Sample records for wood quality traits

  1. Genetic Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Growth and Wood Quality Traits in Eucalyptus Grandis Using a Maternal Half-Sib Family and Rapd Markers

    PubMed Central

    Grattapaglia, D.; Bertolucci, FLG.; Penchel, R.; Sederoff, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of forest productivity traits was performed using an open pollinated half-sib family of Eucalyptus grandis. For volume growth, a sequential QTL mapping approach was applied using bulk segregant analysis (BSA), selective genotyping (SG) and cosegregation analysis (CSA). Despite the low heritability of this trait and the heterogeneous genetic background employed for mapping. BSA detected one putative QTL and SG two out of the three later found by CSA. The three putative QTL for volume growth were found to control 13.7% of the phenotypic variation, corresponding to an estimated 43.7% of the genetic variation. For wood specific gravity five QTL were identified controlling 24.7% of the phenotypic variation corresponding to 49% of the genetic variation. Overlapping QTL for CBH, WSG and percentage dry weight of bark were observed. A significant case of digenic epistasis was found, involving unlinked QTL for volume. Our results demonstrate the applicability of the within half-sib design for QTL mapping in forest trees and indicate the existence of major genes involved in the expression of economically important traits related to forest productivity in Eucalyptus grandis. These findings have important implications for marker-assisted tree breeding. PMID:8913761

  2. Wood Quality: The Effects

    E-print Network

    Particle and Fiber Energy Veneer Lumber Posts & PolesRound wood Heat Chemicals $ $$$ #12;Mix High & Low to considerOther things to consider................ Stability: height/diameter ratios lower through reduced thinning can be expected to effectively lower future ratios Wilson and Oliver 2000 #12;ThinningThinning #12

  3. Association Genetics of Wood Physical Traits in the Conifer White Spruce and Relationships With Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jean; Doerksen, Trevor; Boyle, Brian; Clément, Sébastien; Deslauriers, Marie; Beauseigle, Stéphanie; Blais, Sylvie; Poulin, Pier-Luc; Lenz, Patrick; Caron, Sébastien; Rigault, Philippe; Bicho, Paul; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John

    2011-01-01

    Marker-assisted selection holds promise for highly influencing tree breeding, especially for wood traits, by considerably reducing breeding cycles and increasing selection accuracy. In this study, we used a candidate gene approach to test for associations between 944 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers from 549 candidate genes and 25 wood quality traits in white spruce. A mixed-linear model approach, including a weak but nonsignificant population structure, was implemented for each marker–trait combination. Relatedness among individuals was controlled using a kinship matrix estimated either from the known half-sib structure or from the markers. Both additive and dominance effect models were tested. Between 8 and 21 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be significantly associated (P ? 0.01) with each of earlywood, latewood, or total wood traits. After controlling for multiple testing (Q ? 0.10), 13 SNPs were still significant across as many genes belonging to different families, each accounting for between 3 and 5% of the phenotypic variance in 10 wood characters. Transcript accumulation was determined for genes containing SNPs associated with these traits. Significantly different transcript levels (P ? 0.05) were found among the SNP genotypes of a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, a ?-tonoplast intrinsic protein, and a long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 9. These results should contribute toward the development of efficient marker-assisted selection in an economically important tree species. PMID:21385726

  4. Dietary effects of a mix derived from oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil and sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood extract on pig performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits.

    PubMed

    Ranucci, D; Beghelli, D; Trabalza-Marinucci, M; Branciari, R; Forte, C; Olivieri, O; Badillo Pazmay, G V; Cavallucci, C; Acuti, G

    2015-02-01

    The effects of a pre-formulated commercial plant extract mix, composed of equal parts of oregano essential oil and sweet chestnut wood extract, on performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits were evaluated. In two 155-d studies, 60 pigs (mean liveweight: 42.9 kg) were assigned to either a control diet (CTR) or an identical diet supplemented (0.2%) with the plant extract mix (OC). No differences in the growth rate were observed. Glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the OC muscles (Longissimus lumborum) were higher than in CTR muscles. The lipid oxidation of meat was lower in the OC group. In the cooked meat samples, OC animals had the lowest L* and H° values and the highest a* values. The OC meat received higher scores for colour, taste and overall liking in both the blind and the labelled consumer tests. PMID:25454470

  5. Genomics of Quality Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seeds of the cereal crops provide a large portion of both the total calories and protein in the human diet. The utility of any cereal depends on the precise characteristics of their grain and the summation of parameters that translate in the grain "quality" for speific utilizations. This chapter...

  6. Size-dependent changes in leaf and wood chemical traits in two Caribbean rainforest trees.

    PubMed

    Martin, Adam R; Thomas, Sean C

    2013-12-01

    Tree functional traits and their link to patterns of growth and demography are central to informing trait-based analyses of forest communities, and mechanistic models of forest dynamics. However, few data are available on how functional traits in trees vary through ontogeny, particularly in tropical species; and less is known about how patterns of size-dependent changes in traits may differ across species of contrasting life-history strategies. Here we describe size-dependent variation in seven leaf functional traits and four wood chemical traits, in two Dominican rainforest tree species (Dacryodes excelsa Vahl. and Miconia mirabilis (Aubl.) L.O. Williams), ranging from small saplings to the largest canopy trees. With one exception, all traits showed pronounced variation with tree size (diameter at breast height, DBH). Leaf mass per area (LMA), thickness and tissue density increased monotonically with DBH in both species. Leaf area, leaf nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) : nitrogen (N) ratios also varied significantly with DBH; however, these patterns were unimodal, with peak trait values preceding the DBH at reproductive onset in both species. Size-dependent changes in leaf structural traits (LMA and leaf thickness) were generally similar in both species, while traits associated with leaf-level investment in C gain (leaf area, leaf C : N ratio) showed contrasting ontogenetic trends between species. Wood starch concentration varied with DBH in both species, also showing unimodal patterns with peaks preceding size at reproductive onset. Wood C concentration increased linearly with DBH in both species, though significantly only in M. mirabilis. Size-dependent patterns in wood chemical traits were similar between both species. Our data demonstrate pronounced variation in functional traits through tree ontogeny, probably due to a combination of environmental factors and shifts in resource allocation. Such ontogenetic variation is comparable in magnitude with interspecific variation, and so should be accounted for in trait-based studies of forest dynamics, structure and function. PMID:24336517

  7. Functional genomics of wood quality and properties.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Luo, Xiaoyan; Nelson, Aaron; Collver, Hilary; Kinken, Katherine

    2003-11-01

    Genomics promises to enrich the investigations of biology and biochemistry. Current advancements in genomics have major implications for genetic improvement in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and for our understanding of cell growth, development, differentiation, and communication. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of plant genomics in recent years, and the area continues to progress rapidly. Functional genomics offers enormous potential to tree improvement and the understanding of gene expression in this area of science worldwide. In this review we focus on functional genomics of wood quality and properties in trees, mainly based on progresses made in genomics study of Pinus and Populus. The aims of this review are to summarize the current status of functional genomics including: (1) Gene discovery; (2) EST and genomic sequencing; (3) From EST to functional genomics; (4) Approaches to functional analysis; (5) Engineering lignin biosynthesis; (6) Modification of cell wall biogenesis; and (7) Molecular modelling. Functional genomics has been greatly invested worldwide and will be important in identifying candidate genes whose function is critical to all aspects of plant growth, development, differentiation, and defense. Forest biotechnology industry will significantly benefit from the advent of functional genomics of wood quality and properties. PMID:15629055

  8. Wood quality and wood preferences in relation to food preparation and diet composition in Central Malawi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inge D. Brouwer; Adel P. den Hartog; Mandaaliza O. K. Kamwendo; Marjon W. O. Heldens

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports a study of wood quality and preferences for type of wood in relation to food preparation and diet composition in Ntcheu District, Malawi. Women preferred splitwood or branches and were reluctant to use twigs and maize stalks because the former is transformed into more charcoal of a better quality with longer burning duration, needs less attention to

  9. Functional Multi-Locus QTL Mapping of Temporal Trends in Scots Pine Wood Traits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zitong; Hallingbäck, Henrik R.; Abrahamsson, Sara; Fries, Anders; Gull, Bengt Andersson; Sillanpää, Mikko J.; García-Gil, M. Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of wood properties in conifer species has focused on single time point measurements or on trait means based on heterogeneous wood samples (e.g., increment cores), thus ignoring systematic within-tree trends. In this study, functional QTL mapping was performed for a set of important wood properties in increment cores from a 17-yr-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) full-sib family with the aim of detecting wood trait QTL for general intercepts (means) and for linear slopes by increasing cambial age. Two multi-locus functional QTL analysis approaches were proposed and their performances were compared on trait datasets comprising 2 to 9 time points, 91 to 455 individual tree measurements and genotype datasets of amplified length polymorphisms (AFLP), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The first method was a multilevel LASSO analysis whereby trend parameter estimation and QTL mapping were conducted consecutively; the second method was our Bayesian linear mixed model whereby trends and underlying genetic effects were estimated simultaneously. We also compared several different hypothesis testing methods under either the LASSO or the Bayesian framework to perform QTL inference. In total, five and four significant QTL were observed for the intercepts and slopes, respectively, across wood traits such as earlywood percentage, wood density, radial fiberwidth, and spiral grain angle. Four of these QTL were represented by candidate gene SNPs, thus providing promising targets for future research in QTL mapping and molecular function. Bayesian and LASSO methods both detected similar sets of QTL given datasets that comprised large numbers of individuals. PMID:25305041

  10. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Influencing Wood Specific Gravity in an Outbred Pedigree of Loblolly Pine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Groover; M. Devey; T. Fiddler; J. Lee; R. Megraw; T. Mitchel-Olds; B. Sherman; S. Vujcic; C. Williams; D. Nede

    We report the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing wood specific gravity (WSG) in an outbred pedigree of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) . QTL mapping in an outcrossing species is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles (>2) at QTL and marker loci. Multiple alleles at QTL allow the examination of interaction among alleles at QTL (deviation from

  11. Variation in wood fibre traits among eight populations of Dipterocarpus indicus in Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A G Devi; Al-Sagheer, Nageeb A

    2012-03-01

    Wood elements and anatomical ratio of Dipterocarpus indicus were studied to evaluate variation among populations and to recommend for end selection. The variation of wood element [fibre length (FL), fibre diameter (FD), lumen diameter (LD), cell wall thickness (CWT), double wall thickness (DWT), and lumen volume (LV)] and anatomical ratio [fibre lumen area (FLA), slenderness ratio (SR) and runkel ratio (RR)] were investigated in a girth class of 100 - 120 cm among eight populations of Dipterocarpus indicus in Western Ghats, India. The study revealed a significant variations in FL (0.2426), FD (4.7019), LD (3.1689), CWT (2.7104), DWT and (5.4298) among populations. The variations in anatomical ratios were significant among populations except in case of LV. The causes of variations among populations in their wood traits were attributed to the site factors. The interaction between genetic makeup of wood traits combined with effects of edaphic, local and regional climatic conditions reflect the amount of variation among populations. The highest coefficient of variation (CV %) for FL, FD, CWT and DWT was recorded in population of Gundya whereas low coefficient of variation were recorded in the population of Makuta (FL), Devimane (FD, CWT and DWT), and Sampaje (LD). The wood of Dipterocarpus indicus was found undesirable for pulp wood but can be utilized for plywood timbers. PMID:23033683

  12. Coniferous wood quality in the future: concerns and strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Kennedy

    1995-01-01

    As the raw material base for forest products manufacturing shifts from old-growth to short-rotation plantation stock, the wood from these younger trees will contain larger proportions of juvenile wood. This in turn will influence the quality of forest products obtained. The pattern of specific gravity variation in these trees, which varies among the five most important Pacific Northwest species groups,

  13. Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

    2010-01-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe.

  14. QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Tumuluru; Shahabaddine Sokhansanj; C. Jim Lim; X. T. Bi; A. K. Lau; Staffan Melin; E. Oveisi; T. Sowlati

    2010-01-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe.

  15. Identifying quantitative end-use quality traits through marker-trait associations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    End-use quality traits (grain, milling and baking) are generally expensive and difficult to measure. We are in the process of estimating phenotypic trait values for a wide range of Pacific Northwest wheat genotypes, including soft white spring, winter and club, hard red winter and spring, and hard ...

  16. IMPACT OF ALFALFA GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT ON FORAGE QUALITY TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is generally considered to be among the highest quality forages for feeding ruminant livestock. Among the positive quality attributes of alfalfa are high protein and calcium concentrations, low cell wall concentration, and rapidly digested cell wall material. These cell wall traits contrib...

  17. Genome scan for meat quality traits in Nelore beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Tizioto, P C; Decker, J E; Taylor, J F; Schnabel, R D; Mudadu, M A; Silva, F L; Mourão, G B; Coutinho, L L; Tholon, P; Sonstegard, T S; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Tullio, R R; Medeiros, S R; Nassu, R T; Feijó, G L D; Silva, L O C; Torres, R A; Siqueira, F; Higa, R H; Regitano, L C A

    2013-11-01

    Meat quality traits are economically important because they affect consumers' acceptance, which, in turn, influences the demand for beef. However, selection to improve meat quality is limited by the small numbers of animals on which meat tenderness can be evaluated due to the cost of performing shear force analysis and the resultant damage to the carcass. Genome wide-association studies for Warner-Bratzler shear force measured at different times of meat aging, backfat thickness, ribeye muscle area, scanning parameters [lightness, redness (a*), and yellowness] to ascertain color characteristics of meat and fat, water-holding capacity, cooking loss (CL), and muscle pH were conducted using genotype data from the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip array to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in all phenotyped Nelore cattle. Phenotype count for these animals ranged from 430 to 536 across traits. Meat quality traits in Nelore are controlled by numerous QTL of small effect, except for a small number of large-effect QTL identified for a*fat, CL, and pH. Genomic regions harboring these QTL and the pathways in which the genes from these regions act appear to differ from those identified in taurine cattle for meat quality traits. These results will guide future QTL mapping studies and the development of models for the prediction of genetic merit to implement genomic selection for meat quality in Nelore cattle. PMID:24022219

  18. Intraspecific relationships among wood density, leaf structural traits and environment in four co-occurring species of Nothofagus in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Sarah J; Allen, Robert B; Buxton, Rowan P; Easdale, Tomás A; Hurst, Jennifer M; Morse, Christopher W; Smissen, Rob D; Peltzer, Duane A

    2013-01-01

    Plant functional traits capture important variation in plant strategy and function. Recent literature has revealed that within-species variation in traits is greater than previously supposed. However, we still have a poor understanding of how intraspecific variation is coordinated among different traits, and how it is driven by environment. We quantified intraspecific variation in wood density and five leaf traits underpinning the leaf economics spectrum (leaf dry matter content, leaf mass per unit area, size, thickness and density) within and among four widespread Nothofagus tree species in southern New Zealand. We tested whether intraspecific relationships between wood density and leaf traits followed widely reported interspecific relationships, and whether variation in these traits was coordinated through shared responses to environmental factors. Sample sites varied widely in environmental variables, including soil fertility (25-900 mg kg(-1) total P), precipitation (668-4875 mm yr(-1)), temperature (5.2-12.4 °C mean annual temperature) and latitude (41-46 °S). Leaf traits were strongly correlated with one another within species, but not with wood density. There was some evidence for a positive relationship between wood density and leaf tissue density and dry matter content, but no evidence that leaf mass or leaf size were correlated with wood density; this highlights that leaf mass per unit area cannot be used as a surrogate for component leaf traits such as tissue density. Trait variation was predicted by environmental factors, but not consistently among different traits; e.g., only leaf thickness and leaf density responded to the same environmental cues as wood density. We conclude that although intraspecific variation in wood density and leaf traits is strongly driven by environmental factors, these responses are not strongly coordinated among functional traits even across co-occurring, closely-related plant species. PMID:23527041

  19. Genetic Control of Meat Quality Traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, John L.

    Meat was originally produced from non-specialized animals that were used for a variety of purposes, in addition to being a source of food. However, selective breeding has resulted in “improved” breeds of cattle that are now used to produce either milk or beef, and specialized chicken lines that produce eggs or meat. These improved breeds are very productive under appropriate management systems. The selection methods used to create these specialized breeds were based on easily measured phenotypic variations, such as growth rate or physical size. Improvement in the desired trait was achieved by breeding directly from animals displaying the desired phenotype. However, more recently sophisticated genetic models have been developed using statistical approaches that consider phenotypic information collected, not only from individual animals but also from their parents, sibs, and progeny.

  20. QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, J.S. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lau, A.K. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Oveisi, E. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  1. Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export

    SciTech Connect

    J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  2. Stability of quantitative trait loci for growth and wood properties across multiple pedigrees and environments in Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jules S; Potts, Brad M; Downes, Geoffrey M; Pilbeam, David; Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; Vaillancourt, René E

    2013-06-01

    · Eucalypts are one of the most planted tree genera worldwide, and there is increasing interest in marker-assisted selection for tree improvement. Implementation of marker-assisted selection requires a knowledge of the stability of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). This study aims to investigate the stability of QTLs for wood properties and growth across contrasting sites and multiple pedigrees of Eucalyptus globulus. · Saturated linkage maps were constructed using 663 genotypes from four separate families, grown at three widely separated sites, and were employed to construct a consensus map. This map was used for QTL analysis of growth, wood density and wood chemical traits, including pulp yield. · Ninety-eight QTLs were identified across families and sites: 87 for wood properties and 11 for growth. These QTLs mapped to 38 discrete regions, some of which co-located with candidate genes. Although 16% of QTLs were verified across different families, 24% of wood property QTLs and 38% of growth QTLs exhibited significant genotype-by-environment interaction. · This study provides the most detailed assessment of the effect of environment and pedigree on QTL detection in the genus. Despite markedly different environments and pedigrees, many QTLs were stable, providing promising targets for the application of marker-assisted selection. PMID:23517065

  3. Watermelon quality traits as affected by ploidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers offering high quality watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.), Matsum & Nakai] that are also high in phytonutrients will have stronger market opportunities. In order to offer highly nutritious fruit, the industry must understand the nature of phytonutrient accumulation as it is affected by ...

  4. Genetic diversity among mandarins in fruit-quality traits.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Kaplunov, Tatiana; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir

    2014-05-28

    A detailed phenotypic analysis of fruit-quality traits was conducted among 46 mandarin varieties within the Israeli Citrus breeding collection, belonging to genetically different natural subgroups, including common mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), clementine (C. clementina Hort. ex. Tan), satsuma (C. unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (C. deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and tangelo (C. reticulata × C. paradisi). Evaluated qualities included physical attributes (size, shape, color, peel thickness, and seed number); physiological properties (ripening period, peelability, and segmentation); nutritional and biochemical composition (vitamin C, phenol, flavonoid, and carotenoid contents and total antioxidant activity); and sensory attributes (total soluble solids and acid levels, flavor preference, sweetness, sourness, and fruitiness). The results indicated wide genetic variability in fruit-quality traits among mandarin varieties and natural subgroups, and statistical and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed multiple correlations among attributes. Such phenomic analysis is an obligatory requirement for identification of molecular markers for distinct fruit-quality traits and for selection of appropriate parents for future breeding programs. PMID:24828369

  5. Genetic mapping analysis of bread-making quality traits in spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we assess the genetic architecture of bread-making quality traits in spring wheat. A mapping population derived from BR34 and Grandin, a soft x hard cross, was used to measure 20 end-use quality traits including six kernel characteristics, seven milling and flour traits, four dough mi...

  6. A trait based approach to defining valued mentoring qualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendall, E.

    2012-12-01

    Graduate training in the sciences requires strong personal interactions among faculty, senior lab members and more junior members. Within the lab-group setting we learn to frame problems, to conduct research and to communicate findings. The result is that individual scientists are partly shaped by a few influential mentors. We have all been influenced by special relationships with mentors, and on reflection we may find that certain qualities have been especially influential in our career choices. In this presentation I will discuss favorable mentoring traits as determined from an informal survey of scientists in varying stages of careers and from diverse backgrounds. Respondents addressed questions about traits they value in their mentors in several categories: 1) personal qualities such as approachability, humor and encouragement; background including gender, ethnicity, and family status; 2) scientific qualities including discipline or specialization, perceived stature in discipline, seniority, breadth of perspective, and level of expectations; and 3) community-oriented qualities promoted by mentors, such as encouraging service contributions and peer-mentoring within the lab group. The results will be compared among respondents by gender, ethnicity, stage of career, type of work, and subdiscipline within the broadly defined Biogeoscience community. We hope to contribute to the growing discussion on building a diverse and balanced scientific workforce.

  7. Identification of quantitative trait loci influencing wood property traits in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). III. QTL Verification and candidate gene mapping.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Garth R; Bassoni, Daniel L; Gill, Geoffrey P; Fontana, Joseph R; Wheeler, Nicholas C; Megraw, Robert A; Davis, Mark F; Sewell, Mitchell M; Tuskan, Gerald A; Neale, David B

    2003-01-01

    A long-term series of experiments to map QTL influencing wood property traits in loblolly pine has been completed. These experiments were designed to identify and subsequently verify QTL in multiple genetic backgrounds, environments, and growing seasons. Verification of QTL is necessary to substantiate a biological basis for observed marker-trait associations, to provide precise estimates of the magnitude of QTL effects, and to predict QTL expression at a given age or in a particular environment. Verification was based on the repeated detection of QTL among populations, as well as among multiple growing seasons for each population. Temporal stability of QTL was moderate, with approximately half being detected in multiple seasons. Fewer QTL were common to different populations, but the results are nonetheless encouraging for restricted applications of marker-assisted selection. QTL from larger populations accounted for less phenotypic variation than QTL detected in smaller populations, emphasizing the need for experiments employing much larger families. Additionally, 18 candidate genes related to lignin biosynthesis and cell wall structure were mapped genetically. Several candidate genes colocated with wood property QTL; however, these relationships must be verified in future experiments. PMID:12930758

  8. Health-related quality of life in women exposed to wood smoke while cooking.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, A N; Umasankar, K; Gupta, D

    2014-08-01

    Using the abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-Bref) questionnaire, we evaluated the effect of exposure to smoke from wood combustion while cooking on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in 85 women using wood and 85 women using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuel in India. Age, years of cooking and hours spent daily in the kitchen were similar between women in the two groups. WHOQOL-Bref transformed scores in psychological, social relationships and environment domains were significantly lower in women in using wood than in those using LPG, suggesting that HRQL was impaired across domains among these women. PMID:25199018

  9. Impact of residential wood burning on indoor air quality Corinne Mandin1,2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Impact of residential wood burning on indoor air quality Corinne Mandin1,2 , Jacques Ribéron2 email: Eva.Leoz@ineris.fr SUMMARY This study aims at characterizing indoor air quality in single family burning appliances on air quality are rather poor. Use of such heating systems may increase as the use

  10. Metal contaminated biochar and wood ash negatively affect plant growth and soil quality after land application.

    PubMed

    Jones, D L; Quilliam, R S

    2014-07-15

    Pyrolysis or combustion of waste wood can provide a renewable source of energy and produce byproducts which can be recycled back to land. To be sustainable requires that these byproducts pose minimal threat to the environment or human health. Frequently, reclaimed waste wood is contaminated by preservative-treated timber containing high levels of heavy metals. We investigated the effect of feedstock contamination from copper-preservative treated wood on the behaviour of pyrolysis-derived biochar and combustion-derived ash in plant-soil systems. Biochar and wood ash were applied to soil at typical agronomic rates. The presence of preservative treated timber in the feedstock increased available soil Cu; however, critical Cu guidance limits were only exceeded at high rates of feedstock contamination. Negative effects on plant growth and soil quality were only seen at high levels of biochar contamination (>50% derived from preservative-treated wood). Negative effects of wood ash contamination were apparent at lower levels of contamination (>10% derived from preservative treated wood). Complete removal of preservative treated timber from wood recycling facilities is notoriously difficult and low levels of contamination are commonplace. We conclude that low levels of contamination from Cu-treated wood should pose minimal environmental risk to biochar and ash destined for land application. PMID:24915641

  11. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for fiber quality and yield trait by RIL approach in Upland cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinlian Shen; Wangzhen Guo; Qiongxian Lu; Xiefei Zhu; Youlu Yuan; Tianzhen Zhang

    2007-01-01

    The improvement of cotton fiber quality has become more important because of changes in spinning technology. Stable quantitative\\u000a trait loci (QTLs) for fiber quality will enable molecular marker-assisted selection to improve fiber quality of future cotton\\u000a cultivars. A simple sequence repeat (SSR) genetic linkage map consisting of 156 loci covering 1,024.4 cM was constructed using\\u000a a series of recombinant inbred lines

  12. Variation analysis for fiber quality traits among different positions in eight Upland cotton cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equivalency of fiber quality within a plant of upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., is very important. There are several traits within a plant that can be used to measure fiber quality and five of those traits will be investigated. Eight representative upland cultivars were grown at the Plant Scien...

  13. Adhesion quality of quaruba cedar wood glued joints under internal and external service conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delanie Lima; Costa Tienne; Rosilei A. Garcia

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the adhesion quality of quaruba cedar wood glued joints by means of tensile strength, shear strength before and after exposure to weathering simulated conditions, and delamination tests. Wood glued joints were bonded with three adhesives: resorcinol, resorcinol-tannin (90:10) and resorcinol-tannin (80:20) at 25 and 60 0 C curing temperatures with 0 and

  14. How do drought and warming influence survival and wood traits of Picea mariana saplings?

    PubMed Central

    Balducci, Lorena; Deslauriers, Annie; Giovannelli, Alessio; Beaulieu, Marilène; Delzon, Sylvain; Rossi, Sergio; Rathgeber, Cyrille B. K.

    2015-01-01

    Warming and drought will occur with increased frequency and intensity at high latitudes in the future. How heat and water stress can influence tree mortality is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate how carbon resources, stem hydraulics, and wood anatomy and density determine the ability of black spruce saplings to survive daytime or night-time warming (+ 6 °C in comparison with control) in combination with a drought period. Plant water relations, the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates and starch, mortality rate, and wood anatomy and density of saplings were monitored. Warming, in conjunction with 25 d of water deficit, increased sapling mortality (10% and 20% in night-time and daytime warming, respectively) compared with the control conditions (0.8%). Drought substantially decreased gas exchange, and also pre-dawn and mid-day leaf water potential to values close to –3MPa which probably induced xylem embolism (xylem air entry point, P 12, being on average around –3MPa for this species). In addition, the recovery of gas exchange never reached the initial pre-stress levels, suggesting a possible loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity associated with cavitation. Consequently, mortality may be due to xylem hydraulic failure. Warmer temperatures limited the replenishment of starch reserves after their seasonal minimum. Lighter wood was formed during the drought period, reflecting a lower carbon allocation to cell wall formation, preventing the adaptation of the hydraulic system to drought. Saplings of black spruce experienced difficulty in adapting under climate change conditions, which might compromise their survival in the future. PMID:25371502

  15. How do drought and warming influence survival and wood traits of Picea mariana saplings?

    PubMed

    Balducci, Lorena; Deslauriers, Annie; Giovannelli, Alessio; Beaulieu, Marilène; Delzon, Sylvain; Rossi, Sergio; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K

    2015-01-01

    Warming and drought will occur with increased frequency and intensity at high latitudes in the future. How heat and water stress can influence tree mortality is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate how carbon resources, stem hydraulics, and wood anatomy and density determine the ability of black spruce saplings to survive daytime or night-time warming (+ 6 °C in comparison with control) in combination with a drought period. Plant water relations, the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates and starch, mortality rate, and wood anatomy and density of saplings were monitored. Warming, in conjunction with 25 d of water deficit, increased sapling mortality (10% and 20% in night-time and daytime warming, respectively) compared with the control conditions (0.8%). Drought substantially decreased gas exchange, and also pre-dawn and mid-day leaf water potential to values close to -3MPa which probably induced xylem embolism (xylem air entry point, P??, being on average around -3MPa for this species). In addition, the recovery of gas exchange never reached the initial pre-stress levels, suggesting a possible loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity associated with cavitation. Consequently, mortality may be due to xylem hydraulic failure. Warmer temperatures limited the replenishment of starch reserves after their seasonal minimum. Lighter wood was formed during the drought period, reflecting a lower carbon allocation to cell wall formation, preventing the adaptation of the hydraulic system to drought. Saplings of black spruce experienced difficulty in adapting under climate change conditions, which might compromise their survival in the future. PMID:25371502

  16. Genetic effects on carcass-quality traits in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops ? ? Morone saxatilis ?)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoxue Wang; Kirstin E Ross; Eric Saillant; Delbert M Gatlin; John R Gold

    2007-01-01

    A1 0? 10 factorial mating design was used to exam- ine the genetic e¡ects on various carcass-quality traits in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops , ? Morone saxatilis <). A total of 448 o¡spring were raised in a 'common-garden' environment and car- cass-quality traits were assessed at 389 days post fer- tilization; parentage of each ¢sh was inferred from genotypes

  17. Genome-wide association of meat quality traits and tenderness in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork quality has a large impact on consumer preference and perception of eating quality. A genome-wide association was performed for pork quality traits [intramuscular fat (IMF)], slice shear force (SSF), color attributes, purge, cooking loss, and pH] from 531 to 1,237 records on barrows and gilts o...

  18. Gene Discovery and Product Development for Grain Quality Traits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Mazur (DuPont Agricultural Products Experimental Station; )

    1999-07-16

    The composition of oils, proteins, and carbohydrates in seeds of corn, soybean, and other crops has been modified to produce grains with enhanced value. Both plant breeding and molecular technologies have been used to produce plants carrying the desired traits. Genomics-based strategies for gene discovery, coupled with high-throughput transformation processes and miniaturized, automated analytical and functionality assays, have accelerated the identification of product candidates. Molecular markerâ??based breeding strategies have been used to accelerate the process of moving trait genes into high-yielding germplasm for commercialization. These products are being tested for applications in food, feed, and industrial markets.

  19. Nitrogen immobilization by wood-chip application: Protecting water quality in a northern hardwood forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homyak, P.M.; Yanai, R.D.; Burns, D.A.; Briggs, R.D.; Germain, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Forest harvesting disrupts the nitrogen cycle, which may affect stream water quality by increasing nitrate concentrations, reducing pH and acid neutralizing capacity, and mobilizing aluminum and base cations. We tested the application of wood chips derived from logging slash to increase immobilization of N after harvesting, which should reduce nitrate flux to streams. In August 2004, a stand of northern hardwoods was patch-clearcut in the Catskill Mountains, NY, and four replicates of three treatments were implemented in five 0.2-ha cut patches. Wood chips were applied to the soil surface at a rate equivalent to the amount of slash smaller than eight inches in diameter (1?? treatment). A second treatment doubled that rate (2??), and a third treatment received no chips (0??). Additionally, three uncut reference plots were established in nearby forested areas. Ion exchange resin bags and soil KCl-extractions were used to monitor nitrate availability in the upper 5-10 cm of soil approximately every seven weeks, except in winter. Resin bags indicated that the wood chips retained 30% or 42% of the nitrate pulse, while for KCl extracts, the retention rate was 78% or 100% of the difference between 0?? and uncut plots. During the fall following harvest, wood-chip treated plots had resin bag soil nitrate concentrations about 25% of those in 0?? plots (p = 0.0001). In the first growing season after the cut, nitrate concentrations in wood-chip treated plots for KCl extracts were 13% of those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.03) in May and about half those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.01) in July for resin bags. During spring snowmelt, however, nitrate concentrations were high and indistinguishable among treatments, including the uncut reference plots for resin bags and below detection limit for KCl extracts. Wood chips incubated in litterbags had an initial C:N of 125:1, which then decreased to 70:1 after one year of field incubation. These changes in C:N values indicate that the wood-chip application can potentially immobilize between 19 and 38 kg N ha-1 in the first year after harvesting, depending on the rate of wood-chip application. Our results suggest that the application of wood chips following harvesting operations can contribute to the protection of water quality and warrant additional research as a new Best Management Practice following cutting in regions that receive elevated levels of atmospheric N deposition. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. QTL analysis of fruit quality traits in muscadine grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia) are an important native fruit crop grown in the southeastern United States. To facilitate the breeding of improved cultivars of muscadine grapes a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted on several flower and fruit characteristics of two segregatin...

  1. Biomechanical design and long-term stability of trees: morphological and wood traits involved in the balance between weight increase and the gravitropic reaction.

    PubMed

    Alméras, T; Fournier, M

    2009-02-01

    Studies on tree biomechanical design usually focus on stem stiffness, resistance to breakage or uprooting, and elastic stability. Here we consider another biomechanical constraint related to the interaction between growth and gravity. Because stems are slender structures and are never perfectly symmetric, the increase in tree mass always causes bending movements. Given the current mechanical design of trees, integration of these movements over time would ultimately lead to a weeping habit unless some gravitropic correction occurs. This correction is achieved by asymmetric internal forces induced during the maturation of new wood. The long-term stability of a growing stem therefore depends on how the gravitropic correction that is generated by diameter growth balances the disturbance due to increasing self weight. General mechanical formulations based on beam theory are proposed to model these phenomena. The rates of disturbance and correction associated with a growth increment are deduced and expressed as a function of elementary traits of stem morphology, cross-section anatomy and wood properties. Evaluation of these traits using previously published data shows that the balance between the correction and the disturbance strongly depends on the efficiency of the gravitropic correction, which depends on the asymmetry of wood maturation strain, eccentric growth, and gradients in wood stiffness. By combining disturbance and correction rates, the gravitropic performance indicates the dynamics of stem bending during growth. It depends on stem biomechanical traits and dimensions. By analyzing dimensional effects, we show that the necessity for gravitropic correction might constrain stem allometric growth in the long-term. This constraint is compared to the requirement for elastic stability, showing that gravitropic performance limits the increase in height of tilted stem and branches. The performance of this function may thus limit the slenderness and lean of stems, and therefore the ability of the tree to capture light in a heterogeneous environment. PMID:19013473

  2. Soil quality in a cropland soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    The strategy of the European Union "Europe 2020" states that by 2020, 20% of final energy consumption must come from renewables. In this scenario, there is an increasing use of biomass utilization for energy production. Indeed, it is expected that the production of wood-ash will increase in coming years. Wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, can be applied to soil to improve the soil quality and crop production. Since the residue contains significant content of charcoal, the application of mixed wood ash may also improve the SOM content and soil quality in the long term, in soils degraded as a consequence of intensive management. The objective of this study was asses the changes in SOM quality and soil properties in a degraded soils treated with wood ash containing charcoal. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %) and fine texture. The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1, 16 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (16 Mg) and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (32 Mg). The application was carried out once. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark and branches. The wood ash is highly alkaline (pH= 10), contains 10 % of highly condensed black carbon (atomic H/C ratio < 0.5 and T50 en DSC= 500 ºC). The evolution of SOM properties were monitored over three years by solid state 13C CPMAS NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). These techniques were applied in bulk samples and aggregates of different sizes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Several physical properties, such soil aggregate distribution, hydraulic conductivity and available water contente were also determined. Three years after applications the SOM content increased lightly in the treatment receiving more than 16 Mg ha-1 of wood ash. SOM in the treated soils displayed a higher degree of aromaticity than in the untreated soils, indicating a gain in more stable SOM compounds probably as a consequence of the charcoal application. However, both methods also revealed increases in labile C compounds, probably due to the carbohydrates added through root system. Microbial biomass-C and soil respiration increased significantly. The treatments also led to increases in the functional diversity indices. The amended soils showed greater utilization of substrates and the ability of soil bacteria to utilize different C resources was also greatly altered. The application of mixed wood ash did not lead to any difference in MWD, which was around 6 mm in all cases. The application of 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1 increased significantly the hydraulic conductivity (4.07 cmh-1) when compared with in control plots (1.3 cmh-1) and mixed ash plots (1.52 and 2.45 cmh-1, 16 Mg and 32 Mg respectively). However, air-filled porosity was not higher in 16 Mg fly ash plots. AWC was not improved by wood ash application.

  3. Impact of operating wood-burning fireplace ovens on indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Wientzek, Sebastian; Wensing, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The use of combustion heat sources like wood-burning fireplaces has regained popularity in the past years due to increasing energy costs. While the outdoor emissions from wood ovens are strictly regulated in Germany, the indoor release of combustion products is rarely considered. Seven wood burning fireplaces were tested in private homes between November 2012 and March 2013. The indoor air quality was monitored before, during and after operation. The following parameters were measured: ultra-fine particles (5.6-560 nm), fine particles (0.3-20 ?m), PM2.5, NOx, CO, CO2, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Most ovens were significant sources of particulate matter. In some cases, an increase of benzene and BaP concentrations was observed in the indoor air. The results illustrate that wood-burning fireplaces are potential sources of indoor air contaminants, especially ultra-fine particles. Under the aspect of lowering indoor air exchange rates and increasing the use of fuels with a net zero-carbon footprint, indoor combustion sources are an important topic for the future. With regards to consumer safety, product development and inspection should consider indoor air quality in addition to the present fire protection requirements. PMID:24364889

  4. Relationship quality, trait similarity, and self-other agreement on personality ratings in college roommates.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, John E; Sherker, Jennifer L

    2003-02-01

    Previous research has shown that the level of self-other agreement for personality trait ratings increases with the length of acquaintanceship between the target and the informant. These findings emerge exclusively from studies of well-acquainted pairs in natural relationships and relative strangers interacting in laboratory and classroom settings. The present study examines self-other correlations for trait ratings using the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992) with 103 pairs of previously unacquainted female college roommates. Assessments were obtained at approximately 2 weeks and again at approximately 15 weeks subsequent to the roommates' initial introduction. Self-other correlations increased for all five NEO-FFI scores and agreement correlations for Conscientiousness were significantly higher than for Extraversion at both occasions. Differences in relationship quality did not moderate self-other agreement for any of the traits. However, better relationship quality was associated with higher other-ratings of Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and lower other-ratings of Neuroticism after controlling for self-ratings on the same trait. Higher similarity in self-ratings of Neuroticism and Openness was associated with higher self-other agreement for these ratings, and similarity in Conscientiousness was associated with higher relationship quality. These results are considered in light of existing theories of differential trait observability and the effects of unique contexts on trait perception. PMID:12597236

  5. Monthly and seasonal variation of mohair growth and quality traits

    E-print Network

    Portal, Enrique

    1972-01-01

    ) than those from all other areas, while the back produced the finest fibers. The data on monthly body weights and fiber diameters showed that possible seasonal effects could be responsible for decreasing ten- dencies found during some periods... of the year in both traits. Monthly fiber diameter measurements from the neck, side and britch areas followed closely the pattern exhibited by average fiber diameter for all areas at each shearing. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S The author wants to express his...

  6. Genetic and phenotypic characterisation of animal, carcass, and meat quality traits from temperate and tropically adapted beef breeds. 4. Correlations among animal, carcass, and meat quality traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Reverter; D. J. Johnston; D. M. Ferguson; D. Perry; M. E. Goddard; H. M. Burrow; V. H. Oddy; J. M. Thompson; B. M Bindon H

    2003-01-01

    Beef cattle data from temperate (TEMP, n = 3947) and tropically adapted (TROP, n = 4137) breeds were analysed to compute estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlations between animal, abattoir carcass, and meat quality measures. Live animal traits included: liveweight (S2LWT), scanned subcutaneous rump fat depth (S2P8), scanned eye muscle area (S2EMA), flight time (S1FT), and finishing average daily gain

  7. Association studies of dormancy and cooking quality traits in direct-seeded indica rice.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Sunayana; Pathak, K; Yadav, R N S; Kumar, B; Sarma, R N

    2014-04-01

    Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Assam rice (indica) using 98 SSR markers for dormancy-related traits and cooking quality. Analysis of population structure revealed 10 subgroups in the population. The mean r(2) and D' value for all intrachromosomal loci pairs was 0.24 and 0.51, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium between linked markers decreased with distance. Marker-trait associations were investigated using the unified mixed-model approach, considering both population structure (Q) and kinship (K). Genome-wide scanning, detected a total of seven significant marker-trait associations (P < 0.01), with the R(2) values ranging from 12.0 to 18.0%. The significant marker associations were for grain dormancy (RM27 on chromosome 2), ?-amylase activity (RM27 and RM234 on chromosomes 2 and 7, respectively), germination (RM27 and RM106 on chromosome 2), amylose (RM282 on chromosome 3) and grain length elongation ratio (RM142 on chromosome 4). The present study revealed the association of marker RM27 with traits like dormancy, ?-amylase activity and germination. Simple correlation analysis of these traits revealed that these traits were positively correlated with each other and this marker may be useful for simultaneous improvement of these traits. The study indicates the presence of novel QTLs for a few traits under consideration. The study reveals association of traits like dormancy, ?-amylase activity, germination, amylose content, grain length elongation ratio with SSR markers indicating the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization. PMID:24840818

  8. Effects of a natural extract of chestnut wood on digestibility, performance traits, and nitrogen balance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, A; Guo, K; Tassone, S; Gasco, L; Hernandez, E; Denti, R; Zoccarato, I

    2008-03-01

    Currently, feed ingredients containing tannin are attracting more interest as substitutes for antibiotic growth promoters in animal and poultry feeding. This study investigated the influence of a natural extract of chestnut wood (Silvafeed ENC) on broiler digestibility (experiment 1) and on the growth performance, carcass quality, and nitrogen balance of broilers (experiment 2). Results showed that the inclusion of ENC did not influence the apparent digestibility of organic matter, CP, and ether extract. Chick growth performance showed a quadratic or cubic response with increasing levels of ENC. When chicks were fed ENC from 14 to 56 d of age, the ENC had a positive effect on average daily gain in the first 2 wk of addition, whereas this effect was not evident in the last 2 wk compared with the control group. Similar trends were also shown for daily feed intake. Overall, the chicks fed 0.20% ENC had significantly better growth performance than the control group. Carcass analysis showed no gross lesions in organs and no significant differences in thigh and breast composition among groups. Noteworthy is the fact that the ENC-treated groups had less total litter nitrogen; in particular, chicks fed 0.15 and 0.20% ENC showed a significant difference in total litter nitrogen compared with the control group. No significant difference in nitrogen balance was observed. Addition of 0.20% ENC seemed to have a positive influence on chick feeding. PMID:18281579

  9. Quantifying And Predicting Wood Quality Of Loblolly And Slash Pine Under Intensive Forest Management Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III

    2006-05-04

    The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.

  10. DIRECT BREED EFFECTS ON GROWTH, CARCASS, AND MEAT QUALITY TRAITS OF SHEEP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to estimate direct breed effects on growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. Rams of nine breeds (Composite, Dorper, Dorset, Finnsheep, Katahdin, Rambouillet, Romanov, Suffolk, and Texel) were mated to Composite ewes. Data recorded on 804 progeny of 130 rams were analy...

  11. EVALUATION OF WOOL AND HAIR BREEDS FOR GROWTH, CARCASS, AND MEAT QUALITY TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A consumer-responsive goal of the sheep industry is consistent production of uniform, safe, nutritious, lean lamb that results in an enjoyable and pleasant eating experience. Important differences may exist between breeds of sheep for traits that affect consumer perceptions of lamb quality. Theref...

  12. Impact of high pressure processing on the quality traits of starter-free Queso Fresco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Queso Fresco (QF), a popular high-moisture, high-pH Hispanic cheese sold in the U.S., underwent high- pressure processing (HPP) to determine if this process, which has the potential to improve the safety of cheese, would alter its quality traits. Starter-free rennet-set QF (manufactured from pasteur...

  13. Effects of litter size and sex on meat quality traits of kid meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Todaro; A Corrao; M. L Alicata; R Schinelli; P Giaccone; A Priolo

    2004-01-01

    The influence of litter size and sex on meat quality traits was investigated using 40 Nebrodi kids slaughtered at 47 days of age. Carcass measurements (body components, carcass joints, pelvic limb tissue composition, meat fatty acid composition and M. longissimus dorsi (LD) colour), body weight at birth and at slaughter were evaluated. Nebrodi kids had a low body weight at

  14. Two Personalities, One Relationship: Both Partners' Personality Traits Shape the Quality of Their Relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Robins; Avshalom Caspi; Terrie E. Moffitt

    2000-01-01

    This research tested 6 models of the independent and interactive effects of stable personality traits on each partner's reports of relationship satisfaction and quality. Both members of 360 couples (N = 720) completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire and were interviewed about their relationship. Findings show that a woman's relationship happiness is predicted by her partner's low Negative Emotionality, high Positive

  15. Yield and Fruit Quality Traits of Mamey Sapote Cultivars Grown at two Locations in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The demand for tropical fruits has increased significantly during the last decade as consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of mamey sapote cultivars. Six mamey sapote cultivars (Copan...

  16. Association study between gene polymorphisms in PPAR signaling pathway and porcine meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    He, Kan; Wang, Qishan; Wang, Zhen; Pan, Yuchun

    2013-08-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that fatty acids biosynthesis and metabolism are regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), mostly through the PPAR signaling pathway at the transcriptomic level. We hypothesized that the genetic variants of the enzymes in the PPAR signaling pathway may be associated with the traits of porcine meat quality (PMQ). We mined 77 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PPAR signaling pathway of the pig. There were 13 TagSNPs in 13 different genes mapped within the reported pig quantitative trait loci (QTLs) regions related to PMQ based on the Pig QTL database. Based on the association study with ten measured PMQ traits in both the pathway level and the SNP level, we tested eight significantly associated traits with additive effect in the PPAR signaling pathway and explored only one significant TagSNP in gene RXRB, which is directly associated with the trait of skin weight. Moreover, several interactions of TagSNPs were also significantly related to some of PMQ traits. In this large and comprehensive candidate gene set study, we found a modest association of genes and SNPs in the PPAR signaling pathway with PMQ. Further investigation of these gene polymorphisms jointly with fatty acid measures and other genetic factors would help us better understand the regulation mechanisms of PMQ. PMID:23797830

  17. Effects of metabolic modifiers on carcass traits and meat quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Dikeman

    2007-01-01

    Much research has been conducted and published about metabolic modifiers that increase growth rate, improve feed efficiency, increase carcass leanness, and decrease carcass fatness. Most of these metabolic modifiers have been developed to improve efficiency and profitability of livestock production and to improve carcass composition, with fewer of them developed and researched specifically to improve meat quality. Some of the

  18. Polymorphisms in epigenetic and meat quality related genes in fourteen cattle breeds and association with beef quality and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP15 in CAPN1 could be used as a powerful genetic marker in selection programs for beef quality improvement in the Snow Dragon Beef population. PMID:25656186

  19. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP15 in CAPN1 could be used as a powerful genetic marker in selection programs for beef quality improvement in the Snow Dragon Beef population. PMID:25656186

  20. Improving yield and quality traits of durum wheat by introgressing chromosome segments from hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Zhang, C Y; Yan, G J; Liu, C J

    2013-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum; 2n = 4x = 28; genome AABB) has long been an important food resource for human diets. The projected increase of the world's population to 9.1 billion by 2050 has highlighted the importance and urgency for improving the yield and quality performance of durum wheat. A backcrossed population, which was derived from the durum wheat variety 'Bellaroi' (recurrent parent) and the hexaploid genotype 'CSCR6' (donor parent), was used to investigate the feasibility of improving yield- and quality-related traits of durum wheat by introgressing chromosome fragments from hexaploid wheat. The population means for grain protein content, gluten content, spike length, and spikelet number were improved compared with those of the recurrent parent 'Bellaroi'. A small proportion of the backcross population lines showed significant improvements in spike length and spikelet number compared with the recurrent parent 'Bellaroi'. Some loci with significant effects for plant height, spike length, spikelet number, and thousand-grain weight were identified. Several of these loci affected more than one trait. These results showed that the introgression of chromosome fragments from 'CSCR6' into the durum genetic background could be an effective method for improving yield and quality traits of durum wheat. In addition, the loci showing significant effects on desired traits in this study could be fine mapped using an F2 population obtained by backcrossing the lines that carry the positive allele(s) with the recurrent parent. PMID:24338405

  1. Genetic and Phenotypic Correlations between Performance Traits with Meat Quality and Carcass Characteristics in Commercial Crossbred Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Miar, Younes; Plastow, Graham; Bruce, Heather; Moore, Stephen; Manafiazar, Ghader; Kemp, Robert; Charagu, Patrick; Huisman, Abe; van Haandel, Benny; Zhang, Chunyan; McKay, Robert; Wang, Zhiquan

    2014-01-01

    Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch), covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age), random effects (additive, litter and maternal) were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n?=?9) with meat quality (n?=?25) and carcass (n?=?19) traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (±SE), ranged from 0.07±0.13 to 0.45±0.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a) selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b) selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c) selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations. PMID:25350845

  2. Water storage dynamics in the main stem of subtropical tree species differing in wood density, growth rate and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Oliva Carrasco, Laureano; Bucci, Sandra J; Di Francescantonio, Débora; Lezcano, Oscar A; Campanello, Paula I; Scholz, Fabián G; Rodríguez, Sabrina; Madanes, N; Cristiano, Piedad M; Hao, Guang-You; Holbrook, N Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2014-11-25

    Wood biophysical properties and the dynamics of water storage discharge and refilling were studied in the trunk of canopy tree species with diverse life history and functional traits in subtropical forests of northeast Argentina. Multiple techniques assessing capacitance and storage capacity were used simultaneously to improve our understanding of the functional significance of internal water sources in trunks of large trees. Sapwood capacitances of 10 tree species were characterized using pressure-volume relationships of sapwood samples obtained from the trunk. Frequency domain reflectometry was used to continuously monitor the volumetric water content in the main stems. Simultaneous sap flow measurements on branches and at the base of the tree trunk, as well as diurnal variations in trunk contraction and expansion, were used as additional measures of stem water storage use and refilling dynamics. All evidence indicates that tree trunk internal water storage contributes from 6 to 28% of the daily water budget of large trees depending on the species. The contribution of stored water in stems of trees to total daily transpiration was greater for deciduous species, which exhibited higher capacitance and lower sapwood density. A linear relationship across species was observed between wood density and growth rates with the higher wood density species (mostly evergreen) associated with lower growth rates and the lower wood density species (mostly deciduous) associated with higher growth rates. The large sapwood capacitance in deciduous species may help to avoid catastrophic embolism in xylem conduits. This may be a low-cost adaptation to avoid water deficits during peak water use at midday and under temporary drought periods and will contribute to higher growth rates in deciduous tree species compared with evergreen ones. Large capacitance appears to have a central role in the rapid growth patterns of deciduous species facilitating rapid canopy access as these species are less shade tolerant than evergreen species. PMID:25428825

  3. A “Rice Diversity Panel” Evaluated For Variation In Agro-Morphological And Grain Quality Traits Among The Genetically Defined Subpopulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A “Rice Diversity Panel” composed of 409 purified accessions originating from 79 countries was evaluated for 18 agro-morphological traits and two quality traits, amylose content and alkali spreading value (ASV) which is a measure of gelatinization temperature (gel temp). This panel was also screened...

  4. Effect of manganese supplementation and source on carcass traits, meat quality, and lipid oxidation in broilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Lu; X. G. Luo; C. Ji; B. Liu; S. X. Yu

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted using a total of 336 one-day-old, Arbor Acres commercial male broilers to investigate the effect of dietary Mn supple- mentation on carcass traits, meat quality, lipid oxida- tion, relative enzyme activities in abdominal fat and meat, and Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) mRNA level in meat. Broilers were randomly allotted by BW to 1 of 8 replicate

  5. INDUCED MUTAGENESIS FOR SEED QUALITY TRAITS IN ETHIOPIAN MUSTARD (Brassica carinata a. braun)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Sheikh; B. Lone; S. Najeeb; Asif B. Shikari; G. A. Parray; R. S. Khudwani

    Present study was undertaken to broaden the genetic base in Brassica carinata cv. PC 5 for seed quality traits through induced mutagenesis. Mutagenesis with 0.5 per cent ethyl methane sulphonate followed by selfing in M1 and screening for fatty acid composition through half seed method in M2 and M3 generations led to the identification of stable M4 progenies having desirable

  6. Effect of Growth Hormone Gene Polymorphism on Milk Quality Traits in Crossbred Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. K. Biswas; T. K. Bhattacharya; A. D. Narayan; S. Badola; Pushpendra Kumar; Satish Kumar; Arjava Sharma

    2003-01-01

    Biswas, T.K., Bhattacharya, T.K., Narayan, A.D., Badola, S., Kumar, P., Kumar, S. and Sharma, A. 2003. Effect of growth hormone gene polymorphism on milk quality traits in crossbred cattle. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 24: 145–151.The study was conducted on 1\\/2 HarianaX1\\/2 Holstein Friesian (FH cross), 1\\/2 Holstein Friesian × 1\\/4 Brown Swiss × 1\\/4 Hariana (FBH cross) and 1\\/2 Holstein

  7. Association of the Porcine ?-Lactalbumin Gene to Growth, Carcass, Meat Quality and Reproductive Traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Miller; G. T. Bleck; T. Wang; R. J. Feltes; L. B. Schook; F. K. McKeith; M. B. Wheeler; M. Ellis

    2000-01-01

    Miller, K.D., Bleck, G.T., Wang, T., Feltes, R.J., Schook, L.B., McKeith, F.K., Wheeler, M.B. and Ellis, M. 2000. Association of the porcine ?-lactalbumin gene to growth, carcass, meat quality and reproductive traits. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 17: 151–168.?-Lactalbumin is one of the two major whey proteins in porcine milk and may be a regulatory factor in milk yield. Pigs from

  8. TILLING for allergen reduction and improvement of quality traits in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph E Knoll; M Laura Ramos; Yajuan Zeng; C Corley Holbrook; Marjorie Chow; Sixue Chen; Soheila Maleki; Anjanabha Bhattacharya; Peggy Ozias-Akins

    2011-01-01

    Background  Allergic reactions to peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) can cause severe symptoms and in some cases can be fatal, but avoidance is difficult due to the prevalence of peanut-derived\\u000a products in processed foods. One strategy of reducing the allergenicity of peanuts is to alter or eliminate the allergenic\\u000a proteins through mutagenesis. Other seed quality traits could be improved by altering biosynthetic

  9. Prediction model of a joint analysis of beef growth and carcass quality traits.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, H R; Verbyla, A P; Pitchford, W S

    2011-01-01

    A joint growth-carcass analysis was conducted to develop equations for predicting carcass quality traits associated with variation in growth path of crossbred cattle. During a four-year period (1994-1997) of the Australian "Southern Crossbreeding Project", mature Hereford cows (r = 581) were mated to 97 sires of Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin, and Belgian Blue breeds, resulting in 1141 calves. Data included body weight measurements of steers and heifers from birth until slaughter and four carcass quality traits: hot standard carcass weight, rump fat depth, rib eye muscle area, and intramuscular fat content. The model provides nine outputs: median and mean of carcass quality traits, predicted means, and lower and upper confidence intervals, as well as predicted intervals of carcass quality traits (95%) and economic values for domestic market and export markets. Input to the model consists of sex, sire breeds, age (in days)-weight (kg) pairs and slaughter age (500 days for heifer and 700 days for steers). The prediction model is able to accommodate different sexes across seven sire breeds and various management groups at any slaughter age. Its strength lies in its simplicity and flexibility, desirable to accommodate producers with different management schemes. In general, fat depth and intramuscular fat were found to be more affected by differences in growth rate than hot carcass weight and eye muscle area. Also, export market value was more sensitive to growth rate modifications than domestic market value. This model provides a tool by which the producer can estimate the impact of management decisions. PMID:21425095

  10. Evaluation of the chemical quality traits of soybean seeds, as related to sensory attributes of soymilk.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming

    2015-04-15

    The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs. PMID:25466078

  11. Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations of egg quality traits in brown-egg dwarf layers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L C; Ning, Z H; Xu, G Y; Hou, Z C; Yang, N

    2005-08-01

    Albumen height, albumen weight (AW), eggshell color (ESC), eggshell index, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, eggshell weight (ESW), egg weight (EW), Haugh units, and yolk weight (YW) were measured in 2,272 eggs collected 3 d sequentially from 920 brown-egg dwarf layers caged individually. The restricted maximum likelihood procedure was applied to estimate heritabilities and genotypic and phenotypic correlations for these egg quality traits. Heritabilities of albumen height, AW, ESC, eggshell index, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, ESW, EW, Haugh units, and YW were 0.51, 0.59, 0.46, 0.40, 0.24, 0.34, 0.64, 0.63, 0.41, and 0.45, respectively. The genetic correlations between EW and AW, YW, and ESW were high ranging from 0.67 to 0.97, whereas those for ESC with external and internal egg quality traits were low ranging from -0.23 to 0.13. Thus although heritabilities for these traits were moderate to high, genetic correlations with ESC were low, suggesting a minor relationship between shell color and physical attributes of the shell as well as internal egg quality in brown-egg dwarf layers. PMID:16156204

  12. Litter quality and decomposability of species from a Mediterranean succession depend on leaf traits but not on nitrogen supply

    PubMed Central

    Kazakou, Elena; Violle, Cyrille; Roumet, Catherine; Pintor, Cristina; Gimenez, Olivier; Garnier, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The rate of plant decomposition depends on both the decomposition environment and the functional traits of the individual species (e.g. leaf and litter quality), but their relative importance in determining interspecific differences in litter decomposition remains unclear. The aims of this study were to: (a) determine if species from different successional stages grown on soils with low and high nitrogen levels produce leaf and litter traits that decompose differently under identical conditions; and (b) assess which trait of living leaves best relates to litter quality and litter decomposability Methods The study was conducted on 17 herbaceous species representative of three stages of a Mediterranean successional sere of Southern France. Plants were grown in monocultures in a common garden under two nitrogen levels. To elucidate how different leaf traits affected litter decomposition a microcosm experiment was conducted to determine decomposability under standard conditions. Tests were also carried out to determine how successional stage and nitrogen supply affected functional traits of living leaves and how these traits then modified litter quality and subsequent litter decomposability. Key Results The results demonstrated that leaf traits and litter decomposability varied according to species and successional stage. It was also demonstrated that while nitrogen addition affected leaf and litter traits, it had no effect on decomposition rates. Finally, leaf dry matter content stood out as the leaf trait best related to litter quality and litter decomposability Conclusions In this study, species litter decomposability was affected by some leaf and litter traits but not by soil nitrogen supply. The results demonstrated the strength of a trait-based approach to predict changes in ecosystem processes as a result of species shifts in ecosystems. PMID:19710073

  13. Four genes located on a SSC2 meat quality QTL region are associated with different meat quality traits in Landrace x Chinese-European crossbred population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for different meat quality traits have been localized on the q arm of porcine chromosome 2 at position 55–78 cM. Association analyses were performed in a commercial Landrace x Chinese-European (LCE) crossbred population (n = 446) slaughtered at approximately 127...

  14. Seed source, seed traits, and frugivore habits: Implications for dispersal quality of two sympatric primates.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; González-Di Pierro, Ana Ma; Lombera, Rafael; Guillén, Susana; Estrada, Alejandro

    2014-06-11

    • Premise of the study: Frugivore selection of fruits and treatment of seeds together with seed deposition site are crucial for the population dynamics of vertebrate-dispersed plants. However, frugivore species may influence dispersal quality differently even when feeding on the same fruit species and, while animals disperse some seeds, others simply fall beneath the parent plant.• Methods: In southern Mexico, we investigated to see if within-species seed traits (i.e., length, width, weight, and volume) and germination success differed according to seed source. For five tropical tree species we obtained ingested seeds from two sources, howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces; and noningested seeds from two sources, the ground and tree crowns (with predispersed seeds used as control).• Key results: A principal components' analysis showed that traits of seeds ingested by howler monkeys differed from other sources while seeds ingested by spider monkeys were similar to noningested seeds. Howlers consumed on average the larger seeds in Ampelocera hottlei, Brosimum lactescens, and Dialium guianense. Both primate species consumed the smaller seeds in Spondias mombin, while no seed trait differences among seed sources were found in Spondias radlkoferi. For all five tree species, germination rate was greatest for seeds ingested by howler monkeys.• Conclusions: For the studied plant species, seed ingestion by howler monkeys confers higher dispersal quality than ingestion by spider monkeys or nondispersal. Dispersal services of both primate species, however, are not redundant and may contribute to germination heterogeneity within plant populations in tropical forests. PMID:24920763

  15. Phenotypic Data Collection and Sample Preparation for Genomics of Wood Formation and Cellulosic Biomass Traits in Sunflower: Ames, IA location.

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, Laura F.

    2011-06-17

    Three fields were planted in Ames in 2010, two association mapping fields, N3 and A, and a recombinant inbred line field, N13. Phenotype data and images were transferred to UGA to support genetic and genomic analyses of woody biomass-related traits.

  16. Psychopathic personality traits and their influence on parenting quality: results from a nationally representative sample of Americans.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; da Silva Costa, Christian; Poersch, Ana Paula; Freddi, Micheli Cristina; Stelmach, Mônica Celis; Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A

    2014-12-01

    Psychopathic personality traits have consistently been found to predict a range of negative and dysfunctional outcomes. As a result, it is somewhat surprising that the research to date has failed to empirically examine the potential association between psychopathic personality traits and parenting quality. The current study addressed this omission in the literature by analyzing a community sample of adults. The results revealed that respondents scoring higher on psychopathic personality traits tended to report more negative parenting quality. These results were detected for both males and females and remained significant even after controlling for the effects of parental transmission and child-effects. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a statistically significant association between psychopathic personality traits and parenting quality. We conclude with a discussion of what these findings mean for psychopathy research and the parenting the literature. PMID:25092358

  17. A whole genome scanning for quantitative trait loci on traits related to sperm quality and ejaculation in pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuyun Xing; Jun Ren; Dongren Ren; Yuanmei Guo; Yanbo Wu; Guangcheng Yang; Huirong Mao; Bertram Brenig; Lusheng Huang

    2009-01-01

    To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for traits related to semen and ejaculation, phenotype data including semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm per ejaculate, sperm motility, sperm abnormality rate, semen pH value, ejaculation times and ejaculation duration were measured on 206 F2 boar at 240 days in a White Duroc×Erhualian intercross. A genome-wide scan was performed and the entire White

  18. Neck blast disease influences grain yield and quality traits of aromatic rice.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Bhuiyan, Md Rejwan; Hossain, Md Shahadat; Sen, Partha Pratim; Ara, Anjuman; Siddique, Md Abubakar; Ali, Md Ansar

    2014-11-01

    A critical investigation was conducted to find out the effect of neck blast disease on yield-contributing characters, and seed quality traits of aromatic rice in Bangladesh. Both healthy and neck-blast-infected panicles of three aromatic rice cultivars (high-yielding and local) were collected and investigated at Plant Pathology Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Gazipur, Bangladesh. All of the tested varieties were highly susceptible to neck blast disease under natural conditions, though no leaf blast symptoms appear on leaves. Neck blast disease increased grain sterility percentages, reduced grain size, yield and quality traits of seeds. The degrees of yield and seed quality reduction depended on disease severity and variety's genetic make-up. Unfilled grains were the main source of seed-borne pathogen, especially for blast in the seed lot. Transmission of blast pathogen from neck (panicle base) to seed was very poor. These findings are important, especially concerning the seed certification programme in which seed lots are certified on the basis of field inspection. Finally, controlled experiments are needed to draw more critical conclusions. PMID:25444707

  19. Inheritance of long staple fiber quality traits of Gossypium barbadense in G. hirsutum background using CSILs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhu, Yajuan; Song, Xianliang; Cao, Zhibin; Ding, Yezhang; Liu, Bingliang; Zhu, Xiefei; Wang, Sen; Guo, Wangzhen; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2012-05-01

    Gossypium hirsutum is a high yield cotton species that exhibits only moderate performance in fiber qualities. A promising but challenging approach to improving its phenotypes is interspecific introgression, the transfer of valuable traits or genes from the germplasm of another species such as G. barbadense, an important cultivated extra long staple cotton species. One set of chromosome segment introgression lines (CSILs) was developed, where TM-1, the genetic standard in G. hirsutum, was used as the recipient parent and the long staple cotton G. barbadense Hai7124 was used as the donor parent by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) in BC(5)S(1–4) and BC(4)S(1–3) generations. After four rounds of MAS, the CSIL population was comprised of 174 lines containing 298 introgressed segments, of which 86 (49.4%) lines had single introgressed segments. The total introgressed segment length covered 2,948.7 cM with an average length of 16.7 cM and represented 83.3% of tetraploid cotton genome. The CSILs were highly varied in major fiber qualities. By integrated analysis of data collected in four environments, a total of 43 additive quantitative trait loci (QTL) and six epistatic QTL associated with fiber qualities were detected by QTL IciMapping 3.0 and multi-QTL joint analysis. Six stable QTL were detected in various environments. The CSILs developed and the analyses presented here will enhance the understanding of the genetics of fiber qualities in long staple G. barbadense and facilitate further molecular breeding to improve fiber quality in Upland cotton. PMID:22297564

  20. Physically Challenging Song Traits, Male Quality, and Reproductive Success in House Wrens

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Emily R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Physically challenging signals are likely to honestly indicate signaler quality. In trilled bird song two physically challenging parameters are vocal deviation (the speed of sound frequency modulation) and trill consistency (how precisely syllables are repeated). As predicted, in several species, they correlate with male quality, are preferred by females, and/or function in male-male signaling. Species may experience different selective pressures on their songs, however; for instance, there may be opposing selection between song complexity and song performance difficulty, such that in species where song complexity is strongly selected, there may not be strong selection on performance-based traits. I tested whether vocal deviation and trill consistency are signals of male quality in house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), a species with complex song structure. Males’ singing ability did not correlate with male quality, except that older males sang with higher trill consistency, and males with more consistent trills responded more aggressively to playback (although a previous study found no effect of stimulus trill consistency on males’ responses to playback). Males singing more challenging songs did not gain in polygyny, extra-pair paternity, or annual reproductive success. Moreover, none of the standard male quality measures I investigated correlated with mating or reproductive success. I conclude that vocal deviation and trill consistency do not signal male quality in this species. PMID:23527137

  1. Physically challenging song traits, male quality, and reproductive success in house wrens.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Emily R A

    2013-01-01

    Physically challenging signals are likely to honestly indicate signaler quality. In trilled bird song two physically challenging parameters are vocal deviation (the speed of sound frequency modulation) and trill consistency (how precisely syllables are repeated). As predicted, in several species, they correlate with male quality, are preferred by females, and/or function in male-male signaling. Species may experience different selective pressures on their songs, however; for instance, there may be opposing selection between song complexity and song performance difficulty, such that in species where song complexity is strongly selected, there may not be strong selection on performance-based traits. I tested whether vocal deviation and trill consistency are signals of male quality in house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), a species with complex song structure. Males' singing ability did not correlate with male quality, except that older males sang with higher trill consistency, and males with more consistent trills responded more aggressively to playback (although a previous study found no effect of stimulus trill consistency on males' responses to playback). Males singing more challenging songs did not gain in polygyny, extra-pair paternity, or annual reproductive success. Moreover, none of the standard male quality measures I investigated correlated with mating or reproductive success. I conclude that vocal deviation and trill consistency do not signal male quality in this species. PMID:23527137

  2. Microsatellite mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting meat quality, stress hormones and production traits in Duroc × Large White F2 pigs.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, M P; Iannuccelli, N; Basso, B; Foury, A; Billon, Y; Gandemer, G; Gilbert, H; Mormède, P; Bidanel, J P; Larzul, C; Riquet, J; Milan, D; Le Roy, P

    2011-02-01

    An F2 cross between Duroc and Large White pigs was carried out in order to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 11 meat quality traits (L*, a* and b* Minolta coordinates and water-holding capacity (WHC) of two ham muscles, ultimate pH of two ham and one loin muscles), 13 production traits (birth weight, average daily gain during post-weaning and fattening periods, carcass fat depths at three locations, estimated lean meat content, carcass length and weights of five carcass cuts) and three stress hormone-level traits (cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline). Animals from the three generations of the experimental design (including 456 F2 pigs) were genotyped for 91 microsatellite markers covering all the autosomes. A total of 56 QTL were detected: 49 reached the chromosome-wide level (suggestive QTL with a maximal probability of 0.05) and seven were significant at the genome-wide level (with a probability varying from 6 × 10(-4) to 3 × 10(-3)). Twenty suggestive QTL were identified for ultimate pH, colour measurements and WHC on chromosome (SSC) 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15 and 17. For production traits, 33 QTL were detected on all autosomes except SSC6, 8 and 9. Seven of these QTL, located on SSC2, 3, 10, 13, 16 and 17, exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold. Finally, three QTL were identified for levels of stress hormones: a QTL for cortisol level on SSC7 in the cortisol-binding globulin gene region, a QTL for adrenaline level on SSC10 and a QTL for noradrenaline level on SSC13. Among all the detected QTL, seven are described for the first time: a QTL for ultimate pH measurement on SSC5, two QTL affecting birth weight on SSC2 and 10, two QTL for growth rate on SSC15 (during fattening) and 17 (during post-weaning) and two QTL affecting the adrenaline and noradrenaline levels. For each QTL, only one to five of the six F1 sires were found to be heterozygous. It means that all QTL are segregating in at least one of the founder populations used in this study. These results suggest that both meat quality and production traits can be improved in purebred Duroc and Large White pigs through marker-assisted selection. It is of particular interest for meat quality traits, which are difficult to include in classical selection programmes. PMID:22440760

  3. The effect of retail packaging method on objective and consumer assessment of beef quality traits.

    PubMed

    Geesink, Geert; Robertson, Joanna; Ball, Alex

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of 7days of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP: 80% O2, 20% CO2) or skin packaging (no oxygen) of beef M. longissimus steaks after 1 or 7days of ageing in vacuum on objective and sensory meat quality traits and degradation of desmin. Shear force was negatively affected by MAP after both 1 and 7days of ageing in vacuum (P<0.005). Sensory evaluation of grilled steaks revealed significantly negative effects of MAP on sensory traits, resulting in an overall decrease of 8 points in the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) eating quality score (MQ4). Desmin degradation was not affected by packaging method, suggesting that the toughening effect of high-oxygen MAP is not due to inhibition of postmortem proteolysis. The results of this study and others suggest that packaging method should be incorporated as a variable in the MSA grading system. Further research to quantify the impact of oxidative cross-linking of proteins on tenderness appears warranted. PMID:25732179

  4. Mapping of Genomic Regions (Quantitative Trait Loci) Controlling Production and Quality in Industrial Cultures of the Edible Basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Larraya, Luis M.; Alfonso, Mikel; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    2003-01-01

    Industrial production of the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) is based on a solid fermentation process in which a limited number of selected strains are used. Optimization of industrial mushroom production depends on improving the culture process and breeding new strains with higher yields and productivities. Traditionally, fungal breeding has been carried out by an empirical trial and error process. In this study, we used a different approach by mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling culture production and quality within the framework of the genetic linkage map of P. ostreatus. Ten production traits and four quality traits were studied and mapped. The production QTLs identified explain nearly one-half of the production variation. More interestingly, a single QTL mapping to the highly polymorphic chromosome VII appears to be involved in control of all the productivity traits studied. Quality QTLs appear to be scattered across the genome and to have less effect on the variation of the corresponding traits. Moreover, some of the new hybrid strains constructed in the course of our experiments had production or quality values higher than those of the parents or other commercial strains. This approach opens the possibility of marker-assisted selection and breeding of new industrial strains of this fungus. PMID:12788770

  5. Mapping of QTLs for morpho-agronomic and seed quality traits in a RIL population of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Pérez-Vega; Astrid Pañeda; Cristina Rodríguez-Suárez; Ana Campa; Ramón Giraldez; Juan José Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling phenological traits (days to\\u000a flowering, days to end of flowering, days to harvest as green pod, and days to maturity), seed size traits (seed length, seed\\u000a height, seed width, and seed weight), and seed quality traits (water absorption, and coat proportion), in common bean. A population

  6. Exercise addiction: a study of eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachment styles.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask; Bilenberg, Niels; Støving, René Klinky

    2014-02-28

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels of excitement-seeking and achievement striving whereas scores on straightforwardness and compliance were lower than in the exercise control group. The addiction group reported more bodily pain and injuries. This study supports the hypothesis that exercise addiction is separate to an eating disorder, but shares some of the concerns of body and performance. It is driven by a striving for high goals and excitement which results in pain and injuries from overuse. PMID:24342179

  7. Joint effects of porcine leptin and leptin receptor polymorphisms on productivity and quality traits.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Montarelo, D; Fernández, A; Folch, J M; Pena, R N; Ovilo, C; Rodríguez, C; Silió, L; Fernández, A I

    2012-12-01

    Leptin signalling plays a fundamental role in growth, fatness and body composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the porcine LEP gene sequence in an Iberian × Landrace experimental cross to identify polymorphisms associated with productivity and quality traits. Because of the documented effects on these traits of the LEPR c.1987C>T polymorphism, the LEP and LEPR c.1987C>T polymorphisms and their interactions have been jointly investigated. The LEP gene sequencing has allowed the identification of 39 polymorphisms, eight of which are novel. Three intronic SNPs, LEP g.1382C>T, LEP g.1387C>T and LEP g.1723A>G, have been genotyped, and association analyses have been carried out. Analyses of LEP g.1387C>T, fully linked to LEP g.1382C>T, have revealed additive effects on live and carcass weights and dominant effects on several backfat thickness measurements. Novel effects of both LEP and LEPR polymorphisms on fatty acid composition in subcutaneous fat have been detected, probably mediated through the effects on fatness. The results reported here suggest that the T alleles of both LEP g.1387C>T and LEPR c.1987C>T, which are fixed in the Iberian pigs, would lead to an increase in growth, fatness and saturated fatty acid content in fat, which could be explained by an increased feed intake. PMID:22497241

  8. The identification of 14 new genes for meat quality traits in chicken using a genome-wide association study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meat quality is an important economic trait in chickens. To identify loci and genes associated with meat quality traits, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of F2 populations derived from a local Chinese breed (Beijing-You chickens) and a commercial fast-growing broiler line (Cobb-Vantress). Results In the present study, 33 association signals were detected from the compressed mixed linear model (MLM) for 10 meat quality traits: dry matter in breast muscle (DMBr), dry matter in thigh muscle (DMTh), intramuscular fat content in breast muscle (IMFBr), meat color lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values, skin color L*, a* (redness) and b* values, abdominal fat weight (AbFW) and AbFW as a percentage of eviscerated weight (AbFP). Relative expressions of candidate genes identified near significant signals were compared using samples of chickens with High and Low phenotypic values. A total of 14 genes associated with IMFBr, meat color L*, AbFW, and AbFP, were differentially expressed between the High and Low phenotypic groups. These genes are, therefore, prospective candidate genes for meat quality traits: protein tyrosine kinase (TYRO3) and microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST1) for IMFBr; collagen, type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2) for meat color L*; and RET proto-oncogene (RET), natriuretic peptide B (NPPB) and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) for the abdominal fat (AbF) traits. Conclusions Based on the association signals and differential expression of nearby genes, 14 candidate loci and genes for IMFBr, meat L* and b* values, and AbF are identified. The results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying meat quality traits in chickens. PMID:23834466

  9. Genetic randomization reveals functional relationships among morphologic and tissue-quality traits that contribute to bone strength and fragility.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Karl J; Hu, Bin; Tommasini, Steven M; Courtland, Hayden-William; Price, Christopher; Terranova, Carl J; Nadeau, Joseph H

    2007-07-01

    We examined femora from adult AXB/BXA recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains to identify skeletal traits that are functionally related and to determine how functional interactions among these traits contribute to genetic variability in whole-bone stiffness, strength, and toughness. Randomization of A/J and C57BL/6J genomic regions resulted in each adult male and female RI strain building mechanically functional femora by assembling unique sets of morphologic and tissue-quality traits. A correlation analysis was conducted using the mean trait values for each RI strain. A third of the 66 correlations examined were significant, indicating that many bone traits covaried or were functionally related. Path analysis revealed important functional interactions among bone slenderness, cortical thickness, and tissue mineral density. The path coefficients describing these functional relations were similar for both sexes. The causal relationship among these three traits suggested that cellular processes during growth simultaneously regulate bone slenderness, cortical thickness, and tissue mineral density so that the combination of traits is sufficiently stiff and strong to satisfy daily loading demands. A disadvantage of these functional interactions was that increases in tissue mineral density also deleteriously affected tissue ductility. Consequently, slender bones with high mineral density may be stiff and strong but they are also brittle. Thus, genetically randomized mouse strains revealed a basic biological paradigm that allows for flexibility in building bones that are functional for daily activities but that creates preferred sets of traits under extreme loading conditions. Genetic or environmental perturbations that alter these functional interactions during growth would be expected to lead to loss of function and suboptimal adult bone quality. PMID:17557179

  10. RNA-Seq using two populations reveals genes and alleles controlling wood traits and growth in Eucalyptus nitens.

    PubMed

    Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; Southerton, Simon; Thumma, Bala

    2014-01-01

    Eucalyptus nitens is a perennial forest tree species grown mainly for kraft pulp production in many parts of the world. Kraft pulp yield (KPY) is a key determinant of plantation profitability and increasing the KPY of trees grown in plantations is a major breeding objective. To speed up the breeding process, molecular markers that can predict KPY are desirable. To achieve this goal, we carried out RNA-Seq studies on trees at extremes of KPY in two different trials to identify genes and alleles whose expression correlated with KPY. KPY is positively correlated with growth measured as diameter at breast height (DBH) in both trials. In total, six RNA bulks from two treatments were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq platform. At 5% false discovery rate level, 3953 transcripts showed differential expression in the same direction in both trials; 2551 (65%) were down-regulated and 1402 (35%) were up-regulated in low KPY samples. The genes up-regulated in low KPY trees were largely involved in biotic and abiotic stress response reflecting the low growth among low KPY trees. Genes down-regulated in low KPY trees mainly belonged to gene categories involved in wood formation and growth. Differential allelic expression was observed in 2103 SNPs (in 1068 genes) and of these 640 SNPs (30%) occurred in 313 unique genes that were also differentially expressed. These SNPs may represent the cis-acting regulatory variants that influence total gene expression. In addition we also identified 196 genes which had Ka/Ks ratios greater than 1.5, suggesting that these genes are under positive selection. Candidate genes and alleles identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for future association studies aimed at identifying molecular markers for KPY and growth. PMID:24967893

  11. Relationship between sperm quality traits and field-fertility of porcine semen.

    PubMed

    Tsakmakidis, I A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Khalifa, T A

    2010-06-01

    An investigation involving seven boars, active in artificial insemination, and 1,350 multiparous sows was conducted at a private farm and aimed at examining the relationship between sperm quality traits and boar fertility in terms of farrowing rate and litter size. This experiment was done for 6 months. The semen samples were evaluated for subjective sperm motility and concentration. Ejaculates with at least 1 x 10(8) sperm/mL and 70% sperm progressive motility were extended with a commercial medium to 30 x 10(6) sperm/mL and used for artificial insemination (AI). AI dose was 100 mL semen containing 3 x 10(9) spermatozoa. Aliquots of diluted semen were assessed for live morphologically normal spermatozoa (LMNS, eosin-nigrosin stain exclusion assay) and sperm chromatin instability (SCI, acridine orange assay). Farrowing rates according to different boar sperm varied (p < 0.001) from 59.3 to 88.92%. The mean values of LMNS (47.2 to approximately 76.5%) and SCI (0.16 to approximately 4.67%) differed significantly among boars. LMNS (r = 0.79, p < 0.05) and SCI (r = -0.90, p < 0.02) accounted for 62.2 and 81.7% of the variability in farrowing rates, respectively. After the combination of sperm traits, the relationship between percentage of LMNS with stable chromatin structure and farrowing rate was significant (r = 0.86, p < 0.05). The number of live piglets per parturition was not significantly correlated with sperm quality attributes. In conclusion, boar fertility after AI with freshly diluted semen can be predicted based on the evaluation of sperm morphology and chromatin integrity. PMID:20458156

  12. Genetic polymorphism of the CAPN1 gene is associated with meat quality traits in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Z; Zerehdaran, S; Azari, M A; Shargh, M S

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the polymorphisms in two regions of the calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene and their association with breast and thigh meat quality in Japanese quail (ultimate pH (pHu), lightness, redness, yellowness, drip loss, thawing-cooking loss, water holding capacity and shear force, SF). 2. Blood samples were collected randomly from 100 birds and DNA was extracted using a commercial kit. Genotypes were determined by PCR amplification followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The effect of CAPN1 genotypes on meat quality traits were analysed using a general linear model (GLM) procedure. 3. Genotypes of the CAPN1 gene in the first region (217-bp) analysed were significantly associated with yellowness and SF. The TT genotype showed significantly higher yellowness and lower shear force (more tenderness) than CT and CC genotypes. Genotypes of the second region of the gene (intron 4, 800-bp) were significantly associated with pHu, redness and SF of the breast meat. The BB genotype showed significantly lower pHu and redness and higher SF (lower tenderness) than other genotypes. 4. Information on polymorphisms of the CAPN1 gene will eventually provide useful information for improving meat quality of Japanese quail through marker-assisted selection. PMID:23647179

  13. Slaughtering Age Effect on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Italian Heavy Draught Horse Foals

    PubMed Central

    De Palo, P.; Maggiolino, A.; Centoducati, P.; Tateo, A.

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the effect of slaughtering age on horse carcass traits and on meat quality. Eighteen male Italian heavy draught horse (IHDH) breed foals were employed in the study. Soon after foaling they were randomly subdivided in 3 groups according to 3 age at slaughtering classes: 6 months old, 11 months old and 18 months old. Live weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of each animal were recorded. After slaughtering, meat samples were collected from Longissimus Dorsi muscle between 13th and 18th thoracic vertebra of each animal and then analyzed. The right half carcass of each animal was then divided in cuts. Each one was subdivided into lean, fat and bones. Then, the classification of the lean meat in first and second quality cuts was performed according to the butchers’ customs. Older animals were characterized by a lower incidence of first quality cuts (p<0.01) on carcass. Younger animals showed greater content in protein (p<0.01). Fatty acid profile showed an increasing trend of PUFA connected to the increasing of slaughtering age (p<0.05). The unsaturation index of intramuscular fatty acids was not affected by slaughtering age, confirming that horse meat, if compared to beef, is more suitable from a nutritional point of view. Season influenced reproduction, birth as well as production aspects of this species. The different slaughtering age could represent the way to produce meat of IHDH foals during the entire year without change in the qualitative standard expected by consumers. PMID:25049752

  14. TOTAL SCORE AS A GENETIC INDEX OF MEAT QUALITY TRAITS IN CHIANINA BEEF CATTLE IL TOTAL SCORE QUALE INDICE GENETICO DELLA QUALITÀ DELLA CARNE DELLA RAZZA CHIANINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valeria Casavola

    SUMMARY The aim of this research was to study a Total Score Index, capable to resume the meat quality traits, and useful for improvement programs. The quality of meat from the Longissimus dorsi muscle, of 82 Chianina bulls, was analysed. The animals, reared in two Tuscan farms with different feeding-programs, were slaughtered at about 19 months of age. Colour traits,

  15. Genome-wide association analysis of meat quality traits in a porcine Large White × Minzhu intercross population.

    PubMed

    Luo, Weizhen; Cheng, Duxue; Chen, Shaokang; Wang, Ligang; Li, Yong; Ma, Xiaojun; Song, Xin; Liu, Xin; Li, Wen; Liang, Jing; Yan, Hua; Zhao, Kebin; Wang, Chuduan; Wang, Lixian; Zhang, Longchao

    2012-01-01

    Pork quality is an economically important trait and one of the main selection criteria for breeding in the swine industry. In this genome-wide association study (GWAS), 455 pigs from a porcine Large White × Minzhu intercross population were genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60K Beadchip, and phenotyped for intramuscular fat content (IMF), marbling, moisture, color L*, color a*, color b* and color score in the longissimus muscle (LM). Association tests between each trait and the SNPs were performed via the Genome Wide Rapid Association using the Mixed Model and Regression-Genomic Control (GRAMMAR-GC) approach. From the Ensembl porcine database, SNP annotation was implemented using Sus scrofa Build 9. A total of 45 SNPs showed significant association with one or multiple meat quality traits. Of the 45 SNPs, 36 were located on SSC12. These significantly associated SNPs aligned to or were in close approximation to previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) and some were located within introns of previously reported candidate genes. Two haplotype blocks ASGA0100525-ASGA0055225-ALGA0067099-MARC0004712-DIAS0000861, and ASGA0085522-H3GA0056170 were detected in the significant region. The first block contained the genes MYH1, MYH2 and MYH4. A SNP (ASGA0094812) within an intron of the USP43 gene was significantly associated with five meat quality traits. The present results effectively narrowed down the associated regions compared to previous QTL studies and revealed haplotypes and candidate genes on SSC12 for meat quality traits in pigs. PMID:22532790

  16. New polymorphisms in the novel LYRM1 gene are associated with body measurement and meat quality traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Y K; Huangpu, Y F; Gao, J B; Yang, N; Fu, C Z; Wang, H B; Cheng, G; Zan, L S

    2014-01-01

    Body measurement and meat quality traits play important roles in the evaluation of productivity in cattle; they are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies have shown that LYRM1 is a novel gene related to obesity and may influence fat deposition. We screened for new polymorphisms in the bovine LYRM1 gene and analyzed their association with body measurement and meat quality traits in cattle. DNA samples were obtained from 572 Qinchuan cattle aged from 18 to 24 months. DNA sequencing was used to find the LYRM1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Sequence analysis of LYRM1 revealed four novel SNPs in exon 3: G50A in coding region, C126A, A127T, and T128A in a 3'-untranslated region. G50A, A127T and T128A showed two genotypes: AG and GG, AA and AT, AT and TT, respectively; while C126A showed three genotypes: AA, AC and CC. Analysis showed that these four polymorphisms were significantly associated with body measurement and meat quality traits in the Qinchuan cattle population. We suggest that the LYRM1 gene can be used for marker-assisted selection to improve body measurement and meat quality traits in the Qinchuan cattle population. PMID:24682980

  17. Effects of selection for high milk yield and growth on carcass and meat quality traits in dual purpose cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laila Aass; Odd Vangen

    1997-01-01

    To study the correlated responses of selection for high milk yield on beef production characteristics, growth rate, roughage intake, carcass and meat quality traits were measured on 78 (n = 22 sires) Norwegian (NRF) dual purpose cattle bulls from genetic lines for high (HL) and low (CL, control) milk production level. The genetic lines were established by use of progeny-tested

  18. Identification of putative candidate genes for juvenile wood density in Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinguo; Wu, Harry X; Southerton, Simon G

    2012-08-01

    Wood formation is a complex developmental process driven by the annual activity of the vascular cambium. Conifers usually produce juvenile wood at young ages followed by mature wood for the rest of their lifetime. Juvenile wood exhibits poorer wood quality (i.e., lower density) compared with mature wood and can account for up to 50% of short-rotation harvested logs, thus representing a major challenge for commercial forestry globally. Wood density is an important quality trait for many timber-related products. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of juvenile wood density is critical for the improvement of juvenile wood quality via marker-aided selection. A previous study has identified several candidate genes affecting mature wood density in Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.; however, genes associated with juvenile wood density in conifers remain poorly characterized. Here, cDNA microarrays containing 3320 xylem unigenes were used to investigate genes differentially transcribed in juvenile wood with high (HD) and low density (LD) in Pinus radiata D.Don. In total, 814 xylem unigenes with differential transcription were identified in at least one of two microarray experiments and 73 genes (45 for HD, 28 for LD) were identified in both experiments, thus representing putative candidate genes for juvenile wood density. Interestingly, cellulose synthases (PrCesA3, PrCesA11) and sucrose synthase (SuSy), which are involved in secondary cell wall formation, had stronger transcription in juvenile wood with HD, while genes functioning in primary wall formation (pectin synthesis, cell expansion and other modifications) were more transcribed in LD wood. Cell wall genes encoding monolignol biosynthesis enzymes, arabinogalactan proteins, actins and tubulins were differentially transcribed in either HD or LD juvenile wood; however, the latter had exclusively greater transcription of genes involved in monolignol polymerization (laccase and peroxidase). The identified candidate genes also included many non-cell-wall genes (transcription factors, environmental-responsive genes, hormone signalling, etc.) and genes with unknown functions, suggesting complex gene pathways in the regulation of juvenile wood density. Interestingly, 19 out of 73 candidate genes for wood density were among the 108 candidate genes previously identified for microfibril angle, and 16 genes appeared to influence both traits in a synergistic manner for wood stiffness. PMID:22826379

  19. Impacts of air cleaners on indoor air quality in residences impacted by wood smoke.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Amanda J; Gibson, Mark D; MacNeill, Morgan; Ward, Tony J; Wallace, Lance A; Kuchta, James; Seaboyer, Matt; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Guernsey, Judith Read; Stieb, David M

    2014-10-21

    Residential wood combustion is an important source of ambient air pollution, accounting for over 25% of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Canada. In addition to these ambient contributions, wood smoke pollutants can enter the indoor environment directly when loading or stoking stoves, resulting in a high potential for human exposure. A study of the effectiveness of air cleaners at reducing wood smoke-associated PM2.5 of indoor and outdoor origin was conducted in 31 homes during winter 2009-10. Day 1, the residents' wood burning appliance operated as usual with no air cleaner. Days 2 and 3, the wood burning appliance was not operational and the air cleaner was randomly chosen to operate in "filtration" or "placebo filtration" mode. When the air cleaner was operating, total indoor PM2.5 levels were significantly lower than on placebo filtration days (p = 0.0001) resulting in a median reduction of 52%. There was also a reduction in the median PM2.5 infiltration factor from 0.56 to 0.26 between these 2 days, suggesting the air cleaner was responsible for increased PM2.5 deposition on filtration days. Our findings suggest that the use of an air cleaner reduces exposure to indoor PM2.5 resulting from both indoor and ambient wood smoke sources. PMID:25247985

  20. Phytochrome RNAi enhances major fibre quality and agronomic traits of the cotton Gossypium hirsutum L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y.; Buriev, Zabardast T.; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Johnie N.; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E.

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous improvement of fibre quality, early-flowering, early-maturity and productivity in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) is a challenging task for conventional breeding. The influence of red/far-red light ratio on the fibre length prompted us to examine the phenotypic effects of RNA interference (RNAi) of the cotton PHYA1 gene. Here we show a suppression of up to ~70% for the PHYA1 transcript, and compensatory overexpression of up to ~20-fold in the remaining phytochromes in somatically regenerated PHYA1 RNAi cotton plants. Two independent transformants of three generations exhibited vigorous root and vegetative growth, early-flowering, significantly improved upper half mean fibre length and an improvement in other major fibre characteristics. Small decreases in lint traits were observed but seed cotton yield was increased an average 10-17% compared with controls. RNAi-associated phenotypes were heritable and transferable via sexual hybridization. These results should aid in the development of early-maturing and productive Upland cultivars with superior fibre quality.

  1. Effect of nutritive level on carcass traits and meat quality of IHDH foals

    PubMed Central

    De Palo, Pasquale; Tateo, Alessandra; Maggiolino, Aristide; Centoducati, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    The present work describes the effect of nutritive level on horse carcass traits and on meat quality. Eighteen male Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH) breed foals were employed in the study. Soon after foaling they were randomly subdivided into three groups according to three nutritive level classes: 150%, 180% and 200% of maintenance requirements. Live weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of each animal were recorded. After slaughtering, meat samples were collected from Longissimus dorsi muscle. The right half carcass of each animal was then divided into cuts. Each one was subdivided into lean, fat and bones. Live weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage were not affected by nutritive level (P > 0.05). Horses fed with the lower nutritive level showed a higher incidence of lean and a lower incidence of fat (P < 0.01). Moreover, fatty acid profile was not affected by nutritive level (P > 0.05). Probably the tendency of IHDH foals to concentrate adipogenesis in the subcutaneous district could explain the lack of influence of nutritive level on meat quality parameters and its influence on carcass and cut composition, which tend to be richer in fat. PMID:24961285

  2. Phytochrome RNAi enhances major fibre quality and agronomic traits of the cotton Gossypium hirsutum L.

    PubMed

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Buriev, Zabardast T; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Johnie N; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous improvement of fibre quality, early-flowering, early-maturity and productivity in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) is a challenging task for conventional breeding. The influence of red/far-red light ratio on the fibre length prompted us to examine the phenotypic effects of RNA interference (RNAi) of the cotton PHYA1 gene. Here we show a suppression of up to ~70% for the PHYA1 transcript, and compensatory overexpression of up to ~20-fold in the remaining phytochromes in somatically regenerated PHYA1 RNAi cotton plants. Two independent transformants of three generations exhibited vigorous root and vegetative growth, early-flowering, significantly improved upper half mean fibre length and an improvement in other major fibre characteristics. Small decreases in lint traits were observed but seed cotton yield was increased an average 10-17% compared with controls. RNAi-associated phenotypes were heritable and transferable via sexual hybridization. These results should aid in the development of early-maturing and productive Upland cultivars with superior fibre quality. PMID:24430163

  3. Genotype X environment interactions over seven years for yield yield components fiber quality and gossypol traits in the regional high quality tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the 1960s, many changes in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar tests have been made. This study partitions the total variation for 26 traits into environments (E), genotype (G) and GE variance components for the 2001 through 2007 Regional High Quality (RHQ) tests with 98 genotypes. It e...

  4. Wood stains

    MedlinePLUS

    Wood stains are products used for wood finishing. Wood stain poisoning occurs when someone swallows these substances. This is ... Various wood stains Note: This list does not include all sources of wood stain.

  5. Association of N-terminal domain polymorphisms of the porcine glucocorticoid receptor with carcass composition and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Reyer, Henry; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus; Murani, Eduard

    2014-02-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ubiquitously acting transcription factor that is responsible for mediating the physiological response to stress and adaptation to environmental conditions. Genetic variation of a GR gene (NR3C1) may therefore contribute to multiple phenotypic alterations and influence relevant traits of animal production. Here, we examined effects of two non-synonymous mutations of the porcine NR3C1, leading to amino acid exchanges p.Glu13Asp (c.39A>C) and p.Val19Leu (c.55G>C) in the N-terminal domain of the GR, on meat quality and carcass composition. In addition, we explored their influence on transcriptional activity of GR in vitro. A commercial crossbreed Pietrain × (German Large White × German Landrace) herd (n = 545) in which genotypes and relevant traits had been collected was used to perform the association analysis. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.55G>C was significantly associated with conductivity and meat color scores. These effects were highly consistent considering the physiological relationship between these traits. Association analysis of SNP c.39A>C also revealed significant effects on closely connected meat quality traits. In addition, SNP c.55G>C showed association with carcass traits, mainly those related to muscle deposition. The molecular mechanism of action of both amino acid substitutions remains obscure because neither showed significant influence on transcriptional activity of GR. Our study emphasizes NR3C1 as an important candidate gene for muscle-related traits in pigs, but further work is necessary to clarify the molecular background of the identified associations. PMID:23980817

  6. Quality-assurance procedures: Method 5G determination of particulate emissions from wood heaters from a dilution tunnel sampling location

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.E.; Hartman, M.W.; Olin, R.C.; Rives, G.D.

    1989-06-01

    Quality-assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood-heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing particulate matter sampling of wood heaters according to EPA protocol, Method 5G. These procedures may be used in research and development, and as an aid in auditing and certification testing. A detailed, step-by-step quality assurance guide is provided to aid in the procurement and assembly of testing apparatus, to clearly describe the procedures, and to facilitate data collection and reporting. Suggested data sheets are supplied that can be used as an aid for both recordkeeping and certification applications. Throughout the document, activity matrices are provided to serve as a summary reference. Checklists are also supplied that can be used by testing personnel. Finally, for the purposes of ensuring data quality, procedures are outlined for apparatus operation, maintenance, and traceability. These procedures combined with the detailed description of the sampling and analysis protocol will help ensure the accuracy and reliability of Method 5G emission-testing results.

  7. Bayesian Statistical Analyses for Presence of Single Genes Affecting Meat Quality Traits in a Crossed Pig Population

    PubMed Central

    Janss, LLG.; Van-Arendonk, JAM.; Brascamp, E. W.

    1997-01-01

    Presence of single genes affecting meat quality traits was investigated in F(2) individuals of a cross between Chinese Meishan and Western pig lines using phenotypic measurements on 11 traits. A Bayesian approach was used for inference about a mixed model of inheritance, postulating effects of polygenic background genes, action of a biallelic autosomal single gene and various nongenetic effects. Cooking loss, drip loss, two pH measurements, intramuscular fat, shearforce and back-fat thickness were traits found to be likely influenced by a single gene. In all cases, a recessive allele was found, which likely originates from the Meishan breed and is absent in the Western founder lines. By studying associations between genotypes assigned to individuals based on phenotypic measurements for various traits, it was concluded that cooking loss, two pH measurements and possibly backfat thickness are influenced by one gene, and that a second gene influences intramuscular fat and possibly shearforce and drip loss. Statistical findings were supported by demonstrating marked differences in variances of families of fathers inferred as carriers and those inferred as noncarriers. It is concluded that further molecular genetic research effort to map single genes affecting these traits based on the same experimental data has a high probability of success. PMID:9071593

  8. Effects of bovine SMO gene polymorphisms on the body measurement and meat quality traits of Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y R; Li, Y K; Fu, C Z; Wang, J L; Wang, H B; Zan, L S

    2014-01-01

    Beef cattle breeding programs focus on improving important economic traits, including growth rates, and meat quantity and quality. Molecular marker-assisted selection based on genetic variation represents a potential method for breeding genetically improved livestock with better economic traits. Smoothened (SMO) protein is a signal transducer that contributes to the regulation of both osteogenesis and adipogenesis through the hedgehog pathway. In this study, we detected polymorphisms in the bovine SMO gene of Qinchuan cattle, and we analyzed their associations with body measurement traits (BMTs) and meat quality traits (MQTs). Using DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, 3 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the SMO gene of 562 cattle: 1 G > C mutation on exon 9 (G21234C) and 2 C > T mutations on exon 11 (C22424T and C22481T). Association analysis showed that polymorphisms on both the G21234C and C22424T loci significantly affected certain BMTs and MQTs (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), whereas those on the C22481T locus did not (P > 0.05). Therefore, the SMO gene could be used as a candidate gene to alter BMTs and MQTs in Qinchuan cattle or for marker-assisted selection to breed cattle with superior BMTs and MQTs. PMID:25299195

  9. Quantitative trait loci of barley malting quality trait components in the Stellar/01Ab8219 mapping population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malting barley is of high economic and scientific importance. Determining barley grains that are suitable for malting involves measuring malting quality, which is an expensive and complex process. In order to decrease the cost of phenotyping and accelerate the process of developing superior malting ...

  10. THE CHARACTERISATION OF PRODUCTION TRAITS AND TECHNOLOGICAL QUALITY TRAITS OF PORK IN BM BREED , DIVIDED BY POLYMORPHISM HAL GENE ALLELE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Slovak

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our experiment was to evaluation of phenotype manifestation of various combinations of HAL gene's alleles. This manifestation was evaluated on selected rearing and slaughter indicators and on selected indicators of technological quality of meat in group of pigs of white meat breed. In experiment were placed 151 pigs of white meat breed, 75 boars and 76 gilts.

  11. The effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzinpour, Amjad; Karashi, Naser

    2013-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles could prove to be a valuable alternative raw material for antibiotics and disinfectants as it is relatively free of adverse effects. Nanosilver is now been put to practical use in commonly used items, such as, clothes, electric home appliances, and electronic industry, but has not been widely applied in the medical or pharmacological fields. This study was designed to investigate the effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail in completely randomized design with four treatments and six repetitions at 0, 4, 8 and 12 ppm of silver nanoparticle levels. Eggs collected daily and egg parameters, including egg weight, length, width; yolk weight and eggshell thickness were examined. The effect of the different silver nanoparticle levels was determined using the General Linear Model of SAS procedure, whilst differences between the groups were determined using least significant difference test. Results indicated that silver nanoparticles at all levels caused significantly reduce of yolk weight and hen-day egg production for each week than the control treatment ( P < 0.05), whilst silver nanoparticle had no significant effect on egg weight, egg length and width and eggshell thickness.

  12. Evaluation of seed chemical quality traits and sensory properties of natto soybean.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yoko; Chen, Pengyin; Zhang, Bo; Scaboo, Andrew; Orazaly, Moldir

    2014-06-15

    Natto is a popular soyfood in Japan, and the U.S. is the largest supplier of natto soybeans. However, information on natto seed chemical and sensory properties is very limited. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differences of seed chemical and sensory properties among natto types and determine heritability and correlation. A total of 15 small-seeded natto genotypes (three superior, nine moderate and three inferior) were evaluated for protein, oil, calcium, manganese, boron and sugar content and processed into a natto product to evaluate appearance, stickiness, flavor, texture and shelf-life. The superior natto group had a higher sugar content but lower protein plus oil, calcium, manganese and boron content than other two groups. Most seed quality traits exhibited high heritability. The natto sensory preference was positively correlated with sucrose and oil content, but negatively correlated with seed hardness, protein, protein plus oil, calcium, manganese, and boron contents. Selecting soybean lines with low protein, protein plus oil, calcium, manganese, and boron content while with high sucrose will be an effective approach for soybean breeding for natto production. PMID:24491719

  13. Utility of Metabolomics toward Assessing the Metabolic Basis of Quality Traits in Apple Fruit with an Emphasis on Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Daniel; Andrews, Preston K.; Reganold, John P.; Davies, Neal M.; Lange, B. Markus

    2012-01-01

    A gas chromatography–mass spectrometry approach was employed to evaluate the use of metabolite patterns to differentiate fruit from six commercially grown apple cultivars harvested in 2008. Principal component analysis (PCA) of apple fruit peel and flesh data indicated that individual cultivar replicates clustered together and were separated from all other cultivar samples. An independent metabolomics investigation with fruit harvested in 2003 confirmed the separate clustering of fruit from different cultivars. Further evidence for cultivar separation was obtained using a hierarchical clustering analysis. An evaluation of PCA component loadings revealed specific metabolite classes that contributed the most to each principal component, whereas a correlation analysis demonstrated that specific metabolites correlate directly with quality traits such as antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and total anthocyanins, which are important parameters in the selection of breeding germplasm. These data sets lay the foundation for elucidating the metabolic basis of commercially important fruit quality traits. PMID:22881116

  14. Franchisee leadership traits vs. manager leadership traits an exploratory study comparing hope, leadership, commitment and service quality delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin B. DiPietro; Denver E. Severt; Dianne H. B. Welsh; Peter V. Raven

    2008-01-01

    In order to add to the understanding of the role of franchising in entrepreneurship and to help franchise systems improve\\u000a efficiency, the constructs of organizational leadership, hope, organizational commitment, and service quality perceptions\\u000a of franchised managers and franchisees are differentiated in the current study. For scholars and practitioners, the dynamic\\u000a relationship between entrepreneurship, franchisees, and management is an important triangle

  15. New QTL alleles for quality-related traits in spring wheat revealed by RIL population derived from supernumerary x non-supernumerary spikelet genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying new quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and alleles in exotic germplasm is paramount for further improvement of quality traits in wheat. In the present study, a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a cross between an elite wheat line (WCB414) and an exotic genotype wi...

  16. Genetic Polymorphisms of the CACNA2D1 Gene and Their Association with Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guan-Yu HouZheng-Rong; Zheng-Rong Yuan; Xue Gao; Jun-Ya Li; Hui-Jiang Gao; Jin-Bao Chen; Shang-Zhong Xu

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genetic polymorphisms of the CACNA2D1 gene and to analyze associations between SNPs and carcass and meat quality traits in cattle. Through PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing\\u000a methods, a new allelic variant corresponding to the A ? G mutation (aspartic to glycine amino acid replacement) of the bovine\\u000a CACNA2D1 gene was detected. Two alleles and three

  17. Effects of pasture fertiliser N level on herbage composition, animal performance and on carcass and meat quality traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Keane; P. Allen

    1999-01-01

    The objectives were to examine the effects of (1) reducing fertiliser N level on grassland, (2) eliminating silage making and (3) variation in slaughter weight on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of beef cattle. A 2(fertiliser N levels)×2(winter feeds)×2(slaughter weights) factorial experiment used 48 spring-born Charolais x Friesian steers. The two fertiliser N levels were designated normal (227 (year

  18. Quality attributes of porcine musculature as related to structural muscle components, carcass traits and certain production factors

    E-print Network

    Lopez, Ali Leonidas

    1969-01-01

    , there was an increase in finely dispersed fat cells. Extreme variation in the fat content of different areas of the pork ~3' ' d ' I 9 t d. 61 t, 1. (19633 noticed a "definite" s!arbling pattern in beef l. dorsi muscle. Appreciable marbling variation between... associations between some quantitative carcass tr'aits and pork muscle quality. 3. To relate some production factors with pork quality attributes. 16 CHAPTER IV EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES The samples that were used in this study were obtained from swine...

  19. Molecular characterization, expression analysis and association study with meat quality traits of porcine TTID gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Deng, Chang-Yan; Xiong, Yuan-Zhu; Zuo, Bo

    2013-02-01

    Titin immunoglobulin domain protein (TTID) is localized to the Z-line and binds to alpha-actinin, gamma-filamin. It plays an indispensable role in stabilization and anchorage of thin filaments. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence was isolated by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The TTID sequence was deposited into the Genbank under the accession no. DQ157551. The deduced protein of 499 amino acids showed 93 % identity to the corresponding human and rat sequence. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed porcine TTID gene was expressed highest level in skeletal muscle, at second-highest level in the heart, but only low expression in the fat was detected. Bioinformatics analysis shows the molecular weight of the TTID protein is 55.747 kD with a PI of 9.26. It contains the protein function site of two potential Ig-like domain profiles, six N-myristoylation sites, six potential Casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, eight protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, three N-glycosylation sites, a tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site and a cell attachment sequence site. No putative base substitution was detected in the coding region by comparing sequences of Large White, Landrace and Meishan pig breeds. A T978C single nucleotide polymorphism in the intron 6 of porcine TTID gene was detected by a HinfI PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Study showed allele frequency differences among four purebreds. Association of the genotypes with meat quality traits showed that different genotypes of porcine TTID gene were significantly associated with meat pH (m.Biceps Femoris) (P < 0.05), meat color value (m.longissimus Dorsi) (P < 0.05) and Water Moisture (m.longissimus Dorsi) (P < 0.05). PMID:23096086

  20. Panic disorder and health-related quality of life: the predictive roles of anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eun-Ho; Kim, Borah; Choe, Ah Young; Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Tai Kiu; Lee, Sang-Hyuk

    2015-01-30

    Panic disorder (PD) is a very common anxiety disorder and is often a chronic disabling condition. However, little is known about the factors that predict health-related quality of life (HRQOL) other than sociodemographic factors and illness-related symptomatology that explain HRQOL in only small to modest degrees. This study explored whether anxiety-related individual traits including anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety can predict independently HRQOL in panic patients. Patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (N=230) who met the diagnostic criteria in the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were recruited. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the factors that predict HRQOL in panic disorder. HRQOL was assessed by the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Anxiety sensitivity was an independent predictor of bodily pain and social functioning whereas trait anxiety independently predicted all of the eight domains of the SF-36. Our data suggests that the assessment of symptomatology as well as individual anxiety-related trait should be included in the evaluation of HRQOL in panic patients. PMID:25466228

  1. Influence of rearing system on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of Yangzhou geese.

    PubMed

    Liu, B Y; Wang, Z Y; Yang, H M; Wang, J M; Xu, D; Zhang, R; Wang, Q

    2011-03-01

    An experiment was conducted using a total of 540 one-day-old Yangzhou geese to study the effect of rearing system on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of male and female Yangzhou geese. The birds were divided into homogeneous groups according to initial BW and sex. The male and female geese were raised in separate pens under 5 different treatments, with 3 replicate pens of 18 male or 18 female geese per pen for each treatment. This experiment included 2 stages, with geese at 1 to 28 d of age (the first stage) and 29 to 70 d of age (the second stage). The 5 different treatments were 1) system A (geese raised on a wire floor), 2) system B (geese raised on the floor), 3) system C (geese raised on the floor and transferred to to a wire floor), 4) system D (geese raised on a wire floor and transferred to the floor), and 5) system E (geese raised on the floor and transferred to a free range). Results showed that feed conversion rate, BW, and BW gain were significantly affected by rearing system and sex (P < 0.05). For carcass yield, results suggested that eviscerated carcass yield and heart yield were affected by rearing system (P < 0.05) but not by sex (P > 0.05). Differences between sexes, but not rearing systems, were observed for only breast yield, thigh yield, and liver yield (P < 0.05). Rearing system and sex had a remarkable effect (P < 0.05) on subcutaneous fat thickness, abdominal fat yield, and gizzard yield. The nutrient composition (water, protein, and fat), water-holding capacity, shear force, and pH of the pectoralis major muscle were not affected (P > 0.05) by the rearing system, and only water, protein, and pH of the meat were affected by sex (P < 0.05). This study indicates that rearing system A, in which Yangzhou geese were raised on a wire floor, improved growth performance but had little effect on meat quality, implying that the use of rearing system A, using a wire floor, might be feasible and effective for Yangzhou geese. PMID:21325238

  2. Identification of Associated SSR Markers for Yield Component and Fiber Quality Traits Based on Frame Map and Upland Cotton Collections

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hongde; Chen, Min; Yi, Xianda; Bie, Shu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Youchang; Lan, Jiayang; Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Youlu; Jiao, Chunhai

    2015-01-01

    Detecting QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that enhance cotton yield and fiber quality traits and accelerate breeding has been the focus of many cotton breeders. In the present study, 359 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were used for the association mapping of 241 Upland cotton collections. A total of 333 markers, representing 733 polymorphic loci, were detected. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distances were 8.58 cM (r2 > 0.1) and 5.76 cM (r2 > 0.2). 241 collections were arranged into two subgroups using STRUCTURE software. Mixed linear modeling (MLM) methods (with population structure (Q) and relative kinship matrix (K)) were applied to analyze four phenotypic datasets obtained from four environments (two different locations and two years). Forty-six markers associated with the number of bolls per plant (NB), boll weight (BW), lint percentage (LP), fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber micornaire value (FM) were repeatedly detected in at least two environments. Of 46 associated markers, 32 were identified as new association markers, and 14 had been previously reported in the literature. Nine association markers were near QTLs (at a distance of less than 1–2 LD decay on the reference map) that had been previously described. These results provide new useful markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs and new insights for understanding the genetic basis of Upland cotton yields and fiber quality traits at the whole-genome level. PMID:25635680

  3. Identification of Associated SSR Markers for Yield Component and Fiber Quality Traits Based on Frame Map and Upland Cotton Collections.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongde; Chen, Min; Yi, Xianda; Bie, Shu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Youchang; Lan, Jiayang; Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Youlu; Jiao, Chunhai

    2015-01-01

    Detecting QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that enhance cotton yield and fiber quality traits and accelerate breeding has been the focus of many cotton breeders. In the present study, 359 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were used for the association mapping of 241 Upland cotton collections. A total of 333 markers, representing 733 polymorphic loci, were detected. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distances were 8.58 cM (r2 > 0.1) and 5.76 cM (r2 > 0.2). 241 collections were arranged into two subgroups using STRUCTURE software. Mixed linear modeling (MLM) methods (with population structure (Q) and relative kinship matrix (K)) were applied to analyze four phenotypic datasets obtained from four environments (two different locations and two years). Forty-six markers associated with the number of bolls per plant (NB), boll weight (BW), lint percentage (LP), fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber micornaire value (FM) were repeatedly detected in at least two environments. Of 46 associated markers, 32 were identified as new association markers, and 14 had been previously reported in the literature. Nine association markers were near QTLs (at a distance of less than 1-2 LD decay on the reference map) that had been previously described. These results provide new useful markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs and new insights for understanding the genetic basis of Upland cotton yields and fiber quality traits at the whole-genome level. PMID:25635680

  4. Analysis of a slow-growing line reveals wide genetic variability of carcass and meat quality-related traits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Slow-growing lines are widely used in France for the production of high quality free-range chickens. While such production is mainly dedicated to the whole carcass market, new prospects are opening up for the development of cuts and processed products. Whether the body composition and meat quality of slow-growing birds can be improved by selection has thus become an important issue. The genetic parameters of growth, body composition and breast meat quality traits were evaluated in relation to behaviour at slaughter in a large pedigree population including 1022 male and female slow-growing birds. Results The heritability coefficients (h2) of body weight and body composition traits varied from 0.3 to 0.5. Abdominal fat percentage was genetically positively correlated with body weight but negatively correlated with breast muscle yield. The characteristics of the breast meat (i.e., post-mortem fall in pH, colour, drip loss, shear-force and lipid content) were all heritable, with h2 estimates ranging from 0.18 to 0.48. The rate and extent of the fall in pH were under different genetic control. Strong negative genetic correlations were found between the ultimate pH and the lightness, yellowness and drip loss of the meat. Wing flapping on the shackle line was significantly heritable and exhibited marked genetic correlations with the pH at 15 min post-slaughter and the redness of the meat. The genetic relationships between meat quality traits, body weight and body composition appeared slightly different between males and females. Conclusion This study suggested that there are a number of important criteria for selection on carcass and breast meat quality in slow-growing birds. Selection for reduced abdominal fatness and increased breast muscle yield should be effective as both traits were found to be highly heritable and favourably correlated. Substantial improvement in meat quality could be achieved by selection on ultimate pH which was highly heritable and strongly correlated with the colour and water-holding capacity of the meat. Moreover, this study revealed for the first time that the behaviour at slaughter is partly genetically determined in the chicken. PMID:23088779

  5. PLCz Functional Haplotypes Modulating Promoter Transcriptional Activity Are Associated with Semen Quality Traits in Chinese Holstein Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Yan; Qi, Chao; Gao, Qin; Zhou, Lei; Li, Qiuling; Wang, Lingling; Zhong, Jifeng; Liu, Mei; Wang, Changfa

    2013-01-01

    The sperm-specific phospholipase C zeta (PLCz) is a candidate sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor that triggers a characteristic series of physiological stimuli via cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations during fertilization. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PLCz gene expression remain largely unknown. To explore the genetic variations in the 5?-flanking region of the PLCz gene and their common haplotypes in Chinese Holstein bulls, as well as to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and transcriptional activity, DNA samples were collected from Chinese Holstein bulls and sequenced for the identification of genetic variants in the 5?-flanking region of PLCz. Two genetic variants were identified, and their haplotypic profiles were constructed. The two novel genetic variations (g. ?456 G>A and g. +65 T>C) were genotyped in 424 normal Chinese Holstein bulls. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that both loci are in transcription factor binding sites of the core promoter region. The association studies revealed that the two genetic variations and their haplotype combinations significantly affected semen quality traits. Using serially truncated constructs of the bovine PLCz promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 726 bp (?641 nt to +112 nt) fragment constitutes the core promoter region. Furthermore, four haplotypes, H1H1 (GTGT), H2H2 (GCGC), H3H3 (ATAT), and H4H4 (ACAC), were significantly associated with semen quality traits and successfully transfected into MLTC-1 cell lines. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the different haplotypes exhibited distinct promoter activities. Maximal promoter activity was demonstrated by the H2H2 haplotypes, as compared with the other haplotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on genetic variants and their respective haplotypes in the 5?-flanking region of PLCz gene that can influence the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls as well as contribute to the transcriptional activity of the PLCz promoter. PMID:23554927

  6. Correlational selection on lay date and life-history traits: experimental manipulations of territory and nest site quality.

    PubMed

    Calsbeek, Ryan; Sinervo, Barry

    2007-05-01

    Abundant evidence suggests that females may engage in mate choice to gain nongenetic (material) benefits from high-quality territories; however, the selective consequences that influence those choices are not well understood. We studied the fitness effects of territory quality and incubation temperature on juvenile lizards in nature. We manipulated territory quality by redistributing rocks between pairs of neighboring home ranges. Rock manipulations set up adjacent plots that were either experimentally improved or reduced in quality. We incubated eggs from field-caught gravid females in each of three temperature treatments in the laboratory (low, medium, and high temperature). Progeny were released in either experimentally improved or reduced-quality plots upon hatching, and the following spring we measured survival as a function of egg size and laying date. We conducted concurrent studies of the thermal environment on experimental territories. Improved territories provided significantly more hours for lizards to behaviorally thermoregulate at their preferred body temperature and also provided nest sites with incubation conditions that were closer to optimal compared with reduced-quality plots. Reduced-quality plots were significantly more variable in quality. Finally, we measured significant correlational selection between egg mass and laying date on manipulated plots in two separate years. Results indicate the influence of environmental variation on correlational selection on life-history traits. PMID:17492962

  7. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of the Opitutaceae Bacterium Strain TAV1, a Symbiont of the Wood-Feeding Termite Reticulitermes flavipes

    SciTech Connect

    Isanapong, Jantiya [University of Texas, Arlington; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pennacchio, Len [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Rodrigues, Jorge L.M. [University of Texas, Arlington

    2012-01-01

    Microbial communities in the termite hindgut are essential for degrading plant material. We present the high-quality draft genome sequence of the Opitutaceae bacterium strain TAV1, the first member of the phylum Verrucomicrobia to be isolated from wood-feeding termites. The genomic analysis reveals genes coding for lignocellulosic degradation and nitrogen fixation.

  8. Genomic selection accuracy for grain quality traits in biparental wheat populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection (GS) is a promising tool for plant and animal breeding that uses genome wide molecular marker data to capture small and large effect quantitative trait loci and predict the genetic value of selection candidates. Genomic selection has been shown previously to have higher prediction ...

  9. Scab Resistance QTLs Have an Effect on Agronomic and Quality Traits of Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease that affects wheat world-wide. However, most of the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in wheat which are responsible for resistance to FHB are derived from exotic spring wheat cultivars originating in Asia. The purpose of this research was to determine whether th...

  10. GENETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATES FOR PERFORMANCE, COMPOSITION, AND MEAT QUALITY TRAITS IN LANDRACE PIG

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from a purebred Landrace resource population, developed to represent current U.S. breed genetic and phenotypic diversity, were utilized to derive restricted maximum likelihood estimates of genetic parameters using single and multiple trait animal models for days to 113.4 kg (DAYS), 10th rib bac...

  11. Evaluation of temperament and transportation stress on body composition traits and meat quality in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the first study was to evaluate the combined effects of transportation stress and animal temperament on real-time ultrasound body composition traits (primarily percentage of intramuscular fat) in Angus Crossbred (n = 68) and Brahman (n = 60) steers. Temperament scores (1 to 5 scale)...

  12. Wood and Wood Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Raymond A.

    Wood has been utilized by humans since antiquity. Trees provided a source of many products required by early humans such as food, medicine, fuel, and tools. For example, the bark of the willow tree, when chewed, was used as a painkiller in early Greece and was the precursor of the present-day aspirin. Wood served as the primary fuel in the United States until about the turn of the 19th century, and even today over one-half of the wood now harvested in the world is used for heating fuel.

  13. Comparison and heritability of major rice end-use quality traits among diverse accessions grown in both tropical and temperate USA environments and genetic marker implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing environment has been well-documented as playing a large role in effecting the end-use quality traits of rice. Apparent amylose content (AAC) and gelatinization temperature (GT) are considered to be the two most important end-use quality characteristics in rice, defining the major classes tha...

  14. A Study to Determine Non-Academic Traits of a Successful Student in an Open Learning Center Environment at John Wood Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronquist, Shirley; And Others

    John Wood Community College's Open Learning Center (OLC) offers an alternative to traditional classroom approaches using one-to-one instruction, a competency-based learning format, and flexible scheduling. Due to concern over the high attrition rate in OLC courses, a study was conducted to identify the characteristics and variables contributing to…

  15. Quality trait variations in [??Co]-irradiated wheat and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit mutant identification.

    PubMed

    Lai, D-E; Wang, M; Zhang, C-Y

    2014-01-01

    With 300 Gy of [(60)Co] ?-ray radiation of dry wheat seeds of Vortex 9722, the protein content, wet gluten content, sedimentation value, and hardness variation were analyzed in 341 lines in M4. Using over population mean ± 2X standard deviation as the screening standard, 8 lines with higher protein and wet gluten content and 4 lines with lower protein and wet gluten content were selected. In the M5 generation, the quality traits - silty parameters and high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) - were further analyzed in these 12 lines. The results showed that in the M5 generation, the quality traits in some variants were significantly different from those in the parents; the farinograms varied greatly. Eleven variants had significantly different HMW-GS bands compared to their parents. The parents had a HMW-GS composition of 5 + 14 + 15 + 12 + 9, and the variants had HMW-GS of 11 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 12 subunits or 1 + 5 + 7 + 8 + 12 subunits, indicating that the glutenin loci of these lines were mutated. PMID:25366793

  16. Analysis of the associations between polymorphisms in GNAS complex locus and growth, carcass and meat quality traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Oczkowicz, Maria; Ropka-Molik, Katarzyna; Tyra, Miros?aw

    2013-11-01

    Imprinted genes are interesting candidates for marker assisted selection in farm animals. One of them-GNAS complex locus is engaged in obesity pathogenesis in humans and mice. In our study, we identified new polymorphism in porcine GNAS gene (variable number of CT repeats, accession number: rs196952953) and found that this polymorphism is in linkage disequilibrum with GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T. Statistical analysis (GLM procedure), performed on 552 animals (Large White n = 258 and Landrace n = 269), revealed that deduced haplotypes and GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T are associated with growth performance and a few carcass traits, but not with feed intake. We observed significant additive effects of GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T genotype and haplotype 2 (C/278 bp) on test daily gain (TDG), average daily gain (ADG), number of days on test, age of the slaughter (P < 0.01) and FCR ratio (P < 0.05). Animals with two copies of C/278 haplotype had significantly higher: TDG, ADG, lower feed:gain ratio and faster reached the weight of 100 kg. When carcass traits were considered, significant associations between GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T polymorphism, haplotype 2 (C/278) and weight of ham with and without backfat and skin (WH) (WH2), length of the carcass, height and the width of the loin, meat percentage, weight of the main cuts were identified. The significant dominance effects of GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T polymorphism and haplotype 2 on WH and WH2 were observed (P < 0.05). When the two breeds were analyzed separately significant associations were observed for most of the traits in Landrace while in Large White the same trends were present but the differences were mostly not significant. Among meat quality traits we found significant association between haplotype and IMF content in Landrace (P < 0.03). Our results show for the first time that GNAS complex locus may modulate economically important traits in pigs. PMID:24057249

  17. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in PtoCesA7 and their association with growth and wood properties in Populus tomentosa.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiaxing; Chang, Mengqi; Du, Qingzhang; Xu, Baohua; Zhang, Deqiang

    2014-06-01

    Cellulose synthase (CesA) genes encode the enzymes that synthesize cellulose; therefore, CesAs play central roles in plant development and affect the yield and quality of wood, essential properties for industrial applications of plant biomass. To effectively manipulate wood biosynthesis in trees and improve wood quality, we thus require a better understanding of the natural variation in CesAs. Association studies have emerged as a powerful tool for identification of variation associated with quantitative traits. Here, we used a candidate gene-based association mapping approach to identify PtoCesA7 allelic variants that associate with growth and wood quality traits in Populus tomentosa. We isolated a full-length PtoCesA7 cDNA and observed high PtoCesA7 expression in xylem, consistent with the xylem-specific expression of CesA7. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in PtoCesA7, sampled from the P. tomentosa natural distribution, revealed that PtoCesA7 harbors high nucleotide diversity (?(T) = 0.0091) and low LD (r(2) ? 0.1, within 800 bp). By association analysis, we identified seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (false discovery rate Q < 0.10) and 12 haplotypes (Q < 0.10) that associated with growth and wood properties, explaining 3.62-10.59 % of the phenotypic variance. We also validated 9 of the 10 significant marker-trait associations in at least one of three smaller subsets (climatic regions) or in a linkage-mapping population. Thus, our study identified functional PtoCesA7 allelic variants associated with growth and wood quality traits, giving new insights into genes affecting wood quality and quantity. From an applied perspective, the SNPs revealed in this study have potential applications in marker-assisted breeding. PMID:24549852

  18. A comprehensive meta QTL analysis for fiber quality, yield, yield related and morphological traits, drought tolerance, and disease resistance in tetraploid cotton

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in cotton (Gossypium spp.) is focused on traits of agricultural significance. Previous studies have identified a plethora of QTL attributed to fiber quality, disease and pest resistance, branch number, seed quality and yield and yield related traits, drought tolerance, and morphological traits. However, results among these studies differed due to the use of different genetic populations, markers and marker densities, and testing environments. Since two previous meta-QTL analyses were performed on fiber traits, a number of papers on QTL mapping of fiber quality, yield traits, morphological traits, and disease resistance have been published. To obtain a better insight into the genome-wide distribution of QTL and to identify consistent QTL for marker assisted breeding in cotton, an updated comparative QTL analysis is needed. Results In this study, a total of 1,223 QTL from 42 different QTL studies in Gossypium were surveyed and mapped using Biomercator V3 based on the Gossypium consensus map from the Cotton Marker Database. A meta-analysis was first performed using manual inference and confirmed by Biomercator V3 to identify possible QTL clusters and hotspots. QTL clusters are composed of QTL of various traits which are concentrated in a specific region on a chromosome, whereas hotspots are composed of only one trait type. QTL were not evenly distributed along the cotton genome and were concentrated in specific regions on each chromosome. QTL hotspots for fiber quality traits were found in the same regions as the clusters, indicating that clusters may also form hotspots. Conclusions Putative QTL clusters were identified via meta-analysis and will be useful for breeding programs and future studies involving Gossypium QTL. The presence of QTL clusters and hotspots indicates consensus regions across cultivated tetraploid Gossypium species, environments, and populations which contain large numbers of QTL, and in some cases multiple QTL associated with the same trait termed a hotspot. This study combines two previous meta-analysis studies and adds all other currently available QTL studies, making it the most comprehensive meta-analysis study in cotton to date. PMID:24215677

  19. Association Analysis of Soft Wheat Quality Traits in Eastern US Soft Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soft wheat quality is highly heritable, is controlled by multiple loci, and has been mapped in a number of bi-parental crosses. We extended the mapping information on soft wheat quality by using association analysis between genetic markers and quality phenotyping in 192 soft winter wheat cultivars ...

  20. Evaluating a Wood-strand Material for Wind Erosion Control and Air Quality Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fugitive dust from eroding land poses both environmental quality and human health problems in the western United States. Since the advent of the Clean Air Act in 1990, regulations have been imposed on particulate matter in the atmosphere. Agricultural straw has been widely used for erosion control...

  1. Polymorphisms in twelve candidate genes are associated with growth, muscle lipid profile and meat quality traits in eleven European cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Sevane, N; Armstrong, E; Wiener, P; Pong Wong, R; Dunner, S

    2014-07-01

    Current customers' demands focus on the nutritional and sensory quality of cattle meat. Candidate gene approach allows identification of genetic polymorphisms that have a measurable effect on traits of interest. The aim of this work is to identify new molecular markers for beef production through an association study using 27 candidate genes and 314 purebred bulls from 11 European cattle breeds. Twelve genes were found associated with different lipid and meat quality traits, and among these stand out the considerable effect of CAST on fatness score, CGGBP1 on growth traits, HSPB1 on the percentage of lauric acid (12:0) and phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6 n - 3), RORA on the ratio of light absorption (K) to light scattering (S) (K/S), and TNFA on lightness (L*). Most of these traits are related to post-mortem muscle biochemical changes, which are key factors controlling meat quality and consumers' acceptance. Also, the variations produced on muscle fatty acid profiles, such as those of AANAT, CRH, CSN3, HSPB1, and TNFA, give insights into the genetic networks controlling these complex traits and the possibility of future improvement of meat nutritional quality. PMID:24718780

  2. Influence of rearing system, diet and gender on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of Polish Landrace pigs.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, G; Kapela?ski, W; Bocian, M; Pizzuto, R; Kapela?ska, J

    2013-02-01

    Forty-eight Polish Landrace pigs (initially 32.43 ± 0.70 kg live weight) were assigned to a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in order to assess the effects of the rearing system (outdoor v. indoor), diet (with corn grain silage v. without corn grain silage) and gender (barrows v. gilts) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality and intramuscular collagen (IMC) characteristics. During the trial period of 14 weeks, each group was housed in a pen of 12 m2, and the outdoor-reared animals had access to a paddock of 24 m2. Pigs were fed a diet computed according to standard requirements and supplied on a basis of 9% of metabolic weight (live weight0.75). Pigs were slaughtered at 110.69 ± 0.85 kg. The rearing system did not significantly affect growth, hot and cold dressing, meat quality of m. longissimus lumborum or IMC. Outdoor pigs had less (P < 0.05) backfat thickness, slightly higher (P = 0.082) lean percent and a meat with lower pH and fat than the conventional system. In light of these results, alternative pig rearing systems with indoor space and free outdoor access could be an interesting production system for the pigs. Compared with the pigs fed diets with corn grain silage, those fed diets without corn had higher (P < 0.05) lean, ham percentage and IMC content, lower (P < 0.05) neck percentage but similar main tissue components of the ham and meat quality. Compared with the gilts, barrows were fatter and showed a meat with different physico-chemical traits, which was slightly more tender and had similar IMC properties. PMID:23031156

  3. Upgrading producer gas quality from rubber wood gasification in a radio frequency tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor.

    PubMed

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A

    2013-12-01

    This study focused on improving the producer gas quality using radio frequency (RF) tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor. The producer gas containing tar, particles and water was directly passed at a particular flow rate into the RF reactor at various temperatures for catalytic and thermal treatments. Thermal treatment generates higher heating value of 5.76 MJ Nm(-3) at 1200°C. Catalytic treatments using both dolomite and Y-zeolite provide high tar and particles conversion efficiencies of about 97% on average. The result also showed that light poly-aromatic hydrocarbons especially naphthalene and aromatic compounds particularly benzene and toluene were still found even at higher reaction temperatures. Low energy intensive RF tar thermocatalytic treatment was found to be effective for upgrading the producer gas quality to meet the end user requirements and increasing its energy content. PMID:24185417

  4. A genome-wide association study of production traits in a commercial population of Large White pigs: evidence of haplotypes affecting meat quality

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been detected in pigs over the past 20 years using microsatellite markers. However, due to the low density of these markers, the accuracy of QTL location has generally been poor. Since 2009, the dense genome coverage provided by the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip has made it possible to more accurately map QTL using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our objective was to perform high-density GWAS in order to identify genomic regions and corresponding haplotypes associated with production traits in a French Large White population of pigs. Methods Animals (385 Large White pigs from 106 sires) were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and evaluated for 19 traits related to feed intake, growth, carcass composition and meat quality. Of the 64 432 SNPs on the chip, 44 412 were used for GWAS with an animal mixed model that included a regression coefficient for the tested SNPs and a genomic kinship matrix. SNP haplotype effects in QTL regions were then tested for association with phenotypes following phase reconstruction based on the Sscrofa10.2 pig genome assembly. Results Twenty-three QTL regions were identified on autosomes and their effects ranged from 0.25 to 0.75 phenotypic standard deviation units for feed intake and feed efficiency (four QTL), carcass (12 QTL) and meat quality traits (seven QTL). The 10 most significant QTL regions had effects on carcass (chromosomes 7, 10, 16, 17 and 18) and meat quality traits (two regions on chromosome 1 and one region on chromosomes 8, 9 and 13). Thirteen of the 23 QTL regions had not been previously described. A haplotype block of 183 kb on chromosome 1 (six SNPs) was identified and displayed three distinct haplotypes with significant (0.0001?quality traits. Conclusions GWAS analyses with the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip enabled the detection of 23 QTL regions that affect feed consumption, carcass and meat quality traits in a LW population, of which 13 were novel QTL. The proportionally larger number of QTL found for meat quality traits suggests a specific opportunity for improving these traits in the pig by genomic selection. PMID:24528607

  5. Expression profiling of potato germplasm differentiated in quality traits leads to the identification of candidate flavour and texture genes

    PubMed Central

    Ducreux, Laurence J. M.; Morris, Wayne L.; Prosser, Ian M.; Morris, Jenny A.; Beale, Michael H.; Wright, Frank; Shepherd, Tom; Bryan, Glenn J.; Hedley, Pete E.; Taylor, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Quality traits such as flavour and texture are assuming a greater importance in crop breeding programmes. This study takes advantage of potato germplasm differentiated in tuber flavour and texture traits. A recently developed 44 000-element potato microarray was used to identify tuber gene expression profiles that correspond to differences in tuber flavour and texture as well as carotenoid content and dormancy characteristics. Gene expression was compared in two Solanum tuberosum group Phureja cultivars and two S. tuberosum group Tuberosum cultivars; 309 genes were significantly and consistently up-regulated in Phureja, whereas 555 genes were down-regulated. Approximately 46% of the genes in these lists can be identified from their annotation and amongst these are candidates that may underpin the Phureja/Tuberosum trait differences. For example, a clear difference in the cooked tuber volatile profile is the higher level of the sesquiterpene ?-copaene in Phureja compared with Tuberosum. A sesquiterpene synthase gene was identified as being more highly expressed in Phureja tubers and its corresponding full-length cDNA was demonstrated to encode ?-copaene synthase. Other potential ‘flavour genes’, identified from their differential expression profiles, include those encoding branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase and a ribonuclease suggesting a mechanism for 5?-ribonucleotide formation in potato tubers on cooking. Major differences in the expression levels of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis (and potentially texture) were also identified, including genes encoding pectin acetylesterase, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase and pectin methylesterase. Other gene expression differences that may impact tuber carotenoid content and tuber life-cycle phenotypes are discussed. PMID:18987392

  6. Quality traits of Indian peanut cultivars and their utility as nutritional and functional food.

    PubMed

    Bishi, S K; Lokesh, Kumar; Mahatma, M K; Khatediya, N; Chauhan, S M; Misra, J B

    2015-01-15

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is considered as a highly nutritious foodstuff. Of late, the importance of peanut as a functional food has been growing. Kernels of forty-one Indian peanut cultivars were analyzed for their oil, fatty acid profiles, sucrose, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs); phenolics, and free amino acids contents along with antioxidant capacity. The range and the mean value (given in parenthesis) for each of the traits analysed were, oil: 44.1-53.8% (50.1%), O/L ratio: 0.9-2.8 (1.4), sucrose: 2.61-6.5% (4.63%), RFOs: 0.12-0.76% (0.47%), phenolics: 0.14-0.39% (0.23%), free amino acids: 0.052-0.19% (0.12%) and antioxidant capacity: 1.05-6.97 (3.40) ?mol TEg(-1). The significant correlation between phenol content and antioxidant capacity suggests phenol content as an easy marker for rapid screening of genotypes for their antioxidant capacity. A few cultivars with desirable traits and their prospective utility were identified which would be useful for future breeding programme to develop nutritional superior peanuts. PMID:25148966

  7. QTL analysis for grain quality traits in 2 BC2F2 populations derived from crosses between Oryza sativa cv Swarna and 2 accessions of O. nivara.

    PubMed

    Swamy, B P Mallikarjuna; Kaladhar, K; Shobha Rani, N; Prasad, G S V; Viraktamath, B C; Reddy, G Ashok; Sarla, N

    2012-01-01

    The appearance and cooking quality of rice determine its acceptability and price to a large extent. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 12 grain quality traits were mapped in 2 mapping populations derived from Oryza sativa cv Swarna × O. nivara. The BC(2)F(2) population of the cross Swarna × O. nivara IRGC81848 (population 1) was evaluated during 2005 and that from Swarna × O. nivara IRGC81832 (population 2) was evaluated during 2006. Linkage maps were constructed using 100 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in population 1 and 75 SSR markers in population 2. In all, 21 QTLs were identified in population 1 (43% from O. nivara) and 37 in population 2 (38% QTLs from O. nivara). The location of O. nivara-derived QTLs mp1.2 for milling percent, kw6.1 for kernel width, and klac12.1 for kernel length after cooking coincided in the 2 populations and appear to be useful for Marker Assisted Selection (MAS). Four QTLs for milling percent, 1 QTL each for amylose content, water uptake, elongation ratio, 2 QTLs for kernel width, and 3 QTLs for gel consistency, each explained more than 20% phenotypic variance. Three QTL clusters for grain quality traits were close to the genes/QTLs for shattering and seed dormancy. QTLs for 4 quality traits were associated with 5 of the 7 major yield QTLs reported in the same 2 mapping populations. Useful introgression lines have been developed for several agronomic traits. It emerges that 40% O. nivara alleles were trait enhancing in both populations, and QTLs for grain quality overlapped with yield meta-QTLs and QTLs for dormancy and seed shattering. PMID:22312119

  8. Mapping quantitative trait loci for lint yield and fiber quality across environments in a Gossypium hirsutum × Gossypium barbadense backcross inbred line population.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiwen; Zhang, Ke; Li, Shuaiyang; Yu, Shuxun; Zhai, Honghong; Wu, Man; Li, Xingli; Fan, Shuli; Song, Meizhen; Yang, Daigang; Li, Yunhai; Zhang, Jinfa

    2013-01-01

    Identification of stable quantitative trait loci (QTLs) across different environments and mapping populations is a prerequisite for marker-assisted selection (MAS) for cotton yield and fiber quality. To construct a genetic linkage map and to identify QTLs for fiber quality and yield traits, a backcross inbred line (BIL) population of 146 lines was developed from a cross between Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and Egyptian cotton (Gossypium barbadense) through two generations of backcrossing using Upland cotton as the recurrent parent followed by four generations of self pollination. The BIL population together with its two parents was tested in five environments representing three major cotton production regions in China. The genetic map spanned a total genetic distance of 2,895 cM and contained 392 polymorphic SSR loci with an average genetic distance of 7.4 cM per marker. A total of 67 QTLs including 28 for fiber quality and 39 for yield and its components were detected on 23 chromosomes, each of which explained 6.65-25.27% of the phenotypic variation. Twenty-nine QTLs were located on the At subgenome originated from a cultivated diploid cotton, while 38 were on the Dt subgenome from an ancestor that does not produce spinnable fibers. Of the eight common QTLs (12%) detected in more than two environments, two were for fiber quality traits including one for fiber strength and one for uniformity, and six for yield and its components including three for lint yield, one for seedcotton yield, one for lint percentage and one for boll weight. QTL clusters for the same traits or different traits were also identified. This research represents one of the first reports using a permanent advanced backcross inbred population of an interspecific hybrid population to identify QTLs for fiber quality and yield traits in cotton across diverse environments. It provides useful information for transferring desirable genes from G. barbadense to G. hirsutum using MAS. PMID:23064252

  9. Studies on some grain quality traits in durum wheat grown in Mediterranean environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. NACHIT; M. BAUM; A. IMPIGLIA; H. KETATA; ICARDA ALEPPO SYRIA

    SUMMARY - The joint durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L var. durum) breeding program of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) employs extensive multilocation trials in the Mediterranean dryland region for grain quality testing. The multilocation trials showed significant genotype-environment (GE) interactions for grain quality parameters. High

  10. Genetic Improvement of Mentha arvensis Based on Essential Oil Yield and Quality Traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Singh; Srikant Sharma; R. K. Tewari

    1998-01-01

    Genetic divergence among 38 genotypes of Japanese mint Mentha arvensis, studied under the climatic conditions of northern India, could be grouped into eight clusters based on essential oil yield and quality components. Genotypes with relatively high essential oil yields could be identified and suggest the possibility of developing high-yielding, Japanese mint plants having good oil quality. Identification of genotype performance

  11. Detection of expression quantitative trait Loci in complex mouse crosses: impact and alleviation of data quality and complex population substructure.

    PubMed

    Iancu, Ovidiu D; Darakjian, Priscila; Kawane, Sunita; Bottomly, Daniel; Hitzemann, Robert; McWeeney, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Complex Mus musculus crosses, e.g., heterogeneous stock (HS), provide increased resolution for quantitative trait loci detection. However, increased genetic complexity challenges detection methods, with discordant results due to low data quality or complex genetic architecture. We quantified the impact of theses factors across three mouse crosses and two different detection methods, identifying procedures that greatly improve detection quality. Importantly, HS populations have complex genetic architectures not fully captured by the whole genome kinship matrix, calling for incorporating chromosome specific relatedness information. We analyze three increasingly complex crosses, using gene expression levels as quantitative traits. The three crosses were an F(2) intercross, a HS formed by crossing four inbred strains (HS4), and a HS (HS-CC) derived from the eight lines found in the collaborative cross. Brain (striatum) gene expression and genotype data were obtained using the Illumina platform. We found large disparities between methods, with concordance varying as genetic complexity increased; this problem was more acute for probes with distant regulatory elements (trans). A suite of data filtering steps resulted in substantial increases in reproducibility. Genetic relatedness between samples generated overabundance of detected eQTLs; an adjustment procedure that includes the kinship matrix attenuates this problem. However, we find that relatedness between individuals is not evenly distributed across the genome; information from distinct chromosomes results in relatedness structure different from the whole genome kinship matrix. Shared polymorphisms from distinct chromosomes collectively affect expression levels, confounding eQTL detection. We suggest that considering chromosome specific relatedness can result in improved eQTL detection. PMID:22969789

  12. Identification of cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci using intraspecific crosses derived from two near-isogenic lines differing in fiber bundle strength.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber properties are very important to the yarn quality. Modern high-speed textile operations around the world require long, strong and fine cotton fibers. The objective of this research was to identify stable fiber quantitative trait loci (QTL) that could be used in cotton breeding through m...

  13. Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits...

  14. The three important traits for cooking and eating quality of rice grains are controlled by a single locus in an elite rice hybrid, Shanyou 63

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. F. Tan; J. X. Li; S. B. Yu; Y. Z. Xing; C. G. Xu; Qifa Zhang

    1999-01-01

    The cooking and eating quality of the rice grain is one of the most serious problems in many rice-producing areas of the world.\\u000a In this study, we conducted a molecular marker-based genetic analysis of three traits, amylose content (AC), gel consistency\\u000a (GC) and gelatinization temperature (GT), that are the most important constituents of the cooking and eating quality of rice

  15. Effect of stocking density and group size on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of outdoor-reared rabbits.

    PubMed

    Paci, Gisella; Preziuso, Giovanna; D'Agata, Maria; Russo, Claudia; Dalle Zotte, Antonella

    2013-02-01

    The effect of stocking density (16 rabbits/m(2), 5 rabbits/m(2), 2.5 rabbits/m(2), n = 60, Experiment 1) and group size (4 rabbits/cage, 8 rabbits/cage, 16 rabbits/cage, n = 88, Experiment 2) on productive performance, carcass and meat quality of a slow-growing rabbit population reared outdoors was investigated in two experiments. The highest stocking density induced the highest skin percentage. Lower stocking densities showed lower lightness of Biceps femoris and higher redness of Longissimus lumborum muscles. Four rabbits/cage group (Experiment 2) showed the highest daily weight gain and slaughter weight and the lowest skin percentage. The muscles of 16 rabbits/cage showed significantly higher pHu than 8 and 4 rabbits/cage. BF of 16 and 4 rabbits/cage showed higher L* value. Productive performance and meat quality of rabbits reared outdoors improved in low group size while stocking density needs more experiments. The best combination of density, group size and total available surface that showed the best production and carcass traits was of 5 rabbits/m(2), 4 rabbits/cage, and 0.8m(2). PMID:22950978

  16. Porcine CSRP3: polymorphism and association analyses with meat quality traits and comparative analyses with CSRP1 and CSRP2.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuewen; Qiu, Haifang; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Fan, Bin; Rothschild, Max F; Yuan, Fan; Liu, Bang

    2010-01-01

    CRP3 is the muscle-specific form of the cysteine and glycine-rich protein family and plays an important role in myofiber differentiation. Here we isolated and characterized its coding gene CSRP3 from porcine muscle. Phylogenic analyses demonstrated that CSRP3 diverged first and is distinguished from two other members, CSRP1 and CSRP2. CSRP3 mRNA was up-regulated during the development of porcine embryonic skeletal muscle, indicating its potential importance in muscle growth. Genetic variant analyses detected multiple variations in an approximately 400 bp region covering exon 4 and its downstream intron, and two haplotypes were identified by sequencing. One of synonymous substitutions C1924T was used for linkage and association analyses. It was revealed that the substitution of C1924T had significant associations with firmness (P < 0.01), Lab Loin pH, Off Flavor Score and Water Holding Capacity (P < 0.05), and a suggestive effect (P < 0.1) on Flavor Score and Average Glycolytic Potential in a Berkshire x Yorkshire F2 population. The association analyses results agreed with the gene's localization to a QTL region for meat quality traits on porcine chromosome 2p14-17 demonstrated by both linkage mapping and RH mapping. These results provide fundamental evidence for CSRP3 as a functional candidate gene affecting pig meat quality. PMID:19634002

  17. Direct and social genetic effects on body weight at 270 days and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Rostellato, R; Sartori, C; Bonfatti, V; Chiarot, G; Carnier, P

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate covariance components for BW at 270 d (BW270) and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs using models accounting for social effects and to compare the ability of such models to fit the data relative to models ignoring social interactions. Phenotypic records were from 9,871 pigs sired by 293 purebred boars mated to 456 crossbred sows. Piglets were born and reared at the same farm and randomly assigned at 60 d of age to groups (6.1 pigs per group on average) housed in finishing pens, each having an area of 6 m(2). The average additive genetic relationship among group mates was 0.11. Pigs were slaughtered at 277 ± 3 d of age and 169.7 ± 13.9 kg BW in groups of nearly 70 animals each. Four univariate animal models were compared: a basic model (M1) including only direct additive genetic effects, a model (M2) with nonheritable social group (pen) effects in addition to effects in M1, a model (M3) accounting for litter effects in addition to M2, and a model (M4) accounting for social genetic effects in addition to effects in M3. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of covariance components were obtained for BW270; carcass backfat depth; carcass lean meat content (CLM); iodine number (IOD); and linoleic acid content (LIA) of raw ham subcutaneous fat; subcutaneous fat depth in the proximity of semimembranosus muscle (SFD1) and quadriceps femoris muscle (SFD2); and linear scores for ham round shape (RS), subcutaneous fat (SF), and marbling. Likelihood ratio tests indicated that, for all traits, M2 fit the data better than M1 and that M3 was superior to M2 except for SFD1 and SFD2. Model M4 was significantly better than M3 for BW270 (P < 0.001) and CLM, IOD, RS, and SF (P < 0.05). The contribution of social genetic effects to the total heritable variance was large for CLM and BW270, ranging from 33.2 to 35%, whereas the one for ham quality traits ranged from 6.8 (RS) to 11.2% (SF). Direct and social genetic effects on BW270 were uncorrelated, whereas there was a negative genetic covariance between direct and social effects on CLM, IOD, RS, and SF, which reduced the total heritable variance. This variance, measured relative to phenotypic variance, ranged from 21 (CLM) to 54% (BW270). Results indicate that social genetic effects affect variation in traits relevant for heavy pigs used in dry-cured hams manufacturing. Such effects should be exploited and taken into account in design of breeding programs for heavy pigs. PMID:25412749

  18. How Personality Traits and Job Satisfaction Influence Service Quality in Housing Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Donna E.

    2010-01-01

    Human service organizations are intended to stabilize low-income families and promote self-sufficiency by providing much needed services and benefits. Recipients, however, often do not get everything they need in terms of either benefits or service quality. Understandably, clients want the help they are entitled to and promised from providers who…

  19. Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Agronomic and Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The superior fiber properties of Gossypium barbadense L. serve as a source of novel variation for improving fiber quality in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.), but introgression from G. barbadense has been largely unsuccessful due to hybrid breakdown and a lack of genetic and genomic resources. In an e...

  20. Relationship between Quality Traits of Soft Red Winter Wheat and Cookie Diameter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-seven soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes including two cultivars released in Jiangsu Province and 55 advanced lines were subjected to quality tests of sixteen parameters, such as solvent retention capacity (SRC) and RVA viscosity parameters. The results showed that there we...

  1. MAPPING OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTL) FOR FORAGE QUALITY IN PERENNIAL RYEGRASS (LOLIUM PERENNE L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) has been widely used as a forage crop in temperate regions. Improvement of forage quality has important effect on ruminant animal nutrition and is an important forage breeding objective. A segregating population of 170 progenies derived from a cross between “Ma...

  2. The association of CAPN1 316 marker genotypes with growth and meat quality traits of steers finished on pasture.

    PubMed

    Miquel, María C; Villarreal, Edgardo; Mezzadra, Carlos; Melucci, Lilia; Soria, Liliana; Corva, Pablo; Schor, Alejandro

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the association of a SNP in the ?-calpain gene at position 316 with growth and quality of meat traits of steers grown on pasture. Fifty-nine Brangus and 20 Angus steers were genotyped for CAPN1 316. Warner Bratzler shear force was measured in l. lumborum samples after a 7-day aging period. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed, including shear force (WBSF), final weight (FW), average daily gain (ADG), backfat thickness (BFT), average monthly fat thickness gain (AMFTG), rib-eye area (REA), and beef rib-eye depth (RED) as dependent variables. The CAPN1 316 genotype was statistically significant. Univariate analyses were done with these variables. The marker genotype was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for WBSF (kg: CC: 4.41 ± 0.57; CG: 5.58 ± 0.20; GG: 6.29 ± 0.18), FW (kg: CC: 360.23 ± 14.71; CG: 381.34 ± 5.26; GG: 399.23 ± 4.68), and ADG (kg/d: CC: 0.675 ± 0.046; CG: 0.705 ± 0.016; GG: 0.765 ± 0.014) Shear force, final weight and average daily gain were significantly different according to the CAPN1 316 marker genotypes. The marker genotype was statistically significant in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.001). The first characteristic root explained 89% of the differences among genotypes. WBSF, FW and ADG were the most important traits in the first vector, indicating that animals with the marker genotype for lowest WBSF also have the lowest FW and ADG. PMID:21637511

  3. Genetic parameters of carcass and meat quality traits of double muscled Piemontese cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Boukha; V. Bonfatti; A. Cecchinato; A. Albera; L. Gallo; P. Carnier; G. Bittante

    2011-01-01

    Genetic parameters of meat quality (MQ) were estimated on Longissimus thoracis muscle of 1208 Piemontese young bulls, progeny of 109 AI sires. Carcass weight (CW), conformation (EUS) and pH (pH24h) were recorded at 24h and lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), pH (pH8d), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL) and shear force (SF) were assessed. The heritability (h2) of pH24h

  4. Variation in feed quality traits for beef cattle in Steptoe × Morex barley population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hussein Abdel-HaleemJan; Jan G. P. Bowman; Lisa Surber; Tom Blake

    Barley is a major feed source for livestock in the western regions of North America. Feed quality of beef cattle has been\\u000a neglected as a selection criterion because of lack of understanding of the feed characteristics that could be responsive to\\u000a selection and would improve feedlot performance. A Steptoe × Morex population was planted in irrigated and rain-fed environments,\\u000a and collected data

  5. Sponge and dough bread making: genetic and phenotypic relationships with wheat quality traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin R. Cavanagh; Julian Taylor; Oscar Larroque; Neil Coombes; Arunas P. Verbyla; Zena Nath; Ibrahim Kutty; Lynette Rampling; Barbara Butow; Jean-Philippe Ral; Sandor Tomoskozi; Gabor Balazs; Ferenc Békés; Gulay Mann; Ken J. Quail; Michael Southan; Matthew K. Morell; Marcus Newberry

    2010-01-01

    The genetic and phenotypic relationships among wheat quality predictors and sponge and dough bread making were evaluated in\\u000a a population derived from a cross between an Australian cultivar ‘Chara’ and a Canadian cultivar ‘Glenlea’. The genetic correlation\\u000a across sites for sponge and dough loaf volume was high; however, phenotypic correlations across sites for loaf volume were\\u000a relatively low compared with

  6. Beef quality traits of heifer in comparison with steer, bull and cow at various feeding environments.

    PubMed

    Venkata Reddy, Bandugula; Sivakumar, Allur S; Jeong, Dawoon W; Woo, Yang-Byung; Park, Sang-June; Lee, So-Young; Byun, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Chang-Ho; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Hwang, Inho

    2015-01-01

    The present review has been focused largely on the sex type differences in beef quality among heifers, cows, steers and bulls in various feeding environments. Genetic groups, feeding systems and gender are the major factors that change carcass characteristics and fatty acid profiles of cattle. Studies identified that heifer beef has super characteristics in eating quality and a better healthy composition in fatty acids than steer, cow and bull. Diet influences the variation of fatty acid profile; particularly the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) interacts with breed and sex. Animals finished in pasture systems were reported to show better ratios of PUFA/ saturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3. Carcasses of roughage-fed beef are lighter and have less marbling and lower quality grades but have higher cutability than carcasses of grain-fed bulls. Heifers and cows are reported to deposit more fat than steers and bulls. Among males, lower production of testosterone by steers favors more fat thickness compared with bulls. Marbling greatly varies among cattle belonging to different sexes, and particularly, females have genetic makeup that efficiently controls deposition. The current review identified that heifers can be a premium beef brand, while steer beef currently take a large part of market share across the world. PMID:25236779

  7. Effects of Crossbreeding and Gender on the Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Korean Native Black Pig and Duroc Crossbred

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin; Panjono; Lee, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jeong Koo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of Korean Native Black Pig (KNP) and KNP×Duroc crossbred (KNP×D). A total of 50 pigs comprising seven KNP barrows, eight KNP gilts, twenty KNP×D barrows and fifteen KNP×D gilts were used in this study. Animals were reared in the same housing condition with same feed diet for six months prior to slaughter. After an overnight chilling, the carcasses were graded, and samples of Musculus longissimus dorsi were obtained for meat quality analysis. The slaughter and carcass weights and dressing percentage of KNP×D were higher (p<0.001) than those of KNP. The slaughter and carcass weights and backfat thickness of barrows were higher (p<0.01) than those of gilts. There were no significant difference in carcass conformation and quality grade between KNP and KNP×D as well as barrow and gilt. Fat content of KNP×D was higher (p<0.001) than that of KNP. Fat content of barrow was higher (p<0.001) than that of gilt. There was interaction between crossbreeding and gender on the fat content. KNP gilt showed higher fat content than KNP barrow whereas KNP×D barrow showed higher fat content than KNP×D gilt. Lightness, redness, yellowness, chroma and hue angle values and color preference of meat of KNP×D were lower (p<0.001) than those of KNP. Redness, yellowness and chroma values of meat of barrow were lower (p<0.05) than those of gilt. It is concluded that crossbreeding KNP with Duroc increases carcass productivity and meat fat but decreases meat color values and preference. Crossbreeding of KNP with Duroc produces a better fat deposition in meat of barrows than in gilts. PMID:25050045

  8. Effects of allelic variations in starch synthesis-related genes on grain quality traits of Korean nonglutinous rice varieties under different temperature conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Young-Jun; Jeung, Ji-Ung; Shin, Woon-Chul; Kim, Ki-Young; Ye, Changrong; Redoña, Edilberto D.; Kim, Bo-Kyeong

    2014-01-01

    Influences of allelic variations in starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs) on rice grain quality were examined. A total of 187 nonglutinous Korean rice varieties, consisting of 170 Japonica and 17 Tongil-type varieties, were grown in the field and in two greenhouse conditions. The percentages of head rice and chalky grains, amylose content, alkali digestion value, and rapid visco-analysis characteristics were evaluated in the three different environments. Among the 10 previously reported SSRG markers used in this study, seven were polymorphic, and four of those showed subspecies-specific allele distributions. Six out of the seven polymorphic SSRG markers were significantly associated with at least one grain quality trait (R2 > 0.1) across the three different environments. However, the association level and significance were markedly lower when the analysis was repeated using only the 170 Japonica varieties. Similarly, the significant associations between SSRG allelic variations and changes in grain quality traits under increased temperature were largely attributable to the biased allele frequency between the two subpopulations. Our results suggest that within Korean Japonica varieties, these 10 major SSRG loci have been highly fixed during breeding history and variations in grain quality traits might be influenced by other genetic factors. PMID:24987303

  9. Novel SNPs in heat shock protein 70 gene and their association with sperm quality traits of Boer goats and Boer crosses.

    PubMed

    Nikbin, S; Panandam, J M; Yaakub, H; Murugaiyah, M; Sazili, A Q

    2014-05-01

    The semen quality of bucks affects the reproduction performance of the herd and is influenced by genetic and non-genetic factors. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is considered as an important gene affecting semen quality traits. The objectives of this study are to find single nucleotide polymorphisms in HSP70 coding region and their association with semen quality traits on Boer and Boer cross bucks. DNA isolated from 53 goats (36 pure South African Boer and 17 Boer crosses) was subjected to PCR amplification of the exon 1 region of the caprine HSP70 gene. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was used to detect polymorphisms and the variant DNA fragments were sequenced. Two synonymous SNPs (74A>C (ss836187517) and 191C>G (ss836187518)) were detected. Qualities of fresh and post-thaw semen were evaluated for sperm concentration, semen volume, sperm motility and velocity traits, live sperm percentage, and abnormal sperm rate. The C allele of ss836187517 and G allele of ss836187518 were at higher frequencies in both the breeds. The C allele of ss836187517 appeared to be the favorable allele for semen concentration, progressive motility of fresh semen, and motility and sperm lateral head displacement of post-thaw semen. A negative overdominance was observed for ss836187517 alleles on velocity traits of post-thaw semen. The C allele of ss836187518 was favorable for sperm concentration and progressive motility. Results herein suggest that the SNPs in HSP70 may affect on semen quality in tropical regions and specially on the potential of semen for freezing. PMID:24674824

  10. Effects of corn distillers dried grains with solubles on quality traits of pork.

    PubMed

    McClelland, K M; Rentfrow, G; Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D; Azain, M J

    2012-11-01

    The high cost of feed grains has led swine producers to seek alternative feedstuffs, such as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). However, little is known about the effects of high levels of DDGS in swine diets on pork quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate belly processing and bacon, sausage, and loin quality of pigs fed high levels of DDGS. Sixty pigs averaging 34 kg BW were fed fortifi ed corn-soybean meal diets containing 0%, 15%, 30%, or 45% DDGS. At 120 kg BW, the pigs were humanely harvested and bellies, loins, and shoulders were removed from the left side of each carcass. Flex tests of bellies indicated that they became softer (linear, P < 0.03) as DDGS levels increased. The PUFA in backfat and belly fat increased linearly (P < 0.005), as did iodine values with increasing 0DDGS in the diet. Bellies were pumped to target 12% brine retention, cooked, and sliced at a commercial facility. Slicing yield was not affected by DDGS level fed. Fresh bacon slices were scored 1 to 6 with 1 representing no visible cracks in the fat and 6 representing a spider weblike shattering of the fat. Shatter scores decreased (linear, P < 0.001) with increasing dietary DDGS. Bratwurststyle sausage was produced by combining ground Boston butts and picnics to target 30% fat, blended with commercial seasonings, and stuffed into natural casings. Loose sausage was placed on trays, overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride wrap, and stored under constant, cool white fl orescent lighting (1,300 lx) at 4°C. Objective color values (L*, a*, and b*) were taken on loosepackaged sausage mix at 6 locations at the same time daily for 7 d. Sausage was also sampled for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at the same time daily on d 0, 3, 5, and 7. Color scores of sausage were not consistently affected by DDGS level in the diet and the changes were slight. The TBARS in sausage from pigs fed the 30% and 45% DDGS diets increased to a greater extent from d 0 to 7 than in those fed the control or 15% DDGS diets. An 8-member, trained panel evaluated the sensory attributes of bacon slices, sausage, and loin chops. The DDGS resulted in a softer texture (P < 0.004) and increased juiciness (P < 0.04) in sausages, but no differences in sensory scores were found in bacon slices or loin chops. The results indicate that the softer bellies, greater concentrations of PUFA in carcass fat, and greater iodine values associated with feeding increased DDGS did not negatively affect slicing yield of cured bellies, quality of fresh bacon slices, or eating quality of bacon, sausage, or loin chops. PMID:22952373

  11. Association of PPAR?2 polymorphisms with carcass and meat quality traits in a Pietrain x Jinhua F2 population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Xiaoling; Guo, Xiaoling; Lv, Zunzhou; Zhou, Hongmei; Xu, Ningying

    2011-01-01

    The PPAR?2 gene is a key regulator of both proliferation and preadipocyte differentiation in mammals. Herein its genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed using PCR-SSCP in eight pig breeds (N = 416). Two kinds of polymorphisms of the PPAR?2 gene were detected, including a previously reported shift SNP A177G (Met59Val) in exon 1 and a novel silent mutation G876A in exon 5. The results revealed that European pig breeds carry a higher allele A frequency at the A177G locus and a fixed GG genotype at the G876A locus. Allele A at the G876A locus was only found in Jinhua pigs. The association between haplotype (A177G/G876A) and carcass and meat quality traits was analyzed in a Pietrain x Jinhua F2 population (N = 248). The PPAR?2 gene was found to be significantly associated with backfat thickness at the shoulder (p < 0.05), 6–7th ribs (p < 0.01), last rib (p < 0.01), gluteus medius (p <0.05) and ham weight (p < 0.01). Significant effects of different haplotypes on ham weight and backfat thickness at the 6–7th ribs, last rib, and gluteus medius were also observed. PMID:21637544

  12. Effect of feeding diets containing barley, wheat and corn distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass traits and meat quality in growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Alagón, Gilbert; Arce, Orlando; Serrano, Paula; Ródenas, Luis; Martínez-Paredes, Eugenio; Cervera, Concepción; Pascual, Juan José; Pascual, Mariam

    2015-03-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on carcass and meat quality of longissimus muscle was studied in 100 growing rabbits from 28 to 59days old. Diets with no DDGS (C), barley (Db20), wheat (Dw20) and corn (Dc20) DDGS at 20% and corn (Dc40) DDGS at 40% were formulated. No effects on most of the carcass traits, texture and water holding capacity were found. Barley and corn DDGS led to a higher dissectible fat percentage. Meat redness was higher with Dw20 and pH was higher with Dw20 and Db20 than with Dc20. Protein and saturated fatty acids concentration declined as corn DDGS level increased. Dc40 led to the lowest saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio, atherogenic index and thrombogenic index. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of these DDGS at 20% did not affect most of the carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits. PMID:25437451

  13. Diversity and relationships in key traits for functional and apparent quality in a collection of eggplant: fruit phenolics content, antioxidant activity, polyphenol oxidase activity, and browning.

    PubMed

    Plazas, Mariola; López-Gresa, María P; Vilanova, Santiago; Torres, Cristina; Hurtado, Maria; Gramazio, Pietro; Andújar, Isabel; Herráiz, Francisco J; Bellés, José M; Prohens, Jaime

    2013-09-18

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) varieties with increased levels of phenolics in the fruit present enhanced functional quality, but may display greater fruit flesh browning. We evaluated 18 eggplant accessions for fruit total phenolics content, chlorogenic acid content, DPPH scavenging activity, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, liquid extract browning, and fruit flesh browning. For all the traits we found a high diversity, with differences among accessions of up to 3.36-fold for fruit flesh browning. Variation in total content in phenolics and in chlorogenic acid content accounted only for 18.9% and 6.0% in the variation in fruit flesh browning, and PPO activity was not significantly correlated with fruit flesh browning. Liquid extract browning was highly correlated with chlorogenic acid content (r = 0.852). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified four groups of accessions with different profiles for the traits studied. Results suggest that it is possible to develop new eggplant varieties with improved functional and apparent quality. PMID:23972229

  14. Association of selected SNP with carcass and taste panel assessed meat quality traits in a commercial population of Aberdeen Angus-sired beef cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L Gill; Stephen C Bishop; Caroline McCorquodale; John L Williams; Pamela Wiener

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), previously associated with meat and milk quality traits in cattle, in a population of 443 commercial Aberdeen Angus-cross beef cattle. The eight SNP, which were located within five genes: ?-calpain (CAPN1), calpastatin (CAST), leptin (LEP), growth hormone receptor (GHR) and acylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1

  15. Implications of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities on quality traits of raw and marinated chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Mudalal, S; Lorenzi, M; Soglia, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2015-04-01

    One of the consequences of intense genetic selection for growth of poultry is the recent appearance of abnormalities in chicken breast muscles, such as white striping (characterised by superficial white striations) and wooden breast (characterised by pale and bulged areas with substantial hardness). The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality traits of chicken fillets affected by white striping and wooden breast abnormalities. In two replications, 192 fillets were divided into the following four classes: normal (n=48; absence of any visual defects), white striping (n=48, presence of white striations), wooden breast (n=48; diffusely presence of hardened areas) and white striping/wooden breast (n=48; fillets affected by both abnormalities). Morphology, raw meat texture and technological properties were assessed in both unprocessed (pH, colour, drip loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force) and marinated meat (marinade uptake, purge loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force). Fillets affected by white striping, wooden breast or both abnormalities exhibited higher breast weights compared with normal fillets (305.5, 298.7, 318.3 and 244.7 g, respectively; P<0.001). Wooden breast, either alone or in combination with white striping, was associated with a significant (P<0.001) increase of fillet thickness in the caudal area and raw meat hardness compared with both normal and the white striping abnormality, for which there was no difference. Overall, the occurrence of the individual and combined white striping and wooden breast abnormalities resulted in substantial reduction in the quality of breast meat, although these abnormalities are associated with distinct characteristics. Wooden breast fillets showed lower marinade uptake and higher cooking losses than white-striped fillets for both unprocessed and marinated meats. On the other hand, white-striped fillets showed a moderate decline in marinade and cooking yield. Fillets affected by both abnormalities had the highest (P<0.001) ultimate pH values. In contrast, the effects on colour of raw and cooked meat, drip loss, purge loss and cooked meat shear force were negligible or relatively low and of little practical importance. Thus, the presence of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities impair not only breast meat appearance but also the quality of both raw and marinated meats mainly by reducing water holding/binding abilities. PMID:25500004

  16. Study on association of single nucleotide polymorphism of CAPN1 gene with muscle fibre and carcass traits in quality chicken populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z R; Liu, Y P; Jiang, X; Du, H R; Zhu, Q

    2008-08-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effect of the calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene on carcass and meat quality traits in eight meat-type chicken populations, including five pure lines (developed from Chinese local breeds) and three cross-breeds. Primer pairs for the Coding Sequence (CDS) region in CAPN1 were designed from the chicken genomic sequence database. Polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) and DNA sequencing. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; C2546T, G3535A and C7198A) were detected among individuals in each population. The associations of their haplotypes (H1 = CGA, H2 = CGC, H3 = CAA, H4 = CAC, H5 = TGA and H7 = TAA) with chicken breast muscle fibre and carcass traits were analysed. Results showed that the haplotypes were associated with live weight (LW), carcass weight (CW), breast muscle weight (BMW) and leg muscle weight (LMW) (p < 0.05), and were also related to eviscerated percentage (%EP) and breast muscle fibre density (p < 0.01). H1H3 haplotype was dominant for LW, CW and BMW; H1H5 haplotype was dominant for EP; H3H4 haplotype was dominant for LMW and H1H1 haplotype was dominant for BFD. It was concluded that the CAPN1 gene may be a major gene affecting meat quality traits of chicken or it is linked with the major gene. H1H3, H1H5 and H3H4 were the most advantageous haplotypes for carcass traits whereas H1H1 was the positive haplotype for breast muscle fibre trait. PMID:18727211

  17. Examining 20th century water quality and ecological changes in the Lake of the Woods, Ontario, Canada: A paleolimnological investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Crystal V. Hyatt; Andrew M. Paterson; Kathleen M. Rühland; John P. Smol

    2011-01-01

    Comparisons between diatom assemblages preserved in modern and pre-industrial sediments were made to provide a lake-wide paleolimnological assessment of environmental change in 17 sites located throughout the Ontario portion of the Lake of the Woods (LoW). Diatom changes were consistent across all sites, although the magnitude of these changes varied along a trophic gradient (i.e., main channel sites versus isolated

  18. Growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits as affected by different growth promoters.

    PubMed

    Attia, Y A; El-Hanoun, A M; Bovera, F; Monastra, G; El-Tahawy, W S; Habiba, H I

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the article was to study the effect of different growth promoters on growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits. A total number of 105 male growing NZW rabbits during 35-91 days of age were randomly distributed among 7 groups fed the same basal diet and submitted to different dietary treatments: the first group was unsupplemented and used as control; the other groups were supplemented respectively with bee pollen and/or propolis at 200 mg/kg BW of each and inulin and/or mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) at 35 mg/kg BW of each. Body weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), biochemical and haematological blood parameters, carcass characteristics, histological studies of ileum and spleen and economical efficiency were measured. Bee pollen administered alone or with propolis significantly (p < 0.01) the body weight gain and improved FCR in respect of the control group. Inulin with MOS significantly improved just FCR than the control group. Bee pollen with propolis and MOS supplemented-groups resulted in significantly higher (7.96 and 8.41% respectively) white blood cells compared to the control group. Plasma total cholesterol was significantly higher for the MOS group in respect of the control, bee pollen, inulin and inulin with MOS supplemented-groups. Propolis resulted in significantly higher dressed carcass percentage than the control group and higher carcass index than only bee pollen with propolis supplemented-group. Bee pollen, in particular if in combination with propolis, could be used as a supplement in the growing rabbits during days 35-91 of age with positive effects on growth rate and feed conversion ratio. PMID:23419029

  19. Identification of QTLs for fruit quality traits in Japanese apples: QTLs for early ripening are tightly related to preharvest fruit drop.

    PubMed

    Kunihisa, Miyuki; Moriya, Shigeki; Abe, Kazuyuki; Okada, Kazuma; Haji, Takashi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kim, Hoytaek; Nishitani, Chikako; Terakami, Shingo; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2014-09-01

    Many important apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit quality traits are regulated by multiple genes, and more information about quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits is required for marker-assisted selection. In this study, we constructed genetic linkage maps of the Japanese apple cultivars 'Orin' and 'Akane' using F1 seedlings derived from a cross between these cultivars. The 'Orin' map consisted of 251 loci covering 17 linkage groups (LGs; total length 1095.3 cM), and the 'Akane' map consisted of 291 loci covering 18 LGs (total length 1098.2 cM). We performed QTL analysis for 16 important traits, and found that four QTLs related to harvest time explained about 70% of genetic variation, and these will be useful for marker-assisted selection. The QTL for early harvest time in LG15 was located very close to the QTL for preharvest fruit drop. The QTL for skin color depth was located around the position of MYB1 in LG9, which suggested that alleles harbored by 'Akane' are regulating red color depth with different degrees of effect. We also analyzed soluble solids and sugar component contents, and found that a QTL for soluble solids content in LG16 could be explained by the amount of sorbitol and fructose. PMID:25320559

  20. The use of thyme and orange essential oils blend to improve quality traits of marinated chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Rimini, Simone; Petracci, Massimiliano; Smith, Douglas P

    2014-08-01

    Poultry meat contains large quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which lead to oxidative deterioration. Plant essential oils (EO) and natural compounds, with antioxidant properties, may be used to alleviate this problem. Two replications were conducted to evaluate the effects of a mixture (1:1) of thyme and orange oils (EO) on the quality characteristics and the oxidative stability of chicken meat (breast and wing). For each replication, 24 fresh breast fillets and 24 wings were procured from a local grocery store. The EO were added to marinade solution to achieve a final concentration of 0.55% sodium chloride, 0.28% polyphosphate, and 0.05% wt/vol of EO blend. Breasts and wings were split in 2 different groups with homogenous pH and lightness and vacuum tumbled in 2 treatments, a 0.5% EO and a control (CON, no EO). Each group was tested for pH, Commission Internationale d'Eclairage color (lightness, L*; redness, a*; yellowness, b*), moisture content, marinade uptake, purge loss, cook yield, and shear force. Susceptibility to lipid oxidation was determined on fresh and frozen meat by TBA reactive substance analysis (induced oxidation from 0 to 150 min at 37°C). The EO breasts had lower purge loss compared with CON meat. Breast did not show any color, pH, marinade uptake, cooking yield, shear force, or moisture differences due to treatment, although cooked EO breast was slightly less red than CON. The EO wings presented higher a* and b* values after marination and lower purge loss and shear force than CON. No differences were detected on wings for color, pH, marinade uptake, cooking yield, or moisture between EO and CON wings. Both fresh and frozen EO breasts and EO wings were less susceptible to the lipid oxidation during all induced oxidation times compared with CON breasts and wings. In conclusion, EO had a positive effect on broiler breast and wing lipid oxidation without negatively affecting meat quality traits. PMID:24902698

  1. Immune-spaying as an alternative to surgical spaying in Iberian×Duroc females: effect on carcass traits and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Negrón, Rafael; Sánchez del Pulgar, José; Ventanas, Jesús; García, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of immune-spaying on production traits and meat quality characteristics of fresh loin (longissimus dorsi) by comparing 3 groups of Iberian×Duroc females (N=12 per batch): surgically spayed, immune-spayed and entire females. Carcass traits and physicochemical parameters, including fatty acid profile, were investigated. The only carcass trait significantly affected by castration was the ham fat thickness, where both immune-spayed and surgically spayed females showed higher values against entire females (57±9.5mm, 62±2.5mm and 51±10.1mm, respectively; p<0.05). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the quality parameters of fresh meat. These results are important regarding animal welfare, since in Europe, there is a plan to voluntarily end the surgical castration of pigs by 2018. Therefore, with an adequate vaccination protocol, immune-spaying might represent a good alternative to surgical spaying. The reliability of immune-spaying over long periods should be evaluated. PMID:25443969

  2. Molecular characterization, expression profiles, and analysis of Qinchuan cattle SIRT1 gene association with meat quality and body measurement traits (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Gui, Linsheng; Wang, Hongbao; Wei, Shengjuan; Zhang, Yaran; Zan, Linsen

    2014-08-01

    Silent information regulator (SIRT1), was closely associated with senescence, metabolism, and apoptosis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether SIRT1 gene could be used as a candidate gene in the breeding process of Qinchuan cattle. Via sequencing technology conducted in 453 individuals of Qinchuan cattle, single nucleotide polymorphisms (G25764A, A25846G, and T25868C) with 5 haplotypes and 6 combined genotypes in 3' untranslated region of SIRT1 gene were identified. In addition, three loci were significantly associated with some of the body measurements and meat quality traits in Qinchuan cattle (P < 0.05), and the H2H2 (GG-AA-CC) diplotypes had better performance than other combinations in Qinchuan cattle. These results suggest that the SIRT1 gene could be used in marker assisted selection to improve the production traits of Qinchuan cattle. PMID:24828021

  3. Allelic Variation in PtGA20Ox Associates with Growth and Wood Properties in Populus spp

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jiaxing; Du, Qingzhang; Chang, Mengqi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2012-01-01

    Populus tomentosa is an economically important tree crop that produces wood for lumber, pulp, paper, and biofuels. Wood quality traits are likely to be strongly affected by the plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA), which regulates growth. GA20Ox encodes one of the major regulatory enzymes of GA biosynthesis and may therefore play a large role in growth and wood quality. Here, linkage disequilibrium (LD) studies were used to identify significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within PtGA20Ox and growth and wood-quality traits of P. tomentosa. We isolated a full-length GA20Ox cDNA from Populus tomentosa by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR; this 1401 bp cDNA clone had an open reading frame of 1158 bp and encoded a protein of 385 amino acids. PtGA20Ox transcripts were maximally expressed in the mature xylem of vascular tissues, suggesting that PtGA20Ox is highly expressed and specifically associated with secondary xylem formation. Resequencing the PtGA20Ox locus of 36 individuals identified 55 SNPs, and the frequency of SNPs was 1/31 bp. The 29 most common SNPs (frequency>0.1) were genotyped in an association population (426 individuals) that was also phenotyped for key growth and wood quality traits. LD did not extend over the entire gene (r2<0.1, within 500 bp), demonstrating that a candidate-gene-based LD approach may the best way to understand the molecular basis underlying quantitative variation in this species. SNP- and haplotype-based association analyses indicated that four SNPs (false discovery rate Q<0.05) and 14 haplotypes (P<0.05) were significantly associated with growth and wood properties. The phenotypic variance explained by each SNP ranged from 3.44% to 14.47%. The SNP markers identified in this study can be applied to breeding programs for the improvement of growth and wood-property traits by marker-assisted selection. PMID:23300875

  4. The relationship between traits optimism and anxiety and health-related quality of life in patients hospitalized for chronic diseases: data from the SATISQOL study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of psychological factors is often taken into account in the evaluation of quality of life. However, the effect of optimism and trait anxiety remains controversial and they are rarely studied simultaneously. We aimed to study the effect of this factor on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients after a hospitalization in relation with their chronic disease. Methods Using cross-sectional data from the SATISQOL cohort, we conducted a multicentric study, including patients hospitalized for an intervention in connection with their chronic disease. Six months after hospitalization, patients completed a generic HRQOL questionnaire (SF-36), and the STAI and LOT-R questionnaires to evaluate optimism and trait anxiety. We studied the effect of each trait on HRQOL separately, and simultaneously, taking account of their interaction in 3 models, using an ANOVA. Results In this study, 1529 patients were included in three participating hospitals and there existed wide diversity in the chronic diseases in our population. The HRQOL score increased for all dimensions of SF36 between 15,8 and 44,5 when the level of anxiety decreased (p?trait anxiety appeared to be significantly correlated with HRQOL. Furthermore, an interaction existed between the trait anxiety and optimism for some dimensions of SF36. Contrary to optimism, it seems essential to evaluate trait anxiety in future studies about HRQOL, since it could represent a confounding factor. PMID:23914779

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER Determining the transition from juvenile to mature wood

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    in this range, is used in both lumber and pulp pro- duction, and has wood and fiber attributes that are suitedORIGINAL PAPER Determining the transition from juvenile to mature wood microfibril angle) and mature wood (MW) is an important first step in understand- ing wood quality and the modeling of fiber

  6. The effect of different dietary levels of rapeseed meal on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Mikulski, D; Jankowski, J; Zdunczyk, Z; Juskiewicz, J; Slominski, B A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dietary levels of low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RSM) on growth performance, blood thyroid hormone concentration, carcass traits, and chemical composition, physicochemical properties, and fatty acid profile of breast meat in growing turkeys. The experiment lasted for 21 wk. Large White BIG-6 turkeys were fed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing 0, 60, 120, and 180 g/kg of RSM. Each experimental group was comprised of 7 replicates/pen of 28 birds each. There was no effect of graded levels of RSM on final BW. An increase in the inclusion rate of RSM was followed by a linear increase in feed conversion ratio, which was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the group fed 180 g/kg of RSM. The blood levels of free triiodothyronine decreased significantly (P < 0.05) regardless of the dietary level of RSM. No significant changes in the carcass dressing percentage or the meat fat content were observed. Significant differences were found in the fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of breast meat. The concentrations of margaroleic acid and saturated fatty acids, including myristic and palmitic acid, in meat from male turkeys fed 120 and 180 g/kg of RSM decreased linearly; whereas the levels of oleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic and linolenic acid (an n-3 fatty acid), increased linearly. An increase in RSM content of the diets was accompanied by the unfavorable changes in selected functional properties of meat, including a significant increase in drip loss in groups fed 120 g/kg of RSM (from 1.85 to 2.38%) and 180 g/kg of RSM (from 1.85 to 3.02%) and a decrease in Warner-Bratzler shear force values in turkeys fed 180 g/kg of RSM (from 19.1 to 15.8 N). The results suggest that the quality of turkey meat could be affected by impaired triiodothyronine secretion caused by dietary RSM. PMID:22184447

  7. A genome-wide SNP scan reveals novel loci for egg production and quality traits in white leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbo; Li, Dongfeng; Liu, Jianfeng; Chen, Sirui; Qu, Lujiang; Zheng, Jiangxia; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2011-01-01

    Availability of the complete genome sequence as well as high-density SNP genotyping platforms allows genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in chickens. A high-density SNP array containing 57,636 markers was employed herein to identify associated variants underlying egg production and quality traits within two lines of chickens, i.e., White Leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers. For each individual, age at first egg (AFE), first egg weight (FEW), and number of eggs (EN) from 21 to 56 weeks of age were recorded, and egg quality traits including egg weight (EW), eggshell weight (ESW), yolk weight (YW), eggshell thickness (EST), eggshell strength (ESS), albumen height(AH) and Haugh unit(HU) were measured at 40 and 60 weeks of age. A total of 385 White Leghorn females and 361 brown-egg dwarf dams were selected to be genotyped. The genome-wide scan revealed 8 SNPs showing genome-wise significant (P<1.51E-06, Bonferroni correction) association with egg production and quality traits under the Fisher's combined probability method. Some significant SNPs are located in known genes including GRB14 and GALNT1 that can impact development and function of ovary, but more are located in genes with unclear functions in layers, and need to be studied further. Many chromosome-wise significant SNPs were also detected in this study and some of them are located in previously reported QTL regions. Most of loci detected in this study are novel and the follow-up replication studies may be needed to further confirm the functional significance for these newly identified SNPs. PMID:22174844

  8. Linkage Disequilibrium Based Association Mapping of Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton Using Diverse Cotton Germplasm from Uzbekistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    QTL-mapping, a now-classical approach to identify molecular markers linked to complex traits in specific experimental populations, is extremely time-consuming, high-risk, and expensive work - prohibitively expensive if dozens, let alone hundreds or thousands, of germplasm accessions are to be examin...

  9. Genome-wide linkage disequilibruim revealed by microsatellite markers and association study of fiber quality traits in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of association mapping based on existing genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) between DNA polymorphisms and genes underlying traits is becoming powerful tool that overcome many limitations (high cost, poor resolution, requirement for bi-parentally crossed lines assessing only two ...

  10. Boar fertility and semen quality characteristics in lines of pigs selected for component traits of female reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection for 11 generations for ovulation rate (OR) or uterine capacity (UC) resulted in significant changes in component traits of litter size. Our objective was to characterize male fertility as a correlated response to selection compared to an unselected control line (CO). Each boar (n=60) fro...

  11. The influence of somatotype components and personality traits on the playing position and the quality of top Croatian female cadet handball players.

    PubMed

    Cavala, Marijana; Trnini?, Viktorija; Jasi?, Dajana; Tomljanovi?, Mario

    2013-05-01

    The research was conducted with the aim to establish the structure and the differences of morphological features and personality traits between different age groups of female cadet handball players grouped by their playing quality and playing positions. Further on, the research was done on 70 handball players aged 15, 31 on average, who were grouped according to their positions on goalkeepers, outside players, wings and pivots. Furthermore, according to the quality of playing, they were divided in two quality groups of players, those from the wider cadet national team, thus characterised as top female players in Croatia, and those who had never been invited into the cadet national team and thus can be referred to as low-quality, i.e. average female handball players. The structure of predictor variables has indicated the existence of general morphological factor assessing the players' constitution and two personality features factors - neuroticism and extraversion. The variance analysis showed no statistically significant differences of somatotype variables with relation to quality and playing position. By observing basic personality traits, a statistically significant difference was confirmed only in introversion-extraversion with a lower score in goalkeepers than in other positions, which indicates a higher level of introversion in this playing position. Such result was expected since this particular position abounds in specific tasks and demands in the game in relation to all other playing positions. Further on, it has been concluded that the selection of players must not be based only on the stated physical and psychological characteristics, but on relevant anthropological complexes determining performance and sport achievement. PMID:23914494

  12. A new genomic resource dedicated to wood formation in Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    Rengel, David; Clemente, Hélène San; Servant, Florence; Ladouce, Nathalie; Paux, Etienne; Wincker, Patrick; Couloux, Arnaud; Sivadon, Pierre; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Background Renowned for their fast growth, valuable wood properties and wide adaptability, Eucalyptus species are amongst the most planted hardwoods in the world, yet they are still at the early stages of domestication because conventional breeding is slow and costly. Thus, there is huge potential for marker-assisted breeding programs to improve traits such as wood properties. To this end, the sequencing, analysis and annotation of a large collection of expressed sequences tags (ESTs) from genes involved in wood formation in Eucalyptus would provide a valuable resource. Results We report here the normalization and sequencing of a cDNA library from developing Eucalyptus secondary xylem, as well as the construction and sequencing of two subtractive libraries (juvenile versus mature wood and vice versa). A total of 9,222 high quality sequences were collected from about 10,000 cDNA clones. The EST assembly generated a set of 3,857 wood-related unigenes including 2,461 contigs (Cg) and 1,396 singletons (Sg) that we named 'EUCAWOOD'. About 65% of the EUCAWOOD sequences produced matches with poplar, grapevine, Arabidopsis and rice protein sequence databases. BlastX searches of the Uniref100 protein database allowed us to allocate gene ontology (GO) and protein family terms to the EUCAWOOD unigenes. This annotation of the EUCAWOOD set revealed key functional categories involved in xylogenesis. For instance, 422 sequences matched various gene families involved in biosynthesis and assembly of primary and secondary cell walls. Interestingly, 141 sequences were annotated as transcription factors, some of them being orthologs of regulators known to be involved in xylogenesis. The EUCAWOOD dataset was also mined for genomic simple sequence repeat markers, yielding a total of 639 putative microsatellites. Finally, a publicly accessible database was created, supporting multiple queries on the EUCAWOOD dataset. Conclusion In this work, we have identified a large set of wood-related Eucalyptus unigenes called EUCAWOOD, thus creating a valuable resource for functional genomics studies of wood formation and molecular breeding in this economically important genus. This set of publicly available annotated sequences will be instrumental for candidate gene approaches, custom array development and marker-assisted selection programs aimed at improving and modulating wood properties. PMID:19327132

  13. Fatty acid profile, carcass and meat quality traits of young Nellore bulls fed crude glycerin replacing energy sources in the concentrate.

    PubMed

    Lage, J F; Berchielli, T T; San Vito, E; Silva, R A; Ribeiro, A F; Reis, R A; Dallantonia, E E; Simonetti, L R; Delevatti, L M; Machado, M

    2014-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality traits of 60 Nellore young bulls fed diets without crude glycerin (CG); with CG replacing corn (CGc; 10% of dry matter - DM) in the concentrate; and with CG replacing soybean hull (CGsh; 10% of DM) in the concentrate were evaluated. Diets were evaluated at two concentrate levels (CLs). The CL did not affect cold carcass weight (CCW; P=0.6074), cold carcass dressing (CCD; P=0.9636), rib fat thickness (RFT; P=0.8696) and longissimus muscle area (LMA; P=0.7524). Animals fed diets with CGc or CGsh showed meat with greater deposition of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA; P=0.0022) and CLA (18:2 cis-9, trans-11) contents (P=0.0001) than animals fed diets without CG. The inclusion of 10% of CG in diets CGc or CGsh does not affect the carcass and meat quality traits; however, it increases the MUFA and CLA contents in beef, although these changes are very small in nutritional terms. PMID:24334035

  14. Sequence variants in the bovine silent information regulator 6, their linkage and their associations with body measurements and carcass quality traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Gui, Linsheng; Jiang, Bijie; Zhang, Yaran; Zan, Linsen

    2015-03-15

    Silent information regulator 6 (SIRT6) belongs to the family of class III nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase and plays an essential role in DNA repair and metabolism. This study was conducted to detect potential polymorphisms of the bovine SIRT6 gene and explore their relationships with body measurement and carcass quality in Qinchuan cattle. Four sequence variants (SVs) were identified in intron 6, exon 7, exon 9, and 3' UTR, via sequencing technology conducted in 468 individual Qinchuan cattle. Eleven different haplotypes were identified, of which two major haplotypes had a frequency of 45.7% (-CACT-) and 14.8% (-CGTC-). Three SVs (SV2, SV3 and SV4) were significantly associated with some of the body measurements and carcass quality traits (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the H2H7 (CC-GA-TT-TC) diplotype had better performance than other combinations. Our results suggest that some polymorphisms in SIRT6 are associated with production traits and may be used as candidates for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and management in beef cattle breeding programs. PMID:25576955

  15. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and potential for water-supply contamination near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, W.S.; Mirecki, J.E.; Kingsbury, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogeologic and ground-water-quality data were collected near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee to determine the extent and magnitude of ground-water contamination in offsite areas and to assess the potential for contamination of nearby water-supply wells. New methods were used to collect ground-water samples from the alluvial aquifer at six offsite stations at depths of less than about 40 feet below land surface. In addition, 36 offsite wells were installed at these stations to collect samples from the alluvial aquifer and to depths of about 150 feet in the deeper Fort Pillow aquifer. Ground-water samples collected by the new methods and from the 36 offsite wells were analyzed for selected volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The samples collected from the 36 wells also were analyzed for major and trace inorganic constituents. Naphthalene and some volatile organic compounds were detected at low concentrations in samples from both the alluvial aquifer and the Fort Pillow aquifer. To assess the potential for water-supply contamination from the site, four water-supply wells to the east (upgradient) and three wells to the west (down- gradient) of the abandoned plant site were sampled. These samples were analyzed for the same analytes as the samples from the 36 wells. Although volatile organic compounds and elevated concentrations of trace and major inorganic constituents were measured in samples from some wells east of the site, no organic compounds associated with the wood- preserving process were detected. No contaminants from the site were detected in samples from wells west of the site.

  16. Characterization of agronomic and quality traits and HSW-G5 compositions from the progenies of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with different protein content.

    PubMed

    Bian, M; Sun, D K; Sun, D F; Sun, G L

    2015-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) play an essential role in wheat processing quality. In this study, we evaluated the genetic pattern with HMW-GS composition between generations and examined whether agronomic and quality traits were correlated with each other. A wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar with high protein content and 2 cultivars with low protein content were subjected to a reciprocal cross. Sixteen agronomic and 4 quality characteristics were investigated. A total of 216 seeds from each F2 generation were chosen randomly and analyzed for HMW-GS composition using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Agronomic and quality characteristics were not significantly different between reciprocal crosses, indicating no cytoplasmic effect on the characteristics studied. The separation ratio of 2 HMW-GS loci was 9:3:3:1, indicating no linkage between any 2 loci. The novel HMW-GS N was detected in cultivar R145, which did not follow the Mendelian segregation ratio. A Glu-A1a(1) band was not detected in 1 individual from Tian8901xR145. Average grain weight per spike was significantly correlated with quality characteristics and may be a suitable criterion for selecting high protein content in wheat breeding programs. PMID:25867343

  17. The transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in conifers.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana; Paiva, Jorge; Louzada, José; Lima-Brito, José

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, forestry scientists have adapted genomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to the search for candidate genes related to the transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in several tree species. Gymnosperms, in particular, the conifers, are ecologically and economically important, namely, for the production of wood and other forestry end products. Until very recently, no whole genome sequencing of a conifer genome was available. Due to the gradual improvement of the NGS technologies and inherent bioinformatics tools, two draft assemblies of the whole genomes sequence of Picea abies and Picea glauca arose in the current year. These draft genome assemblies will bring new insights about the structure, content, and evolution of the conifer genomes. Furthermore, new directions in the forestry, breeding and research of conifers will be discussed in the following. The identification of genes associated with the xylem transcriptome and the knowledge of their regulatory mechanisms will provide less time-consuming breeding cycles and a high accuracy for the selection of traits related to wood production and quality. PMID:24288610

  18. The Transcriptomics of Secondary Growth and Wood Formation in Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ana; Paiva, Jorge; Louzada, José; Lima-Brito, José

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, forestry scientists have adapted genomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to the search for candidate genes related to the transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in several tree species. Gymnosperms, in particular, the conifers, are ecologically and economically important, namely, for the production of wood and other forestry end products. Until very recently, no whole genome sequencing of a conifer genome was available. Due to the gradual improvement of the NGS technologies and inherent bioinformatics tools, two draft assemblies of the whole genomes sequence of Picea abies and Picea glauca arose in the current year. These draft genome assemblies will bring new insights about the structure, content, and evolution of the conifer genomes. Furthermore, new directions in the forestry, breeding and research of conifers will be discussed in the following. The identification of genes associated with the xylem transcriptome and the knowledge of their regulatory mechanisms will provide less time-consuming breeding cycles and a high accuracy for the selection of traits related to wood production and quality. PMID:24288610

  19. Quantification of amylose, amylopectin, and ?-glucan in search for genes controlling the three major quality traits in barley by genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiaoli; Rasmussen, Søren K.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan concentration in a collection of 254 European spring barley varieties allowed to identify 20, 17, and 21 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers, respectively, associated with these important grain quality traits. Negative correlations between the content of amylose and ?-glucan (R = ?0.62, P < 0.01) and amylopectin and ?-glucan (R = ?0.487, P < 0.01) were found in this large collection of spring barley varieties. Besides HvCslF6, amo1 and AGPL2, sex6, and waxy were identified among the major genes responsible for ?-glucan, amylose and amylopectin content, respectively. Several minor genes like HvGSL4, HvGSL3, and HvCesA6, PWD were also detected by GWAS for the first time. Furthermore, the gene encoding ?-fructofuranosidase, located on the short arm of chromosome 7H at 1.49 cM, and SRF6, encoding “leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase protein” on chromosome 2 H, are proposed to be new candidate genes for amylopectin formation in barley endosperm. Several of the associated SNPs on chromosome 1, 5, 6, and 7H mapped to overlapping regions containing QTLs and genes controlling the three grain constituents. In particular chromosomes 5 and 7H carry many QTLs controlling barley grain quality. Amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan were interacted among each other through a metabolic network connected by UDP showing pleiotropic effects. Taken together, these results showed that cereal quality traits related each other and regulated through an interaction network, the identified major genes and genetic regions for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan is a helpful for further research on carbohydrates and barley breeding. PMID:24860587

  20. FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD COMPOSITES

    E-print Network

    Nairn, John A.

    FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD COMPOSITES DURING CRACK PROPAGATION Noah Matsumoto Structural, USA * Corresponding author: John.Nairn@oregonstate.edu SWST member #12;Fracture Toughness of Wood and Wood Composites During Crack Propagation ABSTRACT The mode I fracture toughness as a function of crack

  1. Tribology in secondary wood machining

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, P.L.; Hawthorne, H.M.; Andiappan, J.

    1998-07-01

    Secondary wood manufacturing covers a wide range of products from furniture, cabinets, doors and windows, to musical instruments. Many of these are now mass produced in sophisticated, high speed numerical controlled machines. The performance and the reliability of the tools are key to an efficient and economical manufacturing process as well as to the quality of the finished products. A program concerned with three aspects of tribology of wood machining, namely, tool wear, tool-wood friction characteristics and wood surface quality characterization, was set up in the Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute (IMTI) of the National Research Council of Canada. The studies include friction and wear mechanism identification and modeling, wear performance of surface-engineered tool materials, friction-induced vibration and cutting efficiency, and the influence of wear and friction on finished products. This research program underlines the importance of tribology in secondary wood manufacturing and at the same time adds new challenges to tribology research since wood is a complex, heterogeneous, material and its behavior during machining is highly sensitive to the surrounding environments and to the moisture content in the work piece.

  2. Evaluation of subsurface exploration, sampling, and water-quality-analysis methods at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, W.S.; Carmichael, J.K.; Mirecki, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Direct Push Technology (DPT) and a modified-auger method of sampling were used at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, to collect lithologic data and ground-water samples in an area known to be affected by a subsurface creosote plume. The groundwater samples were analyzed using (1) gas chromatography with photo-ionization detection (GS/PID), (2) high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (3) colonmetric phenol analysis, and (4) toxicity bioassay. DPT piezocone and cone-penetrometer-type tools provided lithologic data and ground-water samples at two onsite stations to a depth of refusal of about 35 feet below land surface. With the assistance of an auger rig, this depth was extended to about 65 feet by pushing the tools in advance of the augers. Following the DPT work, a modified-auger method was tested by the USGS. This method left doubt as to the integrity of the samples collected once zones of contamination were penetrated. GC/PID and HPLC methods of water-quality analysis provided the most data concerning contaminants in the ground-water and proved to be the most effective in creosote plume detection. Analyses from these methods showed that the highest concentrations of contaminants were detected at depths less than about 35 feet below land surface. Phenol analyses provided data supplemental to the HPLC analyses. Bioassay data indicated that toxicity associated with the plume extended to depths of about 55 feet below land surface.

  3. Genetic variants in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors are associated with concentrations of plasma cortisol, muscle glycogen content, and meat quality traits in male Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Poleti, M D; DeRijk, R H; Rosa, A F; Moncau, C T; Oliveira, P S; Coutinho, L L; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C

    2015-04-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) are key components in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine axis and coordinate the physiological response to stress agents to reestablish homeostasis. Genetic variations of GR (NR3C1) and MR (NR3C2) genes could explain the alterations in animals to adapt to challenges, and therefore, their influence on production traits. The present study aimed to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine NR3C1 and NR3C2 genes and explore their associations to relevant traits of beef cattle production. Genotypes and phenotypes were collected from 241 male Nellore cattle (119 noncastrated and 122 castrated surgically) with an average of 24 ± 1.2 mo of age and live weight of 508 ± 39 kg. The traits evaluated were concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol, muscle glycogen and lactate content, and pH, color, cooking loss, and shear force of longissimus thoracis measured on the 1st, 7th, and 14th days postmortem. Five SNPs were identified, 2 in the NR3C1 gene and 3 in the NR3C2 gene. There was an associative relationship between the SNP NR3C1_1 g.3293A>G and postmortem plasma concentration of cortisol (P = 0.0008). The SNPs NR3C2_1 g.115T>C and NR3C2_2 g.570T>C were associated with muscle glycogen content (P = 0.0306 and P = 0.0158), postmortem plasma concentration of ACTH (P = 0.0118 and P = 0.0095), and cooking loss of the steak aged 1 d (P = 0.0398 and P = 0.0423). Haplotype analysis showed associations of GR haplotypes with postmortem plasma concentrations of cortisol and MR haplotypes with meat color, cooking losses, muscle glycogen content, and plasma concentrations of ACTH. The associations observed in the present study show that SNPs in GR and MR genes are related with changes of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and metabolic profile in cattle, leading to individual variation in meat quality traits. PMID:25617989

  4. Effect of concentrate level and slaughter body weight on growth performances, carcass traits and meat quality of Barbarine lambs fed oat hay based diet.

    PubMed

    Majdoub-Mathlouthi, L; Saïd, B; Say, A; Kraiem, K

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate concentrate level (CL) and slaughter body weight (SW) effects on growth performances, carcass traits and meat quality of Barbarine lambs. Twenty-four weaned male lambs (23.1 kg), receiving an oat-hay based diet, were allotted into two groups. The LCL group received low concentrate level (300 g) and the HCL group received high concentrate level (600 g). Lambs were slaughtered at two prefixed weights (35 and 42 kg). For each group and each weight, six lambs were slaughtered. Lambs from HCL group had higher ADG, carcass yields, carcass compactness and subcutaneous fat thickness, and lower carcass meat proportion. CL increase did not affect meat pH, meat and fat color, chemical and fatty acid composition. Late slaughtering improved carcass yields and increased carcass adiposity. However, it did not affect carcass meat proportion and shoulder tissue composition. SW had effect on meat color and fatty acid composition. PMID:23273464

  5. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated 43 to 420 micrograms per liter. Sediment elutriate samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubta, Pimephales promelas, Photobacterium phosphoreum, and Salenastrum capricornulum.

  6. Use of near infrared spectroscopy for estimating meat chemical composition, quality traits and fatty acid content from cattle fed sunflower or flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Prieto, N; López-Campos, O; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Juárez, M; Uttaro, B

    2014-10-01

    This study tested the ability of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict meat chemical composition, quality traits and fatty acid (FA) composition from 63 steers fed sunflower or flaxseed in combination with high forage diets. NIRS calibrations, tested by cross-validation, were successful for predicting crude protein, moisture and fat content with coefficients of determination (R(2)) (RMSECV, g·100g(-1) wet matter) of 0.85 (0.48), 0.90 (0.60) and 0.86 (1.08), respectively, but were not reliable for meat quality attributes. This technology accurately predicted saturated, monounsaturated and branched FA and conjugated linoleic acid content (R(2): 0.83-0.97; RMSECV: 0.04-1.15mg·g(-1) tissue) and might be suitable for screening purposes in meat based on the content of FAs beneficial to human health such as rumenic and vaccenic acids. Further research applying NIRS to estimate meat quality attributes will require the use on-line of a fibre-optic probe on intact samples. PMID:24976561

  7. Effects of genotype and dietary oil supplementation on performance, carcass traits, pork quality and fatty acid composition of backfat and intramuscular fat.

    PubMed

    Bertol, T M; de Campos, R M L; Ludke, J V; Terra, N N; de Figueiredo, E A P; Coldebella, A; dos Santos Filho, J I; Kawski, V L; Lehr, N M

    2013-03-01

    A 42-day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of genotype: terminal sire line Duroc×F1 (DC×F1); terminal sire line Embrapa MS-115×F1 (MS-115×F1); and MS-115×Moura (MS-115×MO) and three dietary oil sources: soybean; canola; and canola+flax, on performance, carcass traits, pork quality, and fatty acid composition. Genotype affected the technological quality of pork and fatty acid profile. MS-115-sired pigs had better meat color and Duroc-sired pigs had higher intramuscular fat content, more saturated fat and better omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Moura breed influenced positively meat tenderness and intramuscular fat. Diet did not affect the technological quality of the meat. Canola or canola+flax oil diet supplementations increased monounsaturated and C18:3 and decreased C18:2 fatty acids, reducing the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The best omega-6/omega-3 ratio was obtained through supplementation with canola+flax. PMID:23273458

  8. An evaluation of eco-friendly naturally coloured cottons regarding seed cotton yield, yield components and major lint quality traits under conditions of East Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Efe, Lale; Killi, Fatih; Mustafayev, Sefer A

    2009-10-15

    In the study carried out in 2002-2003 in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey (in Kahramanmaras Province), four different naturally coloured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (dark brown, light brown, cream and green) lines from Azerbaijan and two white linted cotton varieties (Maras-92 and Sayar-314 (G. hirsutum L.)) of the region were used as material. The aim of this study was to determine seed cotton yield and yield components and major lint quality traits of investigated coloured cotton lines comprising white linted local standard cotton varieties. Field trials were established in randomized block design with four blocks. According to two year's results, it was determined that naturally coloured cottons were found similar to both white linted standard cotton varieties for sympodia number and seed cotton yield. For boll number per plant, except green cotton line all coloured cotton lines were similar to standard varieties or even some of them were better than standards. For ginning outturn, dark brown, cream and green cotton lines were found statistically similar to standard Maras-92. But all naturally coloured cotton lines had lower seed cotton weight per boll and generally lower fiber quality than white linted standard varieties. For fiber length and fiber strength cream cotton line was the best coloured cotton. And for fiber fineness only green cotton line was better than both standards. It can be said that naturally coloured cotton lines need to be improved especially for fiber quality characters in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey. PMID:20128501

  9. Pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    After devastating vast areas of pine forests in Asian countries, the pine wilt disease spread into European forests in 1999 and is causing worldwide concern. This disease involves very complicated interactions between a pathogenic nematode, its vector beetle, host pine species, and fungi in dead hosts. Pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode is determined not only by its physical and chemical traits but also by its behavioral traits. Most life history traits of the pine wood nematode, such as its phoretic relationship with vector beetles, seem to be more effective in virulent than in avirulent isolates or species. As the pathogenicity determinants, secreted enzymes, and surface coat proteins are very important, they have therefore been studied intensively. The mechanism of quick death of a large pine tree as a result of infection by a tiny nematode could be ascribed to the dysfunction of the water-conducting system caused by the death of parenchyma cells, which must have originally evolved as an inherent resistant system. PMID:23663004

  10. Isolation of high quality lignin as a by-product from ammonia percolation pretreatment of poplar wood.

    PubMed

    Bouxin, Florent P; David Jackson, S; Jarvis, Michael C

    2014-06-01

    A two-step process combining percolation-mode ammonia pretreatment of poplar sawdust with mild organosolv purification of the extracted lignin produced high quality, high purity lignin in up to 31% yield and 50% recovery. The uncondensed fraction of the isolated lignin was up to 34%, close to that the native lignin (40%). Less lignin was recovered after pretreatment in batch mode, apparently due to condensation during the longer residence time of the solubilised lignin at elevated temperature. The lignin recovery was directly correlated with its molecular weight and its nitrogen content. Low nitrogen incorporation, observed at high ammonia concentration, may be explained by limited homolytic cleavage of ?-O-4 bonds. Ammonia concentrations from 15% to 25% (w/w) gave similar results in terms of lignin structure, yield and recovery. PMID:24755321

  11. Quality traits of suckling-lamb meat covered by the protected geographical indication “Lechazo de Castilla y León” European quality label

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Miguélez; José María Zumalacárregui; Maria Teresa Osorio; Ana Cristina Figueira; Beatriz Fonseca; Javier Mateo

    2008-01-01

    The quality of suckling-lamb meat (derived from Churra, Castellana and Ojalada breeds), covered by the protected geographical indication (PGI) “Lechazo de Castilla y León”, and the effects of carcass weight (CW), breed and sex on quality were studied. The edible portion (EP) of 81 carcasses was analysed for proximate composition, fatty acid, cholesterol, amino acid and mineral contents. The longissimus

  12. Durability and Surface Analytical Studies of Adhesive Bonding to Wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Brewis; J. Comyn; C. Phanopoulos

    1987-01-01

    The effects of aging on adhesively bonded wood joints were examined using non-extracted, water-extracted and solvent-extracted wood. Surface analysis by XPS and SIMS were used to examine the various wood surfaces. The level of surface extractives is seen to be a major influence on the quality of the joints, both in terms of durability and strength.

  13. Evaluation of the porcine ACSL4 gene as a candidate gene for meat quality traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Corominas, J; Ramayo-Caldas, Y; Castelló, A; Muñoz, M; Ibáñez-Escriche, N; Folch, J M; Ballester, M

    2012-12-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) family members catalyse the formation of long-chain acyl-CoA from fatty acid, ATP and CoA, thus playing an important role in both de novo lipid synthesis and fatty acid catabolism. Previous studies in our group evaluated ACSL4 as a positional candidate gene for quantitative trait loci located on chromosome X in an Iberian × Landrace cross. A DQ144454:c.2645G>A SNP located in the 3' untranslated region of the ACSL4 gene was associated with the percentages of oleic and monounsaturated fatty acids. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the functional implication of this genetic variant. An expression analysis was performed for 120 individuals with different genotypes for the DQ144454:c.2645G>A polymorphism using real-time quantitative PCR. Differences between genotypes were identified in liver, with the ACSL4 mRNA expression levels higher in animals with the G allele than in animals with the A allele. A SNP genome-wide association study with ACSL4 relative expression levels showed significant positions on chromosomes 6 and 12. Description of positional candidate genes for ACSL4 regulation on chromosomes 6 and 12 is provided. PMID:22497636

  14. Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves.

    PubMed

    Tait, R G; Downey, E D; Mayes, M S; Park, C A; Ridpath, J F; Garrick, D J; Reecy, J M

    2013-11-01

    There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits in Angus beef cattle. Final antibody level and response to vaccination were based on neutralizing serum antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2). Calves were followed through development and the feedlot phase, with collection of yearling ultrasound (n=957), preharvest (n=762), and carcass (n=673) data. In this study, 48% of the animals were observed to have positively responded to the vaccine, as evidenced by higher final antibody levels compared to prevaccination antibody levels. Increased final antibody levels were significantly (P<0.05) associated with increased yearling weight and increased subcutaneous fat over the rump. An interaction between final antibody level and weaning time also was associated (P<0.05) with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and meat pH, with a favorable, negative relationship between final antibody and WBSF in calves weaned at initial vaccination. Overall antibody response by wean time interaction had a significant (P<0.05) association with ADG and meat pH, with calves weaned at initial vaccination having a favorable, positive relationship between overall antibody response and ADG. Under both the final antibody and overall antibody response models, animals weaned at initial vaccination had significantly (P<0.05) lower intramuscular fat at yearling time and conversely higher harvest weight than animals weaned at the booster vaccination. When antibody response was grouped (none, low, high), a significant interaction (P<0.05) between antibody response group and weaning time was identified for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW. Animals weaned at the initial vaccination in the high antibody response group had the advantage for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW compared to animals in the high-response group that were weaned at booster vaccination. Linear increases in antibody response generally did not have negative effects on performance or carcass quality traits in finished cattle (P>0.05). Therefore, producers should not be concerned about decreased production or quality attributes as a result of developing a robust antibody response to vaccination for BVDV2 in beef cattle. PMID:24045477

  15. Effects of growth rate on carcass and meat quality traits and their association with metabolism-related gene expression in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuxin; Guo, Jia; Kim, JinSoo; Wang, Myeonghyeon; Chae, Byungjo

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different growth rates on carcass characteristics and meat quality and their relationship with myogenesis and lipogenesis in finishing pigs. Pigs were slaughtered at the same age and were assigned to high (HGR) or low (LGR) growth rates with 120 kg or 110 kg final body weights at slaughter. The results indicated that pigs with HGR had heavier (P < 0.05) final body weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, backfat thickness, higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of fat in the muscle and higher (P < 0.05) total RNA concentration in muscle than pigs with LGR. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 in fat were higher (P < 0.05) in pigs with HGR. Additionally, the mRNA expression of glycogen synthase in muscle was lower (P < 0.05) in pigs with HGR. These results indicate differences in postmortem myogenesis and lipogenesis traits of pigs with different growth rates; these differences in turn might have affected carcass characteristics and meat quality. PMID:22339699

  16. Comparison of grain sources for swine diets and their effect on meat and fat quality traits1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Lampe; T. J. Baas; J. W. Mabry

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary grain sources on various compositional and quality characteristics of pork from pigs reared in a commercial environment. Pigs were fed 1 of 5 dietary treatments containing the following single or blended grain sources throughout most of the grow-finish pe- riod: 1) yellow corn, 2) white corn, 3) 1\\/3 yellow corn

  17. Association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in candidate genes and QTL regions with pork quality traits in commercial pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous reports have described genetic markers or genomic regions (QTL) associated with pork quality and/or palatability. Validation of these associations in other commercial populations is necessary before these markers should be used. Therefore, 156 SNP markers from 45 candidate genes and 8 QTL r...

  18. Gender- and Age-Related Differences in the Association between Social Relationship Quality and Trait Levels of Salivary Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Granger, Douglas A.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of studies linking individual differences in the quality of social relationships and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have focused on the early development of attachment between infants and their caregivers. Later in development, during middle childhood and adolescence, the parallel HPA links to…

  19. Saponin Content and Quality-Related Traits of Mass-Selected Yerba Maté (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.) Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Scherer; M. J. J. Janssens; F. Marx; P. Urfer; E. Schneider

    2007-01-01

    Since 1998, new maté trees were identified in five plantations in Misiones, Argentina, through mass selection. Emphasis was put on capturing genes related to caffeine, theobromine, saponin, twig color, anthocyanin, waxiness, leaf chlorophyll, and leaf thickness, characteristics that influence maté leaf quality in the drinking vessel or in the bombilla. Subsequently, saponin content of maté leaves was positively correlated with

  20. A Six-Month Prospective Evaluation of Personality Traits, Psychiatric Symptoms and Quality of Life in Ayahuasca-Naïve Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Cesar Ribeiro Barbosa; Irene Maurício Cazorla; Joel Sales Giglio; Rick Strassman

    2009-01-01

    The authors assessed 23 subjects immediately before and six months (27.5 weeks) after their first ayahuasca experience in an urban Brazilian religious setting, either Santo Daime (N = 15) or Uni?o do Vegetal (N = 8). Measures included scores on instruments assessing psychiatric symptoms, personality variables and quality of life. Independent variables were the frequency of ayahuasca use throughout the

  1. Response to Phenotypic and Marker-Assisted Selection for Yield and Quality Component Traits in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though the potential benefits of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for line and population development to improve yield in cucumber have been demonstrated, its application during tandem selection for yield and quality components has not been investigated. Therefore, two cucumber recombinant inbr...

  2. Microbial community structure and pH response in relation to soil organic matter quality in wood-ash fertilized, clear-cut or burned coniferous forest soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erland Bååth; Åsa Frostegård; Taina Pennanen; Hannu Fritze

    1995-01-01

    Humus phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used in clear-cut, wood-ash fertilized (amounts applied: 1000, 2500, and 5000 kg ha?1), or prescribed burned (both in standing and clear-cut) coniferous forests to study the effects of treatments on microbial biomass and community structure. The microbial biomass (total PLFAs) decreased significantly due to the highest rate of wood-ash fertilization, clear-cutting, and the

  3. Genetic markers on BTA14 predictive for residual feed intake in beef steers and their effects on carcass and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Perry, A K; Kuehn, L A; Snelling, W M; Smith, T P L; Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G; King, D Andy; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Freetly, H C

    2012-10-01

    With the high cost of feed for animal production, genetic selection for animals that metabolize feed more efficiently could result in substantial cost savings for cattle producers. The purpose of this study was to identify DNA markers predictive for differences among cattle for traits associated with feed efficiency. Crossbred steers were fed a high-corn diet for 140 days and average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and residual feed intake (RFI) phenotypes were obtained. A region on chromosome 14 was previously associated with RFI in this population of animals. To develop markers with the highest utility for predicting an animal's genetic potential for RFI, we genotyped additional markers within this chromosomal region. These polymorphisms were genotyped on the same animals (n = 1066) and tested for association with ADFI, ADG and RFI. Six markers within this region were associated with RFI (P ? 0.05). After conservative correction for multiple testing, one marker at 25.09 Mb remained significant (P = 0.02) and is responsible for 3.6% of the RFI phenotypic variation in this population of animals. Several of these markers were also significant for ADG, although none were significant after correction. Marker alleles with positive effects on ADG corresponded to lower RFI, suggesting an effect increasing growth without increasing feed intake. All markers were also assessed for their effects on meat quality and carcass traits. All of the markers associated with RFI were associated with adjusted fat thickness (AFT, P ? 0.009) and three were also associated with hot carcass weight (HCW, P ? 0.003). Marker alleles associated with lower RFI were also associated with reduced AFT, and if they were associated for HCW, the effect was an increase in weight. These markers may be useful as prediction tools for animals that utilize feed more efficiently; however, validation with additional populations of cattle is required. PMID:22497335

  4. WoodChemistry Wood Degradation & Preservation

    E-print Network

    Geldenhuys, Jaco

    31 WoodChemistry Wood Degradation & Preservation Chemical Utilization of Wood Pulp & Paper bagasse to pro- duce paper pulps, value added biopolymers and bioethanol. The possibility to integrate pre and consumption in the pulp mill, ex- pressed as tons of timber required per ton of pulp produced. The contri

  5. Birth weight alters the response to postnatal high-fat diet-induced changes in meat quality traits and skeletal muscle proteome of pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbo; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Yu, Bing; Chen, Daiwen

    2014-05-28

    Low birth weight (LBW) exerts persistent effects on the growth and development of offspring. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that LBW alters the response of pigs to high-fat (HF) diet-induced changes in meat quality and skeletal muscle proteome. Normal-birth weight (NBW) and LBW piglets were fed a control diet or a HF diet from weaning to slaughter at 110 kg body weight. Most of the meat quality traits were influenced by LBW. Meat quality analysis revealed that LBW piglets had a greater ability to deposit intramuscular lipids than their heavier littermates when fed a HF diet. Increased shear force, lower pH45 min and drip loss were observed in the skeletal muscle of LBW piglets compared with NBW piglets. Proteomic analysis revealed forty-six differentially expressed proteins in the skeletal muscle of LBW and NBW piglets fed the control diet or HF diet. These proteins play a central role in cell structure and motility, glucose and energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, and cellular apoptosis, as well as stress response. Of particular interest is the finding that LBW altered the response to HF diet-induced changes in the expression of proteins related to stress response (heat shock protein) and glucose and energy metabolism (pyruvate kinase, phosphoglycerate mutase, enolase and triosephosphate isomerase). Taken together, our findings revealed that the HF diet-induced changes in the expression of glucose and energy metabolism-related proteins varied between NBW and LBW piglets, which provides a possible mechanism to explain higher intramuscular fat store in LBW pigs when fed a HF diet. PMID:24480424

  6. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Conditions During Restoration of the Wood River Wetland, Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon, 2003-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Snyder, Daniel T.; Duff, John H.; Triska, Frank J.; Lee, Karl K.; Avanzino, Ronald J.; Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Restoring previously drained wetlands is a strategy currently being used to improve water quality and decrease nutrient loading into Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. In this 2003-05 study, ground- and surface-water quality and hydrologic conditions were characterized in the Wood River Wetland. Nitrogen and phosphorus levels, primarily as dissolved organic nitrogen and ammonium (NH4) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), were high in surface waters. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations also were elevated in surface water, with median concentrations of 44 and 99 milligrams of carbon per liter (mg-C/L) in the North and South Units of the Wood River Wetland, respectively, reaching a maximum of 270 mg-C/L in the South Unit in late autumn. Artesian well water produced NH4 and SRP concentrations of about 6,000 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of 36,500 ug-N/L NH4 and 4,110 ug-P/L SRP in one 26-28 ft deep piezometer well. Despite the high ammonium concentrations, the nitrate levels were moderate to low in wetland surface and ground waters. The surface-water concentrations of NH4 and SRP increased in spring and summer, outpacing those for chloride (a conservative tracer), indicative of evapoconcentration. In-situ chamber experiments conducted in June and August 2005 indicated a positive flux of NH4 and SRP from the wetland sediments. Potential sources of NH4 and SRP include diffusion of nutrients from decomposed peat, decomposing aquatic vegetation, or upwelling ground water. In addition to these inputs, evapoconcentration raised surface-water solute concentrations to exceedingly high values by the end of summer. The increase was most pronounced in the South Unit, where specific conductance reached 2,500 uS/cm and median concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus reached 18,000-36,500 ug-N/L and about 18,000-26,000 ug-P/L, respectively. Water-column SRP and total phosphorus levels decreased during autumn and winter following inputs of irrigation water and precipitation, which have lower nutrient concentrations. The SRP concentrations, however, decreased faster than the dilution rate alone, possibly due to precipitation of phosphorus with iron, manganese, or calcium. The high concentrations of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus during the growing season give rise to a rich plant community in the wetland consisting of emergent and submergent macrophytes and algae including phytoplankton and benthic and epiphytic algae that have pronounced effects on dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH. Midday readings of surface-water DO during summer often were supersaturated (as much as 310 percent saturation) with elevated pH (as much as 9.2 units), indicative of high rates of photosynthesis. Minimum DO concentrations in the shallow ground-water piezometer wells were 0.4 mg/L in the North Unit and 0.8 mg/L in the South Unit during summer, which is probably low enough to support microbial denitrification. Denitrification was confirmed during in-situ experiments conducted at the sediment-water interface, but rates were low due to low background nitrate (NO3). Nevertheless, denitrification (and plant uptake) likely contribute to low nitrate levels. Another possible cause of low nitrate levels is dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA), a microbial process that converts and decreases nitrate to ammonia. DNRA explains the excess ammonia production measured in the chambers treated with nitrate. Surface-water levels and standing surface-water volume in the Wood River Wetland reached a maximum in early spring, inundating 80-90 percent of the wetland. Surface-water levels and standing volume then declined reaching a minimum in August through November, when the South Unit was only 10 percent inundated and the North Unit was nearly dry. The shallow ground-water levels followed a trend similar to surface-water levels and indicated a strong upward gradient. A monthly water budget was developed individually for the North

  7. TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS

    E-print Network

    SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS #12;2 SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS2 #12;SCOTLAND'S TREES FOR THE ENVIRONMENT CHAPTER 4 FORESTS FOR THE ECONOMY CHAPTER 5 SCOTLAND'S REMARKABLE TREES CHAPTER 6 FINDING OUT MORE SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS #12;4 SCOTLAND'S TREES, WOODS AND FORESTS4 This booklet is written

  8. A six-month prospective evaluation of personality traits, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in ayahuasca-naïve subjects.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Cazorla, Irene Maurício; Giglio, Joel Sales; Strassman, Rick

    2009-09-01

    The authors assessed 23 subjects immediately before and six months (27.5 weeks) after their first ayahuasca experience in an urban Brazilian religious setting, either Santo Daime (N = 15) or União do Vegetal (N = 8). Measures included scores on instruments assessing psychiatric symptoms, personality variables and quality of life. Independent variables were the frequency of ayahuasca use throughout the period and the length of ayahuasca wash-out after six months. Santo Daime subjects had a significant reduction of minor psychiatric symptoms, improvement of mental health, and a change in attitude towards more confidence and optimism. The União do Vegetal group had a significant decrease in physical pain, and attitude change towards more independence. Independence was positively correlated with the frequency of ayahuasca use and negatively correlated with the wash-out period. We discuss possible mechanisms by which these changes may occur and suggest areas for future research. PMID:19999673

  9. Association of Allelic Variation in PtoXET16A with Growth and Wood Properties in Populus tomentosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bowen; Zhang, Deqiang

    2014-01-01

    Xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases (XETs) modify the xyloglucan-cellulose framework of plant cell walls and, thus, affect cell wall expansion and strength. Dissecting the mechanism by which natural variation in XETs affects wood properties can inform breeding efforts to improve wood quality and yield traits. To this end, we isolated a full-length PtoXET16A cDNA clone from Populus tomentosa. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PtoXET16A was maximally expressed in the root, followed by phloem, cambium, and developing xylem, suggesting that PtoXET16A plays important roles in the development of vascular tissues. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed that PtoXET16A has high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity (? = 0.01266 and ?w = 0.01392) and low linkage disequilibrium (r2 ? 0.1, within 900 bp). SNP- and haplotype-based association analyses of 426 individuals from a natural population indicated that nine SNPs (including two non-synonymous markers and one splicing variant) (p ? 0.05, false discovery rate Q ? 0.01), and nine haplotypes (p ? 0.05) were significantly associated with growth and wood properties, each explaining from 3.40%–10.95% of phenotypic variance. This work shows that examination of allelic variation and linkage disequilibrium by a candidate-gene-based approach can help to decipher the genetic basis of wood formation. Moreover, the SNP markers identified in this study can potentially be applied for marker-assisted selection to improve growth and wood-property traits in Populus. PMID:25250912

  10. Quantitative inheritance of crop timing traits in interspecific hybrid Petunia populations and interactions with crop quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Warner, Ryan M; Walworth, Aaron E

    2010-01-01

    The leaf unfolding rate (i.e., development rate) and the number of nodes forming prior to floral initiation are 2 factors determining production times for floriculture crops. Wild relative species of the cultivated petunia (Petunia x hybrida Vilm.) that exhibited faster development rates than modern cultivars and may therefore be useful genetic sources to develop cultivars with decreased production time were identified. Three interspecific F(2) families, Petunia exserta Stehmann x P. axillaris (Lam.) Britton et al., P. x hybrida 'Mitchell' x P. axillaris, and P. axillaris x P. integrifolia (Hook.) Schinz & Thell. all exhibited transgressive segregation for development rate and node number below the first flower. Development rate and time to flower segregated independently in all families. Leaf number below the first flower was positively correlated with leaf unfolding rate in all families except P. axillaris x P. integrifolia. Time to flower was positively correlated with flower bud number in the P. x hybrida 'Mitchell' x P. axillaris and P. axillaris x P. integrifolia families only. Based on these results, wild Petunia germplasm should be useful for developing petunia cultivars with reduced crop production times, but some negative effects on crop quality parameters may need to be overcome. PMID:20142456

  11. Influence of monochromatic light on quality traits, nutritional, fatty acid, and amino acid profiles of broiler chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Kim, M J; Parvin, R; Mushtaq, M M H; Hwangbo, J; Kim, J H; Na, J C; Kim, D W; Kang, H K; Kim, C D; Cho, K O; Yang, C B; Choi, H C

    2013-11-01

    The role of monochromatic lights was investigated on meat quality in 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 360), divided into 6 light sources with 6 replicates having 10 chicks in each replicate. Six light sources were described as incandescent bulbs (IBL, as a control) and light-emitting diode (LED) light colors as white light (WL), blue light, red light (RL), green light, and yellow light. Among LED groups, the RL increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), saturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), and the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio (P < 0.001), but reduced the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-3 fatty acid, and n-6 fatty acid. The IBL increased the n-3 and sulfur-containing amino acids but reduced the n-6:n-3 nonessential amino acids. The WL improved the concentration of most of the essential amino acids (P < 0.01) and nonessential amino acids (P < 0.01) of breast meat. It can be extracted that the light produced by LED responded similar to the IBL light in influencing nutrient contents of meat. Moreover, LED is not decisive in improving fatty acid composition of meat. However, the role of IBL in reducing n-6:n-3 ratio and enhancing n-3 cannot be neglected. Among LED, WL is helpful in improving essential and nonessential amino acid contents of broiler meat. PMID:24135586

  12. Sickle Cell Trait

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cell Disease (SCD) National Center Homepage Share Compartir Sickle Cell Trait New: Sickle Cell Trait Toolkit People ... pass the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have ...

  13. The effect of livestock production system and concentrate level on carcass traits and meat quality of foals slaughtered at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, J M; Crecente, S; Franco, D; Sarriés, M V; Gómez, M

    2014-03-01

    This trial was conducted to study the effect of livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) v. semi extensive system (SES)) and amount of finishing feed (1.5 v. 3.0 kg of commercial feed) in SES on carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of meat foal slaughtered at 18 months of age. For this study, a total of 49 foals (21 from FES and 28 from SES) were used. The obtained results showed that SES had a positive influence on carcass characteristic because these foals showed the best values for live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, perimeter of leg (PL) and carcass compactness index. On the other hand, finishing feeding also had a significant (P<0.05) effect on PL and lean thickness, as the highest values were obtained in foals finished with 3 kg of commercial fodder. The physico-chemical properties were significantly affected by the livestock production system with the exception of ashes content (P>0.05). Foals finished in SES increased in 408% the intramuscular fat content (0.23 v. 1.17%, for foals reared in FES and SES, respectively). On the other hand, L*-value and a*-value were significantly (P<0.01) affected by livestock production system, as foals from the FES group had a more intense redder color (higher CIE a*-value) and higher lightness (higher CIE L*-value) compared with those from the SES group. Finally, meat nutritional value was significantly affected by livestock production system, as foals from an extensive production system on wood pasture could be considered as healthier in relation to their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio) as a result of the beneficial grass intake on meat fatty acid profile. PMID:24398030

  14. Effect of insulin-like growth factor-I on some quality traits and fertility of cryopreserved ovine semen.

    PubMed

    Padilha, R T; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Cavalcante, M M; Almeida, A P; Haag, K T; Gastal, M O; Nunes, J F; Rodrigues, A P R; Figueiredo, J R; Oliveira, M A L

    2012-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on the quality and fertility of frozen/thawed ovine semen. Five rams (five ejaculates/ram) were used for evaluation of semen parameters. Before cryopreservation, ejaculates were divided into four aliquots and extended with Tris alone or supplemented with human IGF-I (50, 100, or 250 ng/mL). Semen was evaluated immediately after thawing (T0), after 1 h (T1) and 2 h (T2) post-incubation at 37 °C. The percentage of live cells (fluorescence analysis-calcein and ethidium), acrosome integrity (NAR) and motility were analyzed, and hypo-osmotic swelling tests (HOST) were used to evaluate membrane resistance. In addition, AI was performed using 121 ewes to compare the optimal concentration of IGF-I vs. Tris alone on pregnancy rates after laparoscopic insemination. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by transrectal ultrasonography. After 1 and 2 h post-incubation, in every group, percentage motile sperm, NAR and HOST decreased compared to semen at T0. Motility was higher (P < 0.05) in the IGF-I 100 and IGF-I 250 groups when compared to the IGF-I 50 and Tris groups (76.2 and 74.4% vs. 66.2 and 64.4 percent, respectively) at T0, after 1 h (67 and 63.6% vs. 56.2 and 54.7%) and 2 h post-incubation (58.2 and 55.8% vs. 48 and 47.2%). Furthermore, viability was higher (P < 0.05) in the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) 100 and IGF-I 250 groups than in the IGF-I 50 and Tris groups (88.7 and 88.3% vs. 76.6 and 77.6%, respectively) at T0. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in NAR or hypo-osmotic swelling tests (HOST) among groups. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in fertility between the IGF-I 100 and Tris groups. In conclusion, IGF-I improved subjective sperm motility and structural integrity of the plasma membrane without a significant effect on 45-day pregnancy rates after laparoscopic insemination of ewes with frozen-thawed semen. PMID:22541171

  15. Growth Performance, Carcass Yield, and Quality and Chemical Traits of Meat from Commercial Korean Native Ducks with 2-Way Crossbreeding

    PubMed Central

    Heo, K. N.; Hong, E. C.; Kim, C. D.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, M. J.; Choo, H. J.; Choi, H. C.; Mushtaq, M. M. H.; Parvin, R.; Kim, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    This work was conducted to investigate the performance and meat characteristics of commercial Korean native duck (KND). A total of 180 1-d-old ducklings of 2-way crossbreds from A and B lines (from National Institute of Animal Science) were used in this work and divided into 4 groups (3 replicates/group, 15 birds/replicate). The four groups were 4 crossbreds as AA (A line [?]×A line [?]), AB (A line [?]×B line [?]), BB (Pure line B strains) and BA (B strains [?]×A strain [?]). Ducks were fed diets based on corn-soybean meal for 0 to 3 wk (22.4% crude protein [CP], 2,945 kcal/kg metabolizable energy [ME]) and 3 to 8 wk (18.4% CP, 3,047 kcal/kg ME). As a result of this study, average body weight of 4 crossbreds were 625, 1,617, 2,466, and 2,836 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively, and significantly increased over the period of time (p<0.05). Body weight of BB group was greater than other crossbreds at the age of 6 weeks (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in weekly body weight gains (p<0.05), which were 573, 991, 850, and 371 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks old, respectively. Uniformity of 4 crossbreds was 84.9%, 80.5%, and 72.5% at 6, 7, and 8 weeks, respectively, and there was no difference among crossbreds. Body weight gain of BB crossbred was highest among crossbreds (p<0.05). Weekly feed intake significantly increased with weeks as 669, 1,839, 2,812, and 3,381 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks respectively (p<0.05). Feed intakes of AA and BB crossbreds were higher at 2 to 4 weeks old than others and that of BB crossbred was highest at 4 to 6 weeks old (p<0.05). Weekly feed conversion ratios were 1.17, 1.86, 3.32, and 9.37 at 0 to 2, 2 to 4, 4 to 6, and 6 to 8 weeks old, respectively, and it increased with age (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in feed conversion ratio among crossbreds. Carcass yields of 4 crossbreds were 73.6%, 71.6%, 73.5%, and 71.7%, respectively, so there was no significant difference among crossbreds. There was no difference in wing, neck, breast and leg ratios among crossbreds. However, back ratios of 4 crossbreds were 17.6%, 18.0%, 15.8%, and 17.6%, respectively, and back ratio of BB was the highest among crossbreds. Finally, these results may provide the basic data on the production, carcass quality, fatty acid and amino acid composition of commercial KND with 2-way crossbreeding. PMID:25656202

  16. Growth performance, carcass yield, and quality and chemical traits of meat from commercial korean native ducks with 2-way crossbreeding.

    PubMed

    Heo, K N; Hong, E C; Kim, C D; Kim, H K; Lee, M J; Choo, H J; Choi, H C; Mushtaq, M M H; Parvin, R; Kim, J H

    2015-03-01

    This work was conducted to investigate the performance and meat characteristics of commercial Korean native duck (KND). A total of 180 1-d-old ducklings of 2-way crossbreds from A and B lines (from National Institute of Animal Science) were used in this work and divided into 4 groups (3 replicates/group, 15 birds/replicate). The four groups were 4 crossbreds as AA (A line [?]×A line [?]), AB (A line [?]×B line [?]), BB (Pure line B strains) and BA (B strains [?]×A strain [?]). Ducks were fed diets based on corn-soybean meal for 0 to 3 wk (22.4% crude protein [CP], 2,945 kcal/kg metabolizable energy [ME]) and 3 to 8 wk (18.4% CP, 3,047 kcal/kg ME). As a result of this study, average body weight of 4 crossbreds were 625, 1,617, 2,466, and 2,836 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively, and significantly increased over the period of time (p<0.05). Body weight of BB group was greater than other crossbreds at the age of 6 weeks (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in weekly body weight gains (p<0.05), which were 573, 991, 850, and 371 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks old, respectively. Uniformity of 4 crossbreds was 84.9%, 80.5%, and 72.5% at 6, 7, and 8 weeks, respectively, and there was no difference among crossbreds. Body weight gain of BB crossbred was highest among crossbreds (p<0.05). Weekly feed intake significantly increased with weeks as 669, 1,839, 2,812, and 3,381 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks respectively (p<0.05). Feed intakes of AA and BB crossbreds were higher at 2 to 4 weeks old than others and that of BB crossbred was highest at 4 to 6 weeks old (p<0.05). Weekly feed conversion ratios were 1.17, 1.86, 3.32, and 9.37 at 0 to 2, 2 to 4, 4 to 6, and 6 to 8 weeks old, respectively, and it increased with age (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in feed conversion ratio among crossbreds. Carcass yields of 4 crossbreds were 73.6%, 71.6%, 73.5%, and 71.7%, respectively, so there was no significant difference among crossbreds. There was no difference in wing, neck, breast and leg ratios among crossbreds. However, back ratios of 4 crossbreds were 17.6%, 18.0%, 15.8%, and 17.6%, respectively, and back ratio of BB was the highest among crossbreds. Finally, these results may provide the basic data on the production, carcass quality, fatty acid and amino acid composition of commercial KND with 2-way crossbreeding. PMID:25656202

  17. Quantitative trait loci underlying milk production traits in sheep.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; El-Zarei, M F; Alvarez, L; Bayón, Y; de la Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J-J

    2009-08-01

    Improvement of milk production traits in dairy sheep is required to increase the competitiveness of the industry and to maintain the production of high quality cheese in regions of Mediterranean countries with less favourable conditions. Additional improvement over classical selection could be reached if genes with significant effects on the relevant traits were specifically targeted by selection. However, so far, few studies have been undertaken to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) in dairy sheep. In this study, we present a complete genome scan performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to identify chromosomal regions associated with phenotypic variation observed in milk production traits. Eleven half-sib families, including a total of 1213 ewes, were analysed following a daughter design. Genome-wise multi-marker regression analysis revealed a genome-wise significant QTL for milk protein percentage on chromosome 3. Eight other regions, localized on chromosomes 1, 2, 20, 23 and 25, showed suggestive significant linkage associations with some of the analysed traits. To our knowledge, this study represents the first complete genome scan for milk production traits reported in dairy sheep. The experiment described here shows that analysis of commercial dairy sheep populations has the potential to increase our understanding of the genetic determinants of complex production-related traits. PMID:19397522

  18. Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling fibre length and lignin content in Arabidopsis thaliana stems

    PubMed Central

    Berleth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Fibre properties and the biochemical composition of cell walls are important traits in many applications. For example, the lengths of fibres define the strength and quality of paper, and lignin content is a critical parameter for the use of biomass in biofuel production. Identifying genes controlling these traits is comparatively difficult in woody species, because of long generation times and limited amenability to high-resolution genetic mapping. To address this problem, this study mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) defining fibre length and lignin content in the Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line population Col-4×Ler-0. Adapting high-throughput phenotyping techniques for both traits for measurements in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems identified significant QTLs for fibre length on chromosomes 2 and 5, as well as one significant QTL affecting lignin content on chromosome 2. For fibre length, total variation within the population was 208% higher than between parental lines and the identified QTLs explained 50.58% of the observed variation. For lignin content, the values were 261 and 26.51%, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis of the associated intervals identified a number of candidate genes for fibre length and lignin content. This study demonstrates that molecular mapping of QTLs pertaining to wood and fibre properties is possible in Arabidopsis, which substantially broadens the use of Arabidopsis as a model species for the functional characterization of plant genes. PMID:23136168

  19. High levels of whole raw soybean in diets for Nellore bulls in feedlot: effect on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Cônsolo, N R B; Gardinal, R; Gandra, J R; de Freitas Junior, J E; Rennó, F P; Santana, M H de A; Pflanzer Junior, S B; Pereira, A S C

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole raw soybean (WRS) in the finishing diet of Nellore cattle on productive performance, carcass traits, meat quality, fatty acid profile of meat, and blood parameters. In a completely randomized design, 52 Nellore bulls (mean body weight ± SD: 380 ± 34 kg) were allotted for 84 days. The animals received the following diets with a forage: concentrate ratio of 40/60: (i) WRS0: control diet without soybean grains; (ii) WRS8: diet containing 8% WRS in dry matter basis; (iii) WRS16: diet containing 16% WRS, and (iv) WRS24: diet containing 24% WRS. At intervals of 28 days, the animals were weighed, muscle and adipose tissue was analysed by ultrasound, and blood samples were collected. The animals were slaughtered on day 85 and liver weight and hot carcass weight were measured during slaughter. The pH and carcass dressing were calculated at 24 h after slaughter. Longissimus dorsi muscle samples were collected for the determination of fatty acid profile of meat, ether extract, tenderness and sensory analysis of meat aged for 14 days. Blood cholesterol content increased linearly with increasing proportion of whole raw soybean grains. The diet did not affect performance or carcass attributes. The WRS8 had the highest shear force values. In fatty acid profile, C14:0 decreased (p = 0.05), whereas 16:1, 20:0 and 20:1 fatty acids increased linearly with increasing proportion of WRS (p < 0.05). However, concentration of conjugated linoleic acid cis 9, trans 11 and 17:0 increased with WRS24 and WRS16. In the sensory analysis, WRS24 was more tender with respect to the other treatments (p < 0.05). Finally, the inclusion of WRS in the finishing diet of feedlot Nellore bulls only evidenced little changes in fatty acid profile and tenderness, in animals fed diets containing 16 or 24% soybean. PMID:25110114

  20. Chipper Woods Bird Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Chipper Woods Bird Observatory (CWBO) is a non-profit organization committed to bringing "good science to the conservation of birds and their habitats through scientific research, scientific training and educational programs designed for all age groups." The CWBO website contains a nice variety of bird information and images for budding birders. The siteâ??s Bird Photos section provides good quality images and information for an extensive selection of birds including the Peregrine Falcon, Barn Swallow, Tufted Titmouse, Scarlet Tanager, and many more. Various bird-related topics -â?? such as migrating geese, owl pellets, West Nile Virus, and Bald Eagle Restoration -â?? are covered as well. The CWBO website contains checklists for Indiana birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. The site also offers a banding summary, newsletter, list of publications, and short quiz for kids. The CWBO site is available in Spanish and English.

  1. Wood Bond Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

  2. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Nie, Shaoping; Qu, Zhe; Bi, Chongpeng; Shan, Anshan

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Four hundred eighty 1-d-old broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 20 broilers each. Broilers were allocated 1 of 4 diets and fed for 49 d in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2 levels of DDGS (0 or 15%) and 2 levels of CLA (0 or 1%). The results of growth performance analyses showed that dietary supplementation with 1% CLA, 15% DDGS, or both in broilers had no significant effects on ADG, ADFI, and feed/gain (P > 0.05). Dietary supplementation with 15% DDGS did not significantly affect meat color values, drip loss percentage, pH value at 15 min, crude fat content, or shear force value (P > 0.05). Diets supplemented with 15% DDGS decreased the proportions of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and monounsaturated fatty acids but increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the thigh meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA significantly decreased the abdominal fat percentage (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA increased the crude fat content and decreased the color (b*) value and shear force value of the breast meat (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with 1% CLA increased the total superoxide dismutase activity of the serum, breast meat, and liver, and decreased the malondialdehyde content of the serum and breast meat (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1% CLA decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). Accumulation of CLA in the thigh meat was significantly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing CLA level in the diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 1% CLA had positive effects on meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acid composition of broilers, although it had no significant effect on growth performance. PMID:24795313

  3. Genetic and phenotypic characterisation of animal, carcass, and meat quality traits from temperate and tropically adapted beef breeds. 1. Animal measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. JohnstonA; A. ReverterA; D. L. RobinsonA

    A total of 7622 cattle were measured for several weight and body composition traits in temperate and tropically adapted breeds. Traits included: liveweight, hip height, body fat score, muscle score, flight time, ultrasound scanned fatness, and eye muscle area. Measurements were taken at 3 stages during the project: post-weaning, start of finishing, and end of finishing (i.e. pre-slaughter). Animals were

  4. Mapping quantitative trait loci for milling quality, protein content and color characteristics of rice using a recombinant inbred line population derived from an elite rice hybrid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. F. Tan; M. Sun; Y. Z. Xing; J. P. Hua; X. L. Sun; Q. F. Zhang; H. Corke

    2001-01-01

    Milling properties, protein content, and flour color are important factors in rice. A marker-based genetic analysis of these\\u000a traits was carried out in this study using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an elite hybrid cross ’Shanyou 63’,\\u000a the most-widely grown rice hybrid in production in China. Correlation analysis shows that the traits were inter-correlated,\\u000a though the coefficients were generally

  5. BREEDING FOR GRAIN QUALITY TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major components of maize are protein, oil and starch. Breeders have successfully manipulating these components for more than a century, resulting in maize with a wide range of compositions. Over the last fifty years, advances in biochemistry and genetics have allowed manipulation of fractions...

  6. Floodplains and wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2013-08-01

    Interactions between floodplains and wood date to the Carboniferous, when stable, multithread channel deposits appear with the evolution of tree-like plants. Foundational geologic texts, such as Lyell's, 1830Principles of Geology, describe floodplain-wood interactions, yet modern technical literature describes floodplain-wood interactions in detail for only a very limited range of environments. This likely reflects more than a century of deforestation, flow regulation, and channel engineering, including instream wood removal, which has resulted in severe wood depletion in most of the world's river networks. Instream wood affects floodplain form and process by altering flow resistance, conveyance and channel-floodplain connectivity, and influencing lateral and vertical accretion of floodplains. Instream wood reflects floodplain form and process as the floodplain influences wood recruitment via bank erosion and overbank flow, and wood transport and storage via floodplain effects on stage-discharge relations and flow resistance. Examining turnover times for instream wood at the reach scale in the context of a wood budget, floodplain characteristics influence fluvial transport and dynamics (wood recruitment), valley geometry (wood transport and storage), and hydraulics and river biota (wood decay and breakage). Accumulations of wood that vary from in situ jams and beaver dams in small channels to transport jams and log rafts in very large rivers can create stable, multithread channels and floodplain wetlands. Floodplain-wood interactions are best understood for a subset of small to medium-sized rivers in the temperate zone. We know little about these interactions on very large rivers, or on rivers in the tropical or boreal regions. This review suggests that most, if not all, channels and floodplains within forested catchments in the temperate zone historically had much greater wood loads and consequently much more obvious and important influences from wood than do heavily modified contemporary catchments. For many rivers in the temperate zone, direct and indirect removal of instream wood very likely caused a fundamental shift in channel and floodplain process and form, as has been demonstrated in detail for specific rivers of diverse size in several regions. Failure to explicitly include floodplain-wood interactions creates a misleading conceptual model of floodplain dynamics in forested catchments.

  7. Signature Wood Modifications Reveal Decomposer Community History

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Jonathan S.; Kaffenberger, Justin T.; Liew, Feng Jin; Song, Zewei

    2015-01-01

    Correlating plant litter decay rates with initial tissue traits (e.g. C, N contents) is common practice, but in woody litter, predictive relationships are often weak. Variability in predicting wood decomposition is partially due to territorial competition among fungal decomposers that, in turn, have a range of nutritional strategies (rot types) and consequences on residues. Given this biotic influence, researchers are increasingly using culture-independent tools in an attempt to link variability more directly to decomposer groups. Our goal was to complement these tools by using certain wood modifications as ‘signatures’ that provide more functional information about decomposer dominance than density loss. Specifically, we used dilute alkali solubility (DAS; higher for brown rot) and lignin:density loss (L:D; higher for white rot) to infer rot type (binary) and fungal nutritional mode (gradient), respectively. We first determined strength of pattern among 29 fungi of known rot type by correlating DAS and L:D with mass loss in birch and pine. Having shown robust relationships for both techniques above a density loss threshold, we then demonstrated and resolved two issues relevant to species consortia and field trials, 1) spatial patchiness creating gravimetric bias (density bias), and 2) brown rot imprints prior or subsequent to white rot replacement (legacy effects). Finally, we field-tested our methods in a New Zealand Pinus radiata plantation in a paired-plot comparison. Overall, results validate these low-cost techniques that measure the collective histories of decomposer dominance in wood. The L:D measure also showed clear potential in classifying ‘rot type’ along a spectrum rather than as a traditional binary type (brown versus white rot), as it places the nutritional strategies of wood-degrading fungi on a scale (L:D=0-5, in this case). These information-rich measures of consequence can provide insight into their biological causes, strengthening the links between traits, structure, and function during wood decomposition. PMID:25811364

  8. Allelic variation in cell wall candidate genes affecting solid wood properties in natural populations and land races of Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Dillon, S K; Nolan, M; Li, W; Bell, C; Wu, H X; Southerton, S G

    2010-08-01

    Forest trees are ideally suited to association mapping due to their high levels of diversity and low genomic linkage disequilibrium. Using an association mapping approach, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers influencing quantitative variation in wood quality were identified in a natural population of Pinus radiata. Of 149 sites examined, 10 demonstrated significant associations (P < 0.05, q < 0.1) with one or more traits after accounting for population structure and experimentwise error. Without accounting for marker interactions, phenotypic variation attributed to individual SNPs ranged from 2 to 6.5%. Undesirable negative correlations between wood quality and growth were not observed, indicating potential to break negative correlations by selecting for individual SNPs in breeding programs. Markers that yielded significant associations were reexamined in an Australian land race. SNPs from three genes (PAL1, PCBER, and SUSY) yielded significant associations. Importantly, associations with two of these genes validated associations with density previously observed in the discovery population. In both cases, decreased wood density was associated with the minor allele, suggesting that these SNPs may be under weak negative purifying selection for density in the natural populations. These results demonstrate the utility of LD mapping to detect associations, even when the power to detect SNPs with small effect is anticipated to be low. PMID:20498299

  9. RESEARCH AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-VOC WOOD COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a project, cofunded by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and the U.S. EPA, to develop a new, low volatile organic compound (VOC) wood coating. Traditional wood furniture coating technologies contain organic solvents which become air pol...

  10. Emissions Characterization of Residential Wood-Fired Hydronic Heater Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential wood-fired hydronic heaters (RWHHs) can negatively impact the local ambient air quality and thus are of major environmental concern in wood burning areas of the U. S. Few studies have been conducted which characterize the emissions from RWHHs. To address the lack of e...

  11. Genetic markers on BTA14 predictive for residual feed intake in beef steers and their effects on carcass and meat quality traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the high cost of feed for animal production, genetic selection for animals that metabolize feed more efficiently could result in substantial cost savings for cattle producers. The purpose of this study was to identify DNA markers predictive for differences among cattle for traits associated wit...

  12. Interspecific relationships among growth, mortality and xylem traits of woody species from New Zealand

    E-print Network

    Uriarte, Maria

    Interspecific relationships among growth, mortality and xylem traits of woody species from New several vascular properties of wood, including the diameter and frequency of xylem conduits. 2. We aimed the covariation between xylem anatomical traits among woody species of New Zealand and whether that covariation

  13. Woods for Health Strategy Woods for Health Strategy | 32 | Woods for Health Strategy

    E-print Network

    . In welcoming the publication of Woods for Health I encourage GPs and clinical practitioners to recognise for NHS Boards and Community Health Care Partnerships to use the outdoors more in public health policyStrategy Woods for Health #12;Woods for Health Strategy Woods for Health Strategy | 32 | Woods

  14. Juvenile wood effect in red alder ({\\\\it Alnus rubra\\\\\\/}) and Oregon white oak ({\\\\it Quercus garryana\\\\\\/})

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Wesley Evans

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of juvenile wood on the mechanical and physical properties of red alder and Oregon white oak. Tree growth in the first 10-20 years, usually referred to as juvenile wood, often influences wood quality by adversely affecting strength properties. Strength can be reduced up to 50 percent by the presence of

  15. The use of wood for wind turbine blade construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.

    1979-01-01

    The interrelationships between moisture and wood, conditions for dry rot spore activity, the protection of wood fibers from moisture, wood resin composites, wood laminating, quality control, and the mechanical properties of wood are discussed. The laminated veneer and the bonded sawn stock fabrication techniques, used in the construction of a turbine blade with a monocoque 'D' section forming the leading edge and a built up trailing edge section, are described. A 20 foot root end sample complete with 24 bonded-in studs was successfully subjected to large onetime loads in both the flatwise and edgewise directions, and to fatigue tests. Results indicate that wood is both a viable and advantageous material for use in wind turbine blades. The basic material is reasonably priced, domestically available, ecologically sound, and easily fabricated with low energy consumption.

  16. Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process

    E-print Network

    influ- enced the compounding quality of wood­polymer blends and finally affected the interfacial bonding was effective for improving the compat- ibility and adhesion at the interface. The two-step process was better

  17. Wood Frog Embryos in an Icy Wetland

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wood frog embryos in a partly ice-covered Wisconsin wetland. Interconnected wetlands and uplands are critical elements of most North American landscapes and support our quality of life in profound ways. To provide much-needed information, the USGS is leading a growing network of U.S. and Canadian pa...

  18. Wood residues: trash or treasure

    SciTech Connect

    Bolgiano, C.

    1983-12-01

    Forest residues have acquired new economic value since the growth of the wood-energy markets has prompted private woodlot owners to begin managing and harvesting their forests after nearly a century of neglect. Estimates place half the commercial forests as overstocked, with poor-quality trees and unmarketable varieties, as well as standing dead or fallen trees and slash which are aesthetically bad. Overzealous cleansing of the forest floor, however, will deplete forests soils of nutrients and expose them to erosion in addition to destroying wildlife habitat. A compromise is needed to balance the ecological and economic benefits. (DCK)

  19. Wood Durability Service & Reliability

    E-print Network

    Horizontal lap joints E-22 Accelerated wood decay E-23 Wood preservatives in soil contact E-24 Mold EWood Durability Laboratory Service & Reliability Equipment & Facilities Field sites for AWPA E-7 stake test (Formosan termites and de- cay), AWPA E-16 (horizontal lap- joint), AWPA E-XX (anti

  20. Big Wood River, Idaho

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Big Wood River flows through communities of the Wood River Valley of south-central Idaho. It is one of eight sites at which the USGS is conducting an ecological assessment during the summer of 2014. Study results will be published in 2015....

  1. CORRELATIONAL SELECTION LEADS TO GENETIC INTEGRATION OF BODY SIZE AND AN ATTRACTIVE PLUMAGE TRAIT IN DARK-EYED JUNCOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel W. McGlothlin; Patricia G. Parker; Val Nolan; Ellen D. Ketterson

    2005-01-01

    When a trait's effect on fitness depends on its interaction with other traits, the resultant selection is correlational and may lead to the integration of functionally related traits. In relation to sexual selection, when an ornamental trait interacts with phenotypic quality to determine mating success, correlational sexual selection should generate genetic correlations between the ornament and quality, leading to the

  2. Biophysical modelling of intra-ring variations in tracheid features and wood density of Pinus pinaster trees exposed to seasonal droughts.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Sarah; Ogée, Jérôme; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Rayment, Mark; Wingate, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    Process-based models that link seasonally varying environmental signals to morphological features within tree rings are essential tools to predict tree growth response and commercially important wood quality traits under future climate scenarios. This study evaluated model portrayal of radial growth and wood anatomy observations within a mature maritime pine (Pinus pinaster (L.) Aït.) stand exposed to seasonal droughts. Intra-annual variations in tracheid anatomy and wood density were identified through image analysis and X-ray densitometry on stem cores covering the growth period 1999-2010. A cambial growth model was integrated with modelled plant water status and sugar availability from the soil-plant-atmosphere transfer model MuSICA to generate estimates of cell number, cell volume, cell mass and wood density on a weekly time step. The model successfully predicted inter-annual variations in cell number, ring width and maximum wood density. The model was also able to predict the occurrence of special anatomical features such as intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) in growth rings. Since cell wall thickness remained surprisingly constant within and between growth rings, variations in wood density were primarily the result of variations in lumen diameter, both in the model and anatomical data. In the model, changes in plant water status were identified as the main driver of the IADFs through a direct effect on cell volume. The anatomy data also revealed that a trade-off existed between hydraulic safety and hydraulic efficiency. Although a simplified description of cambial physiology is presented, this integrated modelling approach shows potential value for identifying universal patterns of tree-ring growth and anatomical features over a broad climatic gradient. PMID:25769337

  3. ?-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype and allele frequencies.

    PubMed

    Tait, R G; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; King, D A; Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Smith, T P L; Bennett, G L

    2014-02-01

    Genetic marker effects and interactions are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to increase divergent haplotype and minor marker allele frequencies to 1) estimate effect size and mode of inheritance for previously reported SNP on targeted beef carcass quality traits; 2) estimate effects of previously reported SNP on nontarget performance traits; and 3) evaluate tenderness SNP specific residual variance models compared to a single residual variance model for tenderness. Divergent haplotypes within µ-calpain (CAPN1), and SNP within calpastatin (CAST) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) were successfully selected to increase their frequencies. Traits evaluated were birth BW, weaning BW, final BW, fat thickness, LM area, USDA marbling score, yield grade, slice shear force (SSF), and visible and near infrared predicted slice shear force. Both CAPN1 and CAST exhibited additive (P < 0.001) modes of inheritance for SSF and neither exhibited dominance (P ? 0.19). Furthermore, the interaction between CAPN1 and CAST for SSF was not significant (P = 0.55). Estimated additive effects of CAPN1 (1.049 kg) and CAST (1.257 kg) on SSF were large in this study. Animals homozygous for tender alleles at both CAPN1 and CAST would have 4.61 kg lower SSF (38.6% of the mean) than animals homozygous tough for both markers. There was also an effect of CAST on yield grade (P < 0.02). The tender CAST allele was associated with more red meat yield and less trimmable fat. There were no significant effects (P ? 0.23) for GHR on any of the traits evaluated in this study. Furthermore, CAST specific residual variance models were found to fit significantly better (P < 0.001) than single residual variance models for SSF, with the tougher genotypes having larger residual variance. Thus, the risk of a tough steak from the undesired CAST genotype is increased through both an increase in mean and an increase in variation. This work confirms the importance of CAPN1 and CAST for tenderness in beef, provides a new effect of CAST on beef tenderness, and questions the utility of GHR as a selection marker for beef quality. PMID:24398843

  4. Dielectric characterization of wood and wood infiltrated with ceramic precursors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Duchow; R. A. Gerhardt

    1996-01-01

    Wood has an anisotropic microstructure with 50–80 vol.% porosity, which we show is detectable by dielectric measurements. The dielectric properties of various types of wood were measured as a function of the grain orientation of the wood. The grain structure consists of wood fibers and void space in an arrangement containing longitudinal and radial pores. Measurements were conducted parallel to

  5. Effect of atmospheric stability on the impact of domestic wood combustion to air quality of a small urban township in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grange, S. K.; Salmond, J. A.; Trompetter, W. J.; Davy, P. K.; Ancelet, T.

    2013-05-01

    In the winter of 2011, a field campaign was undertaken in the small township of Nelson, New Zealand to measure the vertical and horizontal distribution of concentrations of airborne particulate matter. The aim of this campaign was to improve our understanding of the causal factors which result in periods of very high concentrations of particulate pollution in small townships during winter where emissions are dominated by the combustion of wood for domestic heating. The results showed that mean hourly surface concentrations of particulates throughout the airshed were characterized by a distinctive diurnal cycle, with two peaks in concentration (one in the late evening and then, unusually, a second mid-morning). Although the timing and magnitude of hourly peak concentrations was variable throughout the valley, there was no evidence to suggest that regional or topographic flows played a significant role in the build-up of pollutants at any given location. Analysis of vertical profiles of black carbon showed that high concentrations of particulates were confined to the lowest 50 m of the boundary layer. Concentrations decreased with increasing height within this polluted surface layer. The atmosphere was very stable during the evening period. After midnight, a period of increased mixing was consistently identified throughout the lowest 100 m of the boundary layer and associated with the sudden cleansing of the surface and lower layers of the boundary layer. Throughout the observational period there was no evidence for the storage of pollutants aloft. Thus the vertical mixing of pollutants to the surface could not account for increased pollutant concentrations during the morning period. However, at this time the boundary layer remained stable and concentrations of black carbon were mixed through a very shallow layer. This suggests that despite lower domestic heating emissions in the morning, the reduced mixing volume is a likely cause of the observed marked peak in morning surface concentrations.

  6. Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; Schaeffer, Sheldon

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the Coordinator's Notebook focuses on the quality of Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs. The bulk of the issue is devoted to an article "Quality in ECCD: Everyone's Concern" (Judith Evans), which reviews the need for a definition of high quality in ECCD programs and discusses how diverse stakeholders define quality.…

  7. Wood specific gravity and anatomy of branches and roots in 113 Amazonian rainforest tree species across environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Fortunel, Claire; Ruelle, Julien; Beauchêne, Jacques; Fine, Paul V A; Baraloto, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    Wood specific gravity (WSG) is a strong predictor of tree performance across environmental gradients. Yet it remains unclear how anatomical elements linked to different wood functions contribute to variation in WSG in branches and roots across tropical forests. We examined WSG and wood anatomy in white sand, clay terra firme and seasonally flooded forests in French Guiana, spanning broad environmental gradients found throughout Amazonia. We measured 15 traits relating to branches and small woody roots in 113 species representing the 15 most abundant species in each habitat and representative species from seven monophyletic lineages occurring in all habitats. Fiber traits appear to be major determinants of WSG, independent of vessel traits, in branches and roots. Fiber traits and branch and root WSG increased from seasonally flooded species to clay terra firme species and lastly to white sand species. Branch and root wood traits were strongly phylogenetically constrained. Lineages differed in wood design, but exhibited similar variation in wood structure across habitats. We conclude that tropical trees can invest differently in support and transport to respond to environmental conditions. Wind disturbance and drought stress represent significant filters driving tree distribution of Amazonian forests; hence we suggest that biophysical explanations should receive more attention. PMID:24329812

  8. Woods for Learning Strategy Woods for Learning Strategy | 32 | Woods for Learning Strategy

    E-print Network

    settings also provide a calming learning environment for those children with attention deficit issuesStrategy Woods for Learning #12;Woods for Learning Strategy Woods for Learning Strategy | 32 | Woods for Learning Strategy Foreword We want our young people to be successful learners, confident

  9. cell trait? Know your sickle cell trait status.

    E-print Network

    Devoto, Stephen H.

    countries. sickle cell trait is not a disease. Sickle cell trait is the inheritance of one gene for sickle hemoglobin and one for normal hemoglobin. Sickle cell trait will not turn into the disease. Sickle cell traitWhat is sickle cell trait? Know your sickle cell trait status. Engage in a slow and gradual

  10. Impact Tests for Woods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    Although it is well known that the strength of wood depends greatly upon the time the wood is under the load, little consideration has been given to this fact in testing materials for airplanes. Here, results are given of impact tests on clear, straight grained spruce. Transverse tests were conducted for comparison. Both Izod and Charpy impact tests were conducted. Results are given primarily in tabular and graphical form.

  11. Generations of Traits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-31

    In this hands-on activity students track and record the passage of colored pom-pom “traits” through three generations of gingerbread people. Students observe that traits are passed from parents to offspring, and that siblings each receive a different combination of traits from their parents.

  12. Effect of species and wood to bark ratio on pelleting of southern woods

    SciTech Connect

    Bradfield, J.; Levi, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    Six common southern hardwoods and loblolly pine were pelleted in a laboratory pellet mill. The pellet furnishes were blended to test the effect of different wood to bark ratios on pellet durability and production rate. Included was a ratio chosen to simulate the wood to bark ratio found in whole-tree chips. This furnish produced good quality pellets for all species tested. Pelleting of the pure wood of hardwoods was not successful; furnish routinely blocked the pellet mill dies. Pure pine wood, however, did produce acceptable pellets. It was noted that, as lignin and extractive content increased above a threshold level, the precentage of fines produced in a pellet durability test increased. Thus, all pine and tupelo wood/bark mixes produces high fines. This reduces the desirability of the pellets in the marketplace. Further research is necessary to confirm this relationship. This study suggests that both tree species and wood/bark ratio affect the durability of pellets and the rate with which they can be produced in a laboratory pellet mill. 9 references.

  13. Dense and hard woods in musical instrument making: comparison of mechanical properties and perceptual

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of using wood coming from illegal logging, for instance from Madagascar National Park, as it was shown overcome current shortage in the supply of appropriate quality of preferred woods. Density and dynamic to find alternative materials with appropriate qualities, given the scarcity of good ebony, and the risk

  14. Laser processing of phenolic wood substitutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Lusquiños, F.; Penide, J.; Arias-González, F.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Phenolic resin boards (PRB) are wood substitutes that comprises of a thick core exclusively made of phenolic resin covered by a thin sheet of melamine resin imitating the aspect of natural wood. The use of these materials in furniture and in construction industry has proliferated during last years. Boards made of phenolic resins are dense, hard and very difficult to cut using band saws, disc saws, or milling cutters. Nevertheless, these difficulties can be overcome by means of laser cutting, which is one of the most firmly established techniques for separating materials. This is due to the great advantages of this technique over traditional cutting methods, such as its versatility and flexibility that allow effective cutting. Nevertheless, charring of the cut edge surface caused by laser induced thermal degradation degrades the cut quality under non-optimized processing conditions. In this research work the viability and quality of CO2 laser cutting process of phenolic resin boards and wood particleboard panels has been evaluated. The present work validates the cut of phenolic resin boards by CO2 lasers using a high laser power and elevated cutting speeds. Moreover, this process involves a serious health hazard since the combustion and decomposition of wood may produce fumes and vapors, which can be toxic and carcinogenic according to the International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC). Therefore, this work was complemented by the assessment of the potential toxicity of the condensed residues formed on the cut edges, and assessment of the chemistry of the generated fumes by chromatography.

  15. Experimental study of wood downdraft gasification for an improved producer gas quality through an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach.

    PubMed

    Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan

    2011-04-01

    This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings. PMID:21292477

  16. Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Biomass and Wood Chemistry of Populus under Different Nitrogen Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Novaes, E.; Osorio, L.; Drost, D. R.; Miles, B. L.; Boaventura-Novaes, C. R. D.; Benedict, C.; Dervinis, C.; Yu, Q.; Sykes, R.; Davis, M.; Martin, T. A.; Peter, G. F.; Kirst, M.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic control of carbon allocation and partitioning in woody perennial plants is poorly understood despite its importance for carbon sequestration, biofuels and other wood-based industries. It is also unclear how environmental cues, such as nitrogen availability, impact the genes that regulate growth, biomass allocation and wood composition in trees. We phenotyped 396 clonally replicated genotypes of an interspecific pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus for wood composition and biomass traits in above- and below-ground organs. The loci that regulate growth, carbon allocation and partitioning under two nitrogen conditions were identified, defining the contribution of environmental cues to their genetic control. Sixty-three quantitative trait loci were identified for the 20 traits analyzed. The majority of quantitative trait loci are specific to one of the two nitrogen treatments, demonstrating significant nitrogen-dependent genetic control. A highly significant genetic correlation was observed between plant growth and lignin/cellulose composition, and quantitative trait loci co-localization identified the genomic position of potential pleiotropic regulators. Pleiotropic loci linking higher growth rates to wood with less lignin are excellent targets to engineer tree germplasm improved for pulp, paper and cellulosic ethanol production. The causative genes are being identified with a genetical genomics approach.

  17. Photodegradation of thermally modified wood.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Kavyashree; Pandey, Krishna K

    2012-12-01

    Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (?E(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers. PMID:23123593

  18. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  19. WOODS IN AND AROUND TOWNS

    E-print Network

    's this transformational effect on the lives of people living in urban Scotland that we're most proud of. www? Woods are an important element of Scotland's greenspace. Well managed and accessible woods contribute

  20. Wood energy-commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  1. Anatomical explanations for the changes in properties of western red cedar ( Thuja plicata ) wood during heat treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Awoyemi; I. P. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Thermal treatment is an alternative to the chemical treatment in wood preservation, which has been used to some extent in\\u000a improving timber quality. Despite the enormous works done so far on the effects of heat treatment on wood properties, very\\u000a little is known about the anatomical changes in the various wood species during the process. Wood samples from western red

  2. A Novel System Design for Continuous Processing of Plastic\\/Wood-Fiber Composite Foams with Improved Cell Morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghaus M. Rizvi; Remon Pop-Iliev; Chul B. Parky

    2002-01-01

    It is believed that the moisture that is inherently present in nondried wood-fibers adversely affects the cell morphology of plastic\\/wood-fiber composite foams processed in extrusion. Based on this hypothesis, achieving a continuous extrusion-based production of fine-celled plastic\\/wood-fiber composite foams witha desirable quality would be strongly conditioned by the efficiency of the system designed for uninterrupted wood-fiber moisture elimination. This paper

  3. Polymorphism of MyoD1 and Myf6 genes and associations with carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Du, X H; Gan, Q F; Yuan, Z R; Gao, X; Zhang, L P; Gao, H J; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

    2013-01-01

    Myogenic determination factor 1 (MyoD1) and myogenic factor 6 (Myf6) genes belong to the myogenic differentiation (MyoD) gene family, which play key roles in growth and muscle development. The study aimed to investigate the effects of variants in cattle MyoD1 and Myf6 on carcass and meat traits. We screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of both genes in 8 cattle populations, including Simmental, Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Limousin, Qinchuan, Luxi, and Jinnan by sequencing. The G782A locus was identified in exon 1 of MyoD1 (MyoD1-BglI) as well as the T186C locus in exon 1 of Myf6 (Myf6-ApaLI). For the two SNPs, the A allele was significantly more frequent than the B allele in the populations tested. The ?(2) test showed that the MyoD1-BglI locus conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the 8 populations, as did the Myf6-ApaLI locus, with the exception of the Simmental population (P > 0.05). Association analysis revealed that the MyoD1-BglI locus was significantly associated with loin muscle area (LMA) (P < 0.05), and the Myf6-ApaLI locus was significantly associated with carcass length (CL) (P < 0.05). Animals with BB and AB genotypes for the MyoD1-BglI locus had larger LMAs compared to animals with AA genotype. Individuals with BB genotype had longer CLs compared to those with AA and AB genotypes. We conclude that the two SNPs might provide useful genetic markers, opening up new possibilities for cattle breeding and improvements in gene-assisted selection. PMID:24391012

  4. Bacterial associations with decaying wood: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol A. Clausen

    1996-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting bacteria are associated with wood decay and may have an indirect influence on the decay process. Bacteria are able to affect wood permeability, attack wood structure, or work synergistically with other bacteria and soft-rot fungi to predispose wood to fungal attack. Bacteria that can inhabit chemically treated wood are recognized. The natural ability of certain bacterial genera to decompose

  5. WoodPhysics Surface Degradation

    E-print Network

    Geldenhuys, Jaco

    29 WoodPhysics Surface Degradation Fibre Analysis Bio-fuels A low-cost pyrolysis unit for safe charcoal production A low cost pyrolysis unit was developed to produce charcoal from wood waste. The coal- tion of the fuel, e.g. for domestic or industrial use. 30 Ageing studies of wood and model

  6. Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood Scholarship Award Call for Nominations We are delighted to announce the Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood Scholarship Award for an Outstanding Women's, Gender, and Sexualities (WGSS Wood, a feminist mother, wife, friend, daughter, and lawyer who is remembered by her loved ones

  7. FLAME RETARDANT TREATED WOOD PRODUCTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ondrej Grexa

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the comparison of flammability characteristics of FRT and untreated wood based products is done with the aim to demonstrate the fire behaviour of untreated wood products and FRT wood products. The fire behaviour was measured both in the small scale and full scale fire tests. The differences of the fire performance measured in the ISO 9705 Room\\/Corner

  8. Influence of dietary vitamin E supplementation on meat quality traits and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in the Beijing-you chicken

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Li; G. P. Zhao; J. L. Chen; M. Q. Zheng; J. Wen

    2009-01-01

    1.?The effects of dietary vitamin E (DL-?-tocopheryl acetate) on carcase and meat quality, oxidative stability, fatty acid composition of muscle lipids, and gene expression related to lipid metabolism were studied in Beijing-you chickens.2.?A total of 360 female birds were distributed among 6 treatments, containing 6 replicates, each of 10 birds. The feed for each treatment was supplemented with vitamin E

  9. A comparison of some metabolitesin skeletal muscle of different halothane sensitivity withmeat quality traits of pigs using a capillary isotachophoresis technique.

    PubMed

    Lahucky, R; Madajová, V; Mharapara, O; Marák, J; Kaniansky, D; Poltarsky, J; Kova, L

    1995-01-01

    Isotachophoretic (ITP) measurements were made on biopsy samples from live muscle M. longissimus lumborum and carcasses of pigs. Two experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, the methodological aspects of ITP measurements from skeletal muscle, were studied. In Experiment 2, ITP measurements on muscle and carcass samples were made. The muscle and carcass samples were obtained by shot or spring-loaded biopsy from the Longissimus lumborum muscle of 30 Belgium Landrace × Duroc pigs, of which 10 were halothane-positive. The pigs were slaughtered by electro-stunning and manguination at approximately 105 kg body l. w. The potential meat quality in live pigs and after slaughter using small biopsy samples of M. longissimus lumborum was also determined. The experimental results show that ITP (mainly inosinemonophosphate and lactate) and meat quality data (water-holding capacity test, pH and R value) can differentiate halo thane-positive from halothane-negative pigs. Out results confirmed previous results which showed that the water-holding capacity test defined as fluid volume', pH and R value measurements on biopsy samples can also predict the potential meat quality in live pigs. PMID:22059878

  10. Chopwell Wood Health Project

    E-print Network

    in the percentage of pupils regarding the wood as a healthy place. · Parents and staff felt very strongly. The project partners are all still involved and playing an active role in taking the work forward professionals `Health and well-being: the role of woodlands in the North East of England' go to: http

  11. WOOD POLE MAINTENANCE1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Birtz

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with the various inspection and treatment methods that can be used to maintain wood poles in- place. Pole inspection has to be carried out to meet National Electric Code safety standards. Unfortunately, inspection only is an expense that leads to a lot of pole replacements. Inspec- tion combined with present internal and external treatments will extend the

  12. Rheological Model for Wood

    E-print Network

    Mohammad Masoud Hassani; Falk K. Wittel; Stefan Hering; Hans J. Herrmann

    2014-10-15

    Wood as the most important natural and renewable building material plays an important role in the construction sector. Nevertheless, its hygroscopic character basically affects all related mechanical properties leading to degradation of material stiffness and strength over the service life. Accordingly, to attain reliable design of the timber structures, the influence of moisture evolution and the role of time- and moisture-dependent behaviors have to be taken into account. For this purpose, in the current study a 3D orthotropic elasto-plastic, visco-elastic, mechano-sorptive constitutive model for wood, with all material constants being defined as a function of moisture content, is presented. The corresponding numerical integration approach, with additive decomposition of the total strain is developed and implemented within the framework of the finite element method (FEM). Moreover to preserve a quadratic rate of asymptotic convergence the consistent tangent operator for the whole model is derived. Functionality and capability of the presented material model are evaluated by performing several numerical verification simulations of wood components under different combinations of mechanical loading and moisture variation. Additionally, the flexibility and universality of the introduced model to predict the mechanical behavior of different species are demonstrated by the analysis of a hybrid wood element. Furthermore, the proposed numerical approach is validated by comparisons of computational evaluations with experimental results.

  13. Prediction of liveweight of cows from type traits and its relationship with production and fitness traits.

    PubMed

    Haile-Mariam, M; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Pryce, J E

    2014-05-01

    Liveweight (LWT) data for Australian Holstein cows was predicted from different type traits based on actual LWT and type data of 932 cows collected from 20 different herds over a 3-yr period. In addition to LWT measured using scales, visual estimates of LWT were also available on 90% of the cows with LWT data. The future predictive ability of different models was assessed using 10-fold cross-validation. The relationships between LWT and selected type traits, including body condition score (BCS), were also calculated to assess the usefulness of various traits to predict LWT genetically. The relationships of predicted LWT measures with production and fitness traits were also estimated in an attempt to assess the consequence of continuous selection on an economic index that includes predicted LWT with a negative economic value. The heritability of LWT was 0.4. Among type traits, stature, chest width, bone quality, BCS, udder depth, central ligament, and muzzle width were correlated with LWT both genetically and phenotypically and were used to predict LWT of cows. Predicted LWT measures, using several sets of traits and visually estimated LWT were genetically highly correlated with each other (>0.73). Phenotypically, visually estimated LWT of cows was slightly more correlated with actual LWT than that predicted from type traits, but genetically both approaches gave the same accuracy. The predicted estimates of LWT were also positively genetically correlated with energy-corrected milk yield and had near zero correlation with survival. The correlations of different measures of LWT with fertility traits were unfavorable or near zero, suggesting that selection for reduced LWT may not cause deterioration in fertility traits. However, it may be useful to consider broadening the breeding objective to include traits that are associated with energy balance, particularly if traits such as BCS and bone quality are included in the set of traits used to predict LWT. Based on the results from this study, the inclusion of predicted LWT with negative economic values into the breeding objective would have no negative effect on fitness traits. PMID:24630649

  14. The genetic background affects composition, oxidative stability and quality traits of Iberian dry-cured hams: purebred Iberian versus reciprocal Iberian × Duroc crossbred pigs.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Verónica; Ventanas, Sonia; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the physico-chemical characteristics, oxidative stability and sensory properties of Iberian cry-cured hams as affected by the genetic background of the pigs: purebred Iberian (PBI) pigs vs reciprocal cross-bred Iberian × Duroc pigs (IB × D pigs: Iberian dams × Duroc sires; D × IB pigs: Duroc dams × Iberian sires). Samples from PBI pigs contained significantly higher amounts of IMF, monounsaturated fatty acids, heme pigments and iron than those from crossbred pigs. The extent of lipid and protein oxidation was significantly larger in dry-cured hams of crossbred pigs than in those from PBI pigs. Dry-cured hams from PBI pigs were defined by positive sensory properties (i.e. redness, brightness and juiciness) while hams from crossbred pigs were ascribed to negative ones (i.e. hardness, bitterness and sourness). Hams from PBI pigs displayed a superior quality than those from crossbred pigs. The position of the dam or the sire in reciprocal Iberian × Duroc crosses had no effect on the quality of Iberian hams. PMID:24200565

  15. Multi-Location Evaluation of Agronomic Traits in Maize Hybrids

    E-print Network

    McKee, Michael 1982-

    2012-12-12

    accumulation; and iv) determine how Genotype x Environment interactions affect these traits. Agronomic data was collected in ten Texas environments in 2005 for hybrids created from yellow, white, and Quality Protein Maize material that was crossed with one...

  16. Generalized Latent Trait Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

  17. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  18. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization in beech and spruce forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Nickolas K.; Mina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    A novel synergistic approach to reducing emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is presented. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization (FCO) aims to provide cleaner burning fuels through optimization of forestry and renewable energy management practices. In this work, beech and spruce forests of average and high quality were modelled and analysed to determine the volume of fuel wood and its associated bark fraction produced during typical forestry cycles. Two separate fuel wood bark production regimes were observed for beech trees, while only one production regime was observed for spruce. The single tree and stand models were combined with existing thinning parameters to replicate existing management practices. Utilizing estimates of initial seedling numbers and existing thinning patterns a dynamic model was formed that responded to changes in thinning practices. By varying the thinning parameters, this model enabled optimization of the forestry practices for the reduction of bark impurities in the fuel wood supply chain. Beech forestry cycles responded well to fuel cycle optimization with volume reductions of bark from fuel wood of between ˜10% and ˜20% for average and high quality forest stands. Spruce, on the other hand, was fairly insensitive to FCO with bark reductions of 0-5%. The responsiveness of beech to FCO further supports its status as the preferred RWC fuel in Switzerland. FCO could easily be extended beyond Switzerland and applied across continental Europe and North America.

  19. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting lameness and leg conformation traits in Danish Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Buitenhuis, A J; Lund, M S; Thomasen, J R; Thomsen, B; Nielsen, V Hunnicke; Bendixen, C; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2007-01-01

    Lameness is an important factor for culling animals. Strong legs and feet improve herd life of dairy cows. Therefore, many countries include leg and feet conformation traits in their breeding programs, often as early predictors of longevity. However, few countries directly measure lameness related traits to include these in a breeding program. Lameness indices in 3 different lactations and 5 leg conformation traits (rear legs side view, rear legs rear view, hock quality, bone quality, and foot angle) were measured on granddaughters of 19 Danish Holstein grandsires with 33 to 105 sons. A genome scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the 29 autosomes using microsatellite markers. Data were analyzed across and within families for QTL affecting lameness and leg conformation traits. A regression method and a variance component method were used for QTL detection. Two QTL each for lameness in the first [Bos taurus autosome (BTA); BTA5, BTA26] and second (BTA19, BTA22) lactations were detected. For the 5 different leg conformation traits, 7 chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected across families for rear legs side view, 5 for rear legs rear view, 4 for hock quality, 4 for bone quality, and 1 for foot angle. For those chromosomes where a QTL associated with 2 different traits was detected (BTA1, BTA11, BTA15, BTA26, and BTA27), a multitrait-1-QTL model and a multitrait-2-QTL model were performed to characterize these QTL as single QTL with pleiotropic effects or distinct QTL. PMID:17183116

  20. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Ji?í; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloni?ný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  1. Application of the differential colorimetry and polyphenolic profile to the evaluation of the chromatic quality of Tempranillo red wines elaborated in warm climate. Influence of the presence of oak wood chips during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Belén; Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    The effect of adding American oak wood chips during fermentation on Tempranillo red wines elaborates in a warm climate has been studied. Our attention was focused on the tristimulus colorimetry, differential colorimetry and phenolic compounds related to wine colour. This technique was applied as an oenological alternative to the conventional winemaking for avoiding the common fall of colour of red wines elaborated in warm climates. The addition of oak wood chips promoted the colour enhancement and stabilisation, producing wines with a notably darker colour and with more bluish tonality. This fact was also related to the significantly higher content of some phenolic compounds. On the basis of the results, it could be affirmed that the addition of oak wood chips during fermentation induced visually perceptible colour changes (by the analysis of ?Eab(*), %?(2)L, %?(2)C and %?(2)H), mainly in a quantitative way, and also a lower percentage of diminution of colour. PMID:23870946

  2. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, WHOI, the largest independent oceanographic institution in the world, is a private, non-profit research facility dedicated to the study of marine science and to the education of marine scientists. Site provides information on graduate programs, undergraduate opportunities, facilities, and more. An abundance of information on the research program and its vessels, including an extensive collection of Deep Submergence Vehicle Alvin material. Also includes downloadable data, photos, and video.

  3. Out of the woods.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1992-01-01

    Throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America women are pushed out of forests and from their maintenance by governments and private interests for cash crop development disregarding the role of women in conserving forests. In developing countries forests are a source of wood for fuel; 60-80% of women gather wood for family needs in America. Fruits, vegetables, and nuts gathered in woods enhance their diet. Indonesian women pick bananas, mangos, guavas, and avocados from trees around their homes; in Senegal shea-nut butter is made from a local tree fruit to be sold for cash. Women provide labor also in logging, wood processing, and tree nurseries. They make charcoal and grow seedlings for sale. In India 40% of forest income and 75% of forest products export earnings are derived from nonwood resources. Poor, rural women make items out of bamboo, rattan, and rope to sell: 48% of women in an Egyptian province make a living through such activities. In India 600,000 women harvest tendu leaves for use as wrappings for cigarettes. The expansion of commercial tree plantations replacing once communal natural forests has forced poor households to spend up to 4-% of their income on fuel that they used to find in forests. Tribal women in India know the medicinal uses of 300 forest species, and women in Sierra Leone could name 31 products they obtained or made from trees and bushes, while men named only 8 items. Only 1 forestry project appraised by the World Bank during 1984-97 named women as beneficiaries, and only 1 out of 33 rural development programs funded by the World Bank did. Women provide food, fuel, and water for their families in subsistence economies, they know sustainable methods of forestry, yet they are not included in development programs whose success or failure could hinge on more attention to women's contribution and on more equity. PMID:12285836

  4. An oligo-based microarray offers novel transcriptomic approaches for the analysis of pathogen resistance and fruit quality traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mascarell-Creus, Albert; Cañizares, Joaquin; Vilarrasa-Blasi, Josep; Mora-García, Santiago; Blanca, José; Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Saladié, Montserrat; Roig, Cristina; Deleu, Wim; Picó-Silvent, Belén; López-Bigas, Nuria; Aranda, Miguel A; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Nuez, Fernando; Puigdomènech, Pere; Caño-Delgado, Ana I

    2009-01-01

    Background Melon (Cucumis melo) is a horticultural specie of significant nutritional value, which belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance is second only to the Solanaceae. Its small genome of approx. 450 Mb coupled to the high genetic diversity has prompted the development of genetic tools in the last decade. However, the unprecedented existence of a transcriptomic approaches in melon, highlight the importance of designing new tools for high-throughput analysis of gene expression. Results We report the construction of an oligo-based microarray using a total of 17,510 unigenes derived from 33,418 high-quality melon ESTs. This chip is particularly enriched with genes that are expressed in fruit and during interaction with pathogens. Hybridizations for three independent experiments allowed the characterization of global gene expression profiles during fruit ripening, as well as in response to viral and fungal infections in plant cotyledons and roots, respectively. Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation together with functional-enrichment analysis are presented in this study. Conclusion The platform validation and enrichment analyses shown in our study indicate that this oligo-based microarray is amenable for future genetic and functional genomic studies of a wide range of experimental conditions in melon. PMID:19821986

  5. Swelling Behavior of Wood and Wood-Plastic Composite (WPC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mubarak A. Khan; K. M. Idriss Ali

    1992-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites were prepared by ?-radiation with five types of low-grade timbers of Bangladesh using methylmethacrylate as monomer. Water-swelling behavior of both wood and its WPC was studied. The water uptake by the WPC was found to be lower compared to the untreated wood. Higher tensile strength values were obtained with untreated WPC than with the corresponding timbers both before

  6. Causes for the Improved Water Resistance in Pine Wood Linear Welded Joints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Mansouri; A. Pizzi; J. M. Leban; L. Delmotte; O. Lindgren; M. Vaziri

    2011-01-01

    Linear vibration welding of good quality pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood from Sweden containing a small proportion of a native mixture of terpenoic acids, known under the collective name of rosin, has been shown to yield joints of much upgraded water resistance. This has been shown to be due to the protecting influence the molten rosin from the wood itself has

  7. Case-Based Support for Forestry Decisions: How to See the Wood from the Trees

    E-print Network

    Bridge, Derek

    Case-Based Support for Forestry Decisions: How to See the Wood from the Trees Conor Nugent1 , Derek/2006/370/), jointly funded by Enterprise Ireland and TreeMetrics, a company that provides forestry is to estimate what products can be produced from a tree, e.g. size and quality of planks, amount of wood

  8. Environmental Influences on Wood Chemistry and Density of Populus and Loblolly Pine

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, G.A.

    2006-08-11

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) determine the degree to which physical and chemical wood properties vary in association with environmental and silvicultural practices in Populus and loblolly pine and (2) develop and verify species-specific empirical models in an effort to create a framework for understanding environmental influences on wood quality.

  9. DNA Extraction From Processed Wood: A Case Study for the Identification of an Endangered

    E-print Network

    Protocols DNA Extraction From Processed Wood: A Case Study for the Identification of an Endangered to the extraction of whole genomic DNA from processed wood samples to explore the possibility of identifying an endangered trop- ical timber species by using DNA sequencing technology. High-yield and high-quality DNA

  10. The Effects of Large Wood on Stream Channel Morphology on Three Low-

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    in the extraction of natural resources in the western United States. Today, the impacts of these disturbances can that large wood has a prominent role in habitat quality, however there is little research on the role of wood runs at the start or end of pools are also removed because the do not represent pool habitat. Higher

  11. Properties of Wood Fibre-Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Wood Fibre Source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetlana Butylina; Ossi Martikka; Timo Kärki

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of type of wood fibre source on the physical and mechanical properties of wood fibre-polypropylene\\u000a composites. Wood flour, fibres of heat-treated wood and pellets were used as sources of wood fibres in the manufacturing process.\\u000a All studied wood fibre-polypropylene composites were made from 75% wood, 22% recycled polypropylene (PP) and 3% maleated polypropylene\\u000a (MAPP). Wood

  12. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. April, 2006 Allen W. Wood

    E-print Network

    Zalta, Edward N.

    Guggenheim Fellowship, 1983 Fulbright Fellowship, 1983 (declined) Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship, 1983 Tradition". With critical essays by J. B. Schneewind, Marcia Baron, Allen Wood and Shelly Kagan. Yale

  14. Multiple interval mapping for quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, C H; Zeng, Z B; Teasdale, R D

    1999-01-01

    A new statistical method for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL), called multiple interval mapping (MIM), is presented. It uses multiple marker intervals simultaneously to fit multiple putative QTL directly in the model for mapping QTL. The MIM model is based on Cockerham's model for interpreting genetic parameters and the method of maximum likelihood for estimating genetic parameters. With the MIM approach, the precision and power of QTL mapping could be improved. Also, epistasis between QTL, genotypic values of individuals, and heritabilities of quantitative traits can be readily estimated and analyzed. Using the MIM model, a stepwise selection procedure with likelihood ratio test statistic as a criterion is proposed to identify QTL. This MIM method was applied to a mapping data set of radiata pine on three traits: brown cone number, tree diameter, and branch quality scores. Based on the MIM result, seven, six, and five QTL were detected for the three traits, respectively. The detected QTL individually contributed from approximately 1 to 27% of the total genetic variation. Significant epistasis between four pairs of QTL in two traits was detected, and the four pairs of QTL contributed approximately 10.38 and 14.14% of the total genetic variation. The asymptotic variances of QTL positions and effects were also provided to construct the confidence intervals. The estimated heritabilities were 0.5606, 0.5226, and 0. 3630 for the three traits, respectively. With the estimated QTL effects and positions, the best strategy of marker-assisted selection for trait improvement for a specific purpose and requirement can be explored. The MIM FORTRAN program is available on the worldwide web (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/chkao/). PMID:10388834

  15. Affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Horan, William P; Blanchard, Jack J; Clark, Lee Anna; Green, Michael F

    2008-09-01

    This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, population-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review focuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based dispositions to experience corresponding emotional states. Individuals with schizophrenia report a pattern of stably elevated NA and low PA throughout the illness course. Among affected individuals, these traits are associated with variability in several clinically important features, including functional outcome, quality of life, and stress reactivity. Furthermore, evidence that elevated NA and low PA (particularly the facet of anhedonia) predict the development of psychosis and are detectable in high-risk samples suggests that these traits play a role in vulnerability to schizophrenia, though they are implicated in other forms of psychopathology as well. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment, etiological models, and future research to advance the study of affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy. PMID:18667393

  16. Affective Traits in Schizophrenia and Schizotypy

    PubMed Central

    Horan, William P.; Blanchard, Jack J.; Clark, Lee Anna; Green, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, population-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review focuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based dispositions to experience corresponding emotional states. Individuals with schizophrenia report a pattern of stably elevated NA and low PA throughout the illness course. Among affected individuals, these traits are associated with variability in several clinically important features, including functional outcome, quality of life, and stress reactivity. Furthermore, evidence that elevated NA and low PA (particularly the facet of anhedonia) predict the development of psychosis and are detectable in high-risk samples suggests that these traits play a role in vulnerability to schizophrenia, though they are implicated in other forms of psychopathology as well. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment, etiological models, and future research to advance the study of affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy. PMID:18667393

  17. Wood residue biomass energy in Georgia. Research report 452

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, G.C.W.; Dunavent, B.B.

    1984-03-01

    The objectives of this project were: (1) to determine local biomass fuel supplies, their prices, and current market distribution throughout the Southeast with emphasis on Georgia; (2) to determine moisture content, foreign matter and storage characteristics which influence combustion efficiency and handling practices of sawmill and logging residues and wood chips from different sources throughout the state; and (3) to develop a model that can determine the least-cost wood fuel mix for potential users based upon demand and available supplies. Discussion is presented under the headings: Changes in Sawmill Residue Production; Mill Residue Supplies in Georgia; Average Residue Prices; Differences in Residue Utilization; Transportation Costs for Wood Residues; Moisture Content; and Determination of Delivered Cost of Wood Energy. In this demonstration using state-wide averages, softwood bark and softwood sawdust were determined to be the least-cost fuels, compared with other wood residues. Local conditions affecting supply and demand may produce different results, and fuel users should determine the least-cost fuel for their energy needs. As the demand for wood energy increases and supplies of readily available residues are already used up, other sources of wood energy may be tapped. The Georgia Forestry Commission and private forest management companies have encouraged the use of whole-tree chipping to clear scrub timberland consisting mainly of low-quality hardwoods prior to replanting with a new stand of valuable pine trees. Whole-tree chipping of waste pine and scrub hardwood increases the available supply of fuel wood chips, reduces erosion compared with other methods of land preparation, and encourages land owners to reforest their land, since the cost of replanting may be covered by the sale of fuel chips and other products. 6 references.

  18. Exposure to wood smoke particles produces an inflammation in healthy volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Human exposure to wood smoke particles (WSP) is of consequence in indoor air quality, exposures from wild fires, burning ofbiomass, and air pollution. This investigation tested the postulate that healthy volunteers exposed to WSP would demonstrate pulmonary and cardio...

  19. Influence of Nanoclay on Properties of HDPE/Wood Composites

    E-print Network

    from renewable natural resources offer the potential to act as biodegradable reinforcing materials, espe- cially wood plastic composites, which have success- fully proven their high qualities in various composites. However, much of the commercial use of natural fibers in the United States in plastics has been

  20. MODELING LARGE WOOD STRUCTURES IN SAND BED STREAMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-stream large wood structures (LWS) are becoming increasingly popular throughout the world. The LWS improve aquatic habitat quality and protect banks from erosion. While most reports describe the LWS in the Northwest as successful, LWS in one Mississippi sand-bed stream had an unacceptable failure...

  1. Healthy volunteers exposed to wood stove particles demonstrate inflammatory changes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction. Human exposure to particles associated with wood burning is of great consequence in both indoor air quality and air pollution and has been listed by the World Health Organization as one of the world's ten greatest health concerns. This investigation tested the postu...

  2. Investigating the molecular underpinnings underlying morphology and changes in carbon partitioning during tension wood formation in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Mizrachi, Eshchar; Maloney, Victoria J; Silberbauer, Janine; Hefer, Charles A; Berger, Dave K; Mansfield, Shawn D; Myburg, Alexander A

    2014-11-12

    Tension wood has distinct physical and chemical properties, including altered fibre properties, cell wall composition and ultrastructure. It serves as a good system for investigating the genetic regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis and wood formation. The reference genome sequence for Eucalyptus grandis allows investigation of the global transcriptional reprogramming that accompanies tension wood formation in this global wood fibre crop. We report the first comprehensive analysis of physicochemical wood property changes in tension wood of Eucalyptus measured in a hybrid (E. grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla) clone, as well as genome-wide gene expression changes in xylem tissues 3 wk post-induction using RNA sequencing. We found that Eucalyptus tension wood in field-grown trees is characterized by an increase in cellulose, a reduction in lignin, xylose and mannose, and a marked increase in galactose. Gene expression profiling in tension wood-forming tissue showed corresponding down-regulation of monolignol biosynthetic genes, and differential expression of several carbohydrate active enzymes. We conclude that alterations of cell wall traits induced by tension wood formation in Eucalyptus are a consequence of a combination of down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis and hemicellulose remodelling, rather than the often proposed up-regulation of the cellulose biosynthetic pathway. PMID:25388807

  3. The Asian Wood Pellet Markets

    E-print Network

    The Asian Wood Pellet Markets Joseph A. Roos and Allen M. Brackley United States Department USDA's TARGET Center at (202) 720­2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint of discrimination, write;Abstract Roos, Joseph A.; Brackley, Allen, M. 2012. The Asian Wood Pellet Markets. Gen Tech Rep. PNW

  4. Combination coal and wood stove

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Gillis; R. Lucier

    1983-01-01

    The combination stove has a fire chamber that is partially cylindrical including a side loading door for loading wood or other combustible material such as coke or coal into the fire chamber. The front of the stove may be opened to enable viewing of the wood or coal burning in the stove by means of an arcuate sliding door that

  5. Wood by-pass furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Sr

    1983-01-01

    This wood by-pass furnace is designed in such a manner, as to have the oxygen for combustion controlled, to the extent that the wood does not blaze, but only produces red, glowing coals for heating a home, and the outside cover will not burn anyone when touched. It primarily consists of am inside fire chamber of cylindrical shape, to distribute

  6. Current near-to-nature forest management effects on functional trait composition of saproxylic beetles in beech forests.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Martin M; Lachat, Thibault; Brunet, Jörg; Isacsson, Gunnar; Bouget, Christophe; Brustel, Hervé; Brandl, Roland; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Müller, Jörg

    2013-06-01

    With the aim of wood production with negligible negative effects on biodiversity and ecosystem processes, a silvicultural practice of selective logging with natural regeneration has been implemented in European beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) during the last decades. Despite this near-to-nature strategy, species richness of various taxa is lower in these forests than in unmanaged forests. To develop guidelines to minimize the fundamental weaknesses in the current practice, we linked functional traits of saproxylic beetle species to ecosystem characteristics. We used continental-scale data from 8 European countries and regional-scale data from a large forest in southern Germany and forest-stand variables that represented a gradient of intensity of forest use to evaluate the effect of current near-to-nature management strategies on the functional diversity of saproxylic beetles. Forest-stand variables did not have a statistically significant effect on overall functional diversity, but they did significantly affect community mean and diversity of single functional traits. As the amount of dead wood increased the composition of assemblages shifted toward dominance of larger species and species preferring dead wood of large diameter and in advanced stages of decay. The mean amount of dead wood across plots in which most species occurred was from 20 to 60 m(3) /ha. Species occurring in plots with mean dead wood >60 m(3) /ha were consistently those inhabiting dead wood of large diameter and in advanced stages of decay. On the basis of our results, to make current wood-production practices in beech forests throughout Europe more conservation oriented (i.e., promoting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning), we recommend increasing the amount of dead wood to >20 m(3) /ha; not removing dead wood of large diameter (50 cm) and allowing more dead wood in advanced stages of decomposition to develop; and designating strict forest reserves, with their exceptionally high amounts of dead wood, that would serve as refuges for and sources of saproxylic habitat specialists. PMID:23432190

  7. [Biological effect of wood dust].

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Doma?ska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mo?ocznik, A

    1993-01-01

    The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis. PMID:8231799

  8. Acoustical classification of woods for string instruments.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Shigeru

    2007-07-01

    Two basic types of wood are used to make stringed musical instruments: woods for soundboards (top plates) and those for frame boards (back and side plates). A new way to classify the acoustical properties of woods and clearly separate these two groups is proposed in this paper. The transmission parameter (product of propagation speed and Q value of the longitudinal wave along the wood grain) and the antivibration parameter (wood density divided by the propagation speed along the wood grain) are introduced in the proposed classification scheme. Two regression lines, drawn for traditional woods, show the distinctly different functions required by soundboards and frame boards. These regression lines can serve as a reference to select the best substitute woods when traditional woods are not available. Moreover, some peculiarities of Japanese string instruments, which are made clear by comparing woods used for them with woods used for Western and Chinese instruments, are briefly discussed. PMID:17614512

  9. Wood joints and laminated wood beams assembled by mechanically-welded wood dowels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-F. Bocquet; A. Pizzi; A. Despres; H. R. Mansouri; L. Resch; D. Michel; F. Letort

    2007-01-01

    Dowel welding by high-speed rotation was used to join two wood blocks and strong joints were obtained. Dowel angle to the surface of the wood blocks to be joined had a marked influence on the mechanical performance of the joint. When the dowel was inserted at 90° to the substrate, the dowel was subjected to and resisted a shear force

  10. Comprehensive genetic dissection of wood properties in a widely-grown tropical tree: Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Eucalyptus is an important genus in industrial plantations throughout the world and is grown for use as timber, pulp, paper and charcoal. Several breeding programmes have been launched worldwide to concomitantly improve growth performance and wood properties (WPs). In this study, an interspecific cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis was used to identify major genomic regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL) controlling the variability of WPs. Results Linkage maps were generated for both parent species. A total of 117 QTLs were detected for a series of wood and end-use related traits, including chemical, technological, physical, mechanical and anatomical properties. The QTLs were mainly clustered into five linkage groups. In terms of distribution of QTL effects, our result agrees with the typical L-shape reported in most QTL studies, i.e. most WP QTLs had limited effects and only a few (13) had major effects (phenotypic variance explained > 15%). The co-locations of QTLs for different WPs as well as QTLs and candidate genes are discussed in terms of phenotypic correlations between traits, and of the function of the candidate genes. The major wood property QTL harbours a gene encoding a Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR), a structural enzyme of the monolignol-specific biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions Given the number of traits analysed, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the genetic architecture of wood properties in this Eucalyptus full-sib pedigree. At the dawn of Eucalyptus genome sequence, it will provide a framework to identify the nature of genes underlying these important quantitative traits. PMID:21651758

  11. Traits of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Traits of Life, a new collection of exhibits and demonstrations at San Francisco's Exploratorium, offers a fascinating look at the "fundamental elements common to all living things." Culminating from 3 years of research and development, the Traits of Life collection follows four themes: cells and DNA; reproduction; evolution; and energy consumption. This companion Web site offers cool interactive features for each theme, as well as articles, movies, interviews with experts, and more. Overall, this well-designed site offers a engaging way to "see past the diversity of living things to the underlying unity connecting us all."

  12. A Recipe for Traits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    In this activity, students create a "DNA recipe" for a dog to learn how variations in DNA lead to the inheritance of different traits. Strips of paper (representing DNA) are randomly selected and used to assemble a DNA molecule. Students read the DNA recipe to create a drawing of their pet and compare it with others in the class to note similarities and differences. Through this activity, students will learn that every organism requires a set of instructions for specifying its traits and heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.

  13. Rufus Woods Photographs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The photographer Rufus Woods documented the vast transformation of the area around what became the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State. This massive project was not without controversy, and many people were upset that they had to move their worldly possessions and homes for the construction of this massive dam. North central Washington was dramatically changed, and this digital collection provides some remarkable evidence of the process. Staff members at the Central Washington University Libraries completed the collection, and there are several hundred photographs in this archive. Visitors can browse through the items by date or by title, and they can also perform more detailed searches as well. Some of the highlights here include visitors parading across the top of the completed dam, power transmission towers, and some of the buildings that would later be swept under the water as the reservoir behind the dam filled up.

  14. Hydraulic architecture of two species differing in wood density: opposing strategies in co-occurring tropical pioneer trees.

    PubMed

    McCulloh, Katherine A; Johnson, Daniel M; Meinzer, Frederick C; Voelker, Steven L; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Co-occurring species often have different strategies for tolerating daily cycles of water stress. One underlying parameter that can link together the suite of traits that enables a given strategy is wood density. Here we compare hydraulic traits of two pioneer species from a tropical forest in Panama that differ in wood density: Miconia argentea and Anacardium excelsum. As hypothesized, the higher wood density of Miconia was associated with smaller diameter vessels and fibres, more water stress-resistant leaves and stems, and roughly half the capacitance of the lower wood density Anacardium. However, the scaling of hydraulic parameters such as the increases in leaf area and measures of hydraulic conductivity with stem diameter was remarkably similar between the two species. The collection of traits exhibited by Miconia allowed it to tolerate more water stress than Anacardium, which relied more heavily on its capacitance to buffer daily water potential fluctuations. This work demonstrates the importance of examining a range of hydraulic traits throughout the plant and highlights the spectrum of possible strategies for coping with daily and seasonal water stress cycles. PMID:21895699

  15. Justin Anderson Justin Woods

    E-print Network

    Vardeman, Stephen B.

    to be successful, quality improvement programs must be management-led and customer-oriented, and this may require in each of these categories: manufacturing, service, small business, education and health care (www. The leadership of the United States in product and process quality has been challenged strongly (and sometimes

  16. Swelling of acetylated wood in organic solvents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Obataya; S. Shibutani

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly and\\/or very

  17. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  18. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  19. Wye Wood: the wider wood : A project description and evaluation page 1 January 2007

    E-print Network

    of Health Improvement, Herefordshire Primary Care Trust Dr Veronica Aldridge Evaluation Consultant Elizabeth Parrott Health Development Worker, Wye Wood: the wider wood #12;Wye Wood: the wider wood : A project The Green Wood Centre Herefordshire Primary Care Trust Shropshire Primary Care Trust Forestry Commission

  20. Wood Fuel Task Force Response 2 | Wood Fuel Task Force Response

    E-print Network

    Wood Fuel Task Force Response #12;2 | Wood Fuel Task Force Response #12;Wood Fuel Task Force Response | 3 Wood Fuel Task Force Response Scottish Government response by Minister for Environment, Michael Russell I am pleased to present on behalf of the Scottish Government our response to the Wood Fuel

  1. Predicting species’ range limits from functional traits for the tree flora of North America

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Ulrike; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Using functional traits to explain species’ range limits is a promising approach in functional biogeography. It replaces the idiosyncrasy of species-specific climate ranges with a generic trait-based predictive framework. In addition, it has the potential to shed light on specific filter mechanisms creating large-scale vegetation patterns. However, its application to a continental flora, spanning large climate gradients, has been hampered by a lack of trait data. Here, we explore whether five key plant functional traits (seed mass, wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), maximum height, and longevity of a tree)—indicative of life history, mechanical, and physiological adaptations—explain the climate ranges of 250 North American tree species distributed from the boreal to the subtropics. Although the relationship between traits and the median climate across a species range is weak, quantile regressions revealed strong effects on range limits. Wood density and seed mass were strongly related to the lower but not upper temperature range limits of species. Maximum height affects the species range limits in both dry and humid climates, whereas SLA and longevity do not show clear relationships. These results allow the definition and delineation of climatic “no-go areas” for North American tree species based on key traits. As some of these key traits serve as important parameters in recent vegetation models, the implementation of trait-based climatic constraints has the potential to predict both range shifts and ecosystem consequences on a more functional basis. Moreover, for future trait-based vegetation models our results provide a benchmark for model evaluation. PMID:25225398

  2. Predicting species' range limits from functional traits for the tree flora of North America.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Ulrike; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

    2014-09-23

    Using functional traits to explain species' range limits is a promising approach in functional biogeography. It replaces the idiosyncrasy of species-specific climate ranges with a generic trait-based predictive framework. In addition, it has the potential to shed light on specific filter mechanisms creating large-scale vegetation patterns. However, its application to a continental flora, spanning large climate gradients, has been hampered by a lack of trait data. Here, we explore whether five key plant functional traits (seed mass, wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), maximum height, and longevity of a tree)--indicative of life history, mechanical, and physiological adaptations--explain the climate ranges of 250 North American tree species distributed from the boreal to the subtropics. Although the relationship between traits and the median climate across a species range is weak, quantile regressions revealed strong effects on range limits. Wood density and seed mass were strongly related to the lower but not upper temperature range limits of species. Maximum height affects the species range limits in both dry and humid climates, whereas SLA and longevity do not show clear relationships. These results allow the definition and delineation of climatic "no-go areas" for North American tree species based on key traits. As some of these key traits serve as important parameters in recent vegetation models, the implementation of trait-based climatic constraints has the potential to predict both range shifts and ecosystem consequences on a more functional basis. Moreover, for future trait-based vegetation models our results provide a benchmark for model evaluation. PMID:25225398

  3. Experimental analysis and simulation modeling of forest management impacts on wood thrushes, Hylocichla mustelina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    North American Breeding Bird Survey data show that wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) populations in eastern U.S. forests have declined 1.8% per year during 1966-95. The declining quality of breeding forest tracts in North America is one possible cause for the apparent decline of some neotropical migratory birds, such as the wood thrush. In Georgia, however, wood thrush populations have declined during a period of increasing pine forest area and larger patch sizes. We hypothesized that forest management practices such as thinning and prescribed burning might create unsuitable habitat for wood thrushes. We conducted a four-year before/after, treatment/control experiment at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia to study to the effects of a treatment of thinning and prescribed burning on wood thrush demographic parameters. We simultaneously monitored wood thrush adults and juveniles with mark-recapture, radio-telemetry, nest searches, and plot-map surveys. Our analyses showed that wood thrushes were less likely to emigrate from the study compartments after the treatment, and wood thrushes exhibited some tendency to increase preference for hardwood habitats and decrease preference for pine habitats following the treatment. However, we observed no effects of treatment on nest success, adult survival, and adult and juvenile dispersal distances. We also found that female wood thrushes had lower survival rates than males during the breeding season, and we documented large-scale, within-year dispersal movements of adult (up to 17 km) and juvenile (up to 7 km) wood thrushes. We conclude that landscape level habitat quantity and quality must be considered during songbird management decisions. The documentation of sex- and age-specific wood thrush survival and movement rates was critical for construction of a set of population models. We used three stochastic models to learn more about wood thrush population dynamics and make predictions about population growth rates, reproductive success, and the effect of habitat changes on wood thrush populations. The simplest source/sink population model suggests that the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge's wood thrush population is probably stable or increasing, and wood thrush populations in treated areas had higher growth rates than birds in untreated areas. We were able to use the individual-based model of wood thrush productivity to predict fecundity, a parameter that we could not measure directly in the field. Again, females on treated areas had higher fecundity than birds on untreated areas. Our spatially-based model predicted that wood thrush populations should respond positively to predicted changes in the age/size class structure of the Refuge's pine forests. Our model also showed that most wood thrushes leave the Refuge's forest compartments during the breeding season, and these dispersal movements are extremely important to understanding and managing wood thrush populations. The use of prescribed burning and retention shelterwood silviculture at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge does not appear to negatively affect the local wood thrush population. Continued use of the current management regime should result in adequate nesting, foraging, and escape habitats for wood thrushes. However, landscape-level habitat availability and quality, including lands outside the Refuge, must be considered when making management decisions that may affect wood thrushes.

  4. Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification

    E-print Network

    McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

  5. Treatment of Wood Preserving Wastewater

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, T. D.; Shack, P. A.

    The wastewater produced by the wood preserving industry presents a difficult problem to treat economically. A review of the literature indicates the size of the industry has limited the pursuit of an orderly and economic solution. Atmospheric...

  6. Effect of Habitat Conditions and Plant Traits on Leaf Damage in the Carduoideae Subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Münzbergová, Zuzana; Skuhrovec, Ji?í

    2013-01-01

    Plant traits are the key factors that determine herbivore foraging selection. The traits serving as defense traits against herbivores represent a wide range of traits, such as chemical, physiological, morphological and life-history traits. While many studies considered plant defense traits at the within-species scale, much less is known from comparisons of a wide range of closely related species. The aim of this study was to identify factors responsible for the intensity of leaf damage in the Carduoideae subfamily of Asteraceae, which hosts many invasive species and thus is potential candidate plant species that could be controlled by biological control. Specifically, we wanted to see the relative importance of habitat characteristics, plant size and plants traits in determining the degree of folivory. The study identified several defense traits able to explain differences in herbivory between species after accounting for differences in the habitats in which the species occur and the plant size. Specifically, the most important traits were traits related to the quality of the leaf tissue expressed as the content of phosphorus, water and specific leaf area, which suggests that the leaf quality had a more important effect on the degree of herbivory than the presence of specific defense mechanisms such as spines and hair. Leaf quality is thus a candidate factor that drives herbivore choice when selecting which plant to feed on and should be considered when assessing the danger that a herbivore will switch hosts when introduced to a new range. PMID:23717643

  7. Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

    1997-07-01

    The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

  8. A database of lotic invertebrate traits for North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vieira, Nicole K.M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Carlisle, Daren M.; Moulton, Stephen R., II; Koski, Marci L.; Kondratieff, Boris C.

    2006-01-01

    The assessment and study of stream communities may be enhanced if functional characteristics such as life-history, habitat preference, and reproductive strategy were more widely available for specific taxa. Species traits can be used to develop these functional indicators because many traits directly link functional roles of organisms with controlling environmental factors (for example, flow, substratum, temperature). In addition, some functional traits may not be constrained by taxonomy and are thus applicable at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, a comprehensive summary of traits for North American invertebrate taxa does not exist. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in cooperation with Colorado State University compiled a database of traits for North American invertebrates. A total of 14,127 records for over 2,200 species, 1,165 genera, and 249 families have been entered into the database from 967 publications, texts and reports. Quality-assurance procedures indicated error rates of less than 3 percent in the data entry process. Species trait information was most complete for insect taxa. Traits describing resource acquisition and habitat preferences were most frequently reported, whereas those describing physiological tolerances and reproductive biology were the least frequently reported in the literature. The database is not exhaustive of the literature for North American invertebrates and is biased towards aquatic insects, but it represents a first attempt to compile traits in a web-accessible database. This report describes the database and discusses important decisions necessary for identifying ecologically relevant, environmentally sensitive, non-redundant, and statistically tractable traits for use in bioassessment programs.

  9. Trait-mediated assembly processes predict successional changes in community diversity of tropical forests

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, Jesse R.; Uriarte, María; Boukili, Vanessa K.; Chazdon, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific differences in relative fitness can cause local dominance by a single species. However, stabilizing interspecific niche differences can promote local diversity. Understanding these mechanisms requires that we simultaneously quantify their effects on demography and link these effects to community dynamics. Successional forests are ideal systems for testing assembly theory because they exhibit rapid community assembly. Here, we leverage functional trait and long-term demographic data to build spatially explicit models of successional community dynamics of lowland rainforests in Costa Rica. First, we ask what the effects and relative importance of four trait-mediated community assembly processes are on tree survival, a major component of fitness. We model trait correlations with relative fitness differences that are both density-independent and -dependent in addition to trait correlations with stabilizing niche differences. Second, we ask how the relative importance of these trait-mediated processes relates to successional changes in functional diversity. Tree dynamics were more strongly influenced by trait-related interspecific variation in average survival than trait-related responses to neighbors, with wood specific gravity (WSG) positively correlated with greater survival. Our findings also suggest that competition was mediated by stabilizing niche differences associated with specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). These drivers of individual-level survival were reflected in successional shifts to higher SLA and LDMC diversity but lower WSG diversity. Our study makes significant advances to identifying the links between individual tree performance, species functional traits, and mechanisms of tropical forest succession. PMID:24706791

  10. Trait-mediated assembly processes predict successional changes in community diversity of tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Jesse R; Uriarte, María; Boukili, Vanessa K; Chazdon, Robin L

    2014-04-15

    Interspecific differences in relative fitness can cause local dominance by a single species. However, stabilizing interspecific niche differences can promote local diversity. Understanding these mechanisms requires that we simultaneously quantify their effects on demography and link these effects to community dynamics. Successional forests are ideal systems for testing assembly theory because they exhibit rapid community assembly. Here, we leverage functional trait and long-term demographic data to build spatially explicit models of successional community dynamics of lowland rainforests in Costa Rica. First, we ask what the effects and relative importance of four trait-mediated community assembly processes are on tree survival, a major component of fitness. We model trait correlations with relative fitness differences that are both density-independent and -dependent in addition to trait correlations with stabilizing niche differences. Second, we ask how the relative importance of these trait-mediated processes relates to successional changes in functional diversity. Tree dynamics were more strongly influenced by trait-related interspecific variation in average survival than trait-related responses to neighbors, with wood specific gravity (WSG) positively correlated with greater survival. Our findings also suggest that competition was mediated by stabilizing niche differences associated with specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). These drivers of individual-level survival were reflected in successional shifts to higher SLA and LDMC diversity but lower WSG diversity. Our study makes significant advances to identifying the links between individual tree performance, species functional traits, and mechanisms of tropical forest succession. PMID:24706791

  11. Reconstructing the Ocean's Interior from Surface Data Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

    E-print Network

    Mahadevan, Amala

    Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts GLENN R. FLIERL Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts JOSEPH H. LACASCE Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway JULIE L. MCCLEAN MAHADEVAN Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts (Manuscript received 14 October

  12. Coextruded Polyethylene and Wood-Flour Composite: Effect of Shell Thickness, Wood Loading, and Core

    E-print Network

    Coextruded Polyethylene and Wood-Flour Composite: Effect of Shell Thickness, Wood Loading, and Core recycled polyethylene and wood-flour composites with core­shell structure were manufactured using a pilot

  13. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Haskell, Marie J.; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection. PMID:25374582

  14. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1930, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution is one of the world's most well-regarded research institutions, devoted to the mission of developing a fundamental understanding of the processes and characteristics that govern how the oceans work and how they interact with the earth as a whole. From the site's main page, visitors can develop a general understanding of the Institution's activities by looking through the information provided about their research departments (e.g., biology and marine chemistry); their research groups; and their highly-regarded ocean institutes, which include the Deep Ocean Exploration Institute and the Ocean Life Institute. Students and educators will want to make sure and visit the Dive and Discover section of the site, which allows users to "travel" on the bottom of a number of oceans in a miniature submarine. Divided into six sections, the trip contains a host of information for people who are interested in learning about the variety of life in the Pacific Ocean and about different geological processes, like plate tectonics.

  15. Congeners in sugar cane spirits aged in casks of different woods.

    PubMed

    Bortoletto, Aline M; Alcarde, André R

    2013-08-15

    The profile of volatile compounds and aging markers in sugar cane spirits aged for 36 months in casks made of 10 types of wood were studied. The ethanol content, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters, higher alcohols, and methanol were determined. In addition, gallic, vanilic and syringic acids, siringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, vanillin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural were identified and quantified. The profile of volatile compounds characterised aging in each type of wood. The beverage aged in oak cask achieved the highest contents of maturation-related congeners. The Brazilian woods, similar to oak, were jequitibá rosa and cerejeira, which presented the highest contents of some maturation-related compounds, such as vanillin, vanilic acid, syringaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. Although oak wood conferred more chemical complexity to the beverage, Brazilian woods, singly or complementarily, present potential for spirit characterisation and for improving the quality of sugar cane spirits. PMID:23561163

  16. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Alexander P; Csank, Adam Z; Reyes, Alberto V; McKellar, Ryan C; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2012-01-01

    We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose ?(18)O and ?(2)H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information. PMID:23029080

  17. Pristine Early Eocene Wood Buried Deeply in Kimberlite from Northern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Alexander P.; Csank, Adam Z.; Reyes, Alberto V.; McKellar, Ryan C.; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2012-01-01

    We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada’s Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose ?18O and ?2H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12–17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information. PMID:23029080

  18. EFFECT OF THE FINGER LENGTH ON BENDING STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF THE FINGER JOINTED STEAMED AND UNSTEAMED BEECH WOOD (Fagus sylvatica)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Karastergiou

    Finger jointing has been in use in production for many years, yet it is only with the decline in resource quality that interest in it for furniture has increased. Beech wood is one of the most important species for the furniture production in Europe. It is used mainly as steamed as well as unsteamed wood as raw material in many

  19. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally.

  20. timber quality Modelling and forecasting

    E-print Network

    facilities match the more traditional requirements of timber production. As this policy evolves. · Wood products industries need to know that they will have a regular supply of consistent quality timberForest and timber quality in Europe Modelling and forecasting yield and quality in Europe Forest

  1. Intraspecific variability in functional traits matters: case study of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Laforest-Lapointe, Isabelle; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Retana, Javier

    2014-08-01

    Although intraspecific trait variability is an important component of species ecological plasticity and niche breadth, its implications for community and functional ecology have not been thoroughly explored. We characterized the intraspecific functional trait variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Catalonia (NE Spain) in order to (1) compare it to the interspecific trait variability of trees in the same region, (2) explore the relationships among functional traits and the relationships between them and stand and climatic variables, and (3) study the role of functional trait variability as a determinant of radial growth. We considered five traits: wood density (WD), maximum tree height (H max), leaf nitrogen content (Nmass), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf biomass-to-sapwood area ratio (B L:A S). A unique dataset was obtained from the Ecological and Forest Inventory of Catalonia (IEFC), including data from 406 plots. Intraspecific trait variation was substantial for all traits, with coefficients of variation ranging between 8% for WD and 24% for B L:A S. In some cases, correlations among functional traits differed from those reported across species (e.g., H max and WD were positively related, whereas SLA and Nmass were uncorrelated). Overall, our model accounted for 47% of the spatial variability in Scots pine radial growth. Our study emphasizes the hierarchy of factors that determine intraspecific variations in functional traits in Scots pine and their strong association with spatial variability in radial growth. We claim that intraspecific trait variation is an important determinant of responses of plants to changes in climate and other environmental factors, and should be included in predictive models of vegetation dynamics. PMID:24850418

  2. Toward understanding genetic mechanisms of complex traits in rice.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wei; Lin, Hong-Xuan

    2010-10-01

    Rice is the primary carbohydrate staple cereal feeding the world population. Many genes, known as quantitative trait loci (QTLs), control most of the agronomically important traits in rice. The identification of QTLs controlling agricultural traits is vital to increase yield and meet the needs of the increasing human population, but the progress met with challenges due to complex QTL inheritance. To date, many QTLs have been detected in rice, including those responsible for yield and grain quality; salt, drought and submergence tolerance; disease and insect resistance; and nutrient utilization efficiency. Map-based cloning techniques have enabled scientists to successfully fine map and clone approximately seventeen QTLs for several traits. Additional in-depth functional analyses and characterizations of these genes will provide valuable assistance in rice molecular breeding. PMID:21035092

  3. Measuring wood density by means of X-ray computer tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charline Freyburger; Fleur Longuetaud; Frédéric Mothe; Thiéry Constant; Jean-Michel Leban

    2009-01-01

    – \\u000a \\u000a • Wood density is a characteristic of major interest. Usually, it is used as an indicator of wood quality; however, in the\\u000a context of global change, it is increasingly used for biomass and carbon storage estimations. X-ray computer tomography is\\u000a a method which enables quick estimates of wood density after applying a calibration procedure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • A review of

  4. Interval Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci Employing Correlated Trait Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Korol, A. B.; Ronin, Y. I.; Kirzhner, V. M.

    1995-01-01

    An approach to increase the resolution power of interval mapping of quantitative trait (QT) loci is proposed, based on analysis of correlated trait complexes. For a given set of QTs, the broad sense heritability attributed to a QT locus (QTL) (say, A/ a) is an increasing function of the number of traits. Thus, for some traits x and y, H(xy)(2) (A/ a) >/= H(x)(2) (A/ a). The last inequality holds even if y does not depend on A/ a at all, but x and y are correlated within the groups AA, Aa and aa due to nongenetic factors and segregation of genes from other chromosomes. A simple relationship connects H(2) (both in single trait and two-trait analysis) with the expected LOD value, ELOD = -1/2N log(1 - H(2)). Thus, situations could exist that from the inequality H(xy)(2) (A/ a) >/= H(x)(2) (A/ a) a higher resolution is provided by the two-trait analysis as compared to the single-trait analysis, in spite of the increased number of parameters. Employing LOD-score procedure to simulated backcross data, we showed that the resolution power of the QTL mapping model can be elevated if correlation between QTs is taken into account. The method allows us to test numerous biologically important hypotheses concerning manifold effects of genomic segments on the defined trait complex (means, variances and correlations). PMID:7672584

  5. Evaluation of Three Electronic Noses for Detecting Incipient Wood Decay

    PubMed Central

    Baietto, Manuela; Wilson, Alphus D.; Bassi, Daniele; Ferrini, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Tree assessment methodologies, currently used to evaluate the structural stability of individual urban trees, usually involve a visual analysis followed by measurements of the internal soundness of wood using various instruments that are often invasive, expensive, or inadequate for use within the urban environment. Moreover, most conventional instruments do not provide an adequate evaluation of decay that occurs in the root system. The intent of this research was to evaluate the possibility of integrating conventional tools, currently used for assessments of decay in urban trees, with the electronic nose–a new innovative tool used in diverse fields and industries for various applications such as quality control in manufacturing, environmental monitoring, medical diagnoses, and perfumery. Electronic-nose (e-nose) technologies were tested for the capability of detecting differences in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by wood decay fungi and wood from healthy and decayed trees. Three e-noses, based on different types of operational technologies and analytical methods, were evaluated independently (not directly compared) to determine the feasibility of detecting incipient decays in artificially-inoculated wood. All three e-nose devices were capable of discriminating between healthy and artificially-inoculated, decayed wood with high levels of precision and confidence. The LibraNose quartz microbalance (QMB) e-nose generally provided higher levels of discrimination of sample unknowns, but not necessarily more accurate or effective detection than the AromaScan A32S conducting polymer and PEN3 metal-oxide (MOS) gas sensor e-noses for identifying and distinguishing woody samples containing different agents of wood decay. However, the conducting polymer e-nose had the greater advantage for identifying unknowns from diverse woody sample types due to the associated software capability of utilizing prior-developed, application-specific reference libraries with aroma pattern-recognition and neural-net training algorithms. PMID:22205858

  6. Functional Pattern Recognition of 3D Laser Scanned Images of Wood-Pulp Chips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcos López; José M. Matías; José A. Vilán; Javier Taboada

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the appropriateness of applying a functional rather than the typical vectorial approach to a pattern recognition\\u000a problem. The problem to be resolved was to construct an online system for controlling wood-pulp chip granulometry quality\\u000a for implementation in a wood-pulp factory. A functional linear model and a functional logistic model were used to classify\\u000a the hourly empirical distributions of

  7. Relationship of various incoming cattle traits with feedlot performance and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, C D; Busby, W D; Corah, L R

    2009-09-01

    Steers (n = 15,631) and heifers (n = 5,897) fed at 18 feedlots (total confinement, partial confinement, or open lots) in southwest Iowa between 2002 and 2006 as part of the Tri-County Steer Carcass Futurity sponsored by Iowa State University were used to correlate various phenotypic traits with feedlot performance and carcass traits. Dependent variables [ADG, respiratory morbidity, HCW, fat thickness, calculated yield grade, marbling score, presence or absence of lung damage, loin muscle area (LMA), and LMA x 100/HCW] were evaluated on the basis of various phenotypic traits [initial BW, disposition score (1 = calm, 6 = extremely excitable), muscle score, frame score, BCS, number of treatments for respiratory disease, presence of lung lesions, breed makeup, and percentage Angus genetics]. Subjectively evaluated phenotypic traits were evaluated by Iowa State University or USDA personnel. Cattle with greater disposition score (more excitable) had decreased initial BW, final BW, ADG, HCW, yield grade, quality grade, marbling score, and mortality (P < 0.01). Respiratory morbidity was negatively correlated with initial BW, ADG, yield grade, HCW, and marbling score (P < 0.01). As initial BW increased, final BW and HCW increased and respiratory morbidity decreased (P < 0.01). Cattle with greater BCS on arrival had greater initial BW but were lighter at slaughter (P < 0.01). Increased number of treatments for respiratory disease was associated with decreased ADG, greater mortality rate, and greater incidence of lung lesions (P < 0.01). Body weight gain was similar between English- and Continental-breed cattle (P > 0.05), although final BW and HCW were greater and yield grade and yield grade-adjusted marbling score were less for Continental-breed cattle (P < 0.01). Cattle with a poorer muscling score had reduced HCW and LMA and greater yield grade, marbling score, and quality grade (P < 0.01). Animal disposition, health, breed type, and frame score have dramatic effects on live feedlot performance and carcass traits. PMID:19465501

  8. Marketing wood waste for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C. (Tenessee Valley Authority Environmental Research Center, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States))

    1995-01-01

    The value of waste wood to the buyer is the price at the plant gate with value reduced by any transportation costs and value increased by applicable tax credits. To assure the buyer of competitiveness fuels can be priced as a percentage of the competing fuel price. For example, wood can be priced at 80% of coal prices on a Btu basis. In addition to fuel price, there are several other benefits associated with the use of wood fuels. The fuel is renewable, locally supplied, and usually available from more than one source. It also may be stockpiled for several months. These advantages give the buyer better security than than purchasing fuel from a distant, impersonal source that is more likely to increase prices or withhold fuel for various reasons. 3 tabs.

  9. Variance Component and Breeding Value Estimation for Reproductive Traits in Laying Hens Using a Bayesian Threshold Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bennewitz; O. Morgades; R. Preisinger; G. Thaller; E. Kalm

    Variance components and breeding values were estimated for 3 reproductive traits in a pure line of White Leghorn laying hens. The traits were proportion of fertile eggs of eggs set, proportion of first quality chicks of eggs set, and proportion of first-quality chicks of fertile eggs. A total of 3,020 hens were tested up to 3 times over a period

  10. 76 FR 45311 - International Joint Commission Public Hearings on Binational Management of Lake of the Woods and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ...Board with a water quality mandate encompassing all boundary waters in the watershed (including Lake of the Woods...United States of America and Canada under the 1909 Boundary Waters Treaty and pursues the common good of both...

  11. Intraspecific trait variation and covariation in a widespread tree species (Nothofagus pumilio) in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Alex; Piper, Frida I

    2011-01-01

    • The focus of the trait-based approach to study community ecology has mostly been on trait comparisons at the interspecific level. Here we quantified intraspecific variation and covariation of leaf mass per area (LMA) and wood density (WD) in monospecific forests of the widespread tree species Nothofagus pumilio to determine its magnitude and whether it is related to environmental conditions and ontogeny. We also discuss probable mechanisms controlling the trait variation found. • We collected leaf and stem woody tissues from 30-50 trees of different ages (ontogeny) from each of four populations at differing elevations (i.e. temperatures) and placed at each of three locations differing in soil moisture. • The total variation in LMA (coefficient of variation (CV) = 21.14%) was twice that of WD (CV = 10.52%). The total variation in traits was never less than 23% when compared with interspecific studies. Differences in elevation (temperature) for the most part explained variation in LMA, while differences in soil moisture and ontogeny explained the variation in WD. Traits covaried similarly in the altitudinal gradient only. • Functional traits of N. pumilio exhibited nonnegligible variation; LMA varied for the most part with temperature, while WD mostly varied with moisture and ontogeny. We demonstrate that environmental variation can cause important trait variation without species turnover. PMID:21039558

  12. Plant traits are the predominant control on litter decomposition rates within biomes worldwide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William K. Cornwell; Johannes H. C. Cornelissen; K. Amatangalo; Ellen Dorrepaal; Valerie T. Eviner; Oscar Godoy; S. E. Hobbir; Bart Hoorens; Hiroko Kurokawa; N. Perez-Harguindeguy; Helen M. Quested; Louis S. Santiago; David A. Wardle; Ian J. Wright; Rien Aerts; Steven D. Allison; Bodegom van P. M; Victor Brovkin; Alex Chatain; Terry V. Callaghan; S. Diaz; Eric Garnier; Diego E. Gurvich; Elena Kazakou; Julia A. Klein; Jenny Read; Peter B. Reich; Nadejda A. Soudzilovskaia; M. Victoria Vaieretti; Mark Westoby

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide decomposition rates depend both on climate and the legacy of plant functional traits as litter quality. To quantify the degree to which functional differentiation among species affects their litter decomposition rates, we brought together leaf trait and litter mass loss data for 818 species from 66 decomposition experiments on six continents. We show that: (i) the magnitude of species-driven

  13. Quantitative trait locus effects and environmental interaction in a sample of North American barley germ plasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Hayes; B. H. Liu; S. J. Knapp; F. Chen; B. Jones; T. Blake; J. Franckowiak; D. Rasmusson; M. Sorrells; S. E. Ullrich; D. Wesenberg; A. Kleinhofs

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) and QTL x environment (E) interaction effects for agronomic and malting quality traits were measured using a 123-point linkage map and multi-environment phenotype data from an F1-derived doubled haploid population of barley (Hordeum vulgare). The QTL × E interactions were due to differences in magnitude of QTL effects. Highly significant QTL effects were found for all

  14. Effects of different leaf traits on growth rates of insect herbivores on willows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamoru Matsuki; Stephen K MacLean Jr

    1994-01-01

    We examined relative effects of traits of leaf quality of ten willow species (Salix: Salicaceae) on growth rates of five species of insect herbivores found in interior Alaska (a willow sawfly, Nematus calais; the tiger swallowtail butterfly, Papilio canadensis; and three species of chrysomelid beetles, Gonioctena occidentalis, Calligrapha verrucosa, and Chrysomela falsa). Leaf traits examined were water content, toughness, total

  15. Phenotypic and genetic description of fibre traits in South American domestic camelids (llamas and alpacas)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. Frank; M. V. H. Hick; C. D. Gauna; H. E. Lamas; C. Renieri; M. Antonini

    2006-01-01

    Even though llamas and alpacas are multipurpose animals, fibre production remains the main trait from an international market point of view. The objectives of this review are to describe the phenotypic traits that determine fibre quality, and to identify the genetic mechanisms governing them. The finer and lesser prickling effect the fibre has, the higher its value is. All these

  16. The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiemann, Harry D

    1919-01-01

    This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

  17. Strange Creatures: An Additive Wood Sculpture Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project where students create strange creatures using scraps of wood. Discusses how the students use the wood and other materials. Explains that the students also write about the habitat characteristics of their creatures. Includes learning objectives. (CMK)

  18. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  19. Decreasing the leachibility of boron wood preservatives

    E-print Network

    Gezer, Engin Derya

    1996-01-01

    The use of boron in wood preservatives has been growing since the 1930s, primarily in various boric acid/borax mixtures. Boron preservatives have several advantages for application as wood preservatives including a broad spectrum of activity...

  20. Seneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC "Illegal" Logging and Global Wood Markets

    E-print Network

    @aol.com; hekstrom@wri-ltd.com October, 2004 #12;Page ES - 1 Illegal Logging and Global Wood Markets: The Competitive illegal volume in the global market, U.S. exports of sawnwood and wood panels could increaseSeneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC "Illegal" Logging and Global Wood

  1. Handling of impregnated waste wood and characterization of ash residues after combustion of the wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisbeth M. Ottosen; Iben V. Kristensen; Anne Juul Pedersen; Henrik K. Hansen

    In the next ten years the amounts of waste wood impregnated with Cu, Cr and As (CCA) is expected to increase dramatically world wide. CCA has been widely used for wood preservation since the early 1950s and because the fixation of CCA in the wood is good, the concentration of CCA is still high, when the wood is at the

  2. Moisture Sorption Isotherms of Wood and Wood-Plastic Composites (WPC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mubarak Ahmad Khan

    1991-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites (WPC) were prepared with two monomers, methylmethacrylate (MMA) and butylmethacrylate (BMA), using ionizing radiation and two low-grade woods (simul and mango). Moisture adsorption characteristics of both wood and WPC were investigated. The equilibrium moisture contents of WPC were lower than the untreated wood in the entire water activity range. The experimental sorption data were fitted to the Henderson,

  3. Wood Properties and Kinds; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. This booklet is concerned largely with the physical composition and…

  4. Swelling of acetylated wood in organic liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiichi Obataya; Joseph Gril

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo\\u000aspruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling\\u000ain various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The\\u000aacetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids\\u000asuch as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only\\u000aslightly and\\/or very

  5. Interval mapping of quantitative trait loci employing correlated trait complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Korol, A.B.; Ronin, Y,I.; Kirzhner, V.M. [Univ. of Haifa (Israel)

    1995-07-01

    An approach to increase the resolution power of interval mapping of quantitative trait (QT) loci is proposed, based on analysis of correlated trait complexes. For a given set of QTs, the broad sense heritablity attributed to a QT locus (QTL) (say, A/a) is an increasing function of the number of traits. Thus, for some traits x and y are correlated within the groups AA, Aa and aa due to nongenetic factors and segregation of genes from other chromosomes. A simple relationship connects H{sup 2} (both in single trait and two-trait analysis) with the expected LOD value, ELOD = -1/2Nlog(1-H{sup 2}). Thus, situations could exist that from the inequality H{sup 2}{sub xy}(A/a) {ge} H{sup 2}{sub x} (A/a) a higher resolution is provided by the two-trait analysis, in spite of the increased number of parameters. Employing LOD-score procedure to simulated backcross data, we showed that the resolution power of the QTL mapping model can be elevated if correlation between QTs is taken into account. The method allows us to test numerous biologically important hypotheses concerning manifold effects of genomic segments on the defined trait complex (means, variances and correlations). 33 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. FERTILITY TRAIT ECONOMICS AND CORRELATIONS WITH OTHER TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correlations of fertility traits (heifer fertility, interval from calving to first insemination, cow nonreturn rate, and calving interval) with yield traits (milk, fat, and protein), longevity, and somatic cell score (SCS) were compared for 11 countries. Correlations were consistent and small but al...

  7. Experimental micromechanical characterization of wood cell walls

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Experimental micromechanical characterization of wood cell walls COST Action FP0802, 2008. In addition to these fundamental requirements, wood micromechanical data are important input parameters an improved understanding of the micromechanics of wood is highly important. It is well known

  8. Wood Structure and Adhesive Bond Strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles R. Frihart

    Much of the literature on the bonding of wood and other lignocellulosic materials has concentrated on traditional adhesion theories. This has led to misconceptions because wood is a porous material on both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. A better understanding of wood bonding can be developed by investigating the theories of adhesion and bond strength, taking into consideration the unusual

  9. THE GLUING OF WOOD WITH SYNTHETIC ADHESIVES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Klein

    1964-01-01

    The bonding of wood by means of glue has been practised for many centuries.Adhesion between an adhesive and wood is the result of unbalanced secondary valency forces (Van der Waal's forces) present on the interfaces. It is fundamental to good adhesion that the adhesive must (a) wet the surface it is required to adhere to and (b) penetrate the wood

  10. System behaviour of wood truss assemblies

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Rakesh

    System behaviour of wood truss assemblies Rakesh Gupta Oregon State University, USA Summary Wood of literature on single trusses and joints is relatively huge, the system behaviour of truss assemblies has assemblies. Key words: load sharing; system effects; repetitive-member behaviour; wood structural systems

  11. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISHCOLUMBIA Into The Woods

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISHCOLUMBIA Into The Woods Bob Eberle photo Julie Stobbe, Adele Clark and Doug Cameron (left toright) appear in the Stephen Sondheim play, Into the Woods,at the FredericWood.academic administrators andhigh-school guidance counsellors across Canada. "We are delighted that for the second straight

  12. Wood Futures Conference 8 November 2007, London

    E-print Network

    Wood Futures Conference 8 November 2007, London Today's and tomorrow's timber resources: Can we #12;Wood Futures Conference 8 November 2007, London Subjects I. Forest resources II. Forest products and discussion #12;Wood Futures Conference 8 November 2007, London Main information sources · UNECE Timber

  13. Management alternatives of energy wood thinning stands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jani Heikkilä; Matti Sirén; ja Olli Äijälä

    2007-01-01

    Energy wood thinning has become a feasible treatment alternative of young stands in Finland. Energy wood thinnings have been carried out mainly in stands where precommercial thinning has been neglected and the harvesting conditions for industrial wood thinning are difficult. Despite of its positive effects on harvesting costs and on renewable energy potential, whole-tree harvesting has been constantly criticized for

  14. Thermochemical pretreatment of underutilized woody biomass for manufacturing wood composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaez Samaniego, Manuel Raul

    Prescribed fires, one method for reducing hazardous fuel loads from forest lands in the US, are limited by geographical, environmental, and social impacts. Mechanical operations are an alternative type of fuel treatment but these processes are constrained by the difficulty of economically harvesting and/or using large amounts of low-value woody biomass. Adoption and integration of new technologies into existing wood composite facilities offer better utilization of this material. A pretreatment that enables integration of technologies in a typical composite facility will aid with diversification of product portfolio (e.g. wood composites, fuel pellets, liquid fuels, chemicals). Hot water extraction (HWE) is an option for wood pretreatment. This work provides a fundamental understanding of the physicochemical changes to wood resulting from HWE, and how these changes impact processing and performance of composites. Specific objectives were to: 1) review literature on studies related to the manufacture of composites produced with thermally pretreated wood, 2) manufacture wood plastic composites (WPC) and particleboard using HWE wood and evaluate the impacts of pretreatment on product properties, 3) develop an understanding of the effect of HWE on lignin properties, specifically lignin at the cells surface level after migration from cell walls and middle lamella, 4) discern the influence of lignin on the fiber surface on processing WPCs, and, 5) investigate the effect of changing the pretreatment environment (inert gas instead of water) on lignin behavior. Results show that HWE enhances the resistance of both WPCs and particleboard to water with positive or no effect on mechanical properties. Reduction of hemicelluloses and lignin property changes are suggested as the main reasons for enhancing interaction between wood fiber and resins during composite processing. Lignin on the surface of particles after HWE interacts with thermoplastics during WPCs compounding, thus improving bond quality between the constituents and maintaining the mechanical properties of the composites. The amount and properties of lignin on the fiber surfaces depends on the pretreatment conditions. Thus, it seems possible to control the pretreatment process to increase or decrease the amount of lignin on particles surfaces, which is of great interest for managing downstream processes within biorefinery concepts.

  15. Quantitative trait loci associated with seed and seedling traits in Lactuca.

    PubMed

    Argyris, Jason; Truco, María José; Ochoa, Oswaldo; Knapp, Steven J; Still, David W; Lenssen, Ger M; Schut, Johan W; Michelmore, Richard W; Bradford, Kent J

    2005-11-01

    Seed and seedling traits related to germination and stand establishment are important in the production of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Six seed and seedling traits segregating in a L. sativa cv. Salinas x L. serriola recombinant inbred line population consisting of 103 F8 families revealed a total of 17 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) resulting from three seed production environments. Significant QTL were identified for germination in darkness, germination at 25 and 35 degrees C, median maximum temperature of germination, hypocotyl length at 72 h post-imbibition, and plant (seedling) quality. Some QTL for germination and early seedling growth characteristics were co-located, suggestive of pleiotropic loci regulating these traits. A single QTL (Htg6.1) described 25 and 23% of the total phenotypic variation for high temperature germination in California- and Netherlands-grown populations, respectively, and was significant between 33 and 37 degrees C. Additionally, Htg6.1 showed significant epistatic interactions with other Htg QTL and a consistent effect across all the three seed production environments. L. serriola alleles increased germination at these QTL. The estimate of narrow-sense heritability (h2) of Htg6.1 was 0.84, indicating potential for L. serriola as a source of germination thermotolerance for lettuce introgression programs. PMID:16177902

  16. Evaluation of two Indian native chicken breeds for reproduction traits and heritability of juvenile growth traits.

    PubMed

    Haunshi, Santosh; Shanmugam, Murugesan; Padhi, Mahendra Kumar; Niranjan, Matam; Rajkumar, Ullengala; Reddy, Maddula Ramakoti; Panda, Arun Kumar

    2012-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate two Indian native chicken breeds, namely, Aseel and Kadaknath for fertility, hatchability, genetic parameters of juvenile growth traits, and semen quality traits at the onset of sexual maturity. The fertility was similar in Aseel (86.96%) and Kadaknath (85.15%); however, a relatively higher hatchability was observed in Kadaknath (77.94%) than Aseel (70.74%). Heritability estimates of body weights at 4 weeks of age were almost similar in Aseel (0.37) and Kadaknath (0.39), while the estimate of body weight at 6 weeks of age was higher in Aseel (0.42) than Kadaknath (0.31). The heritability estimate of shank length at 6 weeks of age was lower in Aseel (0.16) compared to Kadaknath (0.35). The age at first egg in the flock was comparable in Aseel (148 days) and Kadaknath (150 days). Aseel breed with significantly (P ? 0.001) higher body weight, absolute and relative testes weights had significantly higher semen volume (P ? 0.05) and sperm motility (P ? 0.01) but had lower seminal plasma cholesterol level (P ? 0.05) as compared to Kadaknath. It can be concluded that there is a scope for genetic improvement of these two native breeds for juvenile growth traits since heritability estimates of these traits were relatively high. PMID:22068634

  17. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/clay/wood nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingkai

    Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is a promising substitute for conventional petroleum-based polymer materials as a result of its environmentally benign quality and suitable physical properties. However, there are also problems associated with properties, such as brittleness, low heat deflection temperature, low melt viscosity, as well as cost that prevent wide-range applications of PLA. This work reports on melt extrusion preparation of PLA/clay/wood nanocomposites involving various compatibilizers, resulting in remarkable improvements in mechanical as well as in thermal material properties. In particular, the tensile and flexural moduli of PLA/clay/wood nanocomposites with 30 wt. % wood flour and 5 wt. % nanoclay respectively increased from 3.75 to 7.08 GPa and from 3.83 to 6.01 GPa compared to neat PLA. The thermal decomposition temperature improved by about 10°C compared to that of PLA/wood composites. A mathematical model was developed based on Eshelby's equivalent inclusion method and Mori-Tanaka's background analysis to successfully predict longitudinal elastic moduli of complex structured nanocomposite materials.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD MALUS POPULATIONS USING GENOTYPIC AND PHENOTYPIC TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malus sieversii, a wild relative of domestic apple, represents an important source of genetic variation for several horticulturally important traits including fruit quality and disease resistance. Collections made by the USDA in Kazakhstan have now been analyzed to determine the extent of diversity...

  19. Paternity testing and delivering trait-predictive genotypic data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the RosBREED project, the Genotyping Team (Team Leader: Nahla Bassil) leads the effort to obtain DNA data needed to enable marker-assisted breeding for critical fruit quality traits. These data are obtained from reference genotypes of apple, peach, cherry and strawberry carefully chosen to repres...

  20. Affective Traits, Responses to Conflict, and Satisfaction in Romantic Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane S. Berry; Julie K. Willingham

    1997-01-01

    Participants described their current and past romantic relationships on a variety of measures, as well as their typical behavioral responses to conflict in intimate relationships. Consistent with studies of initial social encounters, participants who were high in trait positive affect (PA) described their current relationships as being of higher quality than did low PA individuals. Participants who were high in

  1. The Imprint of Species Turnover on Old-Growth Forest Carbon Balances - Insights From a Trait-Based Model of Forest Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Wirth; Jeremy W. Lichstein

    \\u000a This chapter presents a modelling approach to quantify and understand successional patterns in aboveground carbon stock changes,\\u000a with a focus on the old-growth stage. The model integrates extensive datasets on tree traits and species composition in different\\u000a United States forest types to explore the carbon-balance imprint of successional changes in traits (maximum height, longevity,\\u000a wood density, and woody-detritus decay-rates). The

  2. Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen

    E-print Network

    Wood, Stephen L.

    chemicals. Thus, dangerous substances in the sea can be detected earlier and their harmful effects can26 Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen Florida Institute of Technology United States to make complex studies on topics such as the effect of metals, pesticides and nutrients on fish abundance

  3. Woods for Health Action Plan

    E-print Network

    Out resource guide using mental health services. via a national workshop for health boards in 2009Woods for Health Action Plan 2009-2012 #12;Objective National Indicators Specific Actions Lead Time, proportion of adults environment and health sectors in Scotland. healthier lives. making one or more visits

  4. Fire-resistant wood composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    Hot pressed wood panels made with modified novolak resins have burnthrough time of 450 s as compared to 280 s for products using conventional novolak resins. Incorporation of inorganic filler reduces flame spread index of panels from more than 200 to 60 or 70.

  5. Optical computing Damien Woods a

    E-print Network

    Woods, Damien

    Optical computing Damien Woods a aDepartment of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Institute, Vierimaantie 5, 84100 Ylivieska, Finland Abstract In this survey we consider optical computers of such optical computing archi- tectures, including descriptions of the type of hardware commonly used in optical

  6. Optical computing Damien Woods a

    E-print Network

    Woods, Damien

    Optical computing Damien Woods a aDepartment of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Institute, Vierimaantie 5, 84100 Ylivieska, Finland Abstract We consider optical computers that encode data using images and compute by transforming such images. We give an overview of a number of such optical

  7. GELIFICATION OF WOOD DURING COALIFICATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, Patrick G.; Romankiw, Lisa A.; Evans, John R.

    1985-01-01

    Coalified wood was examined by SEM and CPMAS**1**3C NMR to delineate chemical and physical alterations responsible for gelification. Early coalification selectively degrades cellulosic components, preserving lignin-like components that are eventually transformed to coal. Cellular morphology persists until the chemical composition becomes uniform, at which point the cells coalesce under compaction and gelify.

  8. Taking Cisco Dr Lloyd Wood

    E-print Network

    Wood, Lloyd

    Taking Cisco to space Dr Lloyd Wood Cisco Systems space team Global Government Solutions Group (GGSG) Cisco Forum 2009 Zakopane, Poland 26 March 2009 #12;Taking Cisco to space 2Cisco Public A space;Taking Cisco to space 3Cisco Public Steps in taking Cisco into spaceSteps in taking Cisco into space

  9. Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust. Part I. Fresh wood and mixed wood industry.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2010-06-01

    This paper reviews associations in literature between exposure to wood dust from fresh wood and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. The papers took into account smoking, and when dealing with lung function took age into consideration. A total of 25 papers concerning exposure to fresh wood and mixed wood formed the basis of this review. The results support an association between fresh wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between fresh wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis was seen across studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent was consistently disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected of being a major cause of wood dust induced asthma. Concurrent exposure to microorganisms and terpenes probably add to the inherent risk of wood dust exposure in the fresh wood industry. PMID:20684477

  10. Multiple transgene traits may create un-intended fitness effects in Brassica napus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, genetically modified crops are being developed to express multiple ?stacked? traits for different types of transgenes, for example, herbicide resistance, insect resistance, crop quality and resistance to environmental factors. The release of crops that express mult...

  11. Dog DNA---A Recipe for Traits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tanya Perrault

    2012-02-20

    Students will discover how DNA will "code" for traits by performing a lab activity where segments of paper DNA (genes) are picked at random, a list of traits is made, and a dog is drawn featuring its genetic traits.

  12. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  13. Quantitative trait loci affecting oil content, oil composition, and other agronomically important traits in Oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groat oil content and composition are important determinants of oat quality. We investigated these traits in a population of 146 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between 'Dal' (high oil) and 'Exeter' (low oil). A linkage map consisting of 475 DArT markers spanning 1271.8 cM across 40 linkage gr...

  14. Students' Evaluation of Teaching Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vevere, Nina; Kozlinskis, Vulfs

    2011-01-01

    Students' evaluations of teaching quality are one of the crucial components of the teaching quality evaluation (along with external evaluation, opinions of colleagues, etc.). According to our research and professional experience, the teaching quality has to be examined in correlation with personality traits of a lecturer. Students' surveys (aiming…

  15. Quantitative trait loci for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens S; Viitala, Sirja M; Vilkki, Johanna H

    2008-01-01

    A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate were used as phenotypic data. In a granddaughter design, 171 markers were typed on all 29 bovine autosomes. Associations between markers and traits were analysed by multiple marker regression. Multi-trait analyses were carried out with a variance component based approach for the chromosomes and trait combinations, which were observed significant in the regression method. Twenty-two chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected. Several of the detected QTL areas were overlapping with milk production QTL previously identified in the same population. Multi-trait QTL analyses were carried out to test if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments. PMID:18298935

  16. Design of methodology for wood chips moisture estimation determined for gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luká?, Ladislav; Kuna, Štefan; Kizek, Ján; Repášová, Magdaléna

    2014-03-01

    The moisture content of the charged wood chips is a significant factor affecting the gasification process. The increased moisture content increases the demand on the energy consumption, which is needed to cover the heat consumption related to the water evaporation and adversely affects the wood gas quality and input fuel amount. Monitoring of the moisture content in wood chips is therefore the diagnostic tools suitable to evaluate the operational parameters of the whole gasification process. Present paper describes the design of the suitable methodology to measure and estimate the wood chips moisture content. The issues related to the moisture content estimation include preliminary the selection of the suitable methodology based on the assumed moisture content in the wood chips. Further factor which needs to be considered is the fact that the moisture content in wood chips is time dependent due to the changing parameters of the ambient air (as temperature, pressure and air humidity). Correctly estimated moisture content will enable to improve the wood chips gasification process.

  17. Toward trait-based mortality models for tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Aubry-Kientz, Mélaine; Hérault, Bruno; Ayotte-Trépanier, Charles; Baraloto, Christopher; Rossi, Vivien

    2013-01-01

    Tree mortality in tropical forests is a complex ecological process for which modelling approaches need to be improved to better understand, and then predict, the evolution of tree mortality in response to global change. The mortality model introduced here computes an individual probability of dying for each tree in a community. The mortality model uses the ontogenetic stage of the tree because youngest and oldest trees are more likely to die. Functional traits are integrated as proxies of the ecological strategies of the trees to permit generalization among all species in the community. Data used to parametrize the model were collected at Paracou study site, a tropical rain forest in French Guiana, where 20,408 trees have been censused for 18 years. A Bayesian framework was used to select useful covariates and to estimate the model parameters. This framework was developed to deal with sources of uncertainty, including the complexity of the mortality process itself and the field data, especially historical data for which taxonomic determinations were uncertain. Uncertainty about the functional traits was also considered, to maximize the information they contain. Four functional traits were strong predictors of tree mortality: wood density, maximum height, laminar toughness and stem and branch orientation, which together distinguished the light-demanding, fast-growing trees from slow-growing trees with lower mortality rates. Our modelling approach formalizes a complex ecological problem and offers a relevant mathematical framework for tropical ecologists to process similar uncertain data at the community level. PMID:23675500

  18. Toward Trait-Based Mortality Models for Tropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Aubry-Kientz, Mélaine; Hérault, Bruno; Ayotte-Trépanier, Charles; Baraloto, Christopher; Rossi, Vivien

    2013-01-01

    Tree mortality in tropical forests is a complex ecological process for which modelling approaches need to be improved to better understand, and then predict, the evolution of tree mortality in response to global change. The mortality model introduced here computes an individual probability of dying for each tree in a community. The mortality model uses the ontogenetic stage of the tree because youngest and oldest trees are more likely to die. Functional traits are integrated as proxies of the ecological strategies of the trees to permit generalization among all species in the community. Data used to parametrize the model were collected at Paracou study site, a tropical rain forest in French Guiana, where 20,408 trees have been censused for 18 years. A Bayesian framework was used to select useful covariates and to estimate the model parameters. This framework was developed to deal with sources of uncertainty, including the complexity of the mortality process itself and the field data, especially historical data for which taxonomic determinations were uncertain. Uncertainty about the functional traits was also considered, to maximize the information they contain. Four functional traits were strong predictors of tree mortality: wood density, maximum height, laminar toughness and stem and branch orientation, which together distinguished the light-demanding, fast-growing trees from slow-growing trees with lower mortality rates. Our modelling approach formalizes a complex ecological problem and offers a relevant mathematical framework for tropical ecologists to process similar uncertain data at the community level. PMID:23675500

  19. Condition-dependent expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits in guppies

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Moshiur; Kelley, Jennifer L; Evans, Jonathan P

    2013-01-01

    Female choice can impose persistent directional selection on male sexually selected traits, yet such traits often exhibit high levels of phenotypic variation. One explanation for this paradox is that if sexually selected traits are costly, only the fittest males are able to acquire and allocate the resources required for their expression. Furthermore, because male condition is dependent on resource allocation, condition dependence in sexual traits is expected to underlie trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history functions. In this study we test these ideas by experimentally manipulating diet quality (carotenoid levels) and quantity in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing freshwater fish that is an important model for understanding relationships between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits. Specifically, we test for condition dependence in the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits (behavior, ornamentation, sperm traits) and determine whether diet manipulation mediates relationships among these traits. Consistent with prior work we found a significant effect of diet quantity on the expression of both pre- and postcopulatory male traits; diet-restricted males performed fewer sexual behaviors and exhibited significant reductions in color ornamentation, sperm quality, sperm number, and sperm length than those fed ad libitum. However, contrary to our expectations, we found no significant effect of carotenoid manipulation on the expression of any of these traits, and no evidence for a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection. Our results further underscore the sensitivity of behavioral, ornamental, and ejaculate traits to dietary stress, and highlight the important role of condition dependence in maintaining the high variability in male sexual traits. PMID:23919162

  20. Biochemical, ECF18R, and RYR1 gene polymorphisms and their associations with osteochondral diseases and production traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2008-02-01

    This study reports the association of five blood types, three enzymes, two proteins, Escherichia coli F18 receptor gene (ECF18R), and the Ryanodin receptor (RYR1) gene with six production traits, four meat quality traits, and two osteochondral diseases in Swiss pig populations. Data on on-farm traits (daily weight gain, percent premium cuts, and backfat) and on station-tested traits (daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, meat quality, and osteochondral lesions) were available on 3,918 and 303 animals, respectively. A mixed linear model with allele substitution effects was used for each trait by marker analysis (144 analyses). Significant marker-trait associations and allele substitution effects are presented. In general, heritability estimates for production and meat quality traits were higher than those for osteochondral lesions. Blood types lack significant associations with many traits except H and S types. Enzymes (mainly, glucose phosphate isomerase) and protein polymorphisms show significant associations with daily weight gain, premium cuts, and backfat as well as osteochondral lesions. The RYR and ECF18R genes significantly affected all growth, production, and lean meat content traits and osteochondral lesions; RYR also affected pH values. This study reports many novel marker-trait associations, particularly between the incidence of osteochondral lesions and polymorphisms at glucose phosphate isomerase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, postalbumin 1A, RYR, and ECF18R loci. These results should be useful in selection and for further functional genomics and proteomics investigations. PMID:17943437

  1. Photodegradation and photostabilization of weathered wood flour filled polyethylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Nicole M.

    2003-06-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPCs) have gained popularity as building materials because of their usefulness in replacing solid wood in a variety of applications. These composites are promoted as being low-maintenance, high-durability products. However, it has been shown that WPCs exposed to weathering may experience a color change and/or loss in mechanical properties. An important requirement for building materials used in outdoor applications is the retention of their aesthetic qualities and mechanical properties during service life. Therefore, it is critical to understand the photodegradation mechanisms of WPCs exposed to UV radiation and to develop approaches to stabilize these composites against ultraviolet light. In this dissertation, the surface chemistries of weathered composites (both unstabilized and stabilized) as well as the effect of weathering on the color fade and the retention of mechanical properties were characterized. Since different methods of manufacturing WPCs lead to different surface characteristics, which can influence weathering, the effect of manufacturing method on the photodegradation of WPCs was investigated first. Wood flour (WF) filled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composite samples were either injection molded, extruded, or extruded and then planed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to monitor the surface chemistry of the manufactured composites. The spectra showed that the surface of planed samples had more wood component than extruded and injection molded samples, respectively. After weathering, the samples were analyzed for color fade, and loss of flexural properties. The final lightness of the composites was not dependent upon the manufacturing method. However the mechanical property loss was dependent upon manufacturing method. The samples with more wood component at the surface (planed samples) experienced a larger percent of total loss in flexural properties after weathering due to a greater effect of moisture on the samples. The change in surface chemistry of HDPE and WF/HDPE composites after weathering was studied using spectroscopic techniques. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  2. Microcellular Injection Molded Wood Fiber-PP Composites: Part II - Effect of Wood Fiber Length and Content on Cell Morphology and Physico-mechanical Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDRZEJ K. BLEDZKI; OMAR FARUK

    2010-01-01

    Microcellular wood fiber reinforced PP composites, a new development using bio-fiber strengthened plastic, are prepared in an injection molding process. The microcellular composites with five different types of wood fibers (hard wood fiber, finer hard wood fiber, soft wood fiber, finer soft wood fiber, and long wood fiber) are examined. The influence of wood fiber content (30-60% by weight) on

  3. Microcellular Injection Molded Wood Fiber-PP Composites: Part II - Effect of Wood Fiber Length and Content on Cell Morphology and Physico-mechanical Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej K. Bledzki; Omar Faruk

    2006-01-01

    Microcellular wood fiber reinforced PP composites, a new development using bio-fiber strengthened plastic, are prepared in an injection molding process. The microcellular composites with five different types of wood fibers (hard wood fiber, finer hard wood fiber, soft wood fiber, finer soft wood fiber, and long wood fiber) are examined. The influence of wood fiber content (30-60% by weight) on

  4. Carbon Sequestration via Wood Burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.

    2007-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forest dead wood or old trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It was estimated that the carbon sequestration potential of forest wood harvest and burial is 10GtC y-1 with an uncertainty range of 5-15 GtC y-1. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost was crudely estimated at $50/tC, significantly lower than the cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage, a carbon sequestration technique currently under most serious consideration. The low cost is largely because the CO2 capture is achieved at little cost by the natural process of photosynthesis. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe and can be stopped or reversed at any time. The relatively low cost may soon be competitive enough for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon trading market. In tropical regions with ongoing deforestation, wood burial instead of burning will immediately reduce that portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emission.

  5. Blood parasites of wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O., Jr.; Knipling, G.D.

    1971-01-01

    Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

  6. Application of modal analysis by transfer function to nondestructive testing of wood II: modulus of elasticity evaluation of sections of differing quality in a wooden beam by the curvature of the flexural vibration wave

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyang Yang; Takuro Amano; Yutaka Ishimaru; Ikuho Iida

    2003-01-01

    The shape of the flexural vibration wave of wooden beams at the first mode was detected using the transfer function. The\\u000a dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOE) of beam sections of differing quality was estimated from the ratio of the curvature of\\u000a the wave shape in this section to that of a clear beam. The results were as follows: (1) If

  7. A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revised classification of the Parulidae (Aves)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovette, I.J.; Perez-Eman, J. L.; Sullivan, J.P.; Banks, R.C.; Fiorentino, I.; Cordoba-Cordoba, S.; Echeverry-Galvis, M.; Barker, F.K.; Burns, K.J.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, S.M.; Bermingham, E.

    2010-01-01

    The birds in the family Parulidae-commonly termed the New World warblers or wood-warblers-are a classic model radiation for studies of ecological and behavioral differentiation. Although the monophyly of a 'core' wood-warbler clade is well established, no phylogenetic hypothesis for this group has included a full sampling of wood-warbler species diversity. We used parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods to reconstruct relationships among all genera and nearly all wood-warbler species, based on a matrix of mitochondrial DNA (5840 nucleotides) and nuclear DNA (6 loci, 4602 nucleotides) characters. The resulting phylogenetic hypotheses provide a highly congruent picture of wood-warbler relationships, and indicate that the traditional generic classification of these birds recognizes many non-monophyletic groups. We recommend a revised taxonomy in which each of 14 genera (Seiurus, Helmitheros, Mniotilta, Limnothlypis, Protonotaria, Parkesia, Vermivora, Oreothlypis, Geothlypis, Setophaga, Myioborus, Cardellina, Basileuterus, Myiothlypis) corresponds to a well-supported clade; these nomenclatural changes also involve subsuming a number of well-known, traditional wood-warbler genera (Catharopeza, Dendroica, Ergaticus, Euthlypis, Leucopeza, Oporornis, Parula, Phaeothlypis, Wilsonia). We provide a summary phylogenetic hypothesis that will be broadly applicable to investigations of the historical biogeography, processes of diversification, and evolution of trait variation in this well studied avian group. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  8. Perera et al., /Journal of Tropical Forestry and Environment Vol. 2, No. 01 (2012) 26-35 Effect of Growth Rate on Wood Specific Gravity of Three Alternative

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    grown in Sri Lanka; Swietenia macrophylla, Khaya senegalensis and Paulownia fortunei. Specific gravity, ring width, wood quality, Swietenia macrophylla, Khaya senegalensis, Paulownia fortunei 1. Introduction of Growth Rate on Wood Specific Gravity of Three Alternative Timber Species in Sri Lanka; Swietenia

  9. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

  10. Mapping QTL main and interaction influences on milling quality in elite U.S. rice germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) head-rice yield (HR) is a key export and domestic quality trait whose genetic control is poorly understood. With the goal of identifying genomic regions influencing HR, quantitative-trait-locus (QTL) mapping was carried out for quality-related traits in recombinant inbred line...

  11. Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Several Internal Organ Traits and Teat Number Trait in a Pig Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinghu Zhang; Yuanzhu Xiong; Bo Zuo; Minggang Lei; Siwen Jiang; Feng'e Li; Rong Zheng; Jialian Li; Dequan Xu

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected for 8 internal organ traits, 3 carcass length traits, and teat number trait in 214 pigs in a resource population that included 180 F2 individuals. A total of 39 microsatellite markers were examined on SSC4, SSC6, SSC7, SSC8, and SSC13. The genetic traits included heart weight (HW), lung weight (LW), liver and gallbladder weight

  12. Dietary flavonoids enhance conspicuousness of a melanin-based trait in male blackcaps but not of the female homologous trait or of sexually monochromatic traits.

    PubMed

    Catoni, C; Peters, A; Schaefer, H M

    2009-08-01

    Signalling theory predicts that signals should fulfil three fundamental requirements: high detectability, discriminability and, most importantly, reliability. Melanins are the most common pigments in animals. Correlations between genotypic and phenotypic qualities of the sender and size and morph of melanin-based traits are known, but it is contentious whether melanin-based colouration may signal any quality. We examined the effect of supplementing blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) with flavonoids, potent plant antioxidants, on plumage colouration. We demonstrate that melanin-based colour can fulfil all requirements of signals of phenotypic condition. As predicted by sexual selection theory, flavonoid supplementation influenced only the sexually dichromatic black cap of males, whereas the female homologous trait and the sexually monochromatic back colouration remained unaffected. Using avian vision models we show that birds can estimate male flavonoid intake from colouration of males' black cap. Because flavonoid ingestion can increase immune responsiveness in blackcaps, melanin head colouration may signal environmentally determined immune condition. PMID:19555443

  13. Pattern of inbreeding depression, condition dependence, and additive genetic variance in Trinidadian guppy ejaculate traits

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Dosselli, Ryan; Pilastro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species, a male's reproductive success depends on his fertilization capability and traits enhancing competitive fertilization success will be under strong, directional selection. This leads to the prediction that these traits should show stronger condition dependence and larger genetic variance than other traits subject to weaker or stabilizing selection. While empirical evidence of condition dependence in postcopulatory traits is increasing, the comparison between sexually selected and ‘control’ traits is often based on untested assumption concerning the different strength of selection acting on these traits. Furthermore, information on selection in the past is essential, as both condition dependence and genetic variance of a trait are likely to be influenced by the pattern of selection acting historically on it. Using the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing fish with high levels of multiple paternity, we performed three independent experiments on three ejaculate quality traits, sperm number, velocity, and size, which have been previously shown to be subject to strong, intermediate, and weak directional postcopulatory selection, respectively. First, we conducted an inbreeding experiment to determine the pattern of selection in the past. Second, we used a diet restriction experiment to estimate their level of condition dependence. Third, we used a half-sib/full-sib mating design to estimate the coefficients of additive genetic variance (CVA) underlying these traits. Additionally, using a simulated predator evasion test, we showed that both inbreeding and diet restriction significantly reduced condition. According to predictions, sperm number showed higher inbreeding depression, stronger condition dependence, and larger CVA than sperm velocity and sperm size. The lack of significant genetic correlation between sperm number and velocity suggests that the former may respond to selection independently one from other ejaculate quality traits. Finally, the association between sperm number and condition suggests that this trait may mediate the genetic benefits of polyandry which have been shown in this species. PMID:24455127

  14. A cybernetic model of global personality traits.

    PubMed

    Van Egeren, Lawrence F

    2009-05-01

    Neurobehavioral studies of human and animal temperament have shed light on how individual personality traits influence human actions. This approach, however, leaves open questions about how the entire system of traits and temperaments function together to exercise control. To address this key issue, I describe a cybernetic model of control and then apply it to the Big Five (B5) personality traits. Employing evidence from descriptive trait terms, temperamental behavioral processes associated with traits, and empirical correlates of traits, I relate distinct cybernetic processes of self-regulation to the B5 traits. The B5 traits broadly parallel basic cybernetic self-regulation processes. For example, the core behavior activation property of the B5 Extraversion trait can be mapped onto the device output function of automated cybernetic control systems. Implications and limitations of interpreting personality traits in self-regulation terms are discussed. PMID:19351887

  15. Structural wood panels with improved fire resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, P. M. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Structural wood paneling or other molded wood compositions consisting of finely divided wood chips, flour, or strands are bound together and hot pressed with a modified novolac resin which is the cured product of a prepolymer made from an aralkyl ether or halide with a phenol and a hardening agent such as hexamethylene tetramine. The fire resistance of these articles is further improved by incorporating in the binder certain inorganic fillers, especially a mixture of ammonium oxalate and ammonium phosphate.

  16. Processing of wood-thermoplastic composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mladen Šercer; Pero Raos; Maja Rujni?-Sokele

    2009-01-01

    Natural and wood fibre plastic composites (WPC) are among the most rapidly growing markets within the plastics industry. They\\u000a are manufactured by combining either wood or other natural fibers such as flax, hemp, jute or kenaf with polymers. Thermoplastic\\u000a resins, such as polypropylene, polyethylene or polystyrene, are mixed with other materials (such as wood), and form a composite\\u000a product. The

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies quantitative trait loci affecting hematological traits in an F2 intercross between Landrace and Korean native pigs.

    PubMed

    Jung, E J; Park, H B; Lee, J B; Yoo, C K; Kim, B M; Kim, H I; Cho, I C; Lim, H T

    2014-08-01

    Changes affecting the status of health and robustness can bring about physiological alterations including hematological parameters in swine. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with eight hematological traits (one leukocyte trait, six erythrocyte traits and one platelet trait), we conducted a genome-wide association study using the PorcineSNP60K BeadChip in a resource population derived from an intercross between Landrace and Korean native pigs. A total of 36 740 SNPs from 816 F2 progeny were analyzed for each blood-related trait after filtering for quality control. Data were analyzed by the genome-wide rapid association using mixed model and regression (GRAMMAR) approach. A total of 257 significant SNPs (P < 1.36 × 10(-6) ) on SSC3, 6, 8, 13 and 17 were identified for blood-related traits in this study. Interestingly, the genomic region between 17.9 and 130 Mb on SSC8 was found to be significantly associated with red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Our results include the identification of five significant SNPs within five candidate genes (KIT, IL15, TXK, ARAP2 and ERG) for hematopoiesis. Further validation of these identified SNPs could give valuable information for understanding the variation of hematological traits in pigs. PMID:24797309

  18. The Wood-Growth-and-Burial Process (WGBP) Permanent Wood Sequestration to Solve the Global Carbon Dioxide Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, F.; Hasse, U.

    2008-12-01

    Among all global environmental problems there is one which dominates over all others: this is the excessive release of carbon dioxide due to burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil, and gas. The only way to achieve a permanent removal of anthropogenic CO2 must make use of photosynthesis since, so-far, no other technology is able to bind the necessary huge amounts of carbon. Therefore, we propose to grow wood on any available areas, and to bury the wood under anaerobic conditions, e.g., in emptied open pits of coal mining, any other available pits, and possibly also in emptied underground mines. At these places the wood will keep for practically unlimited times, undergoing only very slow carbonization reactions. Simple calculations allow concluding that humans could already now scavenge even all the released CO2, but a more realistic goal may be to bind 20, 30, or 60 percent. This is more a political question than a scientific one. General features of the WGBP are: The growth of woods will transform deforested areas and fallow land to some kind of natural vegetation with the accompanying positive side effects of restoring biotopes, improving the water balance and thus also improving the climate. The growth of woods will produce enormous amounts of oxygen and thus it will add to a sound oxygen balance. It will improve the air quality because of the filtering effect of woods. The growth of woods will improve the soil quality because leaves and roots will stay on and in the ground when the wood is harvested. The WGBP will create jobs in areas where there is an urgent demand for these. The WGBP will offer the opportunity to re-cultivate open pit mining areas. The WGBP will offer the possibility to fill underground mines in a way to prevent earth quakes caused by collapsing mine shafts. The WGBP will enable mankind to survive the time span ahead of us in which mankind will still use fossil fuels. The WGBP can be easily financed by societies via very small additional taxes, or/and via very slightly increased energy prices. It is a great advantage of the WGBP that it will not be competitive with the agriculture, as the areas most suitable for the process are not attractive for the growth of food or energy plants. The WGBP does not need fertilizers and irrigation, and it does not need genetically engineered plants. It is completely ecological and environmentally friendly. The WGBP can be performed at almost any place of the world, and it is not necessary to perform the process at the sites of carbon dioxide emission. The WGBP will contribute to a fair international trade. The WGBP will be equally available to all countries and societies of the world. There is no discrimination of poorer or less advanced societies. The WGBP will produce wood deposits for future generation, which once may become sources for biomass processing technologies, be it for the production of chemicals of energy. The burial sites will be saving banks of precious material. Ref.: F. Scholz, U. Hasse: ChemSusChem 1 (2008) 381-384 greifswald.de/~analytik/

  19. Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles

    E-print Network

    Jackman, John A.

    2006-03-28

    ranges from very ?ne to coarse, depending on the species. Sometimes an infestation is indicated by the presence of wood-boring beetle adults. Adult beetles that emerge in con?ned structures are attracted to lights or windows and may accumu- late... on the wood. These chewing sounds are most often heard during quiet times at night. of the larvae and the emergence of adults can weaken wood and may destroy its appearance. Wood-boring beetles come from at least 12 insect families and vary greatly...

  20. EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT, AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

  1. EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

  2. European Panel FederationEuropean Panel Federation viewpoint on wood energy policiesviewpoint on wood energy policies

    E-print Network

    products vs Biomass energyWood products vs Biomass energy #12;The main problemThe main problemEuropean Panel FederationEuropean Panel Federation viewpoint on wood energy policiesviewpoint on wood energy policies Eva JanssensEva Janssens (Economic Adviser)(Economic Adviser) #12;European Panel

  3. Invited review: overview of new traits and phenotyping strategies in dairy cattle with a focus on functional traits.

    PubMed

    Egger-Danner, C; Cole, J B; Pryce, J E; Gengler, N; Heringstad, B; Bradley, A; Stock, K F

    2015-02-01

    For several decades, breeding goals in dairy cattle focussed on increased milk production. However, many functional traits have negative genetic correlations with milk yield, and reductions in genetic merit for health and fitness have been observed. Herd management has been challenged to compensate for these effects and to balance fertility, udder health and metabolic diseases against increased production to maximize profit without compromising welfare. Functional traits, such as direct information on cow health, have also become more important because of growing concern about animal well-being and consumer demands for healthy and natural products. There are major concerns about the impact of drugs used in veterinary medicine on the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria that can negatively impact human health. Sustainability and efficiency are also increasingly important because of the growing competition for high-quality, plant-based sources of energy and protein. Disruptions to global environments because of climate change may encourage yet more emphasis on these traits. To be successful, it is vital that there be a balance between the effort required for data recording and subsequent benefits. The motivation of farmers and other stakeholders involved in documentation and recording is essential to ensure good data quality. To keep labour costs reasonable, existing data sources should be used as much as possible. Examples include the use of milk composition data to provide additional information about the metabolic status or energy balance of the animals. Recent advances in the use of mid-infrared spectroscopy to measure milk have shown considerable promise, and may provide cost-effective alternative phenotypes for difficult or expensive-to-measure traits, such as feed efficiency. There are other valuable data sources in countries that have compulsory documentation of veterinary treatments and drug use. Additional sources of data outside of the farm include, for example, slaughter houses (meat composition and quality) and veterinary labs (specific pathogens, viral loads). At the farm level, many data are available from automated and semi-automated milking and management systems. Electronic devices measuring physiological status or activity parameters can be used to predict events such as oestrus, and also behavioural traits. Challenges concerning the predictive biology of indicator traits or standardization need to be solved. To develop effective selection programmes for new traits, the development of large databases is necessary so that high-reliability breeding values can be estimated. For expensive-to-record traits, extensive phenotyping in combination with genotyping of females is a possibility. PMID:25387784

  4. Insight into trade-off between wood decay and parasitism from the genome of a fungal forest pathogen

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Ake; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred; Belbahri, Lassaad; Bouzid, Ourdia; Broberg, Anders; Canback, Bjorn; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Dalman, Kerstin; Deflorio, Giuliana; van Diepen, Linda T. A.; Dunand, Christophe; Duplessis, Sebastien; Durling, Mikael; Gonthier, Paolo; Grimwood, Jane; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar; Hansson, David; Henrissat, Bernard; Hietala, Ari; Himmelstrand, Kajsa; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hogberg, Nils; James, Timothy Y.; Karlsson, Magnus; Kohler, Annegret; Lucas, Susan; Lunden, Karl; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Park, Jongsun; Raffaello, Tommaso; Rouze, Pierre; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Solheim, Halvor; Stahlberg, Jerry; Velez, Heriberto; de Vries, Ronald P.; Wiebenga, Ad; Woodward, Steve; Yakovlev, Igor; Garbelotto, Matteo; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Stenlid, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism and saprotrophic wood decay are two fungal strategies fundamental for succession and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. An opportunity to assess the trade-off between these strategies is provided by the forest pathogen and wood decayer Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. We report the annotated genome sequence and transcript profiling, as well as the quantitative trait loci mapping, of one member of the species complex: H. irregulare. Quantitative trait loci critical for pathogenicity, and rich in transposable elements, orphan and secreted genes, were identified. A wide range of cellulose-degrading enzymes are expressed during wood decay. By contrast, pathogenic interaction between H. irregulare and pine engages fewer carbohydrate-active enzymes, but involves an increase in pectinolytic enzymes, transcription modules for oxidative stress and secondary metabolite production. Our results show a trade-off in terms of constrained carbohydrate decomposition and membrane transport capacity during interaction with living hosts. Our findings establish that saprotrophic wood decay and necrotrophic parasitism involve two distinct, yet overlapping, processes.

  5. Linking size-dependent growth and mortality with architectural traits across 145 co-occurring tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yoshiko; Poorter, Lourens; Sterck, Frank; Kassim, Abd Rahman; Potts, Matthew D; Kubo, Takuya; Kohyama, Takashi S

    2014-02-01

    Tree architecture, growth, and mortality change with increasing tree size and associated light conditions. To date, few studies have quantified how size-dependent changes in growth and mortality rates co-vary with architectural traits, and how such size-dependent changes differ across species and possible light capture strategies. We applied a hierarchical Bayesian model to quantify size-dependent changes in demographic rates and correlated demographic rates and architectural traits for 145 co-occurring Malaysian rain-forest tree species covering a wide range of tree sizes. Demographic rates were estimated using relative growth rate in stem diameter (RGR) and mortality rate as a function of stem diameter. Architectural traits examined were adult stature measured as the 95-percentile of the maximum stem diameter (upper diameter), wood density, and three tree architectural variables: tree height, foliage height, and crown width. Correlations between demographic rates and architectural traits were examined for stem diameters ranging from 1 to 47 cm. As a result, RGR and mortality varied significantly with increasing stem diameter across species. At smaller stem diameters, RGR was higher for tall trees with wide crowns, large upper diameter, and low wood density. Increased mortality was associated with low wood density at small diameters, and associated with small upper diameter and wide crowns over a wide range of stem diameters. Positive correlations between RGR and mortality were found over the whole range of stem diameters, but they were significant only at small stem diameters. Associations between architectural traits and demographic rates were strongest at small stem diameters. In the dark understory of tropical rain forests, the limiting amount of light is likely to make the interspecific difference in the effects of functional traits on demography more clear. Demographic performance is therefore tightly linked with architectural traits such as adult stature, wood density, and capacity for horizontal crown expansion. The enhancement of a demographic trade-off due to interspecific variation in functional traits in the understory helps to explain species coexistence in diverse rain forests. PMID:24669729

  6. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Requirements applicable to all wood parts. (i) All wood parts shall be free from sharp...other irregularities. Low density wood shall not be used. (ii...good condition at all times, the joint between the steps and side...

  7. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Requirements applicable to all wood parts. (i) All wood parts shall be free from sharp...other irregularities. Low density wood shall not be used. (ii...good condition at all times, the joint between the steps and side...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Requirements applicable to all wood parts. (i) All wood parts shall be free from sharp...other irregularities. Low density wood shall not be used. (ii...good condition at all times, the joint between the steps and side...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Requirements applicable to all wood parts. (i) All wood parts shall be free from sharp...other irregularities. Low density wood shall not be used. (ii...good condition at all times, the joint between the steps and side...

  10. Department of Forest and Wood Science Academic Programmes for 2014

    E-print Network

    Geldenhuys, Jaco

    Department of Forest and Wood Science Academic Programmes for 2014 Postgraduate Diploma Enquiries: Head of Department Contact details: Department of Forest and Wood Science Stellenbosch University;Department of Forest and Wood Science - 2012 2 Contents: Postgraduate Programmes Postgraduate Diploma

  11. Dendroarchaeology -dendrochronological investigations of archaeological wood from Ljubljansko barje

    E-print Network

    Cufar, Katarina

    Dendroarchaeology - dendrochronological investigations of archaeological wood from Ljubljansko amounts of wood from the past are preserved underwater or buried in ground. Veluscek (1999) reports and 2500 BC. Our work is focused towards dendrochronological investigations of archaeological wood

  12. Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

  13. Dr. Byron McKeeby's contribution to Grant Wood's "American Gothic".

    PubMed

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2004-07-01

    Grant Wood (1891-1942) was a major American regionalist artist from Iowa who produced his world famous icon, American Gothic in 1930. Along with Mona Lisa and Whistler's Mother, this work has become one of the most recognized paintings in the world. While it has been greatly admired by most of its viewers, it has been criticized by others. Currently on display at the Art Institute of Chicago, this oil painting portrays a grim faced farmer and his somber daughter who are resolutely standing in front of their rural, Gothic Revival farmhouse. The tall, gaunt farmer, looking straight ahead, firmly holds a pitchfork whose tines point upward, while his daughter, with her eyes averted appears to be showing disapproval. In American art, it is unusual to find the hard, cold realism and honest, direct and earthy qualities that Wood captures in American Gothic. Wood's actual intention was to present the work as a subtle and witty commentary on midwestern, rural life. To achieve his goal, Wood emulated the meticulous style and technique of the 16th century Flemish masters. His sister, Nan Wood Graham (1900-1990), and his 62-year-old dentist, Dr. Byron H. McKeeby (1867-1950), posed for the painting. This article describes how Grant developed this artistic style which is reflected in American Gothic. Additionally, it examines the strained interactions between Grant Wood, the artist, and Dr. Byron McKeeby, the model. PMID:15293719

  14. Using DoD Maps to Examine the Influence of Large Wood on Channel Morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, L. C.; Eaton, B. C.

    2012-12-01

    Since the advent of logging and slash burning, many streams in British Columbia have experienced changes to the amount of large wood added to or removed from these systems, which has, in turn, influenced the storage and movement of sediment within these channels. This set of flume experiments examines and quantifies the impacts of large wood on the reach-scale morphodynamics. Understanding the relation between the wood load and channel morphodynamics is important when assessing the quality of the aquatic habitat of a stream. The experiments were conducted using a fixed-bank, mobile bed Froude-scaled physical model of Fishtrap Creek, British Columbia, built in a shallow flume that is 1.5 m wide and 11 m long. The stream table was run without wood until it reached equilibrium at which point wood pieces of varying sizes were added to the channel. The bed morphology was surveyed using a laser profiling system at five-hour intervals. The laser profiles were then interpolated to create digital elevation models (DEM) from which DEM of difference (DoD) maps were produced. Analysis of the DoD maps focused on quantifying and locating differences in the distribution of sediment storage, erosion, and deposition between the runs as well as those induced by the addition of large wood into the stream channel. We then assessed the typical influence of individual pieces and of jams on pool frequency, size and distribution along the channels.

  15. Impacts of population structure and analytical models in genome-wide association studies of complex traits in forest trees: a case study in Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Cappa, Eduardo P; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Garcia, Martín N; Acuña, Cintia; Borralho, Nuno M G; Grattapaglia, Dario; Marcucci Poltri, Susana N

    2013-01-01

    The promise of association genetics to identify genes or genomic regions controlling complex traits has generated a flurry of interest. Such phenotype-genotype associations could be useful to accelerate tree breeding cycles, increase precision and selection intensity for late expressing, low heritability traits. However, the prospects of association genetics in highly heterozygous undomesticated forest trees can be severely impacted by the presence of cryptic population and pedigree structure. To investigate how to better account for this, we compared the GLM and five combinations of the Unified Mixed Model ( UMM ) on data of a low-density genome-wide association study for growth and wood property traits carried out in a Eucalyptus globulus population (n = 303) with 7,680 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. Model comparisons were based on the degree of deviation from the uniform distribution and estimates of the mean square differences between the observed and expected p-values of all significant marker-trait associations detected. Our analysis revealed the presence of population and family structure. There was not a single best model for all traits. Striking differences in detection power and accuracy were observed among the different models especially when population structure was not accounted for. The UMM method was the best and produced superior results when compared to GLM for all traits. Following stringent correction for false discoveries, 18 marker-trait associations were detected, 16 for tree diameter growth and two for lignin monomer composition (S:G ratio), a key wood property trait. The two DArT markers associated with S:G ratio on chromosome 10, physically map within 1 Mbp of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) gene, providing a putative independent validation of this marker-trait association. This study details the merit of collectively integrate population structure and relatedness in association analyses in undomesticated, highly heterozygous forest trees, and provides additional insights into the nature of complex quantitative traits in Eucalyptus. PMID:24282578

  16. Impacts of Population Structure and Analytical Models in Genome-Wide Association Studies of Complex Traits in Forest Trees: A Case Study in Eucalyptus globulus

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Martín N.; Acuña, Cintia; Borralho, Nuno M. G.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Marcucci Poltri, Susana N.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of association genetics to identify genes or genomic regions controlling complex traits has generated a flurry of interest. Such phenotype-genotype associations could be useful to accelerate tree breeding cycles, increase precision and selection intensity for late expressing, low heritability traits. However, the prospects of association genetics in highly heterozygous undomesticated forest trees can be severely impacted by the presence of cryptic population and pedigree structure. To investigate how to better account for this, we compared the GLM and five combinations of the Unified Mixed Model (UMM) on data of a low-density genome-wide association study for growth and wood property traits carried out in a Eucalyptus globulus population (n?=?303) with 7,680 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. Model comparisons were based on the degree of deviation from the uniform distribution and estimates of the mean square differences between the observed and expected p-values of all significant marker-trait associations detected. Our analysis revealed the presence of population and family structure. There was not a single best model for all traits. Striking differences in detection power and accuracy were observed among the different models especially when population structure was not accounted for. The UMM method was the best and produced superior results when compared to GLM for all traits. Following stringent correction for false discoveries, 18 marker-trait associations were detected, 16 for tree diameter growth and two for lignin monomer composition (S?G ratio), a key wood property trait. The two DArT markers associated with S?G ratio on chromosome 10, physically map within 1 Mbp of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) gene, providing a putative independent validation of this marker-trait association. This study details the merit of collectively integrate population structure and relatedness in association analyses in undomesticated, highly heterozygous forest trees, and provides additional insights into the nature of complex quantitative traits in Eucalyptus. PMID:24282578

  17. EFFECT OF THE HIGH-OLEIC TRAIT AND PASTE STORAGE VARIABLES ON SENSORY ATTRIBUTE STABILITY OF ROASTED PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been much interest in the effect of the high-oleic acid trait of peanuts on various quality factors since discovery of high levels of oleic acid in a peanut mutant genotype. The trait provides greater oxidative stability for the high-oleic oil and seed. Several research groups have investi...

  18. DNA polymorphisms and haplotype patterns of transcription factors involved in barley endosperm development are associated with key agronomic traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grit Haseneyer; Silke Stracke; Hans-Peter Piepho; Sascha Sauer; Hartwig H Geiger; Andreas Graner

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Association mapping is receiving considerable attention in plant genetics for its potential to fine map quantitative trait loci (QTL), validate candidate genes, and identify alleles of interest. In the present study association mapping in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is investigated by associating DNA polymorphisms with variation in grain quality traits, plant height, and flowering time to gain further understanding

  19. Reproductive traits of Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Naves, P; de Sousa, E; Quartau, J A

    2006-06-01

    The pine sawyer Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier) is the vector of the introduced pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Bührer) Nickle in Portugal, and until recently was considered a secondary forest insect. Under laboratory conditions, a study of biological and reproductive traits of 37 insect pairs was conducted. The longevity of both sexes was similar, being 61.2+/-6.5 days for males and 64.0+/-6.3 days for females (mean+/-SE). Sixteen small-sized insects (22% of the population) died within 20 days and before starting to reproduce. The sexual maturation period (without egg laying) was 20.4+/-0.7 days (mean+/-SE), while the oviposition period lasted 54.0+/-4.2 days (mean+/-SE). The oviposition rate increased very quickly during the first weeks of life, peaking to almost two eggs per day during days 30-44, and gradually dropping in the following weeks. The females laid an average of 67.0+/-5.96 (mean+/-SE) eggs through their lives. The hatch rate was 92.6+/-1.0% (mean+/-SE). There were large individual variations in longevity and fecundity parameters, and principal component analysis based on 16 morphological and biological parameters separated the breeding insects into four distinct groups. Almost half of the reproducing beetles were large-sized insects, with high longevity and fecundity traits. Overall, the reproductive potential of the Portuguese population of M. galloprovincialis seems to be smaller than that described for other Monochamus vectors of the pine wood nematode both in North America and Japan. PMID:16768817

  20. Interaction of leaf traits and soil fauna and their role for carbon sequestration in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouz, J.

    2012-04-01

    Litter traits are assumed as one of the most important factor true which plants affect biogeochemisty of the stand where they grow including soil formation and nutrient dynamic which affect substantially function of whole ecosystem. Relationships between potential decomposition and leaf litter traits were extensively studied. Despite importance of potential decomposition, we believe that effect of leaf traits on litter quality is more complex: 1) litter potential decomposability affect litter processing by soil fauna and intensity of consequent fragmentation bioturbation and incorporation into soil aggregates. 2) litter, when supplied into soil for longer period of time affect also soil formation and composition of decomposer community which consequently affect dynamic of litter decomposition. In addition interactions between leaf traits and litter trait may nod be also quite complex. We will demonstrate several examples showing that litter with higher potential decomposability may sequeterr more in soil that les decomposable litter because is in larger extend stabilized by soil fauna.

  1. Overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits is not accounted for by anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane

    2014-10-30

    Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders. PMID:24930576

  2. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF ENHANCED COMBUSTION VIA IMPROVED WOOD STOVE FIREBOX DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an examination of materials that might be used within the firebox of a wood-burning stove to produce more uniform and complete combustion. Although many materials were initially considered, refractory materials appear to possess the qualities desired re...

  3. Multicomponent biocide systems protect wood from decay fungi, mold fungi, and termites for interior applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    Concerns about indoor air quality due to mold growth have increased dramatically in the United States. In the absence of proper moisture management, fungicides need to be developed for indoor use to control mold establishment. An ideal fungicide for prevention of indoor mold growth on wood-based materials needs to specifically prevent spore germination and provide long-term protection under conditions of

  4. Wood Storks of the Birdsville colony and swamps of the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, J.M.

    1984-02-16

    Wood Stork feeding sites were studied during the second half of the nesting season for the Birdsville colony (Jenkins Co., Georgia). Foraging locations of the storks were determined. The microhabitat, water quality, and fish density were characterized at stork foraging sites and food resources determined. 14 references, 9 figures, 11 tables.

  5. Remilling of salvaged wood siding coated with lead-based paint. Part 1. Lead exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Falk; John J. Janowiak; Stephen D. Cosper; Susan A. Drozdz

    It is well known that the lead contained in lead-based paint (LBP) can pose a serious human health risk if ingested. In our nation's building infrastructure, millions of meters of high quality salvageable lumber have been coated with LBP. The study presented in this and a companion paper investigated the feasibility of producing several standardized wood product profiles, including flooring,

  6. Root traits for infertile soils

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Dupuy, Lionel X.; Karley, Alison J.; Valentine, Tracy A.; Wiesel, Lea; Wishart, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Crop production is often restricted by the availability of essential mineral elements. For example, the availability of N, P, K, and S limits low-input agriculture, the phytoavailability of Fe, Zn, and Cu limits crop production on alkaline and calcareous soils, and P, Mo, Mg, Ca, and K deficiencies, together with proton, Al and Mn toxicities, limit crop production on acid soils. Since essential mineral elements are acquired by the root system, the development of crop genotypes with root traits increasing their acquisition should increase yields on infertile soils. This paper examines root traits likely to improve the acquisition of these elements and observes that, although the efficient acquisition of a particular element requires a specific set of root traits, suites of traits can be identified that benefit the acquisition of a group of mineral elements. Elements can be divided into three Groups based on common trait requirements. Group 1 comprises N, S, K, B, and P. Group 2 comprises Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Ni. Group 3 contains mineral elements that rarely affect crop production. It is argued that breeding for a limited number of distinct root ideotypes, addressing particular combinations of mineral imbalances, should be pursued. PMID:23781228

  7. Plant traits that determine water use in wet tropical trees - do universal rules apply?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, G. T.; Moore, G. W.

    2013-12-01

    At the global scale, evapotranspiration is the strongest predictor of species richness compared with other climatic and non-climatic variables, resulting in higher diversity in wet regions. In water limited climates, evapotranspiration has been shown to drive functional convergence in plant traits such as leaf vein density and wood density that are associated with water usage. However, functional convergence has yet to be demonstrated in wet tropical forests where water is unlimited. In this study, we compared and contrasted structural traits, leaf traits, and transpiration in nine tree species found in a wet tropical montane forest in Costa Rica. Transpiration was determined using three years of data collected from heat dissipation sap flow sensors. Among the nine species we studied, leaf architecture and size varied markedly, but leaf shapes were generally ovate or lancelate (Figure 1). Relationships between secondary and tertiary venation and leaf surface area at the local scale were similar to published relationships at the global scale, except for compound leaves and an outlier species, Calophyllum brasilense, which had dense parallel veins. Despite wide-ranging traits, sap flux was fairly consistent across species, ranging from 380 to 982 kg m-2 d-1. Sap flux was positively correlated with specific leaf area. Similar to global trends, specific leaf area was shown to be positively correlated to tertiary venation but not related to secondary venation. Leaves of wet tropical species tended to have lower leaf mass per unit area than those of dry tropical species. Unlike studies in dry tropical regions, wood density was unrelated to wood sapflux and only weakly related to specific leaf area. It is possible that trees in wetter climates without water deficits do not adhere as closely to universal scaling relationships. In addition, wood density adjustments to guard against water stress might not be as important in wet climates. As we continue to seek universal rules in plant traits, more work is needed to expand these relationships to larger leaves and those with compound leaf structure. Figure 1

  8. [Environmental and health impacts of wood combustion to produce heat and power].

    PubMed

    Valerio, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Toxic chemicals such as benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and ultra fine particles were found in the smoke produced by wood combustion. Emission factors confirm that, to produce the same energy amount, many more pollutants are emitted by wood than by natural gas. Biomass burning produces a relevant deterioration of air quality inside and outside houses, notably due to emissions of fine and ultra fine dust (PM10, PM2.5) according to reviewed studies. Important improvements in emission quality are obtained with the use of more efficient household heating systems, both in developed and in developing countries. Numerous studies have assessed the possible health effects produced by wood smoke, providing sufficient evidence that the indoor exposure to wood smoke, even in developed countries, can have adverse effects on human health. In 2010 IARC classified wood smoke as a possible human carcinogen. In Europe, electricity generation from biomass combustion is increasing (12% each year) thanks to incentives provided to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and use of fossil fuels.Today adequate studies to assess the environmental and health effects of emissions from power plants fuelled by solid biomasses are still needed. PMID:22418798

  9. 21 CFR 866.2600 - Wood's fluorescent lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2600 Wood's fluorescent lamp. (a) Identification. A Wood's...

  10. 21 CFR 866.2600 - Wood's fluorescent lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2600 Wood's fluorescent lamp. (a) Identification. A Wood's...

  11. 21 CFR 866.2600 - Wood's fluorescent lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2600 Wood's fluorescent lamp. (a) Identification. A Wood's...

  12. 21 CFR 866.2600 - Wood's fluorescent lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2600 Wood's fluorescent lamp. (a) Identification. A Wood's...

  13. Sound absorption of wood-based materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Con Wassilieff

    1996-01-01

    There are presently very few practical and efficient sound absorbers using wood as a base material. This paper demonstrates that the sound absorption in a medium made of wood fibres or shavings is reasonably well described by a simple Rayleigh model in which the medium is modelled as a layered structure of parallel slits between which the sound propagates. The

  14. Title: Ontario Wooded Area Data Creator /

    E-print Network

    -07-03 Coverage Date(s): January 1, 1976 ­ September 1, 2006 Updates: N/A Abstract: Polygon feature that identifies an area covered by trees. Wooded Area polygons represent the boundaries of woody vegetation Planning, Landscapes, Plantations, Riparian Vegetation, Shrubs, Vegetation, Wooded Area, Woodlands

  15. WRITTEN TESTIMONY OF DR. ROBERT J. WOOD

    E-print Network

    WRITTEN TESTIMONY OF DR. ROBERT J. WOOD DIRECTOR OF THE COOPERATIVE OXFORD LABORATORY NATIONAL OCEAN SERVICE NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE JOINT HEARING Robert Wood, Director of the Cooperative Oxford Laboratory, a cooperative scientific research laboratory

  16. Nailed wood joints under combined loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Louis DeBonis; J. Bodig

    1975-01-01

    A new testing apparatus was designed and a test method developed to enable the application of axial loads, lateral loads, and controlled ratios of axial to lateral loads to nailed wood joints. The effect of axial load components on ultimate lateral load, joint deformations and several slip moduli were evaluated. These load-slip parameters were determined for three species of wood,

  17. A Better Way to Burn Wood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Rita

    1979-01-01

    Wood pyrolysis is a process that burns wood without air, producing gas and oil that are then burned for heat. Now being tested at Maryville College, Tennessee, the process is expected to cut fuel costs, solve a waste disposal problem, and produce charcoal for sale. (Author/MLF)

  18. Norrth Fork Big Wood River, Idaho

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Big Wood River flows through communities of the Wood River Valley of south-central Idaho. It is one of eight sites at which the USGS is conducting an ecological assessment during the summer of 2014. Study results will be published in 2015....

  19. Evaluation of Paulownia elongata wood polyethylene composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paulownia wood flour (PWF), a byproduct of milling lumber, was employed as a bio-filler and blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) via extrusion. Paulownia wood (PW) shavings were milled through a 1-mm screen then separated via shaking into various particle fractions using sieves (#30 - < #2...

  20. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION OF WOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an estimate of the potential environmental impact of the residential combustion of wood. About 16.6 million metric tons of wood was burned in the residential section in 1976. About 30% of this was burned for primary heating in about 912,000 residential...

  1. WOOD PRESERVING INDUSTRY MULTIMEDIA EMISSION INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restriction of the discharge of wastewater generated during the preservation of wood has resulted in the increased use of evaporation techniques by the wood preserving industry. This report discusses emissions that may occur during evaporation and projects the pollutant burden on...

  2. Wood mimetic hydrogel beads for enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Park, Saerom; Kim, Sung Hee; Won, Keehoon; Choi, Joon Weon; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Hyung Joo; Yang, Yung-Hun; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-22

    Wood component-based composite hydrogels have potential applications in biomedical fields owing to their low cost, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. The controllable properties of wood mimetic composites containing three major wood components are useful for enzyme immobilization. Here, lipase from Candida rugosa was entrapped in wood mimetic beads containing cellulose, xylan, and lignin by dissolving wood components with lipase in [Emim][Ac], followed by reconstitution. Lipase entrapped in cellulose/xylan/lignin beads in a 5:3:2 ratio showed the highest activity; this ratio is very similar to that in natural wood. The lipase entrapped in various wood mimetic beads showed increased thermal and pH stability. The half-life times of lipase entrapped in cellulose/alkali lignin hydrogel were 31- and 82-times higher than those of free lipase during incubation under denaturing conditions of high temperature and low pH, respectively. Owing to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and controllable properties, wood mimetic hydrogel beads can be used to immobilize various enzymes for applications in the biomedical, bioelectronic, and biocatalytic fields. PMID:25439889

  3. Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Higuchi

    1985-01-01

    A textbook containing 22 chapters by various authors covers the structure of wood, the localization of polysaccharides and lignins in wood cell walls, metabolism and synthetic function of cambial tissue, cell organelles and their function in the biosynthesis of cell wall components, biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides, lignin, cutin, suberin and associated waxes, phenolic acids and monolignols, quinones, flavonoids,

  4. c Copyright 2014 Benjamin P. Wood

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    c Copyright 2014 Benjamin P. Wood #12;#12;Software and Hardware Support for Data-Race Exceptions;#12;University of Washington Abstract Software and Hardware Support for Data-Race Exceptions Benjamin P. Wood Co Luis Ceze Computer Science & Engineering Some researchers have proposed data-race exceptions

  5. Aircraft woods: their properties, selection, and characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markwardt, L J

    1931-01-01

    Strength values of various woods for aircraft design for a 15 per cent moisture condition of material and a 3-second duration of stress are presented, and also a discussion of the various factors affecting the values. The toughness-test method of selecting wood is discussed, and a table of acceptance values for several species is given.

  6. CAMP LEJEUNE ENERGY FROM WOOD (CLEW) PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses EPA's Camp Lejeune Energy from Wood (CLEW) project, a demonstration project that converts wood energy to electric power, and provides waste utilization and pollution alleviation. The 1-MWe plant operates a reciprocating engine-generator set on synthetic gas f...

  7. DEVELOPING A NO-VOC WOOD TOPCOAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports an evaluation of a new low-VOC (volatile organic compound) wood coating technology, its performance characteristics, and its application and emissions testing. The low-VOC wood coating selected for the project was a two-component, water-based epoxy coating. Poly...

  8. Energy from biomass through hydrolysis of wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Guha; A. L. Titchener

    1978-01-01

    An effective method for converting biological material to liquid fuel is the production of ethanol by hydrolysis of cellulose and fermentation of the resulting sugar. The conversion of wood cellulose to sugar is best achieved through dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis process. The hydrolysis of wood is described by a two step consecutive reactions of saccharification and decomposition. The first order

  9. INDEPENDENT POWER PLANT USING WOOD WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 1 MWe power plant using waste wood is to be installed at a U.S. Marine Corps base, which will supply all the wood for the plant from a landfill site. The core energy conversion technology is a down-draft gasifier supplying approximately 150 Btu/scf gas to both spark ignition an...

  10. Overfeed fixed-bed combustion of wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janez Oman; Matija Tuma

    1999-01-01

    Research on the combustion of wood on a fixed grate with a separate supply of combustion air is described in this paper. From the layer of the wood on the grate, only fixed carbon was burned in the primary combustion chamber in the presence of primary air, whereas the volatiles were burned subsequently in the secondary combustion chamber in the

  11. Autonomy for Aurora's Mars Missions Mark Woods,

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Michael

    Autonomy for Aurora's Mars Missions Mark Woods, SciSys Ltd., Clothier Road, Bristol, UK BS4 5SS Email: mark.woods@scisys.co.uk Tel: +44 117 9717251 ESA's Aurora programme incorporates a strategy for European involvement in future robotic and human exploration of our Solar System. The Aurora roadmap calls

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMSUMPTION ESTIMATION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives data on the distribution and usage of firewood, obtained from a pool of household wood use surveys. ased on a series of regression models developed using the STEPWISE procedure in the SAS statistical package, two variables appear to be most predictive of wood use...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF RESIDENTIAL WOOD CONSUMPTION ESTIMATION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives data on the distribution and usage of firewood, obtained from a pool of household wood use surveys. ased on a series of regression models developed using the STEPWISE procedure in the SAS statistical package, two variables appear to be most predictive of wood use...

  14. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. wo processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt-...

  15. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  16. Succession of Wood-inhabiting Fungal Communities

    E-print Network

    Succession of Wood-inhabiting Fungal Communities Diversity and Species Interactions During, Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Uppsala Doctoral Thesis Swedish University of Agricultural/Repro, Uppsala 2013 #12;Succession of Wood-inhabiting Fungal Communities ­ Diversity and Species Interactions

  17. An immersion technique for studying wood wettability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Casilla; S. Chow; P. R. Steiner

    1981-01-01

    The wetting properties of wood were studied by a modification of the Wilhelmy technique. This method involved continuously monitoring the force exerted on a wood specimen as it was immersed at a controlled rate into a liquid. Wettability was expressed in terms of the area under the force-immersion curve and was referred to in this study as “wettability index”. The

  18. Wood or coal burning heater

    SciTech Connect

    Duerichen, J.G.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes a wood and coal burning heater comprising a housing having a front surface, a rear surface, a bottom surface and a side surface and a top surface having a chimney opening; and a normally closed primary combsution chamber for the combustion of wood and coal within the housing. The combustion chamber has a top wall and a rear wall spaced inwardly from the top and rear surfaces of the housing forming horizontal and vertical smoke passages respectively; and a door opening in the front surface for access to the primary combustion chamber and a door for tightly closing the door opening; and a secondary combustion chamber positioned below the primary combustion chamber for the burning of combustible smoke. Gas and ash pass downwardly from the primary combustion chamber, the secondary combustion chamber is lined along its bottom and sides with insulating refractory material and having a narrow opening in the bottom for the downward discharge of ashes into an air-tight ash drawer; the primary and secondary combustion chambers are separated by a grate of high-temperature ceramic refractory material which is provided with two narrow spaced slots which are aligned in front of rear direction; and an elongate air supply tube positioned immediately below and in parallel alignment with the slots in the grate with the air supply tube having air supply orifices positioned beneath the slots for the discharge of air for secondary combustion.

  19. Feeding a diet contaminated with ochratoxin A for broiler chickens at the maximum level recommended by the EU for poultry feeds (0.1 mg/kg). 2. Effects on meat quality, oxidative stress, residues and histological traits.

    PubMed

    Pozzo, L; Cavallarin, L; Antoniazzi, S; Guerre, P; Biasibetti, E; Capucchio, M T; Schiavone, A

    2013-05-01

    The European Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC indicates that the maximum tolerable level of ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry feeds is 0.1 mg OTA/kg. Thirty-six 1-day-old male broiler chicks were divided into two groups, a control (basal diet) and an OTA (basal diet + 0.1 mg OTA/kg) group. The OTA concentration was quantified in serum, liver, kidney, breast and thigh samples. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content were evaluated in the liver, kidney, breast and thigh samples. The glutathione (GSH) content, and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in the liver and kidney samples. Histopathological traits were evaluated for the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and liver samples. Moreover, the chemical composition of the meat was analysed in breast and thigh samples. In the OTA diet-fed animals, a serum OTA concentration of 1.15 ± 0.35 ng/ml was found, and OTA was also detected in kidney and liver at 3.58 ± 0.85 ng OTA/g f.w. and 1.92 ± 0.21 ng OTA/g f.w., respectively. The TBARS content was higher in the kidney of the ochratoxin A group (1.53 ± 0.18 nmol/mg protein vs. 0.91 ± 0.25 nmol/mg protein). Feeding OTA at 0.1 mg OTA/kg also resulted in degenerative lesions in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and liver. The maximum tolerable level of 0.1 mg OTA/kg, established for poultry feeds by the EU, represents a safe limit for the final consumer, because no OTA residues were found in breast and thigh meat. Even though no clinical signs were noticed in the birds fed the OTA-contaminated diet, moderate histological lesions were observed in the liver, spleen and bursa of Fabricius. PMID:23639014

  20. Extraction of hemicelluloses from fiberized spruce wood.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Shoaib; Henriksson, Gunnar; Theliander, Hans; Lindström, Mikael E

    2015-03-01

    A novel mechanical pre-treatment method was used to separate the wood chips into fiber bundles in order to extract high molecular weight wood polymers. The mechanical pre-treatment involved chip compression in a conical plug-screw followed by defibration in a fiberizer. The fiberized wood was treated with hot water at various combinations of time and temperature in order to analyze the extraction yield of hemicelluloses at different conditions. Nearly 6 mg/g wood of galactoglucomannan was obtained at 90 °C/120 min which was about three times more than what could be extracted from wood chips. The extracted carbohydrates had molecular weight ranging up to 60 kDa. About 10% of each of the extracted material had a molecular weight above 30 kDa. The extraction liquor could also be reused for consecutive extractions with successive increase in the extraction yield of hemicelluloses. PMID:25498604