium proteinate resulted in lower retention of Se in tissues (liver, heart, muscle) compared to Se-enriched yeast. Selenium concentrations in tissues achieved by soybean selenium proteinate and sodium selenite were comparable. No differences in serum Se, serum GSH-Px and meat quality traits were found among the groups. PMID:21528727

Svoboda, M; Fajt, Z; Banoch, T; Saláková, A; Drábek, J

2011-01-01

83

Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock.  

PubMed

Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

2013-10-01

84

Mapping of QTLs for morpho-agronomic and seed quality traits in a RIL population of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling phenological traits (days to\\u000a flowering, days to end of flowering, days to harvest as green pod, and days to maturity), seed size traits (seed length, seed\\u000a height, seed width, and seed weight), and seed quality traits (water absorption, and coat proportion), in common bean. A population

Elena Pérez-Vega; Astrid Pañeda; Cristina Rodríguez-Suárez; Ana Campa; Ramón Giraldez; Juan José Ferreira

2010-01-01

85

Dietary mercury has no observable effects on thyroid-mediated processes and fitness-related traits in wood frogs.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxicant known to cause developmental and behavioral abnormalities in vertebrates. Increasing evidence suggests that Hg can also disrupt endocrine functions and endocrine-dependent processes. For example, dietary Hg has been shown to delay tail resorption during metamorphic climax in amphibians, a process mediated by thyroid hormones. However, a direct link between Hg, hormone disruption, and developmental delays in amphibians has not been explored. Therefore, we examined the effects of dietary Hg (0.01, 2.5, and 10 ?g/g total Hg, dry wt) on thyroid hormone concentrations, development, growth, performance, and survival of wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). Tadpoles accumulated Hg in a concentration-dependent manner; total Hg concentrations in tadpoles at the beginning of metamorphic climax (Gosner stage 42) were 0.03, 1.06, 3.54 ?g/g, dry wt, for control, low, and high Hg diets, respectively. During metamorphic climax, tadpoles eliminated 35% of the inorganic Hg from their tissues but retained most of their accumulated methylmercury. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effect of Hg on the duration of tadpole development, size at metamorphosis, tail resorption time, or hopping performance. Consistent with the lack of effects on development, we also detected no differences in whole-body thyroid hormone concentrations among our dietary treatments. Our results, when compared with the effects of Hg on other amphibians, suggest that amphibian species may differ substantially in their sensitivity to dietary Hg, emphasizing the need for data on multiple species when establishing toxicity benchmarks. PMID:21851131

Wada, Haruka; Bergeron, Christine M; McNabb, F M Anne; Todd, Brian D; Hopkins, William A

2011-09-15

86

RNA-Seq Using Two Populations Reveals Genes and Alleles Controlling Wood Traits and Growth in Eucalyptus nitens  

PubMed Central

Eucalyptus nitens is a perennial forest tree species grown mainly for kraft pulp production in many parts of the world. Kraft pulp yield (KPY) is a key determinant of plantation profitability and increasing the KPY of trees grown in plantations is a major breeding objective. To speed up the breeding process, molecular markers that can predict KPY are desirable. To achieve this goal, we carried out RNA-Seq studies on trees at extremes of KPY in two different trials to identify genes and alleles whose expression correlated with KPY. KPY is positively correlated with growth measured as diameter at breast height (DBH) in both trials. In total, six RNA bulks from two treatments were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq platform. At 5% false discovery rate level, 3953 transcripts showed differential expression in the same direction in both trials; 2551 (65%) were down-regulated and 1402 (35%) were up-regulated in low KPY samples. The genes up-regulated in low KPY trees were largely involved in biotic and abiotic stress response reflecting the low growth among low KPY trees. Genes down-regulated in low KPY trees mainly belonged to gene categories involved in wood formation and growth. Differential allelic expression was observed in 2103 SNPs (in 1068 genes) and of these 640 SNPs (30%) occurred in 313 unique genes that were also differentially expressed. These SNPs may represent the cis-acting regulatory variants that influence total gene expression. In addition we also identified 196 genes which had Ka/Ks ratios greater than 1.5, suggesting that these genes are under positive selection. Candidate genes and alleles identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for future association studies aimed at identifying molecular markers for KPY and growth.

Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; Southerton, Simon; Thumma, Bala

2014-01-01

87

RNA-Seq Using Two Populations Reveals Genes and Alleles Controlling Wood Traits and Growth in Eucalyptus nitens.  

PubMed

Eucalyptus nitens is a perennial forest tree species grown mainly for kraft pulp production in many parts of the world. Kraft pulp yield (KPY) is a key determinant of plantation profitability and increasing the KPY of trees grown in plantations is a major breeding objective. To speed up the breeding process, molecular markers that can predict KPY are desirable. To achieve this goal, we carried out RNA-Seq studies on trees at extremes of KPY in two different trials to identify genes and alleles whose expression correlated with KPY. KPY is positively correlated with growth measured as diameter at breast height (DBH) in both trials. In total, six RNA bulks from two treatments were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq platform. At 5% false discovery rate level, 3953 transcripts showed differential expression in the same direction in both trials; 2551 (65%) were down-regulated and 1402 (35%) were up-regulated in low KPY samples. The genes up-regulated in low KPY trees were largely involved in biotic and abiotic stress response reflecting the low growth among low KPY trees. Genes down-regulated in low KPY trees mainly belonged to gene categories involved in wood formation and growth. Differential allelic expression was observed in 2103 SNPs (in 1068 genes) and of these 640 SNPs (30%) occurred in 313 unique genes that were also differentially expressed. These SNPs may represent the cis-acting regulatory variants that influence total gene expression. In addition we also identified 196 genes which had Ka/Ks ratios greater than 1.5, suggesting that these genes are under positive selection. Candidate genes and alleles identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for future association studies aimed at identifying molecular markers for KPY and growth. PMID:24967893

Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; Southerton, Simon; Thumma, Bala

2014-01-01

88

Exercise addiction: a study of eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachment styles.  

PubMed

Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels of excitement-seeking and achievement striving whereas scores on straightforwardness and compliance were lower than in the exercise control group. The addiction group reported more bodily pain and injuries. This study supports the hypothesis that exercise addiction is separate to an eating disorder, but shares some of the concerns of body and performance. It is driven by a striving for high goals and excitement which results in pain and injuries from overuse. PMID:24342179

Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask; Bilenberg, Niels; Støving, René Klinky

2014-02-28

89

Genetic randomization reveals functional relationships among morphologic and tissue-quality traits that contribute to bone strength and fragility  

PubMed Central

We examined femora from adult AXB/BXA recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains to identify skeletal traits that are functionally related and to determine how functional interactions among these traits contribute to genetic variability in whole-bone stiffness, strength, and toughness. Randomization of A/J and C57BL/6J genomic regions resulted in each adult male and female RI strain building mechanically functional femora by assembling unique sets of morphologic and tissue-quality traits. A correlation analysis was conducted using the mean trait values for each RI strain. A third of the 66 correlations examined were significant, indicating that many bone traits covaried or were functionally related. Path analysis revealed important functional interactions among bone slenderness, cortical thickness, and tissue mineral density. The path coefficients describing these functional relations were similar for both sexes. The causal relationship among these three traits suggested that cellular processes during growth simultaneously regulate bone slenderness, cortical thickness, and tissue mineral density so that the combination of traits is sufficiently stiff and strong to satisfy daily loading demands. A disadvantage of these functional interactions was that increases in tissue mineral density also deleteriously affected tissue ductility. Consequently, slender bones with high mineral density may be stiff and strong but they are also brittle. Thus, genetically randomized mouse strains revealed a basic biological paradigm that allows for flexibility in building bones that are functional for daily activities but that creates preferred sets of traits under extreme loading conditions. Genetic or environmental perturbations that alter these functional interactions during growth would be expected to lead to loss of function and suboptimal adult bone quality.

Hu, Bin; Tommasini, Steven M.; Courtland, Hayden-William; Price, Christopher; Terranova, Carl J.; Nadeau, Joseph H.

2007-01-01

90

The identification of 14 new genes for meat quality traits in chicken using a genome-wide association study  

PubMed Central

Background Meat quality is an important economic trait in chickens. To identify loci and genes associated with meat quality traits, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of F2 populations derived from a local Chinese breed (Beijing-You chickens) and a commercial fast-growing broiler line (Cobb-Vantress). Results In the present study, 33 association signals were detected from the compressed mixed linear model (MLM) for 10 meat quality traits: dry matter in breast muscle (DMBr), dry matter in thigh muscle (DMTh), intramuscular fat content in breast muscle (IMFBr), meat color lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values, skin color L*, a* (redness) and b* values, abdominal fat weight (AbFW) and AbFW as a percentage of eviscerated weight (AbFP). Relative expressions of candidate genes identified near significant signals were compared using samples of chickens with High and Low phenotypic values. A total of 14 genes associated with IMFBr, meat color L*, AbFW, and AbFP, were differentially expressed between the High and Low phenotypic groups. These genes are, therefore, prospective candidate genes for meat quality traits: protein tyrosine kinase (TYRO3) and microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST1) for IMFBr; collagen, type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2) for meat color L*; and RET proto-oncogene (RET), natriuretic peptide B (NPPB) and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) for the abdominal fat (AbF) traits. Conclusions Based on the association signals and differential expression of nearby genes, 14 candidate loci and genes for IMFBr, meat L* and b* values, and AbF are identified. The results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying meat quality traits in chickens.

2013-01-01

91

Slaughtering Age Effect on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Italian Heavy Draught Horse Foals  

PubMed Central

The present work describes the effect of slaughtering age on horse carcass traits and on meat quality. Eighteen male Italian heavy draught horse (IHDH) breed foals were employed in the study. Soon after foaling they were randomly subdivided in 3 groups according to 3 age at slaughtering classes: 6 months old, 11 months old and 18 months old. Live weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of each animal were recorded. After slaughtering, meat samples were collected from Longissimus Dorsi muscle between 13th and 18th thoracic vertebra of each animal and then analyzed. The right half carcass of each animal was then divided in cuts. Each one was subdivided into lean, fat and bones. Then, the classification of the lean meat in first and second quality cuts was performed according to the butchers’ customs. Older animals were characterized by a lower incidence of first quality cuts (p<0.01) on carcass. Younger animals showed greater content in protein (p<0.01). Fatty acid profile showed an increasing trend of PUFA connected to the increasing of slaughtering age (p<0.05). The unsaturation index of intramuscular fatty acids was not affected by slaughtering age, confirming that horse meat, if compared to beef, is more suitable from a nutritional point of view. Season influenced reproduction, birth as well as production aspects of this species. The different slaughtering age could represent the way to produce meat of IHDH foals during the entire year without change in the qualitative standard expected by consumers.

De Palo, P.; Maggiolino, A.; Centoducati, P.; Tateo, A.

2013-01-01

92

Assessing the impact of a wood stove replacement program on air quality and children's health.  

PubMed

Many rural mountain valley communities experience elevated ambient levels of fine particulate matter (PM*) in the winter, because of contributions from residential wood-burning appliances and sustained temperature inversion periods during the cold season. A wood stove change-out program was implemented in a community heavily affected by wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of this intervention program on ambient and indoor PM2.5 concentrations and to identify possible corresponding changes in the frequency of childhood respiratory symptoms and infections and illness-related school absences. Over 1100 old wood stoves were replaced with new EPA-certified wood stoves or other heating sources. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations were 30% lower in the winter after the changeout program, compared with baseline winters, which brought the community's ambient air within the PM2.5 standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The installation of a new wood stove resulted in an overall reduction in indoor PM2.5 concentrations in a small sample of wood-burning homes, but the effects were highly variable across homes. Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were associated with decreased reports of childhood wheeze and of other childhood respiratory health conditions. The association was not limited to children living in homes with wood stoves nor does it appear to be limited to susceptible children (e.g., children with asthma). Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were also associated with lower illness-related school absences among older children, but this finding was not consistent across all age-groups. This community-level intervention provided a unique opportunity to prospectively observe exposure and outcome changes resulting from a targeted air pollution reduction strategy. PMID:22852484

Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J; Navidi, William; Sheppard, Lianne; Bergauff, Megan; Palmer, Chris

2011-12-01

93

Cattle temperament: persistence of assessments and associations with productivity, efficiency, carcass and meat quality traits.  

PubMed

Relationships between temperament and a range of performance, carcass, and meat quality traits in young cattle were studied in 2 experiments conducted in New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA), Australia. In both experiments, growth rates of cattle were assessed during backgrounding on pasture and grain finishing in a feedlot. Carcass and objective meat quality characteristics were measured after slaughter. Feed intake and efficiency during grain finishing were also determined in NSW. Brahman (n = 82 steers and 82 heifers) and Angus (n = 25 steers and 24 heifers) cattle were used in the NSW experiment. In NSW, temperament was assessed by measuring flight speed [FS, m/s on exit from the chute (crush)] on 14 occasions, and by assessing agitation score during confinement in the crush (CS; 1 = calm to 5 = highly agitated) on 17 occasions over the course of the experiment. Brahman (n = 173) and Angus (n = 20) steers were used in the WA experiment. In WA, temperament was assessed by measuring FS on 2 occasions during backgrounding and on 2 occasions during grain feeding. At both sites, a hormonal growth promotant (Revalor-H, Virbac, Milperra, New South Wales, Australia) was applied to one-half of the cattle at feedlot entry, and the Brahman cattle were polymorphic for 2 calpain-system markers for beef tenderness. Temperament was not related (most P > 0.05) to tenderness gene marker status in Brahman cattle and was not (all P > 0.26) modified by the growth promotant treatment in either breed. The Brahman cattle had greater individual variation in, and greater correlations within and between, repeated assessments of FS and CS than did the Angus cattle. Correlations for repeated measures of FS were greater than for repeated assessments of CS, and the strength of correlations for both declined over time. Average FS or CS for each experiment and location (NSW or WA × backgrounding or finishing) were more highly correlated than individual measurements, indicating that the average values were a more reliable assessment of cattle temperament than any single measure. In Brahman cattle, increased average FS and CS were associated with significant (P < 0.05) reductions in backgrounding and feedlot growth rates, feed intake and time spent eating, carcass weight, and objective measures of meat quality. In Angus cattle, the associations between temperament and growth rates, feed intake, and carcass traits were weaker than in Brahmans, although the strength of relationships with meat quality were similar. PMID:21169516

Cafe, L M; Robinson, D L; Ferguson, D M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Greenwood, P L

2011-05-01

94

Comparison of carcass traits and meat quality of Hyplus hybrid, purebred Pannon White rabbits and their crossbreds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the experiment was to compare the weight gain, carcass traits and meat quality of Hyplus hybrid (HH, offspring of Hyplus PS59 bucks and Hyplus PS19 does, n = 77), purebred Pannon White rabbits (PP, offspring of Pannon White bucks and Pannon White does, n = 84) and their crossbreds (PH: offspring of Pannon White bucks and Hyplus

SZILVIA METZGER; MEINRAD ODERMATT; RÓBERT ROMVÁRI; ANTAL MAKAI; ISTVÁN RADNAI; LAJOS SIPOS

2006-01-01

95

Exploring molecular backgrounds of quality traits in rice by predictive models based on high-coverage metabolomics  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing awareness of limitations to natural resources has set high expectations for plant science to deliver efficient crops with increased yields, improved stress tolerance, and tailored composition. Collections of representative varieties are a valuable resource for compiling broad breeding germplasms that can satisfy these diverse needs. Results Here we show that the untargeted high-coverage metabolomic characterization of such core collections is a powerful approach for studying the molecular backgrounds of quality traits and for constructing predictive metabolome-trait models. We profiled the metabolic composition of kernels from field-grown plants of the rice diversity research set using 4 complementary analytical platforms. We found that the metabolite profiles were correlated with both the overall population structure and fine-grained genetic diversity. Multivariate regression analysis showed that 10 of the 17 studied quality traits could be predicted from the metabolic composition independently of the population structure. Furthermore, the model of amylose ratio could be validated using external varieties grown in an independent experiment. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the utility of metabolomics for linking traits with quantitative molecular data. This opens up new opportunities for trait prediction and construction of tailored germplasms to support modern plant breeding.

2011-01-01

96

Mapping quantitative trait loci for quality factors in an inter-class cross of US and Chinese wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat quality factors are critical in determining the suitability of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for end-use product and economic value, and they are prime targets for marker-assisted selection. Objectives of this\\u000a study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that ultimately influence wheat market class and milling quality. A\\u000a population of 132 F12 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was derived by

Xiaochun Sun; Felix Marza; Hongxiang Ma; Brett F. Carver; Guihua Bai

2010-01-01

97

Genetic analysis of organoleptic quality in fresh market tomato. 1. Mapping QTLs for physical and chemical traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving organoleptic quality is an important but complex goal for fresh market tomato breeders. A total of 26 traits involved\\u000a in organoleptic quality variation were evaluated, in order to understand the genetic control of this characteristic. A recombinant\\u000a inbred line (RIL) population was developed from an intraspecific cross between a cherry tomato line with a good overall aroma\\u000a intensity and

V. Saliba-Colombani; M. Causse; D. Langlois; J. Philouze; M. Buret

2001-01-01

98

Genetic effects on carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits in straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano steers.  

PubMed

The objectives of this work were to estimate heterosis and breed genetic effects for carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits of steers (Bos spp.) produced from matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle. Steers (n = 464) were weaned at 7 mo of age and transported to the Southern Great Plains where they grazed winter wheat for 6 mo and were then fed a finishing diet until serial slaughter after different days on feed (average 130 d). Carcass quality and quantity traits were measured; steaks (aged 7 d) were obtained for palatability evaluation. Heterosis was detected for BW, HCW, dressing percentage, LM area, and yield grade for all pairs of breeds. Generally, Romosinuano-Angus heterosis estimates were smallest, Romosinuano-Brahman estimates were intermediate, and Brahman-Angus heterosis estimates were largest. The direct Romosinuano effect was to decrease (P < 0.05) BW (-67 ± 16 kg), HCW (-48 ± 10 kg), dressing percentage (-1.4 ± 0.5 units), 12th rib fat thickness (-5.2 ± 0.8 mm), and yield grade (-0.9 ± 0.1), and to increase LM area per 100 kg HCW (3.6 ± 0.3 cm(2)/100 kg). Significant Brahman direct effects were detected for BW (34 ± 17 kg), HCW (29 ± 10 kg), dressing percentage (1.6 ± 0.6 %), LM area per 100 kg HCW (-3.3 ± 0.4 cm(2)/100 kg), and yield grade (0.6 ± 0.1). Significant Angus direct effects were to increase 12th rib fat thickness (3.8 ± 1 mm). Among sire breed means, Romosinuano had reduced (P = 0.002) marbling score (393 ± 9) than Angus, but greater mean sensory tenderness scores (5.8 ± 0.1), and reduced percentage Standard carcasses (10 ± 2%) than Brahman (P < 0.002). Angus sire breed means for marbling score (475 ± 10), overall tenderness (5.8 ± 0.1), and percentage Choice carcasses (75 ± 5%) were greater (P < 0.05) than Brahman sire breed means (360 ± 11, 5.4 ± 0.1, 31 ± 5%). From consideration only of characteristics of the end product of beef production, Romosinuano did not provide a clearly superior alternative to Brahman for U.S. producers, as they had some quality and palatability advantages relative to Brahman, but at lighter HCW. PMID:22767551

Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Miller, M F; Brooks, J C; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A

2012-07-01

99

Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs.  

PubMed

1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability. PMID:23647192

Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z

2013-01-01

100

Phytochrome RNAi enhances major fibre quality and agronomic traits of the cotton Gossypium hirsutum L  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous improvement of fibre quality, early-flowering, early-maturity and productivity in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) is a challenging task for conventional breeding. The influence of red/far-red light ratio on the fibre length prompted us to examine the phenotypic effects of RNA interference (RNAi) of the cotton PHYA1 gene. Here we show a suppression of up to ~70% for the PHYA1 transcript, and compensatory overexpression of up to ~20-fold in the remaining phytochromes in somatically regenerated PHYA1 RNAi cotton plants. Two independent transformants of three generations exhibited vigorous root and vegetative growth, early-flowering, significantly improved upper half mean fibre length and an improvement in other major fibre characteristics. Small decreases in lint traits were observed but seed cotton yield was increased an average 10-17% compared with controls. RNAi-associated phenotypes were heritable and transferable via sexual hybridization. These results should aid in the development of early-maturing and productive Upland cultivars with superior fibre quality.

Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y.; Buriev, Zabardast T.; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Johnie N.; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E.

2014-01-01

101

TILLING for allergen reduction and improvement of quality traits in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Allergic reactions to peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) can cause severe symptoms and in some cases can be fatal, but avoidance is difficult due to the prevalence of peanut-derived products in processed foods. One strategy of reducing the allergenicity of peanuts is to alter or eliminate the allergenic proteins through mutagenesis. Other seed quality traits could be improved by altering biosynthetic enzyme activities. Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING), a reverse-genetics approach, was used to identify mutations affecting seed traits in peanut. Results Two similar copies of a major allergen gene, Ara h 1, have been identified in tetraploid peanut, one in each subgenome. The same situation has been shown for major allergen Ara h 2. Due to the challenge of discriminating between homeologous genes in allotetraploid peanut, nested PCR was employed, in which both gene copies were amplified using unlabeled primers. This was followed by a second PCR using gene-specific labeled primers, heteroduplex formation, CEL1 nuclease digestion, and electrophoretic detection of labeled fragments. Using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) as a mutagen, a mutation frequency of 1 SNP/967 kb (3,420 M2 individuals screened) was observed. The most significant mutations identified were a disrupted start codon in Ara h 2.02 and a premature stop codon in Ara h 1.02. Homozygous individuals were recovered in succeeding generations for each of these mutations, and elimination of Ara h 2.02 protein was confirmed. Several Ara h 1 protein isoforms were eliminated or reduced according to 2D gel analyses. TILLING also was used to identify mutations in fatty acid desaturase AhFAD2 (also present in two copies), a gene which controls the ratio of oleic to linoleic acid in the seed. A frameshift mutation was identified, resulting in truncation and inactivation of AhFAD2B protein. A mutation in AhFAD2A was predicted to restore function to the normally inactive enzyme. Conclusions This work represents the first steps toward the goal of creating a peanut cultivar with reduced allergenicity. TILLING in peanut can be extended to virtually any gene, and could be used to modify other traits such as nutritional properties of the seed, as shown in this study.

2011-01-01

102

Wood stains  

MedlinePLUS

Wood stains are products used for wood finishing. Wood stain poisoning occurs when someone swallows these substances. This is ... Various wood stains Note: This list does not include all sources of wood stain.

103

Effects of non-feed removal molting methods on egg quality traits in commercial brown egg laying hens in Turkey.  

PubMed

Non-feed removal molting programme in commercial brown laying hens and its influence on pre-molting, post-molting and end of cycle egg quality traits were investigated. Overall 54 birds were randomly divided into three treatment groups and each group was fed with one of the following diets during 10 days of molting period: (i) grain barley, (ii) alfalfa meal, or (iii) commercial layer ration (non-molted control group). Eggs obtained from groups in pre-molting, post-molting and end of cycle periods were examined for several quality performance traits such as egg weight, specific gravity, shape index, shell strength, shell thickness, eggshell weight, haugh unit, albumen index, yolk index and yolk color. Results indicated that non-feed removal molting programme based particularly on grain barley had positive effect on egg quality traits in laying hens. Notably, yolk color and haugh unit, which are considered as the most important quality parameters from the consumer point of view, were relatively improved in barley molted group. PMID:18575968

Petek, Metin; Gezen, S Sule; Alpay, Fazli; Cibik, Recep

2008-08-01

104

Overview of wood refuse firing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of burning wood and wood wastes are reviewed. The operation, performance, and advantages of the modern inclined water-cooled grate are also reviewed. The development of spreader stokers for wood waste firing is noted. Provisions made for auxiliary fuel firing on stoker grates are discussed. The easing of air quality control problems with the firing of waste wood material

1980-01-01

105

Association of blood glucose, blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, muscle metabolites, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of blood glucose levels with blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, postmortem muscle glycogen and lactate content, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits. Compared to pigs with lower blood glucose levels, pigs with higher blood glucose levels showed higher blood lactate and serum cortisol levels at exsanguination, and they had lower residual glycogen and higher lactate content in the muscle at 45min postmortem. In addition, pigs with higher blood glucose levels had higher type IIB and lower type I area composition and finally exhibited lower muscle pH, paler color, and excessive loss of fluid on surface. These results imply that measuring blood glucose levels at exsanguination can be useful to indicate early glycolytic rates during postmortem and thus may be of value in the identification of pork with undesirable quality traits. PMID:24576772

Choe, J H; Kim, B C

2014-06-01

106

Effects of non-feed removal molting methods on egg quality traits in commercial brown egg laying hens in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-feed removal molting programme in commercial brown laying hens and its influence on pre-molting, post-molting and end\\u000a of cycle egg quality traits were investigated. Overall 54 birds were randomly divided into three treatment groups and each\\u000a group was fed with one of the following diets during 10 days of molting period: (i) grain barley, (ii) alfalfa meal, or (iii)\\u000a commercial

Metin Petek; S. Sule Gezen; Fazli Alpay; Recep Cibik

2008-01-01

107

Effects of pasture fertiliser N level on herbage composition, animal performance and on carcass and meat quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives were to examine the effects of (1) reducing fertiliser N level on grassland, (2) eliminating silage making and (3) variation in slaughter weight on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of beef cattle. A 2(fertiliser N levels)×2(winter feeds)×2(slaughter weights) factorial experiment used 48 spring-born Charolais x Friesian steers. The two fertiliser N levels were designated normal (227 (year

M. G. Keane; P. Allen

1999-01-01

108

Genetic control and identification of QTLs associated with visual quality traits of field pea (Pisum sativum L.).  

PubMed

Visual quality of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is one of the most important determinants of the market value of the harvested crop. Seed coat color, seed shape, and seed dimpling are the major components of visual seed quality of field pea and are considered as important breeding objectives. The objectives of this research were to study the genetics and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed coat color, seed shape, and seed dimpling of green and yellow field peas. Two recombinant inbred line populations (RILs) consisting of 120 and 90 lines of F(5)-derived F(7) (F(5:7)) yellow pea (P. sativum 'Alfetta' × P. sativum 'CDC Bronco') and green pea (P. sativum 'Orb' × P. sativum 'CDC Striker'), respectively, were evaluated over two years at two locations in Saskatchewan, Canada. Quantitative inheritance with polygenic control and transgressive segregation were observed for all visual quality traits studied. All 90 RILs of the green pea population and 92 selected RILs from the yellow pea population were screened using AFLP and SSR markers and two linkage maps were developed. Nine QTLs controlling yellow seed lightness, 3 for yellow seed greenness, 15 for seed shape, and 9 for seed dimpling were detected. Among them, five QTLs located on LG II, LG IV, and LG VII were consistent in at least two environments. The QTLs and their associated markers will be useful tools to assist pea breeding programs attempting to pyramid positive alleles for the traits. PMID:21491970

Ubayasena, Lasantha; Bett, Kirstin; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Warkentin, Thomas

2011-04-01

109

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FTO gene and their association with growth and meat quality traits in rabbits.  

PubMed

Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene is an excellent candidate to affect the fatness and growth-related traits in pig and cattle. The aim of this study was to reveal the association between FTO and growth and meat quality traits in rabbits. A total of eight coding SNPs were detected, and four SNPs of them in exon 3 were further genotyped for association analysis in 442 rabbits from three breeds, including 248 New Zealand rabbits, 92 Ira rabbits, and 102 Champagne rabbits. Because there were significant differences for the allele and genotype frequencies among breeds, the association analysis was independently conducted in each breed only for these SNPs with minor allele frequency >5.0%. The results revealed that non-synonymous SNP c.499G>A (p.A167T) was significantly associated with body weight (BW) at 35, 70, and 84 days of age in New Zealand rabbits (P<0.01). The CC genotype of synonymous SNP c.660T>C was significantly associated with higher BW84, average daily weight gain, and intramuscular fat content of longissimus lumborum than TT and TC genotypes in Ira rabbits (P<0.05). There were no associations between the four SNPs and growth and meat quality traits in Champagne rabbits. Meanwhile, FTO SNPs were not associated with meat pH value. Our data indicated that FTO gene could be a candidate gene associated with growth and meat quality traits in rabbits. However, the breed-specific effect should be carefully taken into consideration. PMID:23796799

Zhang, Gong-Wei; Gao, Lian; Chen, Shi-Yi; Zhao, Xiao-Bing; Tian, Yao-Fu; Wang, Xia; Deng, Xiao-Song; Lai, Song-Jia

2013-09-25

110

Genetic architecture of fruit quality traits in Malus x domestica (Borkh.) compared between own-rooted seedlings and vegetative propagules on ‘M. 9’ rootstock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative performance of vegetative propagules (VP) grafted on ‘M. 9’ rootstock and own-rooted (OR) seedlings of the\\u000a same genotypes was investigated for apple [Malus x domestica (Borkh.)] fruit quality traits using offspring from 22 control-pollinated families. Fifteen fruit quality traits including\\u000a fruit size and shape, skin colour, russet and sensory eating characteristics were evaluated for individual seedlings. Estimates\\u000a of

Satish Kumar; Richard Volz; Rosemary Weskett

111

A nondestructive method for quantifying the wood drying quality used to determine the intra and inter species variability  

SciTech Connect

A nondestructive method for surface strain measurements is proposed to quantify the wood drying quality during convective drying. This method uses a visible laser scan micrometer intercepting needles maintained vertical at the board surface with a special device, and then gives shrinkage values at several surface points. The results analysis is related to heat and mass transfer phenomena. Experiments were made on softwoods and hardwoods either with superheated steam or with moist air. Results show that stages of shrinkage agree with classical periods of transfer. Besides, shrinkage results from a compromise between global shrinkage of the board section and local effects bound with drying conditions. The authors define two criteria for the drying quality. One compares experimental average shrinkage and free shrinkage, and the other quantifies the differences of shrinkage values between several surface points. Both criteria have to be associated in order to analyze the species behavior in terms of checking during the second drying period.

Canteri, L.; Martin, M. [INPL-UHP, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France). Lab. d`Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee; Perre, P. [Ecole Nationale du Genie Rural, Nancy (France)

1997-05-01

112

Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330

Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

2013-07-01

113

Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for oil and protein contents and their relationships with other seed quality traits in Brassica juncea.  

PubMed

A detailed RFLP-genomic map was used to study the genetics of oil, seed and meal protein and sum of oil and seed/meal protein contents in a recombinant doubled-haploid population developed by crossing black- and yellow-seeded Brassica juncea lines. Two yellow seed color genes (SC-B4, SC-A6) and one QTL for erucic acid content (E(1b)) showed pleiotropic effect for oil, protein and sum of oil and seed/meal protein contents. Six (O-A1, O-A6, O-A9, O-B3, O-B4, O-B5) and five (SP-A1, SP-A9, SP-B4, SP-B6, SP-C) QTLs were significant for oil and seed protein contents, respectively. Tight linkage of three of these QTLs (SP-A1, SP-A9, SP-B4, O-A1, O-A9, O-B4), with opposite effects, poses challenge to the plant breeders for simultaneous improvement of negatively correlated (r = -0.7**) oil and seed protein contents. However, one QTL for oil content (O-B3) and two for seed protein content (SP-B6, SP-C) were found to be unlinked, which offer the possibility for simultaneous improvement of these two traits. QTLs significant for meal protein (MP-A1, MP-A6, MP-A9, MP-B5, MP-B6) were significant at least for oil, seed protein or sum of oil and seed/meal protein contents (T-A6, T-A7, T-B4, T-B5). Sum of oil and seed protein contents and sum of oil and meal protein contents had a perfect correlation, as well as same epistatic interactions and QTLs with similar additive effect. This indicates that protein in seed or meal has practically the same meaning for breeding purposes. Epistatic interactions were significant for the quality traits, and their linkage reflected association among the traits. PMID:16960718

Mahmood, T; Rahman, M H; Stringam, G R; Yeh, F; Good, A G

2006-11-01

114

Mapping of markers related to self-incompatibility, disease resistance, and quality traits in Lolium perenne L.  

PubMed

Several linkage maps, mainly based on anonymous markers, are now available for Lolium perenne. The saturation of these maps with markers derived from expressed sequences would provide information useful for QTL mapping and map alignment. Therefore, we initiated a study to develop and map DNA markers in genes related to self-incompatibility, disease resistance, and quality traits such as digestibility and sugar content in two L. perenne families. In total, 483 and 504 primer pairs were designed and used to screen the ILGI and CLO-DvP mapping populations, respectively, for length polymorphisms. Finally, we were able to map 67 EST markers in at least one mapping population. Several of these markers coincide with previously reported QTL regions for the traits considered or are located in the neighbourhood of the self-incompatibility loci, S and Z. The markers developed expand the set of gene-derived markers available for genetic mapping in ryegrasses. PMID:18650954

Van Daele, Inge; Muylle, Hilde; Van Bockstaele, Erik; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel

2008-08-01

115

Analysis of a slow-growing line reveals wide genetic variability of carcass and meat quality-related traits  

PubMed Central

Background Slow-growing lines are widely used in France for the production of high quality free-range chickens. While such production is mainly dedicated to the whole carcass market, new prospects are opening up for the development of cuts and processed products. Whether the body composition and meat quality of slow-growing birds can be improved by selection has thus become an important issue. The genetic parameters of growth, body composition and breast meat quality traits were evaluated in relation to behaviour at slaughter in a large pedigree population including 1022 male and female slow-growing birds. Results The heritability coefficients (h2) of body weight and body composition traits varied from 0.3 to 0.5. Abdominal fat percentage was genetically positively correlated with body weight but negatively correlated with breast muscle yield. The characteristics of the breast meat (i.e., post-mortem fall in pH, colour, drip loss, shear-force and lipid content) were all heritable, with h2 estimates ranging from 0.18 to 0.48. The rate and extent of the fall in pH were under different genetic control. Strong negative genetic correlations were found between the ultimate pH and the lightness, yellowness and drip loss of the meat. Wing flapping on the shackle line was significantly heritable and exhibited marked genetic correlations with the pH at 15 min post-slaughter and the redness of the meat. The genetic relationships between meat quality traits, body weight and body composition appeared slightly different between males and females. Conclusion This study suggested that there are a number of important criteria for selection on carcass and breast meat quality in slow-growing birds. Selection for reduced abdominal fatness and increased breast muscle yield should be effective as both traits were found to be highly heritable and favourably correlated. Substantial improvement in meat quality could be achieved by selection on ultimate pH which was highly heritable and strongly correlated with the colour and water-holding capacity of the meat. Moreover, this study revealed for the first time that the behaviour at slaughter is partly genetically determined in the chicken.

2012-01-01

116

PLCz Functional Haplotypes Modulating Promoter Transcriptional Activity Are Associated with Semen Quality Traits in Chinese Holstein Bulls  

PubMed Central

The sperm-specific phospholipase C zeta (PLCz) is a candidate sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor that triggers a characteristic series of physiological stimuli via cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations during fertilization. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PLCz gene expression remain largely unknown. To explore the genetic variations in the 5?-flanking region of the PLCz gene and their common haplotypes in Chinese Holstein bulls, as well as to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and transcriptional activity, DNA samples were collected from Chinese Holstein bulls and sequenced for the identification of genetic variants in the 5?-flanking region of PLCz. Two genetic variants were identified, and their haplotypic profiles were constructed. The two novel genetic variations (g. ?456 G>A and g. +65 T>C) were genotyped in 424 normal Chinese Holstein bulls. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that both loci are in transcription factor binding sites of the core promoter region. The association studies revealed that the two genetic variations and their haplotype combinations significantly affected semen quality traits. Using serially truncated constructs of the bovine PLCz promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 726 bp (?641 nt to +112 nt) fragment constitutes the core promoter region. Furthermore, four haplotypes, H1H1 (GTGT), H2H2 (GCGC), H3H3 (ATAT), and H4H4 (ACAC), were significantly associated with semen quality traits and successfully transfected into MLTC-1 cell lines. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the different haplotypes exhibited distinct promoter activities. Maximal promoter activity was demonstrated by the H2H2 haplotypes, as compared with the other haplotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on genetic variants and their respective haplotypes in the 5?-flanking region of PLCz gene that can influence the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls as well as contribute to the transcriptional activity of the PLCz promoter.

Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Yan; Qi, Chao; Gao, Qin; Zhou, Lei; Li, Qiuling; Wang, Lingling; Zhong, Jifeng; Liu, Mei; Wang, Changfa

2013-01-01

117

The sodium channel gene family is specifically expressed in hen uterus and associated with eggshell quality traits  

PubMed Central

Background Eggshell quality is important for the poultry industry. During eggshell formation a mass of inorganic minerals is deposited. The Sodium Channel (SCNN1) gene family plays an essential role in cation transportation. The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern of expression of members of the SCNN1 gene family, their variation and their effects on eggshell quality. Result The highest expression of SCNN1a, SCNN1b, and SCNN1g genes were in the active uterus during eggshell mineralization, while SCNN1d showed its highest expression level in the quiescent uterus (no egg present). Nineteen candidate SNPs from the four genes were genotyped in a population of 338 White Leghorn layers. Association analysis between SNPs (haplotypes/diplotypes) and eggshell traits was performed. Among seven significant SNPs, five SNPs were associated with eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, eggshell percentage or/and egg weight, while the other two SNPs within SCNN1d were only associated with eggshell percentage. These SNPs had a 0.25-6.99% contribution to phenotypic variance, depending on the trait. In haplotype analysis, SCNN1b and SCNN1d were associated with egg weight. The SCNN1b and SCNN1g were significantly associated with eggshell weight while only SCNN1g explained 2.04% of phenotypic variance. All the alleles of the members of SCNN1 gene family were associated with eggshell percentage and eggshell thickness, and others members had an association with eggshell strength except for SCNN1a. The contribution of different haplotypes of the SCNN1 gene family to eggshell phenotypic variance ranged from 0.09% to 5.74%. Conclusions Our study indicated that the SCNN1 gene family showed tissue expression specificity and was significantly associated with eggshell traits in chicken. This study provides evidence that genetic variation in members of the sodium channel can influence eggshell quality.

2013-01-01

118

Impact of proximal cytoplasmic droplets on quality traits and in-vitro embryo production efficiency of cryopreserved bull spermatozoa  

PubMed Central

Background Proximal cytoplasmic droplets (PCDs), a remnant of germ cell cytoplasm, are common non-specific morphological defects in bovine semen. This study evaluated the effect of higher percentages of PCDs on the quality of frozen-thawed bovine semen, embryo production and early embryo development. Methods Three ejaculates from each of five (group 1: PCD ? 1%, control) and eight adult Bos indicus bulls (group 2: PCD ? 24%) were analysed. Semen samples were examined for: post-thaw motility, vigour of movement, concentration, sperm morphology, slow thermoresistance test (STT), membrane integrity, acrosome status, mitochondrial function using fluorescent probes association (FITC-PSA, PI and JC-1) and sperm chromatin integrity using acridine orange assay. Two bulls from group 2, with 28.5% and 48.5% PCD, respectively, and three bulls from the control group, each with 0% PCD, were selected for IVF (in vitro fertilisation). Results Semen analyses revealed a significant correlation (P < 0.01) between increased rates of PCD and sperm quality traits. Nevertheless, no differences were observed in sperm motility and vigour either before or after the STT or in the percentage of intact acrosomes (analysed by differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) after STT), but membrane integrity, acrosome status (evaluated with FITC-PSA staining method after thawing) and mitochondrial function were reduced, when compared with group 1 (P < 0.05). The higher incidence of PCD was positively correlated to chromatin damage, especially after three hours of incubation at 37°C. IVF showed similar results for bull C2 (group 1, control) and bull P2 (group 2, group with higher PCDs). Conclusion Higher PCD levels influenced spermatozoa quality traits. IVF and embryo development data showed that cleavage, blastocyst formation and blastocyst hatching may have been influenced by the interaction of morphology traits and individual bull effects.

2012-01-01

119

Association of PPARGC1A and CAPNS1 gene polymorphisms and expression with meat quality traits in pigs.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the genes PPARGC1A (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-coactivator 1A) and CAPNS1 (calpain small subunit 1) as candidate genes affecting meat quality traits in pigs. Four polymorphisms were identified in PPARCG1A and three in CAPNS1. The PPARGC1A polymorphism c.1288T>A was associated with pH and cooking loss in a F2 Duroc×Pietrain experimental cross (DuPi, n=313) and with pH values in Italian Large White (ILW, n=380) and Italian Landrace (ILA, n=158) populations (P<0.05). The CAPNS1 polymorphism c.429A>C was associated with pH and conductivity in DuPi and with meat color in ILA (P<0.05). PPARGC1A mRNA expression associated with drip loss (P<0.01) and the same tendency was found for CAPNS1 (P=0.06). The promoter methylation profiling suggested that methylation is not involved in CAPNS1 expression regulation. In conclusion, porcine PPARGC1A and CAPNS1 genes may affect meat quality traits, with breed-specific differences, and they could be used as markers for the improvement of meat quality in pigs. PMID:21680104

Gandolfi, G; Cinar, M U; Ponsuksili, S; Wimmers, K; Tesfaye, D; Looft, C; Jüngst, H; Tholen, E; Phatsara, C; Schellander, K; Davoli, R

2011-12-01

120

A Study to Determine Non-Academic Traits of a Successful Student in an Open Learning Center Environment at John Wood Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Wood Community College's Open Learning Center (OLC) offers an alternative to traditional classroom approaches using one-to-one instruction, a competency-based learning format, and flexible scheduling. Due to concern over the high attrition rate in OLC courses, a study was conducted to identify the characteristics and variables contributing to…

Kronquist, Shirley; And Others

121

Effects of chestnut tannins on carcass characteristics, meat quality, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition of rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy two male Bianca Italiana rabbits were used to study the effects of the inclusion (0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%) of a natural extract of chestnut wood (Silvafeed ENC) in the diet on productive traits, carcass characteristics, meat quality, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition of rabbit meat. Results showed ENC had no significant effect on live weight, productive traits, hot

Hua Wei Liu; Francesco Gai; Laura Gasco; Alberto Brugiapaglia; Carola Lussiana; Kai Jun Guo; Jian Ming Tong; Ivo Zoccarato

2009-01-01

122

Correlated responses in growth, carcass, and meat quality traits to divergent selection for testosterone production in pigs.  

PubMed

The objective of this project was to characterize changes in growth, carcass yield, and meat quality traits in castrates and gilts in response to divergent selection for testosterone production. In generation 21, endogenous testosterone concentrations in Duroc boars of the high (HTL) and low (LTL) testosterone lines averaged 49.0 and 27.8 ng/mL (P < 0.01), respectively. Eight LTL and 10 HTL boars were used to sire 29 LTL and 33 HTL litters. To remove the effects of inbreeding, these same boars were mated to females of a Large White x Landrace composite (WC) to generate 11 WC by LTL litters (WLT) and 23 WC by HTL litters (WHT). Castrates and gilts were then allotted to LTL (n = 53), HTL (n = 61), WLT (n = 102), and WHT (n = 101) for testing. Growth and carcass traits analyzed included days to 114 kg (D114), ADG, backfat adjusted to 114 kg (ABF), LM area adjusted to 114 kg and predicted percent lean (PPL). Fat-O-Meater data collected were adjusted fat depth (AFD), adjusted loin depth, and percent lean. Meat quality traits characterized at 24 h postmortem included marbling score, percent lipid, pH, drip loss, color score, and Minolta L*, a*, and b*. Data were analyzed with a mixed model including fixed effects of line, mating type (purebred or crossbred), sex, and the random effect of sire nested within line. All possible interactions among fixed effects were tested. The HTL had fewer D114 (P < 0.05), greater ADG (P < 0.01), greater ABF (P < 0.01), and lower PPL (P < 0.01) than LTL. The WHT and WLT did not differ for D114, ADG, or ABF. The WHT had smaller LM area adjusted to 114 kg (P < 0.05) and greater drip loss (P < 0.05) than WLT. The WLT had lower adjusted loin depth (P < 0.05) than LTL and HTL. The LTL and HTL had greater subjective scores for marbling (P < 0.05) compared with WLT and WHT. The least squares mean for percent lipid for HTL and LTL was 4.00. The WHT had greater means for L*, a*, and b* (P < 0.05) than WLT. Pigs selected for increased testosterone production grew faster and produced fatter carcasses than pigs selected for decreased testosterone. Changes in growth, carcass yield, and meat quality traits were detected in castrates and gilts in response to divergent selection for testosterone production. PMID:16699090

Bender, J M; See, M T; Hanson, D J; Lawrence, T E; Cassady, J P

2006-06-01

123

Genetic parameters for lean meat yield, meat quality, reproduction and feed efficiency traits for Australian pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic parameters were obtained using REML procedures applied to a multiple trait animal model for number born alive (NBA), litter birth weight (LBW), average piglet weight at birth (ABW) recorded in the first, second and third parity (NBA1,2,3, LBW1,2,3, ABW1,2,3) and 21-day litter weight (LW211) for 6050 Large White and Landrace sows. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.06 to 0.22 for

S. Hermesch; B. G. Luxford; H.-U. Graser

2000-01-01

124

Comparison of Quality Traits of Meat from Korean Native Chickens and Broilers Used in Two Different Traditional Korean Cuisines  

PubMed Central

With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC) and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL), KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS), broiler for baeksuk (BL), and broiler for samgyetang (BS) were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5’-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines.

Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Jun Heon; Kim, Jong Geun; Jo, Cheorun

2013-01-01

125

Analysis of the associations between polymorphisms in GNAS complex locus and growth, carcass and meat quality traits in pigs.  

PubMed

Imprinted genes are interesting candidates for marker assisted selection in farm animals. One of them-GNAS complex locus is engaged in obesity pathogenesis in humans and mice. In our study, we identified new polymorphism in porcine GNAS gene (variable number of CT repeats, accession number: rs196952953) and found that this polymorphism is in linkage disequilibrum with GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T. Statistical analysis (GLM procedure), performed on 552 animals (Large White n = 258 and Landrace n = 269), revealed that deduced haplotypes and GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T are associated with growth performance and a few carcass traits, but not with feed intake. We observed significant additive effects of GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T genotype and haplotype 2 (C/278 bp) on test daily gain (TDG), average daily gain (ADG), number of days on test, age of the slaughter (P < 0.01) and FCR ratio (P < 0.05). Animals with two copies of C/278 haplotype had significantly higher: TDG, ADG, lower feed:gain ratio and faster reached the weight of 100 kg. When carcass traits were considered, significant associations between GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T polymorphism, haplotype 2 (C/278) and weight of ham with and without backfat and skin (WH) (WH2), length of the carcass, height and the width of the loin, meat percentage, weight of the main cuts were identified. The significant dominance effects of GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T polymorphism and haplotype 2 on WH and WH2 were observed (P < 0.05). When the two breeds were analyzed separately significant associations were observed for most of the traits in Landrace while in Large White the same trends were present but the differences were mostly not significant. Among meat quality traits we found significant association between haplotype and IMF content in Landrace (P < 0.03). Our results show for the first time that GNAS complex locus may modulate economically important traits in pigs. PMID:24057249

Oczkowicz, Maria; Ropka-Molik, Katarzyna; Tyra, Miros?aw

2013-11-01

126

Overview of wood refuse firing  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of burning wood and wood wastes are reviewed. The operation, performance, and advantages of the modern inclined water-cooled grate are also reviewed. The development of spreader stokers for wood waste firing is noted. Provisions made for auxiliary fuel firing on stoker grates are discussed. The easing of air quality control problems with the firing of waste wood material is briefly described. (MCW)

Adams, P.J.

1980-04-01

127

A missense mutant of the PPAR-? gene associated with carcass and meat quality traits in Chinese cattle breeds.  

PubMed

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-?) is a key molecule in adipocyte differentitation; it transactivates multiple target genes in lipid metabolic pathways. Using PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing, we evaluated a potential association of an SNP (72472 G?T in exon7) of the bovine PPAR-? gene with carcass and meat quality traits in 660 individuals from five Chinese indigenous cattle breeds, Qinchuan (QC), Luxi (LX), Nanyang (NY), Jiaxian (JX), and Xianan (XN). This 72472 G?T mutation identified a missense mutation, Q448H. Two alleles were named C and D. Allele frequencies of PPAR-?-C/D in the five breeds were 0.7815/0.2185, 0.9/0.1, 0.7442/0.2558, 0.7051/0.2949, and 0.8333/0.1667 for QC, NY, JX, LX, and XN, respectively. Except for the XN breed, all breeds were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at this locus. The polymorphism information content was low for NY and XN (0.16 and 0.24, respectively), while it was moderately high for QC, JX, and LX (0.28, 0.31 and 0.33, respectively). Correlation analysis showed significant association of this missense mutation with carcass length, backfat thickness and water holding capacity in the QC breed. Animals with the genotype CD had significantly greater carcass length than those with genotypes CC and DD, while animals with genotype CC had significantly greater backfat thickness than those with genotypes CD and DD. Animals with genotype CC had lower water holding capacity than those with the genotypes CD and DD. In conclusion, this locus is a candidate for a major quantitative trait locus affecting production traits and could be used for beef breeding selection. PMID:22930427

Fan, Y Y; Fu, G W; Fu, C Z; Zan, L S; Tian, W Q

2012-01-01

128

Expression profiling of potato germplasm differentiated in quality traits leads to the identification of candidate flavour and texture genes  

PubMed Central

Quality traits such as flavour and texture are assuming a greater importance in crop breeding programmes. This study takes advantage of potato germplasm differentiated in tuber flavour and texture traits. A recently developed 44 000-element potato microarray was used to identify tuber gene expression profiles that correspond to differences in tuber flavour and texture as well as carotenoid content and dormancy characteristics. Gene expression was compared in two Solanum tuberosum group Phureja cultivars and two S. tuberosum group Tuberosum cultivars; 309 genes were significantly and consistently up-regulated in Phureja, whereas 555 genes were down-regulated. Approximately 46% of the genes in these lists can be identified from their annotation and amongst these are candidates that may underpin the Phureja/Tuberosum trait differences. For example, a clear difference in the cooked tuber volatile profile is the higher level of the sesquiterpene ?-copaene in Phureja compared with Tuberosum. A sesquiterpene synthase gene was identified as being more highly expressed in Phureja tubers and its corresponding full-length cDNA was demonstrated to encode ?-copaene synthase. Other potential ‘flavour genes’, identified from their differential expression profiles, include those encoding branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase and a ribonuclease suggesting a mechanism for 5?-ribonucleotide formation in potato tubers on cooking. Major differences in the expression levels of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis (and potentially texture) were also identified, including genes encoding pectin acetylesterase, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase and pectin methylesterase. Other gene expression differences that may impact tuber carotenoid content and tuber life-cycle phenotypes are discussed.

Ducreux, Laurence J. M.; Morris, Wayne L.; Prosser, Ian M.; Morris, Jenny A.; Beale, Michael H.; Wright, Frank; Shepherd, Tom; Bryan, Glenn J.; Hedley, Pete E.; Taylor, Mark A.

2008-01-01

129

Modelling epistatic effects of embryo and endosperm QTL on seed quality traits.  

PubMed

Coordinated expression of embryo and endosperm tissues is required for proper seed development. The coordination among these two tissues is controlled by the interaction between multiple genes expressed in the embryo and endosperm genomes. In this article, we present a statistical model for testing whether quantitative trait loci (QTL) active in different genomes, diploid embryo and triploid endosperm, epistatically affect a trait expressed on the endosperm tissue. The maximum likelihood approach, implemented with the EM algorithm, was derived to provide the maximum likelihood estimates of the locations of embryo- and endosperm-specific QTL and their main effects and epistatic effects. This model was used in a real example for rice in which two QTL, one from the embryo genome and the other from the endosperm genome, exert a significant interaction effect on gel consistency on the endosperm. Our model has successfully detected Waxy, a candidate gene in the embryo genome known to regulate one of the major steps of amylose biosynthesis in the endosperm. This model will have great implications for agricultural and evolutionary genetic research. PMID:16545151

Cui, Yuehua; Wu, Jianguo; Shi, Chunhai; Littell, Ramon C; Wu, Rongling

2006-02-01

130

A genome-wide association study of production traits in a commercial population of Large White pigs: evidence of haplotypes affecting meat quality  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been detected in pigs over the past 20 years using microsatellite markers. However, due to the low density of these markers, the accuracy of QTL location has generally been poor. Since 2009, the dense genome coverage provided by the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip has made it possible to more accurately map QTL using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our objective was to perform high-density GWAS in order to identify genomic regions and corresponding haplotypes associated with production traits in a French Large White population of pigs. Methods Animals (385 Large White pigs from 106 sires) were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and evaluated for 19 traits related to feed intake, growth, carcass composition and meat quality. Of the 64 432 SNPs on the chip, 44 412 were used for GWAS with an animal mixed model that included a regression coefficient for the tested SNPs and a genomic kinship matrix. SNP haplotype effects in QTL regions were then tested for association with phenotypes following phase reconstruction based on the Sscrofa10.2 pig genome assembly. Results Twenty-three QTL regions were identified on autosomes and their effects ranged from 0.25 to 0.75 phenotypic standard deviation units for feed intake and feed efficiency (four QTL), carcass (12 QTL) and meat quality traits (seven QTL). The 10 most significant QTL regions had effects on carcass (chromosomes 7, 10, 16, 17 and 18) and meat quality traits (two regions on chromosome 1 and one region on chromosomes 8, 9 and 13). Thirteen of the 23 QTL regions had not been previously described. A haplotype block of 183 kb on chromosome 1 (six SNPs) was identified and displayed three distinct haplotypes with significant (0.0001?quality traits. Conclusions GWAS analyses with the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip enabled the detection of 23 QTL regions that affect feed consumption, carcass and meat quality traits in a LW population, of which 13 were novel QTL. The proportionally larger number of QTL found for meat quality traits suggests a specific opportunity for improving these traits in the pig by genomic selection.

2014-01-01

131

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in PtoCesA7 and their association with growth and wood properties in Populus tomentosa.  

PubMed

Cellulose synthase (CesA) genes encode the enzymes that synthesize cellulose; therefore, CesAs play central roles in plant development and affect the yield and quality of wood, essential properties for industrial applications of plant biomass. To effectively manipulate wood biosynthesis in trees and improve wood quality, we thus require a better understanding of the natural variation in CesAs. Association studies have emerged as a powerful tool for identification of variation associated with quantitative traits. Here, we used a candidate gene-based association mapping approach to identify PtoCesA7 allelic variants that associate with growth and wood quality traits in Populus tomentosa. We isolated a full-length PtoCesA7 cDNA and observed high PtoCesA7 expression in xylem, consistent with the xylem-specific expression of CesA7. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in PtoCesA7, sampled from the P. tomentosa natural distribution, revealed that PtoCesA7 harbors high nucleotide diversity (?(T) = 0.0091) and low LD (r(2) ? 0.1, within 800 bp). By association analysis, we identified seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (false discovery rate Q < 0.10) and 12 haplotypes (Q < 0.10) that associated with growth and wood properties, explaining 3.62-10.59 % of the phenotypic variance. We also validated 9 of the 10 significant marker-trait associations in at least one of three smaller subsets (climatic regions) or in a linkage-mapping population. Thus, our study identified functional PtoCesA7 allelic variants associated with growth and wood quality traits, giving new insights into genes affecting wood quality and quantity. From an applied perspective, the SNPs revealed in this study have potential applications in marker-assisted breeding. PMID:24549852

Tian, Jiaxing; Chang, Mengqi; Du, Qingzhang; Xu, Baohua; Zhang, Deqiang

2014-06-01

132

QTL analysis for grain quality traits in 2 BC2F2 populations derived from crosses between Oryza sativa cv Swarna and 2 accessions of O. nivara.  

PubMed

The appearance and cooking quality of rice determine its acceptability and price to a large extent. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 12 grain quality traits were mapped in 2 mapping populations derived from Oryza sativa cv Swarna × O. nivara. The BC(2)F(2) population of the cross Swarna × O. nivara IRGC81848 (population 1) was evaluated during 2005 and that from Swarna × O. nivara IRGC81832 (population 2) was evaluated during 2006. Linkage maps were constructed using 100 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in population 1 and 75 SSR markers in population 2. In all, 21 QTLs were identified in population 1 (43% from O. nivara) and 37 in population 2 (38% QTLs from O. nivara). The location of O. nivara-derived QTLs mp1.2 for milling percent, kw6.1 for kernel width, and klac12.1 for kernel length after cooking coincided in the 2 populations and appear to be useful for Marker Assisted Selection (MAS). Four QTLs for milling percent, 1 QTL each for amylose content, water uptake, elongation ratio, 2 QTLs for kernel width, and 3 QTLs for gel consistency, each explained more than 20% phenotypic variance. Three QTL clusters for grain quality traits were close to the genes/QTLs for shattering and seed dormancy. QTLs for 4 quality traits were associated with 5 of the 7 major yield QTLs reported in the same 2 mapping populations. Useful introgression lines have been developed for several agronomic traits. It emerges that 40% O. nivara alleles were trait enhancing in both populations, and QTLs for grain quality overlapped with yield meta-QTLs and QTLs for dormancy and seed shattering. PMID:22312119

Swamy, B P Mallikarjuna; Kaladhar, K; Shobha Rani, N; Prasad, G S V; Viraktamath, B C; Reddy, G Ashok; Sarla, N

2012-01-01

133

Food quality effects on life history traits and fitness in the generalist herbivore Daphnia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life table experiments were conducted on the generalist suspension feeder Daphnia galeata, using as food the two green algae (Chlorophyta) Scenedesmus acutus and Oocystis lacustris. Oocystis was hypothesized to be a lower quality food because it is convered with a thick sheath, believed to reduce digestibility. Results showed that Oocystis is a lower quality food for Daphnia, but only at

Michael J. Vanni; Winfried Lampert

1992-01-01

134

Marker assisted backcross breeding to improve cooking quality traits in Myanmar rice cultivar Manawthukha  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several components contribute to rice grain quality, and among these, fragrance and taste qualities are the most important to consumers. Manawthukha, an elite non-fragrant cultivar with high amylose content (AC), intermediate gel consistency (GC) and gelatinisation temperature (GT), occupies the largest number of acres in Myanmar. To improve fragrance and intermediate AC in Manawthukha, Basmati370 was used as a donor

Myint Yi; Khin Than Nwe; Apichart Vanavichit; Witith Chai-arree; Theerayut Toojinda

2009-01-01

135

SNP variation in the promoter of the PRKAG3 gene and association with meat quality traits in pig  

PubMed Central

Background The PRKAG3 gene encodes the ?3 subunit of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), a protein that plays a key role in energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene such as I199V are associated with important pork quality traits. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of the PRKAG3 gene, SNP variation in the PRKAG3 promoter and meat quality phenotypes in pork. Results PRKAG3 gene expression was found to correlate with a number of traits relating to glycolytic potential (GP) and intramuscular fat (IMF) in three phenotypically diverse F1 crosses comprising of 31 Large White, 23 Duroc and 32 Pietrain sire breeds. The majority of associations were observed in the Large White cross. There was a significant association between genotype at the g.-311A>G locus and PRKAG3 gene expression in the Large White cross. In the same population, ten novel SNPs were identified within a 1.3 kb region spanning the promoter and from this three major haplotypes were inferred. Two tagging SNPs (g.-995A>G and g.-311A>G) characterised the haplotypes within the promoter region being studied. These two SNPs were subsequently genotyped in larger populations consisting of Large White (n?=?98), Duroc (n?=?99) and Pietrain (n?=?98) purebreds. Four major haplotypes including promoter SNP’s g.-995A>G and g.-311A>G and I199V were inferred. In the Large White breed, HAP1 was associated with IMF% in the M. longissmus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and driploss%. HAP2 was associated with IMFL% GP-influenced traits pH at 24 hr in LTL (pHULT), pH at 45 min in LTL (pH45LT) and pH at 45 min in the M. semimembranosus muscle (pH45SM). HAP3 was associated with driploss%, pHULT pH45LT and b* Minolta. In the Duroc breed, associations were observed between HAP1 and driploss% and pHUSM. No associations were observed with the remaining haplotypes (HAP2, HAP3 and HAP4) in the Duroc breed. The Pietrain breed was monomorphic in the promoter region. The I199V locus was associated with several GP-influenced traits across all three breeds and IMF% in the Large White and Pietrain breed. No significant difference in promoter function was observed for the three main promoter haplotypes when tested in vitro. Conclusion Gene expression levels of the porcine PRKAG3 are associated with meat quality phenotypes relating to glycolytic potential and IMF% in the Large White breed, while SNP variation in the promoter region of the gene is associated with PRKAG3 gene expression and meat quality phenotypes.

2012-01-01

136

Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Loci and Candidate Genes for Body Composition and Meat Quality Traits in Beijing-You Chickens  

PubMed Central

Body composition and meat quality traits are important economic traits of chickens. The development of high-throughput genotyping platforms and relevant statistical methods have enabled genome-wide association studies in chickens. In order to identify molecular markers and candidate genes associated with body composition and meat quality traits, genome-wide association studies were conducted using the Illumina 60 K SNP Beadchip to genotype 724 Beijing-You chickens. For each bird, a total of 16 traits were measured, including carcass weight (CW), eviscerated weight (EW), dressing percentage, breast muscle weight (BrW) and percentage (BrP), thigh muscle weight and percentage, abdominal fat weight and percentage, dry matter and intramuscular fat contents of breast and thigh muscle, ultimate pH, and shear force of the pectoralis major muscle at 100 d of age. The SNPs that were significantly associated with the phenotypic traits were identified using both simple (GLM) and compressed mixed linear (MLM) models. For nine of ten body composition traits studied, SNPs showing genome wide significance (P<2.59E?6) have been identified. A consistent region on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 4 (GGA4), including seven significant SNPs and four candidate genes (LCORL, LAP3, LDB2, TAPT1), were found to be associated with CW and EW. Another 0.65 Mb region on GGA3 for BrW and BrP was identified. After measuring the mRNA content in beast muscle for five genes located in this region, the changes in GJA1 expression were found to be consistent with that of breast muscle weight across development. It is highly possible that GJA1 is a functional gene for breast muscle development in chickens. For meat quality traits, several SNPs reaching suggestive association were identified and possible candidate genes with their functions were discussed.

Zhao, Guiping; Wang, Fangjie; Wu, Dan; Zheng, Maiqing; Chen, Jilan; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Yaodong; Wen, Jie

2013-01-01

137

Efficient bleaching of non-wood high-quality paper pulp using laccase-mediator system  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-quality flax pulp was bleached in a totally-chlorine-free (TCF) sequence using a laccase-mediator system. Three fungal laccases (from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus eryngii) and two mediators, 2,2?-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), were compared. P. cinnabarinus and T. versicolor laccases in the presence of HBT gave the best results in terms of high brightness and low lignin content (kappa

Susana Camarero; Olga Garc??a; Teresa Vidal; José Colom; José C del R??o; Ana Gutiérrez; José M Gras; Rebeca Monje; Mar??a J Mart??nez; Ángel T Mart??nez

2004-01-01

138

Genetic associations of prolificacy with performance, carcass, meat quality, and leg conformation traits in the Finnish Landrace and Large White pig populations.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic associations of prolificacy traits with other traits under selection in the Finnish Landrace and Large White populations. The prolificacy traits evaluated were total number of piglets born, number of stillborn piglets, piglet mortality during suckling, age at first farrowing, and first farrowing interval. Genetic correlations were estimated with two performance traits (ADG and feed:gain ratio), with two carcass traits (lean percent and fat percent), with four meat quality traits (pH and L* values in longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles), and with two leg conformation traits (overall leg action and buck-kneed forelegs). The data contained prolificacy information on 12,525 and 10,511 sows in the Finnish litter recording scheme and station testing records on 10,372 and 9,838 pigs in Landrace and Large White breeds, respectively. The genetic correlations were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The most substantial correlations were found between age at first farrowing and lean percent (0.19 in Landrace and 0.27 in Large White), and fat percent (-0.26 in Landrace and -0.18 in Large White), and between number of stillborn piglets and ADG (-0.38 in Landrace and -0.25 in Large White) and feed:gain (0.27 in Landrace and 0.12 in Large White). The correlations are indicative of the benefits of superior growth for piglets already at birth. Similarly, the correlations indicate that age at first farrowing is increasing owing to selection for carcass lean content. There was also clear favorable correlation between performance traits and piglet mortality from birth to weaning in Large White (r(g) was -0.43 between piglet mortality and ADG, and 0.42 between piglet mortality and feed:gain), but not in Landrace (corresponding correlations were 0.26 and -0.22). There was a general tendency that prolificacy traits were favorably correlated with performance traits, and unfavorably with carcass lean and fat percents, whereas there were no clear associations between prolificacy and meat quality or leg conformation. In conclusion, accuracy of estimated breeding values may be improved by accounting for genetic associations between prolificacy, carcass, and performance traits in a multitrait analysis. PMID:15318728

Serenius, T; Sevon-Aimónen, M L; Kause, A; Mäntysaari, E A; Mäki-Tanila, A

2004-08-01

139

Effects of Postmortem Injection Time, Injection Level, and Concentration of Calcium Chloride on Beef Quality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to determine the optimum protocol for maximizing meat quality with CaC12 injection. Experiment 1 compared the effects of 30 min or 24 h postmortem injection of 175 mM CaCl2 or water at 10% (wt\\/wt) to controls on various measures of meat quality. An injection of CaC12 reduced (P < .05) shear force values in all three

T. L. Wheeler; M. Koohmaraie; J. L. Lansdell; G. R. Siragusa; M. F. Miller

140

Effects of vitamin E supplementation on fattening performance, non-carcass components and retail cut percentages, and meat quality traits of Awassi lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of vitamin E supplementation on growth, non-carcass components and retail cut percentages, and meat quality traits of Awassi male lambs at approximately 8 months of age. The lambs were divided into two groups as control (CG, n=12) and experimental (VG, n=12) at the beginning of the fattening period. The CG and

Muhlis Macit; Vecihi Aksakal; Ebru Emsen; Nurinisa Esenbu?a; M ?rfan Aksu

2003-01-01

141

Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with egg quality, egg production, and body weight in an F2 resource population of chickens.  

PubMed

Egg production and egg quality are complex sex-limited traits that may benefit from the implementation of marker-assisted selection. The primary objective of the current study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with egg traits, egg production, and body weight in a chicken resource population. Layer (White Leghorn hens) and broiler (Cobb-Cobb roosters) lines were crossed to generate an F2 population of 508 hens over seven hatches. Phenotypes for 29 traits (weekly body weight from hatch to 6 weeks, egg traits including egg, albumen, yolk, and shell weight, shell thickness, shell puncture score, percentage of shell, and egg shell colour at 35 and 55 weeks of age, as well as egg production between 16 and 55 weeks of age) were measured in hens of the resource population. Genotypes of 120 microsatellite markers on 28 autosomal groups were determined, and interval mapping was conducted to identify putative QTL. Eleven QTL tests representing two regions on chromosomes 2 and 4 surpassed the 5% genome-wise significance threshold. These QTL influenced egg colour, egg and albumen weight, percent shell, body weight, and egg production. The chromosome 4 QTL region is consistent with multiple QTL studies that define chromosome 4 as a critical region significantly associated with a variety of traits across multiple resource populations. An additional 64 QTL tests surpassed the 5% chromosome-wise significance threshold. PMID:16573524

Schreiweis, M A; Hester, P Y; Settar, P; Moody, D E

2006-04-01

142

Evaluation of QTL for carcass merit and meat quality traits in a US commercial Duroc population.  

PubMed

Putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions on 5 chromosomes (SSC3, 6, 12, 15, and 18) were selected from our previous genome scans of a Duroc×Pietrain F(2) resource population for further evaluation in a US commercial Duroc population (n=331). A total of 81 gene-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were genotyped and 33 markers were segregating. The MDH1 SNP on SSC3 was associated with 45-min and ultimate pH (pHu), and pH decline. PRKAG3 on SSC15 was associated with pHu. The HSPG2 SNP on SSC6 was associated with marbling score and days to 113kg. Markers for NUP88 and FKBP10 on SSC12 were associated with 45-min pH and L*, respectively. The SSC15 marker SF3B1 was associated with L* and LMA, and the SSC18 marker ARF5 was associated with pHu and color score. These results in a commercial Duroc population showed a general consistency with our previous genome scan. PMID:22578477

Choi, Igseo; Bates, Ronald O; Raney, Nancy E; Steibel, Juan P; Ernst, Catherine W

2012-10-01

143

Egg Quality Traits of Layers Fed Sugarcane Press Residue with Biotechnological Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of inclusion of Sugarcane Press Residue (SPR) as a feed ingredient in layer diets on the qualities of the egg. Three experimental diets were formulated by incorporating SPR at 0, 5 and 10%. Another set of nine diets were prepared by supplementing each diet with either lipid utilizing agents (lipase and lecithin)

B. N. Suresh; B. S. V. Reddy; Manjunatha Prabhu B. H; N. Suma

2009-01-01

144

Within-litter variation in muscle fiber characteristics, pig performance, and meat quality traits1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to exam- ine the intralitter variation in postnatal growth perfor- mance, meat quality, and muscle fiber characteristics when littermates were categorized by carcass weight. Thirty-nine litters were weaned at 4 wk of age and had free access to feed from 2 wk of age until slaughter. They were slaughtered by litter at an average

P. M. Nissen; P. F. Jorgensen; N. Oksbjerg

2010-01-01

145

Polymorphisms in the bone morphogenetic protein 15 gene and their effect on sperm quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15) expression has been detected in the testis, but its roles in this organ has not been well elucidated. We evaluated polymorphisms of the BMP-15 gene by PCR-SSCP and PCR-RFLP in 212 Chinese Holstein bulls, and investigated possible associations with sperm quality traits, including semen volume per ejaculate, sperm density, fresh sperm motility, thawed sperm motility, acrosome integrity rate, and abnormal sperm rate. A single nucleotide polymorphism (C5697T) in intron 1 of the BMP-15 gene was identified in these bulls. Age was found to have significant effects on both fresh sperm motility and abnormal sperm rate. A significant effect of genotype on fresh sperm motility was also observed. Least square analysis showed that CT genotype bulls had significantly lower fresh sperm motility than CC or TT genotype bulls. In conclusion, BMP-15 should be considered as a potential genetic marker for sperm quality, based on its association with fresh sperm motility. PMID:24668668

Sun, L P; Song, Y P; Du, Q Z; Song, L W; Tian, Y Z; Zhang, S L; Hua, G H; Yang, L G

2014-01-01

146

Effects of Variants in Proopiomelanocortin and Neuropeptide Y Genes on Growth, Carcass, and Meat Quality Traits in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Appetite-related neuropeptides proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) are essential for regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of variants in POMC and NPY genes on growth, carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits. A total of six SNPs were identified for POMC (n = 2) and NPY (n = 4) genes by direct sequencing. Three SNPs were subsequently genotyped by using MassArray system (Sequenom iPLEXassay) in 235 individuals, which belong to three meat rabbit breeds, including 93 Ira rabbits; 81 Champagne rabbits and 61 Tianfu black rabbits. The SNP c.112-12G>T was in intron-exon boundaries (intron 1) of POMC gene, and the association analysis showed that individuals with TT genotype had a greater 84 d body weight (BW84), eviscerated weight and semi-eviscerated weight than those with GT genotype (p<0.05); the TT individuals were also higher than those GG in the ripe meat ratio (RMR) (p<0.05). The g.1778G>C SNP, which was in complete linkage with other three SNPs (g.1491G>A, g.1525G>T and g.1530C>T) in intron 1 of NPY gene, was significantly correlated with eviscerated slaughter percentage and semi-eviscerated slaughter percentage in rabbits, and the individuals with CC genotype had a better performance than CG genotype (p<0.05). These findings would provide primary clues for the biological roles of POMC and NPY underlying the rabbit growth-related traits.

Liu, Wen-Chao; Chen, Shi-Yi; Jia, Xian-Bo; Wang, Jie; Lai, Song-Jia

2014-01-01

147

Hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the Upper Wood River Ground-Water Reservoir, Rhode Island. Water resources investigations  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the upper Wood River ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island. The report includes discussion of (1) recharge to and hydraulic properties of the stratified-drift aquifer, (2) stream-aquifer interconnection, (3) assessment of the quality of ground water and surface water, (4) input to and calibration of a two-dimensional ground-water-flow model, and (5) results of simulations of the effect of alternative ground-water-development schemes on ground-water levels and streamflow.

Dickerman, D.C.; Bell, R.W.

1993-12-31

148

QTL analysis and comparative genomics of herbage quality traits in perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic control of herbage quality variation was assessed through the use of the molecular marker-based reference genetic map of perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.). The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and genomic DNA-derived simple sequence repeat-based (SSR) framework marker set was enhanced, with RFLP loci corresponding to genes for key enzymes involved in lignin

N. O. I. Cogan; K. F. Smith; T. Yamada; M. G. Francki; A. C. Vecchies; E. S. Jones; G. C. Spangenberg; J. W. Forster

2005-01-01

149

Effect of production system on performance traits, carcass and meat quality in Brown Swiss young cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance, carcass and meat quality were assessed in 3 groups of Brown Swiss male calves, all of them suckled by their dams: groups M200 and M250 were exclusively milk-fed and slaughtered at 200 or 250 kg, respectively, and G400 group was supplemented with grain and slaughtered at 400 kg after a short finishing period. Increasing weight in milk-fed animals led

A. Cerdeño; C. Vieira; E. Serrano; A. R. Mantecón

150

Effects of Crossbreeding and Gender on the Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Korean Native Black Pig and Duroc Crossbred  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to observe the effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of Korean Native Black Pig (KNP) and KNP×Duroc crossbred (KNP×D). A total of 50 pigs comprising seven KNP barrows, eight KNP gilts, twenty KNP×D barrows and fifteen KNP×D gilts were used in this study. Animals were reared in the same housing condition with same feed diet for six months prior to slaughter. After an overnight chilling, the carcasses were graded, and samples of Musculus longissimus dorsi were obtained for meat quality analysis. The slaughter and carcass weights and dressing percentage of KNP×D were higher (p<0.001) than those of KNP. The slaughter and carcass weights and backfat thickness of barrows were higher (p<0.01) than those of gilts. There were no significant difference in carcass conformation and quality grade between KNP and KNP×D as well as barrow and gilt. Fat content of KNP×D was higher (p<0.001) than that of KNP. Fat content of barrow was higher (p<0.001) than that of gilt. There was interaction between crossbreeding and gender on the fat content. KNP gilt showed higher fat content than KNP barrow whereas KNP×D barrow showed higher fat content than KNP×D gilt. Lightness, redness, yellowness, chroma and hue angle values and color preference of meat of KNP×D were lower (p<0.001) than those of KNP. Redness, yellowness and chroma values of meat of barrow were lower (p<0.05) than those of gilt. It is concluded that crossbreeding KNP with Duroc increases carcass productivity and meat fat but decreases meat color values and preference. Crossbreeding of KNP with Duroc produces a better fat deposition in meat of barrows than in gilts.

Muhlisin; Panjono; Lee, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jeong Koo; Lee, Sung Ki

2014-01-01

151

Effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of korean native black pig and duroc crossbred.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to observe the effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of Korean Native Black Pig (KNP) and KNP×Duroc crossbred (KNP×D). A total of 50 pigs comprising seven KNP barrows, eight KNP gilts, twenty KNP×D barrows and fifteen KNP×D gilts were used in this study. Animals were reared in the same housing condition with same feed diet for six months prior to slaughter. After an overnight chilling, the carcasses were graded, and samples of Musculus longissimus dorsi were obtained for meat quality analysis. The slaughter and carcass weights and dressing percentage of KNP×D were higher (p<0.001) than those of KNP. The slaughter and carcass weights and backfat thickness of barrows were higher (p<0.01) than those of gilts. There were no significant difference in carcass conformation and quality grade between KNP and KNP×D as well as barrow and gilt. Fat content of KNP×D was higher (p<0.001) than that of KNP. Fat content of barrow was higher (p<0.001) than that of gilt. There was interaction between crossbreeding and gender on the fat content. KNP gilt showed higher fat content than KNP barrow whereas KNP×D barrow showed higher fat content than KNP×D gilt. Lightness, redness, yellowness, chroma and hue angle values and color preference of meat of KNP×D were lower (p<0.001) than those of KNP. Redness, yellowness and chroma values of meat of barrow were lower (p<0.05) than those of gilt. It is concluded that crossbreeding KNP with Duroc increases carcass productivity and meat fat but decreases meat color values and preference. Crossbreeding of KNP with Duroc produces a better fat deposition in meat of barrows than in gilts. PMID:25050045

Muhlisin; Panjono; Lee, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jeong Koo; Lee, Sung Ki

2014-07-01

152

The use of wood for wind turbine blade construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interrelationships between moisture and wood, conditions for dry rot spore activity, the protection of wood fibers from moisture, wood resin composites, wood laminating, quality control, and the mechanical properties of wood are discussed. The laminated veneer and the bonded sawn stock fabrication techniques, used in the construction of a turbine blade with a monocoque 'D' section forming the leading

M. Gougeon; M. Zuteck

1979-01-01

153

Untargeted Metabolic Quantitative Trait Loci Analyses Reveal a Relationship between Primary Metabolism and Potato Tuber Quality1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in -omics technologies such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics along with genotypic profiling have permitted dissection of the genetics of complex traits represented by molecular phenotypes in nonmodel species. To identify the genetic factors underlying variation in primary metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum), we have profiled primary metabolite content in a diploid potato mapping population, derived from crosses between S. tuberosum and wild relatives, using gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry. In total, 139 polar metabolites were detected, of which we identified metabolite quantitative trait loci for approximately 72% of the detected compounds. In order to obtain an insight into the relationships between metabolic traits and classical phenotypic traits, we also analyzed statistical associations between them. The combined analysis of genetic information through quantitative trait locus coincidence and the application of statistical learning methods provide information on putative indicators associated with the alterations in metabolic networks that affect complex phenotypic traits.

Carreno-Quintero, Natalia; Acharjee, Animesh; Maliepaard, Chris; Bachem, Christian W.B.; Mumm, Roland; Bouwmeester, Harro; Visser, Richard G.F.; Keurentjes, Joost J.B.

2012-01-01

154

Mapping of QTLs for morpho-agronomic and seed quality traits in a RIL population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to determine the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling phenological traits (days to flowering, days to end of flowering, days to harvest as green pod, and days to maturity), seed size traits (seed length, seed height, seed width, and seed weight), and seed quality traits (water absorption, and coat proportion), in common bean. A population of 104 F(7) recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an inter-gene pool cross between Xana, and Cornell 49242, was used to develop a genetic linkage map including 175 AFLPs, 27 microsatellites, 30 SCARs, 33 ISSRs, 12 RAPDs, 13 loci codifying for seed proteins, and the four genes Fin,fin (growth habit); Asp,asp (seed coat shininess); P,p (seed color); and I,i (resistance to bean common mosaic virus). The map has a total length of 1,042 cM distributed across 11 linkage groups aligned to those of the core linkage map of bean using common molecular markers as anchor points. The QTL analyses were carried out over three environments using the mean environment data with composite interval mapping. Thirty-one QTLs for ten traits were found to be significant in at least one environment and in the mean environment data, the number of significant QTLs identified per trait ranging from two to five. Twenty-seven of these QTLs mapped forming clusters in eight different chromosomal regions. The rationale for this clustered mapping and the possible relationship between some QTLs for phenological traits and the genes Fin and I are discussed. PMID:20084493

Pérez-Vega, Elena; Pañeda, Astrid; Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Campa, Ana; Giraldez, Ramón; Ferreira, Juan José

2010-05-01

155

Genome-wide association mapping for wood characteristics in Populus identifies an array of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms.  

PubMed

Establishing links between phenotypes and molecular variants is of central importance to accelerate genetic improvement of economically important plant species. Our work represents the first genome-wide association study to the inherently complex and currently poorly understood genetic architecture of industrially relevant wood traits. Here, we employed an Illumina Infinium 34K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array that generated 29,233 high-quality SNPs in c. 3500 broad-based candidate genes within a population of 334 unrelated Populus trichocarpa individuals to establish genome-wide associations. The analysis revealed 141 significant SNPs (? ? 0.05) associated with 16 wood chemistry/ultrastructure traits, individually explaining 3-7% of the phenotypic variance. A large set of associations (41% of all hits) occurred in candidate genes preselected for their suggested a priori involvement with secondary growth. For example, an allelic variant in the FRA8 ortholog explained 21% of the total genetic variance in fiber length, when the trait's heritability estimate was considered. The remaining associations identified SNPs in genes not previously implicated in wood or secondary wall formation. Our findings provide unique insights into wood trait architecture and support efforts for population improvement based on desirable allelic variants. PMID:23889164

Porth, Ilga; Klapšte, Jaroslav; Skyba, Oleksandr; Hannemann, Jan; McKown, Athena D; Guy, Robert D; DiFazio, Stephen P; Muchero, Wellington; Ranjan, Priya; Tuskan, Gerald A; Friedmann, Michael C; Ehlting, Juergen; Cronk, Quentin C B; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Douglas, Carl J; Mansfield, Shawn D

2013-11-01

156

Association of PPAR?2 polymorphisms with carcass and meat quality traits in a Pietrain x Jinhua F2 population  

PubMed Central

The PPAR?2 gene is a key regulator of both proliferation and preadipocyte differentiation in mammals. Herein its genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed using PCR-SSCP in eight pig breeds (N = 416). Two kinds of polymorphisms of the PPAR?2 gene were detected, including a previously reported shift SNP A177G (Met59Val) in exon 1 and a novel silent mutation G876A in exon 5. The results revealed that European pig breeds carry a higher allele A frequency at the A177G locus and a fixed GG genotype at the G876A locus. Allele A at the G876A locus was only found in Jinhua pigs. The association between haplotype (A177G/G876A) and carcass and meat quality traits was analyzed in a Pietrain x Jinhua F2 population (N = 248). The PPAR?2 gene was found to be significantly associated with backfat thickness at the shoulder (p < 0.05), 6–7th ribs (p < 0.01), last rib (p < 0.01), gluteus medius (p <0.05) and ham weight (p < 0.01). Significant effects of different haplotypes on ham weight and backfat thickness at the 6–7th ribs, last rib, and gluteus medius were also observed.

Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Xiaoling; Guo, Xiaoling; Lv, Zunzhou; Zhou, Hongmei; Xu, Ningying

2011-01-01

157

Genome-Wide Association Study of Meat Quality Traits in a White DurocxErhualian F2 Intercross and Chinese Sutai Pigs  

PubMed Central

Thousands of QTLs for meat quality traits have been identified by linkage mapping studies, but most of them lack precise position or replication between populations, which hinder their application in pig breeding programs. To localize QTLs for meat quality traits to precise genomic regions, we performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study using the Illumina PorcineSNP60K Beadchip in two swine populations: 434 Sutai pigs and 933 F2 pigs from a White Duroc×Erhualian intercross. Meat quality traits, including pH, color, drip loss, moisture content, protein content and intramuscular fat content (IMF), marbling and firmness scores in the M. longissimus (LM) and M. semimembranosus (SM) muscles, were recorded on the two populations. In total, 127 chromosome-wide significant SNPs for these traits were identified. Among them, 11 SNPs reached genome-wise significance level, including 1 on SSC3 for pH, 1 on SSC3 and 3 on SSC15 for drip loss, 3 (unmapped) for color a*, and 2 for IMF each on SSC9 and SSCX. Except for 11 unmapped SNPs, 116 significant SNPs fell into 28 genomic regions of approximately 10 Mb or less. Most of these regions corresponded to previously reported QTL regions and spanned smaller intervals than before. The loci on SSC3 and SSC7 appeared to have pleiotropic effects on several related traits. Besides them, a few QTL signals were replicated between the two populations. Further, we identified thirteen new candidate genes for IMF, marbling and firmness, on the basis of their positions, functional annotations and reported expression patterns. The findings will contribute to further identification of the causal mutation underlying these QTLs and future marker-assisted selection in pigs.

Ma, Junwu; Yang, Jie; Zhou, Lisheng; Zhang, Zhiyan; Ma, Huanban; Xie, Xianhua; Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Xinwei; Cui, Leilei; Yang, Hui; Liu, Xianxian; Duan, Yanyu; Xiao, Shijun; Ai, Huashui; Ren, Jun; Huang, Lusheng

2013-01-01

158

A Whole Genome Association Study on Meat Quality Traits Using High Density SNP Chips in a Cross between Korean Native Pig and Landrace  

PubMed Central

A whole genome association (WGA) study was performed to detect significant polymorphisms for meat quality traits in an F2 cross population (N = 478) that were generated with Korean native pig sires and Landrace dams in National Livestock Research Institute, Songwhan, Korea. The animals were genotyped using Illumina porcine 60k SNP beadchips, in which a set of 46,865 SNPs were available for the WGA analyses on ten carcass quality traits; live weight, crude protein, crude lipids, crude ash, water holding capacity, drip loss, shear force, CIE L, CIE a and CIE b. Phenotypes were regressed on additive and dominance effects for each SNP using a simple linear regression model, after adjusting for sex, sire and slaughter stage as fixed effects. With the significant SNPs for each trait (p<0.001), a stepwise regression procedure was applied to determine the best set of SNPs with the additive and/or dominance effects. A total of 106 SNPs, or quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected, and about 32 to 66% of the total phenotypic variation was explained by the significant SNPs for each trait. The QTL were identified in most porcine chromosomes (SSCs), in which majority of the QTL were detected in SSCs 1, 2, 12, 13, 14 and 16. Several QTL clusters were identified on SSCs 12, 16 and 17, and a cluster of QTL influencing crude protein, crude lipid, drip loss, shear force, CIE a and CIE b were located between 20 and 29 Mb of SSC12. A pleiotropic QTL for drip loss, CIE L and CIE b was also detected on SSC16. These QTL need to be validated in commercial pig populations for genetic improvement in meat quality via marker-assisted selection.

Lee, K.-T; Lee, Y.-M.; Alam, M.; Choi, B. H.; Park, M. R.; Kim, K.-S.; Kim, T.-H.; Kim, J.-J.

2012-01-01

159

Effects of allelic variations in starch synthesis-related genes on grain quality traits of Korean nonglutinous rice varieties under different temperature conditions  

PubMed Central

Influences of allelic variations in starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs) on rice grain quality were examined. A total of 187 nonglutinous Korean rice varieties, consisting of 170 Japonica and 17 Tongil-type varieties, were grown in the field and in two greenhouse conditions. The percentages of head rice and chalky grains, amylose content, alkali digestion value, and rapid visco-analysis characteristics were evaluated in the three different environments. Among the 10 previously reported SSRG markers used in this study, seven were polymorphic, and four of those showed subspecies-specific allele distributions. Six out of the seven polymorphic SSRG markers were significantly associated with at least one grain quality trait (R2 > 0.1) across the three different environments. However, the association level and significance were markedly lower when the analysis was repeated using only the 170 Japonica varieties. Similarly, the significant associations between SSRG allelic variations and changes in grain quality traits under increased temperature were largely attributable to the biased allele frequency between the two subpopulations. Our results suggest that within Korean Japonica varieties, these 10 major SSRG loci have been highly fixed during breeding history and variations in grain quality traits might be influenced by other genetic factors.

Mo, Young-Jun; Jeung, Ji-Ung; Shin, Woon-Chul; Kim, Ki-Young; Ye, Changrong; Redona, Edilberto D.; Kim, Bo-Kyeong

2014-01-01

160

Effects of allelic variations in starch synthesis-related genes on grain quality traits of Korean nonglutinous rice varieties under different temperature conditions.  

PubMed

Influences of allelic variations in starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs) on rice grain quality were examined. A total of 187 nonglutinous Korean rice varieties, consisting of 170 Japonica and 17 Tongil-type varieties, were grown in the field and in two greenhouse conditions. The percentages of head rice and chalky grains, amylose content, alkali digestion value, and rapid visco-analysis characteristics were evaluated in the three different environments. Among the 10 previously reported SSRG markers used in this study, seven were polymorphic, and four of those showed subspecies-specific allele distributions. Six out of the seven polymorphic SSRG markers were significantly associated with at least one grain quality trait (R (2) > 0.1) across the three different environments. However, the association level and significance were markedly lower when the analysis was repeated using only the 170 Japonica varieties. Similarly, the significant associations between SSRG allelic variations and changes in grain quality traits under increased temperature were largely attributable to the biased allele frequency between the two subpopulations. Our results suggest that within Korean Japonica varieties, these 10 major SSRG loci have been highly fixed during breeding history and variations in grain quality traits might be influenced by other genetic factors. PMID:24987303

Mo, Young-Jun; Jeung, Ji-Ung; Shin, Woon-Chul; Kim, Ki-Young; Ye, Changrong; Redoña, Edilberto D; Kim, Bo-Kyeong

2014-06-01

161

Novel SNPs in heat shock protein 70 gene and their association with sperm quality traits of Boer goats and Boer crosses.  

PubMed

The semen quality of bucks affects the reproduction performance of the herd and is influenced by genetic and non-genetic factors. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is considered as an important gene affecting semen quality traits. The objectives of this study are to find single nucleotide polymorphisms in HSP70 coding region and their association with semen quality traits on Boer and Boer cross bucks. DNA isolated from 53 goats (36 pure South African Boer and 17 Boer crosses) was subjected to PCR amplification of the exon 1 region of the caprine HSP70 gene. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was used to detect polymorphisms and the variant DNA fragments were sequenced. Two synonymous SNPs (74A>C (ss836187517) and 191C>G (ss836187518)) were detected. Qualities of fresh and post-thaw semen were evaluated for sperm concentration, semen volume, sperm motility and velocity traits, live sperm percentage, and abnormal sperm rate. The C allele of ss836187517 and G allele of ss836187518 were at higher frequencies in both the breeds. The C allele of ss836187517 appeared to be the favorable allele for semen concentration, progressive motility of fresh semen, and motility and sperm lateral head displacement of post-thaw semen. A negative overdominance was observed for ss836187517 alleles on velocity traits of post-thaw semen. The C allele of ss836187518 was favorable for sperm concentration and progressive motility. Results herein suggest that the SNPs in HSP70 may affect on semen quality in tropical regions and specially on the potential of semen for freezing. PMID:24674824

Nikbin, S; Panandam, J M; Yaakub, H; Murugaiyah, M; Sazili, A Q

2014-05-01

162

Association study and expression analysis of CD9 as candidate gene for boar sperm quality and fertility traits.  

PubMed

Cluster-of-differentiation antigen 9 (CD9) gene expressed in the male germ line stem cells is crucial for sperm-egg fusion, and was therefore selected as candidate gene for boar semen quality. The association of CD9 with boar sperm quality and fertility trait was analyzed using a total of 340 boars both from purebred Pietrain and Pietrain×Hampshire crosses. A single nucleotide polymorphism (g.358A>T) in intron 6 was significantly associated with sperm motility (MOT) (P<0.001), plasma droplet rate (PDR) (P<0.001) and abnormal spermatozoa rate (ASR) (P<0.01). Boars were divided into two groups with group 1 (G-I) boars having a higher SCON and SMOT, lower SVOL (sperm volume) and group 2 (G-II) having a lower SCON and SMOT, higher SVOL. The mRNA and protein expression levels were evaluated in reproductive, non-reproductive tissues and spermatozoa from G-I and G-II animals by using quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. When both reproductive and non-reproductive tissues were examined, highest mRNA was expressed in prostate gland, then in the body of the epididymis, vas deferens and tail of the epididymis. In case of reproductive tissues, CD9 expression was higher in tissues and spermatozoa collected from G-I boars than those collected from G-II boars. The mRNA expression was significantly different (P<0.05) in body of epididymis from G-I and G-II boars. The CD9 protein expression results from western blot were coincided with the results of qRT-PCR. Moreover, CD9 protein localization in Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, epithelial cells and spermatozoa was remarkable which indicated the important role of CD9 in spermatogenesis process. By using mRNA and protein expression profiles, it could be shown that CD9 plays a crucial role during sperm development, especially within the epididymis where the maturation of the sperm, a key process for the sperm quality and motility takes place. These results will improve the understanding of the functions of the CD9 in spermatogenesis within the reproductive tracts and will shed light on CD9 as a candidate gene in the selection of good sperm quality boars. PMID:21398056

Kaewmala, Kanokwan; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Grosse-Brinkhaus, Christine; Jonas, Elisabeth; Tesfaye, Dawit; Phatsara, Chirawath; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl

2011-05-01

163

Evidence for effects of testis and epididymis expressed genes on sperm quality and boar fertility traits.  

PubMed

Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), androgen receptor (AR), relaxin (RLN), acrosin (ACR) and osteopontin (polymorphism in intron 6 named OPNin6; polymorphism in promoter region named OPNprom) were addressed as functional candidate genes for sperm quality and boar fertility and investigated for their association with sperm concentration, motility, semen volume per ejaculate, plasma droplets rate, abnormal spermatozoa rate as well as non-return rate and number of piglets born alive. Therefore 356 AI boars of the purebred Pietrain (PI) and crossbred Pietrain x Hampshire (PI x HA) were genotyped at these loci. Analysis of variance revealed significant associations of RBP4 (p < 0.05), ACR (p < 0.01), and OPNin6 (p < 0.05) with sperm motility. OPNin6 (p < 0.05) was also associated with number of piglets born alive. Moreover, AR (p < 0.05) and OPNprom (p < 0.05) were significantly associated with abnormal spermatozoa rate. For RLN (p < 0.01) there was evidence for effects on sperm volume and ACR significantly affected sperm concentration (p < 0.05) as well as non-return rate (p < 0.05). No significant effects of any locus on plasma droplets rate were observed. PMID:17107514

Lin, C; Tholen, E; Jennen, D; Ponsuksili, S; Schellander, K; Wimmers, K

2006-12-01

164

Six novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms in SPAG11 gene and their association with sperm quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm-associated antigen 11 (SPAG11) is predominant in the male reproductive tract. Similar to ?-defensin, aside from its antibacterial activity, SPAG11 also has an important role in male reproductive function. In the present study, the association of bovine SPAG11 gene polymorphism with sperm quality traits was examined, including ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, fresh sperm motility, post-thaw cryopreserved sperm motility, and deformity

Xinyan Liu; Zhihua Ju; Lingling Wang; Yan Zhang; Jingmin Huang; Qiuling Li; Jianbin Li; Jifeng Zhong; Liguo An; Changfa Wang

165

Fattening performance, carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of calves sired by Charolais, Simmental and Eastern Anatolian Red sires mated to Eastern Anatolian Red dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons were made among calves sired by Charolais (C), Simmental (S) and Eastern Anatolian Red (EAR) breeds of bulls for fattening, carcass and meat quality traits when mated to EAR dams. C- and S-sired calves had 43.1% and 36.4% higher daily weight gain, 44.5% and 43.9% heavier final weight in fattening, respectively. Calves produced by C sires had best feed

Abdülkadir Özlütürk; Naci Tüzemen; Mete Yanar; Nurinisa Esenbuga; Ensar Dursun

2004-01-01

166

Pectin Methylesterase Genes Influence Solid Wood Properties of Eucalyptus pilularis1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

This association study of Eucalyptus pilularis populations provides empirical evidence for the role of Pectin Methylesterase (PME) in influencing solid wood characteristics of Eucalyptus. PME6 was primarily associated with the shrinkage and collapse of drying timber, which are phenotypic traits consistent with the role of pectin as a hydrophilic polysaccharide. PME7 was primarily associated with cellulose and pulp yield traits and had an inverse correlation with lignin content. Selection of specific alleles in these genes may be important for improving trees as sources of high-quality wood products. A heterozygote advantage was postulated for the PME7 loci and, in combination with haplotype blocks, may explain the absence of a homozygous class at all single-nucleotide polymorphisms investigated in this gene.

Sexton, Timothy R.; Henry, Robert J.; Harwood, Chris E.; Thomas, Dane S.; McManus, Luke J.; Raymond, Carolyn; Henson, Michael; Shepherd, Mervyn

2012-01-01

167

Effect of pasture on chestnut woods on meat quality and fatty acid composition of fat in Cinta Senese pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Seven Cinta Senese pigs were reared in a paddock and fed on barley; other 7 pigs were reared in the woods and fed on chestnuts. A sample cut was removed from the loin and dissected. The following analyses were carried out on Longissimus lumborum (LI): colour measurements, moisture, intramuscular fat, water-holding capacity and shear force. Colour measurements and

C. Pugliese; F. Sirtori; A. Acciaioli; R. Bozzi; O. Franci

168

Wood Preservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Fire proofing; Wear or failure; Fungi and insects; Preparation of wood before treatment; Method of treatment; (Brushing, dipping, pressure process, boucherie process, dip diffusion); Absorption required.

F. J. Hitie A. W. Owadally

1984-01-01

169

DNA Variation at the Invertase Locus invGE/GF Is Associated With Tuber Quality Traits in Populations of Potato Breeding Clones  

PubMed Central

Starch and sugar content of potato tubers are quantitative traits, which are models for the candidate gene approach for identifying the molecular basis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in noninbred plants. Starch and sugar content are also important for the quality of processed products such as potato chips and French fries. A high content of the reducing sugars glucose and fructose results in inferior chip quality. Tuber starch content affects nutritional quality. Functional and genetic models suggest that genes encoding invertases control, among other things, tuber sugar content. The invGE/GF locus on potato chromosome IX consists of duplicated invertase genes invGE and invGF and colocalizes with cold-sweetening QTL Sug9. DNA variation at invGE/GF was analyzed in 188 tetraploid potato cultivars, which have been assessed for chip quality and tuber starch content. Two closely correlated invertase alleles, invGE-f and invGF-d, were associated with better chip quality in three breeding populations. Allele invGF-b was associated with lower tuber starch content. The potato invertase gene invGE is orthologous to the tomato invertase gene Lin5, which is causal for the fruit-sugar-yield QTL Brix9-2-5, suggesting that natural variation of sugar yield in tomato fruits and sugar content of potato tubers is controlled by functional variants of orthologous invertase genes.

Li, Li; Strahwald, Josef; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhard; Lubeck, Jens; Tacke, Eckart; Junghans, Holger; Wunder, Jorg; Gebhardt, Christiane

2005-01-01

170

DNA variation at the invertase locus invGE/GF is associated with tuber quality traits in populations of potato breeding clones.  

PubMed

Starch and sugar content of potato tubers are quantitative traits, which are models for the candidate gene approach for identifying the molecular basis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in noninbred plants. Starch and sugar content are also important for the quality of processed products such as potato chips and French fries. A high content of the reducing sugars glucose and fructose results in inferior chip quality. Tuber starch content affects nutritional quality. Functional and genetic models suggest that genes encoding invertases control, among other things, tuber sugar content. The invGE/GF locus on potato chromosome IX consists of duplicated invertase genes invGE and invGF and colocalizes with cold-sweetening QTL Sug9. DNA variation at invGE/GF was analyzed in 188 tetraploid potato cultivars, which have been assessed for chip quality and tuber starch content. Two closely correlated invertase alleles, invGE-f and invGF-d, were associated with better chip quality in three breeding populations. Allele invGF-b was associated with lower tuber starch content. The potato invertase gene invGE is orthologous to the tomato invertase gene Lin5, which is causal for the fruit-sugar-yield QTL Brix9-2-5, suggesting that natural variation of sugar yield in tomato fruits and sugar content of potato tubers is controlled by functional variants of orthologous invertase genes. PMID:15802505

Li, Li; Strahwald, Josef; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhard; Lübeck, Jens; Tacke, Eckart; Junghans, Holger; Wunder, Jörg; Gebhardt, Christiane

2005-06-01

171

Housing of growing rabbits in individual, bicellular and collective cages: growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality.  

PubMed

During growth (from 27 to 75 days of age), 384 rabbits were kept in different types of wire-net cages: 72 individual cages (72 rabbits; 10 animals/m2), 48 bicellular cages (96 rabbits; 2 rabbits/cage; 18 animals/m2) and 24 collective cages (216 rabbits; 9 rabbits/cage; 18 animals/m2). The rabbits housed in individual cages showed higher daily weight gain both during the fattening period (from 52 to 75 days of age) and during the whole period of growth (43.0 v. 41.8 and 41.5 g/day; P < 0.05), and they had a higher final live weight at 75 days of age (2678 v. 2619 and 2602 g; P < 0.05) compared with the rabbits in the bicellular and collective cages, respectively. Rabbits in individual cages ingested more feed (133 v. 127 and 126 g/day; P < 0.01), but the feed conversion did not differ significantly among rabbits housed in the three types of cages. At slaughter, the carcass traits and meat quality were weakly affected by the housing system. The transport losses were higher in rabbits kept in individual and bicellular cages compared with those reared in collective cages (3.1% and 2.9% v. 2.2%; P < 0.01). In rabbits kept in individual cages, the hind leg muscle to bone ratio was higher (6.35 v. 6.19 and 5.91; P < 0.05) compared with the bicellular and collective cages, respectively. The pH and colour of the longissimus lumborum did not change with the housing system, while the b* index of the biceps femoris was lower (3.04 and 3.32 v. 4.26; P < 0.001) in the rabbits kept in individual and bicellular cages, respectively, than in those kept in collective cages. In conclusion, the rabbits housed in individual cages showed higher daily growth than rabbits kept in bicellular or collective cages, but they had a similar feed conversion and carcass quality. Differently, neither in vivo performance nor slaughter results differed among the rabbits kept in bicellular cages or in collective cages. The meat colour may be affected by the housing system, but to an extent that is hardly perceivable by the final consumer. PMID:23153555

Xiccato, G; Trocino, A; Majolini, D; Tazzoli, M; Zuffellato, A

2013-04-01

172

The use of thyme and orange essential oils blend to improve quality traits ?of marinated chicken meat.  

PubMed

Poultry meat contains large quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which lead to oxidative deterioration. Plant essential oils (EO) and natural compounds, with antioxidant properties, may be used to alleviate this problem. Two replications were conducted to evaluate the effects of a mixture (1:1) of thyme and orange oils (EO) on the quality characteristics and the oxidative stability of chicken meat (breast and wing). For each replication, 24 fresh breast fillets and 24 wings were procured from a local grocery store. The EO were added to marinade solution to achieve a final concentration of 0.55% sodium chloride, 0.28% polyphosphate, and 0.05% wt/vol of EO blend. Breasts and wings were split in 2 different groups with homogenous pH and lightness and vacuum tumbled in 2 treatments, a 0.5% EO and a control (CON, no EO). Each group was tested for pH, Commission Internationale d'Eclairage color (lightness, L*; redness, a*; yellowness, b*), moisture content, marinade uptake, purge loss, cook yield, and shear force. Susceptibility to lipid oxidation was determined on fresh and frozen meat by TBA reactive substance analysis (induced oxidation from 0 to 150 min at 37°C). The EO breasts had lower purge loss compared with CON meat. Breast did not show any color, pH, marinade uptake, cooking yield, shear force, or moisture differences due to treatment, although cooked EO breast was slightly less red than CON. The EO wings presented higher a* and b* values after marination and lower purge loss and shear force than CON. No differences were detected on wings for color, pH, marinade uptake, cooking yield, or moisture between EO and CON wings. Both fresh and frozen EO breasts and EO wings were less susceptible to the lipid oxidation during all induced oxidation times compared with CON breasts and wings. In conclusion, EO had a positive effect on broiler breast and wing lipid oxidation without negatively affecting meat quality traits. PMID:24902698

Rimini, Simone; Petracci, Massimiliano; Smith, Douglas P

2014-08-01

173

Genetic associations between daily BW gain and live fleshiness of station-tested young bulls and carcass and meat quality traits of commercial intact males in Piemontese cattle.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate genetic relationships between beef traits of station-tested young bulls and carcass and meat quality traits (MQ) of commercial intact males in Piemontese cattle. Phenotypes for daily gain (DG) and live fleshiness traits (width at withers: WW; shoulder muscularity: SM; loin width: LW; loin thickness: LT; thigh muscularity: TM; thigh profile: TP) and thinness of the shin bone (BT) were available for 3,109 and 2,183 performance-tested young bulls, respectively. Carcass daily gain (CDG), carcass conformation (SEUS), pH at 24 h (pH24h) and 8 d after slaughter (pH8d), lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue angle (HA), saturation index (SI), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL), and shear force (SF) were assessed for 1,208 commercial intact males. (Co) variance components were estimated in a set of twelve 9-traits analyses using REML and linear animal models including all performance-test traits and 1 carcass or MQ trait at a time. Heritabilities ± SE of beef traits ranged from 0.26 ± 0.03 (LW) to 0.47 ± 0.01 (DG), whereas those of carcass traits and MQ from 0.06 ± 0.03 (CL) to 0.63 ± 0.04 (HA). The genetic correlation (rg) between DG and CDG was 0.75 ± 0.10, indicating that DG, as measured at the test station, is a good indicator of the carcass gain achieved by commercial animals under farms conditions. Daily BW gain of station-tested bulls correlated positively with color traits (from 0.11 ± 0.12 to 0.54 ± 0.09), ph8d (rg ± SE = 0.31 ± 0.11), DL (rg ± SE = 0.29 ± 0.17), and CL (rg ± SE = 0.27 ± 0.18). Live fleshiness of station-tested bulls exhibited genetic correlations with MQ of commercial animals that were positive for L* and b* (from 0.13 ± 0.08 to 0.65 ± 0.14) and negative for pH (from -0.27 ± 0.15 to -0.57 ± 0.11), CL (from -0.16 ± 0.23 to -0.43 ± 0.22), and SF (TM: rg ± SE = -0.31 ± 0.15; TP: rg ± SE = -0.41 ± 0.17). The thinness of the shin bone correlated unfavorably with CDG (rg ± SE = -0.74 ± 0.07) and favorably with SEUS (rg ± SE = 0.65 ± 0.17), CL (rg ± SE = -0.39 ± 0.13), and SF (rg ± SE = -0.32 ± 0.17). The estimated genetic correlations indicate that selection to increase DG, as measured at the test station, exerts moderate adverse effects on MQ. Because selection emphasis is greater for live fleshiness than for DG, the correlated response in MQ and carcass traits is expected to be influenced to a greater extent by selection for muscularity, even though these traits are less heritable than DG. PMID:23463552

Bonfatti, V; Albera, A; Carnier, P

2013-05-01

174

Accuracy of pedigree and genomic predictions of carcass and novel meat quality traits in multi-breed sheep data assessed by cross-validation  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic predictions can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. This is especially useful for meat quality traits in sheep. Carcass and novel meat quality traits were predicted in a multi-breed sheep population that included Merino, Border Leicester, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk sheep and their crosses. Methods Prediction of breeding values by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) based on pedigree information was compared to prediction based on genomic BLUP (GBLUP) and a Bayesian prediction method (BayesR). Cross-validation of predictions across sire families was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictions based on the correlation of predicted and observed values and the regression of observed on predicted values was used to evaluate bias of methods. Accuracies and regression coefficients were calculated using either phenotypes or adjusted phenotypes as observed variables. Results and conclusions Genomic methods increased the accuracy of predicted breeding values to on average 0.2 across traits (range 0.07 to 0.31), compared to an average accuracy of 0.09 for pedigree-based BLUP. However, for some traits with smaller reference population size, there was no increase in accuracy or it was small. No clear differences in accuracy were observed between GBLUP and BayesR. The regression of phenotypes on breeding values was close to 1 for all methods, indicating little bias, except for GBLUP and adjusted phenotypes (regression = 0.78). Accuracies calculated with adjusted (for fixed effects) phenotypes were less variable than accuracies based on unadjusted phenotypes, indicating that fixed effects influence the latter. Increasing the reference population size increased accuracy, indicating that adding more records will be beneficial. For the Merino, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk breeds, accuracies were greater than for the Border Leicester breed due to the smaller sample size and limited across-breed prediction. BayesR detected only a few large marker effects but one region on chromosome 6 was associated with large effects for several traits. Cross-validation produced very similar variability of accuracy and regression coefficients for BLUP, GBLUP and BayesR, showing that this variability is not a property of genomic methods alone. Our results show that genomic selection for novel difficult-to-measure traits is a feasible strategy to achieve increased genetic gain.

2012-01-01

175

The relationship between traits optimism and anxiety and health-related quality of life in patients hospitalized for chronic diseases: data from the SATISQOL study  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of psychological factors is often taken into account in the evaluation of quality of life. However, the effect of optimism and trait anxiety remains controversial and they are rarely studied simultaneously. We aimed to study the effect of this factor on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients after a hospitalization in relation with their chronic disease. Methods Using cross-sectional data from the SATISQOL cohort, we conducted a multicentric study, including patients hospitalized for an intervention in connection with their chronic disease. Six months after hospitalization, patients completed a generic HRQOL questionnaire (SF-36), and the STAI and LOT-R questionnaires to evaluate optimism and trait anxiety. We studied the effect of each trait on HRQOL separately, and simultaneously, taking account of their interaction in 3 models, using an ANOVA. Results In this study, 1529 patients were included in three participating hospitals and there existed wide diversity in the chronic diseases in our population. The HRQOL score increased for all dimensions of SF36 between 15,8 and 44,5 when the level of anxiety decreased (p?trait anxiety appeared to be significantly correlated with HRQOL. Furthermore, an interaction existed between the trait anxiety and optimism for some dimensions of SF36. Contrary to optimism, it seems essential to evaluate trait anxiety in future studies about HRQOL, since it could represent a confounding factor.

2013-01-01

176

Variation in the ovocalyxin-32 gene in commercial egg-laying chickens and its relationship with egg production and egg quality traits.  

PubMed

Avian eggshell quality is an important trait for commercial egg production, as the eggshell is the primary packaging material and antimicrobial barrier for the internal food resource. Strong eggshells are essential to ensure that eggs can reach their final destination without damage. Ovocalyxin-32 (OCX32) is a matrix protein found within the outer layers of the eggshell and in the cuticle. Numerous reports in the literature have identified association between variants in the gene encoding this protein, OCX32, and various eggshell quality traits. Thus, OCX32 is a candidate gene for selection for eggshell traits in commercial poultry populations. Sequencing of exons 2-6 of the OCX32 gene in eight elite brown and white eggshell commercial egg-laying lines revealed 28 SNPs and one SNP/indel. Eighteen of these SNPs were predicted to alter the amino acid sequence of the protein. Clusters of SNPs in complete linkage disequilibrium were found in both exons 2 and 6. A total of 19 different versions or protein-sequence haplotypes of the OCX32 protein were inferred, revealing considerable variation within commercial lines. Genotypes for 13 of the SNPs were determined for 330-1819 individuals per line. Trait association studies revealed a significant effect of OCX32 on shell color in white egg lines and line-specific significant effects on albumen height, early egg weight, puncture score, and yolk weight. Three of the lines showed a significant change in OCX32 frequency over time, indicating selection pressure for certain variants of this gene during the breeding program. PMID:22742508

Fulton, J E; Soller, M; Lund, A R; Arango, J; Lipkin, E

2012-07-01

177

Growth performance, meat quality traits, and genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci in 3 generations of Japanese quail populations (Coturnix japonica).  

PubMed

The current research was conducted to compare growth, carcass traits, pH, intramuscular collagen (IMC) properties, and genetic bases of IMC and carcasses (breast-muscle weight) of different lines and generations of adult males and females of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Forty-four quails (generation F0), 22 Pharaoh (F-33) meat-type males and 22 Standard (S-22) laying-type females, were crossed to produce the F1 hybrids generation. The F2 generation was created by mating one F1 male with one F1 female, full siblings. The birds, randomly chosen from F0 (22 males and 22 females), F1 (22 males and 22 females), and F2 (84 males and 152 females) were raised to 20 wk of age in collective cages. Quails were fed ad libitum commercial diets. At slaughter, all birds were individually weighed (after a fasting period of 12 h) and dressing yield (without giblets) was calculated. The carcasses were then dissected. Genomic DNA was extracted from all of the blood, and 30 microsatellite markers located on 2 quail chromosomes were genotyped. The F -: 33 quails had higher in vivo and postmortem performances and a higher abdominal fat percentage than those of the egg line. Meat from S -: 22 quails had a slower collagen maturation (hydroxylysylpyridinoline crosslink/collagen) and a higher ultimate pH. The F1 and F2 generations showed an evident sexual dimorphism, and an additional effect could be due to hybrid heterosis evident in F2. Meat from quails of F1 and F2 generations had a lower IMC amount with a higher degree of collagen maturation compared with parental lines. Two statistically significant QTL have been detected on quail chromosome 2 (CJA02): a QTL with an additive effect (0.50) for IMC in the marker bracket GUJ0037 and GUJ0093; a second QTL with additive (1.32) and dominant (1.91) effects for breast-muscle weight in the marker bracket GUJ0084 and GUJ0073. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a QTL associated with breast-muscle weight and IMC in quail and poultry species, respectively. PMID:24931963

Tavaniello, S; Maiorano, G; Siwek, M; Knaga, S; Witkowski, A; Di Memmo, D; Bednarczyk, M

2014-08-01

178

The effect of different dietary levels of rapeseed meal on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in turkeys.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dietary levels of low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RSM) on growth performance, blood thyroid hormone concentration, carcass traits, and chemical composition, physicochemical properties, and fatty acid profile of breast meat in growing turkeys. The experiment lasted for 21 wk. Large White BIG-6 turkeys were fed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing 0, 60, 120, and 180 g/kg of RSM. Each experimental group was comprised of 7 replicates/pen of 28 birds each. There was no effect of graded levels of RSM on final BW. An increase in the inclusion rate of RSM was followed by a linear increase in feed conversion ratio, which was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the group fed 180 g/kg of RSM. The blood levels of free triiodothyronine decreased significantly (P < 0.05) regardless of the dietary level of RSM. No significant changes in the carcass dressing percentage or the meat fat content were observed. Significant differences were found in the fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of breast meat. The concentrations of margaroleic acid and saturated fatty acids, including myristic and palmitic acid, in meat from male turkeys fed 120 and 180 g/kg of RSM decreased linearly; whereas the levels of oleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic and linolenic acid (an n-3 fatty acid), increased linearly. An increase in RSM content of the diets was accompanied by the unfavorable changes in selected functional properties of meat, including a significant increase in drip loss in groups fed 120 g/kg of RSM (from 1.85 to 2.38%) and 180 g/kg of RSM (from 1.85 to 3.02%) and a decrease in Warner-Bratzler shear force values in turkeys fed 180 g/kg of RSM (from 19.1 to 15.8 N). The results suggest that the quality of turkey meat could be affected by impaired triiodothyronine secretion caused by dietary RSM. PMID:22184447

Mikulski, D; Jankowski, J; Zdunczyk, Z; Juskiewicz, J; Slominski, B A

2012-01-01

179

Human Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate variations in human traits. This allows learners' natural curiosity about their identity to draw them into the study of heredity. Learners can investigate traits such as earlobe attachment, tongue rolling, hair and eye color, and hair texture. Through these traits, learners get an introduction to different inheritance patterns such as simple and incomplete dominance. Activity is usually done over multiple days to give learners time to survey people about their traits.

Salter, Irene

2012-06-26

180

Allelic variation in PtGA20Ox associates with growth and wood properties in Populus spp.  

PubMed

Populus tomentosa is an economically important tree crop that produces wood for lumber, pulp, paper, and biofuels. Wood quality traits are likely to be strongly affected by the plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA), which regulates growth. GA20Ox encodes one of the major regulatory enzymes of GA biosynthesis and may therefore play a large role in growth and wood quality. Here, linkage disequilibrium (LD) studies were used to identify significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within PtGA20Ox and growth and wood-quality traits of P. tomentosa. We isolated a full-length GA20Ox cDNA from Populus tomentosa by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR; this 1401 bp cDNA clone had an open reading frame of 1158 bp and encoded a protein of 385 amino acids. PtGA20Ox transcripts were maximally expressed in the mature xylem of vascular tissues, suggesting that PtGA20Ox is highly expressed and specifically associated with secondary xylem formation. Resequencing the PtGA20Ox locus of 36 individuals identified 55 SNPs, and the frequency of SNPs was 1/31 bp. The 29 most common SNPs (frequency>0.1) were genotyped in an association population (426 individuals) that was also phenotyped for key growth and wood quality traits. LD did not extend over the entire gene (r(2)<0.1, within 500 bp), demonstrating that a candidate-gene-based LD approach may the best way to understand the molecular basis underlying quantitative variation in this species. SNP- and haplotype-based association analyses indicated that four SNPs (false discovery rate Q<0.05) and 14 haplotypes (P<0.05) were significantly associated with growth and wood properties. The phenotypic variance explained by each SNP ranged from 3.44% to 14.47%. The SNP markers identified in this study can be applied to breeding programs for the improvement of growth and wood-property traits by marker-assisted selection. PMID:23300875

Tian, Jiaxing; Du, Qingzhang; Chang, Mengqi; Zhang, Deqiang

2012-01-01

181

Effects of polymorphisms in the porcine microRNA MIR206 / MIR133B cluster on muscle fiber and meat quality traits.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules that repress gene expression primarily at the post-transcriptional level. Genetic variations in microRNA genes may contribute to phenotypic differences by altering the expression of microRNAs and their targets. Here, we identified 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genomic region of the porcine MIR206 / MIR133B cluster, 10 and 2 of which were associated with MIR206 and MIR133B respectively. All 12 SNPs were located within primary microRNAs. Allele frequency determination in different pig breeds (Berkshire, n = 153; Landrace, n = 125; Yorkshire, n = 173) and association studies of muscle fiber characteristics, lean meat production and meat quality traits were performed on the MIR206 and MIR133B SNPs. The MIR206 SNPs were associated with the percentage of type IIa and IIb fibers for muscle fiber area composition, meat quality traits including drip loss and lightness, and backfat thickness, a parameter of lean meat production. In addition, we found significant association of the MIR133B SNPs with total muscle fiber number, loin eye area, and muscle pH. Furthermore, these SNPs significantly affected the levels of mature MIR206 and MIR133B , respectively, primarily by regulating the processing of primary microRNAs into precursor microRNAs. Interestingly, altered MIR206 levels correlated with phenotypic variability among genotypes of the MIR206 SNP. Our data suggest that polymorphisms in the porcine MIR206 / MIR133B cluster are a genetic factor affecting muscle and meat quality traits. PMID:22583385

Lee, Jun-Seong; Kim, Jun-Mo; Lim, Kyu-Sang; Hong, Jae-Sang; Hong, Ki-Chang; Lee, Young Sik

2013-02-01

182

Association of TNP2 Gene Polymorphisms of the bta-miR-154 Target Site with the Semen Quality Traits of Chinese Holstein Bulls  

PubMed Central

Transition protein 2 (TNP2) participates in removing nucleohistones and the initial condensation of spermatid nucleus during spermiogenesis. This study investigated the relationship between the variants of the bovine TNP2 gene and the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls. We detected three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNP2 gene in 392 Chinese Holstein bulls, namely, g.269 G>A (exon 1), g.480 C>T (intron 1), and g.1536 C>T (3?-UTR). Association analysis showed that the semen quality traits of the Chinese Holstein bulls was significantly affected by the three SNPs. The bulls with the haplotypic combinations H6H4, H6H6, and H6H8 had higher initial semen motility than those with the H7H8 and H8H4 haplotypic combinations (P<0.05). SNPs in the microRNA (miRNA) binding region of the TNP2 gene 3?-UTR may have contributed to the phenotypic differences. The phenotypic differences are caused by the altered expression of the miRNAs and their targets. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the g.1536 C>T site in the TNP2 3?-UTR is located in the bta-miR-154 binding region. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that the TNP2 mRNA relative expression in bulls with the CT and CC genotypes was significantly higher than those with the TT genotype (P<0.05) in the g.1536 C>T site. The luciferase assay also indicated that bta-miR-154 directly targets TNP2 in a murine Leydig cell tumor cell line. The SNP g.1536 C>T in the TNP2 3?-UTR, which altered the binding of TNP2 with bta-miR-154, was found to be associated with the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls.

Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaojian; Qi, Chao; Li, Jianbin; Zhong, Jifeng; Li, Guorong; Wang, Changfa

2014-01-01

183

Association of TNP2 gene polymorphisms of the bta-miR-154 target site with the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls.  

PubMed

Transition protein 2 (TNP2) participates in removing nucleohistones and the initial condensation of spermatid nucleus during spermiogenesis. This study investigated the relationship between the variants of the bovine TNP2 gene and the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls. We detected three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNP2 gene in 392 Chinese Holstein bulls, namely, g.269 G>A (exon 1), g.480 C>T (intron 1), and g.1536 C>T (3'-UTR). Association analysis showed that the semen quality traits of the Chinese Holstein bulls was significantly affected by the three SNPs. The bulls with the haplotypic combinations H6H4, H6H6, and H6H8 had higher initial semen motility than those with the H7H8 and H8H4 haplotypic combinations (P<0.05). SNPs in the microRNA (miRNA) binding region of the TNP2 gene 3'-UTR may have contributed to the phenotypic differences. The phenotypic differences are caused by the altered expression of the miRNAs and their targets. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the g.1536 C>T site in the TNP2 3'-UTR is located in the bta-miR-154 binding region. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that the TNP2 mRNA relative expression in bulls with the CT and CC genotypes was significantly higher than those with the TT genotype (P<0.05) in the g.1536 C>T site. The luciferase assay also indicated that bta-miR-154 directly targets TNP2 in a murine Leydig cell tumor cell line. The SNP g.1536 C>T in the TNP2 3'-UTR, which altered the binding of TNP2 with bta-miR-154, was found to be associated with the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls. PMID:24416221

Gao, Qing; Ju, Zhihua; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaojian; Qi, Chao; Li, Jianbin; Zhong, Jifeng; Li, Guorong; Wang, Changfa

2014-01-01

184

Genetic Variation in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) for Seed Quality-Related Traits and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers  

PubMed Central

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) is an oilseed crop that is valued as a source of high quality vegetable oil. The genetic diversity of 16 safflower genotypes originated from different geographical regions of Iran and some with exotic origin were evaluated. Eight different seed quality-related traits including fatty acid composition of seed oil (stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid), the contents of, oil, protein, fiber and ash in its seeds, as well as 20 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) polymorphic primers were used in this study. Analysis of variance showed significant variation in genotypes for the seed quality-related traits. Based on ISSR markers, a total of 204 bands were amplified and 149 bands (about 70%) of these were polymorphic. Cluster analysis based on either biochemical or molecular markers classified the genotypes into four groups, showing some similarities between molecular and biochemical markers for evaluated genotypes. A logical similarity between the genotype clusters based on molecular data with their geographical origins was observed.

Golkar, Pooran; Arzani, Ahmad; Rezaei, Abdolmajid M.

2011-01-01

185

Polymorphisms in the delta-like 2 homolog gene and their association with growth and meat-quality traits in Qinchuan cattle.  

PubMed

The delta-like 2 homolog (DLK2) modulates adipogenesis, hematopoiesis, osteogenesis, and other cell-differentiation processes. In the present study, we detected potential polymorphisms in the DLK2 gene in 604 individuals of Qinchuan cattle by using PCR-RFLP and DNA-sequencing methods. Herein, we identified five novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (g.888G>A, g.910A>G, g.995G>A, g.4321A>G, g.4850A>G) and analyzed their association with measured traits. Four of the five analyzed polymorphisms were associated with at least one of the following traits: body weight (BW), chest depth (CD), chest circumference (CC), back fat thickness (BT), and rib-eye area (REA). To the best of our knowledge, our research is the first to report the association of DLK2 gene polymorphisms with growth and meat quality traits in Qinchuan cattle. In summary, the results of our study suggest that the DLK2 gene can be used as a candidate gene in beef cattle breeding. PMID:24737437

Yang, N; Zan, L S; Li, Y K; Gao, J B; Ma, X H; Fu, C Z; Wang, H; Adoligbe, C

2014-01-01

186

AB-QTL analysis in winter wheat: I. Synthetic hexaploid wheat ( T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides  ×  T. tauschii ) as a source of favourable alleles for milling and baking quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advanced backcross QTL (AB-QTL) strategy was utilised to locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for baking quality traits\\u000a in two BC2F3 populations of winter wheat. The backcrosses are derived from two German winter wheat cultivars, Batis and Zentos, and two\\u000a synthetic, hexaploid wheat accessions, Syn022 and Syn086. The synthetics originate from hybridisations of wild emmer (T. turgidum spp. dicoccoides) and

Antje Kunert; Ali Ahmad Naz; Oliver Dedeck; Klaus Pillen; Jens Léon

2007-01-01

187

Heritability and repeatability of milk coagulation properties predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy during routine data recording, and their relationships with milk yield and quality traits.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate (co)variance components for milk coagulation properties (MCP) predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) during routine milk recording, and to assess their relationships with yield and quality traits. A total of 63 470 milk samples from Holstein-Friesian cows were analyzed for MCP, pH and quality characteristics using MIRS. Casein to protein and protein to fat ratios were calculated from information obtained by MIRS. Records were collected across 1 year on 16 089 cows in 345 herds. The model used for genetic analysis included fixed effects of parity and stage of lactation, and random effects of herd-test-day, cow permanent environmental, animal additive genetic and residual. (Co)variance components were assessed in a Bayesian framework using the Gibbs Sampler. Estimates of heritabilities were consistent with those reported in the literature, being moderate for MCP (0.210 and 0.238 for rennet coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (a30), respectively), milk contents (0.213 to 0.333) and pH (0.262), and low for somatic cell score (0.093) and yield traits (0.098 to 0.130). Repeatabilities were 0.391 and 0.434 for RCT and a30, respectively, and genetic correlations were generally low, with estimates greater than 0.30 (in absolute value) only for a30 with fat, protein and casein contents. Overall, results suggest that genetic evaluation for MCP predicted by MIRS is feasible at population level, and several repeated measures per cow during a lactation are required to estimate reliable breeding values for coagulation traits. PMID:23816365

Tiezzi, F; Pretto, D; De Marchi, M; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M

2013-10-01

188

Evaluation of cytoplasmic effects on agronomic and seed quality traits in two doubled haploid populations of Brassica napus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytoplasmic effects have been occasionally implicated in the inheritance of several traits in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), including linolenic acid concentration (18:3) in the oil. It is important that these be considered when choosing the\\u000a direction of cross for producing new breeding populations. To study this phenomenon, a reciprocal cross was made between two\\u000a genotypes of oilseed rape, Reston

I. Rajcan; K. J. Kasha; L. S. Kott; W. D. Beversdorf

2002-01-01

189

Effect of Dietary L-ascorbic Acid (L-AA) on Production Performance, Egg Quality Traits and Fertility in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) at Low Ambient Temperature  

PubMed Central

Environmental stress boosts the levels of stress hormones and accelerates energy expenditure which subsequently imbalance the body’s homeostasis. L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) has been recognized to mitigate the negative impact of environmental stress on production performances in birds. The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the effect of different dietary levels of L-AA on production performance, egg quality traits and fertility in Japanese quail at low ambient temperature. Sixty matured females (15 wks) were equally divided into three groups (20/group) based on the different dietary levels of L-AA (0, 250 and 500 ppm) and coupled with an equal number of males (1:1) obtained from the same hatch. They were managed in uniform husbandry conditions without restriction of feed and water at 14 h photo-schedule. Except for feed efficiency, body weight change, feed consumption and hen-day egg production were recorded highest in 500 ppm L-AA supplemented groups. Among the all egg quality traits studied, only specific gravity, shell weight and thickness differed significantly (p<0.05) in the present study. Fertility was improved significantly (p<0.01) to a dose dependent manner of L-AA. The findings of the present study concluded that dietary L-AA can be a caring management practice at least in part to alleviate the adverse effect of cold induced stress on production performance in Japanese quail.

Shit, N.; Singh, R. P.; Sastry, K. V. H.; Agarwal, R.; Singh, R.; Pandey, N. K.; Mohan, J.

2012-01-01

190

Results of a whole-genome quantitative trait locus scan for growth, carcass composition and meat quality in a porcine four-way cross.  

PubMed

A whole-genome quantitative trait locus (QTL) scan for 31 phenotypes related to growth, carcass composition and meat quality was conducted using 1187 progeny of a commercial four-way cross. Animals were genotyped for 198 microsatellite markers that spanned the entire porcine genome. QTL analysis was conducted to extract information from paternal and maternal meioses separately using a rank-based nonparametric approach for half-sib designs. Nine QTL exceeded genome-wide significance: one QTL affecting growth (average daily gain on SSC1), two QTL influencing carcass composition (fatness on SSC3 and muscle mass on SSC15) and six QTL influencing meat quality (tenderness on SSC4 and SSC14; colour on SSC5, SSC6 and SSCX; and conductivity on SSC16). All but one of these coincided with previously reported QTL. In addition, we present evidence for 78 suggestive QTL with a combined false discovery rate of 40%. PMID:17121599

Harmegnies, N; Davin, F; De Smet, S; Buys, N; Georges, M; Coppieters, W

2006-12-01

191

Flattening Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traits are fine-grained components that can be used to compose classes, while avoiding many of the problems of multiple inheritance and mixin-based approaches. Since most implementations of traits have focused on dynamically-typed languages, the question naturally arises, how can one best introduce traits to statically-typed languages, like Java and C#? In this paper we argue that the flattening property of

Oscar Nierstrasz; Stéphane Ducasse; Nathanael Schärli

2006-01-01

192

Genetic analyses of agronomic and seed quality traits of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea.  

PubMed

The heritability, the number of segregating genes and the type of gene interaction of nine agronomic traits were analysed based on F2 populations of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea through ovary culture. The nine traits-plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, length of pod, seed weight per plant and 1000-seed weight-had heritabilities of 0.927, 0.215, 0.172, 0.381, 0.360, 0.972, 0.952, 0.516 and 0.987 respectively, while the mean numbers of controlling genes for these characters were 7.4, 10.4, 9.9, 12.9, 11.5, 21.7, 20.5, 19.8 and 6.4 respectively. According to estimated coefficients of skewness and kurtosis of the traits tested, no significant gene interaction was found for plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight. Seed yield per plant is an important target for oilseed production. In partial correlation analysis, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight were positively correlated with seed yield per plant. On the other hand, length of pod was negatively correlated (r = -0.69) with seed yield per plant. Other agronomic characters had no significant correlation to seed yield per plant. In this experiment, the linear regressions of seed yield per plant and other agronomic traits were also analysed. The linear regression equation was y = 0.074x8 + 1.819x9 + 6.72x12- 60.78 (R2= 0.993), where x8, x9 and x12 represent number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight respectively. The experiment also showed that erucic acid and oil contents of seeds from F2 plants were lower than those of their maternal parents. However, glucosinolate content was higher than that of the maternal plants. As for protein content, similar results were found in the F2 plants and their maternal parents. It was shown that the four quality traits, i.e. erucic acid, glucosinolate, oil content, and protein content, had heritability values of 0.614, 0.405, 0.153 and 0.680 respectively. PMID:16809839

Zhang, Guoqing; Zhou, Weijun

2006-04-01

193

A new genomic resource dedicated to wood formation in Eucalyptus  

PubMed Central

Background Renowned for their fast growth, valuable wood properties and wide adaptability, Eucalyptus species are amongst the most planted hardwoods in the world, yet they are still at the early stages of domestication because conventional breeding is slow and costly. Thus, there is huge potential for marker-assisted breeding programs to improve traits such as wood properties. To this end, the sequencing, analysis and annotation of a large collection of expressed sequences tags (ESTs) from genes involved in wood formation in Eucalyptus would provide a valuable resource. Results We report here the normalization and sequencing of a cDNA library from developing Eucalyptus secondary xylem, as well as the construction and sequencing of two subtractive libraries (juvenile versus mature wood and vice versa). A total of 9,222 high quality sequences were collected from about 10,000 cDNA clones. The EST assembly generated a set of 3,857 wood-related unigenes including 2,461 contigs (Cg) and 1,396 singletons (Sg) that we named 'EUCAWOOD'. About 65% of the EUCAWOOD sequences produced matches with poplar, grapevine, Arabidopsis and rice protein sequence databases. BlastX searches of the Uniref100 protein database allowed us to allocate gene ontology (GO) and protein family terms to the EUCAWOOD unigenes. This annotation of the EUCAWOOD set revealed key functional categories involved in xylogenesis. For instance, 422 sequences matched various gene families involved in biosynthesis and assembly of primary and secondary cell walls. Interestingly, 141 sequences were annotated as transcription factors, some of them being orthologs of regulators known to be involved in xylogenesis. The EUCAWOOD dataset was also mined for genomic simple sequence repeat markers, yielding a total of 639 putative microsatellites. Finally, a publicly accessible database was created, supporting multiple queries on the EUCAWOOD dataset. Conclusion In this work, we have identified a large set of wood-related Eucalyptus unigenes called EUCAWOOD, thus creating a valuable resource for functional genomics studies of wood formation and molecular breeding in this economically important genus. This set of publicly available annotated sequences will be instrumental for candidate gene approaches, custom array development and marker-assisted selection programs aimed at improving and modulating wood properties.

Rengel, David; Clemente, Helene San; Servant, Florence; Ladouce, Nathalie; Paux, Etienne; Wincker, Patrick; Couloux, Arnaud; Sivadon, Pierre; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

2009-01-01

194

Quantification of amylose, amylopectin, and ?-glucan in search for genes controlling the three major quality traits in barley by genome-wide association studies.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan concentration in a collection of 254 European spring barley varieties allowed to identify 20, 17, and 21 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers, respectively, associated with these important grain quality traits. Negative correlations between the content of amylose and ?-glucan (R = -0.62, P < 0.01) and amylopectin and ?-glucan (R = -0.487, P < 0.01) were found in this large collection of spring barley varieties. Besides HvCslF6, amo1 and AGPL2, sex6, and waxy were identified among the major genes responsible for ?-glucan, amylose and amylopectin content, respectively. Several minor genes like HvGSL4, HvGSL3, and HvCesA6, PWD were also detected by GWAS for the first time. Furthermore, the gene encoding ?-fructofuranosidase, located on the short arm of chromosome 7H at 1.49 cM, and SRF6, encoding "leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase protein" on chromosome 2 H, are proposed to be new candidate genes for amylopectin formation in barley endosperm. Several of the associated SNPs on chromosome 1, 5, 6, and 7H mapped to overlapping regions containing QTLs and genes controlling the three grain constituents. In particular chromosomes 5 and 7H carry many QTLs controlling barley grain quality. Amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan were interacted among each other through a metabolic network connected by UDP showing pleiotropic effects. Taken together, these results showed that cereal quality traits related each other and regulated through an interaction network, the identified major genes and genetic regions for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan is a helpful for further research on carbohydrates and barley breeding. PMID:24860587

Shu, Xiaoli; Rasmussen, Søren K

2014-01-01

195

Identification of quantitative trait loci for grain quality in an advanced backcross population derived from the Oryza sativa variety IR64 and the wild relative O. rufipogon.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with grain quality in rice. Two hundred eighty-five BC(2)F(2 )families developed from an interspecific cross between cv IR64 and Oryza rufipogon (IRGC 105491) were evaluated for 14 seed quality traits. A total of 165 markers consisting of 131 single sequence repeats and 34 restriction fragment length polymorphism markers were used to create a genetic linkage map spanning the 12 rice chromosomes. Twenty-three independent QTLs were identified using single point analysis, interval mapping, and composite interval mapping. These loci consisted of one QTL for filled rough/total rough rice ratio, two for grain density, one for percentage of de-husked rice grains, two for percentage of green rice grains, three for percentage of damaged-yellow rice grains, two for percentage of red rice grains, one for milled rice recovery, three for head rice recovery, four for broken rice grains, two for crushed rice grains, one for amylose content, and one for gel consistency. For most of the QTLs identified in this study, the O. rufipogon-derived allele contributed an undesirable effect. For amylose content and gel consistency, the O. rufipogon allele may be useful in an IR64 background, depending on the cultural preferences of the consumer. Careful selection against the regions associated with negative effects will be required to avoid unwanted grain quality characteristics during the development of improved varieties for yield and yield components using introgressions from O. rufipogon. PMID:14513216

Septiningsih, E M; Trijatmiko, K R; Moeljopawiro, S; McCouch, S R

2003-11-01

196

Quantification of amylose, amylopectin, and ?-glucan in search for genes controlling the three major quality traits in barley by genome-wide association studies  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan concentration in a collection of 254 European spring barley varieties allowed to identify 20, 17, and 21 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers, respectively, associated with these important grain quality traits. Negative correlations between the content of amylose and ?-glucan (R = ?0.62, P < 0.01) and amylopectin and ?-glucan (R = ?0.487, P < 0.01) were found in this large collection of spring barley varieties. Besides HvCslF6, amo1 and AGPL2, sex6, and waxy were identified among the major genes responsible for ?-glucan, amylose and amylopectin content, respectively. Several minor genes like HvGSL4, HvGSL3, and HvCesA6, PWD were also detected by GWAS for the first time. Furthermore, the gene encoding ?-fructofuranosidase, located on the short arm of chromosome 7H at 1.49 cM, and SRF6, encoding “leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase protein” on chromosome 2 H, are proposed to be new candidate genes for amylopectin formation in barley endosperm. Several of the associated SNPs on chromosome 1, 5, 6, and 7H mapped to overlapping regions containing QTLs and genes controlling the three grain constituents. In particular chromosomes 5 and 7H carry many QTLs controlling barley grain quality. Amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan were interacted among each other through a metabolic network connected by UDP showing pleiotropic effects. Taken together, these results showed that cereal quality traits related each other and regulated through an interaction network, the identified major genes and genetic regions for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan is a helpful for further research on carbohydrates and barley breeding.

Shu, Xiaoli; Rasmussen, S?ren K.

2014-01-01

197

The Transcriptomics of Secondary Growth and Wood Formation in Conifers  

PubMed Central

In the last years, forestry scientists have adapted genomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to the search for candidate genes related to the transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in several tree species. Gymnosperms, in particular, the conifers, are ecologically and economically important, namely, for the production of wood and other forestry end products. Until very recently, no whole genome sequencing of a conifer genome was available. Due to the gradual improvement of the NGS technologies and inherent bioinformatics tools, two draft assemblies of the whole genomes sequence of Picea abies and Picea glauca arose in the current year. These draft genome assemblies will bring new insights about the structure, content, and evolution of the conifer genomes. Furthermore, new directions in the forestry, breeding and research of conifers will be discussed in the following. The identification of genes associated with the xylem transcriptome and the knowledge of their regulatory mechanisms will provide less time-consuming breeding cycles and a high accuracy for the selection of traits related to wood production and quality.

Carvalho, Ana; Paiva, Jorge; Louzada, Jose; Lima-Brito, Jose

2013-01-01

198

Wood marks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are several insects that can cause damage to trees and wooden structures. Carpenter ants have attacked this truss by chewing small holes in it. Termites also chew holes in wood and will commonly infest houses. They weaken the structure of the house by chewing the wooden beams.

Bjørn Fritsche (None;)

2005-08-23

199

Wood heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of wood heater having an elongated cylindrical firebox with a door access at one end is presented. A secondary heat chamber is located on a top side of the firebox, interconnecting the firebox to a flue adapter ring. Hot combustion gases are directed from the firebox through the second heat chamber to the flue adapter ring. A heat exchanger

Starr

1982-01-01

200

Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid in combination with monounsaturated fatty acids on the meat composition and quality traits of dry-cured loin.  

PubMed

Three levels (0%, 1% and 2%) of an enriched conjugated linoleic acid oil (CLA) were combined with two levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (low -19% average and high -39% average) for pig feeding. Composition, weight losses, lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid test, TBARs), change in the fatty acid content of the lipid fractions and sensory analysis of dry-cured loin as affected by dietary CLA, MUFA and CLA×MUFA interaction were studied. CLA and CLA×MUFA did not affect moisture and intramuscular fat content of dry-cured loin, weight losses during the processing, changes in the content of most fatty acids from lipid fractions and sensory traits. CLA and MUFA supplementation led to lower TBARs values (1.3mg MDA/kg sample for 0% CLA and 0.9mg MDA/kg sample for 2% CLA; 1.2mg MDA/kg sample for low MUFA diets and 0.9mg MDA/kg sample for high MUFA diets), the highest TBARs values being detected for 0% CLA-low MUFA diets [1.5mg MDA/kg sample]. The combination of dietary CLA with different MUFA levels in pig diets did not affect most composition and quality traits of dry-cured loin. Dietary CLA and MUFA seemed to lead to lower lipid oxidation in this product. PMID:22063873

Martin, Diana; Antequera, Teresa; Muriel, Elena; Perez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz, Jorge

2008-12-01

201

Effect of concentrate level and slaughter body weight on growth performances, carcass traits and meat quality of Barbarine lambs fed oat hay based diet.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate concentrate level (CL) and slaughter body weight (SW) effects on growth performances, carcass traits and meat quality of Barbarine lambs. Twenty-four weaned male lambs (23.1 kg), receiving an oat-hay based diet, were allotted into two groups. The LCL group received low concentrate level (300 g) and the HCL group received high concentrate level (600 g). Lambs were slaughtered at two prefixed weights (35 and 42 kg). For each group and each weight, six lambs were slaughtered. Lambs from HCL group had higher ADG, carcass yields, carcass compactness and subcutaneous fat thickness, and lower carcass meat proportion. CL increase did not affect meat pH, meat and fat color, chemical and fatty acid composition. Late slaughtering improved carcass yields and increased carcass adiposity. However, it did not affect carcass meat proportion and shoulder tissue composition. SW had effect on meat color and fatty acid composition. PMID:23273464

Majdoub-Mathlouthi, L; Saïd, B; Say, A; Kraiem, K

2013-03-01

202

AB-QTL analysis in winter wheat: I. Synthetic hexaploid wheat (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides x T. tauschii) as a source of favourable alleles for milling and baking quality traits.  

PubMed

The advanced backcross QTL (AB-QTL) strategy was utilised to locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for baking quality traits in two BC(2)F(3) populations of winter wheat. The backcrosses are derived from two German winter wheat cultivars, Batis and Zentos, and two synthetic, hexaploid wheat accessions, Syn022 and Syn086. The synthetics originate from hybridisations of wild emmer (T. turgidum spp. dicoccoides) and T. tauschii, rather than from durum wheat and T. tauschii and thus allowed for the first time to test for exotic QTL effects on wheat genomes A and B in addition to genome D. The investigated quality traits comprised hectolitre weight, grain hardness, flour yield Type 550, falling number, grain protein content, sedimentation volume and baking volume. One hundred and forty-nine SSR markers were applied to genotype a total of 400 BC(2)F(3) lines. For QTL detection, a mixed-model ANOVA was conducted, including the effects DNA marker, BC(2)F(3) line, environment and marker x environment interaction. Overall 38 QTLs significant for a marker main effect were detected. The exotic allele improved trait performance at 14 QTLs (36.8%), while the elite genotype contributed the favourable effect at 24 QTLs (63.2%). The favourable exotic alleles were mainly associated with grain protein content, though the greatest improvement of trait performance due to the exotic alleles was achieved for the traits falling number and sedimentation volume. At the QTL on chromosome 4B the exotic allele increased the falling number by 19.6% and at the QTL on chromosome 6D the exotic allele led to an increase of the sedimentation volume by 21.7%. The results indicate that synthetic wheat derived from wild emmer x T. tauschii carries favourable QTL alleles for baking quality traits, which might be useful for breeding improved wheat varieties by marker-assisted selection. PMID:17634917

Kunert, Antje; Naz, Ali Ahmad; Dedeck, Oliver; Pillen, Klaus; Léon, Jens

2007-09-01

203

[Genetic parameter estimation for inosine-5-monophosphate and intramuscular fat contents and other meat quality traits in chicken muscle].  

PubMed

The genetic parameters for some important flavor traits like inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) and intramuscular fat (IMF) contents in breast meat were estimated using a MTDFREML procedure on 1063 male, 90-day-old, purebred Beijing-You meat-type chicks (BJY). The result showed that the heritability of IMP and IMF contents in BJY breast meat was moderate or low (h2=0.23, 0.10), whereas these parameters were higher for abdominal fat weight (AFW), breast meat yield (BMY), ratio of BMY to carcass weight (BMR), leg muscle yield (LMY), body weight (BW), comb weight(CW) and comb weight percentage (CWB) (h2=0.56-0.79). The heritability of abdominal fat percentage (AFP), leg meat yield (LMY), testicle weight (TW) and testicle weight percentage (TWP) were 0.24, 0.32, 0.39 and 0.35, respectively. IMP exhibited low phenotypic correlations with BMY, LMY and SFT and no significant phenotypic correlations with other traits. IMF, to some extent, exhibited positive phenotypic correlation with BW, AFP, SFT and FSW (rP=0.11-0.33). In terms of genetic correlation, IMP was moderately or significantly negatively correlated with BW and CWP (rA=-0.38,-0.62), and a high level of positive correlation was observed with BMY (rA=0.57). Moreover, IMF was highly correlated with BW and AFW (rA=0.75,0.66), and moderately correlated with AFP and CWP (rA=0.32, 0.40). A low level of positive correlation was observed between IMP and IMF (rA =0.27). We propose that IMP and IMF contents in chicken meat could be increased with selection through line-breeding. PMID:16378936

Chen, Ji-Lan; Wen, Jie; Zhao, Gui-Ping; Zheng, Mai-Qing; Yang, Ning

2005-11-01

204

A SNP Harvester Analysis to Better Detect SNPs of CCDC158 Gene That Are Associated with Carcass Quality Traits in Hanwoo  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate interaction effects of genes using a Harvester method. A sample of Korean cattle, Hanwoo (n = 476) was chosen from the National Livestock Research Institute of Korea that were sired by 50 Korean proven bulls. The steers were born between the spring of 1998 and the autumn of 2002 and reared under a progeny-testing program at the Daekwanryeong and Namwon branches of NLRI. The steers were slaughtered at approximately 24 months of age and carcass quality traits were measured. A SNP Harvester method was applied with a support vector machine (SVM) to detect significant SNPs in the CCDC158 gene and interaction effects between the SNPs that were associated with average daily gains, cold carcass weight, longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling scores. The statistical significance of the major SNP combinations was evaluated with x2-statistics. The genotype combinations of three SNPs, g.34425+102 A>T(AA), g.4102636T>G(GT), and g.11614+19G>T(GG) had a greater effect than the rest of SNP combinations, e.g. 0.82 vs. 0.75 kg, 343 vs. 314 kg, 80.4 vs 74.7 cm2, and 7.35 vs. 5.01, for the four respective traits (p<0.001). Also, the estimates were greater compared with single SNPs analyzed (the greatest estimates were 0.76 kg, 320 kg, 75.5 cm2, and 5.31, respectively). This result suggests that the SNP Harvester method is a good option when multiple SNPs and interaction effects are tested. The significant SNPs could be applied to improve meat quality of Hanwoo via marker-assisted selection.

Lee, Jea-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyeong; Yeo, Jung-Sou; Kim, Jong-Joo

2013-01-01

205

Polymorphisms in luteinizing hormone receptor and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes and their effects on sperm quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.  

PubMed

Genes of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis play a key role in male reproductive performance. This study evaluated the polymorphisms of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) genes and their effects on sperm quality traits including semen volume per ejaculate (VOL), sperm density (SD), fresh sperm motility (FSM), thawed sperm motility (TSM), acrosome integrity rate (AIR), and abnormal sperm rate (ASR) collected from 205 Chinese Hostein bulls. The study bulls consisted of 205 mature Chinese Holstein, 27 Simmental, 28 Charolais, and 14 German yellow cattle. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A883G) in exon 2 of GnRH and two SNPs (A51703G and G51656T) in intron 9 of LHR were identified in 274 bulls. Analysis of variance in 205 Chinese Holstein bulls showed that age had significant effect on both SD and FSM (P < 0.01), and ASR (P < 0.05). With regards to genotype and its interaction with age, only the SNP of G51656T in LHR gene had significant effect on SD (P < 0.05, P < 0.01; respectively). The association result showed that bulls with AG genotype had higher FSM than bulls with AA and GG genotype in LHR at 51,703 locus (P < 0.10), and bulls with GG genotype had higher SD than bulls with TT genotype in LHR at G51656T locus (P < 0.10). Phenotypic correlation among the traits revealed that significant negative correlations were observed between ASR and AIR (r = -0.736, P < 0.01), ASR and AIR (r = -0.500, P < 0.01). There were moderate positive correlations between VOL and SD (r = 0.422, P < 0.01), as well as FSM (r = 0.411, P < 0.01). In conclusion, LHR may be a potential marker for sperm quality of SD and FSM. PMID:22327646

Sun, Li-Ping; Du, Qing-Zhi; Song, Ya-Pan; Yu, Jun-Na; Wang, Shu-Juan; Sang, Lei; Song, Luo-Wen; Yue, Yao-Min; Lian, Yu-Ze; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Hua, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Yang, Li-Guo

2012-06-01

206

Effects of genotype and dietary oil supplementation on performance, carcass traits, pork quality and fatty acid composition of backfat and intramuscular fat.  

PubMed

A 42-day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of genotype: terminal sire line Duroc×F1 (DC×F1); terminal sire line Embrapa MS-115×F1 (MS-115×F1); and MS-115×Moura (MS-115×MO) and three dietary oil sources: soybean; canola; and canola+flax, on performance, carcass traits, pork quality, and fatty acid composition. Genotype affected the technological quality of pork and fatty acid profile. MS-115-sired pigs had better meat color and Duroc-sired pigs had higher intramuscular fat content, more saturated fat and better omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Moura breed influenced positively meat tenderness and intramuscular fat. Diet did not affect the technological quality of the meat. Canola or canola+flax oil diet supplementations increased monounsaturated and C18:3 and decreased C18:2 fatty acids, reducing the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The best omega-6/omega-3 ratio was obtained through supplementation with canola+flax. PMID:23273458

Bertol, T M; de Campos, R M L; Ludke, J V; Terra, N N; de Figueiredo, E A P; Coldebella, A; dos Santos Filho, J I; Kawski, V L; Lehr, N M

2013-03-01

207

An evaluation of eco-friendly naturally coloured cottons regarding seed cotton yield, yield components and major lint quality traits under conditions of East Mediterranean region of Turkey.  

PubMed

In the study carried out in 2002-2003 in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey (in Kahramanmaras Province), four different naturally coloured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (dark brown, light brown, cream and green) lines from Azerbaijan and two white linted cotton varieties (Maras-92 and Sayar-314 (G. hirsutum L.)) of the region were used as material. The aim of this study was to determine seed cotton yield and yield components and major lint quality traits of investigated coloured cotton lines comprising white linted local standard cotton varieties. Field trials were established in randomized block design with four blocks. According to two year's results, it was determined that naturally coloured cottons were found similar to both white linted standard cotton varieties for sympodia number and seed cotton yield. For boll number per plant, except green cotton line all coloured cotton lines were similar to standard varieties or even some of them were better than standards. For ginning outturn, dark brown, cream and green cotton lines were found statistically similar to standard Maras-92. But all naturally coloured cotton lines had lower seed cotton weight per boll and generally lower fiber quality than white linted standard varieties. For fiber length and fiber strength cream cotton line was the best coloured cotton. And for fiber fineness only green cotton line was better than both standards. It can be said that naturally coloured cotton lines need to be improved especially for fiber quality characters in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey. PMID:20128501

Efe, Lale; Killi, Fatih; Mustafayev, Sefer A

2009-10-15

208

Use of near infrared spectroscopy for estimating meat chemical composition, quality traits and fatty acid content from cattle fed sunflower or flaxseed.  

PubMed

This study tested the ability of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict meat chemical composition, quality traits and fatty acid (FA) composition from 63 steers fed sunflower or flaxseed in combination with high forage diets. NIRS calibrations, tested by cross-validation, were successful for predicting crude protein, moisture and fat content with coefficients of determination (R(2)) (RMSECV, g·100g(-1) wet matter) of 0.85 (0.48), 0.90 (0.60) and 0.86 (1.08), respectively, but were not reliable for meat quality attributes. This technology accurately predicted saturated, monounsaturated and branched FA and conjugated linoleic acid content (R(2): 0.83-0.97; RMSECV: 0.04-1.15mg·g(-1) tissue) and might be suitable for screening purposes in meat based on the content of FAs beneficial to human health such as rumenic and vaccenic acids. Further research applying NIRS to estimate meat quality attributes will require the use on-line of a fibre-optic probe on intact samples. PMID:24976561

Prieto, N; López-Campos, O; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Juárez, M; Uttaro, B

2014-10-01

209

Genetic associations of prolificacy with performance, carcass, meat quality, and leg conformation traits in the Finnish Landrace and Large White pig populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to esti- mate genetic associations of prolificacy traits with other traits under selection in the Finnish Landrace and Large White populations. The prolificacy traits evaluated were total number of piglets born, number of stillborn piglets, piglet mortality during suckling, age at first farrowing, and first farrowing interval. Genetic correlations were estimated with two perfor-

T. Serenius; M.-L. Sevon-Aimonen; A. Kause; E. A. Mantysaari; A. Maki-Tanila

2010-01-01

210

Impact of health management, health treatments, and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on carcass quality, color, and palatability traits in heifers.  

PubMed

Two hundred sixty-eight strip loins were collected from heifers fed at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, OK. In Exp. 1, heifers (n = 127) were assigned to 1 of 3 health management treatment groups: antimicrobial administrations were given based on standard feedlot protocol (SFP) or ruminal temperature (RT) or given a metaphylactic treatment of tulathromycin (MT) followed by visual assessment (VA). In Exp. 2, heifers (n = 155) were assigned to the same treatment groups as above and were supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) or control (CON). Three steaks were collected from each strip loin, 1 each for retail display, sensory evaluation, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Color was evaluated from the retail display steak using a trained color panel and objectively using a HunterLab Miniscan XE. An Instron Universal Testing Machine with a Warner-Bratzler head was used for evaluation of instrumental tenderness, and a trained sensory panel was used to assess palatability traits. Heifers treated by VA had the least number of antimicrobial administrations and lowest yield grade and also had the lightest HCW (P < 0.05) compared with the heifers treated by the other health management protocols. There were no subjective color attribute differences or sensory panel differences (P > 0.05) across all health management systems or antimicrobial administrations. There were no differences in carcass and performance traits for any antimicrobial administrations treatment groups (P > 0.05). Heifers who had 0 or 1 antimicrobial administrations had lower (P < 0.05) a* (redness/greenness: positive values = red and negative values = green), and b* (yellowness/blueness: positive values = yellow and negative values = blue) values compared with those who had 2 antimicrobial administrations. In Exp. 2, heifers treated by VA had the least number (P < 0.05) of antimicrobial administrations when compared with MT and RT. Health management group did not have any other effects on carcass, sensory, or color attributes. Zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation caused a decrease (P < 0.05) in internal fat and yield grade, but no interactions were observed between the number of antimicrobial administrations and ZH supplementation. With the supplementation of ZH, WBSF significantly increased (P < 0.05). At the end of retail display, the control group had a greater (P < 0.05) surface discoloration when compared with the ZH group. Treatment and detection of bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) is critical to the industry economically and results from this study show that different methods can be used to detect BRD without dramatically impacting carcass, sensory, and retail case life characteristics. PMID:23658348

Bloomberg, B D; Mafi, G G; Pye, B J; Wahrmund, J L; Richards, C J; Morgan, J B; Vanoverbeke, D L

2013-07-01

211

Evaluation of subsurface exploration, sampling, and water-quality-analysis methods at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Direct Push Technology (DPT) and a modified-auger method of sampling were used at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, to collect lithologic data and ground-water samples in an area known to be affected by a subsurface creosote plume. The groundwater samples were analyzed using (1) gas chromatography with photo-ionization detection (GS/PID), (2) high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (3) colonmetric phenol analysis, and (4) toxicity bioassay. DPT piezocone and cone-penetrometer-type tools provided lithologic data and ground-water samples at two onsite stations to a depth of refusal of about 35 feet below land surface. With the assistance of an auger rig, this depth was extended to about 65 feet by pushing the tools in advance of the augers. Following the DPT work, a modified-auger method was tested by the USGS. This method left doubt as to the integrity of the samples collected once zones of contamination were penetrated. GC/PID and HPLC methods of water-quality analysis provided the most data concerning contaminants in the ground-water and proved to be the most effective in creosote plume detection. Analyses from these methods showed that the highest concentrations of contaminants were detected at depths less than about 35 feet below land surface. Phenol analyses provided data supplemental to the HPLC analyses. Bioassay data indicated that toxicity associated with the plume extended to depths of about 55 feet below land surface.

Parks, W. S.; Carmichael, J. K.; Mirecki, J. E.

1993-01-01

212

Pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.  

PubMed

After devastating vast areas of pine forests in Asian countries, the pine wilt disease spread into European forests in 1999 and is causing worldwide concern. This disease involves very complicated interactions between a pathogenic nematode, its vector beetle, host pine species, and fungi in dead hosts. Pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode is determined not only by its physical and chemical traits but also by its behavioral traits. Most life history traits of the pine wood nematode, such as its phoretic relationship with vector beetles, seem to be more effective in virulent than in avirulent isolates or species. As the pathogenicity determinants, secreted enzymes, and surface coat proteins are very important, they have therefore been studied intensively. The mechanism of quick death of a large pine tree as a result of infection by a tiny nematode could be ascribed to the dysfunction of the water-conducting system caused by the death of parenchyma cells, which must have originally evolved as an inherent resistant system. PMID:23663004

Futai, Kazuyoshi

2013-01-01

213

Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated 43 to 420 micrograms per liter. Sediment elutriate samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubta, Pimephales promelas, Photobacterium phosphoreum, and Salenastrum capricornulum.

Bradfield, A. D.; Flexner, N. M.; Webster, D. A.

1993-01-01

214

Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves.  

PubMed

There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits in Angus beef cattle. Final antibody level and response to vaccination were based on neutralizing serum antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2). Calves were followed through development and the feedlot phase, with collection of yearling ultrasound (n=957), preharvest (n=762), and carcass (n=673) data. In this study, 48% of the animals were observed to have positively responded to the vaccine, as evidenced by higher final antibody levels compared to prevaccination antibody levels. Increased final antibody levels were significantly (P<0.05) associated with increased yearling weight and increased subcutaneous fat over the rump. An interaction between final antibody level and weaning time also was associated (P<0.05) with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and meat pH, with a favorable, negative relationship between final antibody and WBSF in calves weaned at initial vaccination. Overall antibody response by wean time interaction had a significant (P<0.05) association with ADG and meat pH, with calves weaned at initial vaccination having a favorable, positive relationship between overall antibody response and ADG. Under both the final antibody and overall antibody response models, animals weaned at initial vaccination had significantly (P<0.05) lower intramuscular fat at yearling time and conversely higher harvest weight than animals weaned at the booster vaccination. When antibody response was grouped (none, low, high), a significant interaction (P<0.05) between antibody response group and weaning time was identified for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW. Animals weaned at the initial vaccination in the high antibody response group had the advantage for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW compared to animals in the high-response group that were weaned at booster vaccination. Linear increases in antibody response generally did not have negative effects on performance or carcass quality traits in finished cattle (P>0.05). Therefore, producers should not be concerned about decreased production or quality attributes as a result of developing a robust antibody response to vaccination for BVDV2 in beef cattle. PMID:24045477

Tait, R G; Downey, E D; Mayes, M S; Park, C A; Ridpath, J F; Garrick, D J; Reecy, J M

2013-11-01

215

Isolation of high quality lignin as a by-product from ammonia percolation pretreatment of poplar wood.  

PubMed

A two-step process combining percolation-mode ammonia pretreatment of poplar sawdust with mild organosolv purification of the extracted lignin produced high quality, high purity lignin in up to 31% yield and 50% recovery. The uncondensed fraction of the isolated lignin was up to 34%, close to that the native lignin (40%). Less lignin was recovered after pretreatment in batch mode, apparently due to condensation during the longer residence time of the solubilised lignin at elevated temperature. The lignin recovery was directly correlated with its molecular weight and its nitrogen content. Low nitrogen incorporation, observed at high ammonia concentration, may be explained by limited homolytic cleavage of ?-O-4 bonds. Ammonia concentrations from 15% to 25% (w/w) gave similar results in terms of lignin structure, yield and recovery. PMID:24755321

Bouxin, Florent P; David Jackson, S; Jarvis, Michael C

2014-06-01

216

A Six-Month Prospective Evaluation of Personality Traits, Psychiatric Symptoms and Quality of Life in Ayahuasca-Naïve Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors assessed 23 subjects immediately before and six months (27.5 weeks) after their first ayahuasca experience in an urban Brazilian religious setting, either Santo Daime (N = 15) or Uni?o do Vegetal (N = 8). Measures included scores on instruments assessing psychiatric symptoms, personality variables and quality of life. Independent variables were the frequency of ayahuasca use throughout the

Paulo Cesar Ribeiro Barbosa; Irene Maurício Cazorla; Joel Sales Giglio; Rick Strassman

2009-01-01

217

Gender- and Age-Related Differences in the Association between Social Relationship Quality and Trait Levels of Salivary Cortisol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The majority of studies linking individual differences in the quality of social relationships and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have focused on the early development of attachment between infants and their caregivers. Later in development, during middle childhood and adolescence, the parallel HPA links to…

Booth, Alan; Granger, Douglas A.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

2008-01-01

218

Isolation of a set of ripening-related genes from strawberry: their identification and possible relationship to fruit quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The ripening of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.), a non-climacteric fruit, is a complex developmental process that involves many changes in gene expression. To understand\\u000a how these changes relate to the biochemistry and composition of the fruit the specific genes involved have been examined.\\u000a A high-quality cDNA library prepared from ripe strawberry fruit was differentially screened for ripening-related clones using

Kenneth Manning

1998-01-01

219

Meat production traits of a new sheep breed called Bafra in Turkey 2. Meat quality characteristics of lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat quality characteristics of Bafra ram lambs slaughtered at different weights were investigated. A total of 24 lambs fattened\\u000a intensively was slaughtered at four slaughter weights of 30, 35, 40, and 45 kg. Water-holding capacity, cooking loss, tenderness,\\u000a color, as well as protein content did not vary significantly among the slaughter weight groups, although the 30-kg slaughter\\u000a weight lambs displayed the

Ak?n Yakan; Necmettin Ünal

2010-01-01

220

Effects of free-air CO 2 enrichment on energy traits and seed quality of oilseed rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous experiments have not considered in situ evaluations of CO2 enrichment on oilseed rape (OSR) under European climates with regard to energetic value and seed quality. Therefore, Brassica napus cv. Campino was grown in a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) field experiment at Stuttgart-Hohenheim (Germany) under ambient (388±9?ll?1) and elevated (494±16?ll?1) CO2 concentrations. Aboveground biomass production and energy yields of both

Petra Högy; Jürgen Franzaring; Klaus Schwadorf; Jörn Breuer; Wolfgang Schütze; Andreas Fangmeier

2010-01-01

221

Wood Finishing: Finishing and Maintaining Wood Floors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wood possesses a variety of properties that make it a highly desirable flooring material in residential as well as public buildings. In addition to these unique properties, wood flooring can be installed in various distinctive patterns such as parquet and...

D. L. Cassens W. C. Feist

2005-01-01

222

Traits Bingo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, learners cross off or color bingo squares in response to questions about their traits. This activity is designed to be used as a review following a unit on genetics, but can be used independently. Bingo game cards and questions featured in this activity are provided in English and Spanish. This resource also contains information about PTC safety.

Malone, Molly; Starr, Harmony

2006-01-01

223

Effects of halothane genotype and pre-slaughter treatment on pig meat quality. Part 2. Physico-chemical traits of cured-cooked ham and sensory traits of cured-cooked and dry-cured hams.  

PubMed

Forty-eight castrated F(2) offspring of Piétrain and Large White pigs were allocated to a 3×2 factorial design in order to study the interactive effect of halothane genotype (NN, Nn and nn) and pre-slaughter treatment (referred to as 'Experimental' (EXP) and 'Commercial-like' (COL) conditions; the latter involving short transportation, mixing unfamiliar pigs and slaughtering shortly after transport) on the qualities of cured-cooked and dry-cured hams. At 24 h post mortem, the hams were collected and assigned to cured-cooked (right ham) and dry-cured (left ham) ham processing. A sample of M. semimembranosus (SM) was collected before cooked ham processing, was used for chemical composition analysis, cured and then cooked at various temperatures. Cooking losses and compression tests were carried out after cooking on these SM samples. The water and collagen content of SM muscle was significantly higher in nn pigs compared with the two other genotypes. At all cooking temperatures (60, 65 and 70 °C), SM muscles from nn pigs showed higher cooking losses and instrumentally assessed toughness than the other genotypes, the heterozygous pigs being intermediate. The technological yield of cured-cooked ham processing was lower in nn, compared with NN and Nn animals. Cooked hams from nn pigs were drier, tougher, stringier and less smooth than NN and Nn pigs. The heterozygous pigs were similar to normal pigs for all texture characteristics with the exception of toughness for which they got a significantly higher score than NN pigs. The pigs slaughtered under the COL conditions had a better slice cohesiveness and a significantly lower dryness, than pigs slaughtered under the EXP conditions. The effect of HAL genotype on slice cohesiveness was significant only when pigs were slaughtered under the EXP conditions. Dry-cured hams from nn pigs showed significantly more visual defects, but were less tough, smoother and more fondant (softer) than NN and Nn pigs. The dry-cured hams from pigs slaughtered under the COL conditions had a better cohesiveness between muscles and a more intense yellow colour of fat than those from pigs slaughtered under the EXP conditions. COL pigs were also judged significantly less tough, smoother and more fondant than EXP ones. Overall, the effects of pre-slaughter treatment were small compared with those of the HAL genotype. The effects of HAL genotype on the sensory traits of cured-cooked ham were similar to those reported for fresh meat. However, the good textural characteristics of dry-cured ham processed from HAL positive pigs are somewhat surprising and need to be confirmed. PMID:22061751

Fernandez, X; Gilbert, S; Vendeuvre, J-L

2002-12-01

224

A six-month prospective evaluation of personality traits, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in ayahuasca-naïve subjects.  

PubMed

The authors assessed 23 subjects immediately before and six months (27.5 weeks) after their first ayahuasca experience in an urban Brazilian religious setting, either Santo Daime (N = 15) or União do Vegetal (N = 8). Measures included scores on instruments assessing psychiatric symptoms, personality variables and quality of life. Independent variables were the frequency of ayahuasca use throughout the period and the length of ayahuasca wash-out after six months. Santo Daime subjects had a significant reduction of minor psychiatric symptoms, improvement of mental health, and a change in attitude towards more confidence and optimism. The União do Vegetal group had a significant decrease in physical pain, and attitude change towards more independence. Independence was positively correlated with the frequency of ayahuasca use and negatively correlated with the wash-out period. We discuss possible mechanisms by which these changes may occur and suggest areas for future research. PMID:19999673

Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Cazorla, Irene Maurício; Giglio, Joel Sales; Strassman, Rick

2009-09-01

225

Egg quality traits differ in hens selected for high as compared with low antibody response to sheep red blood cells.  

PubMed

White Leghorn chickens were selected for 36 generations for high (HAS) or low (LAS) antibody response to SRBC 5 d after an intravenous challenge. Our objective was to determine differences in egg quality resulting from that selection. In total, eggs from 45 hens from each line were assessed for shape index (SI), weight (WT, g), albumen height (AH, mm), Haugh units (HU), yolk color (YC), and eggshell weight (ESW, g) and thickness (EST, mm). Three cycles representing early, middle, and late stages of production were examined. Eggs from HAS hens had higher SI scores (4.12 ± 0.55; P < 0.001) and greater AH (0.27 ± 0.12; P < 0.001) and HU (1.89 ± 0.91; P = 0.04) than LAS hens; conversely, eggs from LAS hens had greater EST (0.03 ± 0.01 g; P < 0.001) and heavier ESW (0.66 ± 0.09 g; P < 0.001) than HAS hens. Lines were similar for WT and YC (P > 0.52). Albumen height and HU decreased (P < 0.001), whereas WT, ESW, and EST increased (P < 0.001) over cycles for both lines. However, SI decreased in LAS hens, yet increased in HAS hens, across cycles (P < 0.001). An interaction between line and cycle was observed in WT, SI, ESW, and EST (P < 0.001), but only for WT did the interaction cause re-ranking across cycles. Egg quality was, generally, superior in HAS compared with LAS hens, suggesting that higher antibody response may maintain overall fitness. PMID:23155009

Albrecht, H N; Siegel, P B; Pierson, F W; Lewis, R M

2012-12-01

226

Hydrologic and Water-Quality Conditions During Restoration of the Wood River Wetland, Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon, 2003-05  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Restoring previously drained wetlands is a strategy currently being used to improve water quality and decrease nutrient loading into Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. In this 2003-05 study, ground- and surface-water quality and hydrologic conditions were characterized in the Wood River Wetland. Nitrogen and phosphorus levels, primarily as dissolved organic nitrogen and ammonium (NH4) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), were high in surface waters. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations also were elevated in surface water, with median concentrations of 44 and 99 milligrams of carbon per liter (mg-C/L) in the North and South Units of the Wood River Wetland, respectively, reaching a maximum of 270 mg-C/L in the South Unit in late autumn. Artesian well water produced NH4 and SRP concentrations of about 6,000 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of 36,500 ug-N/L NH4 and 4,110 ug-P/L SRP in one 26-28 ft deep piezometer well. Despite the high ammonium concentrations, the nitrate levels were moderate to low in wetland surface and ground waters. The surface-water concentrations of NH4 and SRP increased in spring and summer, outpacing those for chloride (a conservative tracer), indicative of evapoconcentration. In-situ chamber experiments conducted in June and August 2005 indicated a positive flux of NH4 and SRP from the wetland sediments. Potential sources of NH4 and SRP include diffusion of nutrients from decomposed peat, decomposing aquatic vegetation, or upwelling ground water. In addition to these inputs, evapoconcentration raised surface-water solute concentrations to exceedingly high values by the end of summer. The increase was most pronounced in the South Unit, where specific conductance reached 2,500 uS/cm and median concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus reached 18,000-36,500 ug-N/L and about 18,000-26,000 ug-P/L, respectively. Water-column SRP and total phosphorus levels decreased during autumn and winter following inputs of irrigation water and precipitation, which have lower nutrient concentrations. The SRP concentrations, however, decreased faster than the dilution rate alone, possibly due to precipitation of phosphorus with iron, manganese, or calcium. The high concentrations of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus during the growing season give rise to a rich plant community in the wetland consisting of emergent and submergent macrophytes and algae including phytoplankton and benthic and epiphytic algae that have pronounced effects on dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH. Midday readings of surface-water DO during summer often were supersaturated (as much as 310 percent saturation) with elevated pH (as much as 9.2 units), indicative of high rates of photosynthesis. Minimum DO concentrations in the shallow ground-water piezometer wells were 0.4 mg/L in the North Unit and 0.8 mg/L in the South Unit during summer, which is probably low enough to support microbial denitrification. Denitrification was confirmed during in-situ experiments conducted at the sediment-water interface, but rates were low due to low background nitrate (NO3). Nevertheless, denitrification (and plant uptake) likely contribute to low nitrate levels. Another possible cause of low nitrate levels is dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA), a microbial process that converts and decreases nitrate to ammonia. DNRA explains the excess ammonia production measured in the chambers treated with nitrate. Surface-water levels and standing surface-water volume in the Wood River Wetland reached a maximum in early spring, inundating 80-90 percent of the wetland. Surface-water levels and standing volume then declined reaching a minimum in August through November, when the South Unit was only 10 percent inundated and the North Unit was nearly dry. The shallow ground-water levels followed a trend similar to surface-water levels and indicated a strong upward gradient. A monthly water budget was developed individually for the North

Carpenter, Kurt D.; Snyder, Daniel T.; Duff, John H.; Triska, Frank J.; Lee, Karl K.; Avanzino, Ronald J.; Sobieszczyk, Steven

2009-01-01

227

Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay  

PubMed Central

Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits.

Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jerome; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Merillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

2009-01-01

228

Effects of vitamin E supplementation on fattening performance, non-carcass components and retail cut percentages, and meat quality traits of Awassi lambs.  

PubMed

This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of vitamin E supplementation on growth, non-carcass components and retail cut percentages, and meat quality traits of Awassi male lambs at approximately 8 months of age. The lambs were divided into two groups as control (CG, n=12) and experimental (VG, n=12) at the beginning of the fattening period. The CG and VG lambs were fed with a concentrate and grass hay close to ad-libitum by biweekly adjustment of the amount offered. In addition, the VG received a supplement of 45 mg vitamin E per lamb per day during a 75-day fattening period. Inital weight, final weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency were 31.8±1.40 kg, 45.5±1.37 kg, 183±13 g and 7.6 for CG, 32.5±1.45 kg, 46.7±1.42 kg, 189±15 g and 7.0 for VG, respectively. Vitamin E supplementation did not have a statistically significant effect on animal performance traits, non-carcass components and retail cut percentages, but produced an 8.1% improvement in feed conversion efficiency. After slaughter, carcasses were chilled at 4 °C for 24 h. Then, the carcasses were dissected into wholesale cuts, and m. longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles excised. The samples of muscle were subjected to moisture, protein, ether extract and ash analyses. Samples were cooked for shear test and cooking yield measurements. There were no significant differences between CG and VG lamb groups in chemical composition of meat samples from the LD muscles. Though the influence of vitamin E supplementation on color parameters (L*, a*, b*) was not statistically significant, the mean a* (redness) values decreased on days 2 and 4 and increased on days 7 and 12 of the storage period. However, the a* values of muscles from the VG were higher than those grouping CG. L* and a* values in LD muscle from vitamin E-treated lamb groups were also preserved for a period of 12 days of maturation. In this study, drip loss was relatively preserved by vitamin E supplementation to the diet of animals. The results showed that vitamin E supplementation to the diet of Awassi male lambs at an inclusion rate over the amount of nutritional recommendations relatively reduced lipid oxidation, drip loss and tended to maintain meat redness. PMID:22062655

Macit, Muhlis; Aksakal, Vecihi; Emsen, Ebru; Esenbu?a, Nurinisa; I?rfan Aksu, M

2003-05-01

229

The molecular characterization and associations of porcine cardiomyopathy asssociated 5 (CMYA5) gene with carcass trait and meat quality.  

PubMed

The cardiomyopathy associated 5 (CMYA5) gene was also called TRIM76, which was belonged to the tripartite motif super family of proteins (TRIM). It was a direct transcriptional target for MEF2A and it played an important role in myofibrillogenesis. In the present study, a 12056 bp cDNA sequence of the porcine CMYA5 gene was obtained by RT-PCR. The sequence encoded a large protein consisting of 4003 amino acids and the carboxyl terminus of the predicted CMYA5 protein comprised of a B-box coiled-coil, two fibronectin type III (FN3) repeats, and SPRY domains. The porcine CMYA5 gene was assigned to chromosome 2q21-24 by using the radiation hybrid (IMpRH) panel, and it was significantly linked to microsatellite Sw1602 with LOD scores of 6.74. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the porcine CMYA5 gene was broadly expressed in all seven tissues(heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, skeletal muscle and adipose)harvested from different developmental stages(new born, five weeks and adult tongcheng pigs), with a high level in heart and skeletal muscle. One SNP (A7189C), leading to the amino acid alteration from the Ile residue to the Leu residue, was found and detected by BspTI PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The association analysis revealed that the substitution of A7189C had significant associations with the percentage of ham (p < 0.05), water loss (p < 0.01) and intramuscular fat (p < 0.05). These results provide the evidence that the porcine CMYA5 gene can act as a potential candidate gene affecting pig meat quality. PMID:20859690

Xu, Xiaoling; Xu, Xuewen; Yin, Qin; Sun, Ling; Liu, Bang; Wang, Yanan

2011-03-01

230

Effect of insulin-like growth factor-I on some quality traits and fertility of cryopreserved ovine semen.  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate the effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on the quality and fertility of frozen/thawed ovine semen. Five rams (five ejaculates/ram) were used for evaluation of semen parameters. Before cryopreservation, ejaculates were divided into four aliquots and extended with Tris alone or supplemented with human IGF-I (50, 100, or 250 ng/mL). Semen was evaluated immediately after thawing (T0), after 1 h (T1) and 2 h (T2) post-incubation at 37 °C. The percentage of live cells (fluorescence analysis-calcein and ethidium), acrosome integrity (NAR) and motility were analyzed, and hypo-osmotic swelling tests (HOST) were used to evaluate membrane resistance. In addition, AI was performed using 121 ewes to compare the optimal concentration of IGF-I vs. Tris alone on pregnancy rates after laparoscopic insemination. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by transrectal ultrasonography. After 1 and 2 h post-incubation, in every group, percentage motile sperm, NAR and HOST decreased compared to semen at T0. Motility was higher (P < 0.05) in the IGF-I 100 and IGF-I 250 groups when compared to the IGF-I 50 and Tris groups (76.2 and 74.4% vs. 66.2 and 64.4 percent, respectively) at T0, after 1 h (67 and 63.6% vs. 56.2 and 54.7%) and 2 h post-incubation (58.2 and 55.8% vs. 48 and 47.2%). Furthermore, viability was higher (P < 0.05) in the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) 100 and IGF-I 250 groups than in the IGF-I 50 and Tris groups (88.7 and 88.3% vs. 76.6 and 77.6%, respectively) at T0. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in NAR or hypo-osmotic swelling tests (HOST) among groups. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in fertility between the IGF-I 100 and Tris groups. In conclusion, IGF-I improved subjective sperm motility and structural integrity of the plasma membrane without a significant effect on 45-day pregnancy rates after laparoscopic insemination of ewes with frozen-thawed semen. PMID:22541171

Padilha, R T; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Cavalcante, M M; Almeida, A P; Haag, K T; Gastal, M O; Nunes, J F; Rodrigues, A P R; Figueiredo, J R; Oliveira, M A L

2012-09-01

231

Effect of high or low protein ration combined or not with rumen protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on meat CLA content and quality traits of double-muscled Piemontese bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trial was carried out on double-muscled Piemontese bulls to evaluate the effects of two rations differing in crude protein density (HP=14.5% DM and LP=10.8% DM) and top dressed or not with 80g\\/d of rumen protected CLA (rpCLA) for a long period (336d) on meat quality traits and CLA content. Forty-eight bulls were fed one of the four experimental diets

S. Schiavon; M. De Marchi; F. Tagliapietra; L. Bailoni; A. Cecchinato; G. Bittante

2011-01-01

232

Comparison of Production, Meat Yield, and Meat Quality Traits of NWAC103 Line Channel Catfish, Norris Line Channel Catfish, and Female Channel Catfish × Male Blue Catfish F1 Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

NWAC103 line channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Norris line channel catfish, and Norris line female channel catfish × Dycus Farm line male blue catfish I. furcatus F1 hybrids were compared for production, meat yield, and meat quality traits. Juvenile fish from each genetic group were stocked at 12,000 fish\\/ha into three, 0.04-ha ponds per genetic group. Fish were fed once daily

Brian G. Bosworth; William R. Wolters; Juan L. Silva; Roberto S. Chamul

2004-01-01

233

Wood heater  

SciTech Connect

Design of wood heater having an elongated cylindrical firebox with a door access at one end is presented. A secondary heat chamber is located on a top side of the firebox, interconnecting the firebox to a flue adapter ring. Hot combustion gases are directed from the firebox through the second heat chamber to the flue adapter ring. A heat exchanger is positioned above the firebox within the heat chamber to extract heat from the burning gases and to direct the heat outwardly of the firebox and into the adjacent room. A window case protrudes from one side of the firebox and includes a glass pane for viewing the fire. The window case includes a shutter plate assembly that selectively closes off the fire from view through the window. The shutter plate has the additional function of directing ventilation air from the window vent aperture to cool the glass within the window case, protecting the glass pane from excessive heat, and preventing build-up of soot along the inwardly exposed surface thereof.

Starr, M.E.

1982-01-12

234

Genetic Variation in the Chemical Components of Eucalyptus globulus Wood  

PubMed Central

Despite the ecological and economic importance of lignin and other wood chemical components, there are few studies of the natural genetic variation that exists within plant species and its adaptive significance. We used models developed from near infra-red spectroscopy to study natural genetic variation in lignin content and monomer composition (syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio [S/G]) as well as cellulose and extractives content, using a 16-year-old field trial of an Australian tree species, Eucalyptus globulus. We sampled 2163 progenies of 467 native trees from throughout the native geographic range of the species. The narrow-sense heritability of wood chemical traits (0.25–0.44) was higher than that of growth (0.15), but less than wood density (0.51). All wood chemical traits exhibited significant broad-scale genetic differentiation (QST = 0.34–0.43) across the species range. This differentiation exceeded that detected with putatively neutral microsatellite markers (FST = 0.09), arguing that diversifying selection has shaped population differentiation in wood chemistry. There were significant genetic correlations among these wood chemical traits at the population and additive genetic levels. However, population differentiation in the S/G ratio of lignin in particular was positively correlated with latitude (R2 = 76%), which may be driven by either adaptation to climate or associated biotic factors.

Stackpole, Desmond J.; Vaillancourt, Rene E.; Alves, Ana; Rodrigues, Jose; Potts, Brad M.

2011-01-01

235

Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling fibre length and lignin content in Arabidopsis thaliana stems  

PubMed Central

Fibre properties and the biochemical composition of cell walls are important traits in many applications. For example, the lengths of fibres define the strength and quality of paper, and lignin content is a critical parameter for the use of biomass in biofuel production. Identifying genes controlling these traits is comparatively difficult in woody species, because of long generation times and limited amenability to high-resolution genetic mapping. To address this problem, this study mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) defining fibre length and lignin content in the Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line population Col-4×Ler-0. Adapting high-throughput phenotyping techniques for both traits for measurements in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems identified significant QTLs for fibre length on chromosomes 2 and 5, as well as one significant QTL affecting lignin content on chromosome 2. For fibre length, total variation within the population was 208% higher than between parental lines and the identified QTLs explained 50.58% of the observed variation. For lignin content, the values were 261 and 26.51%, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis of the associated intervals identified a number of candidate genes for fibre length and lignin content. This study demonstrates that molecular mapping of QTLs pertaining to wood and fibre properties is possible in Arabidopsis, which substantially broadens the use of Arabidopsis as a model species for the functional characterization of plant genes.

Berleth, Thomas

2013-01-01

236

Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling fibre length and lignin content in Arabidopsis thaliana stems.  

PubMed

Fibre properties and the biochemical composition of cell walls are important traits in many applications. For example, the lengths of fibres define the strength and quality of paper, and lignin content is a critical parameter for the use of biomass in biofuel production. Identifying genes controlling these traits is comparatively difficult in woody species, because of long generation times and limited amenability to high-resolution genetic mapping. To address this problem, this study mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) defining fibre length and lignin content in the Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line population Col-4 × Ler-0. Adapting high-throughput phenotyping techniques for both traits for measurements in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems identified significant QTLs for fibre length on chromosomes 2 and 5, as well as one significant QTL affecting lignin content on chromosome 2. For fibre length, total variation within the population was 208% higher than between parental lines and the identified QTLs explained 50.58% of the observed variation. For lignin content, the values were 261 and 26.51%, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis of the associated intervals identified a number of candidate genes for fibre length and lignin content. This study demonstrates that molecular mapping of QTLs pertaining to wood and fibre properties is possible in Arabidopsis, which substantially broadens the use of Arabidopsis as a model species for the functional characterization of plant genes. PMID:23136168

Capron, Arnaud; Chang, Xue Feng; Hall, Hardy; Ellis, Brian; Beatson, Rodger P; Berleth, Thomas

2013-01-01

237

Genetic analyses of agronomic and seed quality traits of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heritability, the number of segregating genes and the type of gene interaction of nine agronomic traits were analysed\\u000a based on F2 populations of synthetic oilseedBrassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization ofB. campestris andB. oleracea through ovary culture. The nine traits—plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of pods\\u000a per plant, number of seeds per

Guoqing Zhang; Weijun Zhou

2006-01-01

238

The effects of conjugated linoleic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Four hundred eighty 1-d-old broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 20 broilers each. Broilers were allocated 1 of 4 diets and fed for 49 d in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2 levels of DDGS (0 or 15%) and 2 levels of CLA (0 or 1%). The results of growth performance analyses showed that dietary supplementation with 1% CLA, 15% DDGS, or both in broilers had no significant effects on ADG, ADFI, and feed/gain (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 15% DDGS did not significantly affect meat color values, drip loss percentage, pH value at 15 min, crude fat content, or shear force value (P > 0.05). Diets supplemented with 15% DDGS decreased the proportions of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and monounsaturated fatty acids but increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the thigh meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA significantly decreased the abdominal fat percentage (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA increased the crude fat content and decreased the color (b*) value and shear force value of the breast meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA increased the total superoxide dismutase activity of the serum, breast meat, and liver, and decreased the malondialdehyde content of the serum and breast meat (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). Accumulation of CLA in the thigh meat was significantly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing CLA level in the diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 1% CLA had positive effects on meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers, although it had no significant effect on growth performance. PMID:24795313

Jiang, Wen; Nie, Shaoping; Qu, Zhe; Bi, Chongpeng; Shan, Anshan

2014-05-01

239

Personality As Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personality traits have been challenged as unimportant determinants of behavior, but evidence suggests that traits may carry as much variance as experimental manipulations. Asking whether traits or manipulations control more variance is useless because researchers can plan paradigms that favor one or the other. When traits and manipulations complement each other, there are several major kinds of interaction. The trait–manipulation

Arnold H. Buss

1989-01-01

240

SPACING EFFECT ON SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF Tectona grandis Linn WOOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tectona grandis (teak) stands out for the high productivity and quality of its wood. The ideal spacing of a tree species is the one that maximizes the wood ratio and improves wood quality, being therefore the main point to be considered in the research of forest management of teak. This work verified the influence of the spacing on some

Israel Luiz de Lima; Sandra Monteiro; Borges Florsheim; Eduardo Luiz Longui

2009-01-01

241

Wood's lamp illumination (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

242

Sickle Cell Trait  

MedlinePLUS

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Sickle Cell Trait People who inherit one sickle cell gene ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

243

Chipper Woods Bird Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chipper Woods Bird Observatory (CWBO) is a non-profit organization committed to bringing "good science to the conservation of birds and their habitats through scientific research, scientific training and educational programs designed for all age groups." The CWBO website contains a nice variety of bird information and images for budding birders. The siteâÂÂs Bird Photos section provides good quality images and information for an extensive selection of birds including the Peregrine Falcon, Barn Swallow, Tufted Titmouse, Scarlet Tanager, and many more. Various bird-related topics -â such as migrating geese, owl pellets, West Nile Virus, and Bald Eagle Restoration -â are covered as well. The CWBO website contains checklists for Indiana birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. The site also offers a banding summary, newsletter, list of publications, and short quiz for kids. The CWBO site is available in Spanish and English.

244

Wood Bond Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

1989-01-01

245

Floodplains and wood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions between floodplains and wood date to the Carboniferous, when stable, multithread channel deposits appear with the evolution of tree-like plants. Foundational geologic texts, such as Lyell's, 1830Principles of Geology, describe floodplain-wood interactions, yet modern technical literature describes floodplain-wood interactions in detail for only a very limited range of environments. This likely reflects more than a century of deforestation, flow regulation, and channel engineering, including instream wood removal, which has resulted in severe wood depletion in most of the world's river networks. Instream wood affects floodplain form and process by altering flow resistance, conveyance and channel-floodplain connectivity, and influencing lateral and vertical accretion of floodplains. Instream wood reflects floodplain form and process as the floodplain influences wood recruitment via bank erosion and overbank flow, and wood transport and storage via floodplain effects on stage-discharge relations and flow resistance. Examining turnover times for instream wood at the reach scale in the context of a wood budget, floodplain characteristics influence fluvial transport and dynamics (wood recruitment), valley geometry (wood transport and storage), and hydraulics and river biota (wood decay and breakage). Accumulations of wood that vary from in situ jams and beaver dams in small channels to transport jams and log rafts in very large rivers can create stable, multithread channels and floodplain wetlands. Floodplain-wood interactions are best understood for a subset of small to medium-sized rivers in the temperate zone. We know little about these interactions on very large rivers, or on rivers in the tropical or boreal regions. This review suggests that most, if not all, channels and floodplains within forested catchments in the temperate zone historically had much greater wood loads and consequently much more obvious and important influences from wood than do heavily modified contemporary catchments. For many rivers in the temperate zone, direct and indirect removal of instream wood very likely caused a fundamental shift in channel and floodplain process and form, as has been demonstrated in detail for specific rivers of diverse size in several regions. Failure to explicitly include floodplain-wood interactions creates a misleading conceptual model of floodplain dynamics in forested catchments.

Wohl, Ellen

2013-08-01

246

Functional traits explain variation in plant life history strategies.  

PubMed

Ecologists seek general explanations for the dramatic variation in species abundances in space and time. An increasingly popular solution is to predict species distributions, dynamics, and responses to environmental change based on easily measured anatomical and morphological traits. Trait-based approaches assume that simple functional traits influence fitness and life history evolution, but rigorous tests of this assumption are lacking, because they require quantitative information about the full lifecycles of many species representing different life histories. Here, we link a global traits database with empirical matrix population models for 222 species and report strong relationships between functional traits and plant life histories. Species with large seeds, long-lived leaves, or dense wood have slow life histories, with mean fitness (i.e., population growth rates) more strongly influenced by survival than by growth or fecundity, compared with fast life history species with small seeds, short-lived leaves, or soft wood. In contrast to measures of demographic contributions to fitness based on whole lifecycles, analyses focused on raw demographic rates may underestimate the strength of association between traits and mean fitness. Our results help establish the physiological basis for plant life history evolution and show the potential for trait-based approaches in population dynamics. PMID:24379395

Adler, Peter B; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Compagnoni, Aldo; Hsu, Joanna S; Ray-Mukherjee, Jayanti; Mbeau-Ache, Cyril; Franco, Miguel

2014-01-14

247

Lignification and tension wood.  

PubMed

Hardwood trees are able to reorient their axes owing to tension wood differentiation. Tension wood is characterised by important ultrastructural modifications, such as the occurrence in a number of species, of an extra secondary wall layer, named gelatinous layer or G-layer, mainly constituted of cellulose microfibrils oriented nearly parallel to the fibre axis. This G-layer appears directly involved in the definition of tension wood mechanical properties. This review gathers the data available in the literature about lignification during tension wood formation. Potential roles for lignin in tension wood formation are inferred from biochemical, anatomical and mechanical studies, from the hypotheses proposed to describe tension wood function and from data coming from new research areas such as functional genomics. PMID:15587080

Pilate, Gilles; Chabbert, Brigitte; Cathala, Bernard; Yoshinaga, Arata; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Laurans, Françoise; Lapierre, Catherine; Ruel, Katia

2004-01-01

248

Wood Properties of Salix Caprea and Salix Pentandra.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Salix caprea and Salix pentandra have been investigated with regard to the qualities and the anatomy of wood in these species. The type and distribution of cells, cell wall thickness, cell diameter and differences between early-and late wood cells in one ...

L. Sennerby

1979-01-01

249

MODELING OF ALKANE EMISSIONS FROM A WOOD STAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

The article discusses full-scale residential house tests to evaluate the effects of organic emissions from a wood finishing product--wood stain--on indoor air quality (IAQ). The test house concentrations of three alkane species, nonane, decane, and undecane, were measured as a fu...

250

MODELING OF ALKANE EMISSIONS FROM A WOOD STAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

The article discusses full-scale residential house tests to evaluate the effects of organic emissions from a wood finishing product--wood stain--on indoor air quality (IAQ). he test house concentrations of three alkane species, nonane, decane, and undecane, were measured as a fun...

251

Study of Wood Polymer Combinations from Woods of Kashmir.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the studies conducted to upgrade inferior woods of Kashmir by the application of radiation polymerization process. The process has brought about improvements in the physical and mechanical properties of wood. Wood polymer composite s...

V. P. Garg Hari Mohan K. N. Rao

1983-01-01

252

Delineation of interspecific epistasis on fiber quality traits in Gossypium hirsutum by ADAA analysis of intermated G. barbadense chromosome substitution lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity is the foundation of any crop improvement program, but the most cultivated Upland cotton [Gossypium hirsutum L., 2n = 52, genomic formula 2(AD)1] has a very narrow gene pool resulting from its evolutionary origin and domestication history. Cultivars of this cotton species\\u000a (G. hirsutum L.) are prized for their combination of exceptional yield, other agronomic traits, and good fiber properties, whereas

S. SahaJ; J. Wu; J. N. Jenkins; J. C. McCarty; R. Hayes; D. M. Stelly

2011-01-01

253

Wood pellet production  

SciTech Connect

Southern Energy Limited's wood pellet refinery, Bristol, Florida, produces wood pellets for fuel from scrap wood from a nearby sawmill and other hog fuel delivered to the plant from nearby forest lands. The refinery will provide 50,000 tons of pellets per year to the Florida State Hospital at Chattahoochee to fire recently converted boilers in the central power plant. The pellets are densified wood, having a moisture content of about 10% and a heating value of 8000 Btu/lb. They are 0.5 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 inches in length.

Moore, J.W.

1983-08-01

254

Age-dependent genetic effects on a secondary sexual trait in male Alpine ibex, Capra ibex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary sexual traits, such as horns in ungulates, may be good indicators of genetic quality because they are costly to develop. Genetic effects on such traits may be revealed by examining correlations between multilocus heterozygosity (MLH) and trait value. Correlations between MLH and fitness traits, termed heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFC), may reflect inbreeding depression or associative overdominance of neutral micro- satellite

ACHAZ VON H ARDENBERG; BRUNO BASSANO; MARCO FESTA-BIANCHET; GORDON LUIKART; PAOLO LANFRANCHI; DAVID COLTMAN

2007-01-01

255

The use of wood for wind turbine blade construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interrelationships between moisture and wood, conditions for dry rot spore activity, the protection of wood fibers from moisture, wood resin composites, wood laminating, quality control, and the mechanical properties of wood are discussed. The laminated veneer and the bonded sawn stock fabrication techniques, used in the construction of a turbine blade with a monocoque 'D' section forming the leading edge and a built up trailing edge section, are described. A 20 foot root end sample complete with 24 bonded-in studs was successfully subjected to large onetime loads in both the flatwise and edgewise directions, and to fatigue tests. Results indicate that wood is both a viable and advantageous material for use in wind turbine blades. The basic material is reasonably priced, domestically available, ecologically sound, and easily fabricated with low energy consumption.

Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.

1979-01-01

256

Real-time 3D wood panel surface measurement using laser triangulation and low-cost hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

High quality wood sanding machines require information about the wood surface shape in order to control actuators pushing the sanding paper onto the wood surface. In order to improve the quality of the sanding process a 3D measurement system is currently under development within an EU FP6 project. Several constraints (especially panel size and available measurement system volume) prohibit using

Herbert Ramoser; Luigi Cambrini; Harald Rötzer

2006-01-01

257

Wood pellet feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study effort was undertaken to determine the feasibility of using pelletized wood as an alternative fuel supply while retaining the capabilities of returning to the use of coal without interrupting steam production. Pelletized wood fuel was fired in two of four boilers rated at 80,000 pounds of steam per hour each. No modifications to the existing systems were required

Dohrer

1979-01-01

258

How James Wood Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

2008-01-01

259

Family Traits and Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play a matching game with their families to discover common inherited traits and traditions. Learners distinguish between inherited traits and learned traditions. This genetics activity is available in English and Spanish.

Utah, University O.

2006-01-01

260

Genome-wide association studies of agronomic and quality traits in a set of German winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT).  

PubMed

A set of about 100 winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, comprising diverse and economically important German barley elite germplasm released during the last six decades, was previously genotypically characterized by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using the Illumina GoldenGate BeadArray Technology to detect associations with phenotypic data estimated in three-year field trials at 12 locations. In order to identify further associations and to obtain information on whether the marker type influences the outcome of association genetics studies, the set of winter barley cultivars was re-analyzed using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. As with the analysis of the SNPs, only polymorphic markers present at an allele frequency >5 % were included to detect associations in a mixed linear model (MLM) approach using the TASSEL software (P???0.001). The population structure and kinship matrix were estimated on 72 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) covering the whole barley genome. The respective average linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyzed with DArT markers was estimated at 5.73 cM. A total of 52 markers gave significant associations with at least one of the traits estimated which, therefore, may be suitable for marker-assisted breeding. In addition, by comparing the results to those generated using the Illumina GoldenGate BeadArray Technology, it turned out that a different number of associations for respective traits is detected, depending on the marker system. However, as only a few of the respective DArT and Illumina markers are present in a common map, no comprehensive comparison of the detected associations was feasible, but some were probably detected in the same chromosomal regions. Because of the identification of additional marker-trait associations, it may be recommended to use both marker techniques in genome-wide association studies. PMID:24789682

Lex, Jeannette; Ahlemeyer, Jutta; Friedt, Wolfgang; Ordon, Frank

2014-08-01

261

Jojoba—Genetically controlled botanical traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

and summary  The discovery of correlations between botanical traits and wax quantity and quality in the seed would facilitate early detection\\u000a and elimination of undesirable genotypes in a jojoba breeding program. The traits studied were: (a) branching; upright, spherical,\\u000a and prostrate strains were found. (b) Leaf size; variability in mean leaf size is continuous ranging from 14×6 mm (long×short\\u000a leaf axis)

D. M. Yermanos

1977-01-01

262

Fibre wall and lumen fractions drive wood density variation across 24 Australian angiosperms  

PubMed Central

Wood density is considered a key plant trait, affecting mechanical and physiological performance, yet its biological meaning is still rather unclear. Accordingly we investigated the anatomical underpinnings of wood density in trees and shrubs. We measured wood density and anatomical traits in distal stems 4–10 mm diameter under bark in 24 Australian species. Proportions of wood components that are functionally distinct were analysed, including fibre wall and lumen, vessel wall and lumen, and axial and ray parenchyma. Wood density was mainly driven by the density of wood outside vessel lumens (densityNV) rather than by vessel lumen fraction. In turn, densityNV variation was chiefly affected by fibre wall and lumen fractions. Considerable anatomical variation was observed at a given densityNV, especially among medium-densityNV species (0.60–0.85 g cm?3); this range of medium densityNV roughly translates to 0.50–0.75 g cm?3 of overall density. The anatomy of these species formed a continuum from low fibre lumen and medium parenchyma fractions to medium fibre lumen and low parenchyma fractions. Our data suggest that wood density is an emergent property influenced by a complex anatomy rather than an unambiguous functional trait, particularly in medium-density species. With much anatomical variation, they likely represent a wide range of ecological strategies.

Zieminska, Kasia; Butler, Don W.; Gleason, Sean M.; Wright, Ian J.; Westoby, Mark

2013-01-01

263

Fungicidal value of wood tar from pyrolysis of treated wood.  

PubMed

The objective of the paper was to estimate the fungicidal value of wood tar extracted as a product of pyrolysis of wood previously treated with either creosote oil or CCB-type salt preservative. The effectiveness of wood treated with one of these two wood tar residuals was compared to the effectiveness of wood treated with virgin creosote oil (type WEI-B) and an untreated control. Wood was impregnated with alcohol solutions of the two extracted preservatives or virgin creosote oil and then subjected to the Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta and Coriolus versicolor fungi. The fungicidal values of the investigated preservatives were determined with the use of the short agar-block method and the aging test according to the standard EN 84. It was found that wood tar extracted by pyrolysis of old creosote-treated wood and then used to treat wood may have potential as a preservative for wood protection or as a component of preservatives. PMID:17011772

Mazela, Bart?omiej

2007-01-01

264

Multiple-interval mapping for quantitative trait loci controlling endosperm traits.  

PubMed Central

Endosperm traits are trisomic inheritant and are of great economic importance because they are usually directly related to grain quality. Mapping for quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying endosperm traits can provide an efficient way to genetically improve grain quality. As the traditional QTL mapping methods (diploid methods) are usually designed for traits under diploid control, they are not the ideal approaches to map endosperm traits because they ignore the triploid nature of endosperm. In this article, a statistical method considering the triploid nature of endosperm (triploid method) is developed on the basis of multiple-interval mapping (MIM) to map for the underlying QTL. The proposed triploid MIM method is derived to broadly use the marker information either from only the maternal plants or from both the maternal plants and their embryos in the backcross and F2 populations for mapping endosperm traits. Due to the use of multiple intervals simultaneously to take multiple QTL into account, the triploid MIM method can provide better detection power and estimation precision, and as shown in this article it is capable of analyzing and searching for epistatic QTL directly as compared to the traditional diploid methods and current triploid methods using only one (or two) interval(s). Several important issues in endosperm trait mapping, such as the relation and differences between the diploid and triploid methods, variance components of genetic variation, and the problems if effects are present and ignored, are also addressed. Simulations are performed to further explore these issues, to investigate the relative efficiency of different experimental designs, and to evaluate the performance of the proposed and current methods in mapping endosperm traits. The MIM-based triploid method can provide a powerful tool to estimate the genetic architecture of endosperm traits and to assist the marker-assisted selection for the improvement of grain quality in crop science. The triploid MIM FORTRAN program for mapping endosperm traits is available on the worldwide web (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/chkao/).

Kao, Chen-Hung

2004-01-01

265

Effect of atmospheric stability on the impact of domestic wood combustion to air quality of a small urban township in winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the winter of 2011, a field campaign was undertaken in the small township of Nelson, New Zealand to measure the vertical and horizontal distribution of concentrations of airborne particulate matter. The aim of this campaign was to improve our understanding of the causal factors which result in periods of very high concentrations of particulate pollution in small townships during winter where emissions are dominated by the combustion of wood for domestic heating. The results showed that mean hourly surface concentrations of particulates throughout the airshed were characterized by a distinctive diurnal cycle, with two peaks in concentration (one in the late evening and then, unusually, a second mid-morning). Although the timing and magnitude of hourly peak concentrations was variable throughout the valley, there was no evidence to suggest that regional or topographic flows played a significant role in the build-up of pollutants at any given location. Analysis of vertical profiles of black carbon showed that high concentrations of particulates were confined to the lowest 50 m of the boundary layer. Concentrations decreased with increasing height within this polluted surface layer. The atmosphere was very stable during the evening period. After midnight, a period of increased mixing was consistently identified throughout the lowest 100 m of the boundary layer and associated with the sudden cleansing of the surface and lower layers of the boundary layer. Throughout the observational period there was no evidence for the storage of pollutants aloft. Thus the vertical mixing of pollutants to the surface could not account for increased pollutant concentrations during the morning period. However, at this time the boundary layer remained stable and concentrations of black carbon were mixed through a very shallow layer. This suggests that despite lower domestic heating emissions in the morning, the reduced mixing volume is a likely cause of the observed marked peak in morning surface concentrations.

Grange, S. K.; Salmond, J. A.; Trompetter, W. J.; Davy, P. K.; Ancelet, T.

2013-05-01

266

Generating power with waste wood  

SciTech Connect

Among the biomass renewables, waste wood has great potential with environmental and economic benefits highlighting its resume. The topics of this article include alternate waste wood fuel streams; combustion benefits; waste wood comparisons; waste wood ash; pilot scale tests; full-scale test data; permitting difficulties; and future needs.

Atkins, R.S.

1995-02-01

267

Chemicals from Wood Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the economics of producing chemicals from wood waste was carried out for the Forest Products Laboratory. Results included: (1) outlining chemical processes based on known technology for producing methanol, ethanol, formaldehyde, furfural, and p...

A. E. Hokanson V. B. Diebold D. W. Bennett R. P. Klier S. A. Stein

1975-01-01

268

Power from wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report includes handling, combustion, and pollution-control systems needed for clean, efficient use of wood. The many equipment options are identified. It offers a review of time-proven technology, plus a look at new equipment and concepts in industrial wood-firing concepts, and some ideas on how to operate existing facilities better. The specific sections included were: resource availability, fuel properties, fuel

Schwleger

1980-01-01

269

Impact Tests for Woods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although it is well known that the strength of wood depends greatly upon the time the wood is under the load, little consideration has been given to this fact in testing materials for airplanes. Here, results are given of impact tests on clear, straight grained spruce. Transverse tests were conducted for comparison. Both Izod and Charpy impact tests were conducted. Results are given primarily in tabular and graphical form.

1922-01-01

270

New wood composite bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explores the possibilities of wood composite structures with a view to designing durable lightweight composite decks. The paper examines a new wood structure technology in which an ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) slab is fastened to glulam beams. Fasteners representing most existing groups are first experimentally investigated on small beams (span one meter). The modes of functioning of each

Robert Le Roy; Hoai Son Pham; Gilles Foret

2009-01-01

271

Laser processing of phenolic wood substitutes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenolic resin boards (PRB) are wood substitutes that comprises of a thick core exclusively made of phenolic resin covered by a thin sheet of melamine resin imitating the aspect of natural wood. The use of these materials in furniture and in construction industry has proliferated during last years. Boards made of phenolic resins are dense, hard and very difficult to cut using band saws, disc saws, or milling cutters. Nevertheless, these difficulties can be overcome by means of laser cutting, which is one of the most firmly established techniques for separating materials. This is due to the great advantages of this technique over traditional cutting methods, such as its versatility and flexibility that allow effective cutting. Nevertheless, charring of the cut edge surface caused by laser induced thermal degradation degrades the cut quality under non-optimized processing conditions. In this research work the viability and quality of CO2 laser cutting process of phenolic resin boards and wood particleboard panels has been evaluated. The present work validates the cut of phenolic resin boards by CO2 lasers using a high laser power and elevated cutting speeds. Moreover, this process involves a serious health hazard since the combustion and decomposition of wood may produce fumes and vapors, which can be toxic and carcinogenic according to the International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC). Therefore, this work was complemented by the assessment of the potential toxicity of the condensed residues formed on the cut edges, and assessment of the chemistry of the generated fumes by chromatography.

Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Lusquiños, F.; Penide, J.; Arias-González, F.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.

2013-11-01

272

Experimental study of wood downdraft gasification for an improved producer gas quality through an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach.  

PubMed

This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings. PMID:21292477

Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan

2011-04-01

273

First World-Wide Study of the Wood and Wood Processing Industries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The wood and wood processing sector in the world; Logging and transport; Possibilities and prerequisites for mechanical wood processing industries in developing countries; International trade in wood and wood products; Some policy related issues...

1983-01-01

274

Use of sweet lupin ( Lupinus albus L. var. Multitalia) in feeding for Podolian young bulls and influence on productive performances and meat quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sweet lupin (Lupinusalbus L. var. Multitalia) as a substitute for soybean (Glicinemax [L] Merr.) in feed on the productive performance and meat quality of Podolian young bulls. The steers were divided into 2 homogeneous groups and were fed durum wheat (Triticumdurum L.), straw and a complete pellet feed containing

A. Vicenti; F. Toteda; L. Di Turi; C. Cocca; M. Perrucci; L. Melodia; M. Ragni

2009-01-01

275

The effects of gender and slaughter weight on the growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality characteristics of heavy pigs1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crossbred pigs (n = 192) from Pietrain × Large White sires mated to Landrace × Large White dams, with a mean BW of 75 ± 1.3 kg, were used to investigate the effects of gender and slaughter weight (SW) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Pens of pigs (eight pigs\\/pen) were assigned randomly to one of six treatments

M. A. Latorre; R. Lazaro; D. G. Valencia; P. Medel; G. G. Mateos

2010-01-01

276

Mechanical characteristics of aged Hinoki wood from Japanese historical buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood is present in many cultural heritage objects in Japan thanks to its capacity to resist over a long period of time. However, the evolution of its properties in regular use remains insufficiently known. The present study on the effect of wood aging takes advantage of the Japanese context where building traditions have been maintained for centuries. 3-point bending tests were performed in longitudinal (L) and radial (R) directions on small clear wood specimens cut from 8 historical samples and one modern reference considered of high quality by craftsmen. Although aged wood appeared more rigid and stronger than recent wood, after density and humidity corrections were applied no significant variation of L and R rigidity or L strength was observed. The post-linear behaviour, however, was drastically influenced by wood age especially in R direction where the strength and rupture energy decreased markedly with the time elapsed since the wood was processed. Well preserved aged wood considered as safe as long as it is not loaded perpendicular to grain. To cite this article: M. Yokoyama et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

Yokoyama, Misao; Gril, Joseph; Matsuo, Miyuki; Yano, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Junji; Clair, Bruno; Kubodera, Sigeru; Mistutani, Takumi; Sakamoto, Minoru; Ozaki, Hiromasa; Imamura, Mineo; Kawai, Shuichi

2009-09-01

277

Rehabilitating agricultural streams in Australia with wood: a review.  

PubMed

Worldwide, the ecological condition of streams and rivers has been impaired by agricultural practices such as broadscale modification of catchments, high nutrient and sediment inputs, loss of riparian vegetation, and altered hydrology. Typical responses include channel incision, excessive sedimentation, declining water quality, and loss of in-stream habitat complexity and biodiversity. We review these impacts, focusing on the potential benefits and limitations of wood reintroduction as a transitional rehabilitation technique in these agricultural landscapes using Australian examples. In streams, wood plays key roles in shaping velocity and sedimentation profiles, forming pools, and strengthening banks. In the simplified channels typical of many agricultural streams, wood provides habitat for fauna, substrate for biofilms, and refuge from predators and flow extremes, and enhances in-stream diversity of fish and macroinvertebrates.Most previous restoration studies involving wood reintroduction have been in forested landscapes, but some results might be extrapolated to agricultural streams. In these studies, wood enhanced diversity of fish and macroinvertebrates, increased storage of organic material and sediment, and improved bed and bank stability. Failure to meet restoration objectives appeared most likely where channel incision was severe and in highly degraded environments. Methods for wood reintroduction have logistical advantages over many other restoration techniques, being relatively low cost and low maintenance. Wood reintroduction is a viable transitional restoration technique for agricultural landscapes likely to rapidly improve stream condition if sources of colonists are viable and water quality is suitable. PMID:18560930

Lester, Rebecca E; Boulton, Andrew J

2008-08-01

278

Photodegradation of thermally modified wood.  

PubMed

Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (?E(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers. PMID:23123593

Srinivas, Kavyashree; Pandey, Krishna K

2012-12-01

279

Generations of Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on activity students track and record the passage of colored pom-pom âtraitsâ through three generations of gingerbread people. Students observe that traits are passed from parents to offspring, and that siblings each receive a different combination of traits from their parents.

2006-01-01

280

Generalized Latent Trait Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

2000-01-01

281

Controls on coarse wood decay in temperate tree species: birth of the LOGLIFE experiment.  

PubMed

Dead wood provides a huge terrestrial carbon stock and a habitat to wide-ranging organisms during its decay. Our brief review highlights that, in order to understand environmental change impacts on these functions, we need to quantify the contributions of different interacting biotic and abiotic drivers to wood decomposition. LOGLIFE is a new long-term 'common-garden' experiment to disentangle the effects of species' wood traits and site-related environmental drivers on wood decomposition dynamics and its associated diversity of microbial and invertebrate communities. This experiment is firmly rooted in pioneering experiments under the directorship of Terry Callaghan at Abisko Research Station, Sweden. LOGLIFE features two contrasting forest sites in the Netherlands, each hosting a similar set of coarse logs and branches of 10 tree species. LOGLIFE welcomes other researchers to test further questions concerning coarse wood decay that will also help to optimise forest management in view of carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. PMID:22864697

Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Poorter, Lourens; van Geffen, Koert; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; van Hal, Jurgen; Goudzwaard, Leo; Sterck, Frank J; Klaassen, René K W M; Freschet, Grégoire T; van der Wal, Annemieke; Eshuis, Henk; Zuo, Juan; de Boer, Wietse; Lamers, Teun; Weemstra, Monique; Cretin, Vincent; Martin, Rozan; Ouden, Jan den; Berg, Matty P; Aerts, Rien; Mohren, Godefridus M J; Hefting, Mariet M

2012-01-01

282

Harvesting wood for energy  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to present pertinent cost and productivity data for several wood harvesting operations. These operations were not all conducted to provide wood fuel, but the information is still of value to those considering the harvest of wood for energy. The case studies are based on the following harvesting operations: Two mechanized thinning operations in pole-sized hardwoods. One hardwood land-clearing operation (for agricultural land). One hardwood land-clearing operation (for site conversion). One relogging operation of hardwood tops and limbs resulting from a saw log harvest. All of the studies were conducted between 1974 and 1978. Information on the costs and productivity of commercial logging equipment is included.

Arola, R.A.; Miyata, E.S.

1981-01-01

283

The hydrogasification of wood  

SciTech Connect

It is demonstrated that wood can be gasified over an aluminia-nickel catalyst in 1 atm of hydrogen pressure to give a 75% carbon conversion to methane at optimal conditions. These optimal conditions correspond to those which are used in the Waterloo Fast Pyrolysis Process to obtain maximum liquid yields. At higher temperatures (above 600/sup 0/C), equilibrium considerations greatly reduce the yield of methane. The success of the hydrogasification step suggests the possibility of an integrated gasification process which consists of hydrogasification followed by steam reforming and membrane separation of product gas to yield at CO/H/sub 2/ mixture and a H/sub 2/-rich stream which is returned to the hydrogasification step. In effect, the process converts wood to its equivalent yield of CO and H/sub 2/ with no added regents except the moisture in the wood.

Garg, M.; Piskorz, J.; Scott, D.S.; Radlein, D.

1988-02-01

284

Wood for sound.  

PubMed

The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions. PMID:21642091

Wegst, Ulrike G K

2006-10-01

285

Precision wood particle feedstocks  

DOEpatents

Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-07-30

286

A comparison of halothane homozygous negative and positive pietrain sire lines in relation to carcass and meat quality, and welfare traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barrows (n=164) and gilts (n=249) from crosses of a Pietrain homozygous halothane recessive (Pi nn) and two Pietrain homozygous dominant (Pi NN-a and Pi NN-b) sire lines with Landrace×Large White NN sows, were used to study the effect of terminal sire and pre-slaughter treatment on meat quality and animal welfare. The pigs from each of the two farms where they

E. Fàbrega; X. Manteca; M. Gispert; D. Carrión; A. Velarde; J. L. Ruiz-de-la-Torre; A. Diestre

2004-01-01

287

Influence of dietary vitamin E supplementation on meat quality traits and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in the Beijing-you chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The effects of dietary vitamin E (DL-?-tocopheryl acetate) on carcase and meat quality, oxidative stability, fatty acid composition of muscle lipids, and gene expression related to lipid metabolism were studied in Beijing-you chickens.2.?A total of 360 female birds were distributed among 6 treatments, containing 6 replicates, each of 10 birds. The feed for each treatment was supplemented with vitamin E

W. J. Li; G. P. Zhao; J. L. Chen; M. Q. Zheng; J. Wen

2009-01-01

288

Wood Fuel and Pulp Wood Production at Terminals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The so called whole-tree method has during recent years replaced the conventional assortment method for thinning younger stands at several locations in Sweden. Unlimbed logs are processed at wood terminals into pulp wood and wood fuel. Today the pulp indu...

K. Segerud

1983-01-01

289

Multiple trait model combining random regressions for daily feed intake with single measured performance traits of growing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A random regression model for daily feed intake and a conventional multiple trait animal model for the four traits average daily gain on test (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass lean content and meat quality index were combined to analyse data from 1 449 castrated male Large White pigs performance tested in two French central testing stations in 1997. Group

Urs Schnyder; Andreas Hofer; Florence Labroue; Niklaus Künzi

2002-01-01

290

The Woods and Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities offer sudents a hands-on approach to learning about their natural surroundings. After visiting a local pond and woods area, they will recognize that pond and woods environments are ecosystems and be able to state some of the differences between the two. They will also learn to identify trees by their leaves and bark and to identify shrubs by their fruit and manner of growth. In addition, they will also learn to identify animals and plants near the pond, and learn to recognize changes in the two ecosystems over a span of months.

1998-01-01

291

Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. The three major categories are wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial...

G. Wiltsee

1999-01-01

292

Secondary Wood Processing in Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents an overview of secondary processing situations in the 17 African countries visited by consultants in connection with preparatory studies for the Second Consultation on the Wood and Wood Products Industries. Conclusions and recommendati...

G. E. Gresham

1990-01-01

293

Woodmetrics: imaging devices and processes in wood inspection at Lulea University of Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood Technology research and education at Lulea University of Technology is located in Skelleftea 800 km north of Stockholm. At the campus about 25 persons are involved in education and research in Wood Technology. We are educating M.Sc. and post- graduate students in Wood Technology. The research at the campus includes the following main fields: -- Wood Machining - - Woodmetrics -- Wood Drying -- Wood Composites/Wood Material Science. Our research strategy is to obtain an individual treatment of every tree, board and piece of wood in order to get highest possible value for the forest products. This shall be accomplished by the aid of advanced scanning technology and computer technology. Woodmetrics means to measure different wood parameters in order to optimize the utilization of the raw material. Today we have the following projects in this field: Automatic wood inspection -- Color changes and moisture flow in drying processes -- Inner quality of logs and lumber - - Stem quality database -- Computer tomography -- Aesthetic properties of wood -- Market/industry/forest relations. In the Woodmetrics field we are using computer tomography, CCD cameras and other sensors in order to find and measure defects in trees and on boards. The signals are analyzed and classified with modern image analyzing techniques and advanced statistical methods.

Hagman, Olle

1999-09-01

294

Network analysis reveals the relationship among wood properties, gene expression levels and genotypes of natural Populus trichocarpa accessions.  

PubMed

High-throughput approaches have been widely applied to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of industrially important wood properties. Wood traits are polygenic in nature, but gene hierarchies can be assessed to identify the most important gene variants controlling specific traits within complex networks defining the overall wood phenotype. We tested a large set of genetic, genomic, and phenotypic information in an integrative approach to predict wood properties in Populus trichocarpa. Nine-yr-old natural P. trichocarpa trees including accessions with high contrasts in six traits related to wood chemistry and ultrastructure were profiled for gene expression on 49k Nimblegen (Roche NimbleGen Inc., Madison, WI, USA) array elements and for 28,831 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Pre-selected transcripts and SNPs with high statistical dependence on phenotypic traits were used in Bayesian network learning procedures with a stepwise K2 algorithm to infer phenotype-centric networks. Transcripts were pre-selected at a much lower logarithm of Bayes factor (logBF) threshold than SNPs and were not accommodated in the networks. Using persistent variables, we constructed cross-validated networks for variability in wood attributes, which contained four to six variables with 94-100% predictive accuracy. Accommodated gene variants revealed the hierarchy in the genetic architecture that underpins substantial phenotypic variability, and represent new tools to support the maximization of response to selection. PMID:23889128

Porth, Ilga; Klápšt?, Jaroslav; Skyba, Oleksandr; Friedmann, Michael C; Hannemann, Jan; Ehlting, Juergen; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Mansfield, Shawn D; Douglas, Carl J

2013-11-01

295

Tree Endophytes and Wood Biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In nature, wood-decaying fungi play an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycling by promoting the bioconversion\\u000a of organic matter. Wood-decaying fungi colonize and degrade wood by attacking cell components with enzymatic and non-enzymatic\\u000a systems. Some fungal endophytes can become activate and express the wood-decay machinery under suitable conditions. It has\\u000a been proposed that endophytic fungi are involved in

Jaime Rodríguez; Juan Pedro Elissetche; Sofía Valenzuela

296

Bacterial associations with decaying wood: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood-inhabiting bacteria are associated with wood decay and may have an indirect influence on the decay process. Bacteria are able to affect wood permeability, attack wood structure, or work synergistically with other bacteria and soft-rot fungi to predispose wood to fungal attack. Bacteria that can inhabit chemically treated wood are recognized. The natural ability of certain bacterial genera to decompose

Carol A. Clausen

1996-01-01

297

The genetic background affects composition, oxidative stability and quality traits of Iberian dry-cured hams: purebred Iberian versus reciprocal Iberian × Duroc crossbred pigs.  

PubMed

This study examined the physico-chemical characteristics, oxidative stability and sensory properties of Iberian cry-cured hams as affected by the genetic background of the pigs: purebred Iberian (PBI) pigs vs reciprocal cross-bred Iberian × Duroc pigs (IB × D pigs: Iberian dams × Duroc sires; D × IB pigs: Duroc dams × Iberian sires). Samples from PBI pigs contained significantly higher amounts of IMF, monounsaturated fatty acids, heme pigments and iron than those from crossbred pigs. The extent of lipid and protein oxidation was significantly larger in dry-cured hams of crossbred pigs than in those from PBI pigs. Dry-cured hams from PBI pigs were defined by positive sensory properties (i.e. redness, brightness and juiciness) while hams from crossbred pigs were ascribed to negative ones (i.e. hardness, bitterness and sourness). Hams from PBI pigs displayed a superior quality than those from crossbred pigs. The position of the dam or the sire in reciprocal Iberian × Duroc crosses had no effect on the quality of Iberian hams. PMID:24200565

Fuentes, Verónica; Ventanas, Sonia; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

2014-02-01

298

Wood burning stove  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air tight wood burning stove (10) for heating a designated space comprises a housing (12) having an access opening (50) in the front wall (14) thereof and at least one glass panel (64) containing door (54, 56) hingedly mounted on the front wall for closing the opening (50). A latching mechanism (60) on the door (54, 56) engages with

1982-01-01

299

Wood Duck (Aix sponsa)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has posted a new resource on birds. This resource describes the habitat requirements of the Wood Duck, and is designed to assist in the development of a "comprehensive management plan." The resource is accompanied by figures and may be browsed online or downloaded as a zip file.

300

Heat of wood pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat of pyrolysis of beech and spruce wood was investigated by means of a differential scanning calorimeter. Wide variations were found for the heat of the primary pyrolysis process, depending on the initial sample weight and on the conditions used in the measurements. However, reporting the heat of the primary pyrolysis process versus the final char yield resulted in

J. Rath; M. G. Wolfinger; G. Steiner; G. Krammer; F. Barontini; V. Cozzani

2003-01-01

301

A life cycle evaluation of wood pellet gasification for district heating in British Columbia.  

PubMed

The replacement of natural gas combustion for district heating by wood waste and wood pellets gasification systems with or without emission control has been investigated by a streamlined LCA. While stack emissions from controlled gasification systems are lower than the applicable regulations, compared to the current base case, 12% and 133% increases are expected in the overall human health impacts for wood pellets and wood waste, respectively. With controlled gasification, external costs and GHG emission can be reduced by 35% and 82% on average, respectively. Between wood pellets and wood waste, wood pellets appear to be the better choice as it requires less primary energy and has a much lower impact on the local air quality. PMID:21377867

Pa, Ann; Bi, Xiaotao T; Sokhansanj, Shahab

2011-05-01

302

Carcass quality, physico-chemical parameters, muscle fibre traits and myosin heavy chain composition of m. longissimus lumborum from Pu?awska and Polish Large White pigs.  

PubMed

In 54 Pu?awska pigs and 60 Polish Large White pigs (PLW), slaughtered at 30 and 100kg body weight, carcass and meat quality of m. longissimus lumborum were studied. Analysis revealed that in both examined body weight groups, hot carcass weight, carcass yield percentage, meat content, and weight of ham and carcass ham percentage were significantly lower and backfat thickness higher for Pu?awska pigs compared to PLW pigs, while PLW pigs exhibited significantly longer carcasses, greater loin eye area, and, in the case of lighter pigs, smaller proportion of loin in the carcass. Muscles of Pu?awska pigs, in the lighter group, had higher IMF content and a* value, while in the heavier group they exhibited higher pH45, pH24 and a* values, lower L*, drip loss, WHC, and thermal loss compared with PLW pigs. PLW pigs had higher WB and hardness values and more glycolytic muscles characterised by higher TNF. PMID:24769095

Wojtysiak, Dorota; Po?towicz, Katarzyna

2014-08-01

303

Flavonoid insertion into cell walls improves wood properties.  

PubMed

Wood has an excellent mechanical performance, but wider utilization of this renewable resource as an engineering material is limited by unfavorable properties such as low dimensional stability upon moisture changes and a low durability. However, some wood species are known to produce a wood of higher quality by inserting mainly phenolic substances in the already formed cell walls--a process so-called heartwood formation. In the present study, we used the heartwood formation in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) as a source of bioinspiration and transferred principles of the modification in order to improve spruce wood properties (Picea abies) by a chemical treatment with commercially available flavonoids. We were able to effectively insert hydrophobic flavonoids in the cell wall after a tosylation treatment for activation. The chemical treatment reduced the water uptake of the wood cell walls and increased the dimensional stability of the bulk spruce wood. Further analysis of the chemical interaction of the flavonoid with the structural cell wall components revealed the basic principle of this bioinspired modification. Contrary to established modification treatments, which mainly address the hydroxyl groups of the carbohydrates with hydrophilic substances, the hydrophobic flavonoids are effective by a physical bulking in the cell wall most probably stabilized by ?-? interactions. A biomimetic transfer of the underlying principle may lead to alternative cell wall modification procedures and improve the performance of wood as an engineering material. PMID:23027798

Ermeydan, Mahmut A; Cabane, Etienne; Masic, Admir; Koetz, Joachim; Burgert, Ingo

2012-11-01

304

An oligo-based microarray offers novel transcriptomic approaches for the analysis of pathogen resistance and fruit quality traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Melon (Cucumis melo) is a horticultural specie of significant nutritional value, which belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance is second only to the Solanaceae. Its small genome of approx. 450 Mb coupled to the high genetic diversity has prompted the development of genetic tools in the last decade. However, the unprecedented existence of a transcriptomic approaches in melon, highlight the importance of designing new tools for high-throughput analysis of gene expression. Results We report the construction of an oligo-based microarray using a total of 17,510 unigenes derived from 33,418 high-quality melon ESTs. This chip is particularly enriched with genes that are expressed in fruit and during interaction with pathogens. Hybridizations for three independent experiments allowed the characterization of global gene expression profiles during fruit ripening, as well as in response to viral and fungal infections in plant cotyledons and roots, respectively. Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation together with functional-enrichment analysis are presented in this study. Conclusion The platform validation and enrichment analyses shown in our study indicate that this oligo-based microarray is amenable for future genetic and functional genomic studies of a wide range of experimental conditions in melon.

Mascarell-Creus, Albert; Canizares, Joaquin; Vilarrasa-Blasi, Josep; Mora-Garcia, Santiago; Blanca, Jose; Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Saladie, Montserrat; Roig, Cristina; Deleu, Wim; Pico-Silvent, Belen; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Aranda, Miguel A; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Nuez, Fernando; Puigdomenech, Pere; Cano-Delgado, Ana I

2009-01-01

305

Application of Environment-Friendly Pigment Printing Technology in the Wood Color Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of artificial plantation must be vigorously developed because the resources of high-quality natural large-diameter timber and valuable timber are limited and expensive. Environmental awareness must be greatly enhanced while wood dyeing technology being used to improve the low-grade wood of fast-growing plantation and to imitate precious wood. Textile pigment printing has been widely used in countries around the

Hong Deng; Qi Liao

2010-01-01

306

Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

Ghafghazi, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

2011-01-01

307

Wood energy fuel cycle optimization in beech and spruce forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel synergistic approach to reducing emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is presented. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization (FCO) aims to provide cleaner burning fuels through optimization of forestry and renewable energy management practices. In this work, beech and spruce forests of average and high quality were modelled and analysed to determine the volume of fuel wood and its associated bark fraction produced during typical forestry cycles. Two separate fuel wood bark production regimes were observed for beech trees, while only one production regime was observed for spruce. The single tree and stand models were combined with existing thinning parameters to replicate existing management practices. Utilizing estimates of initial seedling numbers and existing thinning patterns a dynamic model was formed that responded to changes in thinning practices. By varying the thinning parameters, this model enabled optimization of the forestry practices for the reduction of bark impurities in the fuel wood supply chain. Beech forestry cycles responded well to fuel cycle optimization with volume reductions of bark from fuel wood of between ˜10% and ˜20% for average and high quality forest stands. Spruce, on the other hand, was fairly insensitive to FCO with bark reductions of 0-5%. The responsiveness of beech to FCO further supports its status as the preferred RWC fuel in Switzerland. FCO could easily be extended beyond Switzerland and applied across continental Europe and North America.

Meyer, Nickolas K.; Mina, Marco

2012-03-01

308

The hydrogasification of wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is demonstrated that wood can be gasified over an aluminia-nickel catalyst in 1 atm of hydrogen pressure to give a 75% carbon conversion to methane at optimal conditions. These optimal conditions correspond to those which are used in the Waterloo Fast Pyrolysis Process to obtain maximum liquid yields. At higher temperatures (above 600°C), equilibrium considerations greatly reduce the yield

Mahesh Garg; Jan Piskorz; Donald S. Scott; Desmond Radlein

1988-01-01

309

What are the consequences of growth selection on wood density in the French maritime pine breeding programme?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volume and stem straightness were the main selection criteria for the first two generations of the French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) breeding programme. In this article, we investigate the consequences of this selection on wood quality. Wood density,\\u000a as a predictor of wood quality, is studied both in the breeding populations and in commercial varieties. Phenotypic and genetic\\u000a correlations

Laurent Bouffier; Annie Raffin; Philippe Rozenberg; Céline Meredieu; Antoine Kremer

2009-01-01

310

USE OF THE FRACTOMETER TO DETERMINE THE STRENGTH OF WOOD WITH INCIPIENT DECAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fairly new method (Visual Tree Assessment on a biomechanical basis, VTA) and a handy tool for measuring wood quality in terms of strength and stiffness (the Fractometer) are presented together with a new mechanically equivalent model for wood. The paper gives help in interpreting the results gained by Fractometer measurements. At the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH the VTA method was

Claus G. Mattheck; Helge Breloer; Klaus A. Bethge; Wolfgang A. Albrecht; Achim W. Zipse

1995-01-01

311

Spatial variability of arsenic and chromium in the soil water at a former wood preserving site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of industrial sites by wood preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) may pose a serious threat to groundwater quality. The objective of this study was to characterise the spatial variability of As and Cr concentrations in the solid phase and in the soil water at a former wood impregnation plant and to reveal the fundamental transport processes. The

Luisa Hopp; Stefan Peiffer; Wolfgang Durner

2006-01-01

312

Environmental Influences on Wood Chemistry and Density of Populus and Loblolly Pine  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the study are to: (1) determine the degree to which physical and chemical wood properties vary in association with environmental and silvicultural practices in Populus and loblolly pine and (2) develop and verify species-specific empirical models in an effort to create a framework for understanding environmental influences on wood quality.

Tuskan, G.A.

2006-08-11

313

VARIATION IN THE WOOD PROPERTIES OF PARASERIANTHES FALCATARIA PLANTED IN INDONESIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In many tree breeding programs, plus trees have been selected according to growth rate or stem form in trees. Trees that have a high growth rate or good stem form do not always produce industrially desirable wood. Therefore criteria for wood quality should be considered in tree breeding programs. The objective of this study is to obtain the basic

F. Ishiguri; J. Eizawa; Y. Saito; K. Iizuka; S. Yokota; D. Priadi; N. Sumiasri; N. Yoshizawa

2007-01-01

314

Modelling and experimental investigation of a pilot plant for solar wood drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

In northeast Argentina, several species of hard wood, e.g. Algarrobo and Quebracho, are used for building furniture. To obtain high quality products in this and many other climates, artificial drying is required; typically, wood is dried in convection dryers. In this project the drying air is heated by solar energy in a collector resembling a greenhouse tunnel. Then passing through

M. Reuss; S. T. Benkert; A. Aeberhard; P. Martina; G. Raush; B. V. Rentzell; N. Sogari

1997-01-01

315

Impacts of changes in marketing environment on the primary wood-processing industry in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Primary wood products typically require less effort in advertising, distribution channels, differentiation of quality, price, specification, etc., of the products. Primary wood products need more effort in adjusting production mix, in securing raw materials at reasonable prices. Being highly dependent on foreign timber resources, the primary process industry of Korea has been greatly affected by changes in the marketing

Wae Jung Kim

316

[Tropical woods and contact eczema].  

PubMed

An enquiry was carried out in Zaire among workers handling different woods. The aim of the investigation was to establish which woods provoke undesirable reactions of the skin and mucous membranes. Besides the well known toxic woods, 6 types of wood were identified, which had not been known to be cause of these reactions: --Autranella congolensis (dermatitis; ocular and respiratory manifestations); --Drypetes gossweileri (dermatitis; ocular and respiratory manifestations); --Ceiba pentandra (essentially pruriginous manifestations); --Diba di Nzambi (common name) and Ficus capensis (bullous dermatitis); --Combretodendron macrocarpum (dermatitis; ocular and respiratory manifestations). PMID:6218978

Ngangu, Z; Foussereau, J

1982-01-01

317

Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01

318

A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students create a "DNA recipe" for a dog to learn how variations in DNA lead to the inheritance of different traits. Strips of paper (representing DNA) are randomly selected and used to assemble a DNA molecule. Students read the DNA recipe to create a drawing of their pet and compare it with others in the class to note similarities and differences. Through this activity, students will learn that every organism requires a set of instructions for specifying its traits and heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.

2006-01-01

319

Origins of Metastatic Traits  

PubMed Central

How cancer cells acquire the competence to colonize distant organs remains a central question in cancer biology. Tumors can release large numbers of cancer cells into the circulation, but only a small proportion of these cells survive on infiltrating distant organs and even fewer form clinically meaningful metastases. During the past decade, many predictive gene signatures and specific mediators of metastasis have been identified, yet how cancer cells acquire these traits has remained obscure. Recent experimental work and high-resolution sequencing of human tissues have started to reveal the molecular and tumor evolutionary principles that underlie the emergence of metastatic traits.

Vanharanta, Sakari; Massague, Joan

2014-01-01

320

Differential calometric analysis of wood and wood components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prolysis of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin preparations, and wood was studied by differential calorimetric analysis (DCA) for the range of 25° to 800° C. The test samples included powdered and filter paper celluloses; hardwood xylan; softwood galactoglucomannans, compression wood galactan, and arabinogalactan; a synthetic (DHP), sulfuric acid, Björkman, Brownell, and cellulase lignins; and unextracted and extracted hardwoods and softwoods. Heats

F. C. Beall

1971-01-01

321

Wood Substitutes; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide is for use by college instructors concerned with expanding traditional woodworking programs. It was developed in a National Defense Education Act summer institute and is based on an outline provided by members of a previous institute. The content concerns wood substitutes which are made to resemble wood and are often used…

Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

322

Chemical Treatment and Preservation of Wood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Method for the production of plasticized wood; Determination of the diffusion coefficient of bound water in wood; Hydrolysis of birch wood in vibrating mill M-10 in the presence of different catalysts; Hydrolysis of lignocellulose with sulfuric ...

V. S. Gromov

1976-01-01

323

Do childhood callous-unemotional traits drive change in parenting practices?  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between callous-unemotional (CU) traits and parenting practices over time in a mixed-sex community cohort (N = 1,008; 52.6% boys), aged 3 to 10 years (M = 6.5, SD = 1.3). Measures of CU traits, externalizing psychopathology, parenting practices, and socioeconomic risk factors were collected at baseline, and parenting practices and CU traits were reassessed at 12-month follow-up. CU traits uniquely accounted for change in three domains of parenting (inconsistent discipline, punishment, and parental involvement). Likewise, multiple domains of parenting (positive parenting, parental involvement, and poor monitoring/supervision) uniquely predicted change in CU traits. These seemingly bidirectional dynamics between CU traits and parenting were found to be largely moderated by child age and sex. Results partially replicate previous findings regarding the association between quality of parenting and prospective change in CU traits, and provide initial evidence that CU traits disrupt parenting practices over time. PMID:21722024

Hawes, David J; Dadds, Mark R; Frost, Aaron D J; Hasking, Penelope A

2011-01-01

324

Current near-to-nature forest management effects on functional trait composition of saproxylic beetles in beech forests.  

PubMed

With the aim of wood production with negligible negative effects on biodiversity and ecosystem processes, a silvicultural practice of selective logging with natural regeneration has been implemented in European beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) during the last decades. Despite this near-to-nature strategy, species richness of various taxa is lower in these forests than in unmanaged forests. To develop guidelines to minimize the fundamental weaknesses in the current practice, we linked functional traits of saproxylic beetle species to ecosystem characteristics. We used continental-scale data from 8 European countries and regional-scale data from a large forest in southern Germany and forest-stand variables that represented a gradient of intensity of forest use to evaluate the effect of current near-to-nature management strategies on the functional diversity of saproxylic beetles. Forest-stand variables did not have a statistically significant effect on overall functional diversity, but they did significantly affect community mean and diversity of single functional traits. As the amount of dead wood increased the composition of assemblages shifted toward dominance of larger species and species preferring dead wood of large diameter and in advanced stages of decay. The mean amount of dead wood across plots in which most species occurred was from 20 to 60 m(3) /ha. Species occurring in plots with mean dead wood >60 m(3) /ha were consistently those inhabiting dead wood of large diameter and in advanced stages of decay. On the basis of our results, to make current wood-production practices in beech forests throughout Europe more conservation oriented (i.e., promoting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning), we recommend increasing the amount of dead wood to >20 m(3) /ha; not removing dead wood of large diameter (50 cm) and allowing more dead wood in advanced stages of decomposition to develop; and designating strict forest reserves, with their exceptionally high amounts of dead wood, that would serve as refuges for and sources of saproxylic habitat specialists. PMID:23432190

Gossner, Martin M; Lachat, Thibault; Brunet, Jörg; Isacsson, Gunnar; Bouget, Christophe; Brustel, Hervé; Brandl, Roland; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Müller, Jörg

2013-06-01

325

Wood energy use in the lumber and wood products industry  

SciTech Connect

Wood energy use in the lumber and wood products industry (SIC 24) in 1981 was estimated to be .27 quadrillion Btu's. This estimate is based upon a national survey of randomly selected mills conducted by the National Forest Products Association (NFPA). The results of the survey are compared with an annual energy reporting program for the industry which has 17 corporate participants. The proportionate share of each energy source is similar in the two sources of data. This suggests that the energy use patterns shown in the reporting program are representative of the energy use in the industry at large. Energy from wood-derived fuels account for approximately 70% of the total energy used in the industry. Estimates are made for the volume of wood residues consumed for energy. Qualitative information about anticipated wood energy use, barriers, and incentives was also obtained from the national survey. (Refs. 7)

Goetzl, A.; Tatum, S.

1983-01-01

326

Are autistic traits autistic?  

PubMed

According to the extreme male brain theory of autism (Baron-Cohen, 2002), autistic traits would be extreme manifestations of typical male behaviours. The Auyeung et al. (2009) paper establishes a link between autistic traits and higher fetal testosterone (fT) levels in typically developing children. We argue that the construct behind this relationship needs further investigation. First, the link between fT levels and sexually dimorphic traits, that are for example, associated with empathizing and systemizing, is controversial. Likewise, describing autistic behaviours as being extreme male-like is debatable. The cerebral hemisphere laterality pattern of individuals with autism also seems to differ from the pattern typically observed in males. Moreover, the parallel that should exist, according to the fT theory, between individuals with autism and individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), because of their high fT levels, is unclear. The theory implying fT levels in autism fails to account for a big part of autism, and the link between fT and normal 'autistic traits' hardly demonstrates the causal link between fT and autism. PMID:18718106

Barbeau, Elise B; Mendrek, Adrianna; Mottron, Laurent

2009-02-01

327

Wood decay under the microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aspects of the interactions between host wood structure and fungal activity can be revealed by high resolution light microscopy, and this technique has provided much of the information discussed here. A wide range of different types of decay can result from permutations of host species, fungal species and conditions within wood. Within this spectrum, three main types are commonly

Francis W. M. R. Schwarze

2007-01-01

328

Wood Combustion in Existing Stoves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The increasing use of wood for heating Swedish residential houses after the oil crisis causes considerable polluting emissions. Still only 120,000 households so far entirely use wood for heating, out of half a million with stoves allowing it. The low comb...

P. O. Ewers K. Lindkvist

1984-01-01

329

Moisture Sorption Hysteresis in Wood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The occurrence of moisture sorption hysteresis in wood, and several proposed theories for explaining it, are discussed. Hysteresis is shown to be beneficial when wood is in use because it reduces changes in moisture content (lower effective slope of the s...

C. Skaar

1979-01-01

330

Healthy volunteers exposed to wood stove particles demonstrate inflammatory changes  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction. Human exposure to particles associated with wood burning is of great consequence in both indoor air quality and air pollution and has been listed by the World Health Organization as one of the world's ten greatest health concerns. This investigation tested the postu...

331

Exposure to wood smoke particles produces an inflammation in healthy volunteers  

EPA Science Inventory

Background. Human exposure to wood smoke particles (WSP) is of consequence in indoor air quality, exposures from wild fires, burning ofbiomass, and air pollution. This investigation tested the postulate that healthy volunteers exposed to WSP would demonstrate pulmonary and cardio...

332

Review of Tennessee Valley Residential Wood Combustion Investigations and Control Options Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The surge in popularity of residential wood combustion (RWC) over the past few years has caused air quality problems in certain areas. These installations are characterized by airtight stoves or fireplace inserts which emit large quantities of particulate...

J. E. Malo R. E. Imhoff J. A. Manning J. W. Phillips C. E. Bohac

1985-01-01

333

Comprehensive genetic dissection of wood properties in a widely-grown tropical tree: Eucalyptus  

PubMed Central

Background Eucalyptus is an important genus in industrial plantations throughout the world and is grown for use as timber, pulp, paper and charcoal. Several breeding programmes have been launched worldwide to concomitantly improve growth performance and wood properties (WPs). In this study, an interspecific cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis was used to identify major genomic regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL) controlling the variability of WPs. Results Linkage maps were generated for both parent species. A total of 117 QTLs were detected for a series of wood and end-use related traits, including chemical, technological, physical, mechanical and anatomical properties. The QTLs were mainly clustered into five linkage groups. In terms of distribution of QTL effects, our result agrees with the typical L-shape reported in most QTL studies, i.e. most WP QTLs had limited effects and only a few (13) had major effects (phenotypic variance explained > 15%). The co-locations of QTLs for different WPs as well as QTLs and candidate genes are discussed in terms of phenotypic correlations between traits, and of the function of the candidate genes. The major wood property QTL harbours a gene encoding a Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR), a structural enzyme of the monolignol-specific biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions Given the number of traits analysed, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the genetic architecture of wood properties in this Eucalyptus full-sib pedigree. At the dawn of Eucalyptus genome sequence, it will provide a framework to identify the nature of genes underlying these important quantitative traits.

2011-01-01

334

Eco-efficient wood protection : Furfurylated wood as alternative to traditional wood preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to show the potential decay resistance of furfurylated wood and investigate possible eco-toxicity of such materials produced. This paper deals with the environmental aspects and durability of furfurylated wood, both laboratory and field tests are included in the investigations. Results from several decay tests, emission analysis studies and ecotox tests are presented. The results show that furfurylated

Stig Lande; Mats Westin; Marc H. Schneider

2004-01-01

335

Rufus Woods Photographs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The photographer Rufus Woods documented the vast transformation of the area around what became the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State. This massive project was not without controversy, and many people were upset that they had to move their worldly possessions and homes for the construction of this massive dam. North central Washington was dramatically changed, and this digital collection provides some remarkable evidence of the process. Staff members at the Central Washington University Libraries completed the collection, and there are several hundred photographs in this archive. Visitors can browse through the items by date or by title, and they can also perform more detailed searches as well. Some of the highlights here include visitors parading across the top of the completed dam, power transmission towers, and some of the buildings that would later be swept under the water as the reservoir behind the dam filled up.

336

Trait-mediated assembly processes predict successional changes in community diversity of tropical forests.  

PubMed

Interspecific differences in relative fitness can cause local dominance by a single species. However, stabilizing interspecific niche differences can promote local diversity. Understanding these mechanisms requires that we simultaneously quantify their effects on demography and link these effects to community dynamics. Successional forests are ideal systems for testing assembly theory because they exhibit rapid community assembly. Here, we leverage functional trait and long-term demographic data to build spatially explicit models of successional community dynamics of lowland rainforests in Costa Rica. First, we ask what the effects and relative importance of four trait-mediated community assembly processes are on tree survival, a major component of fitness. We model trait correlations with relative fitness differences that are both density-independent and -dependent in addition to trait correlations with stabilizing niche differences. Second, we ask how the relative importance of these trait-mediated processes relates to successional changes in functional diversity. Tree dynamics were more strongly influenced by trait-related interspecific variation in average survival than trait-related responses to neighbors, with wood specific gravity (WSG) positively correlated with greater survival. Our findings also suggest that competition was mediated by stabilizing niche differences associated with specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). These drivers of individual-level survival were reflected in successional shifts to higher SLA and LDMC diversity but lower WSG diversity. Our study makes significant advances to identifying the links between individual tree performance, species functional traits, and mechanisms of tropical forest succession. PMID:24706791

Lasky, Jesse R; Uriarte, María; Boukili, Vanessa K; Chazdon, Robin L

2014-04-15

337

Effect of Habitat Conditions and Plant Traits on Leaf Damage in the Carduoideae Subfamily  

PubMed Central

Plant traits are the key factors that determine herbivore foraging selection. The traits serving as defense traits against herbivores represent a wide range of traits, such as chemical, physiological, morphological and life-history traits. While many studies considered plant defense traits at the within-species scale, much less is known from comparisons of a wide range of closely related species. The aim of this study was to identify factors responsible for the intensity of leaf damage in the Carduoideae subfamily of Asteraceae, which hosts many invasive species and thus is potential candidate plant species that could be controlled by biological control. Specifically, we wanted to see the relative importance of habitat characteristics, plant size and plants traits in determining the degree of folivory. The study identified several defense traits able to explain differences in herbivory between species after accounting for differences in the habitats in which the species occur and the plant size. Specifically, the most important traits were traits related to the quality of the leaf tissue expressed as the content of phosphorus, water and specific leaf area, which suggests that the leaf quality had a more important effect on the degree of herbivory than the presence of specific defense mechanisms such as spines and hair. Leaf quality is thus a candidate factor that drives herbivore choice when selecting which plant to feed on and should be considered when assessing the danger that a herbivore will switch hosts when introduced to a new range.

Munzbergova, Zuzana; Skuhrovec, Jiri

2013-01-01

338

Intraspecific competition in the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria: Effect of rearing density and gender on larval life history  

Microsoft Academic Search

In insects, the outcome of intraspecific competition for food during development depends primarily upon larval density and larval sex, but effects will also depend on the particular trait under consideration and the species under study. Experimental manipulations of larval densities of a Madeiran population of the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria confirmed that intraspecific competition affected growth. As densities increased

Melanie Gibbs; Lesley A. Lace; Martin J. Jones; Allen J. Moore

339

[Contact eczema caused by pine wood].  

PubMed

A 34 year-old woman, working with pine wood treated with sodium hydroxide and pyrogallol, developed dermatitis on arms, face and neck. Patch testing showed allergic reaction to colophony and pine wood, but not to sodium hydroxide or pyrogallol. Pine wood contains colophony. Since avoiding pine wood, she has had no further attack of dermatitis. PMID:9763928

Bjerregaard, N C; Schlünssen, V; Schaumburg, I

1998-09-14

340

Intraspecific variability in functional traits matters: case study of Scots pine.  

PubMed

Although intraspecific trait variability is an important component of species ecological plasticity and niche breadth, its implications for community and functional ecology have not been thoroughly explored. We characterized the intraspecific functional trait variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Catalonia (NE Spain) in order to (1) compare it to the interspecific trait variability of trees in the same region, (2) explore the relationships among functional traits and the relationships between them and stand and climatic variables, and (3) study the role of functional trait variability as a determinant of radial growth. We considered five traits: wood density (WD), maximum tree height (H max), leaf nitrogen content (Nmass), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf biomass-to-sapwood area ratio (B L:A S). A unique dataset was obtained from the Ecological and Forest Inventory of Catalonia (IEFC), including data from 406 plots. Intraspecific trait variation was substantial for all traits, with coefficients of variation ranging between 8 % for WD and 24 % for B L:A S. In some cases, correlations among functional traits differed from those reported across species (e.g., H max and WD were positively related, whereas SLA and Nmass were uncorrelated). Overall, our model accounted for 47 % of the spatial variability in Scots pine radial growth. Our study emphasizes the hierarchy of factors that determine intraspecific variations in functional traits in Scots pine and their strong association with spatial variability in radial growth. We claim that intraspecific trait variation is an important determinant of responses of plants to changes in climate and other environmental factors, and should be included in predictive models of vegetation dynamics. PMID:24850418

Laforest-Lapointe, Isabelle; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Retana, Javier

2014-08-01

341

Acetylation of wood causes photobleaching.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the photobleaching of acetylated wood. The acetylated spruce wood was irradiated by artificial sunlight emitted from xenon lamp with covering several kinds of band-pass filter. The lightness (L(*)) of acetylated wood increased with integral irradiance. The chroma (?C(*)) decreased by light-irradiation with wavelength from 430nm to 500nm. However, the light-irradiation including ultraviolet ray region made it decrease after increase with integral irradiance. The visible light made hue angle (h°) increase, however, the ultraviolet ray made it decrease. The lignin degradation and the production of carbonyl groups were observed by light-irradiation including ultraviolet ray. However, no remarkable changes in IR spectra were observed by visible light-irradiation. Photobleaching of acetylated wood was caused by mainly visible light without modifying the IR spectra of lignin. PMID:20696591

Mitsui, Katsuya

2010-12-01

342

International Trade of Wood Pellets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current mar...

2013-01-01

343

Goddard Summer Interns: Danielle Wood  

NASA Video Gallery

Profile of Goddard intern Danielle Wood. Danielle is interning at Goddard in the Innovative Partnerships Program and at NASA Headquarters in the Office of the Chief Technologist in the summer of 20...

344

Coarse particulate matter and airborne endotoxin within wood stove homes.  

PubMed

Emissions from indoor biomass burning are a major public health concern in developing areas of the world. Less is known about indoor air quality, particularly airborne endotoxin, in homes burning biomass fuel in residential wood stoves in higher income countries. A filter-based sampler was used to evaluate wintertime indoor coarse particulate matter (PM????.?) and airborne endotoxin (EU/m³, EU/mg) concentrations in 50 homes using wood stoves as their primary source of heat in western Montana. We investigated number of residents, number of pets, dampness (humidity), and frequency of wood stove usage as potential predictors of indoor airborne endotoxin concentrations. Two 48-h sampling events per home revealed a mean winter PM????.? concentration (± s.d.) of 12.9 (± 8.6) ?g/m³, while PM?.? concentrations averaged 32.3 (± 32.6) ?g/m³. Endotoxin concentrations measured from PM????.? filter samples were 9.2 (± 12.4) EU/m³ and 1010 (± 1524) EU/mg. PM????.? and PM?.? were significantly correlated in wood stove homes (r = 0.36, P < 0.05). The presence of pets in the homes was associated with PM????.? but not with endotoxin concentrations. Importantly, none of the other measured home characteristics was a strong predictor of airborne endotoxin, including frequency of residential wood stove usage. PMID:23551341

McNamara, M; Thornburg, J; Semmens, E; Ward, T; Noonan, C

2013-12-01

345

Wood carbonization systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work presents the evolution of the charcoal production systems, commenting their advantages and disadvantages, aiming to guide the choice of the ideal option, considering the aimed production, the quality of the products and the local economical situ...

R. S. Pontes

1990-01-01

346

A Tree of Genetic Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners mark their traits for tongue rolling, PTC tasting (a harmless, bitter chemical), and earlobe attachment on tree leaf cut-outs. They then place their leaves on a large tree with branches, in which each each branch represents a different combination of traits. When completed, the tree forms a visual representation of the frequency of trait combinations within the group. Included are handouts in English and Spanish. This resource also contains information about PTC safety.

Malone, Molly; Starr, Harmony; Mitchell, April

2006-01-01

347

Genome size of termites (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Isoptera) and wood roaches (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Cryptocercidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of genome size has been discussed in relation to the evolution of various biological traits. In the present\\u000a study, the genome sizes of 22 dictyopteran species were estimated by Feulgen image analysis densitometry and 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole\\u000a (DAPI)-based flow cytometry. The haploid genome sizes (C-values) of termites (Isoptera) ranged from 0.58 to 1.90 pg, and those of Cryptocercus wood roaches (Cryptocercidae)

Shigeyuki Koshikawa; Satoshi Miyazaki; Richard Cornette; Tadao Matsumoto; Toru Miura

2008-01-01

348

Pristine Early Eocene Wood Buried Deeply in Kimberlite from Northern Canada  

PubMed Central

We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada’s Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose ?18O and ?2H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12–17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.

Wolfe, Alexander P.; Csank, Adam Z.; Reyes, Alberto V.; McKellar, Ryan C.; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

2012-01-01

349

Role of levoglucosan as a tracer of wood combustion in an alpine region.  

PubMed

Wood is the most used renewable energy source in the Italian Alpine regions but is one of the major sources of particulate matter too. In order to contribute to the assessment of the role of wood combustion in atmospheric pollution, some measurements of the concentration of a specific wood combustion tracer, levoglucosan, were performed and are presented and discussed in this paper, in the frame of a multi-step approach useful for decision makers. The experimental study presented in this paper was conducted in two urban sites, located in the same alpine town, during summer and winter, and in three mountain sites, where wood was expected to be widely used for domestic heating, during winter. Results showed differences between rural and urban areas and between winter and summer seasons. As explained in this paper, these analyses are useful when the role of wood combustion has to be studied and strategies for air quality improvement have to be planned and monitored. PMID:22720425

Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Malloci, Elisa

2012-01-01

350

Swelling of acetylated wood in organic solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly and/or very slowly. On the other hand, the swelling of wood in water, ethylene glycol and alcohols remained unchanged or decreased by the acetylation. Consequently the maximum volume of wood swollen in organic liquids was always larger than that in water. The effect of acetylation on the maximum swollen volume of wood was greater in liquids having smaller solubility parameters. The easier penetration of aprotic organic liquids into the acetylated wood was considered to be due to the scission of hydrogen bonds among the amorphous wood constituents by the substitution of hydroxyl groups with hydrophobic acetyl groups.

Obataya, E.; Shibutani, S.

2005-08-01

351

Mapping quantitative trait loci for kernel composition in almond  

PubMed Central

Background Almond breeding is increasingly taking into account kernel quality as a breeding objective. Information on the parameters to be considered in evaluating almond quality, such as protein and oil content, as well as oleic acid and tocopherol concentration, has been recently compiled. The genetic control of these traits has not yet been studied in almond, although this information would improve the efficiency of almond breeding programs. Results A map with 56 simple sequence repeat or microsatellite (SSR) markers was constructed for an almond population showing a wide range of variability for the chemical components of the almond kernel. A total of 12 putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling these chemical traits have been detected in this analysis, corresponding to seven genomic regions of the eight almond linkage groups (LG). Some QTL were clustered in the same region or shared the same molecular markers, according to the correlations already found between the chemical traits. The logarithm of the odds (LOD) values for any given trait ranged from 2.12 to 4.87, explaining from 11.0 to 33.1?% of the phenotypic variance of the trait. Conclusions The results produced in the study offer the opportunity to include the new genetic information in almond breeding programs. Increases in the positive traits of kernel quality may be looked for simultaneously whenever they are genetically independent, even if they are negatively correlated. We have provided the first genetic framework for the chemical components of the almond kernel, with twelve QTL in agreement with the large number of genes controlling their metabolism.

2012-01-01

352

Relationships Among Ecologically Important Dimensions of Plant Trait Variation in Seven Neotropical Forests  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims When ecologically important plant traits are correlated they may be said to constitute an ecological ‘strategy’ dimension. Through identifying these dimensions and understanding their inter-relationships we gain insight into why particular trait combinations are favoured over others and into the implications of trait differences among species. Here we investigated relationships among several traits, and thus the strategy dimensions they represented, across 2134 woody species from seven Neotropical forests. Methods Six traits were studied: specific leaf area (SLA), the average size of leaves, seed and fruit, typical maximum plant height, and wood density (WD). Trait relationships were quantified across species at each individual forest as well as across the dataset as a whole. ‘Phylogenetic’ analyses were used to test for correlations among evolutionary trait-divergences and to ascertain whether interspecific relationships were biased by strong taxonomic patterning in the traits. Key Results The interspecific and phylogenetic analyses yielded congruent results. Seed and fruit size were expected, and confirmed, to be tightly related. As expected, plant height was correlated with each of seed and fruit size, albeit weakly. Weak support was found for an expected positive relationship between leaf and fruit size. The prediction that SLA and WD would be negatively correlated was not supported. Otherwise the traits were predicted to be largely unrelated, being representatives of putatively independent strategy dimensions. This was indeed the case, although WD was consistently, negatively related to leaf size. Conclusions The dimensions represented by SLA, seed/fruit size and leaf size were essentially independent and thus conveyed largely independent information about plant strategies. To a lesser extent the same was true for plant height and WD. Our tentative explanation for negative WD–leaf size relationships, now also known from other habitats, is that the traits are indirectly linked via plant hydraulics.

Wright, Ian J.; Ackerly, David D.; Bongers, Frans; Harms, Kyle E.; Ibarra-Manriquez, Guillermo; Martinez-Ramos, Miguel; Mazer, Susan J.; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Paz, Horacio; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Poorter, Lourens; Silman, Miles R.; Vriesendorp, Corine F.; Webb, Cam O.; Westoby, Mark; Wright, S. Joseph

2007-01-01

353

The effects of inbreeding on productive and adaptive traits and temperament of tropical beef cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from up to nine calf crops of zebu-derived cattle reared in a dry, tropical environment were examined to determine the effects of inbreeding of the animal and of its dam on a range of productive traits (growth, fertility, feed conversion efficiency, carcass and meat quality attributes), adaptive traits (resistance to cattle ticks, gastrointestinal helminths, buffalo flies and heat stress)

H. M Burrow

1998-01-01

354

Plant traits are the predominant control on litter decomposition rates within biomes worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide decomposition rates depend both on climate and the legacy of plant functional traits as litter quality. To quantify the degree to which functional differentiation among species affects their litter decomposition rates, we brought together leaf trait and litter mass loss data for 818 species from 66 decomposition experiments on six continents. We show that: (i) the magnitude of species-driven

William K. Cornwell; Johannes H. C. Cornelissen; K. Amatangalo; Ellen Dorrepaal; Valerie T. Eviner; Oscar Godoy; S. E. Hobbir; Bart Hoorens; Hiroko Kurokawa; N. Perez-Harguindeguy; Helen M. Quested; Louis S. Santiago; David A. Wardle; Ian J. Wright; Rien Aerts; Steven D. Allison; Bodegom van P. M; Victor Brovkin; Alex Chatain; Terry V. Callaghan; S. Diaz; Eric Garnier; Diego E. Gurvich; Elena Kazakou; Julia A. Klein; Jenny Read; Peter B. Reich; Nadejda A. Soudzilovskaia; M. Victoria Vaieretti; Mark Westoby

2008-01-01

355

Desirable plant root traits for protecting unstable slopes against landslides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A trait is defined as a distinct, quantitative property of organisms, usually measured at the individual level and used comparatively across species. Plant quantitative traits are extremely important for understanding the local ecology of any site. Plant height, architecture, root depth, wood density, leaf size and leaf nitrogen concentration control ecosystem processes and define habitat for other taxa. An engineer conjecturing as to how plant traits may directly influence physical processes occurring on sloping land just needs to consider how e.g. canopy architecture and litter properties influence the partitioning of rainfall among interception loss, infiltration and runoff. Plant traits not only influence abiotic processes occurring at a site, but also the habitat for animals and invertebrates. Depending on the goal of the landslide engineer, the immediate and long-term effects of plant traits in an environment must be considered if a site is to remain viable and ecologically successful. When vegetation is considered in models of slope stability, usually the only root parameters taken into consideration are tensile strength and root area ratio. Root system spatial structure is not considered, although the length, orientation and diameter of roots are recognized as being of importance. Thick roots act like soil nails on slopes, reinforcing soil in the same way that concrete is reinforced with steel rods. The spatial position of these thick roots also has an indirect effect on soil fixation in that the location of thin and fine roots will depend on the arrangement of thick roots. Thin and fine roots act in tension during failure on slopes and if they cross the slip surface, are largely responsible for reinforcing soil on slopes. Therefore, the most important trait to consider initially is rooting depth. To stabilize a slope against a shallow landslide, roots must cross the shear surface. The number and thickness of roots in this zone will therefore largely determine slope stability. Rooting depth is species dependent when soil conditions are not limiting and the number of horizontal lateral roots borne on the vertical roots usually changes with depth. Therefore, the number and orientation of roots that the shear surface intersects will change significantly with rooting depth for the same plant, even for magnitudes of only several cm. Similarly, depending on the geometry of the root system, the angle at which a root crosses the shear surface can also have an influence on its resistance to pullout and breakage. The angle at which a root emerges from the parent root is dependent on root type, depth and species (when soil conditions are not limiting). Due to the physiology of roots, a root branch can be initiated at any point along a parent root, but not necessarily emerge fully from the parent root. These traits, along with others including size, relative growth rate, regeneration strategies, wood structure and strength will be discussed with regard to their influence on slope stability. How each of these traits is influenced by soil conditions and plantation techniques is also of extreme importance to the landslide engineer. The presence of obstacles in the soil, as well as compaction, affects root length and branching pattern. Roots of many species of woody plants on shallow soils also tend to grow along fractures deep into the underlying bedrock which allows roots to locate supplies of nutrient and water rich pockets. Rooting depths of herbaceous species in water-limited environments are highly correlated with infiltration depth, but waterlogged soils can asphyxiate tree roots, resulting in shallow root systems. The need to understand and integrate each of these traits for a species is not easy. Therefore, we suggest a hierarchy whereby traits are considered in order of importance, along with how external factors influence their expression over time.

Stokes, A.; Atger, C.; Bengough, G.; Fourcaud, T.; Sidle, R. C.

2009-04-01

356

The role of personality traits in insomnia.  

PubMed

Insomnia is a highly prevalent sleep disorder, known to affect psychological well-being and quality of life. While perpetuating factors have received much attention, the role of predisposing factors has not been studied in much detail. The susceptibility to develop insomnia may be linked to the presence of certain personality features. Here, we review studies that assessed this particular aspect of insomnia. Due to various methodological issues, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn as of yet, and several conflicting findings remain. However, there is a common trend indicating that insomniacs display more signs of 'neuroticism', 'internalization', anxious concerns and traits associated with perfectionism. These factors may play varying roles depending on the specific subdiagnosis of insomnia. In addition, certain personality traits may be related to the response to (cognitive) behavioral treatment. For instance, insomniacs reporting less 'guardedness' and have a higher score on the MMPI 'hypomania' scale show less improvement through psychological treatment. The specific role of personality traits in the etiology of insomnia is not yet clear, because of a lack of longitudinal data. Personality factors may play a causal role in the development of insomnia, but may also be a consequence of the sleep problem and the associated daytime dysfunction. Future longitudinal studies should not view personality as a single predisposing factor, but assess it as a part of a larger group of interacting psychological and physiological factors involved in the predisposition to and perpetuation of chronic insomnia. PMID:19897388

van de Laar, Merijn; Verbeek, Ingrid; Pevernagie, Dirk; Aldenkamp, Albert; Overeem, Sebastiaan

2010-02-01

357

Wood texture classification by fuzzy neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of scientific papers focusing on wood classification for pencil manufacturing take into account defects and visual appearance. Traditional methodologies are base don texture analysis by co-occurrence matrix, by image modeling, or by tonal measures over the plate surface. In this work, we propose to classify plates of wood without biological defects like insect holes, nodes, and cracks, by analyzing their texture. By this methodology we divide the plate image in several rectangular windows or local areas and reduce the number of gray levels. From each local area, we compute the histogram of difference sand extract texture features, given them as input to a Local Neuro-Fuzzy Network. Those features are from the histogram of differences instead of the image pixels due to their better performance and illumination independence. Among several features like media, contrast, second moment, entropy, and IDN, the last three ones have showed better results for network training. Each LNN output is taken as input to a Partial Neuro-Fuzzy Network (PNFN) classifying a pencil region on the plate. At last, the outputs from the PNFN are taken as input to a Global Fuzzy Logic doing the plate classification. Each pencil classification within the plate is done taking into account each quality index.

Gonzaga, Adilson; de Franca, Celso A.; Frere Slaets, Annie F.

1999-03-01

358

An Inventory of My Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this genetics meets math activity, learners take inventories of their own easily-observable genetic traits and compare those inventories with other learners in groups. Then, learners make data tables and bar graphs showing the most and least common traits in their group. This guide features activity sheets in English and Spanish.

Malone, Molly; Mitchell, April; Stark, Louisa; Starr, Harmony

2006-01-01

359

Dog DNA---A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will discover how DNA will "code" for traits by performing a lab activity where segments of paper DNA (genes) are picked at random, a list of traits is made, and a dog is drawn featuring its genetic traits.

Perrault, Tanya

2012-02-20

360

Delay discounting: Trait variable?  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting refers to the tendency for outcomes that are remote in time to have less value than more immediate outcomes. Steep discounting of delayed outcomes is associated with a variety of social maladies. The degree of sensitivity to delayed outcomes may be a stable and pervasive individual characteristic. In analyses of archival data, the present study found positive correlations between the degree of delay discounting for one outcome (as measured by the Area Under the Curve), and the degree of discounting for other outcomes. Along with additional evidence reviewed, these data suggest that delay discounting may be considered a personality trait. Recent research in epigenetics, neuroscience, and behavior suggests delay discounting may prove to be a beneficial target for therapeutic attempts to produce global reductions in impulsivity related to delay discounting.

Odum, Amy L.

2012-01-01

361

Leonard Wood: surgeon, soldier, administrator.  

PubMed

Leonard Wood's (1860-1927) 42 years of distinguished service to the United States are covered herein. Wood received the Congressional Medal of Honor for the capture of the Apaches. He was commander of the famous "Rough Riders," and was distinguished for his Cuban labors as Military Governor. As Army Chief of Staff, he and Theodore Roosevelt pursued the problems of military preparedness for America's involvement in World War I. After World War I, Wood quelled disruptive situations caused by growing industrial problems. He became a supporter of veterans' rights, enrolling 27,000 veterans in college and providing them with the necessary education that would help solve the problems of four million veterans. After being operated on successfully for a brain tumor by Harvey Cushing in 1910, he suffered a recurrence while serving his second tour as the Philippines' Military Governor. Returning home, he died in 1927 during the second surgery. PMID:7746431

Craddock, W L

1995-01-01

362

Association genetics of chemical wood properties in black poplar (Populus nigra).  

PubMed

Black poplar (Populus nigra) is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, although breeding for this specific end use is required. Our goal was to identify associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers within candidate genes encoding cellulose and lignin biosynthetic enzymes, with chemical wood property phenotypic traits, toward the aim of developing genomics-based breeding technologies for bioethanol production. Pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry was used to determine contents of five- and six-carbon sugars, lignin, and syringyl : guaiacyl ratio. The association population included 599 clones from 17 half-sib families, which were successfully genotyped using 433 SNPs from 39 candidate genes. Statistical analyses were performed to estimate genetic parameters, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and single marker and haplotype-based associations. A moderate to high heritability was observed for all traits. The LD, across all candidate genes, showed a rapid decay with physical distance. Analysis of single marker-phenotype associations identified six significant marker-trait pairs, whereas nearly 280 haplotypes were associated with phenotypic traits, in both an individual and multiple trait-specific manner. The rapid decay of LD within candidate genes in this population and the genetic associations identified suggest a close relationship between the associated SNPs and the causative polymorphisms underlying the genetic variation of lignocellulosic traits in black poplar. PMID:23157484

Guerra, Fernando P; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Sykes, Robert; Davis, Mark F; Stanton, Brian J; Neale, David B

2013-01-01

363

Processes change the look of wood fuel  

SciTech Connect

The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed, these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

Zerbe, J.I.

1980-06-01

364

Processes change the look of wood fuel  

SciTech Connect

The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed; these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

Zerbe, J.I.

1980-06-01

365

Strange Creatures: An Additive Wood Sculpture Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project where students create strange creatures using scraps of wood. Discusses how the students use the wood and other materials. Explains that the students also write about the habitat characteristics of their creatures. Includes learning objectives. (CMK)

Wales, Andrew

2002-01-01

366

Forest Products Laboratory Wood Products Production Index.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study presents a single measure of total wood products production, called the Forest Products Laboratory Wood Products Production Index. The measure is simple and useful in tracking both volume and value of forest products production. To show the beha...

J. L. Howard K. E. Skog R. N. Stone

1986-01-01

367

The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

Tiemann, Harry D

1919-01-01

368

China's Support Programs For Selected Industries: Wood and Wood Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abundant labor supply and large capital investment has turned China into a major processing center in the global supply chain for wood products. Chinese factories supply IKEA with one-fourth of its global stock. Home Depot similarly sources a significant ...

T. P. Stewart

2007-01-01

369

Handling of impregnated waste wood and characterization of ash residues after combustion of the wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the next ten years the amounts of waste wood impregnated with Cu, Cr and As (CCA) is expected to increase dramatically world wide. CCA has been widely used for wood preservation since the early 1950s and because the fixation of CCA in the wood is good, the concentration of CCA is still high, when the wood is at the

Lisbeth M. Ottosen; Iben V. Kristensen; Anne Juul Pedersen; Henrik K. Hansen

370

Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration and Other Ecosystem Services. Quarterly Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration pro...

J. A. Burger

2005-01-01

371

Multiple transgene traits may create un-intended fitness effects in Brassica napus  

EPA Science Inventory

Increasingly, genetically modified crops are being developed to express multiple ?stacked? traits for different types of transgenes, for example, herbicide resistance, insect resistance, crop quality and resistance to environmental factors. The release of crops that express mult...

372

The bacterial factor in wood decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria and actinomycetes are probably the most common wood-inhabiting microorganisms, certainly they are the most adaptable in terms of environmental influences. When considering them as factors in wood decay they may be roughly classified into four groups for convenience and ease of comparison. 1. Those bacteria which affect the permeability to liquids of wood but have no significant effect on

H. Greaves

1971-01-01

373

Relating Nanoindentation to Macroindentation of Wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood has several levels of hierarchical structure, spanning from the configuration of growth-rings down to the configuration of the base polymers (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin). The bulk properties of wood result from the culmination of interactions over all length scales. Gaps presently exist in the fundamental knowledge relating the contribution of wood properties at each structural level to the resulting

Robert J. Moon; Joseph E. Jakes; Jim F. Beecher; Charles R. Frihart; Donald S. Stone

374

Strengthen Wood Education through a Comprehensive Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wood education programs across the nation, at and below the secondary levels of education, have declined in enrollment in recent years. To many, wood education means only carpentry or woodworking. A systematic approach to the subject, as a part of a materials science course, can reverse the material's negative connotation and make wood education…

Mative, John M.

2005-01-01

375

Numerical Simulation of Wood Chip Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood combustion is a complex physicochemical process which involves moisture evaporation, solid pyrolysis, component transportation, gas combustion, radiation feedback and turbulent flow. In this work, the combustion of wood was modeled by means of large eddy simulation (LES), considering all the processes mentioned above. The wood mass loss rate and surface temperature of calculation agreed well with experimental data. The

Huawen Yang; Li Zhang; Kai Li

2010-01-01

376

Management alternatives of energy wood thinning stands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy wood thinning has become a feasible treatment alternative of young stands in Finland. Energy wood thinnings have been carried out mainly in stands where precommercial thinning has been neglected and the harvesting conditions for industrial wood thinning are difficult. Despite of its positive effects on harvesting costs and on renewable energy potential, whole-tree harvesting has been constantly criticized for

Jani Heikkilä; Matti Sirén; ja Olli Äijälä

2007-01-01

377

Fluctuating asymmetry in certain morphological traits in laboratory populations of Drosophila ananassae.  

PubMed

Fluctuating asymmetry (FA, subtle random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry) is often used as a measure of developmental instability (DI), which results from perturbations in developmental pathways caused by genetic or environmental stressors. During the present study, we estimated FA in 5 morphological traits, viz. wing length (WL), wing to thorax ratio (W:T), sternopleural bristle number (SBN), sex-comb tooth number (SCTN), and ovariole number (ON) in 18 laboratory populations of Drosophila ananassae. FA levels of measured traits differed significantly among populations except for SBN (in males and females) and W:T ratio (in females). Positional fluctuating asymmetry (PFA), a sensitive measure of DI, also varied significantly among the populations for SBN in females and SCTN in males. Interestingly, both males and females were similar for nonsexual traits. However, when FA across all traits (sexual and nonsexual) was combined into a single composite index (CFA), significant differences were found for both populations and sexes. Males showed higher CFA values than females, suggesting that males are more prone to developmental perturbations. The magnitude of FA differed significantly among traits, being lowest for nonsexual traits (SBN, WL, W:T ratio) and highest for sexual traits (SCTN and ON). The trait size of sexual traits (SCTN and ON) was positively correlated with their asymmetry. The possible reasons for variation in FA both among traits and among populations, and the usefulness of FA as an indicator of developmental stress and phenotypic quality in D. ananassae are discussed. PMID:16936786

Vishalakshi, C; Singh, B N

2006-07-01

378

Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of wood pyrolysis into gas, tar, and char was investigated in the range of 300 to 400 degrees Celcius at atmospheric pressure. An experimental system which facilitates the monitoring of the actual sample temperature, collection of gas and tar, and measurement of the sample weight loss as a function of time was developed. It has been found that,

Franz Thurner; Uzi Mann

1981-01-01

379

Period Determination for 1660 Wood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightcurve analysis for asteroid 1660 Wood was performed in collaboration with observers in Australia and Uruguay from observations obtained during the asteroid's favorable opposition in 2012. The synodic rotation period was found to be 6.8090 ± 0.0002 h and the lightcurve amplitude was 0.14 ± 0.03 mag.

Oey, Julian; Alvarez, Eduardo Manuel

2012-07-01

380

Fire-resistant wood composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hot pressed wood panels made with modified novolak resins have burnthrough time of 450 s as compared to 280 s for products using conventional novolak resins. Incorporation of inorganic filler reduces flame spread index of panels from more than 200 to 60 or 70.

Sawko, P. M.

1979-01-01

381

GELIFICATION OF WOOD DURING COALIFICATION.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coalified wood was examined by SEM and CPMAS**1**3C NMR to delineate chemical and physical alterations responsible for gelification. Early coalification selectively degrades cellulosic components, preserving lignin-like components that are eventually transformed to coal. Cellular morphology persists until the chemical composition becomes uniform, at which point the cells coalesce under compaction and gelify.

Hatcher, Patrick, G.; Romankiw, Lisa, A.; Evans, John, R.

1985-01-01

382

Condition-dependent expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits in guppies.  

PubMed

Female choice can impose persistent directional selection on male sexually selected traits, yet such traits often exhibit high levels of phenotypic variation. One explanation for this paradox is that if sexually selected traits are costly, only the fittest males are able to acquire and allocate the resources required for their expression. Furthermore, because male condition is dependent on resource allocation, condition dependence in sexual traits is expected to underlie trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history functions. In this study we test these ideas by experimentally manipulating diet quality (carotenoid levels) and quantity in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing freshwater fish that is an important model for understanding relationships between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits. Specifically, we test for condition dependence in the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits (behavior, ornamentation, sperm traits) and determine whether diet manipulation mediates relationships among these traits. Consistent with prior work we found a significant effect of diet quantity on the expression of both pre- and postcopulatory male traits; diet-restricted males performed fewer sexual behaviors and exhibited significant reductions in color ornamentation, sperm quality, sperm number, and sperm length than those fed ad libitum. However, contrary to our expectations, we found no significant effect of carotenoid manipulation on the expression of any of these traits, and no evidence for a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection. Our results further underscore the sensitivity of behavioral, ornamental, and ejaculate traits to dietary stress, and highlight the important role of condition dependence in maintaining the high variability in male sexual traits. PMID:23919162

Rahman, Md Moshiur; Kelley, Jennifer L; Evans, Jonathan P

2013-07-01

383

Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/clay/wood nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is a promising substitute for conventional petroleum-based polymer materials as a result of its environmentally benign quality and suitable physical properties. However, there are also problems associated with properties, such as brittleness, low heat deflection temperature, low melt viscosity, as well as cost that prevent wide-range applications of PLA. This work reports on melt extrusion preparation of PLA/clay/wood nanocomposites involving various compatibilizers, resulting in remarkable improvements in mechanical as well as in thermal material properties. In particular, the tensile and flexural moduli of PLA/clay/wood nanocomposites with 30 wt. % wood flour and 5 wt. % nanoclay respectively increased from 3.75 to 7.08 GPa and from 3.83 to 6.01 GPa compared to neat PLA. The thermal decomposition temperature improved by about 10°C compared to that of PLA/wood composites. A mathematical model was developed based on Eshelby's equivalent inclusion method and Mori-Tanaka's background analysis to successfully predict longitudinal elastic moduli of complex structured nanocomposite materials.

Meng, Qingkai

384

Wood decomposing abilities of diverse lignicolous fungi on nondecayed and decayed beech wood.  

PubMed

We tested the decay abilities of 28 isolates from 28 lignicolous fungal species (Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and Zygomycota) with the pure culture test. We used beech wood powder in varying moisture conditions and decay stages (nondecayed, intermediately decayed and well decayed) as substrates. The weight loss in wood powder was -0.2-17.8%. Five isolates of Basidiomycota (Bjerkandera adusta, Mycena haematopus, Omphalotus guepiniformis, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes versicolor) caused high weight losses in nondecayed wood. We detected significant effects of decay stage on weight loss in wood in most isolates tested, whereas moisture content rarely had an effect on weight loss. Among Basidiomycota and Xylariaceae in Ascomycota weight loss was greater for nondecayed wood than for intermediately and well decayed wood. In contrast four isolates in Ascomycota (Scytalidium lignicola, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, T. koningii) caused substantial weight loss in intermediately and well decayed wood, although they rarely caused weight loss in nondecayed wood. Zygomycota caused low weight loss in wood. Wood decay stages also affected decomposition of wood chemical components. Acid-unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) decomposition was reduced, whereas holocellulose decomposition was stimulated by some strains of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in well decayed wood. T. harzianum in particular caused significant weight loss of holocellulose in well decayed wood, although this fungus caused negligible weight loss of both AUR and holocellulose in nondecayed wood. We discuss these changes in the decay patterns of AUR and holocellulose with varying wood decay stages in relation to the role of fungal decomposition of woody debris in forests. PMID:21262989

Fukasawa, Yu; Osono, Takashi; Takeda, Hiroshi

2011-01-01

385

Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

1980-06-01

386

Psychotic traits in comedians.  

PubMed

Background The popular belief that creativity is associated with madness has increasingly become the focus of research for many psychologists and psychiatrists. However, despite being prime examples of creative thinking, comedy and humour have been largely neglected. Aims To test the hypothesis that comedians would resemble other creative individuals in showing a higher level of psychotic characteristics related to both schizophrenia and manic depression. Method A group of comedians (n = 500+) and a control sample of actors (n = 350+) completed an online questionnaire containing the short version of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), with scales measuring four dimensions of psychotic traits. Scores were compared with general population norms. Results Comedians scored significantly above O-LIFE norms on all four scales. Actors also differed from the norms but on only three of the scales. Most striking was the comedians' high score on both introverted anhedonia and extraverted impulsiveness. Conclusions This unusual personality structure may help to explain the facility for comedic performance. PMID:24434072

Ando, Victoria; Claridge, Gordon; Clark, Ken

2014-05-01

387

Biochemical, ECF18R, and RYR1 gene polymorphisms and their associations with osteochondral diseases and production traits in pigs.  

PubMed

This study reports the association of five blood types, three enzymes, two proteins, Escherichia coli F18 receptor gene (ECF18R), and the Ryanodin receptor (RYR1) gene with six production traits, four meat quality traits, and two osteochondral diseases in Swiss pig populations. Data on on-farm traits (daily weight gain, percent premium cuts, and backfat) and on station-tested traits (daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, meat quality, and osteochondral lesions) were available on 3,918 and 303 animals, respectively. A mixed linear model with allele substitution effects was used for each trait by marker analysis (144 analyses). Significant marker-trait associations and allele substitution effects are presented. In general, heritability estimates for production and meat quality traits were higher than those for osteochondral lesions. Blood types lack significant associations with many traits except H and S types. Enzymes (mainly, glucose phosphate isomerase) and protein polymorphisms show significant associations with daily weight gain, premium cuts, and backfat as well as osteochondral lesions. The RYR and ECF18R genes significantly affected all growth, production, and lean meat content traits and osteochondral lesions; RYR also affected pH values. This study reports many novel marker-trait associations, particularly between the incidence of osteochondral lesions and polymorphisms at glucose phosphate isomerase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, postalbumin 1A, RYR, and ECF18R loci. These results should be useful in selection and for further functional genomics and proteomics investigations. PMID:17943437

Kadarmideen, Haja N

2008-02-01

388

Measurement of personality traits and their relation to patient satisfaction with complete dentures.  

PubMed

1. There was a high incidence of the personality traits of hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, and manifest anxiety in the 70 complete denture patients of this study. 2. Most patients in this study were satisfied with the complete dentures received. 3. There was no significant relationship between the personality traits of hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, and manifest anxiety and the degree of patient satisfaction with dentures. 4. There was no significant relationship between the personality traits of hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, and manifest anxiety and the techinical quality of dentures. 5. There was no significant relationship between the technical quality of complete dentures and the degree of patient satisfaction with the same dentures. PMID:775057

Smith, M

1976-05-01

389

Profile - health risks of residential wood heat  

SciTech Connect

The resurgence in the use of wood in the United States for residential heating has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in deaths and injuries from residential fires. Toxic materials present in woodsmoke also appear to present a significant public health hazard. As a result of these factors, production of residential wood heat can be up to two orders of magnitude more hazardous than generation of an equivalent amount of electric energy at a coal-fired power plant. Proper care in installation and operation of wood stoves, as well as technological innovations that control wood-stove emissions, can greatly reduce the health and safety hazards of residential heating with wood.

Travis, C.C.; Etnier, E.L.; Meyer, H.R.

1985-01-01

390

Health risks of residential wood heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resurgence in the use of wood in the United States for residential heating has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in deaths and injuries from residential fires. Toxic materials present in woodsmoke also appear to present a significant public health hazard. As a result of these factors, production of residential wood heat can be up to two orders of magnitude more hazardous than generation of an equivalent amount of electric energy at a coal-fired power plant. Proper care in installation and operation of wood stoves, as well as technological innovations that control wood-stove emissions, can greatly reduce the health and safety hazards of residential heating with wood.

Travis, Curtis C.; Etnier, Elizabeth L.; Meyer, H. Robert

1985-05-01

391

Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke.  

PubMed Central

The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo[a]pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.

Pierson, W E; Koenig, J Q; Bardana, E J

1989-01-01

392

Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke  

SciTech Connect

The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.29 references.

Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q.; Bardana, E.J. Jr.

1989-09-01

393

Geological Substrates Shape Tree Species and Trait Distributions in African Moist Forests  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the factors that shape the distribution of tropical tree species at large scales is a central issue in ecology, conservation and forest management. The aims of this study were to (i) assess the importance of environmental factors relative to historical factors for tree species distributions in the semi-evergreen forests of the northern Congo basin; and to (ii) identify potential mechanisms explaining distribution patterns through a trait-based approach. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the distribution patterns of 31 common tree species in an area of more than 700,000 km2 spanning the borders of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and the Republic of Congo using forest inventory data from 56,445 0.5-ha plots. Spatial variation of environmental (climate, topography and geology) and historical factors (human disturbance) were quantified from maps and satellite records. Four key functional traits (leaf phenology, shade tolerance, wood density, and maximum growth rate) were extracted from the literature. The geological substrate was of major importance for the distribution of the focal species, while climate and past human disturbances had a significant but lesser impact. Species distribution patterns were significantly related to functional traits. Species associated with sandy soils typical of sandstone and alluvium were characterized by slow growth rates, shade tolerance, evergreen leaves, and high wood density, traits allowing persistence on resource-poor soils. In contrast, fast-growing pioneer species rarely occurred on sandy soils, except for Lophira alata. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate strong environmental filtering due to differential soil resource availability across geological substrates. Additionally, long-term human disturbances in resource-rich areas may have accentuated the observed patterns of species and trait distributions. Trait differences across geological substrates imply pronounced differences in population and ecosystem processes, and call for different conservation and management strategies.

Fayolle, Adeline; Engelbrecht, Bettina; Freycon, Vincent; Mortier, Frederic; Swaine, Michael; Rejou-Mechain, Maxime; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Fauvet, Nicolas; Cornu, Guillaume; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie

2012-01-01

394

Analytical pyrolysis vs. classical wet chemical analysis to assess the decay of archaeological waterlogged wood.  

PubMed

The macromolecular complexity of wood limits the possibility of obtaining complete chemical information on its alteration in archaeological objects. This paper compares the results obtained in the characterisation of the components of archaeological wood by a classical wet chemical method and by an instrumental method based on pyrolysis in presence of hexamethyldisilazane coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, Py(HMDS)-GC/MS. We compare the results obtained with the two methods quantitatively. This enables us to evaluate the efficiency of Py(HMDS)-GC/MS in assessing the chemical composition and the state of conservation of degraded wood. The material analysed consisted of reference sound wood and waterlogged wood from the ?ó?te historical site, located on a small island on Lake Zara?skie in Poland. The samples are from the remains of settlements dating to a period between the 9th and the 12th centuries AD. The results obtained by Py(HMDS)-GC/MS analysis are consistent in the determination of the level of degradation of archaeological wood with the results obtained using traditional techniques. The pyrolysis method is faster, reproducible, and reveals not only the amount but also the quality of the wood constituents, needing a much smaller sample. PMID:22938608

Lucejko, Jeannette J; Zborowska, Magdalena; Modugno, Francesca; Colombini, Maria P; Pr?dzy?ski, W?odzimierz

2012-10-01

395

Life cycle assessment of wood wastes: A case study of ephemeral architecture.  

PubMed

One of the most commonly used elements in ephemeral architecture is a particleboard panel. These types of wood products are produced from wood wastes and they are used in temporary constructions such as trade fairs. Once the event is over, they are usually disposed into landfills. This paper intends to assess the environmental effects related to the use of these wood wastes in the end-of-life stage. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of two scenarios was performed, considering the recycling of wood waste for particleboard manufacture and energy generation from non-renewable resources (Scenario 1) versus the production of energy from the combustion of wood waste and particleboard manufacture with conventional wooden resources (Scenario 2). A sensitive analysis was carried out taking into account the influence of the percentage of recycled material and the emissions data from wood combustion. According to Ecoindicator 99 methodology, Damage to Human Health and Ecosystem Quality are more significant in Scenario 2 whereas Scenario 1 presents the largest contribution to Damage to Resources. Between the two proposed alternatives, the recycling of wood waste for particleboard manufacture seems to be more favorable under an environmental perspective. PMID:15922411

Rivela, Beatriz; Moreira, María Teresa; Muñoz, Iván; Rieradevall, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo

2006-03-15

396

Students' Evaluation of Teaching Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' evaluations of teaching quality are one of the crucial components of the teaching quality evaluation (along with external evaluation, opinions of colleagues, etc.). According to our research and professional experience, the teaching quality has to be examined in correlation with personality traits of a lecturer. Students' surveys (aiming…

Vevere, Nina; Kozlinskis, Vulfs

2011-01-01

397

Discovery of novel genetic networks associated with 19 economically important traits in beef cattle  

PubMed Central

Quantitative or complex traits are determined by the combined effects of many loci, and are affected by genetic networks or molecular pathways. In the present study, we genotyped a total of 138 mutations, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from 71 functional genes on a Wagyu x Limousin reference population. Two hundred forty six F2 animals were measured for 5 carcass, 6 eating quality and 8 fatty acid composition traits. A total of 2,280 single marker-trait association runs with 120 tagged mutations selected based on the HAPLOVIEW analysis revealed 144 significant associations (P < 0.05), but 50 of them were removed from the analysis due to the small number of animals (? 9) in one genotype group or absence of one genotype among three genotypes. The remaining 94 single-trait associations were then placed into three groups of quantitative trait modes (QTMs) with additive, dominant and overdominant effects. All significant markers and their QTMs associated with each of these 19 traits were involved in a linear regression model analysis, which confirmed single-gene associations for 4 traits, but revealed two-gene networks for 8 traits and three-gene networks for 5 traits. Such genetic networks involving both genotypes and QTMs resulted in high correlations between predicted and actual values of performance, thus providing evidence that the classical Mendelian principles of inheritance can be applied in understanding genetic complexity of complex phenotypes. Our present study also indicated that carcass, eating quality and fatty acid composition traits rarely share genetic networks. Therefore, marker-assisted selection for improvement of one category of these traits would not interfere with improvement of another.

Jiang, Zhihua; Michal, Jennifer J.; Chen, Jie; Daniels, Tyler F.; Kunej, Tanja; Garcia, Matthew D.; Gaskins, Charles T.; Busboom, Jan R.; Alexander, Leeson J.; Wright Jr., Raymond W.; MacNeil, Michael D.

2009-01-01

398

Pattern of inbreeding depression, condition dependence, and additive genetic variance in Trinidadian guppy ejaculate traits.  

PubMed

In polyandrous species, a male's reproductive success depends on his fertilization capability and traits enhancing competitive fertilization success will be under strong, directional selection. This leads to the prediction that these traits should show stronger condition dependence and larger genetic variance than other traits subject to weaker or stabilizing selection. While empirical evidence of condition dependence in postcopulatory traits is increasing, the comparison between sexually selected and 'control' traits is often based on untested assumption concerning the different strength of selection acting on these traits. Furthermore, information on selection in the past is essential, as both condition dependence and genetic variance of a trait are likely to be influenced by the pattern of selection acting historically on it. Using the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing fish with high levels of multiple paternity, we performed three independent experiments on three ejaculate quality traits, sperm number, velocity, and size, which have been previously shown to be subject to strong, intermediate, and weak directional postcopulatory selection, respectively. First, we conducted an inbreeding experiment to determine the pattern of selection in the past. Second, we used a diet restriction experiment to estimate their level of condition dependence. Third, we used a half-sib/full-sib mating design to estimate the coefficients of additive genetic variance (CVA) underlying these traits. Additionally, using a simulated predator evasion test, we showed that both inbreeding and diet restriction significantly reduced condition. According to predictions, sperm number showed higher inbreeding depression, stronger condition dependence, and larger CVA than sperm velocity and sperm size. The lack of significant genetic correlation between sperm number and velocity suggests that the former may respond to selection independently one from other ejaculate quality traits. Finally, the association between sperm number and condition suggests that this trait may mediate the genetic benefits of polyandry which have been shown in this species. PMID:24455127

Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Dosselli, Ryan; Pilastro, Andrea

2013-12-01

399

Application of liquefied wood as a new particle board adhesive system.  

PubMed

Different types of southern European hardwoods and softwoods were subjected to a liquefaction process with glycerol/diethylene glycol. The liquefied spruce wood was reacted in a condensation reaction in the hot press with different melamine-formaldehyde and melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin precursors and used as adhesives for wood particle boards. The mechanical properties of these particle boards and the determination of formaldehyde release, proved that addition of 50% of the liquefied wood to such resin precursors caused the product to meet the European standard quality demands for particle boards. Up to 40% reduction of the formaldehyde emission was achieved. The temperature of the press unit was lowered from 180 degrees C to 160 degrees C with no significant influence on the mechanical properties. On the basis of the presented results it was possible to conclude that liquefied wood can be used as substitute for synthetic resin precursors in adhesives that are used for the particle board production. PMID:19836945

Kunaver, Matjaz; Medved, Sergej; Cuk, Natasa; Jasiukaityte, Edita; Poljansek, Ida; Strnad, Tatjana

2010-02-01

400

Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Fat Deposition Traits in Pigs  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with fat deposition traits in pigs are important gene positions in a chromosome that influence meat quality of pork. For QTL study, a three generation resource population was constructed from a cross between Korean native boars and Landrace sows. A total of 240 F2 animals from intercross of F1 were produced. 80 microsatellite markers covering chromosomes 1 to 10 were selected to genotype the resource population. Intervals between adjacent markers were approximately 19 cM. Linkage analysis was performed using CRIMAP software version 2.4 with a FIXED option to obtain the map distances. For QTL analysis, the public web-based software, QTL express (http://www.qtl.cap.ed.ac.uk) was used. Two significant and two suggestive QTL were identified on SSC 6, 7, and 8 as affecting body fat and IMF traits. For QTL affecting IMF, the most significant association was detected between marker sw71 and sw1881 on SSC 6, and a suggestive QTL was identified between sw268 and sw205 on SSC8. These QTL accounted for 26.58% and 12.31% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. A significant QTL affecting IMF was detected at position 105 cM between markers sw71 and sw1881 on SSC 6.

Choi, B. H.; Lee, K. T.; Lee, H. J.; Jang, G. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Cho, B. W.; Han, J. Y.; Kim, T. H.

2012-01-01

401

Quantitative genetic variation in an island population of the speckled wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria).  

PubMed

Evidence of changes in levels of genetic variation in the field is scarce. Theoretically, selection and a bottleneck may lead to the depletion of additive genetic variance (V(A)) but not of nonadditive, dominance variance (V(D)), although a bottleneck may converse V(D) to V(A). Here we analyse quantitative genetic variation for the Speckled Wood butterfly Pararge aegeria on the island of Madeira about 120 generations after first colonisation. Colonisation of the island involved both a bottleneck and strong natural selection, changing the average value of traits. Several life history and morphological traits with varying levels of change since colonisation were analysed. In accordance with expectations, all traits except one showed relatively low levels of V(A), with an average heritability (h(2)) of 0.078. Levels of V(D) for these traits were relatively high, 20-94% of total variance and on average 80% of V(G). The exception was a morphological trait that probably had not experienced strong natural selection after colonisation, for which a h(2) of 0.27 was found. Another interesting observation is that the population seems resistant to inbreeding effects, which may be the result of purging of deleterious alleles. PMID:15254491

Windig, J J; Veerkamp, R F; Nylin, S

2004-11-01

402

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an overview of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution educational program. The site includes resources at the K-12, undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral levels. Main K-12 resource page features journals and logs from several WHOI expeditions, including dives to the New England Seamounts. Teacher links include information on curriculum supplements and additional sites of interest; sites include aquariums, weather, research vessels, marine science careers, and marine mammals to name a few.

2011-07-11

403

Carbon Sequestration via Wood Burial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forest dead wood or old trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It was estimated that the carbon sequestration potential of forest wood harvest and burial is 10GtC y-1 with an uncertainty range of 5-15 GtC y-1. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost was crudely estimated at $50/tC, significantly lower than the cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage, a carbon sequestration technique currently under most serious consideration. The low cost is largely because the CO2 capture is achieved at little cost by the natural process of photosynthesis. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe and can be stopped or reversed at any time. The relatively low cost may soon be competitive enough for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon trading market. In tropical regions with ongoing deforestation, wood burial instead of burning will immediately reduce that portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emission.

Zeng, N.

2007-12-01

404

Perception of Wood in River Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In managing river channels, wood is often perceived as hazardous and has traditionally been removed. On the other hand, wood provides many benefits including food and habitat for fish and mechanisms for energy dissipation. Increasing recognition of the positive role of wood has encouraged the reintroduction of wood to restore rivers. However, it is not clear how widely this practice is accepted, and whether traditional views of wood hazards may influence the success of such restoration projects. This paper describes a large-scale effort to increase understanding of how wood is perceived in stream channels. This project, led by H. Piegay and K.J. Gregory, involves an international group of workers from 9 countries in contrasting parts of the world. A total of 1886 surveys were given to students 20-25 years of age to test the hypothesis that the perception of wood is related to one's socio-cultural environment. Students were asked to view a set of 20 standard photographs, 10 with wood and 10 without, and to answer a set of questions related to how hazardous the scenes are perceived. Results show clear differences in perception, with students from Texas, USA, viewing streams with wood to be more dangerous, less aesthetic, and to need more improvement than those without. These perceptions contrast with those from the Pacific northwest and some areas around the world, providing clues to the potential success and acceptance of reintroducing wood in stream restoration.

Chin, A.

2003-12-01

405

A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revised classification of the Parulidae (Aves)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The birds in the family Parulidae-commonly termed the New World warblers or wood-warblers-are a classic model radiation for studies of ecological and behavioral differentiation. Although the monophyly of a 'core' wood-warbler clade is well established, no phylogenetic hypothesis for this group has included a full sampling of wood-warbler species diversity. We used parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods to reconstruct relationships among all genera and nearly all wood-warbler species, based on a matrix of mitochondrial DNA (5840 nucleotides) and nuclear DNA (6 loci, 4602 nucleotides) characters. The resulting phylogenetic hypotheses provide a highly congruent picture of wood-warbler relationships, and indicate that the traditional generic classification of these birds recognizes many non-monophyletic groups. We recommend a revised taxonomy in which each of 14 genera (Seiurus, Helmitheros, Mniotilta, Limnothlypis, Protonotaria, Parkesia, Vermivora, Oreothlypis, Geothlypis, Setophaga, Myioborus, Cardellina, Basileuterus, Myiothlypis) corresponds to a well-supported clade; these nomenclatural changes also involve subsuming a number of well-known, traditional wood-warbler genera (Catharopeza, Dendroica, Ergaticus, Euthlypis, Leucopeza, Oporornis, Parula, Phaeothlypis, Wilsonia). We provide a summary phylogenetic hypothesis that will be broadly applicable to investigations of the historical biogeography, processes of diversification, and evolution of trait variation in this well studied avian group. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Lovette, I. J.; Perez-Eman, J. L.; Sullivan, J. P.; Banks, R. C.; Fiorentino, I.; Cordoba-Cordoba, S.; Echeverry-Galvis, M.; Barker, F. K.; Burns, K. J.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, S. M.; Bermingham, E.

2010-01-01

406

Estimation of genetic parameters and genome scan for 15 semen characteristics traits of Holstein bulls.  

PubMed

A QTL detection experiment was performed in French dairy cattle to search for QTL related to male fertility. Ten families, involving a total of 515 bulls, were phenotyped for ejaculated volume and sperm concentration, number of spermatozoa, motility, velocity, percentage of motile spermatozoa after thawing and abnormal spermatozoa. A set of 148 microsatellite markers were used to realize a genome scan. First, genetic parameters were estimated for all traits. Semen production traits were found to have moderate heritabilities (from 0.15 to 0.30) while some of the semen quality traits such as motility had high heritabilities (close to 0.60). Genetic correlations among traits showed negative relationships between volume and concentration and between volume and most quality traits such as motility or abnormal sperm while correlations between concentration and these traits were rather favourable. Percentages of abnormal sperm were negatively related to quality traits, especially with motility and velocity of spermatozoa. Three QTL related to abnormal sperm frequencies were significant at p < 0.01. In total, 11 QTL (p < 0.05) were detected. However, the number of QTL detected was within the range of expected false positives. Because of the lack of power to find QTL in this design further analyses are required to confirm these QTL. PMID:19630877

Druet, T; Fritz, S; Sellem, E; Basso, B; Gérard, O; Salas-Cortes, L; Humblot, P; Druart, X; Eggen, A

2009-08-01

407

Root traits for infertile soils  

PubMed Central

Crop production is often restricted by the availability of essential mineral elements. For example, the availability of N, P, K, and S limits low-input agriculture, the phytoavailability of Fe, Zn, and Cu limits crop production on alkaline and calcareous soils, and P, Mo, Mg, Ca, and K deficiencies, together with proton, Al and Mn toxicities, limit crop production on acid soils. Since essential mineral elements are acquired by the root system, the development of crop genotypes with root traits increasing their acquisition should increase yields on infertile soils. This paper examines root traits likely to improve the acquisition of these elements and observes that, although the efficient acquisition of a particular element requires a specific set of root traits, suites of traits can be identified that benefit the acquisition of a group of mineral elements. Elements can be divided into three Groups based on common trait requirements. Group 1 comprises N, S, K, B, and P. Group 2 comprises Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Ni. Group 3 contains mineral elements that rarely affect crop production. It is argued that breeding for a limited number of distinct root ideotypes, addressing particular combinations of mineral imbalances, should be pursued.

White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Dupuy, Lionel X.; Karley, Alison J.; Valentine, Tracy A.; Wiesel, Lea; Wishart, Jane

2013-01-01

408

Linking size-dependent growth and mortality with architectural traits across 145 co-occurring tropical tree species.  

PubMed

Tree architecture, growth, and mortality change with increasing tree size and associated light conditions. To date, few studies have quantified how size-dependent changes in growth and mortality rates co-vary with architectural traits, and how such size-dependent changes differ across species and possible light capture strategies. We applied a hierarchical Bayesian model to quantify size-dependent changes in demographic rates and correlated demographic rates and architectural traits for 145 co-occurring Mal