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Sample records for wood quality traits

  1. Genetic Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Growth and Wood Quality Traits in Eucalyptus Grandis Using a Maternal Half-Sib Family and Rapd Markers

    PubMed Central

    Grattapaglia, D.; Bertolucci, FLG.; Penchel, R.; Sederoff, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of forest productivity traits was performed using an open pollinated half-sib family of Eucalyptus grandis. For volume growth, a sequential QTL mapping approach was applied using bulk segregant analysis (BSA), selective genotyping (SG) and cosegregation analysis (CSA). Despite the low heritability of this trait and the heterogeneous genetic background employed for mapping. BSA detected one putative QTL and SG two out of the three later found by CSA. The three putative QTL for volume growth were found to control 13.7% of the phenotypic variation, corresponding to an estimated 43.7% of the genetic variation. For wood specific gravity five QTL were identified controlling 24.7% of the phenotypic variation corresponding to 49% of the genetic variation. Overlapping QTL for CBH, WSG and percentage dry weight of bark were observed. A significant case of digenic epistasis was found, involving unlinked QTL for volume. Our results demonstrate the applicability of the within half-sib design for QTL mapping in forest trees and indicate the existence of major genes involved in the expression of economically important traits related to forest productivity in Eucalyptus grandis. These findings have important implications for marker-assisted tree breeding. PMID:8913761

  2. Association Genetics of Wood Physical Traits in the Conifer White Spruce and Relationships With Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jean; Doerksen, Trevor; Boyle, Brian; Clément, Sébastien; Deslauriers, Marie; Beauseigle, Stéphanie; Blais, Sylvie; Poulin, Pier-Luc; Lenz, Patrick; Caron, Sébastien; Rigault, Philippe; Bicho, Paul; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John

    2011-01-01

    Marker-assisted selection holds promise for highly influencing tree breeding, especially for wood traits, by considerably reducing breeding cycles and increasing selection accuracy. In this study, we used a candidate gene approach to test for associations between 944 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers from 549 candidate genes and 25 wood quality traits in white spruce. A mixed-linear model approach, including a weak but nonsignificant population structure, was implemented for each marker–trait combination. Relatedness among individuals was controlled using a kinship matrix estimated either from the known half-sib structure or from the markers. Both additive and dominance effect models were tested. Between 8 and 21 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be significantly associated (P ≤ 0.01) with each of earlywood, latewood, or total wood traits. After controlling for multiple testing (Q ≤ 0.10), 13 SNPs were still significant across as many genes belonging to different families, each accounting for between 3 and 5% of the phenotypic variance in 10 wood characters. Transcript accumulation was determined for genes containing SNPs associated with these traits. Significantly different transcript levels (P ≤ 0.05) were found among the SNP genotypes of a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, a β-tonoplast intrinsic protein, and a long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 9. These results should contribute toward the development of efficient marker-assisted selection in an economically important tree species. PMID:21385726

  3. Dietary effects of a mix derived from oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil and sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood extract on pig performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits.

    PubMed

    Ranucci, D; Beghelli, D; Trabalza-Marinucci, M; Branciari, R; Forte, C; Olivieri, O; Badillo Pazmay, G V; Cavallucci, C; Acuti, G

    2015-02-01

    The effects of a pre-formulated commercial plant extract mix, composed of equal parts of oregano essential oil and sweet chestnut wood extract, on performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits were evaluated. In two 155-d studies, 60 pigs (mean liveweight: 42.9 kg) were assigned to either a control diet (CTR) or an identical diet supplemented (0.2%) with the plant extract mix (OC). No differences in the growth rate were observed. Glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the OC muscles (Longissimus lumborum) were higher than in CTR muscles. The lipid oxidation of meat was lower in the OC group. In the cooked meat samples, OC animals had the lowest L* and H° values and the highest a* values. The OC meat received higher scores for colour, taste and overall liking in both the blind and the labelled consumer tests. PMID:25454470

  4. Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, G.A.

    2001-06-20

    Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F2 progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar.

  5. Wood quality from fast-grown plantations

    SciTech Connect

    Zobel, B.

    1981-01-01

    As forestry becomes more intensive and as forestry operations move toward the tropical areas, an increasing proportion of the wood available to the industry will come from young, fast-grown plantations. The wood of such trees, especially from the conifers, is so different that it will have a major effect on utilization and product standards. Acceptability of wood from fast-grown plantations will change as solid wood and paper quality standards change. Some of the primary effects on wood and products from fast-grown plantations are discussed in this paper. The wood is very suitable for some products and poor for others. The paper reports on conifers and hardwoods separately, with a large section on Eucalyptus.

  6. Genomics of Quality Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seeds of the cereal crops provide a large portion of both the total calories and protein in the human diet. The utility of any cereal depends on the precise characteristics of their grain and the summation of parameters that translate in the grain "quality" for speific utilizations. This chapter...

  7. Association Genetics in Pinus taeda L. I. Wood Property Traits

    PubMed Central

    González-Martínez, Santiago C.; Wheeler, Nicholas C.; Ersoz, Elhan; Nelson, C. Dana; Neale, David B.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic association is a powerful method for dissecting complex adaptive traits due to (i) fine-scale mapping resulting from historical recombination, (ii) wide coverage of phenotypic and genotypic variation within a single experiment, and (iii) the simultaneous discovery of loci and alleles. In this article, genetic association among single nucleotide polymorphisms (58 SNPs) from 20 wood- and drought-related candidate genes and an array of wood property traits with evolutionary and commercial importance, namely, earlywood and latewood specific gravity, percentage of latewood, earlywood microfibril angle, and wood chemistry (lignin and cellulose content), was tested using mixed linear models (MLMs) that account for relatedness among individuals by using a pairwise kinship matrix. Population structure, a common systematic bias in association studies, was assessed using 22 nuclear microsatellites. Different phenotype:genotype associations were found, some of them confirming previous evidence from collocation of QTL and genes in linkage maps (for example, 4cl and percentage of latewood) and two that involve nonsynonymous polymorphisms (cad SNP M28 with earlywood specific gravity and 4cl SNP M7 with percentage of latewood). The strongest genetic association found in this study was between allelic variation in α-tubulin, a gene involved in the formation of cortical microtubules, and earlywood microfibril angle. Intragenic LD decays rapidly in conifers; thus SNPs showing genetic association are likely to be located in close proximity to the causative polymorphisms. This first multigene association genetic study in forest trees has shown the feasibility of candidate gene strategies for dissecting complex adaptive traits, provided that genes belonging to key pathways and appropriate statistical tools are used. This approach is of particular utility in species such as conifers, where genomewide strategies are limited by their large genomes. PMID:17110498

  8. Size-dependent changes in wood chemical traits: a comparison of neotropical saplings and large trees

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam R.; Thomas, Sean C.; Zhao, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Wood anatomical traits are important correlates of life-history strategies among tree species, yet little is known about wood chemical traits. Additionally, size-dependent changes in wood chemical traits have been rarely examined, although these changes may represent an important aspect of tree ontogeny. Owing to selection for pathogen resistance and biomechanical stability, we predicted that saplings would show higher lignin (L) and wood carbon (Cconv), and lower holocellulose (H) concentrations, compared with conspecific large trees. To test these expectations, we quantified H, L and Cconv in co-occurring Panamanian tree species at the large tree vs. sapling size classes. We also examined inter- and intraspecific patterns using multivariate and phylogenetic analyses. In 15 of 16 species, sapling L concentration was higher than that in conspecific large trees, and in all 16 species, sapling H was lower than that in conspecific large trees. In 16 of 24 species, Cconv was higher in saplings than conspecific large trees. All large-tree traits were unrelated to sapling values and were unrelated to four life-history variables. Wood chemical traits did not show a phylogenetic signal in saplings, instead showing similar values across distantly related taxa; in large trees, only H showed a significant phylogenetic signal. Size-dependent changes in wood chemistry show consistent and predictable patterns, suggesting that ontogenetic changes in wood chemical traits are an important aspect of tree functional biology. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that at early ontogenetic stages, trees are selected for greater L to defend against cellulose-decaying pathogens, or possibly to confer biomechanical stability.

  9. Functional Multi-Locus QTL Mapping of Temporal Trends in Scots Pine Wood Traits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zitong; Hallingbäck, Henrik R.; Abrahamsson, Sara; Fries, Anders; Gull, Bengt Andersson; Sillanpää, Mikko J.; García-Gil, M. Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of wood properties in conifer species has focused on single time point measurements or on trait means based on heterogeneous wood samples (e.g., increment cores), thus ignoring systematic within-tree trends. In this study, functional QTL mapping was performed for a set of important wood properties in increment cores from a 17-yr-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) full-sib family with the aim of detecting wood trait QTL for general intercepts (means) and for linear slopes by increasing cambial age. Two multi-locus functional QTL analysis approaches were proposed and their performances were compared on trait datasets comprising 2 to 9 time points, 91 to 455 individual tree measurements and genotype datasets of amplified length polymorphisms (AFLP), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The first method was a multilevel LASSO analysis whereby trend parameter estimation and QTL mapping were conducted consecutively; the second method was our Bayesian linear mixed model whereby trends and underlying genetic effects were estimated simultaneously. We also compared several different hypothesis testing methods under either the LASSO or the Bayesian framework to perform QTL inference. In total, five and four significant QTL were observed for the intercepts and slopes, respectively, across wood traits such as earlywood percentage, wood density, radial fiberwidth, and spiral grain angle. Four of these QTL were represented by candidate gene SNPs, thus providing promising targets for future research in QTL mapping and molecular function. Bayesian and LASSO methods both detected similar sets of QTL given datasets that comprised large numbers of individuals. PMID:25305041

  10. Functional multi-locus QTL mapping of temporal trends in Scots pine wood traits.

    PubMed

    Li, Zitong; Hallingbäck, Henrik R; Abrahamsson, Sara; Fries, Anders; Gull, Bengt Andersson; Sillanpää, Mikko J; García-Gil, M Rosario

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of wood properties in conifer species has focused on single time point measurements or on trait means based on heterogeneous wood samples (e.g., increment cores), thus ignoring systematic within-tree trends. In this study, functional QTL mapping was performed for a set of important wood properties in increment cores from a 17-yr-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) full-sib family with the aim of detecting wood trait QTL for general intercepts (means) and for linear slopes by increasing cambial age. Two multi-locus functional QTL analysis approaches were proposed and their performances were compared on trait datasets comprising 2 to 9 time points, 91 to 455 individual tree measurements and genotype datasets of amplified length polymorphisms (AFLP), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The first method was a multilevel LASSO analysis whereby trend parameter estimation and QTL mapping were conducted consecutively; the second method was our Bayesian linear mixed model whereby trends and underlying genetic effects were estimated simultaneously. We also compared several different hypothesis testing methods under either the LASSO or the Bayesian framework to perform QTL inference. In total, five and four significant QTL were observed for the intercepts and slopes, respectively, across wood traits such as earlywood percentage, wood density, radial fiberwidth, and spiral grain angle. Four of these QTL were represented by candidate gene SNPs, thus providing promising targets for future research in QTL mapping and molecular function. Bayesian and LASSO methods both detected similar sets of QTL given datasets that comprised large numbers of individuals. PMID:25305041

  11. Xenomic networks variability and adaptation traits in wood decaying fungi

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Mélanie; Meux, Edgar; Mathieu, Yann; Thuillier, Anne; Chibani, Kamel; Harvengt, Luc; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Gelhaye, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Fungal degradation of wood is mainly restricted to basidiomycetes, these organisms having developed complex oxidative and hydrolytic enzymatic systems. Besides these systems, wood-decaying fungi possess intracellular networks allowing them to deal with the myriad of potential toxic compounds resulting at least in part from wood degradation but also more generally from recalcitrant organic matter degradation. The members of the detoxification pathways constitute the xenome. Generally, they belong to multigenic families such as the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and the glutathione transferases. Taking advantage of the recent release of numerous genomes of basidiomycetes, we show here that these multigenic families are extended and functionally related in wood-decaying fungi. Furthermore, we postulate that these rapidly evolving multigenic families could reflect the adaptation of these fungi to the diversity of their substrate and provide keys to understand their ecology. This is of particular importance for white biotechnology, this xenome being a putative target for improving degradation properties of these fungi in biomass valorization purposes. PMID:23279857

  12. Xenomic networks variability and adaptation traits in wood decaying fungi.

    PubMed

    Morel, Mélanie; Meux, Edgar; Mathieu, Yann; Thuillier, Anne; Chibani, Kamel; Harvengt, Luc; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Gelhaye, Eric

    2013-05-01

    Fungal degradation of wood is mainly restricted to basidiomycetes, these organisms having developed complex oxidative and hydrolytic enzymatic systems. Besides these systems, wood-decaying fungi possess intracellular networks allowing them to deal with the myriad of potential toxic compounds resulting at least in part from wood degradation but also more generally from recalcitrant organic matter degradation. The members of the detoxification pathways constitute the xenome. Generally, they belong to multigenic families such as the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and the glutathione transferases. Taking advantage of the recent release of numerous genomes of basidiomycetes, we show here that these multigenic families are extended and functionally related in wood-decaying fungi. Furthermore, we postulate that these rapidly evolving multigenic families could reflect the adaptation of these fungi to the diversity of their substrate and provide keys to understand their ecology. This is of particular importance for white biotechnology, this xenome being a putative target for improving degradation properties of these fungi in biomass valorization purposes. PMID:23279857

  13. Wood density and vessel traits as distinct correlates of ecological strategy in 51 California coast range angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Preston, Katherine A; Cornwell, William K; Denoyer, Jeanne L

    2006-01-01

    Wood density and vessel characteristics are functionally interrelated, yet they may have distinct ecological associations. In a comparative study of 51 angiosperm species ranging from chaparral shrubs to riparian trees, we examined relationships among wood density and vessel traits and their ecological correlates. Mean vessel lumen area and vessel density (number mm(-2)) varied widely (7- to 10-fold). In multivariate analyses, both vessel traits were negatively correlated with wood density, which varied more narrowly (< 2-fold). Vessel density and lumen area were inversely related across species, allowing a broad range of vessel traits within a narrow range of wood density. Phylogenetic independent contrasts indicated correlated inverse evolutionary change in vessel traits. Each trait had a distinct pattern of ecological correlation -- wood density was most strongly associated with soil water, and vessel traits showed contrasting relationships with plant height. Within a narrow range of wood density, there was significant variation in vessel traits. Given their particular ecological associations, the results suggest that wood density and vessel traits describe two distinct ecological axes. PMID:16684240

  14. [Genetic correlations between quality traits and other economic traits in japonica rice].

    PubMed

    L, Wen-Yan; Zhang, Jian; Shao, Guo-Jun; Zhou, Hong-Fei; Cao, Ping

    2005-07-01

    Genetic correlations among brown rice rate, chalkiness grain rate, chalkiness area and AC, and correlations between these quality traits and plant height and panicle trait were analyzed using parental seeds of 3 x 3 NC II reciprocal mating and some F2 generation seeds by the genetic model given by Zhu Jun for the selection of japonica breeding progeny. The results showed that milled rice weight and brown rice rate are highly significant correlation with maternal additive effect. The genetic covariance between genetic effect components of quality traits and agronomy traits was not significant but that between quality and other plant traits was complicated. PMID:16120586

  15. Grain quality traits in a sorghum association mapping panel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain quality traits were analyzed in a diverse sorghum sample set which consisted of 174 sorghum lines (110 non-tannin lines and 64 tannin lines). These samples were previously grouped into five distinct genetic populations which made it possible to compare grain quality traits across the genetic g...

  16. Identifying quantitative end-use quality traits through marker-trait associations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    End-use quality traits (grain, milling and baking) are generally expensive and difficult to measure. We are in the process of estimating phenotypic trait values for a wide range of Pacific Northwest wheat genotypes, including soft white spring, winter and club, hard red winter and spring, and hard ...

  17. Quantitative Trait Loci Influencing End-use Quality Traits of Hard Red Spring Wheat Breeding Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat end-product quality is determined by a complex group of traits including dough visco-elastic characteristics and bread-making properties. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and analysis were conducted for endosperm texture and polymeric proteins, dough mixing strength and bread-making prop...

  18. Perceived quality of wood images influenced by the skewness of image histogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, Shigehito; Mizokami, Yoko; Yaguchi, Hirohisa

    2015-08-01

    The shape of image luminance histograms is related to material perception. We investigated how the luminance histogram contributed to improvements in the perceived quality of wood images by examining various natural wood and adhesive vinyl sheets with printed wood grain. In the first experiment, we visually evaluated the perceived quality of wood samples. In addition, we measured the colorimetric parameters of the wood samples and calculated statistics of image luminance. The relationship between visual evaluation scores and image statistics suggested that skewness and kurtosis affected the perceived quality of wood. In the second experiment, we evaluated the perceived quality of wood images with altered luminance skewness and kurtosis using a paired comparison method. Our result suggests that wood images are more realistic if the skewness of the luminance histogram is slightly negative.

  19. QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, J.S.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, X.T.; Lau, A.K.; Melin, Staffan; Oveisi, E.; Sowlati, T.

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  20. Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export

    SciTech Connect

    J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  1. Intraspecific Relationships among Wood Density, Leaf Structural Traits and Environment in Four Co-Occurring Species of Nothofagus in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Sarah J.; Allen, Robert B.; Buxton, Rowan P.; Easdale, Toms A.; Hurst, Jennifer M.; Morse, Christopher W.; Smissen, Rob D.; Peltzer, Duane A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant functional traits capture important variation in plant strategy and function. Recent literature has revealed that within-species variation in traits is greater than previously supposed. However, we still have a poor understanding of how intraspecific variation is coordinated among different traits, and how it is driven by environment. We quantified intraspecific variation in wood density and five leaf traits underpinning the leaf economics spectrum (leaf dry matter content, leaf mass per unit area, size, thickness and density) within and among four widespread Nothofagus tree species in southern New Zealand. We tested whether intraspecific relationships between wood density and leaf traits followed widely reported interspecific relationships, and whether variation in these traits was coordinated through shared responses to environmental factors. Sample sites varied widely in environmental variables, including soil fertility (25900 mg kg1 total P), precipitation (6684875 mm yr1), temperature (5.212.4 C mean annual temperature) and latitude (4146 S). Leaf traits were strongly correlated with one another within species, but not with wood density. There was some evidence for a positive relationship between wood density and leaf tissue density and dry matter content, but no evidence that leaf mass or leaf size were correlated with wood density; this highlights that leaf mass per unit area cannot be used as a surrogate for component leaf traits such as tissue density. Trait variation was predicted by environmental factors, but not consistently among different traits; e.g., only leaf thickness and leaf density responded to the same environmental cues as wood density. We conclude that although intraspecific variation in wood density and leaf traits is strongly driven by environmental factors, these responses are not strongly coordinated among functional traits even across co-occurring, closely-related plant species. PMID:23527041

  2. Genetic Control of Meat Quality Traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, John L.

    Meat was originally produced from non-specialized animals that were used for a variety of purposes, in addition to being a source of food. However, selective breeding has resulted in “improved” breeds of cattle that are now used to produce either milk or beef, and specialized chicken lines that produce eggs or meat. These improved breeds are very productive under appropriate management systems. The selection methods used to create these specialized breeds were based on easily measured phenotypic variations, such as growth rate or physical size. Improvement in the desired trait was achieved by breeding directly from animals displaying the desired phenotype. However, more recently sophisticated genetic models have been developed using statistical approaches that consider phenotypic information collected, not only from individual animals but also from their parents, sibs, and progeny.

  3. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTL) ANALYSIS OF CANNING QUALITY TRAITS IN KIDNEY BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canning quality of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), of which the degree of splitting (SPLT) and overall appearance (APP) if canned beans are major components, is a complex trait that exhibits quantitative. The objectives of this study were to identify major genes that affect APP and SPLT in kidney...

  4. Validation of Commercial DNA Tests for Beef Quality Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Associations between three commercially-available genetic marker panels (GeneSTAR® Quality Grade, GeneSTAR® Tenderness, and Igenity TenderGENE™) and quantitative beef traits were validated by the National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC). Validation was interpreted to be the independent ver...

  5. VALIDATION OF COMMERCIAL DNA TESTS FOR QUANTITATIVE BEEF QUALITY TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Associations between three commercially-available genetic marker panels (GeneSTAR(TM) Quality Grade, GeneSTAR(TM) Tenderness, and Igenity TenderGENE(TM)) and quantitative beef traits were validated by the National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC). Validation was interpreted to be the indepe...

  6. Watermelon quality traits as affected by ploidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers offering high quality watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.), Matsum & Nakai] that are also high in phytonutrients will have stronger market opportunities. In order to offer highly nutritious fruit, the industry must understand the nature of phytonutrient accumulation as it is affected by ...

  7. Identification of quantitative trait loci influencing wood property traits in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). III. QTL Verification and candidate gene mapping.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Garth R; Bassoni, Daniel L; Gill, Geoffrey P; Fontana, Joseph R; Wheeler, Nicholas C; Megraw, Robert A; Davis, Mark F; Sewell, Mitchell M; Tuskan, Gerald A; Neale, David B

    2003-01-01

    A long-term series of experiments to map QTL influencing wood property traits in loblolly pine has been completed. These experiments were designed to identify and subsequently verify QTL in multiple genetic backgrounds, environments, and growing seasons. Verification of QTL is necessary to substantiate a biological basis for observed marker-trait associations, to provide precise estimates of the magnitude of QTL effects, and to predict QTL expression at a given age or in a particular environment. Verification was based on the repeated detection of QTL among populations, as well as among multiple growing seasons for each population. Temporal stability of QTL was moderate, with approximately half being detected in multiple seasons. Fewer QTL were common to different populations, but the results are nonetheless encouraging for restricted applications of marker-assisted selection. QTL from larger populations accounted for less phenotypic variation than QTL detected in smaller populations, emphasizing the need for experiments employing much larger families. Additionally, 18 candidate genes related to lignin biosynthesis and cell wall structure were mapped genetically. Several candidate genes colocated with wood property QTL; however, these relationships must be verified in future experiments. PMID:12930758

  8. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES: METHOD 28 CERTIFICATION AND AUDITING OF WOOD HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quality assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing particulate matter sampling of wood heaters according to EPA protocol, Method 28. These procedures may be u...

  9. Demonstration of Genome-Wide Association Studies for Identifying Markers for Wood Property and Male Strobili Traits in Cryptomeria japonica

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Kentaro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Moriguchi, Yoshinari; Ujino-Ihara, Tokuko; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Taguchi, Yuriko; Tsubomura, Miyoko; Mishima, Kentaro; Iki, Taiichi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Futamura, Norihiro; Shinohara, Kenji; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an alternative to bi-parental QTL mapping in long-lived perennials. In the present study, we examined the potential of GWAS in conifers using 367 unrelated plus trees of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, which is the most widely planted and commercially important tree species in Japan, and tried to detect significant associations between wood property traits and quantity of male strobili on the one hand, and 1,032 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assigned to 1,032 genes on the other. Association analysis was performed with the mixed linear model taking into account kinship relationships and subpopulation structure. In total, 6 SNPs were found to have significant associations with the variations in phenotype. These SNPs were not associated with the positions of known genes and QTLs that have been reported to date, thus they may identify novel QTLs. These 6 SNPs were all found in sequences showing similarities with known genes, although further analysis is required to dissect the ways in which they affect wood property traits and abundance of male strobili. These presumptive QTL loci provide opportunities for improvement of C. japonica, based on a marker approach. The results suggest that GWAS has potential for use in future breeding programs in C. japonica. PMID:24260312

  10. Health-related quality of life in women exposed to wood smoke while cooking.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, A N; Umasankar, K; Gupta, D

    2014-08-01

    Using the abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-Bref) questionnaire, we evaluated the effect of exposure to smoke from wood combustion while cooking on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in 85 women using wood and 85 women using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuel in India. Age, years of cooking and hours spent daily in the kitchen were similar between women in the two groups. WHOQOL-Bref transformed scores in psychological, social relationships and environment domains were significantly lower in women in using wood than in those using LPG, suggesting that HRQL was impaired across domains among these women. PMID:25199018

  11. Microbial communities in large-scale wood piles and their effects on wood quality and the environment.

    PubMed

    Noll, Matthias; Jirjis, Raida

    2012-08-01

    The demand of renewable energy sources, i.e. biomass, is steadily increasing worldwide to reduce the need of fossil energy sources. Biomass such as energy crops, woody species, forestry and agricultural residues are the most common renewable energy sources. Due to uneven demand for wood fuel, the material is mostly stored outdoors in chip piles or as logs until utilisation. Storage of biomass is accompanied by chemical, physical and biological processes which can significantly reduce the fuel quality. However, heating plants require high-quality biomass to ensure efficient operation, thereby minimising maintenance costs. Therefore, optimised storage conditions and duration times for chipped wood and tree logs have to be found. This paper aims at reviewing available knowledge on the pathways of microbial effects on stored woody biomass and on investigations of the fungal and bacterial community structure and identity. Moreover, potential functions of microorganisms present in wood chip piles and logs are discussed in terms of (1) reduction of fuel quality, (2) catalysing self-ignition processes, and (3) constituting health risk and unfriendly work environment. PMID:22695800

  12. Metal contaminated biochar and wood ash negatively affect plant growth and soil quality after land application.

    PubMed

    Jones, D L; Quilliam, R S

    2014-07-15

    Pyrolysis or combustion of waste wood can provide a renewable source of energy and produce byproducts which can be recycled back to land. To be sustainable requires that these byproducts pose minimal threat to the environment or human health. Frequently, reclaimed waste wood is contaminated by preservative-treated timber containing high levels of heavy metals. We investigated the effect of feedstock contamination from copper-preservative treated wood on the behaviour of pyrolysis-derived biochar and combustion-derived ash in plant-soil systems. Biochar and wood ash were applied to soil at typical agronomic rates. The presence of preservative treated timber in the feedstock increased available soil Cu; however, critical Cu guidance limits were only exceeded at high rates of feedstock contamination. Negative effects on plant growth and soil quality were only seen at high levels of biochar contamination (>50% derived from preservative-treated wood). Negative effects of wood ash contamination were apparent at lower levels of contamination (>10% derived from preservative treated wood). Complete removal of preservative treated timber from wood recycling facilities is notoriously difficult and low levels of contamination are commonplace. We conclude that low levels of contamination from Cu-treated wood should pose minimal environmental risk to biochar and ash destined for land application. PMID:24915641

  13. Emotional trait and memory associates of sleep timing and quality.

    PubMed

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Rubin, Zoe S; Tracy, Lauren E; Spencer, Rebecca M C; Orr, Scott P; Verga, Patrick W

    2015-10-30

    Poor ability to remember the extinction of conditioned fear, elevated trait anxiety, and delayed or disrupted nocturnal sleep are reported in anxiety disorders. The current study examines the interrelationship of these factors in healthy young-adult males. Skin-conductance response was conditioned to two differently colored lamps. One color but not the other was then extinguished. After varying delays, both colors were presented to determine extinction recall and generalization. Questionnaires measured sleep quality, morningness-eveningness, neuroticism and trait anxiety. A subset produced a mean 7.0 nights of actigraphy and sleep diaries. Median split of mean sleep midpoint defined early- and late-"sleep timers". Extinction was more rapidly learned in the morning than evening only in early timers who also better generalized extinction recall. Extinction recall was greater with higher sleep efficiency. Sleep efficiency and morningness were negatively associated with neuroticism and anxiety. However, neuroticism and anxiety did not predict extinction learning, recall or generalization. Therefore, neuroticism/anxiety and deficient fear extinction, although both associated with poor quality and late timing of sleep, are not directly associated with each other. Elevated trait anxiety, in addition to predisposing directly to anxiety disorders, may thus also indirectly promote such disorders by impairing sleep and, consequently, extinction memory. PMID:26257092

  14. A trait based approach to defining valued mentoring qualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendall, E.

    2012-12-01

    Graduate training in the sciences requires strong personal interactions among faculty, senior lab members and more junior members. Within the lab-group setting we learn to frame problems, to conduct research and to communicate findings. The result is that individual scientists are partly shaped by a few influential mentors. We have all been influenced by special relationships with mentors, and on reflection we may find that certain qualities have been especially influential in our career choices. In this presentation I will discuss favorable mentoring traits as determined from an informal survey of scientists in varying stages of careers and from diverse backgrounds. Respondents addressed questions about traits they value in their mentors in several categories: 1) personal qualities such as approachability, humor and encouragement; background including gender, ethnicity, and family status; 2) scientific qualities including discipline or specialization, perceived stature in discipline, seniority, breadth of perspective, and level of expectations; and 3) community-oriented qualities promoted by mentors, such as encouraging service contributions and peer-mentoring within the lab group. The results will be compared among respondents by gender, ethnicity, stage of career, type of work, and subdiscipline within the broadly defined Biogeoscience community. We hope to contribute to the growing discussion on building a diverse and balanced scientific workforce.

  15. Genetic mapping analysis of bread-making quality traits in spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we assess the genetic architecture of bread-making quality traits in spring wheat. A mapping population derived from BR34 and Grandin, a soft x hard cross, was used to measure 20 end-use quality traits including six kernel characteristics, seven milling and flour traits, four dough mi...

  16. Leaf litter resource quality induces morphological changes in wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) metamorphs.

    PubMed

    Stoler, Aaron B; Stephens, Jeffrey P; Relyea, Rick A; Berven, Keith A; Tiegs, Scott D

    2015-11-01

    For organisms that exhibit complex life cycles, resource conditions experienced by individuals before metamorphosis can strongly affect phenotypes later in life. Such resource-induced effects are known to arise from variation in resource quantity, yet little is known regarding effects stemming from variation in resource quality (e.g., chemistry). For larval anurans, we hypothesized that variation in resource quality will induce a gradient of effects on metamorph morphology. We conducted an outdoor mesocosm experiment in which we manipulated resource quality by rearing larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) under 11 leaf litter treatments. The litter species represented plant species found in open- and closed-canopy wetlands and included many plant species of current conservation concern (e.g., green ash, common reed). Consistent with our hypothesis, we found a gradient of responses for nearly all mass-adjusted morphological dimensions. Hindlimb dimensions and gut mass were positively associated with litter nutrient content and decomposition rate. In contrast, forelimb length and head width were positively associated with concentrations of phenolic acids and dissolved organic carbon. Limb lengths and widths were positively related with the duration of larval period, and we discuss possible hormonal mechanisms underlying this relationship. There were very few, broad differences in morphological traits of metamorphs between open- and closed-canopy litter species or between litter and no-litter treatments. This suggests that the effects of litter on metamorph morphology are litter species-specific, indicating that the effects of changing plant community structure in and around wetlands will largely depend on plant species composition. PMID:26188520

  17. How do drought and warming influence survival and wood traits of Picea mariana saplings?

    PubMed

    Balducci, Lorena; Deslauriers, Annie; Giovannelli, Alessio; Beaulieu, Marilène; Delzon, Sylvain; Rossi, Sergio; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K

    2015-01-01

    Warming and drought will occur with increased frequency and intensity at high latitudes in the future. How heat and water stress can influence tree mortality is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate how carbon resources, stem hydraulics, and wood anatomy and density determine the ability of black spruce saplings to survive daytime or night-time warming (+ 6 °C in comparison with control) in combination with a drought period. Plant water relations, the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates and starch, mortality rate, and wood anatomy and density of saplings were monitored. Warming, in conjunction with 25 d of water deficit, increased sapling mortality (10% and 20% in night-time and daytime warming, respectively) compared with the control conditions (0.8%). Drought substantially decreased gas exchange, and also pre-dawn and mid-day leaf water potential to values close to -3MPa which probably induced xylem embolism (xylem air entry point, P₁₂, being on average around -3MPa for this species). In addition, the recovery of gas exchange never reached the initial pre-stress levels, suggesting a possible loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity associated with cavitation. Consequently, mortality may be due to xylem hydraulic failure. Warmer temperatures limited the replenishment of starch reserves after their seasonal minimum. Lighter wood was formed during the drought period, reflecting a lower carbon allocation to cell wall formation, preventing the adaptation of the hydraulic system to drought. Saplings of black spruce experienced difficulty in adapting under climate change conditions, which might compromise their survival in the future. PMID:25371502

  18. How do drought and warming influence survival and wood traits of Picea mariana saplings?

    PubMed Central

    Balducci, Lorena; Deslauriers, Annie; Giovannelli, Alessio; Beaulieu, Marilène; Delzon, Sylvain; Rossi, Sergio; Rathgeber, Cyrille B. K.

    2015-01-01

    Warming and drought will occur with increased frequency and intensity at high latitudes in the future. How heat and water stress can influence tree mortality is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate how carbon resources, stem hydraulics, and wood anatomy and density determine the ability of black spruce saplings to survive daytime or night-time warming (+ 6 °C in comparison with control) in combination with a drought period. Plant water relations, the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates and starch, mortality rate, and wood anatomy and density of saplings were monitored. Warming, in conjunction with 25 d of water deficit, increased sapling mortality (10% and 20% in night-time and daytime warming, respectively) compared with the control conditions (0.8%). Drought substantially decreased gas exchange, and also pre-dawn and mid-day leaf water potential to values close to –3MPa which probably induced xylem embolism (xylem air entry point, P 12, being on average around –3MPa for this species). In addition, the recovery of gas exchange never reached the initial pre-stress levels, suggesting a possible loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity associated with cavitation. Consequently, mortality may be due to xylem hydraulic failure. Warmer temperatures limited the replenishment of starch reserves after their seasonal minimum. Lighter wood was formed during the drought period, reflecting a lower carbon allocation to cell wall formation, preventing the adaptation of the hydraulic system to drought. Saplings of black spruce experienced difficulty in adapting under climate change conditions, which might compromise their survival in the future. PMID:25371502

  19. Genome-wide identification of quantitative trait loci in a cross between Hampshire and Landrace II: Meat quality traits

    PubMed Central

    Markljung, Ellen; Braunschweig, Martin H; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Bruun, Camilla S; Sawera, Milena; Cho, In-Cheol; Hedebro-Velander, Ingela; Josell, Åsa; Lundström, Kerstin; von Seth, Gertrud; Jørgensen, Claus B; Fredholm, Merete; Andersson, Leif

    2008-01-01

    Background Meat quality traits are important in pig breeding programs, but they are difficult to include in a traditional selection program. Marker assisted selection (MAS) of meat quality traits is therefore of interest in breeding programs and a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis is the key to identifying markers that can be used in MAS. In this study, Landrace and Hampshire intercross and backcross families were used to investigate meat quality traits. Hampshire pigs are commonly used as the sire line in commercial pig breeding. This is the first time a pedigree including Hampshire pigs has been used for a QTL analysis of meat quality traits. Results In total, we analyzed 39 meat quality traits and identified eight genome-wide significant QTL peaks in four regions: one on chromosome 3, two on chromosome 6 and one on chromosome 16. At least two of the QTLs do not appear to have been detected in previous studies. On chromosome 6 we identified QTLs for water content in M. longissimus dorsi (LD), drip loss in LD and post mortem pH decline in LD. On chromosomes 3 and 16 we identified previously undetected QTLs for protein content in LD and for freezing and cooking loss respectively. Conclusion We identified at least two new meat quality trait QTLs at the genome-wide significance level. We detected two QTLs on chromosome 6 that possibly coincide with QTLs detected in other studies. We were also able to exclude the C1843T mutation in the ryanodine receptor (RYR1) as a causative mutation for one of the chromosome 6 QTLs in this cross. PMID:18304368

  20. Quantitative Trait Loci influencing endosperm proteins and end-use quality traits of Hard Red Spring Wheat breeding lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of high yielding wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties with acceptable end-use quality is a major focus in breeding programs worldwide. Variations in molecular weight (Mw) distribution of wheat endosperm proteins are known to influence end-use quality traits. In this paper, we report th...

  1. The impact of wood stove technology upgrades on indoor residential air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Ryan W.; Leckie, Sara; Millar, Gail; Brauer, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) air pollution has been linked to adverse health impacts, and combustion sources including residential wood-burning may play an important role in some regions. Recent evidence suggests that indoor air quality may improve in homes where older, non-certified wood stoves are exchanged for lower emissions EPA-certified alternatives. As part of a wood stove exchange program in northern British Columbia, Canada, we sampled outdoor and indoor air at 15 homes during 6-day sampling sessions both before and after non-certified wood stoves were exchanged. During each sampling session two consecutive 3-day PM 2.5 samples were collected onto Teflon filters, which were weighed and analyzed for the wood smoke tracer levoglucosan. Residential PM 2.5 infiltration efficiencies ( Finf) were estimated from continuous light scattering measurements made with nephelometers, and estimates of Finf were used to calculate the outdoor- and indoor-generated contributions to indoor air. There was not a consistent relationship between stove technology and outdoor or indoor concentrations of PM 2.5 or levoglucosan. Mean Finf estimates were low and similar during pre- and post-exchange periods (0.32 ± 0.17 and 0.33 ± 0.17, respectively). Indoor sources contributed the majority (˜65%) of the indoor PM 2.5 concentrations, independent of stove technology, although low indoor-outdoor levoglucosan ratios (median ≤ 0.19) and low indoor PM 2.5-levoglucosan correlations ( r ≤ 0.19) suggested that wood smoke was not a major indoor PM 2.5 source in most of these homes. In summary, despite the potential for extensive wood stove exchange programs to reduce outdoor PM 2.5 concentrations in wood smoke-impacted communities, we did not find a consistent relationship between stove technology upgrades and indoor air quality improvements in homes where stoves were exchanged.

  2. The associations between Vrs1 alleles and grain quality traits in spring barley Hordeum vulgare L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley head row type is a major trait affecting end use quality. Six rowed forms emerged due to mutations in the Vrs1 gene in two rowed barleys. Whether barley is two (Vrs1) or six rowed (vrs1) directly affects a wide range of morphological traits related to seed yield and grain quality. Vrs1 has be...

  3. Resonance wood [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]--evaluation and prediction of violin makers' quality-grading.

    PubMed

    Buksnowitz, Christoph; Teischinger, Alfred; Müller, Ulrich; Pahler, Andreas; Evans, Robert

    2007-04-01

    The definition of quality in the field of resonance wood for musical instrument making has attracted considerable interest over decades but has remained incomplete. The current work compares the traditional knowledge and practical experience of violin makers with a material-science approach to objectively characterize the properties of resonance wood. Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] has earned a very high reputation for the construction of resonance tops of stringed instruments and resonance boards of keyboard instruments, and was therefore chosen as the focus of the investigation. The samples were obtained from numerous renowned resonance wood regions in the European Alps and cover the whole range of available qualities. A set of acoustical, anatomical, mechanical and optical material properties was measured on each sample. These measurements were compared with subjective quality grading by violin makers, who estimated the acoustical, optical and overall suitability for violin making. Multiple linear regression models were applied to evaluate the predictability of the subjective grading using the measured material characteristics as predictors. The results show that luthiers are able to estimate wood quality related to visible features, but predictions of mechanical and acoustical properties proved to be very poor. PMID:17471750

  4. Describing variation in carcass quality traits of crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, H R; Verbyla, A P; Deland, M P B; Pitchford, W S

    2009-02-01

    In order to investigate variation in carcass quality traits, during a four-year period, mature Hereford cows (637) were mated to 97 sires from seven breeds (Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin and Belgian Blue), resulting in 1144 calves. Carcass production traits (carcass weight = HCWt, fat depth = P8, eye muscle area = EMA, intramuscular fat = IMF) were obtained from these cattle that constitute the Australia's Southern Crossbreeding Project. Data were analysed using multi-variate sire model containing fixed effects of sex, sire breed, slaughter age nested within sexes. Random effects were sire, dam, management (location-year-post-weaning groups) and environmental effects. HCWt of South Devon, Belgian Blue, Limousin and unexpectedly, Angus were the heaviest on the average. Hereford calves were intermediate and Jersey and Wagyu were lighter on the average than others. Carcasses of the Belgian Blue and Limousin had low P8 and IMF, carcasses of Hereford and South Devon were intermediate and Angus, Jersey and Wagyu had high P8 and IMF. Management group effects were greatest especially for EMA and IMF. The sire variation was about 6, 6, 4 and 2% of total variation for HCWt, P8, EMA and IMF. Heritability ranged from 0.20 to 0.37 (carcass weight). The genetic correlation between the two fat depots was not as high (0.18) as expected. Results from this study suggest that strategies to increase genetic potential for HCWt would increase the genetic potential for EMA but may reduce marbling and tend to slightly increase P8. All phenotypic correlations were positive, although not large. PMID:19579950

  5. Agronomic and Seed Quality Traits Dissected by Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Körber, Niklas; Bus, Anja; Li, Jinquan; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J.; Stich, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In Brassica napus breeding, traits related to commercial success are of highest importance for plant breeders. However, such traits can only be assessed in an advanced developmental stage. Molecular markers genetically linked to such traits have the potential to accelerate the breeding process of B. napus by marker-assisted selection. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify (i) genome regions associated with the examined agronomic and seed quality traits, (ii) the interrelationship of population structure and the detected associations, and (iii) candidate genes for the revealed associations. The diversity set used in this study consisted of 405 B. napus inbred lines which were genotyped using a 6K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and phenotyped for agronomic and seed quality traits in field trials. In a genome-wide association study, we detected a total of 112 associations between SNPs and the seed quality traits as well as 46 SNP-trait associations for the agronomic traits with a P < 1.28e-05 (Bonferroni correction of α = 0.05) for the inbreds of the spring and winter trial. For the seed quality traits, a single SNP-sulfur concentration in seeds (SUL) association explained up to 67.3% of the phenotypic variance, whereas for the agronomic traits, a single SNP-blossom color (BLC) association explained up to 30.2% of the phenotypic variance. In a basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) search within a distance of 2.5 Mbp around these SNP-trait associations, 62 hits of potential candidate genes with a BLAST-score of ≥100 and a sequence identity of ≥70% to A. thaliana or B. rapa could be found for the agronomic SNP-trait associations and 187 hits of potential candidate genes for the seed quality SNP-trait associations. PMID:27066036

  6. Agronomic and Seed Quality Traits Dissected by Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Körber, Niklas; Bus, Anja; Li, Jinquan; Parkin, Isobel A P; Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J; Stich, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In Brassica napus breeding, traits related to commercial success are of highest importance for plant breeders. However, such traits can only be assessed in an advanced developmental stage. Molecular markers genetically linked to such traits have the potential to accelerate the breeding process of B. napus by marker-assisted selection. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify (i) genome regions associated with the examined agronomic and seed quality traits, (ii) the interrelationship of population structure and the detected associations, and (iii) candidate genes for the revealed associations. The diversity set used in this study consisted of 405 B. napus inbred lines which were genotyped using a 6K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and phenotyped for agronomic and seed quality traits in field trials. In a genome-wide association study, we detected a total of 112 associations between SNPs and the seed quality traits as well as 46 SNP-trait associations for the agronomic traits with a P < 1.28e-05 (Bonferroni correction of α = 0.05) for the inbreds of the spring and winter trial. For the seed quality traits, a single SNP-sulfur concentration in seeds (SUL) association explained up to 67.3% of the phenotypic variance, whereas for the agronomic traits, a single SNP-blossom color (BLC) association explained up to 30.2% of the phenotypic variance. In a basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) search within a distance of 2.5 Mbp around these SNP-trait associations, 62 hits of potential candidate genes with a BLAST-score of ≥100 and a sequence identity of ≥70% to A. thaliana or B. rapa could be found for the agronomic SNP-trait associations and 187 hits of potential candidate genes for the seed quality SNP-trait associations. PMID:27066036

  7. Identification of quantitative trait loci for rice quality in a population of chromosome segment substitution lines.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wei; Zhu, Mei-Zhen; Gao, Ji-Ping; Sun, Shi-Yong; Lin, Hong-Xuan

    2009-05-01

    The demand for high quality rice represents a major issue in rice production. The primary components of rice grain quality include appearance, eating, cooking, physico-chemical, milling and nutritional qualities. Most of these traits are complex and controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs), so the genetic characterization of these traits is more difficult than that of traits controlled by a single gene. The detection and genetic identification of QTLs can provide insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying quality traits. Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are effective tools used in mapping QTLs. In this study, we constructed 154 CSSLs from backcross progeny (BC(3)F(2)) derived from a cross between 'Koshihikari' (an Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica variety) as the recurrent parent and 'Nona Bokra' (an O. sativa L. ssp. indica variety) as the donor parent. In this process, we carried out marker-assisted selection by using 102 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence and simple sequence repeat markers covering most of the rice genome. Finally, this set of CSSLs was used to identify QTLs for rice quality traits. Ten QTLs for rice appearance quality traits were detected and eight QTLs concerned physico-chemical traits. These results supply the foundation for further genetic studies and breeding for the improvement of grain quality. PMID:19508361

  8. Nitrogen immobilization by wood-chip application: Protecting water quality in a northern hardwood forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homyak, P.M.; Yanai, R.D.; Burns, D.A.; Briggs, R.D.; Germain, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Forest harvesting disrupts the nitrogen cycle, which may affect stream water quality by increasing nitrate concentrations, reducing pH and acid neutralizing capacity, and mobilizing aluminum and base cations. We tested the application of wood chips derived from logging slash to increase immobilization of N after harvesting, which should reduce nitrate flux to streams. In August 2004, a stand of northern hardwoods was patch-clearcut in the Catskill Mountains, NY, and four replicates of three treatments were implemented in five 0.2-ha cut patches. Wood chips were applied to the soil surface at a rate equivalent to the amount of slash smaller than eight inches in diameter (1?? treatment). A second treatment doubled that rate (2??), and a third treatment received no chips (0??). Additionally, three uncut reference plots were established in nearby forested areas. Ion exchange resin bags and soil KCl-extractions were used to monitor nitrate availability in the upper 5-10 cm of soil approximately every seven weeks, except in winter. Resin bags indicated that the wood chips retained 30% or 42% of the nitrate pulse, while for KCl extracts, the retention rate was 78% or 100% of the difference between 0?? and uncut plots. During the fall following harvest, wood-chip treated plots had resin bag soil nitrate concentrations about 25% of those in 0?? plots (p = 0.0001). In the first growing season after the cut, nitrate concentrations in wood-chip treated plots for KCl extracts were 13% of those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.03) in May and about half those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.01) in July for resin bags. During spring snowmelt, however, nitrate concentrations were high and indistinguishable among treatments, including the uncut reference plots for resin bags and below detection limit for KCl extracts. Wood chips incubated in litterbags had an initial C:N of 125:1, which then decreased to 70:1 after one year of field incubation. These changes in C:N values indicate that the wood-chip application can potentially immobilize between 19 and 38 kg N ha-1 in the first year after harvesting, depending on the rate of wood-chip application. Our results suggest that the application of wood chips following harvesting operations can contribute to the protection of water quality and warrant additional research as a new Best Management Practice following cutting in regions that receive elevated levels of atmospheric N deposition. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. More wood of better quality: intensive silviculture with rapid-growth improved Eucalyptus spp. for pulpwood

    SciTech Connect

    Campinhos, E. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The early forests planted using Brazilian Eucalyptus seeds produced great variability in the volume of wood. In the specific case of E. saligna, there was an inability of the species to adapt itself to the local ecological system. It was obvious that new silvicultural techniques should be developed and also new species and provenances, capable of adapting to the region, should be identified. The objective was to improve wood volume yields as well as to produce a better pulp quality. The research and development work has been more successful than anticipated mainly because of the new technique of rooting cuttings developed by Aracruz, which allows propagation of vigorous parent trees, including hybrids. The production of improved seeds has also been developed. A good genetic base has been established to guarantee continuous improvement for production of seedlings to be used in routine plantations. The first results have already enabled good gains in volume, wood density, cellulose content and resistance to disease.

  10. More wood of better quality through intensive silviculture with rapid-growth improved Brazilian eucalyptus

    SciTech Connect

    Campinhos, E. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    The early forests planted using Brazilian Eucalyptus seeds produced great variability in the volume of wood. In the specific case of E. saligna, the species was unable to adapt itself to the local ecological system. It was obvious that a new silviculture technique should be developed and also that new species and provenances, capable of adapting to the region, should be identified. The objective was to improve wood volume yields as well as to produce better pulp quality. The research and development work has been more successful than anticipated, mainly because a new technique of rooting cuttings which allows propagation of vigorous parent trees, including hybrids, was developed. The production of improved seeds has also been developed. A good genetic base has been established to guarantee continuous improvement for production of seedlings to be used in routine plantings. The first results have already shown good gains in volume, wood density, cellulose content, and resistance to disease.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Kernel and Malting Quality Traits Using Historical European Barley Records

    PubMed Central

    Röder, Marion S.; van Eeuwijk, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Malting quality is an important trait in breeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). It requires elaborate, expensive phenotyping, which involves micro-malting experiments. Although there is abundant historical information available for different cultivars in different years and trials, that historical information is not often used in genetic analyses. This study aimed to exploit historical records to assist in identifying genomic regions that affect malting and kernel quality traits in barley. This genome-wide association study utilized information on grain yield and 18 quality traits accumulated over 25 years on 174 European spring and winter barley cultivars combined with diversity array technology markers. Marker-trait associations were tested with a mixed linear model. This model took into account the genetic relatedness between cultivars based on principal components scores obtained from marker information. We detected 140 marker-trait associations. Some of these associations confirmed previously known quantitative trait loci for malting quality (on chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 5H). Other associations were reported for the first time in this study. The genetic correlations between traits are discussed in relation to the chromosomal regions associated with the different traits. This approach is expected to be particularly useful when designing strategies for multiple trait improvements. PMID:25372869

  12. Soil quality in a cropland soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    The strategy of the European Union "Europe 2020" states that by 2020, 20% of final energy consumption must come from renewables. In this scenario, there is an increasing use of biomass utilization for energy production. Indeed, it is expected that the production of wood-ash will increase in coming years. Wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, can be applied to soil to improve the soil quality and crop production. Since the residue contains significant content of charcoal, the application of mixed wood ash may also improve the SOM content and soil quality in the long term, in soils degraded as a consequence of intensive management. The objective of this study was asses the changes in SOM quality and soil properties in a degraded soils treated with wood ash containing charcoal. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %) and fine texture. The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1, 16 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (16 Mg) and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (32 Mg). The application was carried out once. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark and branches. The wood ash is highly alkaline (pH= 10), contains 10 % of highly condensed black carbon (atomic H/C ratio < 0.5 and T50 en DSC= 500 ºC). The evolution of SOM properties were monitored over three years by solid state 13C CPMAS NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). These techniques were applied in bulk samples and aggregates of different sizes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Several physical properties, such soil aggregate distribution, hydraulic conductivity and available water contente were also determined. Three years after applications the SOM content increased lightly in the treatment receiving more than 16 Mg ha-1 of wood ash. SOM in the treated soils displayed a higher degree of aromaticity than in the untreated soils, indicating a gain in more stable SOM compounds probably as a consequence of the charcoal application. However, both methods also revealed increases in labile C compounds, probably due to the carbohydrates added through root system. Microbial biomass-C and soil respiration increased significantly. The treatments also led to increases in the functional diversity indices. The amended soils showed greater utilization of substrates and the ability of soil bacteria to utilize different C resources was also greatly altered. The application of mixed wood ash did not lead to any difference in MWD, which was around 6 mm in all cases. The application of 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1 increased significantly the hydraulic conductivity (4.07 cmh-1) when compared with in control plots (1.3 cmh-1) and mixed ash plots (1.52 and 2.45 cmh-1, 16 Mg and 32 Mg respectively). However, air-filled porosity was not higher in 16 Mg fly ash plots. AWC was not improved by wood ash application.

  13. Genetic analysis of bone quality traits and growth in a random mating broiler population.

    PubMed

    González-Cerón, F; Rekaya, R; Aggrey, S E

    2015-05-01

    We report the genetic relationship between growth and bone quality traits in a random mating broiler control population. Traits studied were growth rates from week 0 to 4 [body weight gain (BWG) 0 to 4], from week 0 to 6 (BWG 0 to 6), and residual feed intake (RFI) from week 5 to 6 (RFI 5 to 6). Bone quality traits were obtained at 6 weeks of age. These traits were shank weight (SW), shank length (SL), shank diameter (SDIAM), tibia weight (TW), tibia length (TL), and tibia diameter (TDIAM). Likewise, tibia was used to obtain the tibia density (TDEN), tibia breaking strength (TBS), tibia mineral density (TMD), tibia mineral content (TMC), and tibia ash content (TAC). At the phenotypic level, growth traits were positively correlated with most of the bone quality traits except with TDEN and TAC which tended to show unfavorable associations (-0.04 to -0.31). Heritability of bone quality traits ranged from 0.08 to 0.54. The additive genetic associations of growth traits with weight, length, and diameter of shank and tibia were positive (0.37 to 0.80). A similar pattern was observed with TMD and TMC (0.06 to 0.65). In contrast, growth traits showed unfavorable genetic associations with TDEN, TBS, and TAC (-0.03 to -0.18). It was concluded that bone quality traits have an additive genetic background and they can be improved by means of genetic tools. It appears that selection for growth is negatively correlated with some traits involved in the integrity, health, and maturity of leg bones. PMID:25784765

  14. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES: METHOD 5G DETERMINATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM WOOD HEATERS FROM A DILUTION TUNNEL SAMPLING LOCATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quality assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing particulate matter sampling of wood heaters according to EPA protocol, Method 5G. These procedures may be u...

  15. Association analysis of yield and fiber quality traits in Gossypium barbadense with SSRs and SRAPs.

    PubMed

    Wang, X Q; Yu, Y; Li, W; Guo, H L; Lin, Z X; Zhang, X L

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is an important cash crop. Mining for quantitative trait loci related to yield and fiber quality traits using association analysis has many advantages for cotton research. In this study, 170 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 258 sequence-related amplified polymorphisms (SRAPs) were used to analyze the association of 3 yield component traits and 5 fiber quality traits of 55 Gossypium barbadense accessions in 2009 and 2010. Principal component analysis of SSRs and SRAPs showed 3 and 2 subgroups, respectively. The boundaries between the SRAP groups were much more defined than those of the SSRs. A mixed linear model was used to analyze association of yield and fiber quality traits with SSRs and SRAPs. A total of 72 loci were detected, including 28 loci of SSRs and 44 loci of SRAPs; 26 of these loci were related to yield component traits, and 46 of these loci were related to fiber quality traits. The mean phenotypic variations explained in the SSR and SRAP analysis were 8.89 and 8.61%, respectively. The locus with the highest phenotypic variation explained was NAU1164 (23.33%), which was related to fiber uniformity. The comparison of association results between the two datasets showed that mining quantitative trait loci using association analysis was more efficient with SRAPs than with SSRs. PMID:24065676

  16. Genetic Parameters of Reproductive and Meat Quality Traits in Korean Berkshire Pigs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Ho; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Park, Hwa-Chun; Park, Kyung-Do

    2015-10-01

    Genetic parameters of Berkshire pigs for reproduction, carcass and meat quality traits were estimated using the records from a breeding farm in Korea. For reproduction traits, 2,457 records of the total number of piglets born (TNB) and the number of piglets born alive (NBA) from 781 sows and 53 sires were used. For two carcass traits which are carcass weight (CW) and backfat thickness (BF) and for 10 meat quality traits which are pH value after 45 minutes (pH45m), pH value after 24 hours (pH24h), lightness in meat color (LMC), redness in meat color (RMC), yellowness in meat color (YMC), moisture holding capacity (MHC), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL), fat content (FC), and shear force value (SH), 1,942 pig records were used to estimate genetic parameters. The genetic parameters for each trait were estimated using VCE program with animal model. Heritability estimates for reproduction traits TNB and NBA were 0.07 and 0.06, respectively, for carcass traits CW and BF were 0.37 and 0.57, respectively and for meat traits pH45m, pH24h, LMC, RMC, YMC, MHC, DL, CL, FC, and SH were 0.48, 0.15, 0.19, 0.36, 0.28, 0.21, 0.33, 0.45, 0.43, and 0.39, respectively. The estimate for genetic correlation coefficient between CW and BF was 0.27. The Genetic correlation between pH24h and meat color traits were in the range of -0.51 to -0.33 and between pH24h and DL and SH were -0.41 and -0.32, respectively. The estimates for genetic correlation coefficients between reproductive and meat quality traits were very low or zero. However, the estimates for genetic correlation coefficients between reproductive traits and drip and cooking loss were in the range of 0.12 to 0.17 and -0.14 to -0.12, respectively. As the estimated heritability of meat quality traits showed medium to high heritability, these traits may be applicable for the genetic improvement by continuous measurement. However, since some of the meat quality traits showed negative genetic correlations with carcass traits, an appropriate breeding scheme is required that carefully considers the complexity of genetic parameters and applicability of data. PMID:26323395

  17. Genetic Parameters of Reproductive and Meat Quality Traits in Korean Berkshire Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon-Ho; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Park, Hwa-Chun; Park, Kyung-Do

    2015-01-01

    Genetic parameters of Berkshire pigs for reproduction, carcass and meat quality traits were estimated using the records from a breeding farm in Korea. For reproduction traits, 2,457 records of the total number of piglets born (TNB) and the number of piglets born alive (NBA) from 781 sows and 53 sires were used. For two carcass traits which are carcass weight (CW) and backfat thickness (BF) and for 10 meat quality traits which are pH value after 45 minutes (pH45m), pH value after 24 hours (pH24h), lightness in meat color (LMC), redness in meat color (RMC), yellowness in meat color (YMC), moisture holding capacity (MHC), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL), fat content (FC), and shear force value (SH), 1,942 pig records were used to estimate genetic parameters. The genetic parameters for each trait were estimated using VCE program with animal model. Heritability estimates for reproduction traits TNB and NBA were 0.07 and 0.06, respectively, for carcass traits CW and BF were 0.37 and 0.57, respectively and for meat traits pH45m, pH24h, LMC, RMC, YMC, MHC, DL, CL, FC, and SH were 0.48, 0.15, 0.19, 0.36, 0.28, 0.21, 0.33, 0.45, 0.43, and 0.39, respectively. The estimate for genetic correlation coefficient between CW and BF was 0.27. The Genetic correlation between pH24h and meat color traits were in the range of −0.51 to −0.33 and between pH24h and DL and SH were −0.41 and −0.32, respectively. The estimates for genetic correlation coefficients between reproductive and meat quality traits were very low or zero. However, the estimates for genetic correlation coefficients between reproductive traits and drip and cooking loss were in the range of 0.12 to 0.17 and −0.14 to −0.12, respectively. As the estimated heritability of meat quality traits showed medium to high heritability, these traits may be applicable for the genetic improvement by continuous measurement. However, since some of the meat quality traits showed negative genetic correlations with carcass traits, an appropriate breeding scheme is required that carefully considers the complexity of genetic parameters and applicability of data. PMID:26323395

  18. Genetic relationship between leg problems and bone quality traits in a random mating broiler population.

    PubMed

    González-Cerón, F; Rekaya, R; Aggrey, S E

    2015-08-01

    We herein report the genetic association between leg problems and bone quality traits in a random mating broiler control population. The leg problem traits were valgus (VL), varus (VR), and tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), and that of bone quality were shank weight (SW), shank length (SL), shank diameter (SDIAM), tibia weight (TW), tibia length (TL), tibia diameter (TDIAM), tibia density (TDEN), tibia breaking strength (TBS), tibia mineral density (TMD), tibia mineral content (TMC), and tibia ash content (TAC). A threshold-linear mixed model, implemented via a Bayesian approach, was employed for the joint analysis of the traits. Genetic correlations of leg problems with bone quality traits ranged from -0.06 to 0.11 suggesting that genetic relationship between leg problems and quality is weak, and management strategies could better alleviate leg problems than genetic improvement. PMID:26089480

  19. Variation in cooking and eating quality traits in Japanese rice germplasm accessions

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Kiyosumi; Suzuki, Keitaro; Iijima, Ken; Ebana, Kaworu

    2016-01-01

    The eating quality of cooked rice is important and determines its market price and consumer acceptance. To comprehensively describe the variation of eating quality in 183 rice germplasm accessions, we evaluated 33 eating-quality traits including amylose and protein contents, pasting properties of rice flour, and texture of cooked rice grains. All eating-quality traits varied widely in the germplasm accessions. Principal-components analysis (PCA) revealed that allelic differences in the Wx gene explained the largest proportion of phenotypic variation of the eating-quality traits. In 146 accessions of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice, PCA revealed that protein content and surface texture of the cooked rice grains significantly explained phenotypic variations of the eating-quality traits. An allelic difference based on simple sequence repeats, which was located near a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3, was associated with differences in the eating quality of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice. These results suggest that eating quality is controlled by genetic factors, including the Wx gene and the QTL on chromosome 3, in Japanese rice accessions. These genetic factors have been consciously selected for eating quality during rice breeding programs in Japan. PMID:27162502

  20. Genome-wide association of meat quality traits and tenderness in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork quality has a large impact on consumer preference and perception of eating quality. A genome-wide association was performed for pork quality traits [intramuscular fat (IMF)], slice shear force (SSF), color attributes, purge, cooking loss, and pH] from 531 to 1,237 records on barrows and gilts o...

  1. Quantifying And Predicting Wood Quality Of Loblolly And Slash Pine Under Intensive Forest Management Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III

    2006-05-04

    The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.

  2. Exposure of wood in floodplains affects its chemical quality and its subsequent breakdown in streams.

    PubMed

    del Campo, Rubén; Gómez, Rosa

    2016-02-01

    In stream ecosystems, coarse organic matter from the riparian vegetation, a key food resource, is often retained in the floodplains before reaching the channel. During floodplain exposure, organic matter can be affected by abiotic and biotic processes ("preconditioning"), which alter its quality and affect its subsequent decomposition in streams. We analyzed the effect of floodplain preconditioning on wood quality (lignin, C, N, P, K, among others), and its subsequent aquatic breakdown, paying special attention to microbial activity. We simulated preconditioned standard wooden sticks on one arid stream floodplain for 3 and 4 months, and then monitored their breakdown in three different streams, together with control (non-preconditioned) sticks. Preconditioning reduced lignin mass and C:N and lignin:N ratios, caused the leaching of soluble nutrients such as P and K, as well as N immobilization by microbes. These changes enhanced the breakdown of wood in the first week of immersion, but had no effect on breakdown rates after 4 months of incubation in the streams, although N immobilization was diminished. Our results suggest that terrestrial preconditioning could alter the role of wood as a long-lasting nutrients and energy source for freshwater ecosystem. PMID:26613519

  3. Effects of a natural extract of chestnut wood on digestibility, performance traits, and nitrogen balance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, A; Guo, K; Tassone, S; Gasco, L; Hernandez, E; Denti, R; Zoccarato, I

    2008-03-01

    Currently, feed ingredients containing tannin are attracting more interest as substitutes for antibiotic growth promoters in animal and poultry feeding. This study investigated the influence of a natural extract of chestnut wood (Silvafeed ENC) on broiler digestibility (experiment 1) and on the growth performance, carcass quality, and nitrogen balance of broilers (experiment 2). Results showed that the inclusion of ENC did not influence the apparent digestibility of organic matter, CP, and ether extract. Chick growth performance showed a quadratic or cubic response with increasing levels of ENC. When chicks were fed ENC from 14 to 56 d of age, the ENC had a positive effect on average daily gain in the first 2 wk of addition, whereas this effect was not evident in the last 2 wk compared with the control group. Similar trends were also shown for daily feed intake. Overall, the chicks fed 0.20% ENC had significantly better growth performance than the control group. Carcass analysis showed no gross lesions in organs and no significant differences in thigh and breast composition among groups. Noteworthy is the fact that the ENC-treated groups had less total litter nitrogen; in particular, chicks fed 0.15 and 0.20% ENC showed a significant difference in total litter nitrogen compared with the control group. No significant difference in nitrogen balance was observed. Addition of 0.20% ENC seemed to have a positive influence on chick feeding. PMID:18281579

  4. QTL analysis of fruit quality traits in muscadine grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia) are an important native fruit crop grown in the southeastern United States. To facilitate the breeding of improved cultivars of muscadine grapes a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted on several flower and fruit characteristics of two segregatin...

  5. Nucleotide Diversity and Linkage Disequilibrium in Cold-Hardiness- and Wood Quality-Related Candidate Genes in Douglas Fir

    PubMed Central

    Krutovsky, Konstantin V.; Neale, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear sequence variation and linkage disequilibrium (LD) were studied in 15 cold-hardiness- and 3 wood quality-related candidate genes in Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco]. This set of genes was selected on the basis of its function in other plants and collocation with cold-hardiness-related quantitative trait loci (QTL). The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery panel represented 24 different trees from six regions in Washington and Oregon plus parents of a segregating population used in the QTL study. The frequency of SNPs was one SNP per 46 bp across coding and noncoding regions on average. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were also moderately high with Hd = 0.827 ± 0.043 and π = 0.00655 ± 0.00082 on average, respectively. The nonsynonymous (replacement) nucleotide substitutions were almost five times less frequent than synonymous ones and substitutions in noncoding regions. LD decayed relatively slowly but steadily within genes. Haploblock analysis was used to define haplotype tag SNPs (htSNPs). These data will help to select SNPs for association mapping, which is already in progress. PMID:16157674

  6. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in cold-hardiness- and wood quality-related candidate genes in Douglas fir.

    PubMed

    Krutovsky, Konstantin V; Neale, David B

    2005-12-01

    Nuclear sequence variation and linkage disequilibrium (LD) were studied in 15 cold-hardiness- and 3 wood quality-related candidate genes in Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco]. This set of genes was selected on the basis of its function in other plants and collocation with cold-hardiness-related quantitative trait loci (QTL). The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery panel represented 24 different trees from six regions in Washington and Oregon plus parents of a segregating population used in the QTL study. The frequency of SNPs was one SNP per 46 bp across coding and noncoding regions on average. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were also moderately high with H(d) = 0.827 +/- 0.043 and pi = 0.00655 +/- 0.00082 on average, respectively. The nonsynonymous (replacement) nucleotide substitutions were almost five times less frequent than synonymous ones and substitutions in noncoding regions. LD decayed relatively slowly but steadily within genes. Haploblock analysis was used to define haplotype tag SNPs (htSNPs). These data will help to select SNPs for association mapping, which is already in progress. PMID:16157674

  7. Genome-wide Association Study to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat and Carcass Quality Traits in Berkshire.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Asif; Kim, You-Sam; Kang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Yun-Mi; Rai, Rajani; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Oh, Dong-Yup; Nam, Ki-Chang; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-11-01

    Meat and carcass quality attributes are of crucial importance influencing consumer preference and profitability in the pork industry. A set of 400 Berkshire pigs were collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea that were born between 2012 and 2013. To perform genome wide association studies (GWAS), eleven meat and carcass quality traits were considered, including carcass weight, backfat thickness, pH value after 24 hours (pH24), Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage lightness in meat color (CIE L), redness in meat color (CIE a), yellowness in meat color (CIE b), filtering, drip loss, heat loss, shear force and marbling score. All of the 400 animals were genotyped with the Porcine 62K SNP BeadChips (Illumina Inc., USA). A SAS general linear model procedure (SAS version 9.2) was used to pre-adjust the animal phenotypes before GWAS with sire and sex effects as fixed effects and slaughter age as a covariate. After fitting the fixed and covariate factors in the model, the residuals of the phenotype regressed on additive effects of each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) under a linear regression model (PLINK version 1.07). The significant SNPs after permutation testing at a chromosome-wise level were subjected to stepwise regression analysis to determine the best set of SNP markers. A total of 55 significant (p<0.05) SNPs or quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on various chromosomes. The QTLs explained from 5.06% to 8.28% of the total phenotypic variation of the traits. Some QTLs with pleiotropic effect were also identified. A pair of significant QTL for pH24 was also found to affect both CIE L and drip loss percentage. The significant QTL after characterization of the functional candidate genes on the QTL or around the QTL region may be effectively and efficiently used in marker assisted selection to achieve enhanced genetic improvement of the trait considered. PMID:26580276

  8. Genome-wide Association Study to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat and Carcass Quality Traits in Berkshire

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Asif; Kim, You-Sam; Kang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Yun-Mi; Rai, Rajani; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Oh, Dong-Yup; Nam, Ki-Chang; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Meat and carcass quality attributes are of crucial importance influencing consumer preference and profitability in the pork industry. A set of 400 Berkshire pigs were collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea that were born between 2012 and 2013. To perform genome wide association studies (GWAS), eleven meat and carcass quality traits were considered, including carcass weight, backfat thickness, pH value after 24 hours (pH24), Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage lightness in meat color (CIE L), redness in meat color (CIE a), yellowness in meat color (CIE b), filtering, drip loss, heat loss, shear force and marbling score. All of the 400 animals were genotyped with the Porcine 62K SNP BeadChips (Illumina Inc., USA). A SAS general linear model procedure (SAS version 9.2) was used to pre-adjust the animal phenotypes before GWAS with sire and sex effects as fixed effects and slaughter age as a covariate. After fitting the fixed and covariate factors in the model, the residuals of the phenotype regressed on additive effects of each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) under a linear regression model (PLINK version 1.07). The significant SNPs after permutation testing at a chromosome-wise level were subjected to stepwise regression analysis to determine the best set of SNP markers. A total of 55 significant (p<0.05) SNPs or quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on various chromosomes. The QTLs explained from 5.06% to 8.28% of the total phenotypic variation of the traits. Some QTLs with pleiotropic effect were also identified. A pair of significant QTL for pH24 was also found to affect both CIE L and drip loss percentage. The significant QTL after characterization of the functional candidate genes on the QTL or around the QTL region may be effectively and efficiently used in marker assisted selection to achieve enhanced genetic improvement of the trait considered. PMID:26580276

  9. Response of Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Quality Traits and Yield to Sowing Date

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mukhtar; Fayyaz-ul-Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictability and large fluctuation of the climatic conditions in rainfed regions do affect spring wheat yield and grain quality. These variations offer the opportunity for the production of better quality wheat. The effect of variable years, locations and sowing managements on wheat grain yield and quality was studied through field experiments using three genotypes, three locations for two years under rainfed conditions. The two studied years as contrasting years at three locations and sowing dates depicted variability in temperature and water stress during grain filling which resulted considerable change in grain yield and quality. Delayed sowing, years (2009–10) and location (Talagang) with high temperature and water stress resulted increased proline, and grain quality traits i.e. grain protein (GP) and grain ash (GA) than optimum conditions (during 2008–09, at Islamabad and early sowing). However, opposite trend was observed for dry gluten (DG), sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), SPAD content and grain yield irrespective of genotypes. The influence of variable climatic conditions was dominant in determining the quality traits and inverse relationship was observed among some quality traits and grain yield. It may be concluded that by selecting suitable locations and different sowing managements for subjecting the crop to desirable environmental conditions (temperature and water) quality traits of wheat crop could be modified. PMID:25927839

  10. Implementing meta-analysis from genome-wide association studies for pork quality traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork quality plays an important role in the meat processing industry, thus different methodologies have been implemented to elucidate the genetic architecture of traits affecting meat quality. One of the most common and widely used approaches is to perform genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Howe...

  11. Fractal geometry of a complex plumage trait reveals bird's quality

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Jovani, Roger; Mougeot, François

    2013-01-01

    Animal coloration is key in natural and sexual selection, playing significant roles in intra- and interspecific communication because of its linkage to individual behaviour, genetics and physiology. Simple animal traits such as the area or the colour intensity of homogeneous patches have been profusely studied. More complex patterns are widespread in nature, but they escape our understanding because their variation is difficult to capture effectively by standard, simple measures. Here, we used fractal geometry to quantify inter-individual variation in the expression of a complex plumage trait, the heterogeneous black bib of the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). We show that a higher bib fractal dimension (FD) predicted better individual body condition, as well as immune responsiveness, which is condition-dependent in our study species. Moreover, when food intake was experimentally reduced during moult as a means to reduce body condition, the bib's FD significantly decreased. Fractal geometry therefore provides new opportunities for the study of complex animal colour patterns and their roles in animal communication. PMID:23345576

  12. Pericarp polypeptides and SRAP markers associated with fruit quality traits in an interspecific tomato backcross.

    PubMed

    Pereira da Costa, J H; Rodríguez, G R; Pratta, G R; Picardi, L A; Zorzoli, R

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect polypeptides and genomic regions associated with fruit quality traits in a backcross generation using as parent the Argentinean cultivated tomato Caimanta of Solanum lycopersicum and the wild accession LA722 of S. pimpinellifolium. We tested two types of molecular marker: polypeptide profile (at two ripening stages, mature green and red ripe) and SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism). A polypeptide of 45 kDa present in the wild parents at the mature green stage was associated with larger fruit and long shelf life. Some amplification fragments from SRAP markers were associated with more than one quality trait such as fruit color, firmness, titratable acidity, and fruit soluble solids content. This study demonstrated for the first time the usefulness of the polypeptide profiles of pericarp and SRAP markers in finding associations with quality fruit traits in a tomato backcross generation. PMID:24615080

  13. Water storage dynamics in the main stem of subtropical tree species differing in wood density, growth rate and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Oliva Carrasco, Laureano; Bucci, Sandra J; Di Francescantonio, Débora; Lezcano, Oscar A; Campanello, Paula I; Scholz, Fabián G; Rodríguez, Sabrina; Madanes, N; Cristiano, Piedad M; Hao, Guang-You; Holbrook, N Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Wood biophysical properties and the dynamics of water storage discharge and refilling were studied in the trunk of canopy tree species with diverse life history and functional traits in subtropical forests of northeast Argentina. Multiple techniques assessing capacitance and storage capacity were used simultaneously to improve our understanding of the functional significance of internal water sources in trunks of large trees. Sapwood capacitances of 10 tree species were characterized using pressure-volume relationships of sapwood samples obtained from the trunk. Frequency domain reflectometry was used to continuously monitor the volumetric water content in the main stems. Simultaneous sap flow measurements on branches and at the base of the tree trunk, as well as diurnal variations in trunk contraction and expansion, were used as additional measures of stem water storage use and refilling dynamics. All evidence indicates that tree trunk internal water storage contributes from 6 to 28% of the daily water budget of large trees depending on the species. The contribution of stored water in stems of trees to total daily transpiration was greater for deciduous species, which exhibited higher capacitance and lower sapwood density. A linear relationship across species was observed between wood density and growth rates with the higher wood density species (mostly evergreen) associated with lower growth rates and the lower wood density species (mostly deciduous) associated with higher growth rates. The large sapwood capacitance in deciduous species may help to avoid catastrophic embolism in xylem conduits. This may be a low-cost adaptation to avoid water deficits during peak water use at midday and under temporary drought periods and will contribute to higher growth rates in deciduous tree species compared with evergreen ones. Large capacitance appears to have a central role in the rapid growth patterns of deciduous species facilitating rapid canopy access as these species are less shade tolerant than evergreen species. PMID:25428825

  14. Evaluation of different egg quality traits and interpretation of their mode of inheritance in White Leghorns

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Pradeepta Kumar; Mishra, Prasanna Kumar; Mallick, Bandi Kumar; Behura, Nrusingha Charan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The experiment was carried out to evaluate different external and internal egg quality traits and to figure out their mode of inheritance from a set of hierarchically classified data. Materials and Methods: The data collected from 548 progenies (1 egg from each progeny) of 282 dams mated to 47 sires (1 sire mated to 6 dams) of a White Leghorn flock were used in the present study. Phenotypic means and their standard errors were calculated for all the quality traits. Heritabilities were estimated for these traits separately from “sire,” “dam” and “sire+dam” (full-sib) components of variance using Statistical Package for Social Sciences-17 program. Results: External quality traits such as; egg weight, length, width, shape index, surface area, shell weight, shell thickness, shell ratio, and internal quality traits such as; length, width, height, and weight of albumen and yolk, albumen index, albumen ratio, Haugh unit (H.U.), yolk diameter, yolk index, yolk ratio, and yolk albumen ratio were measured in 548 eggs of the experimental White Leghorn flock. The eggs were found to have optimum weight (57.78±0.20 g), shape index (73.53±0.18) and shell characteristics (6 g, 0.32 mm) as per its genetic potential. Higher values for albumen height (8.41±0.04) mm and H.U. (92.00±0.19) are attributable to the freshness of eggs and proper age of hens. Heritability estimates from “sire” component of variance were higher than “dam” and “sire+dam” components for the traits like egg weight, length, width, shape index, surface area, albumen width, albumen index, H.U., yolk width, yolk height, yolk weight, and yolk index whereas for rest of the traits the values estimated from “dam” component were higher. Estimates from “sire+dam” component were intermediate to the estimates derived from “sire” and “dam” components. Conclusion: The heritability estimates from different egg quality traits were moderate to high. Since most of the traits have high heritability values, these traits can be improved by mass selection. PMID:27047113

  15. Estimation of Genetic Associations between Production and Meat Quality Traits in Duroc Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Cabling, M. M.; Kang, H. S.; Lopez, B. M.; Jang, M.; Kim, H. S.; Nam, K. C.; Choi, J. G.; Seo, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Data collected from 690 purebred Duroc pigs from 2009 to 2012 were used to estimate the heritability, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between production and meat quality traits. Variance components were obtained through the restricted maximum likelihood procedure using Wombat and SAS version 9.0. Animals were raised under the same management in five different breeding farms. The average daily gain, loin muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BF), and lean percent (LP) were measured as production traits. Meat quality traits included pH, cooking loss, lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), marbling score (MS), moisture content (MC), water holding capacity (WHC), and shear force. The results showed that the heritability estimates for meat quality traits varied largely from 0.19 to 0.79. Production traits were moderate to highly heritable from 0.41 to 0.73. Genotypically, the BF was positively correlated (p<0.05) with MC (0.786), WHC (0.904), and pH (0.328) but negatively correlated with shear force (−0.533). The results of genetic correlations indicated that selection for less BF could decrease pH, moisture content, and WHC and increase the shear force of meat. Additionally, a significant positive correlation was recorded between average daily gain and WHC, which indicates pork from faster-growing animals has higher WHC. Furthermore, selection for larger LMA and LP could increase MS and lightness color of meat. The meat quality and production traits could be improved simultaneously if desired. Hence, to avoid further deterioration of pork characteristics, appropriate selection of traits should be considered. PMID:26104512

  16. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI≥6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women. PMID:26030141

  17. Association between FTO polymorphism in exon 3 with carcass and meat quality traits in crossbred ducks.

    PubMed

    Gan, W; Song, Q; Zhang, N N; Xiong, X P; Wang, D M C; Li, L

    2015-01-01

    The fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is an excellent candidate gene that affects energy metabolism. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FTO are associated with carcass and meat quality traits in pigs, cattle, and rabbits. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between novel SNPs in the FTO coding region and carcass and meat quality traits in 95 crossbred ducks, using DNA sequencing. We found two transitions G/A (SNP 387 and 473) within exon 3. SNP 387 was a synonymous mutation, whereas SNP 473 was a missense mutation. Association analysis suggested that SNP g.387G>A was significantly associated with all of the carcass traits measured, the intramuscular fat content (IMF), cooking yield (CY), pH values 45 min after slaughter (pH45m), drip losses from the breast muscle, and the leg muscle (P < 0.05). For SNP g.473G>A, the genotype AA exhibited greater leg muscle weight than the genotypes GG or AG (P < 0.05). The D value suggested that the two SNPs exhibited strong linkage disequilibrium. Three haplotypes (G1G2, G1A2, and A1A2) were significantly associated with IMF, CY, the a* value, and all of the carcass traits measured (P < 0.05). The results suggest that FTO is a candidate locus that affects carcass and meat quality traits in ducks. PMID:26125879

  18. Genome-wide Association Study of Integrated Meat Quality-related Traits of the Duroc Pig Breed

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taeheon; Shin, Dong-Hyun; Cho, Seoae; Kang, Hyun Sung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Heebal; Seo, Kang-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The increasing importance of meat quality has implications for animal breeding programs. Research has revealed much about the genetic background of pigs, and many studies have revealed the importance of various genetic factors. Since meat quality is a complex trait which is affected by many factors, consideration of the overall phenotype is very useful to study meat quality. For integrating the phenotypes, we used principle component analysis (PCA). The significant SNPs refer to results of the GRAMMAR method against PC1, PC2 and PC3 of 14 meat quality traits of 181 Duroc pigs. The Genome-wide association study (GWAS) found 26 potential SNPs affecting various meat quality traits. The loci identified are located in or near 23 genes. The SNPs associated with meat quality are in or near five genes (ANK1, BMP6, SHH, PIP4K2A, and FOXN2) and have been reported previously. Twenty-five of the significant SNPs also located in meat quality-related QTL regions, these result supported the QTL effect indirectly. Each single gene typically affects multiple traits. Therefore, it is a useful approach to use integrated traits for the various traits at the same time. This innovative approach using integrated traits could be applied on other GWAS of complex-traits including meat-quality, and the results will contribute to improving meat-quality of pork. PMID:25049955

  19. Implementing meta-analysis from genome-wide association studies for pork quality traits.

    PubMed

    Bernal Rubio, Y L; Gualdrón Duarte, J L; Bates, R O; Ernst, C W; Nonneman, D; Rohrer, G A; King, D A; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Cantet, R J C; Steibel, J P

    2015-12-01

    Pork quality plays an important role in the meat processing industry. Thus, different methodologies have been implemented to elucidate the genetic architecture of traits affecting meat quality. One of the most common and widely used approaches is to perform genome-wide association (GWA) studies. However, a limitation of many GWA in animal breeding is the limited power due to small sample sizes in animal populations. One alternative is to implement a meta-analysis of GWA (MA-GWA) combining results from independent association studies. The objective of this study was to identify significant genomic regions associated with meat quality traits by performing MA-GWA for 8 different traits in 3 independent pig populations. Results from MA-GWA were used to search for genes possibly associated with the set of evaluated traits. Data from 3 pig data sets (U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, commercial, and Michigan State University Pig Resource Population) were used. A MA was implemented by combining -scores derived for each SNP in every population and then weighting them using the inverse of estimated variance of SNP effects. A search for annotated genes retrieved genes previously reported as candidates for shear force (calpain-1 catalytic subunit [] and calpastatin []), as well as for ultimate pH, purge loss, and cook loss (protein kinase, AMP-activated, γ 3 noncatalytic subunit []). In addition, novel candidate genes were identified for intramuscular fat and cook loss (acyl-CoA synthetase family member 3 mitochondrial []) and for the objective measure of muscle redness, CIE a* (glycogen synthase 1, muscle [] and ferritin, light polypeptide []). Thus, implementation of MA-GWA allowed integration of results for economically relevant traits and identified novel genes to be tested as candidates for meat quality traits in pig populations. PMID:26641170

  20. Estimation of Pork Quality Traits Using Exsanguination Blood and Postmortem Muscle Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Choe, J. H.; Choi, M. H.; Ryu, Y. C.; Go, G. W.; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, S. H.; Lim, K. S.; Lee, E. A.; Kang, J. H.; Hong, K. C.; Kim, B. C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study was designed to estimate the pork quality traits using metabolites from exsanguination blood and postmortem muscle simultaneously under the Korean standard pre- and post-slaughter conditions. A total of 111 Yorkshire (pure breed and castrated male) pigs were evaluated under the Korean standard conditions. Measurements were taken of the levels of blood glucose and lactate at exsanguination, and muscle glycogen and lactate content at 45 min and 24 h postmortem. Certain pork quality traits were also evaluated. Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis including stepwise regression were performed. Exsanguination blood glucose and lactate levels were positively correlated with each other, negatively related to postmortem muscle glycogen content and positively associated with postmortem muscle lactate content. A rapid and extended postmortem glycolysis was associated with high levels of blood glucose and lactate, with high muscle lactate content, and with low muscle glycogen content during postmortem. In addition, these were also correlated with paler meat color and reduced water holding capacity. The results of multiple regression analyses also showed that metabolites in exsanguination blood and postmortem muscle explained variations in pork quality traits. Especially, levels of blood glucose and lactate and content of muscle glycogen at early postmortem were significantly associated with an elevated early glycolytic rate. Furthermore, muscle lactate content at 24 h postmortem alone accounted for a considerable portion of the variation in pork quality traits. Based on these results, the current study confirmed that the main factor influencing pork quality traits is the ultimate lactate content in muscle via postmortem glycolysis, and that levels of blood glucose and lactate at exsanguination and contents of muscle glycogen and lactate at postmortem can explain a large portion of the variation in pork quality even under the standard slaughter conditions. PMID:25925063

  1. Assessment of starch-based wood adhesive quality by confocal Raman microscopic detection of reaction homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Panjun; Cheng, Li; Gu, Zhengbiao; Li, Zhaofeng; Hong, Yan

    2015-10-20

    Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) was used to detect the reaction homogeneity of vinyl acetate grafted on starch granules and help to assess the quality of high solid content starch-based wood adhesive (HSSWA). Primarily, four experimental starch samples were investigated, and by analysis of band area ratio (carbonyl/carbohydrate) of each granule, information about reaction homogeneity was collected. The results showed that reaction extent and homogeneity were inconsistent for samples with different G values, and the distribution of ester groups on blend samples was much less uniform than grafted starch samples with the same G value, confirming that CRM was useful for determining the homogeneity of chemical modification. Afterwards, the technique was applied to research HSSWA prepared by two-stage seeded polymerization and traditional process. The distribution of ester groups was more uniform among starch granules prepared by former method, resulted in adhesive with much better performance, indicating that uniformity of polymerization was an important factor related to properties of starch-based wood adhesive. PMID:26256162

  2. Yield and Fruit Quality Traits of Mamey Sapote Cultivars Grown at two Locations in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The demand for tropical fruits has increased significantly during the last decade as consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of mamey sapote cultivars. Six mamey sapote cultivars (Copan...

  3. Degree of starchy endosperm separation from bran as a milling quality trait of wheat grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour yield is an important quality trait of wheat, especially for flour millers because it directly affects profitability. In addition to the grain characteristics and milling conditions known to affect flour yield, easy and clean separation of starchy endosperm from bran during milling could have ...

  4. Impact of high pressure processing on the quality traits of starter-free Queso Fresco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Queso Fresco (QF), a popular high-moisture, high-pH Hispanic cheese sold in the U.S., underwent high- pressure processing (HPP) to determine if this process, which has the potential to improve the safety of cheese, would alter its quality traits. Starter-free rennet-set QF (manufactured from pasteur...

  5. DIRECT BREED EFFECTS ON GROWTH, CARCASS, AND MEAT QUALITY TRAITS OF SHEEP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to estimate direct breed effects on growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. Rams of nine breeds (Composite, Dorper, Dorset, Finnsheep, Katahdin, Rambouillet, Romanov, Suffolk, and Texel) were mated to Composite ewes. Data recorded on 804 progeny of 130 rams were analy...

  6. Genotype and environmental interaction for fruit quality traits in vintage tomato varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the second most commonly consumed vegetable after in the world, after potato. There is a growing demand for quality tomato in the market place. Traits such as lycopene, total soluble solids (TSS), vitamin C and titratable acid (TA) content contribute to the overal...

  7. Protgs' Personality Traits, Expectations, the Quality of the Mentoring Relationship and Adjustment: A Big Five Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldner, Limor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Community-based mentoring interventions can benefit high-risk youth. However, meta-analyses suggest that these benefits may be conditioned by protgs' personality. Objectives: Associations between protgs' personality traits and mentoring expectations, the quality of the mentoring relationship, the perceived mentoring contribution,

  8. BREED EFFECTS ON GROWTH, CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY TRAITS OF SHEEP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to estimate direct breed effects on growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. Rams of nine breeds (Composite, Dorper, Dorset, Finnsheep, Katahdin, Rambouillet, Romanov, Suffolk, and Texel) were mated to Composite ewes. Data recorded on 804 progeny of 130 rams were analy...

  9. Effects of organic acid-surfactant mixtures on levels of bacteria and beef quality traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Organic acid efficacy as an antimicrobial treatment of beef carcass surfaces may be increased through the addition of surfactants. However, the effects of antimicrobial-surfactant mixtures on beef quality traits such as flavor and color stability may make their use unacceptable. Purp...

  10. Yield and Fruit Quality Traits of Atemoya Cultivars Grown in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The demand for tropical fruits has increased more than 33% during the last decade as consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) cultivars. Six a...

  11. FIBER QUALITY AND AGRONOMIC TRAITS OF NEW MEXICO ACALA COTTON RELEASED SINCE 1930S: 2005 RESULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acala 1517 cultivars released from the New Mexico State University cotton breeding program since the 1930s were evaluated in Las Cruces, NM in 2005 for fiber quality and agronomic traits. The study confirmed our previous report that yield improvement in Acala 1517 cultivars has been accompanied by a...

  12. One trait, many signals: different information on male quality is enclosed within the same trait in a blenny fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatello, Lisa; Pizzolon, Matteo; Rasotto, Maria Berica

    2012-10-01

    Colourful ornaments are traditionally evaluated as one trait. However, they could consist of several components, such as total size, colour intensity and extension, each possibly bearing its own message about one aspect of quality. Males of the blenny Salaria pavo exhibit a colourful head crest and solely care for eggs. During the breeding season, the head crest shows a yellow colouration, the intensity and relative extension of which are independent of crest size. Here, we show that: (1) carotenoids are responsible for the head crest yellow patch; (2) activating the immune system by injecting the bacterial antigen lipopolysaccharides affects both the intensity and extent of the yellow colouration; and (3) females assess males on the basis of colour patch expression. However, the response of the yellow patch to the immune challenge was dependent on head crest size. Indeed, males with a larger head crest reacted better to the simulated infection, sustaining a level of yellow patch close to pre-challenge size.

  13. Effects of metabolic modifiers on carcass traits and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Dikeman, M E

    2007-09-01

    Much research has been conducted and published about metabolic modifiers that increase growth rate, improve feed efficiency, increase carcass leanness, and decrease carcass fatness. Most of these metabolic modifiers have been developed to improve efficiency and profitability of livestock production and to improve carcass composition, with fewer of them developed and researched specifically to improve meat quality. Some of the metabolic modifiers can have negative effects on visual and sensory meat quality, especially when not used as recommended. This review evaluates the various kinds of metabolic modifiers that have been researched for their effects on production efficiency, carcass composition, and meat quality. Nutritional composition of meat generally is improved from use of most of the metabolic modifiers, visual quality is improved by others, but some can have a negative effect on marbling and tenderness. Anabolic steroid implants are very cost effective and practical for beef cattle production but aggressive implants used within 70 days of slaughter or too frequent use of them will reduce tenderness and marbling. Somatatropin and approved β-agonists are very effective in improving growth performance and carcass leanness in pigs, and β-agonists are effective in cattle, but improper use of them can have negative effects on marbling and tenderness. Feeding supplemental levels of vitamin E is quite beneficial for improving meat color and shelf-life of beef, lamb, and pork, whereas not supplementing diets with vitamin A has potential for improving marbling in cattle. Immunocastration shows promise for capitalizing on the efficiency of muscle growth of young boars up to a few weeks before slaughter, at which time boar taint is prevented and marbling is improved by immunocastration. Potential exists for improving the fatty acid profile of lipids and increasing conjugated linoleic acid content in beef through dietary manipulation. Supplementing swine diets with conjugated linoleic acid can improve carcass composition of swine, but is not yet cost effective to use. Dietary inclusion of magnesium, manganese, or chromium in diets of pigs and sheep has potential to improve meat color and water-holding capacity. Although, not all of these metabolic modifiers are approved in all countries, proper use of the ones that are approved offers opportunities for economically improving production efficiency and carcass leanness while maintaining acceptable marbling and tenderness, while some provide opportunities to enhance meat color and quality. PMID:22061403

  14. Polymorphisms in epigenetic and meat quality related genes in fourteen cattle breeds and association with beef quality and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP15 in CAPN1 could be used as a powerful genetic marker in selection programs for beef quality improvement in the Snow Dragon Beef population. PMID:25656186

  15. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP15 in CAPN1 could be used as a powerful genetic marker in selection programs for beef quality improvement in the Snow Dragon Beef population. PMID:25656186

  16. Phenotypic Data Collection and Sample Preparation for Genomics of Wood Formation and Cellulosic Biomass Traits in Sunflower: Ames, IA location.

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, Laura F.

    2011-06-17

    Three fields were planted in Ames in 2010, two association mapping fields, N3 and A, and a recombinant inbred line field, N13. Phenotype data and images were transferred to UGA to support genetic and genomic analyses of woody biomass-related traits.

  17. Improving yield and quality traits of durum wheat by introgressing chromosome segments from hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Zhang, C Y; Yan, G J; Liu, C J

    2013-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum; 2n = 4x = 28; genome AABB) has long been an important food resource for human diets. The projected increase of the world's population to 9.1 billion by 2050 has highlighted the importance and urgency for improving the yield and quality performance of durum wheat. A backcrossed population, which was derived from the durum wheat variety 'Bellaroi' (recurrent parent) and the hexaploid genotype 'CSCR6' (donor parent), was used to investigate the feasibility of improving yield- and quality-related traits of durum wheat by introgressing chromosome fragments from hexaploid wheat. The population means for grain protein content, gluten content, spike length, and spikelet number were improved compared with those of the recurrent parent 'Bellaroi'. A small proportion of the backcross population lines showed significant improvements in spike length and spikelet number compared with the recurrent parent 'Bellaroi'. Some loci with significant effects for plant height, spike length, spikelet number, and thousand-grain weight were identified. Several of these loci affected more than one trait. These results showed that the introgression of chromosome fragments from 'CSCR6' into the durum genetic background could be an effective method for improving yield and quality traits of durum wheat. In addition, the loci showing significant effects on desired traits in this study could be fine mapped using an F2 population obtained by backcrossing the lines that carry the positive allele(s) with the recurrent parent. PMID:24338405

  18. Association of methionine synthase gene polymorphisms with wool production and quality traits in Chinese Merino population.

    PubMed

    Rong, E G; Yang, H; Zhang, Z W; Wang, Z P; Yan, X H; Li, H; Wang, N

    2015-10-01

    Methionine synthase (MTR) plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis of intracellular methionine, folate, and homocysteine, and its activity correlates with DNA methylation in many mammalian tissues. Our previous genomewide association study identified that 1 SNP located in the gene was associated with several wool production and quality traits in Chinese Merino. To confirm the potential involvement of the gene in sheep wool production and quality traits, we performed sheep tissue expression profiling, SNP detection, and association analysis with sheep wool production and quality traits. The semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis showed that the gene was differentially expressed in skin from Merino and Kazak sheep. The sequencing analysis identified a total of 13 SNP in the gene from Chinese Merino sheep. Comparison of the allele frequencies revealed that these 13 identified SNP were significantly different among the 6 tested Chinese Merino strains ( < 0.001). Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed that SNP 3 to 11 were strongly linked in a single haplotype block in the tested population. Association analysis showed that SNP 2 to 11 were significantly associated with the average wool fiber diameter and the fineness SD and that SNP 4 to 11 were significantly associated with the CV of fiber diameter trait ( < 0.05). Single nucleotide polymorphism 2 and SNP 5 to 12 were weakly associated with wool crimp. Similarly, the haplotypes derived from these 13 identified SNP were also significantly associated with the average wool fiber diameter, fineness SD, and the CV of fiber diameter ( < 0.05). Our results suggest that is a candidate gene for sheep wool production and quality traits, and the identified SNP might be used in sheep breeding. PMID:26523551

  19. Phenotypic diversity and association mapping for fruit quality traits in cultivated tomato and related species.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiaxin; Ranc, Nicolas; Muos, Stphane; Rolland, Sophie; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Desplat, Nelly; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Liang, Yan; Brunel, Dominique; Causse, Mathilde

    2013-03-01

    Association mapping has been proposed as an efficient approach to assist in the identification of the molecular basis of agronomical traits in plants. For this purpose, we analyzed the phenotypic and genetic diversity of a large collection of tomato accessions including 44 heirloom and vintage cultivars (Solanum lycopersicum), 127 S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (cherry tomato) and 17 Solanum pimpinellifolium accessions. The accessions were genotyped using a SNPlex assay of 192 SNPs, among which 121 were informative for subsequent analysis. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) of pairwise loci and population structure were analyzed, and the association analysis between SNP genotypes and ten fruit quality traits was performed using a mixed linear model. High level of LD was found in the collection at the whole genome level. It was lower when considering only the 127 S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme accessions. Genetic structure analysis showed that the population was structured into two main groups, corresponding to cultivated and wild types and many intermediates. The number of associations detected per trait varied, according to the way the structure was taken into account, with 0-41 associations detected per trait in the whole collection and a maximum of four associations in the S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme accessions. A total of 40 associations (30%) were co-localized with previously identified quantitative trait loci. This study thus showed the potential and limits of using association mapping in tomato populations. PMID:23124430

  20. Association mapping for yield and grain quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Embrapa Rice Core Collection (ERiCC) with 86 SSR and field data from two experiments. A clear subdivision between lowland and upland accessions was apparent, thereby indicating the presence of population structure. Thirty-two accessions with admixed ancestry were identified through structure analysis, these being discarded from association analysis, thus leaving 210 accessions subdivided into two panels. The association of yield and grain-quality traits with SSR was undertaken with a mixed linear model, with markers and subpopulation as fixed factors, and kinship matrix as a random factor. Eight markers from the two appraised panels showed significant association with four different traits, although only one (RM190) maintained the marker-trait association across years and cultivation. The significant association detected between amylose content and RM190 was in agreement with previous QTL analyses in the literature. Herein, the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization was demonstrated, even when considering low marker density. The high linkage disequilibrium expected in rice lines and cultivars facilitates the detection of marker-trait associations for implementing marker assisted selection, and the mining of alleles related to important traits in germplasm. PMID:21637426

  1. Association mapping for yield and grain quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Borba, Tereza Cristina; Brondani, Rosana Pereira Vianello; Breseghello, Flávio; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes; Mendonça, João Antônio; Rangel, Paulo Hideo Nakano; Brondani, Claudio

    2010-07-01

    Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Embrapa Rice Core Collection (ERiCC) with 86 SSR and field data from two experiments. A clear subdivision between lowland and upland accessions was apparent, thereby indicating the presence of population structure. Thirty-two accessions with admixed ancestry were identified through structure analysis, these being discarded from association analysis, thus leaving 210 accessions subdivided into two panels. The association of yield and grain-quality traits with SSR was undertaken with a mixed linear model, with markers and subpopulation as fixed factors, and kinship matrix as a random factor. Eight markers from the two appraised panels showed significant association with four different traits, although only one (RM190) maintained the marker-trait association across years and cultivation. The significant association detected between amylose content and RM190 was in agreement with previous QTL analyses in the literature. Herein, the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization was demonstrated, even when considering low marker density. The high linkage disequilibrium expected in rice lines and cultivars facilitates the detection of marker-trait associations for implementing marker assisted selection, and the mining of alleles related to important traits in germplasm. PMID:21637426

  2. Genetic and Phenotypic Correlations between Performance Traits with Meat Quality and Carcass Characteristics in Commercial Crossbred Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Miar, Younes; Plastow, Graham; Bruce, Heather; Moore, Stephen; Manafiazar, Ghader; Kemp, Robert; Charagu, Patrick; Huisman, Abe; van Haandel, Benny; Zhang, Chunyan; McKay, Robert; Wang, Zhiquan

    2014-01-01

    Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch), covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age), random effects (additive, litter and maternal) were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n = 9) with meat quality (n = 25) and carcass (n = 19) traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (±SE), ranged from 0.07±0.13 to 0.45±0.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a) selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b) selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c) selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations. PMID:25350845

  3. Consistency statistics and genetic parameters for taste panel assessed meat quality traits and their relationship with carcass quality traits in a commercial population of Angus-sired beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gill, J L; Matika, O; Williams, J L; Worton, H; Wiener, P; Bishop, S C

    2010-01-01

    Sensory traits, such as juiciness and tenderness, are known to be important to the consumer and thus will influence their consumption of meat, specifically beef. These traits are difficult to measure and often require the use of taste panels to assess the complex parameters involved in the eating experience. Such panels are potentially a large source of measurement error, which may reduce the effectiveness of breeding programmes based on the data they generate. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of such taste panel-derived sensory traits as well as calculating genetic parameters and residual correlations for these traits along with a further set of traditional carcass quality traits. The study examined a sample of 443 Aberdeen Angus-cross animals collected from 14 breeder-finisher farms throughout Scotland. To assess the quality of the taste panel measurements, three consistency statistics were calculated: (i) panel-member consistency, i.e. the extent to which an individual panel member varied in their scoring for a given trait over the period of the experiment; (ii) repeatability, i.e. the consistency with which an individual panel member was able to score a trait on repeated samples from the same animal; and (iii) reproducibility, i.e. the extent to which taste panel members agreed with each other when scoring a trait. These consistency statistics were moderately high, particularly for panel-member consistency and reproducibility, with values ranging from 0.48 to 0.81 and 0.43 to 0.73 respectively. Estimated heritabilities were low for most of the sensory taste-panel-evaluated traits where the maximum value was 0.16 for overall liking. Residual correlations were high between many of the closely related sensory traits, although few significant correlations were found between the carcass quality data and meat quality traits. PMID:22443612

  4. Proopiomelanocortin gene polymorphisms and its association with meat quality traits by ultrasound measurement in Chinese cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongfeng; Zan, Linsen; Li, Linqiang; Xin, Yaping

    2013-10-15

    Ultrasound technology was used to measure live animal meat traits instead of true carcass meat traits for beef production and cattle breeding by an increasing number of institutions. In this study, we analyzed the association between genetic polymorphisms of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and ultrasound measurement traits in Chinese cattle. Using direct DNA sequencing in 322 individuals of 7 different cattle subpopulation, 7 SNPs were identified for genotyping within 790bp region of intron 2 and exon 3 of POMC. 6586 T>G in intron 2 and 6769 C>T and 7216 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ultrasound backfat thickness (UBF) (P<0.05) and ultrasound loin muscle area (ULMA) (P<0.01) in the total population; 6694 C>T, 6706 T>C, 6796 C>T and 6810 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ULMA (P<0.0001) in the total population. These results clearly suggest that these SNPs of POMC be benefit for selection of individuals with good quality meat in Chinese cattle breeding program. Following validation in other populations and breeds, these markers could be incorporated into breeding programs to increase the rate of improvement in carcass and meat quality traits. PMID:23872232

  5. Application of nontargeted metabolite profiling to discover novel markers of quality traits in an advanced population of malting barley.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Adam L; Broeckling, Corey D; Kirkpatrick, Kaylyn R; Prenni, Jessica E

    2014-02-01

    The process of breeding superior varieties for the agricultural industry is lengthy and expensive. Plant metabolites may act as markers of quality traits, potentially expediting the appraisal of experimental lines during breeding. Here, we evaluated the utility of metabolites as markers by assessing metabolic variation influenced by genetic and environmental factors in an advanced breeding setting and in relation to the phenotypic distribution of 20 quality traits. Nontargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolite profiling was performed on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain and malt from 72 advanced malting barley lines grown at two distinct but climatically similar locations, with 2-row and 6-row barley as the main genetic factors. 27 420 molecular features were detected, and the metabolite and quality trait profiles were similarly influenced by genotype and environment; however, malt was more influenced by genotype compared with barley. An O2PLS model characterized molecular features and quality traits that covaried, and 1319 features associated with at least one of 20 quality traits. An indiscriminant MS/MS acquisition and novel data analysis method facilitated the identification of metabolites. The analysis described 216 primary and secondary metabolites that correlated with multiple quality traits and included amines, amino acids, alkaloids, polyphenolics and lipids. The mechanisms governing quality trait-metabolite associations were interpreted based on colocalization to genetic markers and their gene annotations. The results of this study support the hypothesis that metabolism and quality traits are co-influenced by relatively narrow genetic and environmental factors and illustrate the utility of grain metabolites as functional markers of quality traits. PMID:24119106

  6. The Imprint of Extreme Climate Events in Century-Long Time Series of Wood Anatomical Traits in High-Elevation Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Carrer, Marco; Brunetti, Michele; Castagneri, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Extreme climate events are of key importance for forest ecosystems. However, both the inherent infrequency, stochasticity and multiplicity of extreme climate events, and the array of biological responses, challenges investigations. To cope with the long life cycle of trees and the paucity of the extreme events themselves, our inferences should be based on long-term observations. In this context, tree rings and the related xylem anatomical traits represent promising sources of information, due to the wide time perspective and quality of the information they can provide. Here we test, on two high-elevation conifers (Larix decidua and Picea abies sampled at 2100 m a.s.l. in the Eastern Alps), the associations among temperature extremes during the growing season and xylem anatomical traits, specifically the number of cells per ring (CN), cell wall thickness (CWT), and cell diameter (CD). To better track the effect of extreme events over the growing season, tree rings were partitioned in 10 sectors. Climate variability has been reconstructed, for 1800–2011 at monthly resolution and for 1926–2011 at daily resolution, by exploiting the excellent availability of very long and high quality instrumental records available for the surrounding area, and taking into account the relationship between meteorological variables and site topographical settings. Summer temperature influenced anatomical traits of both species, and tree-ring anatomical profiles resulted as being associated to temperature extremes. Most of the extreme values in anatomical traits occurred with warm (positive extremes) or cold (negative) conditions. However, 0–34% of occurrences did not match a temperature extreme event. Specifically, CWT and CN extremes were more clearly associated to climate than CD, which presented a bias to track cold extremes. Dendroanatomical analysis, coupled to high-quality daily-resolved climate records, seems a promising approach to study the effects of extreme events on trees, but further investigations are needed to improve our comprehension of the critical role of such elusive events in forest ecosystems.

  7. Joint analysis of quantitative trait loci and major-effect causative mutations affecting meat quality and carcass composition traits in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting meat quality traits in pigs is crucial for the design of efficient marker-assisted selection programs and to initiate efforts toward the identification of underlying polymorphisms. The RYR1 and PRKAG3 causative mutations, originally identified from major effects on meat characteristics, can be used both as controls for an overall QTL detection strategy for diversely affected traits and as a scale for detected QTL effects. We report on a microsatellite-based QTL detection scan including all autosomes for pig meat quality and carcass composition traits in an F2 population of 1,000 females and barrows resulting from an intercross between a Pietrain and a Large White-Hampshire-Duroc synthetic sire line. Our QTL detection design allowed side-by-side comparison of the RYR1 and PRKAG3 mutation effects seen as QTLs when segregating at low frequencies (0.03-0.08), with independent QTL effects detected from most of the same population, excluding any carrier of these mutations. Results Large QTL effects were detected in the absence of the RYR1 and PRKGA3 mutations, accounting for 12.7% of phenotypic variation in loin colour redness CIE-a* on SSC6 and 15% of phenotypic variation in glycolytic potential on SSC1. We detected 8 significant QTLs with effects on meat quality traits and 20 significant QTLs for carcass composition and growth traits under these conditions. In control analyses including mutation carriers, RYR1 and PRKAG3 mutations were detected as QTLs, from highly significant to suggestive, and explained 53% to 5% of the phenotypic variance according to the trait. Conclusions Our results suggest that part of muscle development and backfat thickness effects commonly attributed to the RYR1 mutation may be a consequence of linkage with independent QTLs affecting those traits. The proportion of variation explained by the most significant QTLs detected in this work is close to the influence of major-effect mutations on the least affected traits, but is one order of magnitude lower than effect on variance of traits primarily affected by these causative mutations. This suggests that uncovering physiological traits directly affected by genetic polymorphisms would be an appropriate approach for further characterization of QTLs. PMID:21875434

  8. MHD coal-fired flow facility baseline water-quality study. Woods Reservoir, May 1979-April 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.

    1980-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) is located on Woods Reservoir at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Part of the role of UTSI, as participants in the DOE program, is to document environmental aspects of coal-fired MHD. In early 1979, prior to operation of the CFFF, a water quality program was initiated to establish baseline conditions for the reservoir. The study was designed to provide an accurate assessment of water quality which could be used as a basis for comparison to evaluate the impact, if any, of the plant operation on the aquatic environment. Results of a one year baseline study of water quality on Woods Reservoir are presented in this report. The key findings are that this reservoir is a eutrophic lake. Its predominant ions are calcium and bicarbonate and its pH is circumneutral.

  9. Prediction model of a joint analysis of beef growth and carcass quality traits.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, H R; Verbyla, A P; Pitchford, W S

    2011-01-01

    A joint growth-carcass analysis was conducted to develop equations for predicting carcass quality traits associated with variation in growth path of crossbred cattle. During a four-year period (1994-1997) of the Australian "Southern Crossbreeding Project", mature Hereford cows (r = 581) were mated to 97 sires of Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin, and Belgian Blue breeds, resulting in 1141 calves. Data included body weight measurements of steers and heifers from birth until slaughter and four carcass quality traits: hot standard carcass weight, rump fat depth, rib eye muscle area, and intramuscular fat content. The model provides nine outputs: median and mean of carcass quality traits, predicted means, and lower and upper confidence intervals, as well as predicted intervals of carcass quality traits (95%) and economic values for domestic market and export markets. Input to the model consists of sex, sire breeds, age (in days)-weight (kg) pairs and slaughter age (500 days for heifer and 700 days for steers). The prediction model is able to accommodate different sexes across seven sire breeds and various management groups at any slaughter age. Its strength lies in its simplicity and flexibility, desirable to accommodate producers with different management schemes. In general, fat depth and intramuscular fat were found to be more affected by differences in growth rate than hot carcass weight and eye muscle area. Also, export market value was more sensitive to growth rate modifications than domestic market value. This model provides a tool by which the producer can estimate the impact of management decisions. PMID:21425095

  10. Evaluation of the chemical quality traits of soybean seeds, as related to sensory attributes of soymilk.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming

    2015-04-15

    The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs. PMID:25466078

  11. Effects of pregnancy and feeding level on carcass and meat quality traits of Nellore cows.

    PubMed

    Duarte, M S; Gionbelli, M P; Paulino, P V R; Serão, N V L; Silva, L H P; Mezzomo, R; Dodson, M V; Du, M; Busboom, J R; Guimarães, S E F; Filho, S C Valadares

    2013-05-01

    Carcass and meat quality traits of 16 pregnant and 5 non-pregnant cows fed at 1.2 times maintenance and 16 pregnant and 6 non-pregnant fed ad libitum were evaluated. Pregnancy did not affect final body weight (FBW; P=0.0923), cold carcass yield (CCY; P=0.0513), longissimus muscle area (LMA; P=0.8260), rib fat thickness (RFT; P=0.1873) and shear force (WBSF; P=0.9707). A lower FBW (P=0.0028), LMA (P=0.0048) and RFT (P=0.0001) were observed in feed restricted cows. However, no differences were found for CCY (P=0.7243) and WBSF (P=0.0759) among feeding level groups. These data suggests that carcass and meat quality traits are not affected by pregnancy status in Nellore cows. Moreover, although cows experiencing feed restriction did have reduced deposition of subcutaneous fat and lean tissue, there were no major impacts on meat quality traits. PMID:23416625

  12. An insight in the genetic control and interrelationship of some quality traits in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S; Sadaqat, H A; Tahir, M H N; Awan, F S

    2015-01-01

    A study on three leading lines (KN-256, KN-257, and KN-258) of Brassica napus and an approved variety, Punjab-Sarson, was conducted to gain insight into the genetic control of some quality traits using generation mean analysis. Our results showed that additive gene action predominated in the inheritance of oil content and erucic acid in cross KN-256 x KN-257 and in that of glucosinolates in KN-258 x Punjab-Sarson, indicating that these traits may be improved through selection in early segregating generations. Negative dominance can be exploited through heterosis breeding for the development of lines with low glucosinolates in cross KN-256 x KN-257. Protein content and oleic acid in cross KN-256 x KN-257, and oil content, protein content, and erucic acid in cross KN-258 x Punjab-Sarson depicted non-additive gene action and require further improvement in the later segregating generations. Most of the traits displayed high heritability estimates; glucosinolate content in both the crosses and erucic acid in cross KN- 258 x Punjab-Sarson also displayed high genetic advance, reflecting improvement of the trait in the early segregating generations. All the quality traits were positively correlated with oil content and with one another at both (genotypic and phenotypic) levels in KN-256 x KN-257. Negative correlation was observed between glucosinolate and erucic acid, oleic acid and erucic acid, and linolenic acid and oil content in cross KN-258 x Punjab-Sarson. Thus, gene action changed with the material, and cross KN-258 x Punjab-Sarson carried favorable combinations compared to KN-256 x KN-257. PMID:26782440

  13. Quality of Life as a Mediator between Behavioral Challenges and Autistic Traits for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Matson, Johnny L.

    2013-01-01

    A multiple mediation model was proposed to integrate core concepts of challenging behaviors with autistic traits to increase understanding of their relationship to quality of life (QoL). It was hypothesized that QoL is a possible mediator between the severity of challenging behaviors and autistic traits in adults with intellectual disability.…

  14. Genomic Selection for Fruit Quality Traits in Apple (Malusdomestica Borkh.)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Chagn, David; Bink, Marco C. A. M.; Volz, Richard K.; Whitworth, Claire; Carlisle, Charmaine

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of apple (Malusdomestica Borkh.) was published more than a year ago, which helped develop an 8K SNP chip to assist in implementing genomic selection (GS). In apple breeding programmes, GS can be used to obtain genomic breeding values (GEBV) for choosing next-generation parents or selections for further testing as potential commercial cultivars at a very early stage. Thus GS has the potential to accelerate breeding efficiency significantly because of decreased generation interval or increased selection intensity. We evaluated the accuracy of GS in a population of 1120 seedlings generated from a factorial mating design of four females and two male parents. All seedlings were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium chip comprising 8,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and were phenotyped for various fruit quality traits. Random-regression best liner unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP) and the Bayesian LASSO method were used to obtain GEBV, and compared using a cross-validation approach for their accuracy to predict unobserved BLUP-BV. Accuracies were very similar for both methods, varying from 0.70 to 0.90 for various fruit quality traits. The selection response per unit time using GS compared with the traditional BLUP-based selection were very high (>100%) especially for low-heritability traits. Genome-wide average estimated linkage disequilibrium (LD) between adjacent SNPs was 0.32, with a relatively slow decay of LD in the long range (r2?=?0.33 and 0.19 at 100 kb and 1,000 kb respectively), contributing to the higher accuracy of GS. Distribution of estimated SNP effects revealed involvement of large effect genes with likely pleiotropic effects. These results demonstrated that genomic selection is a credible alternative to conventional selection for fruit quality traits. PMID:22574211

  15. Assessing the impact of a wood stove replacement program on air quality and children's health.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J; Navidi, William; Sheppard, Lianne; Bergauff, Megan; Palmer, Chris

    2011-12-01

    Many rural mountain valley communities experience elevated ambient levels of fine particulate matter (PM*) in the winter, because of contributions from residential wood-burning appliances and sustained temperature inversion periods during the cold season. A wood stove change-out program was implemented in a community heavily affected by wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of this intervention program on ambient and indoor PM2.5 concentrations and to identify possible corresponding changes in the frequency of childhood respiratory symptoms and infections and illness-related school absences. Over 1100 old wood stoves were replaced with new EPA-certified wood stoves or other heating sources. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations were 30% lower in the winter after the changeout program, compared with baseline winters, which brought the community's ambient air within the PM2.5 standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The installation of a new wood stove resulted in an overall reduction in indoor PM2.5 concentrations in a small sample of wood-burning homes, but the effects were highly variable across homes. Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were associated with decreased reports of childhood wheeze and of other childhood respiratory health conditions. The association was not limited to children living in homes with wood stoves nor does it appear to be limited to susceptible children (e.g., children with asthma). Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were also associated with lower illness-related school absences among older children, but this finding was not consistent across all age-groups. This community-level intervention provided a unique opportunity to prospectively observe exposure and outcome changes resulting from a targeted air pollution reduction strategy. PMID:22852484

  16. Effects of long-term ambient ozone exposure on biomass and wood traits in poplar treated with ethylenediurea (EDU).

    PubMed

    Carriero, G; Emiliani, G; Giovannelli, A; Hoshika, Y; Manning, W J; Traversi, M L; Paoletti, E

    2015-11-01

    This is the longest continuous experiment where ethylenediurea (EDU) was used to protect plants from ozone (O3). Effects of long-term ambient O3 exposure (23 ppm h AOT40) on biomass of an O3 sensitive poplar clone (Oxford) were examined after six years from in-ground planting. Trees were irrigated with either water or 450 ppm EDU. Above (-51%) and below-ground biomass (-47%) was reduced by O3 although the effect was significant only for stem and coarse roots. Ambient O3 decreased diameter of the lower stem, and increased moisture content along the stem of not-protected plants (+16%). No other change in the physical wood structure was observed. A comparison with a previous assessment in the same experiment suggested that O3 effects on biomass partitioning to above-ground organs depend on the tree ontogenetic stage. The root/shoot ratios did not change, suggesting that previous short-term observations of reduced allocation to tree roots may be overestimated. PMID:26310976

  17. Four genes located on a SSC2 meat quality QTL region are associated with different meat quality traits in Landrace x Chinese-European crossbred population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for different meat quality traits have been localized on the q arm of porcine chromosome 2 at position 55–78 cM. Association analyses were performed in a commercial Landrace x Chinese-European (LCE) crossbred population (n = 446) slaughtered at approximately 127...

  18. On-line prediction of beef quality traits using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the ability of visible-near infrared (Vis-NIR) reflectance spectroscopy to predict beef quality traits in the slaughterhouse by directly applying a fiber-optic probe on the carcass surface. Carcasses from 230 young bulls and heifers slaughtered in two commercial abattoirs were included in the experiment. Vis-NIR spectra were recorded on an exposed surface of M. gracilis in the abattoirs 4 to 6 and 14 to 16 h post mortem. Traits evaluated were pH, color indexes (L*, a*, b*, H, and SI), cooking loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Prediction models were satisfactory for pH and color indexes, and promising for cooking loss but not for Warner-Bratzler shear force. Results of this work show that Vis-NIR spectroscopy may be a useful tool for on-line prediction of some physical beef quality traits when applied directly on the carcass surface. PMID:23618741

  19. Assessment of leucoreduction of sickle cell trait blood: quality of the filtered product

    PubMed Central

    Amar, Karim Ould; Bourdonné, Olivier; Bruneau, Sylvie; Sellami, Fatiha; Richard, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background With the implementation of universal leucoreduction of blood components in several industrialised countries, the problems associated with leucocyte filtration of sickle cell trait blood have been reconsidered. In this study, we assessed the use of high performance filters for leucoreduction of packed red blood cells donated from subjects with sickle cell trait and evaluated the incidence and recurrence of altered red blood cell filterability. Materials and methods Twenty-one volunteer donors with HbAS were compared to 21 donors with HbAA selected at random. The main parameters analysed were residual white blood cell count and post-filtration haemolysis. Filtration times, flow, volume and haemoglobin loss of the packed red blood cells were also determined. Results In all, 33% of HbAS red blood cell units with slow flow and prolonged filtration time had high residual white blood cell counts. In 7.7% of cases, despite flow through the filter, the units were not leucoreduced properly. Haemoglobin and volume loss were significantly greater in the slow filtration group. Significant post-filtration haemolysis was present in half of the units with high residual white blood cell counts. Discussion Despite the development of new technology for filtration, the problem of filterability of blood from donors with sickle cell trait is not yet resolved. Altered filterability of blood from sickle cell trait donors cannot be predicted from the donors’ characteristics and recurrence of the problem is not observed between donations. Screening blood donors for sickle cell trait to ensure the safety and quality of blood products for transfusion does, therefore, remain a relevant issue. PMID:23149143

  20. RNA-Seq Using Two Populations Reveals Genes and Alleles Controlling Wood Traits and Growth in Eucalyptus nitens

    PubMed Central

    Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; Southerton, Simon; Thumma, Bala

    2014-01-01

    Eucalyptus nitens is a perennial forest tree species grown mainly for kraft pulp production in many parts of the world. Kraft pulp yield (KPY) is a key determinant of plantation profitability and increasing the KPY of trees grown in plantations is a major breeding objective. To speed up the breeding process, molecular markers that can predict KPY are desirable. To achieve this goal, we carried out RNA-Seq studies on trees at extremes of KPY in two different trials to identify genes and alleles whose expression correlated with KPY. KPY is positively correlated with growth measured as diameter at breast height (DBH) in both trials. In total, six RNA bulks from two treatments were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq platform. At 5% false discovery rate level, 3953 transcripts showed differential expression in the same direction in both trials; 2551 (65%) were down-regulated and 1402 (35%) were up-regulated in low KPY samples. The genes up-regulated in low KPY trees were largely involved in biotic and abiotic stress response reflecting the low growth among low KPY trees. Genes down-regulated in low KPY trees mainly belonged to gene categories involved in wood formation and growth. Differential allelic expression was observed in 2103 SNPs (in 1068 genes) and of these 640 SNPs (30%) occurred in 313 unique genes that were also differentially expressed. These SNPs may represent the cis-acting regulatory variants that influence total gene expression. In addition we also identified 196 genes which had Ka/Ks ratios greater than 1.5, suggesting that these genes are under positive selection. Candidate genes and alleles identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for future association studies aimed at identifying molecular markers for KPY and growth. PMID:24967893

  1. RNA-Seq using two populations reveals genes and alleles controlling wood traits and growth in Eucalyptus nitens.

    PubMed

    Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; Southerton, Simon; Thumma, Bala

    2014-01-01

    Eucalyptus nitens is a perennial forest tree species grown mainly for kraft pulp production in many parts of the world. Kraft pulp yield (KPY) is a key determinant of plantation profitability and increasing the KPY of trees grown in plantations is a major breeding objective. To speed up the breeding process, molecular markers that can predict KPY are desirable. To achieve this goal, we carried out RNA-Seq studies on trees at extremes of KPY in two different trials to identify genes and alleles whose expression correlated with KPY. KPY is positively correlated with growth measured as diameter at breast height (DBH) in both trials. In total, six RNA bulks from two treatments were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq platform. At 5% false discovery rate level, 3953 transcripts showed differential expression in the same direction in both trials; 2551 (65%) were down-regulated and 1402 (35%) were up-regulated in low KPY samples. The genes up-regulated in low KPY trees were largely involved in biotic and abiotic stress response reflecting the low growth among low KPY trees. Genes down-regulated in low KPY trees mainly belonged to gene categories involved in wood formation and growth. Differential allelic expression was observed in 2103 SNPs (in 1068 genes) and of these 640 SNPs (30%) occurred in 313 unique genes that were also differentially expressed. These SNPs may represent the cis-acting regulatory variants that influence total gene expression. In addition we also identified 196 genes which had Ka/Ks ratios greater than 1.5, suggesting that these genes are under positive selection. Candidate genes and alleles identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for future association studies aimed at identifying molecular markers for KPY and growth. PMID:24967893

  2. Effect of Hybridization on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Erlang Mountainous Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Yin, H. D.; Gilbert, E. R.; Chen, S. Y.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Z. C.; Zhao, X. L.; Zhang, Yao; Zhu, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Native chickens hold a significant share of the market in China. In response to the huge demand from the market, the productivity of Chinese native chickens needs to be improved. Cross breeding is an effective method to increase productivity, although it might affect meat quality. In this study, two pure lines (SD02 and SD03) of Erlang mountainous chickens were hybridized with a yellow feather and faster growing line (SD01). The effect of hybridization on carcass and meat quality (physiochemical and textural traits) was measured in the F1 population at d 91 of age. The hybrids exhibited higher body weight and dressed weight, and amount of semi-eviscerated, eviscerated, breast muscle and abdominal fat (p<0.05). Abdominal fat yield also increased (p<0.05) compared to the offspring of the two pure-lines. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in meat quality traits except for the myofiber diameter and density and the shear force of the breast muscle. Overall, the offspring of cross-lines were similar to pure lines in meat color, pH value, inosinic acid, crude protein, crude fat, dry matter, moisture content and amino acid composition in the breast muscle. These results suggest that productivity can be improved via cross-breeding while maintaining meat quality of the Erlang mountainous chicken. PMID:25049734

  3. Characterization of two Indian native chicken breeds for production, egg and semen quality, and welfare traits.

    PubMed

    Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Shanmugam, M; Padhi, M K; Reddy, M R; Sunitha, R; Rajkumar, U; Panda, A K

    2011-02-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize 2 important native chicken breeds from India and compare them on growth, production, egg and semen quality, and welfare traits. The Aseel breed showed (P < 0.001) higher BW at different ages; higher shank, radius, and toe lengths at 40 wk of age; and greater egg weights at 28, 32, and 40 wk of age than did the Kadaknath breed. The Kadaknath breed reached sexual maturity at an early age, and it had higher 40-wk egg production (P < 0.001). Higher egg specific gravity (P < 0.05) and higher albumen (P < 0.001) and shell (P < 0.009) percentages in the Kadaknath were observed, whereas the Aseel breed had a higher yolk index (P < 0.004), higher yolk percentage (P < 0.001), and higher yolk-to-albumen ratio (P < 0.001). Concentration of sperm (P < 0.01), live sperm counts (P < 0.05), and semen appearance scores (P < 0.05) were higher in the Aseel breed than in the Kadaknath breed. The Aseel breed showed a greater incidence of feather-pecking behavior under floor rearing, and this was negligible or mild in the Kadaknath breed. Broodiness under cage rearing was observed (8.42%) in the Aseel breed. With regard to welfare traits, male Aseel birds had a significantly shorter (P < 0.05) duration of tonic immobility (TI) than did male Kadaknath birds. Furthermore, male Aseel birds had a shorter (P < 0.001) duration of TI than did female Aseel birds, whereas female Aseel birds had a longer (P < 0.05) duration of TI than did female and male Kadaknath birds. From this study, it was concluded that the breeds differed on various growth, production, egg and semen quality, and behavioral traits, but not on welfare traits, although female Aseel birds exhibited a greater fear response. PMID:21248327

  4. Psychopathic personality traits and their influence on parenting quality: results from a nationally representative sample of Americans.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; da Silva Costa, Christian; Poersch, Ana Paula; Freddi, Micheli Cristina; Stelmach, Mônica Celis; Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A

    2014-12-01

    Psychopathic personality traits have consistently been found to predict a range of negative and dysfunctional outcomes. As a result, it is somewhat surprising that the research to date has failed to empirically examine the potential association between psychopathic personality traits and parenting quality. The current study addressed this omission in the literature by analyzing a community sample of adults. The results revealed that respondents scoring higher on psychopathic personality traits tended to report more negative parenting quality. These results were detected for both males and females and remained significant even after controlling for the effects of parental transmission and child-effects. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a statistically significant association between psychopathic personality traits and parenting quality. We conclude with a discussion of what these findings mean for psychopathy research and the parenting the literature. PMID:25092358

  5. Effect of ractopamine level, gender, and duration of ractopamine on belly and bacon quality traits.

    PubMed

    Scramlin, S M; Carr, S N; Parks, C W; Fernandez-Dueñas, D M; Leick, C M; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J

    2008-12-01

    The objective was to determine belly and bacon quality traits in pigs fed ractopamine (RAC) for various durations during finishing. A 2×3×2 factorial arrangement was used with barrows and gilts, fed RAC levels of 0.0, 5.0, or 7.4ppm, for 21 or 28d prior to harvest. Bellies were fabricated and measured for length, thickness, firmness, and processing yields. Once processed, 1.27cm slices were removed at 25%, 50%, and 75% the distance from the blade end, packaged and digitally imaged using a Chem1 Genius(2) Bio Imaging System. Total slice area (TA), total slice length (TL), secondary lean length (SL), secondary lean area (SA), and percent lean area (TA - all lean components=LA) were determined by tracing images in Adobe Photoshop Elements. A composite sample from the three slices was used for proximate analysis to determine moisture and fat composition for each belly. Feeding RAC increased belly yield, TA, TL, SA, and LA (P<0.05), but did not alter moisture or fat composition (P>0.05). Gilts had decreased firmness and higher pump uptakes compared to barrows (P<0.05). Additionally gilts had increased TL, SL, and LA with lower fat and higher moisture content (P<0.05). RAC feeding duration had no significant effect on belly or bacon quality traits (P>0.05), furthermore, no interactions were found to be significant (P>0.05). RAC administration during finishing resulted in improved belly and bacon yields with no negative effects on the quality traits evaluated. PMID:22063860

  6. Neck blast disease influences grain yield and quality traits of aromatic rice.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Bhuiyan, Md Rejwan; Hossain, Md Shahadat; Sen, Partha Pratim; Ara, Anjuman; Siddique, Md Abubakar; Ali, Md Ansar

    2014-11-01

    A critical investigation was conducted to find out the effect of neck blast disease on yield-contributing characters, and seed quality traits of aromatic rice in Bangladesh. Both healthy and neck-blast-infected panicles of three aromatic rice cultivars (high-yielding and local) were collected and investigated at Plant Pathology Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Gazipur, Bangladesh. All of the tested varieties were highly susceptible to neck blast disease under natural conditions, though no leaf blast symptoms appear on leaves. Neck blast disease increased grain sterility percentages, reduced grain size, yield and quality traits of seeds. The degrees of yield and seed quality reduction depended on disease severity and variety's genetic make-up. Unfilled grains were the main source of seed-borne pathogen, especially for blast in the seed lot. Transmission of blast pathogen from neck (panicle base) to seed was very poor. These findings are important, especially concerning the seed certification programme in which seed lots are certified on the basis of field inspection. Finally, controlled experiments are needed to draw more critical conclusions. PMID:25444707

  7. From gene to function: metabolic traits of starter cultures for improved quality of cereal foods.

    PubMed

    Gänzle, Michael G

    2009-08-31

    Food fermentations with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are employed to produce safe and shelf stable food products with characteristic flavour and texture. Advances in genomics and physiology of lactic acid bacteria enabled to link individual genetic and metabolic traits of starter cultures to specific food quality attributes. The empirical selection of starter cultures is increasingly supported by the targeted selection of functional starter cultures to achieve an improved quality of fermented foods. This review highlights recent developments related to metabolic traits of LAB that are relevant for the quality of foods; emphasis is placed on starter cultures for use in bread production. Although the food use of antibacterial metabolites of LAB is well established, antifungal compounds were only recently shown to extend the shelf life of foods. Redox reactions catalysed by LAB alter the technological functionality of proteins and influence the (off)-flavour development through lipid oxidation pathways. LAB produce polysaccharides and oligosaccharides from sucrose through the glycansucrase activities. The exploitation of glycansucrase biodiversity enables the generation of a large variety of glucans or fructans in food fermentation. Poly- and oligosaccharides influence food texture, increase the dietary fibre content of foods and can be applied to protect bacterial during culture preparation and storage. The transformation of amino acids or peptides to aroma compounds contributes substantially to food flavour of food and particularly the conversion of glutamate by LAB enables the targeted optimisation of food flavour. PMID:19515445

  8. Effects of big-five personality traits on the quality of relationship and satisfaction in Chinese coach-athlete dyads.

    PubMed

    Yang, S X; Jowett, S; Chan, D K C

    2015-08-01

    The present study examined the influence of personality traits on the quality of the Chinese coach-athlete relationship and satisfaction through a dyadic research design. A total of 350 coach-athlete dyads completed a self-report instrument that assessed personality traits, as well as perceptions of relationship quality and satisfaction with training. Results revealed that: (a) actor effects (i.e., actor's personality will predict his or her own perceptions of relationship quality) of personality traits, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on both coaches' and athletes' perceptions of relationship quality and (b) partner effects (an actor's own personality will predict his or her partner's perceptions of relationship quality) of only athletes' personality, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on their coaches' perceptions of relationship quality. The findings suggested that each relationship member's personality trait contributed independently to relationship quality, and both actor and partner effects of the relationship quality on satisfaction with training were found to be significant. In Chinese sports culture, there presents a unique dynamics of personality and relationship quality among coach-athlete dyad. PMID:25367655

  9. Trait canalization analysis of water quality, temperature, and developmental associations with early life stages of two fish species.

    PubMed

    Simon, Thomas P

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of trait robustness based on environmental fluctuation in ontogenetic life stages are needed to evaluate stability and trait response during critical developmental events. Hardness, alkalinity, acidity, light intensity, and thermal differences were studied for trait canalization variation in morphometric, meristic, ontogenetic processes, and pigment characteristics. Trait canalization was observed with no statistical differences (p > 0.05) in mixed random two-way ANOVA comparisons between various block and treatment effects for hardness, alkalinity or acidity. Thermal block variation differences in six measures, including mandible length, yolk sac length, midpostanal depth, and head width, incubation, and hatching length, varied significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with declining temperatures. Water quality and thermal attributes exhibited trait canalization and did not increase character state variation in the early life stage morphological expression, which result in stable phenotypic inheritance rather than variable environmental conditions during embryonic and larval development. PMID:25863479

  10. The Negative Correlation between Fiber Color and Quality Traits Revealed by QTL Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gaskin; Sun, Junling; Pan, Zhaoe; He, Shoupu; Zhu, Heqin; Sun, Jie; Du, Xiongming

    2015-01-01

    Naturally existing colored cotton was far from perfection due to having genetic factors for lower yield, poor fiber quality and monotonous color. These factors posed a challenge to colored cotton breeding and innovation. To identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber color along with understanding of correlation between fiber color and quality in colored cotton, a RIL and two F2 populations were generated from crosses among Zong128 (Brown fiber cotton) and two white fiber cotton lines which were then analyzed in four environments. Two stable and major QTLs (qLC-7-1, qFC-7-1) for fiber lint and fuzz color were detected accounting for 16.01%-59.85% of the phenotypic variation across multiple generations and environments. Meanwhile, some minor QTLs were also identified on chromosomes 5, 14, 21 and 24 providing low phenotypic variation (<5%) from only F2 populations, not from the RILs population. Especially, a multiple-effect locus for fiber color and quality has been detected between flanking markers NAU1043 and NAU3654 on chromosome 7 (A genome) over multiple environments. Of which, qLC-7-1, qFC-7-1 were responsible for positive effects and improved fiber color in offsprings. Meanwhile, the QTLs (qFL-7-1, qFU-7-1, qFF-7-1, qFE-7-1, and qFS-7-1) for fiber quality had negative effects and explained 2.19%-8.78% of the phenotypic variation. This multiple-effect locus for fiber color and quality may reveal the negative correlation between the two types of above traits, so paving the way towards cotton genetic improvement. PMID:26121363

  11. Physically Challenging Song Traits, Male Quality, and Reproductive Success in House Wrens

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Emily R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Physically challenging signals are likely to honestly indicate signaler quality. In trilled bird song two physically challenging parameters are vocal deviation (the speed of sound frequency modulation) and trill consistency (how precisely syllables are repeated). As predicted, in several species, they correlate with male quality, are preferred by females, and/or function in male-male signaling. Species may experience different selective pressures on their songs, however; for instance, there may be opposing selection between song complexity and song performance difficulty, such that in species where song complexity is strongly selected, there may not be strong selection on performance-based traits. I tested whether vocal deviation and trill consistency are signals of male quality in house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), a species with complex song structure. Males singing ability did not correlate with male quality, except that older males sang with higher trill consistency, and males with more consistent trills responded more aggressively to playback (although a previous study found no effect of stimulus trill consistency on males responses to playback). Males singing more challenging songs did not gain in polygyny, extra-pair paternity, or annual reproductive success. Moreover, none of the standard male quality measures I investigated correlated with mating or reproductive success. I conclude that vocal deviation and trill consistency do not signal male quality in this species. PMID:23527137

  12. Seed source, seed traits, and frugivore habits: Implications for dispersal quality of two sympatric primates.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; González-Di Pierro, Ana Ma; Lombera, Rafael; Guillén, Susana; Estrada, Alejandro

    2014-06-11

    • Premise of the study: Frugivore selection of fruits and treatment of seeds together with seed deposition site are crucial for the population dynamics of vertebrate-dispersed plants. However, frugivore species may influence dispersal quality differently even when feeding on the same fruit species and, while animals disperse some seeds, others simply fall beneath the parent plant.• Methods: In southern Mexico, we investigated to see if within-species seed traits (i.e., length, width, weight, and volume) and germination success differed according to seed source. For five tropical tree species we obtained ingested seeds from two sources, howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces; and noningested seeds from two sources, the ground and tree crowns (with predispersed seeds used as control).• Key results: A principal components' analysis showed that traits of seeds ingested by howler monkeys differed from other sources while seeds ingested by spider monkeys were similar to noningested seeds. Howlers consumed on average the larger seeds in Ampelocera hottlei, Brosimum lactescens, and Dialium guianense. Both primate species consumed the smaller seeds in Spondias mombin, while no seed trait differences among seed sources were found in Spondias radlkoferi. For all five tree species, germination rate was greatest for seeds ingested by howler monkeys.• Conclusions: For the studied plant species, seed ingestion by howler monkeys confers higher dispersal quality than ingestion by spider monkeys or nondispersal. Dispersal services of both primate species, however, are not redundant and may contribute to germination heterogeneity within plant populations in tropical forests. PMID:24920763

  13. Trait Mindfulness and Work-Family Balance among Working Parents: The Mediating Effects of Vitality and Sleep Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tammy D.; Kiburz, Kaitlin M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between trait mindfulness and work-family balance among a sample of working parents. Sleep quality and vitality are tested as mediators of this relationship. Results indicate that those with greater mindfulness report greater work-family balance, better sleep quality, and greater vitality. As…

  14. Trait Mindfulness and Work-Family Balance among Working Parents: The Mediating Effects of Vitality and Sleep Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tammy D.; Kiburz, Kaitlin M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between trait mindfulness and work-family balance among a sample of working parents. Sleep quality and vitality are tested as mediators of this relationship. Results indicate that those with greater mindfulness report greater work-family balance, better sleep quality, and greater vitality. As

  15. The effect of retail packaging method on objective and consumer assessment of beef quality traits.

    PubMed

    Geesink, Geert; Robertson, Joanna; Ball, Alex

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of 7days of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP: 80% O2, 20% CO2) or skin packaging (no oxygen) of beef M. longissimus steaks after 1 or 7days of ageing in vacuum on objective and sensory meat quality traits and degradation of desmin. Shear force was negatively affected by MAP after both 1 and 7days of ageing in vacuum (P<0.005). Sensory evaluation of grilled steaks revealed significantly negative effects of MAP on sensory traits, resulting in an overall decrease of 8 points in the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) eating quality score (MQ4). Desmin degradation was not affected by packaging method, suggesting that the toughening effect of high-oxygen MAP is not due to inhibition of postmortem proteolysis. The results of this study and others suggest that packaging method should be incorporated as a variable in the MSA grading system. Further research to quantify the impact of oxidative cross-linking of proteins on tenderness appears warranted. PMID:25732179

  16. Association of CRTC2 gene polymorphisms with growth and meat quality traits of Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Xu, H C; Gui, L S; Song, N; Zhang, Y Y; Wang, H C; Zan, L S

    2015-01-01

    Growth and meat quality traits play important roles in the evaluation of cattle productivity and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. CRTC2 is a recently discovered gene related to obesity that may influence fat deposition. The aim of the current study was to detect polymorphisms of bovine CRTC2 and explore their relationships to growth and meat quality in Qinchuan cattle. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); g.3001 C>T; g.3034 G>A; and g.3467 T>C, were identified from sequencing results of 422 Qinchuan cattle. The genotypic distributions of both g.3034 G>A and g.3467 T>C mutations were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, (P < 0.05), while the T3001C mutation was not (P > 0.05), based on χ(2) test analysis. The SNPs g.3001 C>T and g.3034 G>A are missense mutations (Ser/Phe and Ser/Thr respectively). Additionally, SNPs g.3034 G>A and g.3467 T>C showed a medium polymorphism level (0.25 < PIC< 0.50), whereas g.3001 C>T showed a low polymorphism level (PIC < 0.25). These three SNPs were significantly associated with several growth and meat quality traits in the Qinchuan cattle population (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Collectively, these results demonstrate that CRTC2 is involved in the regulation of cattle growth and meat quality, and suggest that CRTC2 is a potential candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in future breeding development programs for Qinchuan cattle. PMID:26505444

  17. Quality-assurance procedures: Method 5G determination of particulate emissions from wood heaters from a dilution tunnel sampling location

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.E.; Hartman, M.W.; Olin, R.C.; Rives, G.D.

    1989-06-01

    Quality-assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood-heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing particulate matter sampling of wood heaters according to EPA protocol, Method 5G. These procedures may be used in research and development, and as an aid in auditing and certification testing. A detailed, step-by-step quality assurance guide is provided to aid in the procurement and assembly of testing apparatus, to clearly describe the procedures, and to facilitate data collection and reporting. Suggested data sheets are supplied that can be used as an aid for both recordkeeping and certification applications. Throughout the document, activity matrices are provided to serve as a summary reference. Checklists are also supplied that can be used by testing personnel. Finally, for the purposes of ensuring data quality, procedures are outlined for apparatus operation, maintenance, and traceability. These procedures combined with the detailed description of the sampling and analysis protocol will help ensure the accuracy and reliability of Method 5G emission-testing results.

  18. Comparison between the three porcine RN genotypes for growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits

    PubMed Central

    Le Roy, Pascale; Elsen, Jean-Michel; Caritez, Jean-Claude; Talmant, André; Juin, Hervé; Sellier, Pierre; Monin, Gabriel

    2000-01-01

    A three-step experimental design has been carried out to add evidence about the existence of the RN gene, with two segregating alleles RN- and rn+, having major effects on meat quality in pigs, to estimate its effects on production traits and to map the RN locus. In the present article, the experimental population and sampling procedures are described and discussed, and effects of the three RN genotypes on growth and carcass traits are presented. The RN genotype had no major effect on growth performance and killing out percentage. Variables pertaining to carcass tissue composition showed that the RN- allele is associated with leaner carcasses (about 1 s.d. effect without dominance for back fat thickness, 0.5 s.d. effect with dominance for weights of joints). Muscle glycolytic potential (GP) was considerably higher in RN- carriers, with a maximum of a 6.85 s.d. effect for the live longissimus muscle GP. Physico-chemical characteristics of meat were also influenced by the RN genotype in a dominant way, ultimate pH differing by about 2 s.d. between homozygous genotypes and meat colour by about 1 s.d. Technological quality was also affected, with a 1 s.d. decrease in technological yield for RN- carriers. The RN genotype had a more limited effect on eating quality. On the whole, the identity between the acid meat condition and the RN- allele effect is clearly demonstrated (higher muscle GP, lower ultimate pH, paler meat and lower protein content), and the unfavourable relationship between GP and carcass lean to fat ratio is confirmed. PMID:14736400

  19. Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

    2013-10-01

    Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

  20. Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock*

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

    2013-01-01

    Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

  1. Chemical Components and Meat Quality Traits Related to Palatability of Ten Primal Cuts from Hanwoo Carcasses

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eun-Young; Hwang, Young-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    To determine chemical components and meat quality traits related to palatability of 10 primal cuts, 25 Hanwoo carcasses were selected from 5 carcasses × 5 quality grades and used to obtain proximate data and meat quality characteristics. Significant differences (p<0.05) in chemical component and meat quality were found among the 10 primal cuts. The highest fat content was found in the kalbi, followed by dungsim, yangjee, chaekeut, ansim, abdari, suldo, moksim, udun, and satae. Protein and moisture contents in the 10 primal cuts were in reverse order of fat content. Moksim had the highest drip loss % and cooking loss % than all other primal cuts while kalbi showed the lowest (p<0.05) percentage of drip and cooking loss. Ansim had the longest sarcomere length but the lowest shear force values than all other cuts (p<0.05). The highest (p<0.05) score for overall acceptability was observed in ansim. Moksim, udun, abdari, and satae were rated the lowest (p<0.05) in overall acceptability among the 10 primal cuts from Hanwoo carcasses. In conclusion, ansim, dungsim, chaekeut, and kalbi had the highest overall acceptability due to their higher fat contents and lower shear force values. PMID:26877647

  2. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Rice Eating Quality Traits Using a Population of Recombinant Inbred Lines Derived from a Cross between Two Temperate japonica Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon-Wook; Cho, Young-Chan; Lee, Jeong-Heui; Suh, Jung-Pi; Kim, Jeong-Ju; Kim, Myeong-Ki; Choi, Im-Soo; Hwang, Hung-Goo; Koh, Hee-Jong; Kim, Yeon-Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Improved eating quality is a major breeding target in japonica rice due to market demand. In this study, we performed genetic analysis to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control rice eating quality traits using 192 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two japonica cultivars, ‘Suweon365’ and ‘Chucheongbyeo’. We evaluated the stickiness (ST) and overall evaluation (OE) of cooked rice using a sensory test, the glossiness of cooked rice (GCR) using a Toyo-taste meter, and measured the amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), alkali digestion value (ADV), and days to heading (DH) of the RILs in the years 2006 and 2007. Our analysis revealed 21 QTLs on chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 11. QTLs on chromosomes 6, 7, and 8 were detected for three traits related to eating quality in both years. QTLs for ST and OE were identified by a sensory test in the same region of the QTLs for AC, PC, ADV, GCR and DH on chromosome 8. QTL effects on the GCR were verified using QTL-NILs (near-isogenic lines) of BC3F4-6 in the Suweon365 background, a low eating quality variety, and some BC1F3 lines. Chucheongbyeo alleles at QTLs on chromosomes 7 and 8 increased the GCR in the NILs and backcrossed lines. The QTLs identified by our analysis will be applicable to future marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategies for improving the eating quality of japonica rice. PMID:21360198

  3. Joint effects of porcine leptin and leptin receptor polymorphisms on productivity and quality traits.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Montarelo, D; Fernández, A; Folch, J M; Pena, R N; Ovilo, C; Rodríguez, C; Silió, L; Fernández, A I

    2012-12-01

    Leptin signalling plays a fundamental role in growth, fatness and body composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the porcine LEP gene sequence in an Iberian × Landrace experimental cross to identify polymorphisms associated with productivity and quality traits. Because of the documented effects on these traits of the LEPR c.1987C>T polymorphism, the LEP and LEPR c.1987C>T polymorphisms and their interactions have been jointly investigated. The LEP gene sequencing has allowed the identification of 39 polymorphisms, eight of which are novel. Three intronic SNPs, LEP g.1382C>T, LEP g.1387C>T and LEP g.1723A>G, have been genotyped, and association analyses have been carried out. Analyses of LEP g.1387C>T, fully linked to LEP g.1382C>T, have revealed additive effects on live and carcass weights and dominant effects on several backfat thickness measurements. Novel effects of both LEP and LEPR polymorphisms on fatty acid composition in subcutaneous fat have been detected, probably mediated through the effects on fatness. The results reported here suggest that the T alleles of both LEP g.1387C>T and LEPR c.1987C>T, which are fixed in the Iberian pigs, would lead to an increase in growth, fatness and saturated fatty acid content in fat, which could be explained by an increased feed intake. PMID:22497241

  4. Exercise addiction: a study of eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachment styles.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask; Bilenberg, Niels; Stving, Ren Klinky

    2014-02-28

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels of excitement-seeking and achievement striving whereas scores on straightforwardness and compliance were lower than in the exercise control group. The addiction group reported more bodily pain and injuries. This study supports the hypothesis that exercise addiction is separate to an eating disorder, but shares some of the concerns of body and performance. It is driven by a striving for high goals and excitement which results in pain and injuries from overuse. PMID:24342179

  5. The identification of 14 new genes for meat quality traits in chicken using a genome-wide association study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meat quality is an important economic trait in chickens. To identify loci and genes associated with meat quality traits, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of F2 populations derived from a local Chinese breed (Beijing-You chickens) and a commercial fast-growing broiler line (Cobb-Vantress). Results In the present study, 33 association signals were detected from the compressed mixed linear model (MLM) for 10 meat quality traits: dry matter in breast muscle (DMBr), dry matter in thigh muscle (DMTh), intramuscular fat content in breast muscle (IMFBr), meat color lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values, skin color L*, a* (redness) and b* values, abdominal fat weight (AbFW) and AbFW as a percentage of eviscerated weight (AbFP). Relative expressions of candidate genes identified near significant signals were compared using samples of chickens with High and Low phenotypic values. A total of 14 genes associated with IMFBr, meat color L*, AbFW, and AbFP, were differentially expressed between the High and Low phenotypic groups. These genes are, therefore, prospective candidate genes for meat quality traits: protein tyrosine kinase (TYRO3) and microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST1) for IMFBr; collagen, type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2) for meat color L*; and RET proto-oncogene (RET), natriuretic peptide B (NPPB) and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) for the abdominal fat (AbF) traits. Conclusions Based on the association signals and differential expression of nearby genes, 14 candidate loci and genes for IMFBr, meat L* and b* values, and AbF are identified. The results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying meat quality traits in chickens. PMID:23834466

  6. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Yield and Grain Quality Traits in Winter Wheat Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, W.; Ogbonnaya, F. C.; Jighly, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.; Sohail, Q.; Rajaram, S.; Baum, M.

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of yield and grain quality traits in winter wheat genotypes using association mapping approach, and identify linked molecular markers for marker assisted selection. A total of 120 elite facultative/winter wheat genotypes were evaluated for yield, quality and other agronomic traits under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for two years (2011–2012) at the Tel Hadya station of ICARDA, Syria. The same genotypes were genotyped using 3,051 Diversity Array Technologies (DArT) markers, of which 1,586 were of known chromosome positions. The grain yield performance of the genotypes was highly significant both in rain-fed and irrigated sites. Average yield of the genotypes ranged from 2295 to 4038 kg/ha and 4268 to 7102 kg/ha under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, respectively. Protein content and alveograph strength (W) ranged from 13.6–16.1% and 217.6–375 Jx10-4, respectively. DArT markers wPt731910 (3B), wPt4680 (4A), wPt3509 (5A), wPt8183 (6B), and wPt0298 (2D) were significantly associated with yield under rain-fed conditions. Under irrigated condition, tPt4125 on chromosome 2B was significantly associated with yield explaining about 13% of the variation. Markers wPt2607 and wPt1482 on 5B were highly associated with protein content and alveograph strength explaining 16 and 14% of the variations, respectively. The elite genotypes have been distributed to many countries using ICARDA’s International system for potential direct release and/or use as parents after local adaptation trials by the NARSs of respective countries. The QTLs identified in this study are recommended to be used for marker assisted selection after through validation using bi-parental populations. PMID:26496075

  7. Associations between high callous-unemotional traits and quality of life across youths with non-conduct disorder diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Herpers, Pierre C M; Klip, Helen; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Greven, Corina U; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2016-05-01

    Research regarding callous-unemotional (CU) traits in non-conduct disorder (CD) diagnoses is sparse. We investigated the presence of high CU traits and their associations with quality of life (QoL) in a clinically referred sample of youths with non-CD diagnoses. Parents of 1018 children referred to a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic and rated their child's CU traits and QoL. Experienced clinicians derived DSM-IV-TR diagnoses based on systematic clinical evaluations of these children. High CU traits compared to low CU traits were present in 38.5 % of the sample, and more often in boys than girls (69.4 vs. 30.6 %, p = .004), and were associated with more police contacts (12.2 vs. 3.5 %, p < .001). Logistic regression analyses revealed that those with diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (odds ratio; OR = 1.61; 95 % CI 1.24-2.09; p < .001) and disruptive behavior disorder not otherwise specified/oppositional defiant disorder (OR = 4.98; 95 % CI 2.93-8.64; p < .001), but not attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (OR = 1.01; 95 % CI .79-1.31; p = .94), were more likely to have high than low CU traits. Those with anxiety/mood disorders were more likely to have low than high CU traits (OR = .59; 95 % CI .42-82; p = .002). In all diagnostic groups, high CU compared to low CU traits were associated with significantly lower QoL, while controlling for gender, age, and comorbidity. As such, high CU traits significantly modify QoL in non-CD disorders. PMID:26362863

  8. Slaughtering age effect on carcass traits and meat quality of italian heavy draught horse foals.

    PubMed

    De Palo, P; Maggiolino, A; Centoducati, P; Tateo, A

    2013-11-01

    The present work describes the effect of slaughtering age on horse carcass traits and on meat quality. Eighteen male Italian heavy draught horse (IHDH) breed foals were employed in the study. Soon after foaling they were randomly subdivided in 3 groups according to 3 age at slaughtering classes: 6 months old, 11 months old and 18 months old. Live weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of each animal were recorded. After slaughtering, meat samples were collected from Longissimus Dorsi muscle between 13th and 18th thoracic vertebra of each animal and then analyzed. The right half carcass of each animal was then divided in cuts. Each one was subdivided into lean, fat and bones. Then, the classification of the lean meat in first and second quality cuts was performed according to the butchers' customs. Older animals were characterized by a lower incidence of first quality cuts (p<0.01) on carcass. Younger animals showed greater content in protein (p<0.01). Fatty acid profile showed an increasing trend of PUFA connected to the increasing of slaughtering age (p<0.05). The unsaturation index of intramuscular fatty acids was not affected by slaughtering age, confirming that horse meat, if compared to beef, is more suitable from a nutritional point of view. Season influenced reproduction, birth as well as production aspects of this species. The different slaughtering age could represent the way to produce meat of IHDH foals during the entire year without change in the qualitative standard expected by consumers. PMID:25049752

  9. Slaughtering Age Effect on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Italian Heavy Draught Horse Foals

    PubMed Central

    De Palo, P.; Maggiolino, A.; Centoducati, P.; Tateo, A.

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the effect of slaughtering age on horse carcass traits and on meat quality. Eighteen male Italian heavy draught horse (IHDH) breed foals were employed in the study. Soon after foaling they were randomly subdivided in 3 groups according to 3 age at slaughtering classes: 6 months old, 11 months old and 18 months old. Live weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of each animal were recorded. After slaughtering, meat samples were collected from Longissimus Dorsi muscle between 13th and 18th thoracic vertebra of each animal and then analyzed. The right half carcass of each animal was then divided in cuts. Each one was subdivided into lean, fat and bones. Then, the classification of the lean meat in first and second quality cuts was performed according to the butchers’ customs. Older animals were characterized by a lower incidence of first quality cuts (p<0.01) on carcass. Younger animals showed greater content in protein (p<0.01). Fatty acid profile showed an increasing trend of PUFA connected to the increasing of slaughtering age (p<0.05). The unsaturation index of intramuscular fatty acids was not affected by slaughtering age, confirming that horse meat, if compared to beef, is more suitable from a nutritional point of view. Season influenced reproduction, birth as well as production aspects of this species. The different slaughtering age could represent the way to produce meat of IHDH foals during the entire year without change in the qualitative standard expected by consumers. PMID:25049752

  10. Histology, composition, and quality traits of chicken Pectoralis major muscle affected by wooden breast abnormality.

    PubMed

    Soglia, F; Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Di Nunzio, M; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2016-03-01

    Only a few years ago, the poultry industry began to face a recent abnormality in breast meat, known as wooden breast, which frequently overlaps with white striping. This study aimed to assess the impact of wooden breast abnormality on quality traits of meat. For this purpose, 32 normal (NRM), 32 wooden (WB), and 32 wooden and white-striped (WB/WS) Pectoralis major muscles were selected from the same flock of heavy broilers (males, Ross 708, weighing around 3.7 kg) in the deboning area of a commercial processing plant at 3 h postmortem and used to assess histology, proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and collagen) and mineral composition (Mg, K, P, Na and Ca), sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein patterns, and technological traits of breast meat. Compared to the normal group, WB/WS fillets showed more severe histological lesions characterized by fiber degeneration, fibrosis, and lipidosis, coupled with a significantly harder texture. With regard to proximate and mineral composition, abnormal samples exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher moisture, fat, and collagen contents coupled with lower (P < 0.001) amounts of protein and ash. Furthermore, increased calcium (131 vs. 84 mg kg(-1); P < 0.05) and sodium (741 vs. 393 mg kg(-1); P < 0.001) levels were found in WB/WS meat samples. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a significantly lower amount of calcium-ATPase (SERCA, 114 kDa), responsible for the translocation of Ca ions across the membrane, in normal breasts compared to abnormal ones. As for meat quality traits, fillets affected by wooden abnormality exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher ultimate pH and lower water-holding/water-binding capacity. In particular, compared to normal, abnormal samples showed reduced marinade uptake coupled with increased drip loss and cooking losses as well. In conclusion, this study revealed that meat affected by wooden breast or both wooden breast and white striping abnormalities exhibit poorer nutritional value, harder texture, and impaired water-holding capacity. PMID:26706363

  11. Identification of expression QTL (eQTL) of genes expressed in porcine M. longissimus dorsi and associated with meat quality traits

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic analysis of transcriptional profiles is a promising approach for identifying and dissecting the genetics of complex traits like meat performance. Accordingly, expression levels obtained by microarray analysis were taken as phenotypes in a linkage analysis to map eQTL. Moreover, expression levels were correlated with traits related to meat quality and principle components with high loadings of these traits. By using an up-to-date annotation and localization of the respective probe-sets, the integration of eQTL mapping data and information of trait correlated expression finally served to point to candidate genes for meat quality traits. Results Genome-wide transcriptional profiles of M. longissimus dorsi RNAs samples of 74 F2 animals of a pig resource population revealed 11,457 probe-sets representing genes expressed in the muscle. Linkage analysis of expression levels of these probe-sets provided 9,180 eQTL at the suggestive significance threshold of LOD > 2. We mapped 653 eQTL on the same chromosome as the corresponding gene and these were designated as 'putative cis-eQTL'. In order to link eQTL to the traits of interest, probe-sets were addressed with relative transcript abundances that showed correlation with meat quality traits at p ≤ 0.05. Out of the 653 'putative cis-eQTL', 262 transcripts were correlated with at least one meat quality trait. Furthermore, association of expression levels with composite traits with high loadings for meat quality traits generated by principle component analysis were taken into account leading to a list of 85 genes exhibiting cis-eQTL and trait dependent expression. Conclusion Holistic expression profiling was integrated with QTL analysis for meat quality traits. Correlations between transcript abundance and meat quality traits, combined with genetic positional information of eQTL allowed us to prioritise candidate genes for further study. PMID:20950486

  12. Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Meat Quality Traits in a Porcine Large White × Minzhu Intercross Population

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Weizhen; Cheng, Duxue; Chen, Shaokang; Wang, Ligang; Li, Yong; Ma, Xiaojun; Song, Xin; Liu, Xin; Li, Wen; Liang, Jing; Yan, Hua; Zhao, Kebin; Wang, Chuduan; Wang, Lixian; Zhang, Longchao

    2012-01-01

    Pork quality is an economically important trait and one of the main selection criteria for breeding in the swine industry. In this genome-wide association study (GWAS), 455 pigs from a porcine Large White × Minzhu intercross population were genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60K Beadchip, and phenotyped for intramuscular fat content (IMF), marbling, moisture, color L*, color a*, color b* and color score in the longissimus muscle (LM). Association tests between each trait and the SNPs were performed via the Genome Wide Rapid Association using the Mixed Model and Regression-Genomic Control (GRAMMAR-GC) approach. From the Ensembl porcine database, SNP annotation was implemented using Sus scrofa Build 9. A total of 45 SNPs showed significant association with one or multiple meat quality traits. Of the 45 SNPs, 36 were located on SSC12. These significantly associated SNPs aligned to or were in close approximation to previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) and some were located within introns of previously reported candidate genes. Two haplotype blocks ASGA0100525-ASGA0055225-ALGA0067099-MARC0004712-DIAS0000861, and ASGA0085522-H3GA0056170 were detected in the significant region. The first block contained the genes MYH1, MYH2 and MYH4. A SNP (ASGA0094812) within an intron of the USP43 gene was significantly associated with five meat quality traits. The present results effectively narrowed down the associated regions compared to previous QTL studies and revealed haplotypes and candidate genes on SSC12 for meat quality traits in pigs. PMID:22532790

  13. Influence of Autism Traits and Executive Functioning on Quality of Life in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Marieke; Geurts, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) often experience a low Quality of Life (QoL). We studied if IQ, early language development, current autism traits, and daily Executive Functions (EFs) are related to QoL in children (aged 8-12years) with ASD (N=120) and typically developing (TD) children (N=76). Children with ASD showed a lower

  14. Association between ADSL, GARS-AIRS-GART, DGAT1, and DECR1 expression levels and pork meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X D; Zhang, S J; Ding, Y Y; Feng, Y F; Zhu, H Y; Huang, L; Wu, T; Zhou, J; Yin, Z J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, meat quality traits were compared between Chinese lard- and European lean-type pigs. The association between expression of four genes (ADSL, GARS-AIRS-GART, DGAT1, and DECR1) and meat quality traits was also investigated. Meat quality traits were found to differ significantly between pig breeds. Meat color parameter values (a* and b*) and intramuscular fat content in Anqingliubai were significantly higher than those in Landrace (P < 0.01). Meat pH at 1 and 24 h following slaughter was significantly higher in Landrace than in Wei pigs, and meat inosine monophosphate (IMP) content was significantly higher in Landrace than in Wei and Anqingliubai pigs (both P < 0.01). Expression levels of ADSL, GARS-AIRS-GART, and DGAT1 were higher in longissimus lumborum muscle than in heart or liver tissues. ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART expression levels were correlated with meat IMP content and pH levels. The results of this study will contribute to the understanding of meat quality traits in Chinese lard- and European lean-type pigs. PMID:26600543

  15. Wood and Wood Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Raymond A.

    Wood has been utilized by humans since antiquity. Trees provided a source of many products required by early humans such as food, medicine, fuel, and tools. For example, the bark of the willow tree, when chewed, was used as a painkiller in early Greece and was the precursor of the present-day aspirin. Wood served as the primary fuel in the United States until about the turn of the 19th century, and even today over one-half of the wood now harvested in the world is used for heating fuel.

  16. Exploring molecular backgrounds of quality traits in rice by predictive models based on high-coverage metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing awareness of limitations to natural resources has set high expectations for plant science to deliver efficient crops with increased yields, improved stress tolerance, and tailored composition. Collections of representative varieties are a valuable resource for compiling broad breeding germplasms that can satisfy these diverse needs. Results Here we show that the untargeted high-coverage metabolomic characterization of such core collections is a powerful approach for studying the molecular backgrounds of quality traits and for constructing predictive metabolome-trait models. We profiled the metabolic composition of kernels from field-grown plants of the rice diversity research set using 4 complementary analytical platforms. We found that the metabolite profiles were correlated with both the overall population structure and fine-grained genetic diversity. Multivariate regression analysis showed that 10 of the 17 studied quality traits could be predicted from the metabolic composition independently of the population structure. Furthermore, the model of amylose ratio could be validated using external varieties grown in an independent experiment. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the utility of metabolomics for linking traits with quantitative molecular data. This opens up new opportunities for trait prediction and construction of tailored germplasms to support modern plant breeding. PMID:22034874

  17. Molecular characterization, expression profile, and association study with meat quality traits of porcine PFKM gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Qin, Liang; Feng, Yanping; Zheng, Rong; Deng, Changyan; Xiong, Yuanzhu; Zuo, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Glycolytic potential is a hot aspect to meat quality research in recent years. Phosphofructokinase, muscle type (PFKM), is a key regulatory enzyme used to catalyze the irreversible conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate in glycolysis. The present study was designed to investigate the association of PFKM SNP and meat quality traits in pigs. In this study, the 2,864-bp full-length cDNA sequence of the porcine PFKM gene was obtained, which contained 30 bp of 5' UTR, 2,343 bp of coding region, and 491 bp of 3' UTR. The porcine PFKM mRNA was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) T129C in exon 13 of PFKM gene was detected, with its allele frequencies significantly different between Chinese indigenous pig breed and Western pig breeds. The SNP was significantly associated with meat color value (m. biceps femoris), meat marbling (m. longissimus dorsi), meat marbling (m. biceps femoris), intramuscular fat (m. longissimus dorsi) (P<0.01), and water moisture (m. longissimus dorsi) in the Large WhiteMeishan F2 population. These results laid a foundation for further investigations on the detailed physiological function of porcine PFKM gene. PMID:24840038

  18. Relationship between perilipin genes polymorphisms and growth, carcass and meat quality traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Gol, S; Ros-Freixedes, R; Zambonelli, P; Tor, M; Pena, R N; Braglia, S; Zappaterra, M; Estany, J; Davoli, R

    2016-02-01

    The perilipins (PLIN) belong to a family of structural proteins that play a role regulating intracellular lipid storage and mobilization. Here, PLIN1 and PLIN2 have been evaluated as candidate genes for growth, carcass and meat quality traits in pigs. A sample of 607 Duroc pigs were genotyped for two single-nucleotide polymorphisms, one in intron 2 of the PLIN1 gene (JN860199:g.173G>A) and the other at the 3' untranslated region of the PLIN2 gene (GU461317:g.98G>A). Using a Bayesian approach, we have been able to find evidence of additive, dominant and epistatic associations of the PLIN1 and PLIN2 polymorphisms with early growth rate and carcass length. However, the major effects were produced by the dominant A allele at the PLIN2 polymorphism, which also affected the carcass lean weight. Thus, pigs carrying an additional copy of the A allele at the g.98G>A PLIN2 polymorphism had a probability of at least 98% of producing carcasses with heavier lean weight (+0.41 kg) and ham weight (+0.10 kg). The results obtained indicate that the PLIN2 polymorphism could be a useful marker for lean growth. In particular, it may help to reduce the undesired negative correlated response in lean weight to selection for increased intramuscular fat content, a common scenario in some Duroc lines involved in the production of high quality pork products. PMID:25824029

  19. Effect of nutritive level on carcass traits and meat quality of IHDH foals

    PubMed Central

    De Palo, Pasquale; Tateo, Alessandra; Maggiolino, Aristide; Centoducati, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    The present work describes the effect of nutritive level on horse carcass traits and on meat quality. Eighteen male Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH) breed foals were employed in the study. Soon after foaling they were randomly subdivided into three groups according to three nutritive level classes: 150%, 180% and 200% of maintenance requirements. Live weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of each animal were recorded. After slaughtering, meat samples were collected from Longissimus dorsi muscle. The right half carcass of each animal was then divided into cuts. Each one was subdivided into lean, fat and bones. Live weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage were not affected by nutritive level (P > 0.05). Horses fed with the lower nutritive level showed a higher incidence of lean and a lower incidence of fat (P < 0.01). Moreover, fatty acid profile was not affected by nutritive level (P > 0.05). Probably the tendency of IHDH foals to concentrate adipogenesis in the subcutaneous district could explain the lack of influence of nutritive level on meat quality parameters and its influence on carcass and cut composition, which tend to be richer in fat. PMID:24961285

  20. Phytochrome RNAi enhances major fibre quality and agronomic traits of the cotton Gossypium hirsutum L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y.; Buriev, Zabardast T.; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Johnie N.; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E.

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous improvement of fibre quality, early-flowering, early-maturity and productivity in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) is a challenging task for conventional breeding. The influence of red/far-red light ratio on the fibre length prompted us to examine the phenotypic effects of RNA interference (RNAi) of the cotton PHYA1 gene. Here we show a suppression of up to ~70% for the PHYA1 transcript, and compensatory overexpression of up to ~20-fold in the remaining phytochromes in somatically regenerated PHYA1 RNAi cotton plants. Two independent transformants of three generations exhibited vigorous root and vegetative growth, early-flowering, significantly improved upper half mean fibre length and an improvement in other major fibre characteristics. Small decreases in lint traits were observed but seed cotton yield was increased an average 10-17% compared with controls. RNAi-associated phenotypes were heritable and transferable via sexual hybridization. These results should aid in the development of early-maturing and productive Upland cultivars with superior fibre quality.

  1. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in multiple candidate genes and carcass and meat quality traits in a commercial Angus-cross population.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jennifer L; Bishop, Stephen C; McCorquodale, Caroline; Williams, John L; Wiener, Pamela

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 10 candidate genes previously shown to be associated with quality traits in pigs and cattle. The data set comprised 28 traits recorded on a commercial population of 536 Aberdeen Angus-cross beef cattle. Among the traits, 20 were carcass and sirloin quality related, one mechanical measure of tenderness, and the remaining seven were taste panel assessed sensory traits. The candidate genes studied included growth hormone (GH) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). Association analysis showed that 13 of the 28 SNPs were significantly associated with at least one of the traits. Some of these were novel (POMC and mechanical tenderness), whilst others confirmed previous results (GH and eye muscle length). Following validation in other populations and breeds, these markers could be incorporated into breeding programs to increase the rate of improvement in carcass and meat quality traits. PMID:20826071

  2. Linkage disequilibrium, SNP frequency change due to selection, and association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits

    PubMed Central

    Paes, Geísa Pinheiro; Viana, José Marcelo Soriano; Silva, Fabyano Fonseca e; Mundim, Gabriel Borges

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objectives of this study were to assess linkage disequilibrium (LD) and selection-induced changes in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequency, and to perform association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for quality traits. Seven tropical and two temperate popcorn populations were genotyped for 96 SNPs chosen in chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits. The populations were phenotyped for expansion volume, 100-kernel weight, kernel sphericity, and kernel density. The LD statistics were the difference between the observed and expected haplotype frequencies (D), the proportion of D relative to the expected maximum value in the population, and the square of the correlation between the values of alleles at two loci. Association mapping was based on least squares and Bayesian approaches. In the tropical populations, D-values greater than 0.10 were observed for SNPs separated by 100-150 Mb, while most of the D-values in the temperate populations were less than 0.05. Selection for expansion volume indirectly led to increase in LD values, population differentiation, and significant changes in SNP frequency. Some associations were observed for expansion volume and the other quality traits. The candidate genes are involved with starch, storage protein, lipid, and cell wall polysaccharides synthesis. PMID:27007903

  3. The relevance of different near infrared technologies and sample treatments for predicting meat quality traits in commercial beef cuts.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, M; Penasa, M; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2013-02-01

    Visible and near infrared reflectance (Vis-NIR, 350 to 1800 nm), and near infrared transmittance (NIT, 850 to 1050 nm) spectroscopy were used to predict beef quality traits of intact and ground meat samples. Calibration equations were developed from reference data (n = 312) of pH, color traits (L*, a*, and b*), ageing loss (%), cooking loss (%), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF, N) using partial least squares regressions. Predictive ability of the models was assessed by coefficient of determination of cross-validation (R(2)(CV)) and root mean square error of cross-validation. Quality traits were better predicted on intact than on ground samples, and the best results were obtained using Vis-NIR spectroscopy. Predictions were good (R(2)(CV) = 0.62 to 0.73) for pH, L*, and a*, hardly sufficient (R(2)(CV) = 0.34 to 0.60) for b*, cooking loss, and WBSF, and unsatisfactory for ageing loss (R(2)(CV) = 0.15). Vis-NIR spectroscopy might be used to predict some physical beef quality traits on intact meat samples. PMID:23098602

  4. Genotype X environment interactions over seven years for yield yield components fiber quality and gossypol traits in the regional high quality tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the 1960s, many changes in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar tests have been made. This study partitions the total variation for 26 traits into environments (E), genotype (G) and GE variance components for the 2001 through 2007 Regional High Quality (RHQ) tests with 98 genotypes. It e...

  5. Quantitative trait loci of barley malting quality trait components in the Stellar/01Ab8219 mapping population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malting barley is of high economic and scientific importance. Determining barley grains that are suitable for malting involves measuring malting quality, which is an expensive and complex process. In order to decrease the cost of phenotyping and accelerate the process of developing superior malting ...

  6. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of the Opitutaceae Bacterium Strain TAV1, a Symbiont of the Wood-Feeding Termite Reticulitermes flavipes

    SciTech Connect

    Isanapong, Jantiya; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Bruce, David; Chen, Amy; Detter, J. Chris; Han, James; Han, Cliff; Held, Brittany; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, N; Land, Miriam L; Mavromatis, K; Nolan, Matt; Pati, Amrita; Pennacchio, Len; Pitluck, Sam; Szeto, Ernest; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Rodrigues, Jorge L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial communities in the termite hindgut are essential for degrading plant material. We present the high-quality draft genome sequence of the Opitutaceae bacterium strain TAV1, the first member of the phylum Verrucomicrobia to be isolated from wood-feeding termites. The genomic analysis reveals genes coding for lignocellulosic degradation and nitrogen fixation.

  7. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES: METHOD 28A MEASUREMENT OF AIR TO FUEL RATIO AND MINIMUM BURN RATE FOR WOOD-FIRED APPLIANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quality assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing measurement of air-to-fuel ratio and minimum burn rate determinations according to EPA protocol, Method 28A...

  8. Evaluation of seed chemical quality traits and sensory properties of natto soybean.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yoko; Chen, Pengyin; Zhang, Bo; Scaboo, Andrew; Orazaly, Moldir

    2014-06-15

    Natto is a popular soyfood in Japan, and the U.S. is the largest supplier of natto soybeans. However, information on natto seed chemical and sensory properties is very limited. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differences of seed chemical and sensory properties among natto types and determine heritability and correlation. A total of 15 small-seeded natto genotypes (three superior, nine moderate and three inferior) were evaluated for protein, oil, calcium, manganese, boron and sugar content and processed into a natto product to evaluate appearance, stickiness, flavor, texture and shelf-life. The superior natto group had a higher sugar content but lower protein plus oil, calcium, manganese and boron content than other two groups. Most seed quality traits exhibited high heritability. The natto sensory preference was positively correlated with sucrose and oil content, but negatively correlated with seed hardness, protein, protein plus oil, calcium, manganese, and boron contents. Selecting soybean lines with low protein, protein plus oil, calcium, manganese, and boron content while with high sucrose will be an effective approach for soybean breeding for natto production. PMID:24491719

  9. Effects of processing corn on the carcass traits and meat quality of feedlot lambs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Letícia Silva; Mazon, Madeline Rezende; Carvalho, Roberta Ferreira; Pesce, Domingos Marcelo Cenachi; Da Luz E Silva, Saulo; Gallo, Sarita Bonagurio; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the effect of the corn grain processing (whole grain, dry beans ground, and wet grain) on carcass characteristics and meat quality in lambs. Twenty-two Dorper vs. Santa Inês uncastrated lambs (27 ± 4 kg BW; ±3 months old) were distributed in a randomized complete block (initial BW). The diets were composed of 20 % protein-mineral pellet, 5 % hay, and 75 % corn in the form of whole grain, ground grain, or wet grain. The harvest weight of animals fed whole corn (50.2 kg) and ground (49.03 kg) were equal and higher than the moisture corn fed lambs (44.89 kg); therefore, the same differences were expected to be seen in the cold vs hot carcass comparison. However, there was no difference between treatments comparing hot or cold carcass performance, averaging 47 and 46 %, respectively. Also unaffected by the treatments were subcutaneous fat thickness values, loin muscle area, pH, temperature, drip loss, water loss by cooking, color, and tenderness. It can be concluded that the shape and size of corn grain in diets of high concentrate resulted in no measurable influence on carcass traits, but whole grain is more easily managed by the producer. PMID:25851927

  10. Comparison of Physicochemical and Functional Traits of Hanwoo Steer Beef by the Quality Grade

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong-Gyun; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Kyung Haeng; Kim, Jong-Ju

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical and functional traits for loin muscles of Hanwoo steers were compared by quality grade (QG). A total of 500 Hanwoo steers were slaughtered, their carcasses were categorized into four groups (QG 1++, 1+, 1, and 2), and the longissimus dorsi muscles were analyzed. QG 1++ group had the highest fat and lowest moisture content (p<0.05). QG 1++ showed higher L* and b* color values, higher cooking loss, and lower shear force values, compared with the other groups (p<0.05). The flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and preference scores by sensory evaluation were highly ranked for premium QG groups (1++ and 1+). Regarding the micro compounds, QG 1 and QG 2 had greater amounts of inosine monophosphate, and QG 2 had greater amounts of anserine, carnosine, and creatine, than QG 1++ (p<0.05). QG 1++ and 1+ had higher percentages of oleic acid (C18:1) than QG 2 (p<0.05). Within premium QG 1++ and 1+, the results of the nucleotides, free amino acids, dipeptides, and fatty acids did not show any distinctive differences. Hanwoo beef as determined by the current grading system was not significantly different in terms of functional components; the only significant difference was in intramuscular fat content. PMID:26761169

  11. The effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzinpour, Amjad; Karashi, Naser

    2013-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles could prove to be a valuable alternative raw material for antibiotics and disinfectants as it is relatively free of adverse effects. Nanosilver is now been put to practical use in commonly used items, such as, clothes, electric home appliances, and electronic industry, but has not been widely applied in the medical or pharmacological fields. This study was designed to investigate the effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail in completely randomized design with four treatments and six repetitions at 0, 4, 8 and 12 ppm of silver nanoparticle levels. Eggs collected daily and egg parameters, including egg weight, length, width; yolk weight and eggshell thickness were examined. The effect of the different silver nanoparticle levels was determined using the General Linear Model of SAS procedure, whilst differences between the groups were determined using least significant difference test. Results indicated that silver nanoparticles at all levels caused significantly reduce of yolk weight and hen-day egg production for each week than the control treatment ( P < 0.05), whilst silver nanoparticle had no significant effect on egg weight, egg length and width and eggshell thickness.

  12. Human urine and wood ash as plant nutrients for red beet (Beta vulgaris) cultivation: impacts on yield quality.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Surendra K; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Weisell, Janne; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2010-02-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of human urine and wood ash fertilization on the yield and quality of red beet by measuring the microbial, nutrient, and antioxidant (betanin) content of the roots. Red beets were fertilized with 133 kg of N/ha as mineral fertilizer, urine and ash, and only urine with no fertilizer as a control. The mineral-fertilized plants and urine- and ash-fertilized plants also received 89 kg of P/ha. Urine and ash and only urine fertilizer produced 1720 and 656 kg/ha more root biomass, respectively, versus what was obtained from the mineral fertilizer. Few fecal coliforms and coliphage were detected in mineral-fertilized and urine- and ash-fertilized red beet roots. The protein and betanin contents in red beet roots were similar in all treatments. In conclusion, this study revealed that urine with or without ash can increase the yield of red beet and furthermore the microbial quality and chemical quality were similar to the situation in mineral-fertilized products. PMID:20050665

  13. Assessment of ecological quality of the Tajan River in Iran using a multimetric macroinvertebrate index and species traits.

    PubMed

    Aazami, Jaber; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Abdoli, Asghar; Sohrabi, Hormoz; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obtained for 17 sites. The Shahid-Rajaie dam divides the Tajan River into an up- and downstream part, with different land uses. Eighteen metrics were used to represent four components of ecosystem quality, including tolerance (Hilsenhoff, SIGNAL), diversity (Margalef, Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, and Evenness), abundance (total number of taxa, individuals, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, EPT, and Insects), and composition of assemblages (% Ephemeroptera, % Plecoptera, % Trichoptera, and % EPT Taxa). The integrated MMI was calculated by averaging the obtained scores of all indices. In the next step, we gathered information on 22 biological traits of macroinvertebrates to evaluate whether (group of) traits could be identified that are indicative for specific or general stress. Result showed a decrease in MMI from upstream (very good water quality) to downstream (bad) due to human activities. Industrial activities like pulping and papermaking operations or sand mining in the downstream part had more effects than agriculture and fish ponds in the upstream part. A redundancy analysis biplot showed the variation between the modalities of trait of macroinvertebrates and their correlation with physico-chemical parameters in Tajan River. The findings show that traits can be indicative for different kind of stress but that more effort has to be put in gathering data sets to disentangle the effect of habitat quality, pollution, and the physico-chemical properties of high- versus lowland rivers. PMID:25861910

  14. Assessment of Ecological Quality of the Tajan River in Iran Using a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index and Species Traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aazami, Jaber; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Abdoli, Asghar; Sohrabi, Hormoz; Van den Brink, Paul J.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obtained for 17 sites. The Shahid-Rajaie dam divides the Tajan River into an up- and downstream part, with different land uses. Eighteen metrics were used to represent four components of ecosystem quality, including tolerance (Hilsenhoff, SIGNAL), diversity (Margalef, Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, and Evenness), abundance (total number of taxa, individuals, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, EPT, and Insects), and composition of assemblages (% Ephemeroptera, % Plecoptera, % Trichoptera, and % EPT Taxa). The integrated MMI was calculated by averaging the obtained scores of all indices. In the next step, we gathered information on 22 biological traits of macroinvertebrates to evaluate whether (group of) traits could be identified that are indicative for specific or general stress. Result showed a decrease in MMI from upstream (very good water quality) to downstream (bad) due to human activities. Industrial activities like pulping and papermaking operations or sand mining in the downstream part had more effects than agriculture and fish ponds in the upstream part. A redundancy analysis biplot showed the variation between the modalities of trait of macroinvertebrates and their correlation with physico-chemical parameters in Tajan River. The findings show that traits can be indicative for different kind of stress but that more effort has to be put in gathering data sets to disentangle the effect of habitat quality, pollution, and the physico-chemical properties of high- versus lowland rivers.

  15. Significant association of APOA5 and APOC3 gene polymorphisms with meat quality traits in Kele pigs.

    PubMed

    Hui, Y T; Yang, Y Q; Liu, R Y; Zhang, Y Y; Xiang, C J; Liu, Z Z; Ding, Y H; Zhang, Y L; Wang, B R

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) and C3 (APOC3) genes are involved in the PPAR lipid metabolism pathway and thus associated with elevated triglyceride levels. However, whether APOA5 and APOC3 genetic polymorphisms affect intramuscular fat deposition and other meat quality traits remains unknown in pigs. One hundred and seventy-one Kele pigs were sampled to investigate genetic variants in the APOA5 and APOC3 genes and their association with seven pork quality traits. We identified 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of the APOA5 gene and 17 SNPs in the APOC3 gene. Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed 5 complete linkage disequilibria among these 22 SNPs. We found that 10 SNPs were significantly correlated with meat quality traits, including the mutation A5/-769 in the APOA5 gene, which was significantly associated with cooked weight percentage, and 9 SNPs in the APOC3 gene that were significantly associated with drip loss rate, meat color value of longissimus dorsi muscle and shear force. Therefore, these SNP markers will be useful for marker-assisted selection for improved pork quality. PMID:24085428

  16. Polymorphisms of the bovine MC3R gene and their associations with body measurement traits and meat quality traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Yang, W-C; Wang, Y-N; Cui, A; Zan, L-S

    2015-01-01

    The melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R) gene, which belongs to the rhodopsin-like family A of the G protein-coupled receptor family, plays a crucial role in feed efficiency and energy homeostasis. The aim of this study was to examine associations between bovine MC3R gene polymorphisms and body measurement traits (BMTs) and meat quality traits (MQTs). We identified three synonymous mutations (T429C, T537C, and T663C) in exon 1 of the MC3R gene in Chinese Qinchuan beef cattle (N = 271) by sequencing. D' and r(2) values revealed that these three SNPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r(2) > 0.33); the T429C and T537C SNPs were in complete LD (D' = 1 and r(2) = 1). Association analyses revealed that the SNPs were significantly associated with BMTs and MQTs in Qinchuan cattle. Individuals with the wild homozygotic genotypes g.TTTT and g.TT had significantly higher values of chest depth, heart girth, back fat thickness, intramuscular fat content, and loin muscle area than the mutant heterozygotic genotypes g.TCTC and g.TC. These results suggest that the MC3R gene affects MQTs in Qinchuan cattle, and that it may be a good candidate gene for marker-assisted selection. PMID:26505335

  17. A Study to Determine Non-Academic Traits of a Successful Student in an Open Learning Center Environment at John Wood Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronquist, Shirley; And Others

    John Wood Community College's Open Learning Center (OLC) offers an alternative to traditional classroom approaches using one-to-one instruction, a competency-based learning format, and flexible scheduling. Due to concern over the high attrition rate in OLC courses, a study was conducted to identify the characteristics and variables contributing to…

  18. Utility of Metabolomics toward Assessing the Metabolic Basis of Quality Traits in Apple Fruit with an Emphasis on Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Daniel; Andrews, Preston K.; Reganold, John P.; Davies, Neal M.; Lange, B. Markus

    2012-01-01

    A gas chromatography–mass spectrometry approach was employed to evaluate the use of metabolite patterns to differentiate fruit from six commercially grown apple cultivars harvested in 2008. Principal component analysis (PCA) of apple fruit peel and flesh data indicated that individual cultivar replicates clustered together and were separated from all other cultivar samples. An independent metabolomics investigation with fruit harvested in 2003 confirmed the separate clustering of fruit from different cultivars. Further evidence for cultivar separation was obtained using a hierarchical clustering analysis. An evaluation of PCA component loadings revealed specific metabolite classes that contributed the most to each principal component, whereas a correlation analysis demonstrated that specific metabolites correlate directly with quality traits such as antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and total anthocyanins, which are important parameters in the selection of breeding germplasm. These data sets lay the foundation for elucidating the metabolic basis of commercially important fruit quality traits. PMID:22881116

  19. Use of Genome Sequence Information for Meat Quality Trait QTL Mining for Causal Genes and Mutations on Pig Chromosome 17

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhi-Liang; Ramos, Antonio M.; Humphray, Sean J.; Rogers, Jane; Reecy, James M.; Rothschild, Max F.

    2011-01-01

    The newly available pig genome sequence has provided new information to fine map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in order to eventually identify causal variants. With targeted genomic sequencing efforts, we were able to obtain high quality BAC sequences that cover a region on pig chromosome 17 where a number of meat quality QTL have been previously discovered. Sequences from 70 BAC clones were assembled to form an 8-Mbp contig. Subsequently, we successfully mapped five previously identified QTL, three for meat color and two for lactate related traits, to the contig. With an additional 25 genetic markers that were identified by sequence comparison, we were able to carry out further linkage disequilibrium analysis to narrow down the genomic locations of these QTL, which allowed identification of the chromosomal regions that likely contain the causative variants. This research has provided one practical approach to combine genetic and molecular information for QTL mining. PMID:22303339

  20. Effect of slaughter age on foal carcass traits and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, R; Crecente, S; Borrajo, P; Agregán, R; Lorenzo, J M

    2015-10-01

    Meat has played a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well-balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. Recent studies have shown that horsemeat may be considered as an alternative to other meat (such as beef or pork), and it may have a positive effect on human health from a nutritional point of view. This research was conducted to characterize the carcass measurement, meat quality (chemical composition, colour characteristics and textural traits) and nutritional value (fatty acid and amino acid composition) of foals slaughtered at 8 and 11 months of age (8 and 11 m groups). For this study, a total of 21 foals (10 and 11 animals from the 8 and 11-m groups, respectively) were used. The results obtained showed a positive influence on carcass characteristics with an increase in slaughter age, because 11 m animals had slightly higher values of live (275 v. 247 kg) and carcass weights (148 v. 133 kg), length of leg (72.86 v. 69.85 cm) and carcass (100.41 v. 96.30 cm) and perimeter of leg (97.68 v. 89.22 cm) compared with animals from the 8-m group. Regarding meat quality, only Fe-haeme and cholesterol content in chemical composition and luminosity (L*) in colour parameters showed significant differences. Foals from the 8-m group had the highest content of cholesterol (0.47 v. 0.28 mg/100 g of meat) and luminosity values (39.66 v. 37.88) and the lowest content of ash (1.20% v. 1.40%). In fatty acids content, only five out of 23 fatty acids showed differences between the two groups. However, an interesting change in the fatty acid profile occurred with an increase in the slaughter age. Foals from the 8-m group had the highest values of α-linolenic acid and n-3 fatty acids and the lowest values of linoleic and n-6 fatty acids, which is an interesting fact from a health point of view. Finally, slaughter age had no statistical influence on textural properties or amino acid content. As a main conclusion, animals slaughtered at 8 months of age had higher nutritional quality meat (with higher content of n-3 fatty acids) than meat from foals slaughtered at 11 months of age. The slaughter of animals at 8 months of age also reduced production costs because they ate a smaller amount of commercial fodder. PMID:25951928

  1. Influence of Autism Traits and Executive Functioning on Quality of Life in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Marieke; Geurts, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) often experience a low Quality of Life (QoL). We studied if IQ, early language development, current autism traits, and daily Executive Functions (EFs) are related to QoL in children (aged 8-12 years) with ASD (N = 120) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 76). Children with ASD showed a lower…

  2. A novel polymorphism of the MYPN gene and its association with meat quality traits in Bos taurus.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Y; Zan, L S; Liu, Y F; Wang, H B; Guo, B L

    2010-01-01

    Myopalladin (MYPN) is a multifunctional protein that maintains sarcomeric integrity and regulates Z-line structure. It is an important candidate gene for meat quality selection through marker-assisted selection. Using PCR-RFLP technology, we discovered a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A1795G in exon 9) of the MYPN gene. Allele frequencies of this SNP were investigated and evaluated by the chi(2) test in 660 cattle populations in China; only the Nanyang population was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Gene heterozygosity, effective allele number and polymorphism information content of the bovine MYPN locus in seven populations varied from 0.3888 to 0.4998, 1.6360 to 1.9992, and 0.3132 to 0.3749, respectively. We also looked for a potential association of this SNP with ultrasound traits in 399 individuals and found a significant effect on the ultrasound loin-muscle area. Meat quality traits were analyzed in another 61 Qinchuan individuals to analyze associations with genotype. Animals with the genotype GG had higher mean values for loin-eye area (P < 0.05) and water-holding capacity (P < 0.01) than those with AA or AG genotypes. We conclude that this SNP of the MYPN gene has potential as a genetic marker for meat quality traits in cattle reproduction and breeding. PMID:20812196

  3. Comparison of composition and quality traits of meat from young finishing bulls from Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus breeds.

    PubMed

    Cuvelier, C; Clinquart, A; Hocquette, J F; Cabaraux, J F; Dufrasne, I; Istasse, L; Hornick, J L

    2006-11-01

    Thirty-six young finishing bulls from three breeds (Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus) were fattened over five months with finishing diets based either on sugar-beet pulp or on cereals. Nutritional quality traits of meat - fat content and fatty acid composition with emphasis on the n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids - along with some organoleptic quality traits were measured. The Belgian Blue bulls had the lowest intramuscular fat content associated with lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid contents. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content did not differ to a large extent between the breeds, the Aberdeen Angus bulls showing slightly higher values. Relative to energy intake, the overall contribution of meat to the n-3 fatty acid recommended intake was small, whatever the breed. By contrast, the contribution of meat to daily fat intake was of greater importance, especially for the Aberdeen Angus bulls. The quality traits of meat varied also according to the breed: compared to the Aberdeen Angus, the Belgian Blue bull meat had the stablest colour, the highest drip and the lowest cooking losses. The meat of Limousin bulls had intermediate characteristics for all the parameters. PMID:22063057

  4. Genetic polymorphisms of the FATP1 gene and their associations with meat quality traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z D; Li, A N; Wei, S J; Wang, M M; Li, S J; Zan, L S

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1), an integral membrane protein that facilitates long-chain fatty acid influx, is involved in the genetic network for oleic acid synthesis. The aim of this study was to examine the association of FATP1 polymorphisms with live animal meat quality traits in Chinese Qinchuan cattle. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that FATP1 has a broad tissue distribution in Qinchuan cattle and is highly expressed in longissimus dorsi muscle and back fat. Using direct DNA sequencing of the FATP1 gene in 458 Qinchuan cattle, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; g.28265 G>C, g.28381 G>A, g.28470 T>C, and g.28672 G>A) were identified for genotyping within a 671-bp region, including exon 3, intron 3, exon 4, intron 4, and part of exon 5 of the FATP1 gene. Positive effects of genotypes CC (g.28470 T>C locus) and AA (g.28672 G>A locus) on meat quality traits were obtained by association analysis. These results indicate the associations of g.28470 T>C and g.28672 G>A with meat quality traits in Qinchuan cattle. Thus, the FATP1 gene may be used in marker-assisted selection of beef cattle in breeding programs. PMID:26782386

  5. Joint analysis of beef growth and carcass quality traits through calculation of co-variance components and correlations.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, H R; Verbyla, A P; Pitchford, W S

    2011-01-01

    A joint growth-carcass model using random regression was used to estimate the (co)variance components of beef cattle body weights and carcass quality traits and correlations between them. During a four-year period (1994-1997) of the Australian "southern crossbreeding project", mature Hereford cows (N = 581) were mated to 97 sires of Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin, and Belgian Blue breeds, resulting in 1141 calves. Data included 13 (for steers) and 8 (for heifers) body weight measurements approximately every 50 days from birth until slaughter and four carcass quality traits: hot standard carcass weight, rump fat depth, rib eye muscle area, and intramuscular fat content. The mixed model included fixed effects of sex, sire breed, age (linear, quadratic and cubic), and their interactions between sex and sire breed with age. Random effects were sire, dam, management (birth location, year, post-weaning groups), and permanent environmental effects, and their interactions with linear, quadratic and cubic growth, when possible. Phenotypic, sire and dam correlations between body weights and hot standard carcass weight and rib eye muscle area were positive and moderate to high from birth to feedlot period. Management variation accounted for the largest proportion of total variation in both growth and carcass traits. Management correlations between carcass traits were high, except between rump fat depth and intramuscular fat (r = 0.26). Management correlations between body weight and carcass traits during the pre-weaning period were positive except for intramuscular fat. The correlations were low from birth to weaning, then increased dramatically and were high during the feedlot period. PMID:21425094

  6. A “Rice Diversity Panel” Evaluated For Variation In Agro-Morphological And Grain Quality Traits Among The Genetically Defined Subpopulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A “Rice Diversity Panel” composed of 409 purified accessions originating from 79 countries was evaluated for 18 agro-morphological traits and two quality traits, amylose content and alkali spreading value (ASV) which is a measure of gelatinization temperature (gel temp). This panel was also screened...

  7. New QTL alleles for quality-related traits in spring wheat revealed by RIL population derived from supernumerary x non-supernumerary spikelet genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying new quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and alleles in exotic germplasm is paramount for further improvement of quality traits in wheat. In the present study, a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a cross between an elite wheat line (WCB414) and an exotic genotype wi...

  8. Genetic divergence of physiological-quality traits of seeds in a population of peppers.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, A M S; Barroso, P A; do Rêgo, E R; Medeiros, G D A; Bruno, R L A; do Rêgo, M M

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has a great diversity of Capsicum peppers that can be used in breeding programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate genetic variation in traits related to the physiological quality of seeds of Capsicum annuum L. in a segregating F2 population and its parents. A total of 250 seeds produced by selfing in the F1 generation resulting from crosses between UFPB 77.3 and UFPB 76 were used, with 100 seeds of both parents used as additional controls, totaling 252 genotypes. The seeds were germinated in gerboxes containing substrate blotting paper moistened with distilled water. Germination and the following vigor tests were evaluated: first count, germination velocity index, and root and shoot lengths. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, and means were compared by Scott and Knott's method at 1% probability. Tocher's clustering based on Mahalanobis distance and canonical variable analysis with graphic dispersion of genotypes were performed, and genetic parameters were estimated. All variables were found to be significant by the F test (P ≤ 0.01) and showed high heritability and a CVg/CVe ratio higher than 1.0, indicating genetic differences among genotypes. Parents (genotypes 1 and 2) formed distinct groups in all clustering methods. Genotypes 3, 104, 153, and 232 were found to be the most divergent according to Tocher's clustering method, and this was mainly due to early germination, which was observed on day 14, and would therefore be selected. Understanding the phenotypic variability among these 252 genotypes will serve as a basis for continuing the breeding program within this family. PMID:26505398

  9. Effect of feed restriction on hormones, performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in immunocastrated pigs.

    PubMed

    Batorek, N; Škrlep, M; Prunier, A; Louveau, I; Noblet, J; Bonneau, M; Čandek-Potokar, M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of feed restriction applied to immunocastrated pigs in the period after the second vaccination (V2) against GnRH on hormonal status, performance, carcass traits, and meat quality. Immunocastrated pigs (IC) were compared with entire males (EM) and surgical castrates fed ad libitum. Pigs (Large White × Landrace) × Pietrain were either left entire or surgically castrated within 1 wk after birth (SC, n = 22). At 83 d of age, the entire males were further allotted to treatment groups (individual housing) of ad libitum fed EM (n = 24), ad libitum fed IC (IC-L, n = 21), or restrictively fed IC (IC-R, n = 21). At that time, the first vaccination (V1) was applied to IC-L and IC-R pigs. One week after V2 (age 130 d), feed restriction (≈ 80% of the ad libitum feed intake of SC pigs) was applied to IC-R pigs. The experiment ended 5 wk after V2, when pigs were 165 d old. Immunocastration successfully reduced boar taint compounds and size of reproductive organs. At 130 d, serum leptin concentrations were similar in all groups, whereas IGF-I concentration was less in SC (P ≤ 0.002) than in the other groups. Three weeks after V2, leptin concentrations of both IC groups were in between EM (least) and SC (greatest). The reverse was observed for IGF-I. Feed restriction had no effect on leptin or IGF-I concentrations in IC pigs. In the period V1 to V2, performance differed mainly between EM and SC, whereas both IC groups had feed intake and feed conversion ratio similar to EM and intermediate daily BW gain, not differing from either EM or SC. After V2, IC-L pigs increased their feed intake to the concentrations of SC, with faster growth compared with the other 3 groups (P < 0.05) and fatter carcasses compared with EM pigs (P = 0.007). Similar performance and carcass leanness were observed for IC-R and EM pigs. During preslaughter handling more carcass lesions were noted in EM and IC-R than in IC-L or SC pigs (P < 0.002). Neither immunocastration nor feed restriction had any effect on meat quality, but EM had greater drip loss, less intramuscular fat, and decreased tenderness than SC pigs. In conclusion, restricting feed intake can increase production efficiency but also aggressiveness of IC pigs. PMID:22829612

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FTO gene and their association with growth and meat quality traits in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gong-Wei; Gao, Lian; Chen, Shi-Yi; Zhao, Xiao-Bing; Tian, Yao-Fu; Wang, Xia; Deng, Xiao-Song; Lai, Song-Jia

    2013-09-25

    Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene is an excellent candidate to affect the fatness and growth-related traits in pig and cattle. The aim of this study was to reveal the association between FTO and growth and meat quality traits in rabbits. A total of eight coding SNPs were detected, and four SNPs of them in exon 3 were further genotyped for association analysis in 442 rabbits from three breeds, including 248 New Zealand rabbits, 92 Ira rabbits, and 102 Champagne rabbits. Because there were significant differences for the allele and genotype frequencies among breeds, the association analysis was independently conducted in each breed only for these SNPs with minor allele frequency >5.0%. The results revealed that non-synonymous SNP c.499G>A (p.A167T) was significantly associated with body weight (BW) at 35, 70, and 84 days of age in New Zealand rabbits (P<0.01). The CC genotype of synonymous SNP c.660T>C was significantly associated with higher BW84, average daily weight gain, and intramuscular fat content of longissimus lumborum than TT and TC genotypes in Ira rabbits (P<0.05). There were no associations between the four SNPs and growth and meat quality traits in Champagne rabbits. Meanwhile, FTO SNPs were not associated with meat pH value. Our data indicated that FTO gene could be a candidate gene associated with growth and meat quality traits in rabbits. However, the breed-specific effect should be carefully taken into consideration. PMID:23796799

  11. Evaluating a Wood-strand Material for Wind Erosion Control and Air Quality Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fugitive dust from eroding land poses both environmental quality and human health problems in the western United States. Since the advent of the Clean Air Act in 1990, regulations have been imposed on particulate matter in the atmosphere. Agricultural straw has been widely used for erosion control...

  12. Identification of Associated SSR Markers for Yield Component and Fiber Quality Traits Based on Frame Map and Upland Cotton Collections

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hongde; Chen, Min; Yi, Xianda; Bie, Shu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Youchang; Lan, Jiayang; Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Youlu; Jiao, Chunhai

    2015-01-01

    Detecting QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that enhance cotton yield and fiber quality traits and accelerate breeding has been the focus of many cotton breeders. In the present study, 359 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were used for the association mapping of 241 Upland cotton collections. A total of 333 markers, representing 733 polymorphic loci, were detected. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distances were 8.58 cM (r2 > 0.1) and 5.76 cM (r2 > 0.2). 241 collections were arranged into two subgroups using STRUCTURE software. Mixed linear modeling (MLM) methods (with population structure (Q) and relative kinship matrix (K)) were applied to analyze four phenotypic datasets obtained from four environments (two different locations and two years). Forty-six markers associated with the number of bolls per plant (NB), boll weight (BW), lint percentage (LP), fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber micornaire value (FM) were repeatedly detected in at least two environments. Of 46 associated markers, 32 were identified as new association markers, and 14 had been previously reported in the literature. Nine association markers were near QTLs (at a distance of less than 1–2 LD decay on the reference map) that had been previously described. These results provide new useful markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs and new insights for understanding the genetic basis of Upland cotton yields and fiber quality traits at the whole-genome level. PMID:25635680

  13. Upgrading producer gas quality from rubber wood gasification in a radio frequency tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor.

    PubMed

    Anis, Samsudin; Zainal, Z A

    2013-12-01

    This study focused on improving the producer gas quality using radio frequency (RF) tar thermocatalytic treatment reactor. The producer gas containing tar, particles and water was directly passed at a particular flow rate into the RF reactor at various temperatures for catalytic and thermal treatments. Thermal treatment generates higher heating value of 5.76 MJ Nm(-3) at 1200C. Catalytic treatments using both dolomite and Y-zeolite provide high tar and particles conversion efficiencies of about 97% on average. The result also showed that light poly-aromatic hydrocarbons especially naphthalene and aromatic compounds particularly benzene and toluene were still found even at higher reaction temperatures. Low energy intensive RF tar thermocatalytic treatment was found to be effective for upgrading the producer gas quality to meet the end user requirements and increasing its energy content. PMID:24185417

  14. Analysis of a slow-growing line reveals wide genetic variability of carcass and meat quality-related traits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Slow-growing lines are widely used in France for the production of high quality free-range chickens. While such production is mainly dedicated to the whole carcass market, new prospects are opening up for the development of cuts and processed products. Whether the body composition and meat quality of slow-growing birds can be improved by selection has thus become an important issue. The genetic parameters of growth, body composition and breast meat quality traits were evaluated in relation to behaviour at slaughter in a large pedigree population including 1022 male and female slow-growing birds. Results The heritability coefficients (h2) of body weight and body composition traits varied from 0.3 to 0.5. Abdominal fat percentage was genetically positively correlated with body weight but negatively correlated with breast muscle yield. The characteristics of the breast meat (i.e., post-mortem fall in pH, colour, drip loss, shear-force and lipid content) were all heritable, with h2 estimates ranging from 0.18 to 0.48. The rate and extent of the fall in pH were under different genetic control. Strong negative genetic correlations were found between the ultimate pH and the lightness, yellowness and drip loss of the meat. Wing flapping on the shackle line was significantly heritable and exhibited marked genetic correlations with the pH at 15 min post-slaughter and the redness of the meat. The genetic relationships between meat quality traits, body weight and body composition appeared slightly different between males and females. Conclusion This study suggested that there are a number of important criteria for selection on carcass and breast meat quality in slow-growing birds. Selection for reduced abdominal fatness and increased breast muscle yield should be effective as both traits were found to be highly heritable and favourably correlated. Substantial improvement in meat quality could be achieved by selection on ultimate pH which was highly heritable and strongly correlated with the colour and water-holding capacity of the meat. Moreover, this study revealed for the first time that the behaviour at slaughter is partly genetically determined in the chicken. PMID:23088779

  15. Genetic parameters and prediction of genotypic values for root quality traits in cassava using REML/BLUP.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E J; Santana, F A; Oliveira, L A; Santos, V S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and predict the genotypic values of root quality traits in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). A total of 471 cassava accessions were evaluated over two years of cultivation. The evaluated traits included amylose content (AML), root dry matter (DMC), cyanogenic compounds (CyC), and starch yield (StYi). Estimates of the individual broad-sense heritability of AML were low (hg(2) = 0.07 ± 0.02), medium for StYi and DMC, and high for CyC. The heritability of AML was substantially improved based on mean of accessions (hm(2) = 0.28), indicating that some strategies such as increasing the number of repetitions can be used to increase the selective efficiency. In general, the observed genotypic values were very close to the predicted average of the improved population, most likely due to the high accuracy (>0.90), especially for DMC, CyC, and StYi. Gains via selection of the 30 best genotypes for each trait were 4.8 and 3.2% for an increase and decrease for AML, respectively, an increase of 10.75 and 74.62% for DMC for StYi, respectively, and a decrease of 89.60% for CyC in relation to the overall mean of the genotypic values. Genotypic correlations between the quality traits of the cassava roots collected were generally favorable, although they were low in magnitude. The REML/BLUP method was adequate for estimating genetic parameters and predicting the genotypic values, making it useful for cassava breeding. PMID:25177949

  16. Effect of Wood Biochar in Manure-Applied Sand Columns on Leachate Quality.

    PubMed

    Bradley, A; Larson, R A; Runge, T

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural operations can pose a threat to the quality of nearby water sources particularly from nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses following land application of manure. Biochar application to soils has the potential to ameliorate degraded soils and reduce nutrient leaching to groundwater. The effects of amending sand soil columns with hybrid poplar biochar ( spp.) made by a slow-pyrolysis process at 450°C at varying rates (0, 1, 2, and 5% by weight) with repeated dairy manure applications over a 56-wk period was examined to evaluate the impact to leachate water quality. Increasing levels of biochar decreased cumulative levels of total N (TN) by 21 to 59%, nitrate (NO-N) by 17 to 46%, and ammonia (NH-N + NH-N) by 46 to 90% in leachate but increased cumulative leaching of total P (TP). Overall leachate pH was increased and peak levels of 5-d biological oxygen demand (BOD) in leachate after manure application were decreased with increasing levels of biochar amendment. The results from this study indicate that biochar amendments could be effective in reducing nitrogen leaching from soils, though further study is needed to determine practical application in a field setting. PMID:26641323

  17. Discontinuous and Continuous Indoor Air Quality Monitoring in Homes with Fireplaces or Wood Stoves as Heating System

    PubMed Central

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Dambruoso, Paolo Rosario; Di Gilio, Alessia; Di Palma, Valerio; Marzocca, Annalisa; Tutino, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Around 50% of the world’s population, particularly in developing countries, uses biomass as one of the most common fuels. Biomass combustion releases a considerable amount of various incomplete combustion products, including particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The paper presents the results of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) measurements in six houses equipped with wood burning stoves or fireplaces as heating systems. The houses were monitored for 48-h periods in order to collect PM10 samples and measure PAH concentrations. The average, the maximum and the lowest values of the 12-h PM10 concentration were 68.6 μg/m3, 350.7 μg/m3 and 16.8 μg/m3 respectively. The average benzo[a]pyrene 12-h concentration was 9.4 ng/m3, while the maximum and the minimum values were 24.0 ng/m3 and 1.5 ng/m3, respectively. Continuous monitoring of PM10, PAHs, Ultra Fine Particle (UFP) and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) was performed in order to study the progress of pollution phenomena due to biomass burning, their trends and contributions to IAQ. The results show a great heterogeneity of impacts on IAQ in terms of magnitude and behavior of the considered pollutants’ concentrations. This variability is determined by not only different combustion technologies or biomass quality, but overall by different ignition mode, feeding and flame management, which can also be different for the same house. Moreover, room dimensions and ventilation were significant factors for pollution dispersion. The increase of PM10, UFP and PAH concentrations, during lighting, was always detected and relevant. Continuous monitoring allowed singling out contributions of other domestic sources of considered pollutants such as cooking and cigarettes. Cooking contribution produced an impact on IAQ in same cases higher than that of the biomass heating system. PMID:26712773

  18. Discontinuous and Continuous Indoor Air Quality Monitoring in Homes with Fireplaces or Wood Stoves as Heating System.

    PubMed

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Dambruoso, Paolo Rosario; Di Gilio, Alessia; Di Palma, Valerio; Marzocca, Annalisa; Tutino, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Around 50% of the world's population, particularly in developing countries, uses biomass as one of the most common fuels. Biomass combustion releases a considerable amount of various incomplete combustion products, including particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The paper presents the results of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) measurements in six houses equipped with wood burning stoves or fireplaces as heating systems. The houses were monitored for 48-h periods in order to collect PM10 samples and measure PAH concentrations. The average, the maximum and the lowest values of the 12-h PM10 concentration were 68.6 μg/m³, 350.7 μg/m³ and 16.8 μg/m³ respectively. The average benzo[a]pyrene 12-h concentration was 9.4 ng/m³, while the maximum and the minimum values were 24.0 ng/m³ and 1.5 ng/m³, respectively. Continuous monitoring of PM10, PAHs, Ultra Fine Particle (UFP) and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) was performed in order to study the progress of pollution phenomena due to biomass burning, their trends and contributions to IAQ. The results show a great heterogeneity of impacts on IAQ in terms of magnitude and behavior of the considered pollutants' concentrations. This variability is determined by not only different combustion technologies or biomass quality, but overall by different ignition mode, feeding and flame management, which can also be different for the same house. Moreover, room dimensions and ventilation were significant factors for pollution dispersion. The increase of PM10, UFP and PAH concentrations, during lighting, was always detected and relevant. Continuous monitoring allowed singling out contributions of other domestic sources of considered pollutants such as cooking and cigarettes. Cooking contribution produced an impact on IAQ in same cases higher than that of the biomass heating system. PMID:26712773

  19. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in PtoCesA7 and their association with growth and wood properties in Populus tomentosa.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiaxing; Chang, Mengqi; Du, Qingzhang; Xu, Baohua; Zhang, Deqiang

    2014-06-01

    Cellulose synthase (CesA) genes encode the enzymes that synthesize cellulose; therefore, CesAs play central roles in plant development and affect the yield and quality of wood, essential properties for industrial applications of plant biomass. To effectively manipulate wood biosynthesis in trees and improve wood quality, we thus require a better understanding of the natural variation in CesAs. Association studies have emerged as a powerful tool for identification of variation associated with quantitative traits. Here, we used a candidate gene-based association mapping approach to identify PtoCesA7 allelic variants that associate with growth and wood quality traits in Populus tomentosa. We isolated a full-length PtoCesA7 cDNA and observed high PtoCesA7 expression in xylem, consistent with the xylem-specific expression of CesA7. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in PtoCesA7, sampled from the P. tomentosa natural distribution, revealed that PtoCesA7 harbors high nucleotide diversity (?(T) = 0.0091) and low LD (r(2) ? 0.1, within 800 bp). By association analysis, we identified seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (false discovery rate Q < 0.10) and 12 haplotypes (Q < 0.10) that associated with growth and wood properties, explaining 3.62-10.59 % of the phenotypic variance. We also validated 9 of the 10 significant marker-trait associations in at least one of three smaller subsets (climatic regions) or in a linkage-mapping population. Thus, our study identified functional PtoCesA7 allelic variants associated with growth and wood quality traits, giving new insights into genes affecting wood quality and quantity. From an applied perspective, the SNPs revealed in this study have potential applications in marker-assisted breeding. PMID:24549852

  20. Evaluation of temperament and transportation stress on body composition traits and meat quality in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the first study was to evaluate the combined effects of transportation stress and animal temperament on real-time ultrasound body composition traits (primarily percentage of intramuscular fat) in Angus Crossbred (n = 68) and Brahman (n = 60) steers. Temperament scores (1 to 5 scale)...

  1. Genomic selection accuracy for grain quality traits in biparental wheat populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection (GS) is a promising tool for plant and animal breeding that uses genome wide molecular marker data to capture small and large effect quantitative trait loci and predict the genetic value of selection candidates. Genomic selection has been shown previously to have higher prediction ...

  2. Pre-Service Teachers: Dispositional Traits, Emotional States, and Quality of Teacher-Student Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripski, Michael B.; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Decker, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Given the interactive nature of teaching, dispositional characteristics (i.e., traits that dispose a person towards certain behaviors, choices, and experiences) like assertiveness and openness or emotional states such as sadness, worry, and stress may play important roles in a teacher's ability to interact in meaningful, engaging, and effective…

  3. Geohydrology and quality of water in aquifers in Lucas, Sandusky, and Wood counties, northwestern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breen, K.J.; Dumouchelle, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The hydrology and quality of ground water were evaluated for the surficial sand and carbonate aquifers in northwestern Ohio. A locally important surficial sand aquifer in western Lucas County was evaluated on the basis of data from 10 wells completed in undeveloped and developed areas. The carbonate aquifer in Silurian and Devonian bedrock at its northernmost extent on the Ohio mainland was evaluated on the basis of data from previous studies and data from 466 wells and 11 springs. Most data are for the period 1985-88. The unconfined surficial sand aquifer is less than 50 ft. (feet) thick. Clay-rich drift, which restricts vertical movement of water, underlines the aquifer. Recharge is from precipitation, and discharge is by evapotranspiration and by flow to local streams and drainage ditches. Water levels are generally 2 to 8 ft. below land surface and fluctuate a total of about 3.5 ft. seasonally in a forested area. Concentrations of iron and manganese in ground water are excessive in some areas. Waters from shallow drive-point wells in residential areas contained larger concentrations of dissolved solids, hardness, sodium, and chloride than did waters from identical wells in undeveloped areas. The presence of nitrate nitrogen an other selected constituents in ground water in residential areas, and the absence of these constituents in ground water in undeveloped areas, indicate that the surficial sand aquifer has been affected by development. In carbonate aquifer, fractures, bedding-plane joints, and other secondary openings are the principal water-bearing zones. These zones can be areally and stratigraphically separated by low-permeability rock. Leaky artesian or semiconfined conditions predominate beneath most of the 1,400-mi? study area. The aquifer is confined by relatively impermeable underlying shale of Silurian age and overlying clay-rich drift of Quaternary age. Unproductive strata, including evaporites, within the sequence of carbonate rocks also confine some water-bearing zones. The carbonate aquifer is part of a regional ground-water-flow system; however, subsystems such as the eastern karst and central outcrops are locally important. The potentiometric surface indicates that recharge from areas south and west of the study area flows toward discharge areas along major rivers (Maumee, Portage, and Sandusky) , to a buried bedrock valley in central Sandusky County, and to springs and flowing wells. The potentiometric surface flattens markedly near the southern shore of Lake Erie, where ground-water levels approximate those of the lake, indicating a hydraulic connection between the lake and the aquifer. Hydrogeologic characteristics and water-quality data indicate that Lake Erie is not a major source of recharge to the aquifer. Ground-water ages inferred from tritium concentrations and potentiometric-surface maps indicate that recharge from precipitation enters the aquifer by subsurface drainage in karstified strata in eastern Sandusky County and by infiltration in shallow bedrock areas where drift is less than 20 ft. thick. The quality of water in the carbonate aquifer is described with reference to 52 properties and constituents that characterize chemical, radiochemical, bacteriologic, and physical conditions. Ground-water samples from 135 wells and 11 springs are used in the characterization. On the basis of these data, water from the aquifer is generally suitable for drinking and for most domestic purposes. The most areally widespread aesthtic factors limiting the use of ground water are hardness, concentrations of dissolved solids, sulfate and iron, and the presence of hydrogen sulfide. Selected bacteria are commonly present and may compromise the potability of water from the aquifer. Coliform bacteria from surface sources were found in 47 of 143 water samples. Analyses for total coliform bacteria indicate that 36 of the 125 samples from wells maintained for potable supply have bacteria counts of 4

  4. The sodium channel gene family is specifically expressed in hen uterus and associated with eggshell quality traits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eggshell quality is important for the poultry industry. During eggshell formation a mass of inorganic minerals is deposited. The Sodium Channel (SCNN1) gene family plays an essential role in cation transportation. The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern of expression of members of the SCNN1 gene family, their variation and their effects on eggshell quality. Result The highest expression of SCNN1a, SCNN1b, and SCNN1g genes were in the active uterus during eggshell mineralization, while SCNN1d showed its highest expression level in the quiescent uterus (no egg present). Nineteen candidate SNPs from the four genes were genotyped in a population of 338 White Leghorn layers. Association analysis between SNPs (haplotypes/diplotypes) and eggshell traits was performed. Among seven significant SNPs, five SNPs were associated with eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, eggshell percentage or/and egg weight, while the other two SNPs within SCNN1d were only associated with eggshell percentage. These SNPs had a 0.25-6.99% contribution to phenotypic variance, depending on the trait. In haplotype analysis, SCNN1b and SCNN1d were associated with egg weight. The SCNN1b and SCNN1g were significantly associated with eggshell weight while only SCNN1g explained 2.04% of phenotypic variance. All the alleles of the members of SCNN1 gene family were associated with eggshell percentage and eggshell thickness, and others members had an association with eggshell strength except for SCNN1a. The contribution of different haplotypes of the SCNN1 gene family to eggshell phenotypic variance ranged from 0.09% to 5.74%. Conclusions Our study indicated that the SCNN1 gene family showed tissue expression specificity and was significantly associated with eggshell traits in chicken. This study provides evidence that genetic variation in members of the sodium channel can influence eggshell quality. PMID:24059973

  5. Impact of proximal cytoplasmic droplets on quality traits and in-vitro embryo production efficiency of cryopreserved bull spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Proximal cytoplasmic droplets (PCDs), a remnant of germ cell cytoplasm, are common non-specific morphological defects in bovine semen. This study evaluated the effect of higher percentages of PCDs on the quality of frozen-thawed bovine semen, embryo production and early embryo development. Methods Three ejaculates from each of five (group 1: PCD ≤ 1%, control) and eight adult Bos indicus bulls (group 2: PCD ≥ 24%) were analysed. Semen samples were examined for: post-thaw motility, vigour of movement, concentration, sperm morphology, slow thermoresistance test (STT), membrane integrity, acrosome status, mitochondrial function using fluorescent probes association (FITC-PSA, PI and JC-1) and sperm chromatin integrity using acridine orange assay. Two bulls from group 2, with 28.5% and 48.5% PCD, respectively, and three bulls from the control group, each with 0% PCD, were selected for IVF (in vitro fertilisation). Results Semen analyses revealed a significant correlation (P < 0.01) between increased rates of PCD and sperm quality traits. Nevertheless, no differences were observed in sperm motility and vigour either before or after the STT or in the percentage of intact acrosomes (analysed by differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) after STT), but membrane integrity, acrosome status (evaluated with FITC-PSA staining method after thawing) and mitochondrial function were reduced, when compared with group 1 (P < 0.05). The higher incidence of PCD was positively correlated to chromatin damage, especially after three hours of incubation at 37°C. IVF showed similar results for bull C2 (group 1, control) and bull P2 (group 2, group with higher PCDs). Conclusion Higher PCD levels influenced spermatozoa quality traits. IVF and embryo development data showed that cleavage, blastocyst formation and blastocyst hatching may have been influenced by the interaction of morphology traits and individual bull effects. PMID:22240071

  6. Identification of haplotypes in promoter of prolactin gene and their effect on egg production and quality traits in layer chicken.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, T K; Chatterjee, R N; Sharma, R P; Niranjan, M; Rajkumar, U; Reddy, B L N

    2011-04-01

    Expression of prolactin hormone is a crucial event in regulating egg production in chickens for which promoter plays the vital role in expressing the prolactin gene. The objective of the present study was to identify haplotypes in the prolactin promoter and their effects on egg production and egg quality traits in White Leghorn chicken. Single stranded conformation polymorphism followed by sequencing was conducted to explore polymorphism at 561 bp promoter of prolactin gene. The effect of haplotype combinations on egg production and quality traits were estimated following general linear model technique. The expression of prolactin by different haplogroups was quantified by qPCR. Total 28 haplotypes were found in White Leghorn chicken of which h1 haplotype possessed the highest frequency of 0.46 and h8, h14, h16, h25, h26, and h28 haplotypes had the lowest frequency (0.1%). The egg production up to 52 and 64 weeks of age were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) associated with haplotype combinations where the highest 52-w (52 weeks) egg production was found in animals with h1/h22 combination and the lowest production was observed in the birds with h1/h2 haplogroup. The haplotype combinations had the significant effect (p < 0.05) on Haugh Unit, yolk index and albumen weight at 40 weeks of age; Haugh Unit and albumen weight at 52 weeks of age and Haugh unit, yolk weight and yolk percentage at 64 weeks of age. The prolactin expression in h1/h22 birds was found to be the lowest and in h1/h5 birds to be the highest. The prolactin expression showed significant effect on 52-w egg production and albumin weight at 52 weeks age. In conclusion, it may be stated that the prolactin promoter was highly polymorphic and had the significant association with egg production and quality traits in White Leghorn chicken. PMID:21500109

  7. Effect of polymorphisms in candidate genes on carcass and meat quality traits in double muscled Piemontese cattle.

    PubMed

    Ribeca, C; Bonfatti, V; Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Gallo, L; Carnier, P

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between 10 candidate genes and carcass weight and conformation, carcass daily gain, and meat quality (pH, color, cooking loss, drip loss and shear force) in 990 double-muscled Piemontese young bulls. Animals were genotyped at each of the following genes: growth hormone, growth hormone receptor, pro-opiomelanocortin, pro-opiomelanocortin class 1 homeobox 1, melanocortin-4 receptor, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, thyroglobulin, carboxypeptidase E and gamma-3 regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase. All the investigated SNPs had additive effects which were relevant for at least one of the traits. Relevant associations between the investigated SNPs and carcass weight, carcass daily gain and carcass conformation were detected, whereas associations of SNPs with meat quality were moderate. Results confirmed some of previously reported associations, but diverged for others. Validation in other cattle breeds is required to use these SNPs in gene-assisted selection programs for enhancement of carcass traits and meat quality. PMID:24361557

  8. Identification of Genetic Loci Associated with Quality Traits in Almond via Association Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Font i Forcada, Carolina; Oraguzie, Nnadozie; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Espiau, Maria Teresa; Socias i Company, Rafael; Fernández i Martí, Angel

    2015-01-01

    To design an appropriate association study, we need to understand population structure and the structure of linkage disequilibrium within and among populations as well as in different regions of the genome in an organism. In this study, we have used a total of 98 almond accessions, from five continents located and maintained at the Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA; Spain), and 40 microsatellite markers. Population structure analysis performed in ‘Structure’ grouped the accessions into two principal groups; the Mediterranean (Western-Europe) and the non-Mediterranean, with K = 3, being the best fit for our data. There was a strong subpopulation structure with linkage disequilibrium decaying with increasing genetic distance resulting in lower levels of linkage disequilibrium between more distant markers. A significant impact of population structure on linkage disequilibrium in the almond cultivar groups was observed. The mean r2 value for all intra-chromosomal loci pairs was 0.040, whereas, the r2 for the inter-chromosomal loci pairs was 0.036. For analysis of association between the markers and phenotypic traits, five models comprising both general linear models and mixed linear models were selected to test the marker trait associations. The mixed linear model (MLM) approach using co-ancestry values from population structure and kinship estimates (K model) as covariates identified a maximum of 16 significant associations for chemical traits and 12 for physical traits. This study reports for the first time the use of association mapping for determining marker-locus trait associations in a world-wide almond germplasm collection. It is likely that association mapping will have the most immediate and largest impact on the tier of crops such as almond with the greatest economic value. PMID:26111146

  9. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Ross R; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N; Nichols, David S; Breadmore, Michael C; Shellie, Robert A; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 (o)C. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles. PMID:26610612

  10. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  11. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles. PMID:26610612

  12. The Impact of Ripening Time on Technological Quality Traits, Chemical Change and Sensory Characteristics of Dry-cured Loin

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kyoung Mi; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ripening time on the technological quality traits, fatty acid compositions and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin was studied. Pork loins (n = 102) at 24 h post-mortem were used to produce dry-cured loins. The dry-cured loins were assessed at 30, 60, and 90 days of ripening for the aforementioned characteristics. Our results showed that the water activity (aw) decreased (p<0.05) up to 60 days and did not change thereafter. The lipid oxidation and weight loss levels significantly (p<0.05) increased with increased ripening time. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) L* decreased for 90 days while CIE a* increased for 60 days and did not increase thereafter. More noticeably, the levels of most of unsaturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased as increasing ripening time up to 90 days. The 30 days-ripened loins had lower (p<0.05) color, flavor and overall acceptability scores than the loins ripened for 60 and 90 days, however, no differences in sensory traits occurred between the 60 and 90 day-ripened samples. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it is suggested that the ripening duration between 30 and 60 days could be more appropriate for producing dry-cured loin product with higher quality and economic benefits. PMID:25715685

  13. Quality trait variations in [⁶⁰Co]-irradiated wheat and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit mutant identification.

    PubMed

    Lai, D-E; Wang, M; Zhang, C-Y

    2014-01-01

    With 300 Gy of [(60)Co] γ-ray radiation of dry wheat seeds of Vortex 9722, the protein content, wet gluten content, sedimentation value, and hardness variation were analyzed in 341 lines in M4. Using over population mean ± 2X standard deviation as the screening standard, 8 lines with higher protein and wet gluten content and 4 lines with lower protein and wet gluten content were selected. In the M5 generation, the quality traits - silty parameters and high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) - were further analyzed in these 12 lines. The results showed that in the M5 generation, the quality traits in some variants were significantly different from those in the parents; the farinograms varied greatly. Eleven variants had significantly different HMW-GS bands compared to their parents. The parents had a HMW-GS composition of 5 + 14 + 15 + 12 + 9, and the variants had HMW-GS of 11 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 12 subunits or 1 + 5 + 7 + 8 + 12 subunits, indicating that the glutenin loci of these lines were mutated. PMID:25366793

  14. Comparison of Quality Traits of Meat from Korean Native Chickens and Broilers Used in Two Different Traditional Korean Cuisines

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Jun Heon; Kim, Jong Geun; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC) and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL), KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS), broiler for baeksuk (BL), and broiler for samgyetang (BS) were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines. PMID:25049883

  15. Postmortem proteome degradation profiles of longissimus muscle in Yorkshire and Duroc pigs and their relationship with pork quality traits.

    PubMed

    Te Pas, Marinus F W; Jansen, Jaap; Broekman, Konrad C J A; Reimert, Henny; Heuven, Henri C M

    2009-12-01

    Conversion of muscle to meat is regulated by complex interactions of biochemical processes that take place during postmortem storage of the carcass. Enzymatic proteolysis, among other postmortem biochemical phenomena; e.g. glycolysis; changes tough intact muscle tissue into more tender meat. Knowledge on proteome-wide proteolysis of muscle tissue in relation to meat quality is limited and potential breed-specific differences have received little attention. Therefore, we investigated meat quality traits and proteolysis profiles of the longissimus proteome of five Yorkshire and five Duroc pigs at slaughter and after 1, 2, 3, 7, and 10days of ageing. Drip loss increased with ageing while cooking loss was unchanged in both breeds. Shear force varied between animals and decreased with ageing. Analysis of the proteomes showed four types of temporal expression profiles. Association analysis suggested several potential protein biomarkers for drip loss and shear force in both breeds, but none for cooking loss. PMID:20416627

  16. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P < 0.001) and yolk percentage (P < 0.05) as well as yolk cholesterol and β-carotene contents (P < 0.001), which were improved in hens fed the LFA diet. Including LFA increased serum β-carotene and reduced serum cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.001). Our results suggest that partially replacing conventional SBM as protein source with low-fiber alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits. PMID:24864286

  17. Association Analysis of Soft Wheat Quality Traits in Eastern US Soft Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soft wheat quality is highly heritable, is controlled by multiple loci, and has been mapped in a number of bi-parental crosses. We extended the mapping information on soft wheat quality by using association analysis between genetic markers and quality phenotyping in 192 soft winter wheat cultivars ...

  18. Genetic variation for agronomic and fiber quality traits in a population derived from high quality cotton germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement of fiber quality is necessary to meet the requirements of processors and users of cotton fiber. To foster genetic improvement of cotton fiber quality, adequate genetic variation for the quantitatively inherited physical properties of cotton is required. Additionally, knowledge of...

  19. Effects of conventional and alternative curing methods on processed turkey quality traits.

    PubMed

    Redfield, A L; Sullivan, G A

    2015-12-01

    Deli-style turkey breast cured with pre-converted celery juice powder (CP) or sodium nitrite (SN) was manufactured with ingoing SN concentrations or equivalent of 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 ppm. Cured and total meat pigment, salt, and water activity were measured on d 0; color, pH, and residual nitrite were measured on d 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. Untrained panelists evaluated sensory traits of 50, 100, 150, and 200 ppm products. The interaction of nitrite concentration and source affected (P≤0.05) b*, pH, and residual nitrite values. Less ingoing nitrite and increased storage resulted in less (P≤0.05) residual nitrite in products. Sensory results suggested products made with 200 ppm nitrite from CP were less acceptable. Overall, CP and SN products were similar for several traits, but this study suggests that the inclusion of ingoing nitrite from CP may be limited to 100 ppm nitrite (0.46% addition) for acceptable deli-style turkey breast. PMID:26467014

  20. Integrative biomechanics for tree ecology: beyond wood density and strength.

    PubMed

    Fournier, M; Dlouh, J; Jaouen, G; Almeras, T

    2013-11-01

    Functional ecology has long considered the support function as important, but its biomechanical complexity is only just being elucidated. We show here that it can be described on the basis of four biomechanical traits, two safety traits against winds and self-buckling, and two motricity traits involved in sustaining an upright position, tropic motion velocity (MV) and posture control (PC). All these traits are integrated at the tree scale, combining tree size and shape together with wood properties. The assumption of trait constancy has been used to derive allometric scaling laws, but it was more recently found that observing their variations among environments and functional groups, or during ontogeny, provides more insights into adaptive syndromes of tree shape and wood properties. However, oversimplified expressions have often been used, possibly concealing key adaptive drivers. An extreme case of oversimplification is the use of wood basic density as a proxy for safety. Actually, as wood density is involved in stiffness, loads, and construction costs, the impact of its variations on safety is non-trivial. Moreover, other wood features, especially the microfibril angle (MFA), are also involved. Furthermore, wood is not only stiff and strong, but it also acts as a motor for MV and PC. The relevant wood trait for this is maturation strain asymmetry. Maturation strains vary with cell-wall characteristics such as MFA, rather than with wood density. Finally, the need for further studies about the ecological relevance of branching patterns, motricity traits, and growth responses to mechanical loads is discussed. PMID:24014867

  1. Feed efficiency indexes and their relationships with carcass, non-carcass and meat quality traits in Nellore steers.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, M L; Souza, A R D L; Chaves, A S; Cesar, A S M; Tullio, R R; Medeiros, S R; Mourão, G B; Rosa, A N; Feijó, G L D; Alencar, M M; Lanna, D P D

    2016-06-01

    Five hundred and seventy-five Nellore steers were evaluated for residual feed intake and residual feed intake and gain and their relationships between carcass, non-carcass and meat quality traits. RFI was measured by the difference between observed and predicted dry matter intake and RIG was obtained by the sum of -1*RFI and residual gain. Efficient and inefficient animals were classified adopting ±0.5 standard deviations from RFI and RIG mean. A mixed model was used including RFI or RIG and contemporary group as fixed effects, initial age as covariate and sire and experimental period as random effects, testing the significance of the regression slope for each evaluated trait. RIG was positively related to longissimus muscle area. Efficient-RFI animals had lower liver and internal fat proportions compared to inefficient-RFI animals. Efficient-RFI and efficient-RIG animals had 11.8% and 11.2% lower extracted intramuscular fat, compared to inefficient-RFI and inefficient-RIG animals, respectively. Efficient-RFI animals had tougher meat compared to inefficient-RFI animals. PMID:26874085

  2. Effect of a c-MYC Gene Polymorphism (g.3350G>C) on Meat Quality Traits in Berkshire.

    PubMed

    Oh, J D; Kim, E S; Lee, H K; Song, K D

    2015-11-01

    c-MYC (v-myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homologue) is a transcription factor that plays important role in many biological process including cell growth and differentiation, such as myogenesis and adipogenesis. In this study, we aimed to detect MYC gene polymorphisms, their genotype frequencies and to determine associations between these polymorphisms and meat quality traits in Berkshire pigs. We identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in intron 2 of MYC gene by Sanger sequencing, i.e., g.3350G>C (rs321898326), that is only found in Berkshire pigs, but not in other breeds including Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire pigs that were used in this study. Genotypes of total 378 Berkshire pigs (138 sows and 240 boars) were determined using Hha I restriction enzyme digestion after polymerase chain reaction. Observed allele frequencies of GG, GC, and CC genotypes were 0.399, 0.508, and 0.093 respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the g.3350G>C polymorphism was significantly associated with pH45min and cooking loss (p<0.05), suggesting that g.3350G>C SNP can be used for pre-selection of pH45min and cooking loss traits in Berkshire pigs. PMID:26580277

  3. Effect of a c-MYC Gene Polymorphism (g.3350G>C) on Meat Quality Traits in Berkshire

    PubMed Central

    Oh, J. D.; Kim, E. S.; Lee, H. K.; Song, K. D.

    2015-01-01

    c-MYC (v-myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homologue) is a transcription factor that plays important role in many biological process including cell growth and differentiation, such as myogenesis and adipogenesis. In this study, we aimed to detect MYC gene polymorphisms, their genotype frequencies and to determine associations between these polymorphisms and meat quality traits in Berkshire pigs. We identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in intron 2 of MYC gene by Sanger sequencing, i.e., g.3350G>C (rs321898326), that is only found in Berkshire pigs, but not in other breeds including Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire pigs that were used in this study. Genotypes of total 378 Berkshire pigs (138 sows and 240 boars) were determined using Hha I restriction enzyme digestion after polymerase chain reaction. Observed allele frequencies of GG, GC, and CC genotypes were 0.399, 0.508, and 0.093 respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the g.3350G>C polymorphism was significantly associated with pH45min and cooking loss (p<0.05), suggesting that g.3350G>C SNP can be used for pre-selection of pH45min and cooking loss traits in Berkshire pigs. PMID:26580277

  4. A genome-wide association study of production traits in a commercial population of Large White pigs: evidence of haplotypes affecting meat quality

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been detected in pigs over the past 20 years using microsatellite markers. However, due to the low density of these markers, the accuracy of QTL location has generally been poor. Since 2009, the dense genome coverage provided by the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip has made it possible to more accurately map QTL using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our objective was to perform high-density GWAS in order to identify genomic regions and corresponding haplotypes associated with production traits in a French Large White population of pigs. Methods Animals (385 Large White pigs from 106 sires) were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and evaluated for 19 traits related to feed intake, growth, carcass composition and meat quality. Of the 64 432 SNPs on the chip, 44 412 were used for GWAS with an animal mixed model that included a regression coefficient for the tested SNPs and a genomic kinship matrix. SNP haplotype effects in QTL regions were then tested for association with phenotypes following phase reconstruction based on the Sscrofa10.2 pig genome assembly. Results Twenty-three QTL regions were identified on autosomes and their effects ranged from 0.25 to 0.75 phenotypic standard deviation units for feed intake and feed efficiency (four QTL), carcass (12 QTL) and meat quality traits (seven QTL). The 10 most significant QTL regions had effects on carcass (chromosomes 7, 10, 16, 17 and 18) and meat quality traits (two regions on chromosome 1 and one region on chromosomes 8, 9 and 13). Thirteen of the 23 QTL regions had not been previously described. A haplotype block of 183 kb on chromosome 1 (six SNPs) was identified and displayed three distinct haplotypes with significant (0.0001 < P < 0.03) associations with all evaluated meat quality traits. Conclusions GWAS analyses with the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip enabled the detection of 23 QTL regions that affect feed consumption, carcass and meat quality traits in a LW population, of which 13 were novel QTL. The proportionally larger number of QTL found for meat quality traits suggests a specific opportunity for improving these traits in the pig by genomic selection. PMID:24528607

  5. Wood as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    Examples of three improvements in energy efficiency in wood industries are given. Normal wood products, producing 3/4'' industrial grade particle board with laminated exteriors for cabinets, use their wood waste to provide heat for the facility and have been able to meet Michigan's tough air quality standards. Their furnace now gives 100% material utilization by converting all offals and sawdust into BTUs. The owners of a 5 megawatt wood waste-fired cogeneration plant in Idaho have a contract to sell 3.5 megawatts worth of electricity per year to Idaho Power Co. One unique aspect of this plant is that all of the major components are reconditioned equipment from a decommissioned natural gas and coal-fired utility station, thus reducing the cost of equipment by approximately one half. The project was encouraged by legislation passed in 1978 requiring utilities to buy electricity from qualified cogenerators at full price. When Thompson Maple Products Co. moved its plant in North West Pennsylvania it installed a federal boiler FR400 wood burning boiler. The boiler generates 1,176,000 BTUs an hour and heats two floors 160 ft x 60 ft burning approximately 2000 lbs of its own solid wood waste each day, completely eliminating its heating bill.

  6. SNP variation in the promoter of the PRKAG3 gene and association with meat quality traits in pig

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The PRKAG3 gene encodes the γ3 subunit of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), a protein that plays a key role in energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene such as I199V are associated with important pork quality traits. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of the PRKAG3 gene, SNP variation in the PRKAG3 promoter and meat quality phenotypes in pork. Results PRKAG3 gene expression was found to correlate with a number of traits relating to glycolytic potential (GP) and intramuscular fat (IMF) in three phenotypically diverse F1 crosses comprising of 31 Large White, 23 Duroc and 32 Pietrain sire breeds. The majority of associations were observed in the Large White cross. There was a significant association between genotype at the g.-311A>G locus and PRKAG3 gene expression in the Large White cross. In the same population, ten novel SNPs were identified within a 1.3 kb region spanning the promoter and from this three major haplotypes were inferred. Two tagging SNPs (g.-995A>G and g.-311A>G) characterised the haplotypes within the promoter region being studied. These two SNPs were subsequently genotyped in larger populations consisting of Large White (n = 98), Duroc (n = 99) and Pietrain (n = 98) purebreds. Four major haplotypes including promoter SNP’s g.-995A>G and g.-311A>G and I199V were inferred. In the Large White breed, HAP1 was associated with IMF% in the M. longissmus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and driploss%. HAP2 was associated with IMFL% GP-influenced traits pH at 24 hr in LTL (pHULT), pH at 45 min in LTL (pH45LT) and pH at 45 min in the M. semimembranosus muscle (pH45SM). HAP3 was associated with driploss%, pHULT pH45LT and b* Minolta. In the Duroc breed, associations were observed between HAP1 and driploss% and pHUSM. No associations were observed with the remaining haplotypes (HAP2, HAP3 and HAP4) in the Duroc breed. The Pietrain breed was monomorphic in the promoter region. The I199V locus was associated with several GP-influenced traits across all three breeds and IMF% in the Large White and Pietrain breed. No significant difference in promoter function was observed for the three main promoter haplotypes when tested in vitro. Conclusion Gene expression levels of the porcine PRKAG3 are associated with meat quality phenotypes relating to glycolytic potential and IMF% in the Large White breed, while SNP variation in the promoter region of the gene is associated with PRKAG3 gene expression and meat quality phenotypes. PMID:22831392

  7. QTL analysis for grain quality traits in 2 BC2F2 populations derived from crosses between Oryza sativa cv Swarna and 2 accessions of O. nivara.

    PubMed

    Swamy, B P Mallikarjuna; Kaladhar, K; Shobha Rani, N; Prasad, G S V; Viraktamath, B C; Reddy, G Ashok; Sarla, N

    2012-01-01

    The appearance and cooking quality of rice determine its acceptability and price to a large extent. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 12 grain quality traits were mapped in 2 mapping populations derived from Oryza sativa cv Swarna × O. nivara. The BC(2)F(2) population of the cross Swarna × O. nivara IRGC81848 (population 1) was evaluated during 2005 and that from Swarna × O. nivara IRGC81832 (population 2) was evaluated during 2006. Linkage maps were constructed using 100 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in population 1 and 75 SSR markers in population 2. In all, 21 QTLs were identified in population 1 (43% from O. nivara) and 37 in population 2 (38% QTLs from O. nivara). The location of O. nivara-derived QTLs mp1.2 for milling percent, kw6.1 for kernel width, and klac12.1 for kernel length after cooking coincided in the 2 populations and appear to be useful for Marker Assisted Selection (MAS). Four QTLs for milling percent, 1 QTL each for amylose content, water uptake, elongation ratio, 2 QTLs for kernel width, and 3 QTLs for gel consistency, each explained more than 20% phenotypic variance. Three QTL clusters for grain quality traits were close to the genes/QTLs for shattering and seed dormancy. QTLs for 4 quality traits were associated with 5 of the 7 major yield QTLs reported in the same 2 mapping populations. Useful introgression lines have been developed for several agronomic traits. It emerges that 40% O. nivara alleles were trait enhancing in both populations, and QTLs for grain quality overlapped with yield meta-QTLs and QTLs for dormancy and seed shattering. PMID:22312119

  8. Divergent selection for intramuscular fat content in rabbits. II. Correlated responses on carcass and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Zomeño, C; Blasco, A; Hernández, P

    2013-09-01

    Correlated responses on carcass and meat quality characteristics after 3 generations of divergent selection for intramuscular fat (IMF) content were assessed by comparing the high and low lines. Selection was based on the phenotypic value of IMF content of LM, measured in 2 full sibs of the first parity. Traits measured were: BW, HCW, commercial carcass weight (CCW), reference carcass weight (RCW), scapular (SF) and perirenal fat (PF) content, meat-to-bone ratio (M:B) of the hind leg, pH of LM, color (lightness, L*; redness, a*; and yellowness, b*) of the carcass and of a LM section, protein content, and fatty acid (FA) composition of LM. A total of 174 records was used to estimate the correlated selection response. Data were analyzed using Bayesian methodology. We considered one-third of the phenotypic SD of a trait as a relevant value for the difference between lines. Then, the probability of the difference being greater than a relevant value (PR) was calculated. A low PR implies that the lines compared are similar. Carcass weights (PR between 0.24 and 0.31) and M:B of the hind leg (PR = 0.15) were not modified by selection for IMF content. There was a slight negative correlated response for BW, although evidence of its relevance was low (PR = 0.48). Scapular fat content was similar between lines (PR = 0.03). There were differences for PF content, although there was low evidence for showing its relevance (PR = 0.47). Color traits of the carcass were not affected by selection (PR between 0.04 and 0.30). In muscle, L* was also similar between lines (PR = 0.26). There were differences for a* and b*, although there was little evidence of their relevance (PR = 0.35 and 0.40, respectively). There was a positive correlated response on muscle pH and differences could be relevant (PR = 0.77). Protein content of LM was similar between lines (PR = 0.13), whereas FA composition was affected by selection. There were relevant differences between lines for MUFA (PR = 0.99), n-3 (PR = 0.95), and n-6 (PR = 0.98) percentages. For individual FA, differences were relevant for C18:1n-9 (PR = 0.97) and C20:5 n-3 (PR = 0.98). In conclusion, selection for IMF content may modify carcass quality by increasing PF content. Moreover, it led to some modifications in pH and FA composition of LM. PMID:23825330

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Loci and Candidate Genes for Body Composition and Meat Quality Traits in Beijing-You Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guiping; Wang, Fangjie; Wu, Dan; Zheng, Maiqing; Chen, Jilan; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Yaodong; Wen, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Body composition and meat quality traits are important economic traits of chickens. The development of high-throughput genotyping platforms and relevant statistical methods have enabled genome-wide association studies in chickens. In order to identify molecular markers and candidate genes associated with body composition and meat quality traits, genome-wide association studies were conducted using the Illumina 60 K SNP Beadchip to genotype 724 Beijing-You chickens. For each bird, a total of 16 traits were measured, including carcass weight (CW), eviscerated weight (EW), dressing percentage, breast muscle weight (BrW) and percentage (BrP), thigh muscle weight and percentage, abdominal fat weight and percentage, dry matter and intramuscular fat contents of breast and thigh muscle, ultimate pH, and shear force of the pectoralis major muscle at 100 d of age. The SNPs that were significantly associated with the phenotypic traits were identified using both simple (GLM) and compressed mixed linear (MLM) models. For nine of ten body composition traits studied, SNPs showing genome wide significance (P<2.59E−6) have been identified. A consistent region on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 4 (GGA4), including seven significant SNPs and four candidate genes (LCORL, LAP3, LDB2, TAPT1), were found to be associated with CW and EW. Another 0.65 Mb region on GGA3 for BrW and BrP was identified. After measuring the mRNA content in beast muscle for five genes located in this region, the changes in GJA1 expression were found to be consistent with that of breast muscle weight across development. It is highly possible that GJA1 is a functional gene for breast muscle development in chickens. For meat quality traits, several SNPs reaching suggestive association were identified and possible candidate genes with their functions were discussed. PMID:23637794

  10. Genetic dissection of fruit quality traits in the octoploid cultivated strawberry highlights the role of homoeo-QTL in their control.

    PubMed

    Lerceteau-Köhler, E; Moing, A; Guérin, G; Renaud, C; Petit, A; Rothan, C; Denoyes, Béatrice

    2012-04-01

    Fruit quality traits are major breeding targets in the Rosaceae. Several of the major Rosaceae species are current or ancient polyploids. To dissect the inheritance of fruit quality traits in polyploid fleshy fruit species, we used a cultivated strawberry segregating population comprising a 213 full-sibling F1 progeny from a cross between the variety 'Capitola' and the genotype 'CF1116'. We previously developed the most comprehensive strawberry linkage map, which displays seven homoeology groups (HG), including each four homoeology linkage groups (Genetics 179:2045-2060, 2008). The map was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 19 fruit traits related to fruit development, texture, colour, anthocyanin, sugar and organic acid contents. Analyses were carried out over two or three successive years on field-grown plants. QTL were detected for all the analysed traits. Because strawberry is an octopolyploid species, QTL controlling a given trait and located at orthologous positions on different homoeologous linkage groups within one HG are considered as homoeo-QTL. We found that, for various traits, about one-fourth of QTL were putative homoeo-QTL and were localised on two linkage groups. Several homoeo-QTL could be detected the same year, suggesting that several copies of the gene underlying the QTL are functional. The detection of some other homoeo-QTL was year-dependent. Therefore, changes in allelic expression could take place in response to environmental changes. We believe that, in strawberry as in other polyploid fruit species, the mechanisms unravelled in the present study may play a crucial role in the variations of fruit quality. PMID:22215248

  11. Multiple-trait genomic evaluation for milk yield and milk quality traits using genomic and phenotypic data in buffalo in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aspilcueta-Borquis, R R; Araujo Neto, F R; Santos, D J A; Hurtado-Lugo, N A; Silva, J A V; Tonhati, H

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the multi-trait model using pedigree information and a model using genomic information in addition to pedigree information. We used data from 5896 lactations of 2021 buffalo cows, of which 384 were genotyped using the Illumina Infinium(®) bovine HD BeadChip, considering seven traits related to milk yield (MY305), fat (FY305), protein (PY305), and lactose (LY305), percentages of fat (%F) and protein (%P), and somatic cell score (SCS). We carried out two analyses, one using phenotype and pedigree information (matrix A) and the other using the relationship matrix based on pedigree and genomics information (a single step, matrix H). The (co)variance components were estimated using multiple-trait analysis by the Bayesian inference method. The model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups (herd-year and calving season), and the age of cow at calving as (co)variables (quadratic and linear effect). The additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual effects were included as random effects in the model. The estimates of heritability using matrix A were 0.25, 0.22, 0.26, 0.25, 0.37, 0.42, and 0.17, while using matrix H the heritability values were 0.25, 0.24, 0.26, 0.26, 0.38, 0.47, and 0.18 for MY305, FY305, PY305, LY305, %F, %P, and SCS, respectively. The estimates of breeding values in the two analyses were similar for the traits studied, but the accuracies were greater when using matrix H (higher than 8% in the traits studied). Therefore, the use of genomic information in the analyses improved the accuracy. PMID:26782448

  12. New QTL alleles for quality-related traits in spring wheat revealed by RIL population derived from supernumerary x non-supernumerary spikelet genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying new QTLs and alleles in exotic germplasm is paramount for further improvement of quality traits in wheat. In the present study, a RIL population developed from a cross of an elite wheat line (WCB414) and an exotic genotype with supernumerary spikelets (SS) was used to identify QTLs and n...

  13. Identification of cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci using intraspecific crosses derived from two near-isogenic lines differing in fiber bundle strength.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber properties are very important to the yarn quality. Modern high-speed textile operations around the world require long, strong and fine cotton fibers. The objective of this research was to identify stable fiber quantitative trait loci (QTL) that could be used in cotton breeding through m...

  14. Protégés' Personality Traits, Expectations, the Quality of the Mentoring Relationship and Adjustment: A Big Five Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldner, Limor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Community-based mentoring interventions can benefit high-risk youth. However, meta-analyses suggest that these benefits may be conditioned by protégés' personality. Objectives: Associations between protégés' personality traits and mentoring expectations, the quality of the mentoring relationship, the perceived mentoring contribution,…

  15. Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits...

  16. Genome-wide selection versus marker-assisted recurrent selection to improve grain yield and stover-quality traits for cellulosic ethanol in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome-wide selection (GWS) is marker-assisted selection without identifying markers with significant effects. Our previous work with the intermated B73 x Mo17 maize (Zea mays L.) population revealed significant variation for grain yield and stover-quality traits important for cellulosic ethanol pro...

  17. How Personality Traits and Job Satisfaction Influence Service Quality in Housing Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Donna E.

    2010-01-01

    Human service organizations are intended to stabilize low-income families and promote self-sufficiency by providing much needed services and benefits. Recipients, however, often do not get everything they need in terms of either benefits or service quality. Understandably, clients want the help they are entitled to and promised from providers who…

  18. Analysis of fiber quality traits in a seven-parent upland cotton diallel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to raising yields, improving the quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber has become an increasingly important component of the value of cotton, especially for marketing in the international trade. The objectives of this study were to identify sources of variation for fiber quali...

  19. Relationship between Quality Traits of Soft Red Winter Wheat and Cookie Diameter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-seven soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes including two cultivars released in Jiangsu Province and 55 advanced lines were subjected to quality tests of sixteen parameters, such as solvent retention capacity (SRC) and RVA viscosity parameters. The results showed that there we...

  20. Automated Single-Kernel Sorting to Select for Quality Traits in Wheat Breeding Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An automated single kernel near-infrared system was used to select kernels to enhance the end-use quality of hard red wheat breeder samples. Twenty breeding populations and advanced lines were sorted for hardness index, protein content, and kernel color. To determine if the phenotypic sorting was b...

  1. How Personality Traits and Job Satisfaction Influence Service Quality in Housing Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Donna E.

    2010-01-01

    Human service organizations are intended to stabilize low-income families and promote self-sufficiency by providing much needed services and benefits. Recipients, however, often do not get everything they need in terms of either benefits or service quality. Understandably, clients want the help they are entitled to and promised from providers who

  2. Quantitative Trait Loci for Endosperm Modification and Amino Acid Contents in Quality Protein Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The deficient protein quality of corn grain can be improved by replacing the normal Opaque2 (O2) alleles with non-functional mutant alleles o2. Unfortunately, o2 alleles are associated with a very soft endosperm texture, poor yield and susceptibility to diseases and insects. Plant breeders have been...

  3. Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Agronomic and Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The superior fiber properties of Gossypium barbadense L. serve as a source of novel variation for improving fiber quality in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.), but introgression from G. barbadense has been largely unsuccessful due to hybrid breakdown and a lack of genetic and genomic resources. In an e...

  4. Resource quality affects weapon and testis size and the ability of these traits to respond to selection in the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata.

    PubMed

    Sasson, Daniel A; Munoz, Patricio R; Gezan, Salvador A; Miller, Christine W

    2016-04-01

    The size of weapons and testes can be central to male reproductive success. Yet, the expression of these traits is often extremely variable. Studies are needed that take a more complete organism perspective, investigating the sources of variation in both traits simultaneously and using developmental conditions that mimic those in nature. In this study, we investigated the components of variation in weapon and testis sizes using the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) on three natural developmental diets. We show that the developmental diet has profound effects on both weapon and testis expression and scaling. Intriguingly, males in the medium-quality diet express large weapons but have relatively tiny testes, suggesting complex allocation decisions. We also find that heritability, evolvability, and additive genetic variation are highest in the high-quality diet for testis and body mass. This result suggests that these traits may have an enhanced ability to respond to selection during a small window of time each year when this diet is available. Taken together, these results illustrate that normal, seasonal fluctuations in the nutritional environment may play a large role in the expression of sexually selected traits and the ability of these traits to respond to selection. PMID:27066225

  5. Carcass and meat quality traits of chickens fed diets concurrently supplemented with vitamins C and E under constant heat stress.

    PubMed

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair-fed chickens, meat color was similar to the heat stressed group. Shear force was not influenced by heat stress, but pair-fed chickens showed the tenderest meat. In conclusion, reduction in growth performance and negative changes in meat color in heat stressed chickens were attributed to depression in feed intake, whereas negative changes in body composition, higher meat pH and cooking loss were credited to high ambient temperature per se. Diet supplementation with vitamins C and E as antioxidants did not mitigate any of these negative effects. PMID:26677935

  6. Myrmecochores can target high-quality disperser ants: variation in elaiosome traits and ant preferences for myrmecochorous Euphorbiaceae in Brazilian Caatinga.

    PubMed

    Leal, Laura Carolina; Lima Neto, Mrio Correia; de Oliveira, Antnio Fernando Morais; Andersen, Alan N; Leal, Inara R

    2014-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the traditional view of myrmecochory as a highly diffuse interaction between diaspores and a wide range of ant species attracted to their elaiosomes may not be correct. The effectiveness of dispersal varies markedly among ant species, and combined with differential attractiveness of diaspores due to elaiosome size and composition, this raises the potential for myrmecochorous plants to target ant species that offer the highest quality dispersal services. We ask the question: Do particular physical and chemical traits of elaiosomes result in disproportionate removal of Euphorbiaceae diaspores by high-quality disperser ants in Caatinga vegetation of north-eastern Brazil? We offered seeds of five euphorb species that varied in morphological and chemical traits of elaiosomes to seed-dispersing ants. High-quality seed-disperser ants (species of Dinoponera, Ectatomma and Camponotus) were identified as those that rapidly collected and transported diaspores to their nests, often over substantial distances, whereas low-quality disperser ants (primarily species of Pheidole and Solenopsis) typically fed on elaiosomes in situ, and only ever transported diaspores very short distances. Low-quality disperser ants were equally attracted to the elaiosomes of all study species. However, high-quality dispersers showed a strong preference for diaspores with the highest elaiosome mass (and especially proportional mass). As far as we are aware, this is the first study to identify a mechanism of diaspore selection by high-quality ant dispersers based on elaiosome traits under field conditions. Our findings suggest that myrmecochorous plants can preferentially target high-quality seed-disperser ants through the evolution of particular elaiosome traits. PMID:24085639

  7. Direct and social genetic effects on body weight at 270 days and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Rostellato, R; Sartori, C; Bonfatti, V; Chiarot, G; Carnier, P

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate covariance components for BW at 270 d (BW270) and carcass and ham quality traits in heavy pigs using models accounting for social effects and to compare the ability of such models to fit the data relative to models ignoring social interactions. Phenotypic records were from 9,871 pigs sired by 293 purebred boars mated to 456 crossbred sows. Piglets were born and reared at the same farm and randomly assigned at 60 d of age to groups (6.1 pigs per group on average) housed in finishing pens, each having an area of 6 m(2). The average additive genetic relationship among group mates was 0.11. Pigs were slaughtered at 277 ± 3 d of age and 169.7 ± 13.9 kg BW in groups of nearly 70 animals each. Four univariate animal models were compared: a basic model (M1) including only direct additive genetic effects, a model (M2) with nonheritable social group (pen) effects in addition to effects in M1, a model (M3) accounting for litter effects in addition to M2, and a model (M4) accounting for social genetic effects in addition to effects in M3. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of covariance components were obtained for BW270; carcass backfat depth; carcass lean meat content (CLM); iodine number (IOD); and linoleic acid content (LIA) of raw ham subcutaneous fat; subcutaneous fat depth in the proximity of semimembranosus muscle (SFD1) and quadriceps femoris muscle (SFD2); and linear scores for ham round shape (RS), subcutaneous fat (SF), and marbling. Likelihood ratio tests indicated that, for all traits, M2 fit the data better than M1 and that M3 was superior to M2 except for SFD1 and SFD2. Model M4 was significantly better than M3 for BW270 (P < 0.001) and CLM, IOD, RS, and SF (P < 0.05). The contribution of social genetic effects to the total heritable variance was large for CLM and BW270, ranging from 33.2 to 35%, whereas the one for ham quality traits ranged from 6.8 (RS) to 11.2% (SF). Direct and social genetic effects on BW270 were uncorrelated, whereas there was a negative genetic covariance between direct and social effects on CLM, IOD, RS, and SF, which reduced the total heritable variance. This variance, measured relative to phenotypic variance, ranged from 21 (CLM) to 54% (BW270). Results indicate that social genetic effects affect variation in traits relevant for heavy pigs used in dry-cured hams manufacturing. Such effects should be exploited and taken into account in design of breeding programs for heavy pigs. PMID:25412749

  8. Effect of genotype, housing system and hay supplementation on carcass traits and meat quality of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dalle Zotte, A; Szendrő, K; Gerencsér, Zs; Szendrő, Zs; Cullere, M; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Matics, Zs

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of genotype (Pannon Large × Pannon Ka/Large/or Hungarian Giant × Pannon Ka/Hung), housing system (Cage or small Pen) and hay supplementation (Pellet without or with Hay/P+Hay/) on carcass and meat (Longissimus dorsi/LD/ and hind leg/HL/) quality of growing rabbits. Large rabbits showed higher carcass weights, as well as higher fatness and meatiness compared to Hung rabbits. Caged rabbits were heavier, with higher prevalence of the mid part of the carcass, and showed higher fatness and lower meat toughness than Penned rabbits. Caged rabbits meat was richer in MUFA, but poorer in PUFA and Σ n-6 FA. Hay supplementation impaired carcass weight, carcass fatness, L* and a* color, and lipids content. P+Hay increased the HL meat content of C18:3 n-6 and C20:5 n-3 FA. Overall results offer further information on how alternative breeds, housing systems and feeding strategies can affect carcass traits and meat quality. PMID:26210883

  9. Effects of Variants in Proopiomelanocortin and Neuropeptide Y Genes on Growth, Carcass, and Meat Quality Traits in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-Chao; Chen, Shi-Yi; Jia, Xian-Bo; Wang, Jie; Lai, Song-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Appetite-related neuropeptides proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) are essential for regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of variants in POMC and NPY genes on growth, carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits. A total of six SNPs were identified for POMC (n = 2) and NPY (n = 4) genes by direct sequencing. Three SNPs were subsequently genotyped by using MassArray system (Sequenom iPLEXassay) in 235 individuals, which belong to three meat rabbit breeds, including 93 Ira rabbits; 81 Champagne rabbits and 61 Tianfu black rabbits. The SNP c.112-12G>T was in intron-exon boundaries (intron 1) of POMC gene, and the association analysis showed that individuals with TT genotype had a greater 84 d body weight (BW84), eviscerated weight and semi-eviscerated weight than those with GT genotype (p<0.05); the TT individuals were also higher than those GG in the ripe meat ratio (RMR) (p<0.05). The g.1778G>C SNP, which was in complete linkage with other three SNPs (g.1491G>A, g.1525G>T and g.1530C>T) in intron 1 of NPY gene, was significantly correlated with eviscerated slaughter percentage and semi-eviscerated slaughter percentage in rabbits, and the individuals with CC genotype had a better performance than CG genotype (p<0.05). These findings would provide primary clues for the biological roles of POMC and NPY underlying the rabbit growth-related traits. PMID:25049995

  10. The association of CAPN1 316 marker genotypes with growth and meat quality traits of steers finished on pasture

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the association of a SNP in the μ-calpain gene at position 316 with growth and quality of meat traits of steers grown on pasture. Fifty-nine Brangus and 20 Angus steers were genotyped for CAPN1 316. Warner Bratzler shear force was measured in l. lumborum samples after a 7-day aging period. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed, including shear force (WBSF), final weight (FW), average daily gain (ADG), backfat thickness (BFT), average monthly fat thickness gain (AMFTG), rib-eye area (REA), and beef rib-eye depth (RED) as dependent variables. The CAPN1 316 genotype was statistically significant. Univariate analyses were done with these variables. The marker genotype was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for WBSF (kg: CC: 4.41 ± 0.57; CG: 5.58 ± 0.20; GG: 6.29 ± 0.18), FW (kg: CC: 360.23 ± 14.71; CG: 381.34 ± 5.26; GG: 399.23 ± 4.68), and ADG (kg/d: CC: 0.675 ± 0.046; CG: 0.705 ± 0.016; GG: 0.765 ± 0.014) Shear force, final weight and average daily gain were significantly different according to the CAPN1 316 marker genotypes. The marker genotype was statistically significant in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.001). The first characteristic root explained 89% of the differences among genotypes. WBSF, FW and ADG were the most important traits in the first vector, indicating that animals with the marker genotype for lowest WBSF also have the lowest FW and ADG. PMID:21637511

  11. Beef quality traits of heifer in comparison with steer, bull and cow at various feeding environments.

    PubMed

    Venkata Reddy, Bandugula; Sivakumar, Allur S; Jeong, Dawoon W; Woo, Yang-Byung; Park, Sang-June; Lee, So-Young; Byun, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Chang-Ho; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Hwang, Inho

    2015-01-01

    The present review has been focused largely on the sex type differences in beef quality among heifers, cows, steers and bulls in various feeding environments. Genetic groups, feeding systems and gender are the major factors that change carcass characteristics and fatty acid profiles of cattle. Studies identified that heifer beef has super characteristics in eating quality and a better healthy composition in fatty acids than steer, cow and bull. Diet influences the variation of fatty acid profile; particularly the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) interacts with breed and sex. Animals finished in pasture systems were reported to show better ratios of PUFA/ saturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3. Carcasses of roughage-fed beef are lighter and have less marbling and lower quality grades but have higher cutability than carcasses of grain-fed bulls. Heifers and cows are reported to deposit more fat than steers and bulls. Among males, lower production of testosterone by steers favors more fat thickness compared with bulls. Marbling greatly varies among cattle belonging to different sexes, and particularly, females have genetic makeup that efficiently controls deposition. The current review identified that heifers can be a premium beef brand, while steer beef currently take a large part of market share across the world. PMID:25236779

  12. Genetic variances, heritabilities and maternal effects on body weight, breast meat yield, meat quality traits and the shape of the growth curve in turkey birds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Turkey is an important agricultural species and is largely used as a meat bird. In 2004, turkey represented 6.5% of the world poultry meat production. The world-wide turkey population has rapidly grown due to increased commercial farming. Due to the high demand for turkey meat from both consumers and industry global turkey stocks increased from 100 million in 1970 to over 276 million in 2004. This rapidly increasing importance of turkeys was a reason to design this study for the estimation of genetic parameters that control body weight, body composition, meat quality traits and parameters that shape the growth curve in turkey birds. Results The average heritability estimate for body weight traits was 0.38, except for early weights that were strongly affected by maternal effects. This study showed that body weight traits, upper asymptote (a growth curve trait), percent breast meat and redness of meat had high heritability whereas heritabilities of breast length, breast width, percent drip loss, ultimate pH, lightness and yellowness of meat were medium to low. We found high positive genetic and phenotypic correlations between body weight, upper asymptote, most breast meat yield traits and percent drip loss but percent drip loss was found strongly negatively correlated with ultimate pH. Percent breast meat, however, showed genetic correlations close to zero with body weight traits and upper asymptote. Conclusion The results of this analysis and the growth curve from the studied population of turkey birds suggest that the turkey birds could be selected for breeding between 60 and 80 days of age in order to improve overall production and the production of desirable cuts of meat. The continuous selection of birds within this age range could promote high growth rates but specific attention to meat quality would be needed to avoid a negative impact on the quality of meat. PMID:21266032

  13. A functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) focusing on tree architecture and wood quality

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, M. Paulina; Norero, Aldo; Vera, Jorge R.; Pérez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims Functional–structural models are interesting tools to relate environmental and management conditions with forest growth. Their three-dimensional images can reveal important characteristics of wood used for industrial products. Like virtual laboratories, they can be used to evaluate relationships among species, sites and management, and to support silvicultural design and decision processes. Our aim was to develop a functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) given its economic importance in many countries. Methods The plant model uses the L-system language. The structure of the model is based on operational units, which obey particular rules, and execute photosynthesis, respiration and morphogenesis, according to their particular characteristics. Plant allometry is adhered to so that harmonic growth and plant development are achieved. Environmental signals for morphogenesis are used. Dynamic turnover guides the normal evolution of the tree. Monthly steps allow for detailed information of wood characteristics. The model is independent of traditional forest inventory relationships and is conceived as a mechanistic model. For model parameterization, three databases which generated new information relating to P. radiata were analysed and incorporated. Key Results Simulations under different and contrasting environmental and management conditions were run and statistically tested. The model was validated against forest inventory data for the same sites and times and against true crown architectural data. The performance of the model for 6-year-old trees was encouraging. Total height, diameter and lengths of growth units were adequately estimated. Branch diameters were slightly overestimated. Wood density values were not satisfactory, but the cyclical pattern and increase of growth rings were reasonably well modelled. Conclusions The model was able to reproduce the development and growth of the species based on mechanistic formulations. It may be valuable in assessing stand behaviour under different environmental and management conditions, assisting in decision-making with regard to management, and as a research tool to formulate hypothesis regarding forest tree growth and development. PMID:21987452

  14. Effects of the Plane of Nutrition on Physicochemical Characteristics and Sensory Quality Traits of the Muscle in Finishing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chai Hyun; Jung, Dae-Yun; Choi, Jung Seok; Jin, Sang-Keun; Lee, Chul Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the feasibility of using the low plane of nutrition (LPN) as a means of improving the meat quality of crossbred finishing pigs with a medium weight gain potential. Twenty-four barrows and 24 gilts weighing approximately 48 kg were placed on LPN [a finisher (2.86 Mcal ME/kg and 0.67% lysine) for 91 d] or on a high plane of nutrition [HPN; a commercial grower for 38 d and a finisher (3.35 Mcal ME/kg and 0.9% lysine) for 46 d]. Five barrows and five gilts per treatment weighing approximately 125 kg were slaughtered after the indicated days on the respective diets, followed by physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation on their muscles. Overall average daily gain was 12.6% less in the LPN group vs. the HPN group (p<0.05). The redness (a*) of fresh longissimus muscle (LM) from the loin as well as from Boston butt was greater in the LPN group vs. HPN whereas the shear force for fresh LM from these primals and semimembranosus muscle was lower in the former. In sensory evaluation for cooked LM, no treatment effect was detected in any of the quality traits examined, except for a lower color score in the LPN vs. HPN group. Results suggest that meat quality of the finishing pigs can be improved to some extent by using LPN. However, the present pigs, whose backfat thickness was 24 mm at 125 kg, are thought not to be lean enough to be fattened over 120 kg. PMID:26761290

  15. Effects of Crossbreeding and Gender on the Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Korean Native Black Pig and Duroc Crossbred

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin; Panjono; Lee, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jeong Koo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of Korean Native Black Pig (KNP) and KNP×Duroc crossbred (KNP×D). A total of 50 pigs comprising seven KNP barrows, eight KNP gilts, twenty KNP×D barrows and fifteen KNP×D gilts were used in this study. Animals were reared in the same housing condition with same feed diet for six months prior to slaughter. After an overnight chilling, the carcasses were graded, and samples of Musculus longissimus dorsi were obtained for meat quality analysis. The slaughter and carcass weights and dressing percentage of KNP×D were higher (p<0.001) than those of KNP. The slaughter and carcass weights and backfat thickness of barrows were higher (p<0.01) than those of gilts. There were no significant difference in carcass conformation and quality grade between KNP and KNP×D as well as barrow and gilt. Fat content of KNP×D was higher (p<0.001) than that of KNP. Fat content of barrow was higher (p<0.001) than that of gilt. There was interaction between crossbreeding and gender on the fat content. KNP gilt showed higher fat content than KNP barrow whereas KNP×D barrow showed higher fat content than KNP×D gilt. Lightness, redness, yellowness, chroma and hue angle values and color preference of meat of KNP×D were lower (p<0.001) than those of KNP. Redness, yellowness and chroma values of meat of barrow were lower (p<0.05) than those of gilt. It is concluded that crossbreeding KNP with Duroc increases carcass productivity and meat fat but decreases meat color values and preference. Crossbreeding of KNP with Duroc produces a better fat deposition in meat of barrows than in gilts. PMID:25050045

  16. The effect of production system (barn and free-range), slaughtering age and gender on carcass traits and meat quality of partridges (Alectoris chukar).

    PubMed

    Yamak, U S; Sarica, M; Boz, M A; Ucar, A

    2016-04-01

    1. A total of 400 Alectoris chukar partridges were reared in either barn or free-range production systems and slaughtered at 14, 16 or 18 weeks of age in order to determine the effects of production system, age and gender on carcass traits (live weight, carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass part and edible inner organ percentages at slaughtering) and meat quality (L*, a* and b* meat colour and pH). 2. Production system had a significant effect on both slaughter traits and meat quality. 3. Partridges raised in barn conditions had higher live weights and carcass weights whereas meat quality was better in birds raised in the free-range system. PMID:26813778

  17. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  18. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  19. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  20. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  1. Effect of storage temperature on egg quality traits in table eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of storage temperature on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days. A total of 100 fresh eggs were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (5 °C and 22 °C; 10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 5 and 22 °C. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in eggs stored at 5 °C significantly (P<0.01) lower than the eggs stored at 22 °C group for the entire storage period. The eggs stored at 5 °C showed higher levels of specific gravity than eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage (P<0.01; P<0.05). The albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk index of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during the storage periods. The albumen pH of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during storage period. The results indicated that the eggs stored at 5 °C are better off in terms of protecting quality compared to the eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage.

  2. Characterization of composition traits related to organoleptic and functional quality for the differentiation, selection and enhancement of local varieties of tomato from different cultivar groups.

    PubMed

    Figàs, Maria R; Prohens, Jaime; Raigón, María D; Fita, Ana; García-Martínez, María D; Casanova, Cristina; Borràs, Dionís; Plazas, Mariola; Andújar, Isabel; Soler, Salvador

    2015-11-15

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) local varieties are having an increasing demand. We characterized 69 local tomato accessions from eight cultivar groups for proximate composition traits, major sugars, acids and antioxidants. A large diversity was found, with differences among accessions of almost tenfold for lycopene. Significant differences were found among cultivar group means for most traits. The Cherry and Penjar groups generally presented higher dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, taste index, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity that the other groups. Wide ranges of variation were found within each cultivar group. Positive correlations were found between proximate traits related to taste and antioxidants. The multivariate principal components analysis confirms the distinct profile of the Cherry and Penjar groups and the large variation within groups. The results will be useful for the differentiation, enhancement and selection of local tomato varieties with improved organoleptic properties and functional quality. PMID:25977058

  3. Influence of production system in local and conventional pig breeds on stress indicators at slaughter, muscle and meat traits and pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Bonhomme, N; Méteau, K; Prunier, A

    2015-08-01

    Sensory quality of pork is a complex phenotype determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study aimed at describing the respective influences of breed and production system on the development of pork quality. Plasma stress indicators and Longissimus muscle (LM) composition, physicochemical and sensory quality traits were determined in two contrasted breeds - the conventional Large White (LW, n=40) and the French local Basque (B, n=60). Pigs were reared in either a conventional (C; n=20 per breed), alternative (A; sawdust bedding and outdoor area, n=20 per breed) or extensive system (E; free-range, n=20 B). All the pigs from A and C systems were slaughtered at the same slaughterhouse, whereas B pigs from the E system were slaughtered at a local commercial abattoir. Major breed differences were found for almost all traits under study. LM from B pigs exhibited higher lipid, lower water and collagen concentrations, as well as lower collagen thermal solubility (P0.05) influence plasma stress indicators, LM chemical composition and physicochemical or sensory traits of pork. In contrast, within the B pigs, the E system affected the meat quality more. Lower plasma cortisol levels (P<0.05), but higher plasma lactate, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and more skin lesions (P<0.05), indicating higher muscular activity during pre-slaughter handling, were found in pigs produced in the E compared with the C system. E pigs exhibited higher meat pH1 and pHu values and shear force (P<0.01) and exhibited lower lightness, hue angle and drip and thawing losses (P<0.01) compared with the C pigs, whereas LM lipid, protein or collagen concentrations were not affected. Regarding sensory traits, the E system produced redder meat, but did not impact the eating quality of pork. Altogether, this study demonstrates that differences in meat quality between B and LW breeds can be modulated by extensive pig production system. PMID:25908582

  4. Identification of QTL controlling meat quality traits in an F2 cross between two chicken lines selected for either low or high growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Nadaf, Javad; Gilbert, Hélène; Pitel, Frédérique; Berri, Cécile M; Feve, Katia; Beaumont, Catherine; Duclos, Michel J; Vignal, Alain; Porter, Tom E; Simon, Jean; Aggrey, Samuel E; Cogburn, Larry A; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background Meat technological traits (i.e. meat pH, water retention and color) are important considerations for improving further processing of chicken meat. These quality traits were originally characterized in experimental lines selected for high (HG) and low (LG) growth. Presently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits were analyzed in an F2 population issued from the HG × LG cross. A total of 698 animals in 50 full-sib families were genotyped for 108 microsatellite markers covering 21 linkage groups. Results The HG and LG birds exhibit large differences in body weight and abdominal fat content. Several meat quality traits [pH at 15 min post-slaughter (pH15) and ultimate pH (pHu), breast color-redness (BCo-R) and breast color-yellowness (BCo-Y)] were lower in HG chickens. In contrast, meat color-lightness (BCo-L) was higher in HG chickens, whereas meat drip loss (DL) was similar in both lines. HG birds were more active on the shackle line. Association analyses were performed using maximum-likelihood interval mapping in QTLMAP. Five genome-wide significant QTLs were revealed: two for pH15 on GGA1 and GGA2, one for DL on GGA1, one for BCo-R and one for BCo-Y both on GGA11. In addition, four suggestive QTLs were identified by QTLMAP for BCo-Y, pHu, pH15 and DL on GGA1, GGA4, GGA12 and GGA14, respectively. The QTL effects, averaged on heterozygous families, ranged from 12 to 31% of the phenotypic variance. Further analyses with QTLExpress confirmed the two genome-wide QTLs for meat color on GGA11, failed to identify the genome-wide QTL for pH15 on GGA2, and revealed only suggestive QTLs for pH15 and DL on GGA1. However, QTLExpress qualified the QTL for pHu on GGA4 as genome-wide. Conclusion The present study identified genome-wide significant QTLs for all meat technological traits presently assessed in these chickens, except for meat lightness. This study highlights the effects of divergent selection for growth rate on some behavioral traits, muscle biochemistry and ultimately meat quality traits. Several QTL regions were identified that are worthy of further characterization. Some QTLs may in fact co-localize, suggesting pleiotropic effects for some chromosomal regions. PMID:17559654

  5. Systems genetics of wood formation.

    PubMed

    Mizrachi, Eshchar; Myburg, Alexander A

    2016-04-01

    In woody plants, xylogenesis is an exceptionally strong carbon sink requiring robust transcriptional control and dynamic coordination of cellular and metabolic processes directing carbon allocation and partitioning into secondary cell wall biosynthesis. As a biological process, wood formation is an excellent candidate for systems modeling due to the strong correlation patterns and interconnectedness observed for transcriptional and metabolic component traits contributing to complex phenotypes such as cell wall chemistry and ultrastructure. Genetic variation in undomesticated tree populations provides abundant perturbation of systems components, adding another dimension to plant systems biology (besides spatial and temporal variation). High-throughput analysis of molecular component traits in adult trees has provided the first insights into the systems genetics of wood, an important renewable feedstock for biomaterials and bioenergy. PMID:26943939

  6. Comparison of Bioactive Compounds and Quality Traits of Breast Meat from Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hyo; Heo, Kang Nyung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the bioactive compound content and quality traits of breast meat from male and female Korean native ducks (KND) and commercial ducks (CD, Cherry Valley). Meat from three 6-wk old birds of each sex from KND and CD were evaluated for carcass and breast weights, pH, color, cooking loss, shear force, and bioactive compound (creatine, carnosine, anserine, betaine, and L-carnitine) content. KND showed significantly higher carcass weights than CD whereas no such difference (p>0.05) was found between male and female ducks. The breed and sex had no significant effects on the breast weight, pH value, and shear force. However, KND had significantly lower cooking loss values than did CD. Creatine, anserine, and L-carnitine contents were significantly higher in KND than in CD and were predominant in female ducks compared to males. The results of this study provide rare information regarding the amounts and the determinants of several bioactive compounds in duck meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing indigenous duck meat. PMID:26761808

  7. The influence of casein haplotype on quality, coagulation, and yield traits of milk from Italian Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Gambacorta, Emilio; Simonetti, Amalia

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of casein haplotype (CSN1S1, CSN2, and CSN3) on quality, coagulation, and yield traits of milk from Italian Holstein cows. The casein haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing; milk clotting properties were determined by using a mechanical lacto-dynamographic instrument; and the yields of pressed and pasta filata cheeses were expressed as kilograms of cheese per 100kg of milk processed. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the casein haplotype. In particular, BB-A(1)A(1)-AA milk showed the highest fat content (4.01g/100g), whereas BB-A(2)A(2)-BB milk had a higher protein content, the best coagulation characteristics, and the highest yields in pressed and pasta filata cheeses, and, consequently, better ability to retain fat and protein in the curd. The results of this study suggest that knowledge of milk protein polymorphisms not only allows the production of milk with specific qualitative and quantitative characteristics, but it could also be used as a specific marker within a breed to identify milk suitable for cheesemaking, which confers an economical advantage for dairy producers. PMID:26947288

  8. Effect of feeding sugarcane press mud on carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of lambs

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ranjan; Saha, Subodh Kumar; Mendiratta, Sanjod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To explore the possibilities of feeding unconventional agro-industrial byproduct for livestock production. Sugarcane press-mud (SPM), is a byproduct derived from sugarcane industry, which is rich in protein as well as minerals. The effects of dietary inclusion of SPM at different levels on the carcass characteristics of lambs were evaluated. Materials and Methods: SPM was incorporated in concentrate mixture at different levels 0% (SP0 - concentrate mixture without SPM [Control diet]), 10% (SP10 - concentrate mixture containing 10% SPM) and 20% (SP20 - concentrate mixture containing 20% SPM). The concentrate mixtures were fed along with wheat straw for 180 days. At the end of the experimental period, six lambs per group were slaughtered to evaluate carcass and meat quality characteristics. Results: No significant difference was observed in dressing percentage on pre-slaughter weight or empty body weight basis of lambs fed different levels of SPM incorporated diets. Likewise carcass weight, carcass length, and wholesale cuts appeared to have similar values among groups. The yield of visceral organs, chemical composition, and sensory attributes were not statistically affected by inclusion of SPM in the diets except juiciness of control group meat was significantly (p<0.05) higher than treatment group (SP20). Conclusion: The SPM can be incorporated in the diet of lambs up to the level of 20% without affecting the carcass characteristics of lambs. PMID:27065649

  9. Diversity in quality traits amongst Indian wheat varieties II: Paste, dough and muffin making properties.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Katyal, Mehak; Bhinder, Seerat; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-04-15

    The relationship between protein molecular weight (MW) distribution, quality characteristics and muffin making properties amongst Indian wheat varieties were evaluated. Flours from varieties with higher grain weight showed lower proportion of fine particles. Lactic acid solvent retention capacity (LASRC), sedimentation value (SV) and dough stability (DS) correlated with the proportion of 0-55 μm size particles. Paste peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity showed positive correlation with polymeric protein and negatively with monomeric protein, α-amylase activity and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacity (NaSRC). Gluten strength indicators such as DS, dough development time (DDT), LASRC and gluten index (GI) were positively related to polymeric protein and negatively to monomeric protein. Both G' and G″ were correlated significantly with GI, LASRC, DS and DDT. The varieties that possesses high MW glutenin subunits combinations of 91 kDa + 84 kDa + 78 kDa + 74 kDa showed lower G' and G″. Muffin volume was positively correlated with gluten content and LASRC. PMID:26616955

  10. Quality of life and personality traits in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma and their first-degree caregivers.

    PubMed

    Granieri, Antonella; Tamburello, Stella; Tamburello, Antonino; Casale, Silvia; Cont, Chiara; Guglielmucci, Fanny; Innamorati, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos exposure causes significant pleural diseases, including malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Taking into account the impact of MPM on emotional functioning and wellbeing, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of life and personality traits in patients with MPM and their first-degree caregivers through the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). The sample was composed of 27 MPM patients, 55 first-degree relatives enrolled in Casale Monferrato and Monfalcone (Italy), and 40 healthy controls (HC). Patients and relatives reported poorer physical health than the HC. Patients had a higher overall sense of physical debilitation and poorer health than relatives and the HC, more numerous complaints of memory problems and difficulties in concentrating, and a greater belief that goals cannot be reached or problems solved, while often claiming that they were more indecisive and inefficacious than the HC. First-degree relatives reported lower opinions of others, a greater belief that goals cannot be reached or problems solved, support for the notion that they are indecisive and inefficacious, and were more likely to suffer from fear that significantly inhibited normal activities than were HC. In multinomial regression analyses, partial models indicated that sex, physical comorbidities, and the True Response Inconsistency (TRIN-r), Malaise (MLS), and Behavior-Restricting Fears (BRF) dimensions of the MMPI-2-RF had significant effects on group differences. In conclusion, health care providers should assess the ongoing adjustment and emotional wellbeing of people with MPM and their relatives, and provide support to reduce emotional distress. PMID:23983468

  11. Effects on egg quality traits of genotype and diets with mussel meal or wheat-distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Wall, H; Jönsson, L; Johansson, L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects on exterior and interior egg quality and sensory characteristics of eggs from hens fed diets with admixtures of 3.5 or 7.0% of mussel meal or 20% wheat-distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The mussel meal diets followed organic standards, whereas the DDGS diet was formulated for hens in conventional production. Standard diets, one organic and one conventional from a Swedish feed manufacturer, were included for comparison. The study used 164 Hy-Line White W-98 and 164 Hy-Line Brown layers housed in small-group furnished cages. Egg flavor or odor was not affected by genotype. Egg flavor intensity was stronger in eggs from hens fed either of the mussel diets or the standard organic diet compared with the conventional diet. There were no differences between any of the diets in egg odor intensity, off-flavor, or off-odor. The mussel diets and the standard organic diet gave stronger yolk pigmentation than the conventional and DDGS diet, respectively. Manure DM was lower with the admixture of 7.0% mussel meal than 3.5%. There was a tendency (P < 0.10) toward a difference between diets in dirty eggs, and the percentage was highest with 7.0% mussel meal. Diet or genotype had no effect on egg weight, albumen height, shell deformation, shell breaking strength, or proportion of cracked eggs. Genotype differences were found in weight percentage of albumen, yolk, and shell and in the presence of blood and meat spots and in percentage of dirty eggs. In conclusion, the majority of egg quality traits were unaffected by the diets studied. With the admixture of DDGS used in the present study, the characteristics of eggs were similar to those of eggs produced on the conventional standard diet. There was no indication of impaired egg odor or flavor with the used fractions of DDGS or mussel meal. PMID:20308407

  12. Quality of life and personality traits in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma and their first-degree caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Granieri, Antonella; Tamburello, Stella; Tamburello, Antonino; Casale, Silvia; Cont, Chiara; Guglielmucci, Fanny; Innamorati, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos exposure causes significant pleural diseases, including malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Taking into account the impact of MPM on emotional functioning and wellbeing, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of life and personality traits in patients with MPM and their first-degree caregivers through the World Health Organization Quality of Life–BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). The sample was composed of 27 MPM patients, 55 first-degree relatives enrolled in Casale Monferrato and Monfalcone (Italy), and 40 healthy controls (HC). Patients and relatives reported poorer physical health than the HC. Patients had a higher overall sense of physical debilitation and poorer health than relatives and the HC, more numerous complaints of memory problems and difficulties in concentrating, and a greater belief that goals cannot be reached or problems solved, while often claiming that they were more indecisive and inefficacious than the HC. First-degree relatives reported lower opinions of others, a greater belief that goals cannot be reached or problems solved, support for the notion that they are indecisive and inefficacious, and were more likely to suffer from fear that significantly inhibited normal activities than were HC. In multinomial regression analyses, partial models indicated that sex, physical comorbidities, and the True Response Inconsistency (TRIN-r), Malaise (MLS), and Behavior-Restricting Fears (BRF) dimensions of the MMPI-2-RF had significant effects on group differences. In conclusion, health care providers should assess the ongoing adjustment and emotional wellbeing of people with MPM and their relatives, and provide support to reduce emotional distress. PMID:23983468

  13. Drip loss in pork: influencing factors and relation to further meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K

    2007-11-01

    The paper deals with some general features of drip loss and the most important factors influencing it. Moreover, it shows some exemplary results of an own investigation. Up to now there is no generally valid definition of drip loss available. Therefore measurement procedures have to be strongly standardized, otherwise they provide no comparable results. Drip loss depends on the shortening of sarcomeres which is regulated by the interaction of muscle temperature and rigour development. Hence, the chilling conditions are highly important. However, the main point is the velocity and the extent of the pH fall after slaughter. All factors influencing the occurrence of quality deviations like PSE, DFD, Acid meat, RSE, PFN will inevitably affect the degree of drip loss too. Under the conditions of an own study, investigating material of a progeny testing station, untypically, one third of the loins with higher-than-average wateriness were red rather than pale, and one third of the loins with higher-than-average brightness were only slightly exudative, which is untypical too. Pork with higher-than-average brightness and low wateriness exhibited, apart from the colour deviation, no crucial disadvantages. It showed only a marginally higher loss during storage, thawing and heating. Pork with higher-than-average drip loss - regardless of dark or pale colour - was predominantly combined with a pH(1) less than 6.2, an electrical conductivity 24 h p.m. higher than 5.0 and a loin area higher than 56 cm(2). PMID:17988246

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study of Meat Quality Traits in a White Duroc×Erhualian F2 Intercross and Chinese Sutai Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junwu; Yang, Jie; Zhou, Lisheng; Zhang, Zhiyan; Ma, Huanban; Xie, Xianhua; Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Xinwei; Cui, Leilei; Yang, Hui; Liu, Xianxian; Duan, Yanyu; Xiao, Shijun; Ai, Huashui; Ren, Jun; Huang, Lusheng

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of QTLs for meat quality traits have been identified by linkage mapping studies, but most of them lack precise position or replication between populations, which hinder their application in pig breeding programs. To localize QTLs for meat quality traits to precise genomic regions, we performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study using the Illumina PorcineSNP60K Beadchip in two swine populations: 434 Sutai pigs and 933 F2 pigs from a White Duroc×Erhualian intercross. Meat quality traits, including pH, color, drip loss, moisture content, protein content and intramuscular fat content (IMF), marbling and firmness scores in the M. longissimus (LM) and M. semimembranosus (SM) muscles, were recorded on the two populations. In total, 127 chromosome-wide significant SNPs for these traits were identified. Among them, 11 SNPs reached genome-wise significance level, including 1 on SSC3 for pH, 1 on SSC3 and 3 on SSC15 for drip loss, 3 (unmapped) for color a*, and 2 for IMF each on SSC9 and SSCX. Except for 11 unmapped SNPs, 116 significant SNPs fell into 28 genomic regions of approximately 10 Mb or less. Most of these regions corresponded to previously reported QTL regions and spanned smaller intervals than before. The loci on SSC3 and SSC7 appeared to have pleiotropic effects on several related traits. Besides them, a few QTL signals were replicated between the two populations. Further, we identified thirteen new candidate genes for IMF, marbling and firmness, on the basis of their positions, functional annotations and reported expression patterns. The findings will contribute to further identification of the causal mutation underlying these QTLs and future marker-assisted selection in pigs. PMID:23724019

  15. A Whole Genome Association Study on Meat Quality Traits Using High Density SNP Chips in a Cross between Korean Native Pig and Landrace

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K.-T; Lee, Y.-M.; Alam, M.; Choi, B. H.; Park, M. R.; Kim, K.-S.; Kim, T.-H.; Kim, J.-J.

    2012-01-01

    A whole genome association (WGA) study was performed to detect significant polymorphisms for meat quality traits in an F2 cross population (N = 478) that were generated with Korean native pig sires and Landrace dams in National Livestock Research Institute, Songwhan, Korea. The animals were genotyped using Illumina porcine 60k SNP beadchips, in which a set of 46,865 SNPs were available for the WGA analyses on ten carcass quality traits; live weight, crude protein, crude lipids, crude ash, water holding capacity, drip loss, shear force, CIE L, CIE a and CIE b. Phenotypes were regressed on additive and dominance effects for each SNP using a simple linear regression model, after adjusting for sex, sire and slaughter stage as fixed effects. With the significant SNPs for each trait (p<0.001), a stepwise regression procedure was applied to determine the best set of SNPs with the additive and/or dominance effects. A total of 106 SNPs, or quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected, and about 32 to 66% of the total phenotypic variation was explained by the significant SNPs for each trait. The QTL were identified in most porcine chromosomes (SSCs), in which majority of the QTL were detected in SSCs 1, 2, 12, 13, 14 and 16. Several QTL clusters were identified on SSCs 12, 16 and 17, and a cluster of QTL influencing crude protein, crude lipid, drip loss, shear force, CIE a and CIE b were located between 20 and 29 Mb of SSC12. A pleiotropic QTL for drip loss, CIE L and CIE b was also detected on SSC16. These QTL need to be validated in commercial pig populations for genetic improvement in meat quality via marker-assisted selection. PMID:25049513

  16. Effects of allelic variations in starch synthesis-related genes on grain quality traits of Korean nonglutinous rice varieties under different temperature conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Young-Jun; Jeung, Ji-Ung; Shin, Woon-Chul; Kim, Ki-Young; Ye, Changrong; Redoña, Edilberto D.; Kim, Bo-Kyeong

    2014-01-01

    Influences of allelic variations in starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs) on rice grain quality were examined. A total of 187 nonglutinous Korean rice varieties, consisting of 170 Japonica and 17 Tongil-type varieties, were grown in the field and in two greenhouse conditions. The percentages of head rice and chalky grains, amylose content, alkali digestion value, and rapid visco-analysis characteristics were evaluated in the three different environments. Among the 10 previously reported SSRG markers used in this study, seven were polymorphic, and four of those showed subspecies-specific allele distributions. Six out of the seven polymorphic SSRG markers were significantly associated with at least one grain quality trait (R2 > 0.1) across the three different environments. However, the association level and significance were markedly lower when the analysis was repeated using only the 170 Japonica varieties. Similarly, the significant associations between SSRG allelic variations and changes in grain quality traits under increased temperature were largely attributable to the biased allele frequency between the two subpopulations. Our results suggest that within Korean Japonica varieties, these 10 major SSRG loci have been highly fixed during breeding history and variations in grain quality traits might be influenced by other genetic factors. PMID:24987303

  17. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms of the bovine methyltransferase 3b gene and their association with meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Guo, X Y; Xu, X Z; Wu, M; Zhang, X; Li, Q; Ma, P P; Zhang, Y; Wang, C Y; Geng, F J; Qin, C H; Liu, L; Shi, W H; Wang, Y C; Yu, Y

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential for adipose deposition in mammals. We screened SNPs of the bovine DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) gene in Snow Dragon beef, a commercial beef cattle population in China. Nine SNPs were found in the population and three of six novel SNPs were chosen for genotyping and analyzing a possible association with 16 meat quality traits. The frequencies of the alleles and genotypes of the three SNPs in Snow Dragon beef were similar to those in their terminal-paternal breed, Wagyu. Association analysis disclosed that SNP1 was not associated with any of the traits; SNP2 was significantly associated with lean meat color score and chuck short rib score, and SNP3 had a significant effect on dressing percentage and back-fat thickness in the beef population. The individuals with genotype GG for SNP2 had a 25.7% increase in lean meat color score and a 146% increase in chuck short rib score, compared with genotype AA. The cattle with genotype AG for SNP3 had 35.7 and 24% increases in dressing percentage and 28.8 and 29.2% increases in back-fat thickness, compared with genotypes GG and AA, respectively. Genotypic combination analysis revealed significant interactions between SNP1 and SNP2 and between SNP2 and SNP3 for the traits rib-eye area and live weight. We conclude that there is considerable evidence that DNMT3b is a determiner of beef quality traits. PMID:22843074

  18. Genome-wide Association Study (GWAS) and Its Application for Improving the Genomic Estimated Breeding Values (GEBV) of the Berkshire Pork Quality Traits.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Sup; Jeong, Hyeonsoo; Taye, Mengistie; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Ka, Sojeong; Ryu, Youn-Chul; Cho, Seoae

    2015-11-01

    The missing heritability has been a major problem in the analysis of best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). We introduced the traditional genome-wide association study (GWAS) into the BLUP to improve the heritability estimation. We analyzed eight pork quality traits of the Berkshire breeds using GWAS and BLUP. GWAS detects the putative quantitative trait loci regions given traits. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained using GWAS results with p value <0.01. BLUP analyzed with significant SNPs was much more accurate than that with total genotyped SNPs in terms of narrow-sense heritability. It implies that genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) of pork quality traits can be calculated by BLUP via GWAS. The GWAS model was the linear regression using PLINK and BLUP model was the G-BLUP and SNP-GBLUP. The SNP-GBLUP uses SNP-SNP relationship matrix. The BLUP analysis using preprocessing of GWAS can be one of the possible alternatives of solving the missing heritability problem and it can provide alternative BLUP method which can find more accurate GEBVs. PMID:26580278

  19. Genome-wide Association Study (GWAS) and Its Application for Improving the Genomic Estimated Breeding Values (GEBV) of the Berkshire Pork Quality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Sup; Jeong, Hyeonsoo; Taye, Mengistie; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Ka, Sojeong; Ryu, Youn-Chul; Cho, Seoae

    2015-01-01

    The missing heritability has been a major problem in the analysis of best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). We introduced the traditional genome-wide association study (GWAS) into the BLUP to improve the heritability estimation. We analyzed eight pork quality traits of the Berkshire breeds using GWAS and BLUP. GWAS detects the putative quantitative trait loci regions given traits. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained using GWAS results with p value <0.01. BLUP analyzed with significant SNPs was much more accurate than that with total genotyped SNPs in terms of narrow-sense heritability. It implies that genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) of pork quality traits can be calculated by BLUP via GWAS. The GWAS model was the linear regression using PLINK and BLUP model was the G-BLUP and SNP-GBLUP. The SNP-GBLUP uses SNP-SNP relationship matrix. The BLUP analysis using preprocessing of GWAS can be one of the possible alternatives of solving the missing heritability problem and it can provide alternative BLUP method which can find more accurate GEBVs. PMID:26580278

  20. Industrial uses of wood char

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Gupta, R.C.

    1998-08-01

    The quality and feasibility of wood char utilization in various industries are reported. Wood char provides fuel not only for cooking and domestic heating but also for many industrial purposes, such as manufacture of iron and some ferro-alloys, recovery of gold and other nonferrous metals from their leached solutions, manufacture of chemicals and medicines, burning of bricks and glass, and removal of toxic substances from their solutions. The selection of wood char for these purposes is made on the basis of its properties, such as chemical composition, reactivity, heating value, electrical resistivity, adsorption capacity, and strength.

  1. Effect of feeding diets containing barley, wheat and corn distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass traits and meat quality in growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Alagón, Gilbert; Arce, Orlando; Serrano, Paula; Ródenas, Luis; Martínez-Paredes, Eugenio; Cervera, Concepción; Pascual, Juan José; Pascual, Mariam

    2015-03-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on carcass and meat quality of longissimus muscle was studied in 100 growing rabbits from 28 to 59days old. Diets with no DDGS (C), barley (Db20), wheat (Dw20) and corn (Dc20) DDGS at 20% and corn (Dc40) DDGS at 40% were formulated. No effects on most of the carcass traits, texture and water holding capacity were found. Barley and corn DDGS led to a higher dissectible fat percentage. Meat redness was higher with Dw20 and pH was higher with Dw20 and Db20 than with Dc20. Protein and saturated fatty acids concentration declined as corn DDGS level increased. Dc40 led to the lowest saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio, atherogenic index and thrombogenic index. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of these DDGS at 20% did not affect most of the carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits. PMID:25437451

  2. Implications of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities on quality traits of raw and marinated chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Mudalal, S; Lorenzi, M; Soglia, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2015-04-01

    One of the consequences of intense genetic selection for growth of poultry is the recent appearance of abnormalities in chicken breast muscles, such as white striping (characterised by superficial white striations) and wooden breast (characterised by pale and bulged areas with substantial hardness). The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality traits of chicken fillets affected by white striping and wooden breast abnormalities. In two replications, 192 fillets were divided into the following four classes: normal (n=48; absence of any visual defects), white striping (n=48, presence of white striations), wooden breast (n=48; diffusely presence of hardened areas) and white striping/wooden breast (n=48; fillets affected by both abnormalities). Morphology, raw meat texture and technological properties were assessed in both unprocessed (pH, colour, drip loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force) and marinated meat (marinade uptake, purge loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force). Fillets affected by white striping, wooden breast or both abnormalities exhibited higher breast weights compared with normal fillets (305.5, 298.7, 318.3 and 244.7 g, respectively; P<0.001). Wooden breast, either alone or in combination with white striping, was associated with a significant (P<0.001) increase of fillet thickness in the caudal area and raw meat hardness compared with both normal and the white striping abnormality, for which there was no difference. Overall, the occurrence of the individual and combined white striping and wooden breast abnormalities resulted in substantial reduction in the quality of breast meat, although these abnormalities are associated with distinct characteristics. Wooden breast fillets showed lower marinade uptake and higher cooking losses than white-striped fillets for both unprocessed and marinated meats. On the other hand, white-striped fillets showed a moderate decline in marinade and cooking yield. Fillets affected by both abnormalities had the highest (P<0.001) ultimate pH values. In contrast, the effects on colour of raw and cooked meat, drip loss, purge loss and cooked meat shear force were negligible or relatively low and of little practical importance. Thus, the presence of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities impair not only breast meat appearance but also the quality of both raw and marinated meats mainly by reducing water holding/binding abilities. PMID:25500004

  3. QTL analysis for eating quality-related traits in an F2:3 population derived from waxy corn × sweet corn cross

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Jin; Sa, Kyu Jin; Koh, Hee-Jong; Lee, Ju Kyong

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the eating quality of waxy corn and sweet corn (Zea mays L.), QTL analysis was conducted on an F2 population derived from a cross between a waxy corn inbred line and a sweet corn inbred line. Ten QTLs for pericarp thickness (PER), amylose content (AMY), dextrose content (DEX) and sucrose content (SUC) were found in the 158 F2 families. Among them, four QTLs, qAMY4 (10.43%), qAMY9 (19.33%), qDEX4 (21.31%) and qSUC4 (30.71%), may be considered as major QTLs. Three of these, qAMY4, qDEX4 and qSUC4, were found to be located within a region flanked by two adjacent SSR markers on chromosome 4 (umc1088 and bnlg1265), making this SSR marker pair a useful selection tool for screening the eating quality traits of AMY, DEX and SUC. The QTL for amylose content was found to be located between markers phi027 and umc1634, raising the possibility of its identity being the Wx1 gene, which encodes a granule-bound amylose synthase. The new QTLs identified by the present study could serve as useful molecular markers for selecting important eating quality traits in subsequent waxy corn breeding studies. PMID:24273428

  4. Selection enhanced estimates of µ-calpain, calpastatin, and dacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 genetic effects on pre-weaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in composite ... cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection of the composite MARC III population for markers allowed better estimates of effects and inheritance of markers for targeted carcass quality traits (n=254) and nontargeted traits and an evaluation of SNP specific residual variance models for tenderness. Genotypic effects of CAPN1 haplotyp...

  5. The use of thyme and orange essential oils blend to improve quality traits of marinated chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Rimini, Simone; Petracci, Massimiliano; Smith, Douglas P

    2014-08-01

    Poultry meat contains large quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which lead to oxidative deterioration. Plant essential oils (EO) and natural compounds, with antioxidant properties, may be used to alleviate this problem. Two replications were conducted to evaluate the effects of a mixture (1:1) of thyme and orange oils (EO) on the quality characteristics and the oxidative stability of chicken meat (breast and wing). For each replication, 24 fresh breast fillets and 24 wings were procured from a local grocery store. The EO were added to marinade solution to achieve a final concentration of 0.55% sodium chloride, 0.28% polyphosphate, and 0.05% wt/vol of EO blend. Breasts and wings were split in 2 different groups with homogenous pH and lightness and vacuum tumbled in 2 treatments, a 0.5% EO and a control (CON, no EO). Each group was tested for pH, Commission Internationale d'Eclairage color (lightness, L*; redness, a*; yellowness, b*), moisture content, marinade uptake, purge loss, cook yield, and shear force. Susceptibility to lipid oxidation was determined on fresh and frozen meat by TBA reactive substance analysis (induced oxidation from 0 to 150 min at 37°C). The EO breasts had lower purge loss compared with CON meat. Breast did not show any color, pH, marinade uptake, cooking yield, shear force, or moisture differences due to treatment, although cooked EO breast was slightly less red than CON. The EO wings presented higher a* and b* values after marination and lower purge loss and shear force than CON. No differences were detected on wings for color, pH, marinade uptake, cooking yield, or moisture between EO and CON wings. Both fresh and frozen EO breasts and EO wings were less susceptible to the lipid oxidation during all induced oxidation times compared with CON breasts and wings. In conclusion, EO had a positive effect on broiler breast and wing lipid oxidation without negatively affecting meat quality traits. PMID:24902698

  6. Identification of QTLs for fruit quality traits in Japanese apples: QTLs for early ripening are tightly related to preharvest fruit drop

    PubMed Central

    Kunihisa, Miyuki; Moriya, Shigeki; Abe, Kazuyuki; Okada, Kazuma; Haji, Takashi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kim, Hoytaek; Nishitani, Chikako; Terakami, Shingo; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    Many important apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit quality traits are regulated by multiple genes, and more information about quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits is required for marker-assisted selection. In this study, we constructed genetic linkage maps of the Japanese apple cultivars ‘Orin’ and ‘Akane’ using F1 seedlings derived from a cross between these cultivars. The ‘Orin’ map consisted of 251 loci covering 17 linkage groups (LGs; total length 1095.3 cM), and the ‘Akane’ map consisted of 291 loci covering 18 LGs (total length 1098.2 cM). We performed QTL analysis for 16 important traits, and found that four QTLs related to harvest time explained about 70% of genetic variation, and these will be useful for marker-assisted selection. The QTL for early harvest time in LG15 was located very close to the QTL for preharvest fruit drop. The QTL for skin color depth was located around the position of MYB1 in LG9, which suggested that alleles harbored by ‘Akane’ are regulating red color depth with different degrees of effect. We also analyzed soluble solids and sugar component contents, and found that a QTL for soluble solids content in LG16 could be explained by the amount of sorbitol and fructose. PMID:25320559

  7. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    PubMed

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels. PMID:26685670

  8. Immune-spaying as an alternative to surgical spaying in Iberian×Duroc females: effect on carcass traits and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Negrón, Rafael; Sánchez del Pulgar, José; Ventanas, Jesús; García, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of immune-spaying on production traits and meat quality characteristics of fresh loin (longissimus dorsi) by comparing 3 groups of Iberian×Duroc females (N=12 per batch): surgically spayed, immune-spayed and entire females. Carcass traits and physicochemical parameters, including fatty acid profile, were investigated. The only carcass trait significantly affected by castration was the ham fat thickness, where both immune-spayed and surgically spayed females showed higher values against entire females (57±9.5mm, 62±2.5mm and 51±10.1mm, respectively; p<0.05). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the quality parameters of fresh meat. These results are important regarding animal welfare, since in Europe, there is a plan to voluntarily end the surgical castration of pigs by 2018. Therefore, with an adequate vaccination protocol, immune-spaying might represent a good alternative to surgical spaying. The reliability of immune-spaying over long periods should be evaluated. PMID:25443969

  9. The Transcriptomics of Secondary Growth and Wood Formation in Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ana; Paiva, Jorge; Louzada, José; Lima-Brito, José

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, forestry scientists have adapted genomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to the search for candidate genes related to the transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in several tree species. Gymnosperms, in particular, the conifers, are ecologically and economically important, namely, for the production of wood and other forestry end products. Until very recently, no whole genome sequencing of a conifer genome was available. Due to the gradual improvement of the NGS technologies and inherent bioinformatics tools, two draft assemblies of the whole genomes sequence of Picea abies and Picea glauca arose in the current year. These draft genome assemblies will bring new insights about the structure, content, and evolution of the conifer genomes. Furthermore, new directions in the forestry, breeding and research of conifers will be discussed in the following. The identification of genes associated with the xylem transcriptome and the knowledge of their regulatory mechanisms will provide less time-consuming breeding cycles and a high accuracy for the selection of traits related to wood production and quality. PMID:24288610

  10. Genetic components of milk Fourier-transform infrared spectra used to predict breeding values for milk composition and quality traits in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Dagnachew, B S; Meuwissen, T H E; Adnøy, T

    2013-09-01

    The usual practice today is that milk component phenotypes are predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and they are then, together with pedigree information, used in BLUP for calculation of individual estimated breeding values. Here, this is referred to as the indirect prediction (IP) approach. An alternative approach-a direct prediction (DP) method-is proposed, where genetic analyses are directly conducted on the milk FTIR spectral variables. Breeding values of all derived milk traits (protein, fat, fatty acid composition, and coagulation properties, among others) can then be predicted as traits correlated only to the genetic information of the spectra. For the DP, no need exists to predict the phenotypes before calculating breeding values for each of the traits-the genetic analysis is done once for the spectra, and is applicable to all traits derived from the spectra. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of DP and IP of milk composition and quality traits on prediction error variance (PEV) and genetic gain. A data set containing 27,927 milk FTIR spectral observations and milk composition phenotypes (fat, lactose, and protein) belonging to 14,869 goats of 271 herds was used for training and evaluating models. Partial least squares regression was used for calibrating prediction models for fat, protein, and lactose percentages. Restricted maximum likelihood was used to estimate variance components of the spectral variables after principal components analysis was applied to reduce the spectral dimension. Estimated breeding values were predicted for fat, lactose, and protein percentages using DP and IP methods. The DP approach reduced the mean PEV by 3.73, 4.07, and 7.04% for fat, lactose, and protein percentages, respectively, compared with the IP method. Given the reduction in PEV, relative genetic gains were 2.99, 2.78, and 4.85% for fat, lactose, and protein percentages, respectively. We concluded that more accurate estimated breeding values could be found using genetic components of milk FTIR spectra compared with single-trait animal model analyses on phenotypes predicted from the spectra separately. The potential and application is not only limited to milk FTIR spectra, but could also be extended to any spectroscopy techniques implemented in other species and for other traits. PMID:23831101

  11. Accuracy of pedigree and genomic predictions of carcass and novel meat quality traits in multi-breed sheep data assessed by cross-validation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic predictions can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. This is especially useful for meat quality traits in sheep. Carcass and novel meat quality traits were predicted in a multi-breed sheep population that included Merino, Border Leicester, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk sheep and their crosses. Methods Prediction of breeding values by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) based on pedigree information was compared to prediction based on genomic BLUP (GBLUP) and a Bayesian prediction method (BayesR). Cross-validation of predictions across sire families was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictions based on the correlation of predicted and observed values and the regression of observed on predicted values was used to evaluate bias of methods. Accuracies and regression coefficients were calculated using either phenotypes or adjusted phenotypes as observed variables. Results and conclusions Genomic methods increased the accuracy of predicted breeding values to on average 0.2 across traits (range 0.07 to 0.31), compared to an average accuracy of 0.09 for pedigree-based BLUP. However, for some traits with smaller reference population size, there was no increase in accuracy or it was small. No clear differences in accuracy were observed between GBLUP and BayesR. The regression of phenotypes on breeding values was close to 1 for all methods, indicating little bias, except for GBLUP and adjusted phenotypes (regression = 0.78). Accuracies calculated with adjusted (for fixed effects) phenotypes were less variable than accuracies based on unadjusted phenotypes, indicating that fixed effects influence the latter. Increasing the reference population size increased accuracy, indicating that adding more records will be beneficial. For the Merino, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk breeds, accuracies were greater than for the Border Leicester breed due to the smaller sample size and limited across-breed prediction. BayesR detected only a few large marker effects but one region on chromosome 6 was associated with large effects for several traits. Cross-validation produced very similar variability of accuracy and regression coefficients for BLUP, GBLUP and BayesR, showing that this variability is not a property of genomic methods alone. Our results show that genomic selection for novel difficult-to-measure traits is a feasible strategy to achieve increased genetic gain. PMID:23146144

  12. Effects of humic substances supplementation provided through drinking water on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of broilers.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, E; Ocak, N; Coskun, I; Turhan, S; Erener, G

    2010-02-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of different doses of humic substances (HS) in waterer pan on broiler performances and meat quality. For the trial, 480 chicks (ROSS 308) were allocated into four groups (HS0, HS150, HS300 and HS450) of 120 equally mixed-sex birds, each receiving a drinking water supplemented with 0, 150, 300 and 450 ppm of a humic acid (provided by 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% of HS, v/v) respectively. At the age of 21 and 42 days, feed consumption and live weight were taken. At the age of 42 days, 16 birds per treatment were slaughtered, dressing percentages, digestive tract traits were evaluated and samples of breast (pectoralis major) and thigh (iliotibialis) meat were taken to evaluate the changes in colour characteristics (CIE L*, a* and b*) and chemical composition. The body weight gain increased by the HS300 in relation to the HS0 and HS450, and decreased by the HS450 in relation to the HS0. The feed consumption of birds in the HS450 and feed efficiency of birds in the HS300 were lower and higher than those in the other treatments respectively. The carcass weight of broilers in the HS150 and HS300 were higher than those of in the HS0 and HS450. The carcass weight decreased by the HS450 in relation to the other treatments. The dressing percentage increased by the HS150 in relation to the HS450. The HS450 resulted in breast and thigh meat colour that were lighter than those found in the HS0 birds. The HS450 increased fat content of thigh meat in relation to the HS0. It was concluded that the humic acid supplementation at 300 ppm and 450 ppm appears to have a measurable impact on live performance improving feed efficiency and lightness of breast and thigh meat colours in broilers respectively. PMID:19175461

  13. Evaluation of subsurface exploration, sampling, and water-quality-analysis methods at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, W.S.; Carmichael, J.K.; Mirecki, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Direct Push Technology (DPT) and a modified-auger method of sampling were used at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, to collect lithologic data and ground-water samples in an area known to be affected by a subsurface creosote plume. The groundwater samples were analyzed using (1) gas chromatography with photo-ionization detection (GS/PID), (2) high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (3) colonmetric phenol analysis, and (4) toxicity bioassay. DPT piezocone and cone-penetrometer-type tools provided lithologic data and ground-water samples at two onsite stations to a depth of refusal of about 35 feet below land surface. With the assistance of an auger rig, this depth was extended to about 65 feet by pushing the tools in advance of the augers. Following the DPT work, a modified-auger method was tested by the USGS. This method left doubt as to the integrity of the samples collected once zones of contamination were penetrated. GC/PID and HPLC methods of water-quality analysis provided the most data concerning contaminants in the ground-water and proved to be the most effective in creosote plume detection. Analyses from these methods showed that the highest concentrations of contaminants were detected at depths less than about 35 feet below land surface. Phenol analyses provided data supplemental to the HPLC analyses. Bioassay data indicated that toxicity associated with the plume extended to depths of about 55 feet below land surface.

  14. Genome-wide linkage disequilibruim revealed by microsatellite markers and association study of fiber quality traits in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of association mapping based on existing genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) between DNA polymorphisms and genes underlying traits is becoming powerful tool that overcome many limitations (high cost, poor resolution, requirement for bi-parentally crossed lines assessing only two ...

  15. MBA Students' Quality Improvement: The Correlation Analysis of Students' Personal Traits and Attitudes towards Teaching Methods at a Chinese University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Rui; Gao, Xiaowei; Zhong, Wanxing; Zhou, Xiaoling

    2015-01-01

    MBA education has become the fastest growing segment of education in China in recent years and a segment that can now be considered indispensable. However, how best to teach it has long been a source of debate. One of the key issues is how to match student traits with teaching methods. While engaged as teachers of marketing management, the authors…

  16. Boar fertility and semen quality characteristics in lines of pigs selected for component traits of female reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection for 11 generations for ovulation rate (OR) or uterine capacity (UC) resulted in significant changes in component traits of litter size. Our objective was to characterize male fertility as a correlated response to selection compared to an unselected control line (CO). Each boar (n=60) fro...

  17. Linkage Disequilibrium Based Association Mapping of Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton Using Diverse Cotton Germplasm from Uzbekistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    QTL-mapping, a now-classical approach to identify molecular markers linked to complex traits in specific experimental populations, is extremely time-consuming, high-risk, and expensive work - prohibitively expensive if dozens, let alone hundreds or thousands, of germplasm accessions are to be examin...

  18. Pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    After devastating vast areas of pine forests in Asian countries, the pine wilt disease spread into European forests in 1999 and is causing worldwide concern. This disease involves very complicated interactions between a pathogenic nematode, its vector beetle, host pine species, and fungi in dead hosts. Pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode is determined not only by its physical and chemical traits but also by its behavioral traits. Most life history traits of the pine wood nematode, such as its phoretic relationship with vector beetles, seem to be more effective in virulent than in avirulent isolates or species. As the pathogenicity determinants, secreted enzymes, and surface coat proteins are very important, they have therefore been studied intensively. The mechanism of quick death of a large pine tree as a result of infection by a tiny nematode could be ascribed to the dysfunction of the water-conducting system caused by the death of parenchyma cells, which must have originally evolved as an inherent resistant system. PMID:23663004

  19. Effects of pre-slaughter diet/management system and fasting period on physiological indicators and meat quality traits of lambs.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Serhat; Erdoğan, Sibel; Kor, Dilek; Kor, Aşkın

    2016-06-01

    This study determined the effects of pre-slaughter diet/management system on blood and rumen parameters and meat-quality traits of Norduz lambs. Eighty lambs were divided into two groups according to diet (AH: alfalfa hay; BAH: alfalfa supplemented with 500g/head barley) for 21days. Following this period, lambs from each group were distributed among four groups according to pre-slaughter fasting period as 0, 12, 24 or 48h. Cortisol concentrations were found to be significantly higher in the 24h and 48h groups when compared to the 0h group (p<0.01). Diet and fasting period had limited effect on muscle glycogen content and ultimate pH·L*, WHC and moisture decreased in line with increases in the fasting period (p<0.01). In conclusion, carcass conformation and some meat quality traits were better in BAH lambs. Fasting had a negative effect on some meat quality parameters, with significant increases in some physiological stress indicators after fasting periods of 24h or longer. PMID:26874084

  20. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated 43 to 420 micrograms per liter. Sediment elutriate samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubta, Pimephales promelas, Photobacterium phosphoreum, and Salenastrum capricornulum.

  1. Detection of Epistatic and Gene-Environment Interactions Underlying Three Quality Traits in Rice Using High-Throughput Genome-Wide Data

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiming; Jiang, Beibei; Cao, Yujie; Zhang, Yingxin; Zhan, Xiaodeng; Shen, Xihong; Cheng, Shihua; Lou, Xiangyang; Cao, Liyong

    2015-01-01

    With development of sequencing technology, dense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been available, enabling uncovering genetic architecture of complex traits by genome-wide association study (GWAS). However, the current GWAS strategy usually ignores epistatic and gene-environment interactions due to absence of appropriate methodology and heavy computational burden. This study proposed a new GWAS strategy by combining the graphics processing unit- (GPU-) based generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) algorithm with mixed linear model approach. The reliability and efficiency of the analytical methods were verified through Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that a population size of nearly 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) had a reasonable resolution for the scenarios considered. Further, a GWAS was conducted with the above two-step strategy to investigate the additive, epistatic, and gene-environment associations between 701,867 SNPs and three important quality traits, gelatinization temperature, amylose content, and gel consistency, in a RIL population with 138 individuals derived from super-hybrid rice Xieyou9308 in two environments. Four significant SNPs were identified with additive, epistatic, and gene-environment interaction effects. Our study showed that the mixed linear model approach combining with the GPU-based GMDR algorithm is a feasible strategy for implementing GWAS to uncover genetic architecture of crop complex traits. PMID:26345334

  2. A complete genetic linkage map and QTL analyses for bast fibre quality traits, yield and yield components in jute (Corchorus olitorius L.).

    PubMed

    Topdar, N; Kundu, A; Sinha, M K; Sarkar, D; Das, M; Banerjee, S; Kar, C S; Satya, P; Balyan, H S; Mahapatra, B S; Gupta, P K

    2013-01-01

    We report the first complete microsatellite genetic map of jute (Corchorus olitorius L.; 2n = 2x = 14) using an F6 recombinant inbred population. Of the 403 microsatellite markers screened, 82 were mapped on the seven linkage groups (LGs) that covered a total genetic distance of 799.9 cM, with an average marker interval of 10.7 cM. LG5 had the longest and LG7 the shortest genetic lengths, whereas LG1 had the maximum and LG7 the minimum number of markers. Segregation distortion of microsatellite loci was high (61%), with the majority of them (76%) skewed towards the female parent. Genomewide non-parametric single-marker analysis in combination with multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL)-models (MQM) mapping detected 26 definitive QTLs for bast fibre quality, yield and yield-related traits. These were unevenly distributed on six LGs, as colocalized clusters, at genomic sectors marked by 15 microsatellite loci. LG1 was the QTL-richest map sector, with the densest colocalized clusters of QTLs governing fibre yield, yield-related traits and tensile strength. Expectedly, favorable QTLs were derived from the desirable parents, except for nearly all of those of fibre fineness, which might be due to the creation of new gene combinations. Our results will be a good starting point for further genome analyses in jute. PMID:23821949

  3. Isolation of high quality lignin as a by-product from ammonia percolation pretreatment of poplar wood.

    PubMed

    Bouxin, Florent P; David Jackson, S; Jarvis, Michael C

    2014-06-01

    A two-step process combining percolation-mode ammonia pretreatment of poplar sawdust with mild organosolv purification of the extracted lignin produced high quality, high purity lignin in up to 31% yield and 50% recovery. The uncondensed fraction of the isolated lignin was up to 34%, close to that the native lignin (40%). Less lignin was recovered after pretreatment in batch mode, apparently due to condensation during the longer residence time of the solubilised lignin at elevated temperature. The lignin recovery was directly correlated with its molecular weight and its nitrogen content. Low nitrogen incorporation, observed at high ammonia concentration, may be explained by limited homolytic cleavage of β-O-4 bonds. Ammonia concentrations from 15% to 25% (w/w) gave similar results in terms of lignin structure, yield and recovery. PMID:24755321

  4. Influence of rearing conditions on performance, behavioral, and physiological responses of pigs to preslaughter handling, carcass traits, and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Meunier-Salaün, M C; Foury, A; Mormède, P; Dransfield, E; Dourmad, J Y

    2006-09-01

    A total of 120 crossbred [synthetic line x (Large White x Landrace)] pigs (castrated males and females) were used to evaluate the influence of rearing conditions for growing-finishing pigs on growth performance, carcass, stress reactions at slaughter, and meat eating quality. At approximately 35 kg of live weight (LW), littermates were allocated to either a conventional (fully slatted floor, 0.65 m2/pig, considered as control, CON) or an alternative (sawdust bedding with free access to an outdoor area, 2.4 m2/pig, OUT) system, until slaughter at approximately 110 kg of LW. Pigs had free access to standard growing and finishing diets. The trials were conducted in spring, summer, and winter, with each season involving 2 pens of 10 pigs in each system. Compared with the CON, the OUT pigs exhibited a greater growth rate (+10%, P < 0.001) due to their greater feed intake (+0.23 kg/d, P < 0.01), resulting in a greater body weight at slaughter (+7 kg, P < 0.001). The OUT pigs had thicker backfat (+2.4 mm, P < 0.01) and lower lean meat content (- 2.0% points, P < 0.001) than the CON pigs. The OUT system did not (P > 0.10) influence the behavioral activities of pigs during lairage at the slaughterhouse, or the urinary levels of catecholamines and cortisol, and plasma levels of ACTH, cortisol, lactate, creatine kinase, and FFA immediately after slaughter. The OUT pigs had similar (P > 0.10) pH values 30 min postmortem (pH1) in the LM, biceps femoris (BF), and semimembranosus (SM) muscles, similar ultimate pH (pHu) in LM, but lower pHu in SM (- 0.07 unit, P < 0.001) and in BF (- 0.03 unit, P = 0.029). Despite nonsignificant effects of production system on stress reactions at slaughter, assessed by urine and plasma indicators and muscle metabolism at 30 min postmortem, meat from OUT pigs had more LM drip loss after 2 (+1.0%, P = 0.003) and 4 (+1.1%, P = 0.010) d than did meat from the CON pigs. The OUT system slightly increased meat yellowness (b* value) in the LM (+0.7 unit, P = 0.001), BF (+0.5 unit, P = 0.014), and SM (+0.5, unit P = 0.041), whereas redness (a*) and lightness (L*) of the 3 muscles were unaffected (P > 0.07). Intramuscular fat content was greater in the LM (+17%, P = 0.001), BF (+14%, P = 0.004), and SM (+17%, P = 0.003) of the OUT pigs. Outdoor rearing during summer and winter improved meat juiciness, whereas odor, flavor, and tenderness were unaffected (P > 0.10). Influence of rearing conditions on all the other traits studied did not depend on the season. PMID:16908648

  5. SmartStretch™ technology. III. The impact of medium voltage stimulation and SmartStretch™ technology on sheep topside (m. semimembranosus) meat quality traits under commercial processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Toohey, E S; van de Ven, R; Thompson, J M; Geesink, G H; Hopkins, D L

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the interaction between medium voltage electrical stimulation, SmartStretch™ stretching and ageing treatments on key meat quality traits of hot boned sheep m. semimembranosus. Medium voltage stimulation reduced initial pH (P<0.001), but did not impact on other meat quality traits. There was a significant interaction between stretch treatment and ageing (P<0.001) for shear force such that samples which were both stretched and aged were the most tender. Sarcomere length was significantly (P<0.001) increased by SmartStretch™ treatment. Control (no stretching) resulted in greater (P<0.05) cooking loss, but there was significantly less purge loss (P<0.05). The ratio 630/580 nm and a* colour values at 0 and 5 days decreased at a significantly (P<0.05) slower rate when SmartStretch™ was applied. Overall medium voltage stimulation did not inhibit the effectiveness of the SmartStretch™ treatment. The SmartStretch™ treatment provided significant improvement in tenderness and the potential to increase meat display time. PMID:22999000

  6. Effect of pre- and post-weaning dietary supplementation with Digestarom® herbal formulation on rabbit carcass traits and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Celia, C; Cullere, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Matics, Zs; Tasoniero, G; Dal Bosco, A; Giaccone, V; Szendrő, Zs; Dalle Zotte, A

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated effects of Digestarom® (D) dietary inclusion before weaning (0-5weeks old; BW) and/or after weaning (5-12weeks old; AW) on growing rabbit carcass traits and meat quality. During BW, Pannon-Ka rabbits (does, kits) received two diets: a control diet (C) and one supplemented with 300mg Digestarom®/kg (D). At weaning, each group was divided into 3 dietary sub-groups: CC and DD received C and D diets from 5 to 12weeks of age, whereas DC was fed D from 5 to 8weeks and C from 8 to 12weeks of age (54 rabbits/group; AW). Rabbits were slaughtered at 12weeks of age. Digestarom® supplementation improved carcass yield and body mid part proportion only when administered BW. Rabbits fed D BW had higher hind leg meat cooking losses. Loin meat spiciness and rancidity increased with D both BW and AW. In conclusion, Digestarom(®) herbal formulation was ineffective in improving growing rabbit carcass traits or meat quality. PMID:27062101

  7. Fatty acid profile, carcass and meat quality traits of young Nellore bulls fed crude glycerin replacing energy sources in the concentrate.

    PubMed

    Lage, J F; Berchielli, T T; San Vito, E; Silva, R A; Ribeiro, A F; Reis, R A; Dallantonia, E E; Simonetti, L R; Delevatti, L M; Machado, M

    2014-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality traits of 60 Nellore young bulls fed diets without crude glycerin (CG); with CG replacing corn (CGc; 10% of dry matter - DM) in the concentrate; and with CG replacing soybean hull (CGsh; 10% of DM) in the concentrate were evaluated. Diets were evaluated at two concentrate levels (CLs). The CL did not affect cold carcass weight (CCW; P=0.6074), cold carcass dressing (CCD; P=0.9636), rib fat thickness (RFT; P=0.8696) and longissimus muscle area (LMA; P=0.7524). Animals fed diets with CGc or CGsh showed meat with greater deposition of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA; P=0.0022) and CLA (18:2 cis-9, trans-11) contents (P=0.0001) than animals fed diets without CG. The inclusion of 10% of CG in diets CGc or CGsh does not affect the carcass and meat quality traits; however, it increases the MUFA and CLA contents in beef, although these changes are very small in nutritional terms. PMID:24334035

  8. Effect of Dietary L-ascorbic Acid (L-AA) on Production Performance, Egg Quality Traits and Fertility in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) at Low Ambient Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Shit, N.; Singh, R. P.; Sastry, K. V. H.; Agarwal, R.; Singh, R.; Pandey, N. K.; Mohan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental stress boosts the levels of stress hormones and accelerates energy expenditure which subsequently imbalance the body’s homeostasis. L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) has been recognized to mitigate the negative impact of environmental stress on production performances in birds. The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the effect of different dietary levels of L-AA on production performance, egg quality traits and fertility in Japanese quail at low ambient temperature. Sixty matured females (15 wks) were equally divided into three groups (20/group) based on the different dietary levels of L-AA (0, 250 and 500 ppm) and coupled with an equal number of males (1:1) obtained from the same hatch. They were managed in uniform husbandry conditions without restriction of feed and water at 14 h photo-schedule. Except for feed efficiency, body weight change, feed consumption and hen-day egg production were recorded highest in 500 ppm L-AA supplemented groups. Among the all egg quality traits studied, only specific gravity, shell weight and thickness differed significantly (p<0.05) in the present study. Fertility was improved significantly (p<0.01) to a dose dependent manner of L-AA. The findings of the present study concluded that dietary L-AA can be a caring management practice at least in part to alleviate the adverse effect of cold induced stress on production performance in Japanese quail. PMID:25049657

  9. Effect of Dietary L-ascorbic Acid (L-AA) on Production Performance, Egg Quality Traits and Fertility in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) at Low Ambient Temperature.

    PubMed

    Shit, N; Singh, R P; Sastry, K V H; Agarwal, R; Singh, R; Pandey, N K; Mohan, J

    2012-07-01

    Environmental stress boosts the levels of stress hormones and accelerates energy expenditure which subsequently imbalance the body's homeostasis. L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) has been recognized to mitigate the negative impact of environmental stress on production performances in birds. The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the effect of different dietary levels of L-AA on production performance, egg quality traits and fertility in Japanese quail at low ambient temperature. Sixty matured females (15 wks) were equally divided into three groups (20/group) based on the different dietary levels of L-AA (0, 250 and 500 ppm) and coupled with an equal number of males (1:1) obtained from the same hatch. They were managed in uniform husbandry conditions without restriction of feed and water at 14 h photo-schedule. Except for feed efficiency, body weight change, feed consumption and hen-day egg production were recorded highest in 500 ppm L-AA supplemented groups. Among the all egg quality traits studied, only specific gravity, shell weight and thickness differed significantly (p<0.05) in the present study. Fertility was improved significantly (p<0.01) to a dose dependent manner of L-AA. The findings of the present study concluded that dietary L-AA can be a caring management practice at least in part to alleviate the adverse effect of cold induced stress on production performance in Japanese quail. PMID:25049657

  10. Changes in muscle cell cation regulation and meat quality traits are associated with genetic selection for high body weight and meat yield in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sandercock, Dale A; Barker, Zoe E; Mitchell, Malcolm A; Hocking, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    Between-breed genetic variation for muscle and meat quality traits was determined at eight weeks of age in 34 lines of purebred commercial broiler and layer lines and traditional breeds (categories) of chickens. Between-breed genetic variation for plasma ion concentrations and element concentration in muscle dry matter and ash were determined. Plasma from broilers had higher concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg++, total and free Ca++ and lower free:total Ca++ than plasma from layer and traditional lines. Muscle from broilers contained more Na and higher concentrations of K, Mg and Ca per mg of ash but not of dry matter compared with layer and traditional lines. In comparison with layer and traditional lines, broiler genotypes were over three times heavier, their plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), a marker of muscle tissue damage, was higher, their breast muscle colour was lighter (L*) and less red (a*) and yellow (b*) in appearance, the initial and final pH of their muscles were lower, the pH change was higher and their breast muscle was more tender. Thus, genetic selection for broiler traits has markedly altered cation regulation in muscle cells and may be associated with changes in muscle cell function and the development of pathology and meat quality problems. PMID:19284683

  11. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5' upstream region of the porcine myosin heavy chain 4 gene with meat quality traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun-Seok; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Kim, Jun-Mo; Lee, Si-Woo; Jeon, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Hong, Ki-Chang; Kim, Tae-Hun

    2016-03-01

    We identified a potential molecular marker associated with meat quality traits in the myosin heavy chain 4, MYH4 gene of Landrace pigs. Sequencing revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; g.-1398G>T) in the 5' upstream region of MYH4. It was significantly associated with the number of type IIa muscle fibers and water-holding capacity based on filter-paper fluid uptake. The GG genotype groups had a greater number of type IIa fibers and a larger area composed of type IIa fibers than the other genotype group (P = 0.004 and P = 0.061, respectively). Expression level of MYH4 gene in the genotype TT or GT was higher than in genotype of GG (P < 0.0001). The T allele may enhance expression level of MYH4 gene and then the portion of IIb type fiber in the muscle be increased by the T allelle. Therefore, we suggest that the g.-1398G>T in the 5' upstream region of the porcine MYH4 may be used as a molecular marker for meat quality traits, although its functional effect is not defined yet. PMID:26271027

  12. Predicting meat quality traits of ovine m. semimembranosus, both fresh and following freezing and thawing, using a hand held Raman spectroscopic device.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Stephanie M; Schmidt, Heinar; van de Ven, Remy; Wynn, Peter; Hopkins, David L

    2015-10-01

    Complementary studies were conducted to determine the potential for a Raman spectroscopic hand held device to predict meat quality traits of fresh lamb m. semimembranosus (topside) after ageing and freezing/thawing. Spectra were collected from 80 fresh muscles at 24h and 5d PM, another 80 muscles were measured at 24h, 5d and following freezing/thawing. Shear force, cooking loss, sarcomere length, colour, particle size, collagen content, pH24, pHu, purge and thaw loss were also measured. Results indicated a potential to predict pHu (R(2)cv=0.59), pH24 (R(2)cv=0.48) and purge (R(2)cv=0.42) using spectra collected 24h PM. L* could be predicted using spectra collected 24h (R(2)cv=0.33) or 5d PM (R(2)cv=0.33). This suggests that Raman spectroscopy is suited to identifying carcases which deviate from the normal metabolic processes and related meat quality traits. PMID:26115347

  13. Characterization of agronomic and quality traits and HSW-G5 compositions from the progenies of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with different protein content.

    PubMed

    Bian, M; Sun, D K; Sun, D F; Sun, G L

    2015-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) play an essential role in wheat processing quality. In this study, we evaluated the genetic pattern with HMW-GS composition between generations and examined whether agronomic and quality traits were correlated with each other. A wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar with high protein content and 2 cultivars with low protein content were subjected to a reciprocal cross. Sixteen agronomic and 4 quality characteristics were investigated. A total of 216 seeds from each F2 generation were chosen randomly and analyzed for HMW-GS composition using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Agronomic and quality characteristics were not significantly different between reciprocal crosses, indicating no cytoplasmic effect on the characteristics studied. The separation ratio of 2 HMW-GS loci was 9:3:3:1, indicating no linkage between any 2 loci. The novel HMW-GS N was detected in cultivar R145, which did not follow the Mendelian segregation ratio. A Glu-A1a(1) band was not detected in 1 individual from Tian8901xR145. Average grain weight per spike was significantly correlated with quality characteristics and may be a suitable criterion for selecting high protein content in wheat breeding programs. PMID:25867343

  14. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Conditions During Restoration of the Wood River Wetland, Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon, 2003-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Snyder, Daniel T.; Duff, John H.; Triska, Frank J.; Lee, Karl K.; Avanzino, Ronald J.; Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Restoring previously drained wetlands is a strategy currently being used to improve water quality and decrease nutrient loading into Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. In this 2003-05 study, ground- and surface-water quality and hydrologic conditions were characterized in the Wood River Wetland. Nitrogen and phosphorus levels, primarily as dissolved organic nitrogen and ammonium (NH4) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), were high in surface waters. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations also were elevated in surface water, with median concentrations of 44 and 99 milligrams of carbon per liter (mg-C/L) in the North and South Units of the Wood River Wetland, respectively, reaching a maximum of 270 mg-C/L in the South Unit in late autumn. Artesian well water produced NH4 and SRP concentrations of about 6,000 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of 36,500 ug-N/L NH4 and 4,110 ug-P/L SRP in one 26-28 ft deep piezometer well. Despite the high ammonium concentrations, the nitrate levels were moderate to low in wetland surface and ground waters. The surface-water concentrations of NH4 and SRP increased in spring and summer, outpacing those for chloride (a conservative tracer), indicative of evapoconcentration. In-situ chamber experiments conducted in June and August 2005 indicated a positive flux of NH4 and SRP from the wetland sediments. Potential sources of NH4 and SRP include diffusion of nutrients from decomposed peat, decomposing aquatic vegetation, or upwelling ground water. In addition to these inputs, evapoconcentration raised surface-water solute concentrations to exceedingly high values by the end of summer. The increase was most pronounced in the South Unit, where specific conductance reached 2,500 uS/cm and median concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus reached 18,000-36,500 ug-N/L and about 18,000-26,000 ug-P/L, respectively. Water-column SRP and total phosphorus levels decreased during autumn and winter following inputs of irrigation water and precipitation, which have lower nutrient concentrations. The SRP concentrations, however, decreased faster than the dilution rate alone, possibly due to precipitation of phosphorus with iron, manganese, or calcium. The high concentrations of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus during the growing season give rise to a rich plant community in the wetland consisting of emergent and submergent macrophytes and algae including phytoplankton and benthic and epiphytic algae that have pronounced effects on dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH. Midday readings of surface-water DO during summer often were supersaturated (as much as 310 percent saturation) with elevated pH (as much as 9.2 units), indicative of high rates of photosynthesis. Minimum DO concentrations in the shallow ground-water piezometer wells were 0.4 mg/L in the North Unit and 0.8 mg/L in the South Unit during summer, which is probably low enough to support microbial denitrification. Denitrification was confirmed during in-situ experiments conducted at the sediment-water interface, but rates were low due to low background nitrate (NO3). Nevertheless, denitrification (and plant uptake) likely contribute to low nitrate levels. Another possible cause of low nitrate levels is dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA), a microbial process that converts and decreases nitrate to ammonia. DNRA explains the excess ammonia production measured in the chambers treated with nitrate. Surface-water levels and standing surface-water volume in the Wood River Wetland reached a maximum in early spring, inundating 80-90 percent of the wetland. Surface-water levels and standing volume then declined reaching a minimum in August through November, when the South Unit was only 10 percent inundated and the North Unit was nearly dry. The shallow ground-water levels followed a trend similar to surface-water levels and indicated a strong upward gradient. A monthly water budget was developed individually for the North

  15. Quantification of amylose, amylopectin, and β-glucan in search for genes controlling the three major quality traits in barley by genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiaoli; Rasmussen, Søren K.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for amylose, amylopectin and β-glucan concentration in a collection of 254 European spring barley varieties allowed to identify 20, 17, and 21 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers, respectively, associated with these important grain quality traits. Negative correlations between the content of amylose and β-glucan (R = −0.62, P < 0.01) and amylopectin and β-glucan (R = −0.487, P < 0.01) were found in this large collection of spring barley varieties. Besides HvCslF6, amo1 and AGPL2, sex6, and waxy were identified among the major genes responsible for β-glucan, amylose and amylopectin content, respectively. Several minor genes like HvGSL4, HvGSL3, and HvCesA6, PWD were also detected by GWAS for the first time. Furthermore, the gene encoding β-fructofuranosidase, located on the short arm of chromosome 7H at 1.49 cM, and SRF6, encoding “leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase protein” on chromosome 2 H, are proposed to be new candidate genes for amylopectin formation in barley endosperm. Several of the associated SNPs on chromosome 1, 5, 6, and 7H mapped to overlapping regions containing QTLs and genes controlling the three grain constituents. In particular chromosomes 5 and 7H carry many QTLs controlling barley grain quality. Amylose, amylopectin and β-glucan were interacted among each other through a metabolic network connected by UDP showing pleiotropic effects. Taken together, these results showed that cereal quality traits related each other and regulated through an interaction network, the identified major genes and genetic regions for amylose, amylopectin and β-glucan is a helpful for further research on carbohydrates and barley breeding. PMID:24860587

  16. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Phenological Development, Low-Temperature Tolerance, Grain Quality, and Agronomic Characters in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, D. B.; N'Diaye, A.; Laudencia-Chingcuanco, D.; Pozniak, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Plants must respond to environmental cues and schedule their development in order to react to periods of abiotic stress and commit fully to growth and reproduction under favorable conditions. This study was initiated to identify SNP markers for characters expressed from the seedling stage to plant maturity in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes adapted to western Canada. Three doubled haploid populations with the winter cultivar ‘Norstar’ as a common parent were developed and genotyped with a 90K Illumina iSelect SNP assay and a 2,998.9 cM consensus map with 17,541 markers constructed. High heritability’s reflected large differences among the parents and relatively low genotype by environment interactions for all characters considered. Significant QTL were detected for the 15 traits examined. However, different QTL for days to heading in controlled environments and the field provided a strong reminder that growth and development are being orchestrated by environmental cues and caution should be exercised when extrapolating conclusions from different experiments. A QTL on chromosome 6A for minimum final leaf number, which determines the rate of phenological development in the seedling stage, was closely linked to QTL for low-temperature tolerance, grain quality, and agronomic characters expressed up to the time of maturity. This suggests phenological development plays a critical role in programming subsequent outcomes for many traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for the lines in each population and QTL with additive effects were identified suggesting that genes for desirable traits could be stacked using Marker Assisted Selection. QTL were identified for characters that could be transferred between the largely isolated western Canadian spring and winter wheat gene pools demonstrating the opportunities offered by Marker Assisted Selection to act as bridges in the identification and transfer of useful genes among related genetic islands while minimizing the drag created by less desirable genes. PMID:27019468

  17. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Phenological Development, Low-Temperature Tolerance, Grain Quality, and Agronomic Characters in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Fowler, D B; N'Diaye, A; Laudencia-Chingcuanco, D; Pozniak, C J

    2016-01-01

    Plants must respond to environmental cues and schedule their development in order to react to periods of abiotic stress and commit fully to growth and reproduction under favorable conditions. This study was initiated to identify SNP markers for characters expressed from the seedling stage to plant maturity in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes adapted to western Canada. Three doubled haploid populations with the winter cultivar 'Norstar' as a common parent were developed and genotyped with a 90K Illumina iSelect SNP assay and a 2,998.9 cM consensus map with 17,541 markers constructed. High heritability's reflected large differences among the parents and relatively low genotype by environment interactions for all characters considered. Significant QTL were detected for the 15 traits examined. However, different QTL for days to heading in controlled environments and the field provided a strong reminder that growth and development are being orchestrated by environmental cues and caution should be exercised when extrapolating conclusions from different experiments. A QTL on chromosome 6A for minimum final leaf number, which determines the rate of phenological development in the seedling stage, was closely linked to QTL for low-temperature tolerance, grain quality, and agronomic characters expressed up to the time of maturity. This suggests phenological development plays a critical role in programming subsequent outcomes for many traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for the lines in each population and QTL with additive effects were identified suggesting that genes for desirable traits could be stacked using Marker Assisted Selection. QTL were identified for characters that could be transferred between the largely isolated western Canadian spring and winter wheat gene pools demonstrating the opportunities offered by Marker Assisted Selection to act as bridges in the identification and transfer of useful genes among related genetic islands while minimizing the drag created by less desirable genes. PMID:27019468

  18. Polymorphisms of the porcine cathepsins, growth hormone-releasing hormone and leptin receptor genes and their association with meat quality traits in Ukrainian Large White breed.

    PubMed

    Balatsky, Viktor; Bankovska, Irina; Pena, Ramona N; Saienko, Artem; Buslyk, Tetyana; Korinnyi, Sergii; Doran, Olena

    2016-06-01

    Cathepsins, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes have been receiving increasing attention as potential markers for meat quality and pig performance traits. This study investigated the allele variants in four cathepsin genes (CTSB, CTSK, CTSL, CTSS), GHRH and LEPR in pure-bred Ukrainian Large White pigs and evaluated effects of the allele variants on meat quality characteristics. The study was conducted on 72 pigs. Genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP technique. Meat quality characteristics analysed were intramuscular fat content, tenderness, total water content, ultimate pH, crude protein and ashes. A medium level of heterozygosity values was established for GHRH and LEPR genes which corresponded to very high levels of informativeness indexes. Cathepsins CTSL, CTSB and CTSK had a low level of heterozygosity, and CTSS did not segregate in this breed. Association studies established that intramuscular fat content and tenderness were affected by the allele variance in GHRH and LEPR but not by CTSB and CTSL genes. The GHRH results could be particularly relevant for the production of lean prime cuts as the A allele is associated with both, a lower meat fat content and better tenderness values, which are two attributes highly regarded by consumers. Results of this study suggest that selective breeding towards GHRH/AA genotype would be particularly useful for improving meat quality characteristics in the production systems involving lean Large White lines, which typically have less than 2 % intramuscular fat content. PMID:27075656

  19. Alkaline and alkaline/oxidation pre-treatments of spruce wood (Picea abies)--impact on the quality of kraft pulp.

    PubMed

    Solár, R; Dibdiaková, J; Mamoň, M; Kačík, F; Rázgová, Z; Vacek, V; Sivák, J; Gaff, M

    2011-01-01

    A comparable series of specimens from spruce wood were pre-treated with sodium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide, or per-acetic acid sequences. The pre-treatments reduced the yield of pulps and their Kappa number noticeably, diminished the degree of polymerization moderately, and increased their brightness. One-step peroxide bleaching of pulps from the pre-treated spruce wood resulted in their higher brightness compared to bleached pulp from sound wood. From the viewpoint of improved properties of pulp, the most efficient were the sodium hydroxide/per-acetic acid and per-acetic acid/sodium hydroxide sequences. The pre-treatments did not influence mechanical strength of the obtained pulps significantly. PMID:20817441

  20. Association study and expression analysis of MTNR1A as a candidate gene for body measurement and meat quality traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wucai; Wang, Yaning; Fu, Changzhen; Zan, Lin-Seng

    2015-10-10

    Melatonin receptors, which mediate the functions of melatonin, play an important role in adipocyte differentiation, energy, and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in bovine melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) and to determine if these SNPs are associated with body measurement traits (BMTs) and meat quality traits (MQTs) in Qinchuan cattle. We identified three synonymous mutations (A455G, A497G, and C635T) and one missense mutation (G489A) p.Asp224Asn in MTNR1A gene in 420 Qinchuan cattle by sequencing. Association analysis indicated that these four SNPs were associated with some of the BMTs and MQTs (P<0.05). Further, 6 combined haplotypes were constructed to guarantee the reliability of analysis results. Individuals with diplotypes H2H2 (AA-GG-GG-CC) had greater chest depth, heart girth, loin muscle area, and more back fat than the other combinations (P<0.05). Pertaining to G489A mutation, RT-PCR study exhibited a higher mRNA expression of MTNR1A gene among individuals with SNP1/2/4-AG-GA-CT genotype than those with SNP1/2/4-AA-GG-CC genotype (P<0.05). These results suggest that the genotype H2H2 could be used as a molecular marker of the combined genotype for future selection for BMTs and MQTs in Qinchuan cattle. PMID:26067916

  1. 2004 WOOD PRESERVERS INITIATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    SESD is supporting the 2004 Wood Preservers Initiative by conducting Case Development Investigations/Evaluations (CDIEs) at selected facilities in EPA Region 4. The objectives of these investigations are: 1)to sample wood preserving wastestreams that might be currently mismanage...

  2. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  3. Evaluation of canning quality traits in black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by visible/near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) processing presents unique challenges because of discoloration, breakage, development of undesirable textures and off-flavors during canning and storage. These quality issues strongly affect processing standards and consumer acceptance for beans. In this research, ...

  4. Effects of genotype and dietary oil supplementation on performance, carcass traits, pork quality and fatty acid composition of backfat and intramuscular fat.

    PubMed

    Bertol, T M; de Campos, R M L; Ludke, J V; Terra, N N; de Figueiredo, E A P; Coldebella, A; dos Santos Filho, J I; Kawski, V L; Lehr, N M

    2013-03-01

    A 42-day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of genotype: terminal sire line DurocF1 (DCF1); terminal sire line Embrapa MS-115F1 (MS-115F1); and MS-115Moura (MS-115MO) and three dietary oil sources: soybean; canola; and canola+flax, on performance, carcass traits, pork quality, and fatty acid composition. Genotype affected the technological quality of pork and fatty acid profile. MS-115-sired pigs had better meat color and Duroc-sired pigs had higher intramuscular fat content, more saturated fat and better omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Moura breed influenced positively meat tenderness and intramuscular fat. Diet did not affect the technological quality of the meat. Canola or canola+flax oil diet supplementations increased monounsaturated and C18:3 and decreased C18:2 fatty acids, reducing the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The best omega-6/omega-3 ratio was obtained through supplementation with canola+flax. PMID:23273458

  5. Use of near infrared spectroscopy for estimating meat chemical composition, quality traits and fatty acid content from cattle fed sunflower or flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Prieto, N; López-Campos, O; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Juárez, M; Uttaro, B

    2014-10-01

    This study tested the ability of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict meat chemical composition, quality traits and fatty acid (FA) composition from 63 steers fed sunflower or flaxseed in combination with high forage diets. NIRS calibrations, tested by cross-validation, were successful for predicting crude protein, moisture and fat content with coefficients of determination (R(2)) (RMSECV, g·100g(-1) wet matter) of 0.85 (0.48), 0.90 (0.60) and 0.86 (1.08), respectively, but were not reliable for meat quality attributes. This technology accurately predicted saturated, monounsaturated and branched FA and conjugated linoleic acid content (R(2): 0.83-0.97; RMSECV: 0.04-1.15mg·g(-1) tissue) and might be suitable for screening purposes in meat based on the content of FAs beneficial to human health such as rumenic and vaccenic acids. Further research applying NIRS to estimate meat quality attributes will require the use on-line of a fibre-optic probe on intact samples. PMID:24976561

  6. Polymorphisms in the regulatory region of the porcine MYLPF gene are related to meat quality traits in the Large White breed.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M T; O'Halloran, A M; Hamill, R M; Davey, G C; Gil, M; Southwood, O I; Sweeney, T

    2016-03-01

    The MYLPF gene encodes fast myosin regulatory light chain, and is a positional and functional candidate gene for meat quality. The aim of this study was to identify associations between SNPs in the promoter region of the porcine MYLPF gene and meat quality traits. A total of 22 SNPs were identified in a population of crossbred animals (n=86) and based on minor allele frequency and proximity to the transcription start site, five SNPs were genotyped in purebred; Large White (n=98), Duroc (n=99) and Pietrain (n=98) pigs. No associations were observed in the Pietrain breed, while the Duroc breed was almost monomorphic for all SNPs. In the Large White breed SNP g-1314A>G and linked SNPS g.-871T>G, g.-566T>C, g.-403C>G were associated with ultimate pH and driploss (P<0.05). This study identified associations between MYLPF and meat quality and highlights the importance of considering the genetic background within gene-assisted selection programmes. PMID:26638021

  7. AB-QTL analysis in winter wheat: I. Synthetic hexaploid wheat (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides x T. tauschii) as a source of favourable alleles for milling and baking quality traits.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Antje; Naz, Ali Ahmad; Dedeck, Oliver; Pillen, Klaus; Léon, Jens

    2007-09-01

    The advanced backcross QTL (AB-QTL) strategy was utilised to locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for baking quality traits in two BC(2)F(3) populations of winter wheat. The backcrosses are derived from two German winter wheat cultivars, Batis and Zentos, and two synthetic, hexaploid wheat accessions, Syn022 and Syn086. The synthetics originate from hybridisations of wild emmer (T. turgidum spp. dicoccoides) and T. tauschii, rather than from durum wheat and T. tauschii and thus allowed for the first time to test for exotic QTL effects on wheat genomes A and B in addition to genome D. The investigated quality traits comprised hectolitre weight, grain hardness, flour yield Type 550, falling number, grain protein content, sedimentation volume and baking volume. One hundred and forty-nine SSR markers were applied to genotype a total of 400 BC(2)F(3) lines. For QTL detection, a mixed-model ANOVA was conducted, including the effects DNA marker, BC(2)F(3) line, environment and marker x environment interaction. Overall 38 QTLs significant for a marker main effect were detected. The exotic allele improved trait performance at 14 QTLs (36.8%), while the elite genotype contributed the favourable effect at 24 QTLs (63.2%). The favourable exotic alleles were mainly associated with grain protein content, though the greatest improvement of trait performance due to the exotic alleles was achieved for the traits falling number and sedimentation volume. At the QTL on chromosome 4B the exotic allele increased the falling number by 19.6% and at the QTL on chromosome 6D the exotic allele led to an increase of the sedimentation volume by 21.7%. The results indicate that synthetic wheat derived from wild emmer x T. tauschii carries favourable QTL alleles for baking quality traits, which might be useful for breeding improved wheat varieties by marker-assisted selection. PMID:17634917

  8. Impact of health management, health treatments, and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on carcass quality, color, and palatability traits in heifers.

    PubMed

    Bloomberg, B D; Mafi, G G; Pye, B J; Wahrmund, J L; Richards, C J; Morgan, J B; Vanoverbeke, D L

    2013-07-01

    Two hundred sixty-eight strip loins were collected from heifers fed at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, OK. In Exp. 1, heifers (n = 127) were assigned to 1 of 3 health management treatment groups: antimicrobial administrations were given based on standard feedlot protocol (SFP) or ruminal temperature (RT) or given a metaphylactic treatment of tulathromycin (MT) followed by visual assessment (VA). In Exp. 2, heifers (n = 155) were assigned to the same treatment groups as above and were supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) or control (CON). Three steaks were collected from each strip loin, 1 each for retail display, sensory evaluation, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Color was evaluated from the retail display steak using a trained color panel and objectively using a HunterLab Miniscan XE. An Instron Universal Testing Machine with a Warner-Bratzler head was used for evaluation of instrumental tenderness, and a trained sensory panel was used to assess palatability traits. Heifers treated by VA had the least number of antimicrobial administrations and lowest yield grade and also had the lightest HCW (P < 0.05) compared with the heifers treated by the other health management protocols. There were no subjective color attribute differences or sensory panel differences (P > 0.05) across all health management systems or antimicrobial administrations. There were no differences in carcass and performance traits for any antimicrobial administrations treatment groups (P > 0.05). Heifers who had 0 or 1 antimicrobial administrations had lower (P < 0.05) a* (redness/greenness: positive values = red and negative values = green), and b* (yellowness/blueness: positive values = yellow and negative values = blue) values compared with those who had 2 antimicrobial administrations. In Exp. 2, heifers treated by VA had the least number (P < 0.05) of antimicrobial administrations when compared with MT and RT. Health management group did not have any other effects on carcass, sensory, or color attributes. Zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation caused a decrease (P < 0.05) in internal fat and yield grade, but no interactions were observed between the number of antimicrobial administrations and ZH supplementation. With the supplementation of ZH, WBSF significantly increased (P < 0.05). At the end of retail display, the control group had a greater (P < 0.05) surface discoloration when compared with the ZH group. Treatment and detection of bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) is critical to the industry economically and results from this study show that different methods can be used to detect BRD without dramatically impacting carcass, sensory, and retail case life characteristics. PMID:23658348

  9. Wood Bond Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

  10. Association of Allelic Variation in PtoXET16A with Growth and Wood Properties in Populus tomentosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bowen; Zhang, Deqiang

    2014-01-01

    Xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases (XETs) modify the xyloglucan-cellulose framework of plant cell walls and, thus, affect cell wall expansion and strength. Dissecting the mechanism by which natural variation in XETs affects wood properties can inform breeding efforts to improve wood quality and yield traits. To this end, we isolated a full-length PtoXET16A cDNA clone from Populus tomentosa. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PtoXET16A was maximally expressed in the root, followed by phloem, cambium, and developing xylem, suggesting that PtoXET16A plays important roles in the development of vascular tissues. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed that PtoXET16A has high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity (π = 0.01266 and θw = 0.01392) and low linkage disequilibrium (r2 ≥ 0.1, within 900 bp). SNP- and haplotype-based association analyses of 426 individuals from a natural population indicated that nine SNPs (including two non-synonymous markers and one splicing variant) (p ≤ 0.05, false discovery rate Q ≤ 0.01), and nine haplotypes (p ≤ 0.05) were significantly associated with growth and wood properties, each explaining from 3.40%–10.95% of phenotypic variance. This work shows that examination of allelic variation and linkage disequilibrium by a candidate-gene-based approach can help to decipher the genetic basis of wood formation. Moreover, the SNP markers identified in this study can potentially be applied for marker-assisted selection to improve growth and wood-property traits in Populus. PMID:25250912

  11. Genetic Variation in the Chemical Components of Eucalyptus globulus Wood

    PubMed Central

    Stackpole, Desmond J.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Alves, Ana; Rodrigues, José; Potts, Brad M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of lignin and other wood chemical components, there are few studies of the natural genetic variation that exists within plant species and its adaptive significance. We used models developed from near infra-red spectroscopy to study natural genetic variation in lignin content and monomer composition (syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio [S/G]) as well as cellulose and extractives content, using a 16-year-old field trial of an Australian tree species, Eucalyptus globulus. We sampled 2163 progenies of 467 native trees from throughout the native geographic range of the species. The narrow-sense heritability of wood chemical traits (0.25–0.44) was higher than that of growth (0.15), but less than wood density (0.51). All wood chemical traits exhibited significant broad-scale genetic differentiation (QST = 0.34–0.43) across the species range. This differentiation exceeded that detected with putatively neutral microsatellite markers (FST = 0.09), arguing that diversifying selection has shaped population differentiation in wood chemistry. There were significant genetic correlations among these wood chemical traits at the population and additive genetic levels. However, population differentiation in the S/G ratio of lignin in particular was positively correlated with latitude (R2 = 76%), which may be driven by either adaptation to climate or associated biotic factors. PMID:22384327

  12. Floodplains and wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2013-08-01

    Interactions between floodplains and wood date to the Carboniferous, when stable, multithread channel deposits appear with the evolution of tree-like plants. Foundational geologic texts, such as Lyell's, 1830Principles of Geology, describe floodplain-wood interactions, yet modern technical literature describes floodplain-wood interactions in detail for only a very limited range of environments. This likely reflects more than a century of deforestation, flow regulation, and channel engineering, including instream wood removal, which has resulted in severe wood depletion in most of the world's river networks. Instream wood affects floodplain form and process by altering flow resistance, conveyance and channel-floodplain connectivity, and influencing lateral and vertical accretion of floodplains. Instream wood reflects floodplain form and process as the floodplain influences wood recruitment via bank erosion and overbank flow, and wood transport and storage via floodplain effects on stage-discharge relations and flow resistance. Examining turnover times for instream wood at the reach scale in the context of a wood budget, floodplain characteristics influence fluvial transport and dynamics (wood recruitment), valley geometry (wood transport and storage), and hydraulics and river biota (wood decay and breakage). Accumulations of wood that vary from in situ jams and beaver dams in small channels to transport jams and log rafts in very large rivers can create stable, multithread channels and floodplain wetlands. Floodplain-wood interactions are best understood for a subset of small to medium-sized rivers in the temperate zone. We know little about these interactions on very large rivers, or on rivers in the tropical or boreal regions. This review suggests that most, if not all, channels and floodplains within forested catchments in the temperate zone historically had much greater wood loads and consequently much more obvious and important influences from wood than do heavily modified contemporary catchments. For many rivers in the temperate zone, direct and indirect removal of instream wood very likely caused a fundamental shift in channel and floodplain process and form, as has been demonstrated in detail for specific rivers of diverse size in several regions. Failure to explicitly include floodplain-wood interactions creates a misleading conceptual model of floodplain dynamics in forested catchments.

  13. Gender- and Age-Related Differences in the Association between Social Relationship Quality and Trait Levels of Salivary Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Granger, Douglas A.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of studies linking individual differences in the quality of social relationships and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have focused on the early development of attachment between infants and their caregivers. Later in development, during middle childhood and adolescence, the parallel HPA links to…

  14. Association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in candidate genes and QTL regions with pork quality traits in commercial pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous reports have described genetic markers or genomic regions (QTL) associated with pork quality and/or palatability. Validation of these associations in other commercial populations is necessary before these markers should be used. Therefore, 156 SNP markers from 45 candidate genes and 8 QTL r...

  15. Association of slow darkening gene ‘sd’ with grain quality traits in carioca bean and new candidate marker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carioca dry bean market class is preferred by most consumers and accounts for 70% of the Brazilian consumer market (Del Peloso & Melo, 2005). Recently, characteristics related to the commercial grain quality such as grain color, cooking time and darkening period have become more important due to...

  16. Effect of anabolic steroids, alone or in combination with antibiotics, on bull performance, carcass traits and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Boucque, C V; Fiems, L O; Casteels, M; Cottyn, B G; Buysse, F X

    1988-04-01

    Two trials were conducted with 32 and 39 finishing Belgian white-red bulls, treated with anabolic agents during 55 to 60 days prior to slaughter. Xenobiotic androgens and estrogens, together with (Exp. I) or without progesterone (Exp. II) were injected at three-week intervals. Diets consisted of maize silage and 7.5 g concentrate daily per kg liveweight. Half of the animals within each experiment received an antibiotic for the entire fattening period lasting about 285 days. Lasalocid-sodium (Exp. I) and virginiamycin (Exp. II) were incorporated at 65 mg per kg concentrate. Anabolic agents improved average daily gain from 1.06 to 1.20 kg (P less than 0.10) and from 1.24 to 1.42 kg (P less than 0.05) respectively. In both trials steroidal growth promoters stimulated intake and improved feed efficiency (P less than 0.10). Feed antibiotics did not significantly affect daily gain during this short term finishing period. A reduced feed intake (P less than 0.05) and improved feed conversion were observed for lasalocid, while there was no difference for virginiamycin. Dry matter intake amounted to 80.5 and 76.3 g per kg metabolic weight and 9.02 and 8.41 kg per kg gain, respectively for control and lasalocid treated animals. The data were 79.6 and 80.3 g and 7.30 and 7.34 kg, respectively, for the experiment with virginiamycin. No significant interaction between anabolics and antibiotics was obtained with respect to gain and feed efficiency. Dressing percentage, carcass composition, carcass grading and meat traits were not affected by anabolic treatment or antibiotic supplementation. PMID:2970832

  17. Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves.

    PubMed

    Tait, R G; Downey, E D; Mayes, M S; Park, C A; Ridpath, J F; Garrick, D J; Reecy, J M

    2013-11-01

    There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits in Angus beef cattle. Final antibody level and response to vaccination were based on neutralizing serum antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2). Calves were followed through development and the feedlot phase, with collection of yearling ultrasound (n=957), preharvest (n=762), and carcass (n=673) data. In this study, 48% of the animals were observed to have positively responded to the vaccine, as evidenced by higher final antibody levels compared to prevaccination antibody levels. Increased final antibody levels were significantly (P<0.05) associated with increased yearling weight and increased subcutaneous fat over the rump. An interaction between final antibody level and weaning time also was associated (P<0.05) with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and meat pH, with a favorable, negative relationship between final antibody and WBSF in calves weaned at initial vaccination. Overall antibody response by wean time interaction had a significant (P<0.05) association with ADG and meat pH, with calves weaned at initial vaccination having a favorable, positive relationship between overall antibody response and ADG. Under both the final antibody and overall antibody response models, animals weaned at initial vaccination had significantly (P<0.05) lower intramuscular fat at yearling time and conversely higher harvest weight than animals weaned at the booster vaccination. When antibody response was grouped (none, low, high), a significant interaction (P<0.05) between antibody response group and weaning time was identified for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW. Animals weaned at the initial vaccination in the high antibody response group had the advantage for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW compared to animals in the high-response group that were weaned at booster vaccination. Linear increases in antibody response generally did not have negative effects on performance or carcass quality traits in finished cattle (P>0.05). Therefore, producers should not be concerned about decreased production or quality attributes as a result of developing a robust antibody response to vaccination for BVDV2 in beef cattle. PMID:24045477

  18. Effects of Direct-fed Microbial and Pine Cone Extract on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle).

    PubMed

    Muhlisin; Song, Chang Soo; Rhee, Yong Joon; Song, Young Han; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-05-01

    The carcass traits and meat quality of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) whose diets were supplemented with direct-fed microbial (DFM) and pine cone extract (PCE) were evaluated. Twenty head of Hanwoo steers were divided equally into four groups and for a period of 6 months were given different diets: One group was fed a basal diet as control (CON), the other three groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with DFM-1%, DFM+PCE-1% and DFM+PEC-3%, respectively. DFM+PCE3% diet resulted the lowest carcass quality grade. The loins of DFM-1% contained higher moisture and lower fat than did the loins from the CON group. The crude protein content of DFM+PCE-3% group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear force of the DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were lower than those of the CON and DFM-1% groups. The DFM-1% and 3% groups contained lower saturated fatty acid, higher unsaturated fatty acid, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, and poly-unsaturated fatty acid than did CON and DFM+PCE 1% group. Moreover, the n6:n3 ratios of DFM-1% and DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were slightly lower than that of the CON group. Thus we concluded that DFM and PCE supplementation resulted healthier Hanwoo beef with lower fat content and n6:n3 ratio. PMID:26954123

  19. Effects of Direct-fed Microbial and Pine Cone Extract on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle)

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin; Song, Chang Soo; Rhee, Yong Joon; Song, Young Han; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    The carcass traits and meat quality of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) whose diets were supplemented with direct-fed microbial (DFM) and pine cone extract (PCE) were evaluated. Twenty head of Hanwoo steers were divided equally into four groups and for a period of 6 months were given different diets: One group was fed a basal diet as control (CON), the other three groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with DFM-1%, DFM+PCE-1% and DFM+PEC-3%, respectively. DFM+PCE3% diet resulted the lowest carcass quality grade. The loins of DFM-1% contained higher moisture and lower fat than did the loins from the CON group. The crude protein content of DFM+PCE-3% group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear force of the DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were lower than those of the CON and DFM-1% groups. The DFM-1% and 3% groups contained lower saturated fatty acid, higher unsaturated fatty acid, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, and poly-unsaturated fatty acid than did CON and DFM+PCE 1% group. Moreover, the n6:n3 ratios of DFM-1% and DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were slightly lower than that of the CON group. Thus we concluded that DFM and PCE supplementation resulted healthier Hanwoo beef with lower fat content and n6:n3 ratio. PMID:26954123

  20. Is there an association between immunosuppressant therapy medication adherence and depression, quality of life, and personality traits in the kidney and liver transplant population?

    PubMed Central

    Gorevski, Elizabeth; Succop, Paul; Sachdeva, Jyoti; Cavanaugh, Teresa M; Volek, Paul; Heaton, Pamela; Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Martin-Boone, Jill E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To measure the association of transplant patients’ personality, depression, and quality of life with medication adherence in kidney and liver transplant recipients. Methods A cross-sectional study of liver and kidney transplant recipients greater than 1 year post-transplant was conducted. Patients’ adherence with medications was assessed using the Immunosuppressive Therapy Adherence Scale. Personality and depression were assessed using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire 9, respectively. Quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36, and functional status was determined using the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale. Results A total of 86 kidney and 50 liver transplant patients completed the surveys. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated an association between depression and adherence with immunosuppressive medications in kidney transplant recipients. Kidney transplant patients who exhibited “low openness” scores were 91% more likely to be nonadherent. Kidney transplant patients’ physical functional status was strongly associated with nonadherence, and for each point increase in functionality the patients’ adherence increased by 4%. In the liver sample, age was associated with adherence. For every year increase in age, adherence increased by 7%. Conclusion The presence of low openness as a personality trait, poor physical functional status, and depression were associated with adherence in the kidney transplant population. In the liver transplant population, younger age was associated with nonadherence. PMID:23620661

  1. Effect of genotype and age on some carcass and meat quality traits of beef carcasses subjected to the South African classification system.

    PubMed

    Soji, Z; Muchenje, V

    2016-07-01

    Genotype and age effects on pH24, L*, a*, b*, tenderness (WBSF), cooking (CL %), and thawing loss (TL %) of beef carcasses subjected to the South African classification system were determined. Carcass traits (bruising, subcutaneous fat (SF), and conformation) were also measured. Meat quality measurements were taken on the longissimus thoracis et lumborum (n=175) of A, AB, B, and C carcasses from Angus, Bonsmara, Fleckvieh, Non-descript, and Simmental genotypes. No bruises were evident in all carcasses. All carcasses scored medium conformation (class 3) while in SF classification, class 2 had the greatest frequency (66.3%). Genotypic effects (P<0.05) were observed for a*, hue angle (HA), pH24, TL%, CL%, and WBSF between steers with six, seven, and eight incisors. Notable differences (P<0.05) were observed for tenderness where Angus and Simmental had least tender meat while Non-descript and Fleckvieh had the tenderest meat within the C-age class. Meat quality varied within animals of the same age-class across genotypes. PMID:26995775

  2. Comparison of Carcass and Sensory Traits and Free Amino Acid Contents among Quality Grades in Loin and Rump of Korean Cattle Steer

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Min Yu; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ko, Jong-Youl; Baik, Myunggi

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to compare carcass traits, sensory characteristics, physiochemical composition, and contents of nucleotides, collagen, and free amino acids among quality grades (QG) and to understand the association between QG and above parameters in loin and rump of Korean cattle steer. Loin and rump samples were obtained from 48 Korean cattle steers with each of four QG (QG 1++, 1+, 1, and 2; average 32 months of age). Carcass weight and marbling score (MS) were highest in QG 1++, whereas texture score measured by a meat grader was highest in QG 2. A correlation analysis revealed that MS (r = 0.98; p<0.01) and fat content (r = 0.73; p<0.01) had strong positive correlations with QG and that texture had a strong negative correlation (r = −0.78) with QG. Fat content in loin was highest but protein and moisture contents were lowest in QG 1++. Our results confirmed that a major determinant of QG is the MS; thus, intramuscular fat content. The International Commission on Illumination L*, a*, and b* values in loin were highest in QG 1++. Numeric values of shear force in loin were lowest in QG 1++, whereas those of tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability tended to be highest in QG 1++ without statistical significance. QG was strongly correlated with juiciness (r = 0.81; p<0.01) and overall acceptability (r = 0.87; p<0.001). All sensory characteristics were higher (p<0.05) in loin than those in rump. Adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP) and inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) contents in both loin and rump did not differ among QGs. No nucleotide (AMP, IMP, inosine, hypoxanthine) was correlated with any of the sensory traits. Total, soluble, and insoluble collagen contents in loin were higher in QG 1++ than those in QG 1. All three collagens had lower content in loin than that in rump. All three collagens were positively correlated with tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. Glutamic acid content did not significantly differ among the four QGs in either loin or rump. In conclusion, it is confirmed that QG is associated with sensory traits but nucleotide contents in beef may not be a major factor determining meat palatability in the present study. PMID:26333668

  3. Comparison of Carcass and Sensory Traits and Free Amino Acid Contents among Quality Grades in Loin and Rump of Korean Cattle Steer.

    PubMed

    Piao, Min Yu; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ko, Jong-Youl; Baik, Myunggi

    2015-11-01

    This study was performed to compare carcass traits, sensory characteristics, physiochemical composition, and contents of nucleotides, collagen, and free amino acids among quality grades (QG) and to understand the association between QG and above parameters in loin and rump of Korean cattle steer. Loin and rump samples were obtained from 48 Korean cattle steers with each of four QG (QG 1++, 1+, 1, and 2; average 32 months of age). Carcass weight and marbling score (MS) were highest in QG 1++, whereas texture score measured by a meat grader was highest in QG 2. A correlation analysis revealed that MS (r = 0.98; p<0.01) and fat content (r = 0.73; p<0.01) had strong positive correlations with QG and that texture had a strong negative correlation (r = -0.78) with QG. Fat content in loin was highest but protein and moisture contents were lowest in QG 1++. Our results confirmed that a major determinant of QG is the MS; thus, intramuscular fat content. The International Commission on Illumination L*, a*, and b* values in loin were highest in QG 1++. Numeric values of shear force in loin were lowest in QG 1++, whereas those of tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability tended to be highest in QG 1++ without statistical significance. QG was strongly correlated with juiciness (r = 0.81; p<0.01) and overall acceptability (r = 0.87; p<0.001). All sensory characteristics were higher (p<0.05) in loin than those in rump. Adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP) and inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) contents in both loin and rump did not differ among QGs. No nucleotide (AMP, IMP, inosine, hypoxanthine) was correlated with any of the sensory traits. Total, soluble, and insoluble collagen contents in loin were higher in QG 1++ than those in QG 1. All three collagens had lower content in loin than that in rump. All three collagens were positively correlated with tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. Glutamic acid content did not significantly differ among the four QGs in either loin or rump. In conclusion, it is confirmed that QG is associated with sensory traits but nucleotide contents in beef may not be a major factor determining meat palatability in the present study. PMID:26333668

  4. Effect of feeding system and breed on growth performance, and carcass and meat quality traits in two continental beef breeds.

    PubMed

    Avilés, C; Martínez, A L; Domenech, V; Peña, F

    2015-09-01

    A total of 100 young bulls were allotted a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of the feeding system (concentrate and wheat straw: T; total mixed ration comprised of the same concentrate, maize silage and wheat straw: TMR) and breed (Limousine: LI; Retinta: RE) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. The diets were administrated ad libitum for 193 days. The average daily weight gain was similar (P > 0.05) for both diets, while the LI bulls grew significantly (P < 0.05) more than RE. T bulls showed higher L*, a* and rib bone percentage. TMR bulls showed higher carcass yield, conformation and fatness, and greater changes in ultrasound measurements, except Δ UGMD and rib fat percentage. Instrumental meat quality, except shear force at 1 and 21 days of ageing, was not affected (P > 0.05) by the diets. Breed significantly affected most of the analyzed characteristics. PMID:25978859

  5. Polymorphism of fat metabolism genes as candidate markers for meat quality and production traits in heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Renaville, B; Bacciu, N; Lanzoni, M; Corazzin, M; Piasentier, E

    2015-12-01

    High meat quality is required for dry-cured ham production, which quality depends on meat fat quantity and composition. The aim was to study the polymorphisms of six genes involved in fat metabolism, namely, Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2 (DGAT1 &DGAT2), Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), Fatty acid synthase (FASN) and Heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in two traditional (Large White or Duroc × (Landrace × Large White)) and two industrial hybrids (Goland and Danbred), which are used for dry-cured ham production. Significant associations of SCD and MTTP were found with carcass weight. DGAT2 was associated with back fat thickness and L* fat colour (objective white colour score). Several genes (DGAT2, MTTP &FASN) were associated with weight loss during salting, first step in dry-cured ham production, affecting final yield. Finally, MTTP was associated with shear force. Our findings suggest that the SCD, DGAT2, MTTP and FASN polymorphisms are associated with quality of heavy pig meat products. PMID:26255706

  6. Effects of dietary supplementation with creatine monohydrate during the finishing period on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and muscle glycolytic potential of broilers subjected to transport stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Li, J L; Gao, T; Lin, M; Wang, X F; Zhu, X D; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2014-12-01

    A total of 320 male Arbor Acres broiler chickens (28 days old) were randomly allotted to one of the three experimental diets supplemented with 0 (160 birds), 600 (80 birds) or 1200 mg/kg (80 birds) creatine monohydrate (CMH) for 14 days. On the morning of 42 day, after an 8-h fast, the birds of CMH-free group were divided into two equal groups, and all birds of these four groups were transported according to the follow protocol: 0.75-h transport without CMH supplementation (as a lower stress control group), 3-h transport without CMH supplementation, 3-h transport with 600 or 1200 mg/kg CMH supplementation. Each treatment group was composed of 8 replicates with 10 birds each. The results showed that supplementation of CMH for 14 days before slaughter did not affect the overall growth performance and carcass traits of stressed broilers (P>0.05). A 3-h transport decreased plasma glucose concentration, elevated plasma corticosterone concentration, increased bird live weight loss, breakdown of muscle glycogen, as well as the accumulation of muscle lactate (P<0.05), which induced some detrimental changes to breast meat quality (lower ultimate pH and higher drip loss, P<0.05). Nevertheless, supplementation of 1200 mg/kg CMH reduced chicken weight loss, decreased the contents of lactate and glycolytic potential in pectoralis major of 3-h transported broilers (P<0.05), which is beneficial to maintain breast meat quality by reducing the drip loss (P<0.05). These findings suggest that the reduction of muscle glycolysis is probably the reason for maintainance of meat quality by supplementation of CMH in transported broilers. PMID:25075432

  7. Identification of polymorphisms in the malic enzyme 1, NADP(+)-dependent, cytosolic and nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 2 genes and their associations with meat and carcass quality traits in commercial Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Gill, J L; Bishop, S C; McCorquodale, C; Williams, J L; Wiener, P

    2012-02-01

    Genes involved in the physiological control of energy and triglyceride synthesis, such as malic enzyme 1, NADP(+)-dependent, cytosolic (ME1) and nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 2 (NR0B2), are key candidates that may have effects on meat and carcass quality traits. These genes were sequenced in Aberdeen Angus beef cattle, and the possibility of associations between SNPs and economically important carcass and meat quality traits was tested. Six novel SNPs, five in ME1 and one in NR0B2, were identified. A SNP in exon eight of ME1 resulted in a non-synonymous amino acid change from valine to isoleucine. Phenotypic data were recorded on 536 commercial Aberdeen Angus-cross beef cattle, which comprised 28 carcass quality, tenderness and sensory traits. The majority of the SNPs were associated with at least one of these traits, including an association between the NR0B2 SNP and fat class, and associations between at least one of the ME1 SNPs and eye muscle area, sirloin weight before maturation, sirloin steak tail length, and juiciness. PMID:22221029

  8. Expression of MMP-1, -2, and -8 in longissimus dorsi muscle and their relationship with meat quality traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Qi, Y X; Zhang, X H; Wang, Y Q; Pang, Y Z; Zhang, Z B; Zhang, T L; Zhang, Z X

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the major macromolecule in skeletal muscle, which affects meat quality greatly. The remodeling of the ECM is mainly regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The expression patterns of MMP-1, -2, and -8 in longissimus dorsi muscle were explored using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results show that the expression of MMP-1, -2, and -8 decreased significantly from 135 days of pregnancy to postnatal 30 months. While the expression of MMP-1, -2, and -8 showed no significant relationships with intramuscular fat contents, MMP-1 and -2 showed significant negative correlations with the shearing force of the longissimus dorsi muscle in cattle. The expression of MMP-1 also showed a significant negative correlation with cooking loss and a positive correlation with water holding capacity. The expression levels of MMP-1 and -2 were usually higher in fat than in skeletal muscle tissue. The expression of MMP-8 was significantly higher in the mammary fat pad and the longissimus dorsi muscle than in all other tissues. This study indicates that the remodeling of the ECM has important effects both on the development of postnatal skeletal muscle and on meat quality. PMID:26985938

  9. Effects of Supplemental Chromium Source and Concentration on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, and Meat Quality of Broilers Under Heat Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanling; Yang, Jian; Xiao, Fang; Lloyd, Karen; Lin, Xi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental chromium (Cr) on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of broilers reared under heat stress. A total of 252 1-d-old Cobb 500 commercial female broilers were randomly allotted by body weight (BW) to one of six replicate cages (six broilers per cage) for each of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three Cr sources (Cr propionate, CrPro; Cr picolinate, CrPic; Cr chloride, CrCl3) and two concentrations of added Cr (0.4, or 2.0 mg of Cr/kg) plus a Cr-unsupplemented control group. Feed and distilled-deionized water were available ad libitum for an experimental phase of 42 days. For induction of heat stress, the house temperature was set at 33 ± 2 °C from 15 to 42 days of age. Results showed that birds supplemented with Cr, regardless of Cr source, had increased ADG (P = 0.032) than controls. Birds fed 2.0 mg Cr/kg diet had greater ADG (P = 0.005) than birds fed 0.4 mg Cr/kg diet. Compared to controls, birds fed with Cr had greater dressing percentage (P = 0.021). Percentage of abdominal fat decreased (P = 0.013), whereas, breast intramuscular fat (IMF) remained unaffected (P = 0.147) in Cr supplemented vs control broilers. Broilers supplemented Cr had decreased b* values of meat color (P = 0.042) in breast muscle. B*values were also lesser (P = 0.049) in birds fed CrPro than birds supplemented with CrCl3 or CrPic. Regardless of Cr source, the percentage of cooking loss was decreased (P = 0.025) with Cr supplementation in breast muscle when compared to controls. Results from this study indicate that Cr supplementation, independent of its source, could promote growth and improve carcass traits and meat quality of broilers under heat stress conditions. Chromium propionate seems to have greater beneficial effects on meat color in comparison with CrPic and CrCl3. PMID:26184120

  10. A microarray-based method for the parallel analysis of genotypes and expression profiles of wood-forming tissues in Eucalyptus grandis

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Eugenia; van Staden, Carol-Ann; Lezar, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    Background Fast-growing Eucalyptus grandis trees are one of the most efficient producers of wood in South Africa. The most serious problem affecting the quality and yield of solid wood products is the occurrence of end splitting in logs. Selection of E. grandis planting stock that exhibit preferred wood qualities is thus a priority of the South African forestry industry. We used microarray-based DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis in combination with expression profiling to develop fingerprints and profile gene expression of wood-forming tissue of seven different E. grandis trees. Results A 1578-probe cDNA microarray was constructed by arraying 768 cDNA-AFLP clones and 810 cDNA library clones from seven individual E. grandis trees onto silanised slides. The results revealed that 32% of the spotted fragments showed distinct expression patterns (with a fold change of at least 1.4 or -1.4 and a p value of 0.01) could be grouped into clusters representing co-expressed genes. Evaluation of the binary distribution of cDNA-AFLP fragments on the array showed that the individual genotypes could be discriminated. Conclusion A simple, yet general method was developed for genotyping and expression profiling of wood-forming tissue of E. grandis trees differing in their splitting characteristics and in their lignin contents. Evaluation of gene expression profiles and the binary distribution of cDNA-AFLP fragments on the chip suggest that the prototype chip developed could be useful for transcript profiling and for the identification of Eucalyptus trees with preferred wood quality traits in commercial breeding programmes. PMID:19473481

  11. Signature Wood Modifications Reveal Decomposer Community History

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Jonathan S.; Kaffenberger, Justin T.; Liew, Feng Jin; Song, Zewei

    2015-01-01

    Correlating plant litter decay rates with initial tissue traits (e.g. C, N contents) is common practice, but in woody litter, predictive relationships are often weak. Variability in predicting wood decomposition is partially due to territorial competition among fungal decomposers that, in turn, have a range of nutritional strategies (rot types) and consequences on residues. Given this biotic influence, researchers are increasingly using culture-independent tools in an attempt to link variability more directly to decomposer groups. Our goal was to complement these tools by using certain wood modifications as ‘signatures’ that provide more functional information about decomposer dominance than density loss. Specifically, we used dilute alkali solubility (DAS; higher for brown rot) and lignin:density loss (L:D; higher for white rot) to infer rot type (binary) and fungal nutritional mode (gradient), respectively. We first determined strength of pattern among 29 fungi of known rot type by correlating DAS and L:D with mass loss in birch and pine. Having shown robust relationships for both techniques above a density loss threshold, we then demonstrated and resolved two issues relevant to species consortia and field trials, 1) spatial patchiness creating gravimetric bias (density bias), and 2) brown rot imprints prior or subsequent to white rot replacement (legacy effects). Finally, we field-tested our methods in a New Zealand Pinus radiata plantation in a paired-plot comparison. Overall, results validate these low-cost techniques that measure the collective histories of decomposer dominance in wood. The L:D measure also showed clear potential in classifying ‘rot type’ along a spectrum rather than as a traditional binary type (brown versus white rot), as it places the nutritional strategies of wood-degrading fungi on a scale (L:D=0-5, in this case). These information-rich measures of consequence can provide insight into their biological causes, strengthening the links between traits, structure, and function during wood decomposition. PMID:25811364

  12. Signature wood modifications reveal decomposer community history.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Jonathan S; Kaffenberger, Justin T; Liew, Feng Jin; Song, Zewei

    2015-01-01

    Correlating plant litter decay rates with initial tissue traits (e.g. C, N contents) is common practice, but in woody litter, predictive relationships are often weak. Variability in predicting wood decomposition is partially due to territorial competition among fungal decomposers that, in turn, have a range of nutritional strategies (rot types) and consequences on residues. Given this biotic influence, researchers are increasingly using culture-independent tools in an attempt to link variability more directly to decomposer groups. Our goal was to complement these tools by using certain wood modifications as 'signatures' that provide more functional information about decomposer dominance than density loss. Specifically, we used dilute alkali solubility (DAS; higher for brown rot) and lignin:density loss (L:D; higher for white rot) to infer rot type (binary) and fungal nutritional mode (gradient), respectively. We first determined strength of pattern among 29 fungi of known rot type by correlating DAS and L:D with mass loss in birch and pine. Having shown robust relationships for both techniques above a density loss threshold, we then demonstrated and resolved two issues relevant to species consortia and field trials, 1) spatial patchiness creating gravimetric bias (density bias), and 2) brown rot imprints prior or subsequent to white rot replacement (legacy effects). Finally, we field-tested our methods in a New Zealand Pinus radiata plantation in a paired-plot comparison. Overall, results validate these low-cost techniques that measure the collective histories of decomposer dominance in wood. The L:D measure also showed clear potential in classifying 'rot type' along a spectrum rather than as a traditional binary type (brown versus white rot), as it places the nutritional strategies of wood-degrading fungi on a scale (L:D=0-5, in this case). These information-rich measures of consequence can provide insight into their biological causes, strengthening the links between traits, structure, and function during wood decomposition. PMID:25811364

  13. Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in an Embden×Toulouse Goose Cross Raised in Organic Dehesa.

    PubMed

    Solé, M; Peña, F; Domenech, V; Clemente, I; Polvillo, O; Valera, M; Verona, J C; Rubí, M; Molina, A

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the influence of genetic type (Embden-Anser anser, EE; Toulouse-Anser anser, TT and F1 cross, ET) for meat characteristics (carcass, meat quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles), of domestic geese "Anser anser domesticus" raised in dehesa as an alternative, organic feeding system. Carcass and breast muscle weight (p<0.01) were greater for the ET group at the same live weight. None of the groups showed differences in the production of fatty liver with this type of feeding. Higher values were found for maximum Warner-Bratzler shear force (between 7.62 and 8.87 kg/cm(2)), which implies the improvement of this parameter. High levels of oleic FAs were obtained, especially for the TT group. The polyunsaturated/saturated FA ratio was highest for the ET group (p<0.001), reflecting the optimum nutritional values as a component of a healthy consumer diet. PMID:26954156

  14. Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in an Embden×Toulouse Goose Cross Raised in Organic Dehesa

    PubMed Central

    Solé, M.; Peña, F.; Domenech, V.; Clemente, I.; Polvillo, O.; Valera, M.; Verona, J. C.; Rubí, M.; Molina, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the influence of genetic type (Embden-Anser anser, EE; Toulouse-Anser anser, TT and F1 cross, ET) for meat characteristics (carcass, meat quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles), of domestic geese “Anser anser domesticus” raised in dehesa as an alternative, organic feeding system. Carcass and breast muscle weight (p<0.01) were greater for the ET group at the same live weight. None of the groups showed differences in the production of fatty liver with this type of feeding. Higher values were found for maximum Warner–Bratzler shear force (between 7.62 and 8.87 kg/cm2), which implies the improvement of this parameter. High levels of oleic FAs were obtained, especially for the TT group. The polyunsaturated/saturated FA ratio was highest for the ET group (p<0.001), reflecting the optimum nutritional values as a component of a healthy consumer diet. PMID:26954156

  15. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  16. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    G. Wiltsee.

    1999-01-21

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories (wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  17. Floods and Fluvial Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comiti, F.

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have recently addressed the complex interactions existing at various spatial scales among riparian vegetation, channel morphology and wood storage. The majority of these investigations has been carried out in relatively natural river systems, focusing mostly on the long-term vegetation-morphology dynamics under "equilibrium" conditions. Little is still known about the role of flood events - of different frequency/magnitude - on several aspects of such dynamics, e.g. entrainment conditions of in-channel wood, erosion rates of vegetation from channel margins and from islands, transport distances of wood elements of different size along the channel network. Even less understood is how the river's evolutionary trajectory may affect these processes, and thus the degree to which conceptual models derivable from near-natural systems could be applicable to human-disturbed channels. Indeed, the different human pressures - present on most river basins worldwide - have greatly impaired the morphological and ecological functions of fluvial wood, and the attempts to "restore" in-channel wood storage are currently carried out without a sufficient understanding of wood transport processes occurring during floods. On the other hand, the capability to correctly predict the magnitude of large wood transport during large floods is now seen as crucial - especially in mountain basins - for flood hazard mapping, as is the identification of the potential wood sources (e.g. landslides, floodplains, islands) for the implementation of sound and effective hazard mitigation measures. The presentation will first summarize the current knowledge on fluvial wood dynamics and modelling at different spatial and temporal scales, with a particular focus on mountain rivers. The effects of floods of different characteristics on vegetation erosion and wood transport will be then addressed presenting some study cases from rivers in the European Alps and in the Italian Apennines featuring different degrees of human alteration. Finally, several conclusions about the applicability of wood transport modelling and on rationale vegetation/wood management strategies will be drawn.

  18. Cary Woods Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Glenda

    1994-01-01

    Describes the school reading program at Cary Woods Elementary School (in Auburn, Alabama), one of several school reading programs designated by the International Reading Association as exemplary. (SR)

  19. Wood pellet production

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Southern Energy Limited's wood pellet refinery, Bristol, Florida, produces wood pellets for fuel from scrap wood from a nearby sawmill and other hog fuel delivered to the plant from nearby forest lands. The refinery will provide 50,000 tons of pellets per year to the Florida State Hospital at Chattahoochee to fire recently converted boilers in the central power plant. The pellets are densified wood, having a moisture content of about 10% and a heating value of 8000 Btu/lb. They are 0.5 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 inches in length.

  20. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and dietary protein content on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Cônsolo, N R B; Mesquita, B S; Rodriguez, F D; Rizzi, V G; Silva, L F P

    2016-03-01

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) alters protein metabolism and improves growth performance in Bos taurus cattle with high carcass fat. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of RH, dietary CP and RH×CP interaction on performance, blood metabolites, carcass characteristics and meat quality of young Nellore bulls. A total of 48 bulls were randomly assigned to four treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The factors were two levels of dietary CP (100% and 120% of metabolizable protein requirement, defined as CP100 and CP120, respectively), and two levels of RH (0 and 300 mg/animal·per day). Treated animal received RH for the final 35 days before slaughter. Animals were weighed at the beginning of the feedlot period (day 63), at the beginning of ractopamine supplementation (day 0), after 18 days of supplementation (day 18) and before slaughter (day 34). Animals were slaughtered and hot carcass weights recorded. After chilling, carcass data was collected and longissimus samples were obtained for determination of meat quality. The 9-11th rib section was removed for carcass composition analysis. Supplementation with RH increased ADG independently of dietary CP. There was a RH×CP interaction on dry matter intake (DMI), where RH reduced DMI at CP120, with no effect at CP100. Ractopamine improved feed efficiency, without RH×CP interaction. Ractopamine had no effect on plasma creatinine and urea concentration. Greater dietary CP tended to increase blood urea, and there was a RH×CP interaction for plasma total protein. Ractopamine supplementation increased plasma total protein at CP120, and had no effect at CP100. Ractopamine also decreased plasma glucose concentration at CP100, but had no effect at CP120. Ractopamine increased alkaline phosphatase activity at CP120 and had no effect at CP100. There was a tendency for RH to increase longissimus muscle area, independently of dietary CP. Ractopamine did not alter fat thickness; however, fat thickness was reduced by greater CP in the diet. Supplementation with RH decreased meat shear force, but only at day 0 of aging, having no effect after 7, 14 or 21 days. Greater dietary protein increased meat shear force after 0 and 7 days of aging, with no effect after 14 or 21 days. These results demonstrate for the first time the efficacy of ractopamine supplementation to improve gain and feed efficiency of intact Bos indicus males, with relatively low carcass fat content. Ractopamine effects were not further improved by increasing dietary protein content above requirements. PMID:26355556

  1. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    PubMed Central

    Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2009-01-01

    Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits. PMID:19426499

  2. The effect of livestock production system and concentrate level on carcass traits and meat quality of foals slaughtered at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, J M; Crecente, S; Franco, D; Sarris, M V; Gmez, M

    2014-03-01

    This trial was conducted to study the effect of livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) v. semi extensive system (SES)) and amount of finishing feed (1.5 v. 3.0 kg of commercial feed) in SES on carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of meat foal slaughtered at 18 months of age. For this study, a total of 49 foals (21 from FES and 28 from SES) were used. The obtained results showed that SES had a positive influence on carcass characteristic because these foals showed the best values for live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, perimeter of leg (PL) and carcass compactness index. On the other hand, finishing feeding also had a significant (P<0.05) effect on PL and lean thickness, as the highest values were obtained in foals finished with 3 kg of commercial fodder. The physico-chemical properties were significantly affected by the livestock production system with the exception of ashes content (P>0.05). Foals finished in SES increased in 408% the intramuscular fat content (0.23 v. 1.17%, for foals reared in FES and SES, respectively). On the other hand, L*-value and a*-value were significantly (P<0.01) affected by livestock production system, as foals from the FES group had a more intense redder color (higher CIE a*-value) and higher lightness (higher CIE L*-value) compared with those from the SES group. Finally, meat nutritional value was significantly affected by livestock production system, as foals from an extensive production system on wood pasture could be considered as healthier in relation to their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio) as a result of the beneficial grass intake on meat fatty acid profile. PMID:24398030

  3. SID tryptophan levels and B6 vitamin supplementation do not change blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and meat quality of barrows (70-100kg).

    PubMed

    Castilha, L D; Huepa, L M D; Fachinello, M R; Pozza, M S S; Vasconcellos, R S; Bonagurio, L P; Marcato, S M; Pozza, P C

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan and B6 on blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and longissimus lumborum quality of barrows (70-100kg). Sixty-four crossbred barrows averaging 70.77±2.07kg were distributed in a 4×2 factorial with four SID tryptophan levels (0.130, 0.155, 0.180, and 0.205%) and two B6 levels (1 and 5mg/kg) in eight replicates of one animal each. The meat lightness degree answered linearly (P=0.015) to SID tryptophan levels and the shear force answered quadratically (P=0.050), with estimates of a higher value (31.67N) at 0.163% SID tryptophan. Although B6 showed positive effects (P<0.05) on hot and cold carcass yields and pH24, it resulted in a negative effect (P<0.05) on ham weight and yield, and increased the drip loss and cooking fluid. The dietary SID tryptophan requirement for barrows (70-100kg) was not higher than 0.130% (4.07g/day) and did not change due to B6. PMID:27054283

  4. Influence of capture method, habitat quality and individual traits on blood parameters of free-ranging lace monitors (Varanus varius).

    PubMed

    Scheelings, Tf; Jessop, Ts

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The aims of this study were to determine baseline reference intervals for haematological and serum biochemical parameters in lace monitors, and to examine whether such values were influenced by capture method, expected differences in habitat food resource availability and a lizard's body size and body condition. METHODS Thirty-three wild Victorian lace monitors (Varanus varius) of unknown age and sex were captured by noose pole or aluminium box trap from Cape Conran in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. RESULTS No statistical differences between the two capture methods were noted for haematology. There was a significant difference in the serum glucose concentrations between the two methods of capture (higher concentration in box-trapped animals) because of a physiological response to capture stress. Habitat food quality did not appear to influence haematology or serum biochemistry. The packed cell volume (PCV) for the lace monitors was 0.29-0.43 L/L. Lymphocytes were identified as the most common leucocyte. The haemoprotozoan parasite, Haemogregarina varanicola, was found in all 33 blood samples. No correlation could be made between parasite burden and PCV, serum globulins or serum proteins, but animals in poor body condition were more likely to harbour large numbers of parasites. CONCLUSION The results of this study may be used as a basis for evaluating health in lace monitors. PMID:21864309

  5. Relationship between chick conformation and quality measures with early growth traits in males of eight selected pure or commercial broiler breeder strains.

    PubMed

    Wolanski, N J; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E; Carney, V L; Fancher, B I

    2006-08-01

    Current commercial broiler products are derived from the crosses of various strains at the primary breeder level. This study investigated chick development, yolk utilization, and early growth rate of males from 8 broiler breeder strains. These strains were a combination of both specialized and commercial-line products. At hatch, 110 male chicks per strain were weighed and wing-banded, and chick quality was assessed. Traits included navel condition, hock color, chick length, shank length, and abdomen score by abdominal palpation (to evaluate residual yolk content on live chicks). At hatch, 50 chicks per strain were dissected to assess breast muscling and residual yolk weight. At 2 wk of age, 50 chicks per strain were dissected to characterize changes in weight, conformation, fleshing, and residual yolk content. Chick weight at hatch varied from 40.8 g in a heavily growth-selected line to a low of 36.9 g in a commercial strain. The mass of residual yolk at hatch ranged from 0.8 to 10.6 g across all chicks dissected at hatch. A heavily breast-selected pure-line strain had 5.8 g of residual yolk in contrast to the commercial strain that had only 3.0 g. Although there were no significant strain differences in abdomen score, this score correlated with dissected residual yolk weight (r = 0.50). Shank length and chick body length at hatch correlated more strongly with BW on d 14 than did hatch weight. This information stresses the importance of evaluating several characteristics at hatch to better quantify early chick quality. PMID:16903483

  6. Effectiveness of mid-infrared spectroscopy to predict the color of bovine milk and the relationship between milk color and traditional milk quality traits.

    PubMed

    McDermott, A; Visentin, G; McParland, S; Berry, D P; Fenelon, M A; De Marchi, M

    2016-05-01

    The color of milk affects the subsequent color features of the resulting dairy products; milk color is also related to milk fat concentration. The objective of the present study was to quantify the ability of mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) to predict color-related traits in milk samples and to estimate the correlations between these color-related characteristics and traditional milk quality traits. Mid-infrared spectral data were available on 601 milk samples from 529 cows, all of which had corresponding gold standard milk color measures determined using a Chroma Meter (Konica Minolta Sensing Europe, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands); milk color was expressed using the CIELAB uniform color space. Separate prediction equations were developed for each of the 3 color parameters (L*=lightness, a*=greenness, b*=yellowness) using partial least squares regression. Accuracy of prediction was determined using both cross validation on a calibration data set (n=422 to 457 samples) and external validation on a data set of 144 to 152 samples. Moderate accuracy of prediction was achieved for the b* index (coefficient of correlation for external validation=0.72), although poor predictive ability was obtained for both a* and L* indices (coefficient of correlation for external validation of 0.30 and 0.55, respectively). The linear regression coefficient of the gold standard values on the respective MIRS-predicted values of a*, L*, and b* was 0.81, 0.88, and 0.96, respectively; only the regression coefficient on L* was different from 1. The mean bias of prediction (i.e., the average difference between the MIRS-predicted values and gold standard values in external validation) was not different from zero for any of 3 parameters evaluated. A moderate correlation (0.56) existed between the MIRS-predicted L* and b* indices, both of which were weakly correlated with the a* index. Milk fat, protein, and casein were moderately correlated with both the gold standard and MIRS-predicted values for b*. Results from the present study indicate that MIRS data provides an efficient, low-cost screening method to determine the b* color of milk at a population level. PMID:26898278

  7. Emissions Characterization of Residential Wood-Fired Hydronic Heater Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential wood-fired hydronic heaters (RWHHs) can negatively impact the local ambient air quality and thus are of major environmental concern in wood burning areas of the U. S. Few studies have been conducted which characterize the emissions from RWHHs. To address the lack of e...

  8. MODELING OF ALKANE EMISSIONS FROM A WOOD STAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses full-scale residential house tests to evaluate the effects of organic emissions from a wood finishing product--wood stain--on indoor air quality (IAQ). The test house concentrations of three alkane species, nonane, decane, and undecane, were measured as a fu...

  9. RESEARCH AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-VOC WOOD COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a project, cofunded by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and the U.S. EPA, to develop a new, low volatile organic compound (VOC) wood coating. Traditional wood furniture coating technologies contain organic solvents which become air pol...

  10. Growth Performance, Carcass Yield, and Quality and Chemical Traits of Meat from Commercial Korean Native Ducks with 2-Way Crossbreeding

    PubMed Central

    Heo, K. N.; Hong, E. C.; Kim, C. D.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, M. J.; Choo, H. J.; Choi, H. C.; Mushtaq, M. M. H.; Parvin, R.; Kim, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    This work was conducted to investigate the performance and meat characteristics of commercial Korean native duck (KND). A total of 180 1-d-old ducklings of 2-way crossbreds from A and B lines (from National Institute of Animal Science) were used in this work and divided into 4 groups (3 replicates/group, 15 birds/replicate). The four groups were 4 crossbreds as AA (A line [♀]×A line [♂]), AB (A line [♀]×B line [♂]), BB (Pure line B strains) and BA (B strains [♀]×A strain [♂]). Ducks were fed diets based on corn-soybean meal for 0 to 3 wk (22.4% crude protein [CP], 2,945 kcal/kg metabolizable energy [ME]) and 3 to 8 wk (18.4% CP, 3,047 kcal/kg ME). As a result of this study, average body weight of 4 crossbreds were 625, 1,617, 2,466, and 2,836 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively, and significantly increased over the period of time (p<0.05). Body weight of BB group was greater than other crossbreds at the age of 6 weeks (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in weekly body weight gains (p<0.05), which were 573, 991, 850, and 371 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks old, respectively. Uniformity of 4 crossbreds was 84.9%, 80.5%, and 72.5% at 6, 7, and 8 weeks, respectively, and there was no difference among crossbreds. Body weight gain of BB crossbred was highest among crossbreds (p<0.05). Weekly feed intake significantly increased with weeks as 669, 1,839, 2,812, and 3,381 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks respectively (p<0.05). Feed intakes of AA and BB crossbreds were higher at 2 to 4 weeks old than others and that of BB crossbred was highest at 4 to 6 weeks old (p<0.05). Weekly feed conversion ratios were 1.17, 1.86, 3.32, and 9.37 at 0 to 2, 2 to 4, 4 to 6, and 6 to 8 weeks old, respectively, and it increased with age (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in feed conversion ratio among crossbreds. Carcass yields of 4 crossbreds were 73.6%, 71.6%, 73.5%, and 71.7%, respectively, so there was no significant difference among crossbreds. There was no difference in wing, neck, breast and leg ratios among crossbreds. However, back ratios of 4 crossbreds were 17.6%, 18.0%, 15.8%, and 17.6%, respectively, and back ratio of BB was the highest among crossbreds. Finally, these results may provide the basic data on the production, carcass quality, fatty acid and amino acid composition of commercial KND with 2-way crossbreeding. PMID:25656202

  11. Growth performance, carcass yield, and quality and chemical traits of meat from commercial korean native ducks with 2-way crossbreeding.

    PubMed

    Heo, K N; Hong, E C; Kim, C D; Kim, H K; Lee, M J; Choo, H J; Choi, H C; Mushtaq, M M H; Parvin, R; Kim, J H

    2015-03-01

    This work was conducted to investigate the performance and meat characteristics of commercial Korean native duck (KND). A total of 180 1-d-old ducklings of 2-way crossbreds from A and B lines (from National Institute of Animal Science) were used in this work and divided into 4 groups (3 replicates/group, 15 birds/replicate). The four groups were 4 crossbreds as AA (A line [♀]×A line [♂]), AB (A line [♀]×B line [♂]), BB (Pure line B strains) and BA (B strains [♀]×A strain [♂]). Ducks were fed diets based on corn-soybean meal for 0 to 3 wk (22.4% crude protein [CP], 2,945 kcal/kg metabolizable energy [ME]) and 3 to 8 wk (18.4% CP, 3,047 kcal/kg ME). As a result of this study, average body weight of 4 crossbreds were 625, 1,617, 2,466, and 2,836 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively, and significantly increased over the period of time (p<0.05). Body weight of BB group was greater than other crossbreds at the age of 6 weeks (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in weekly body weight gains (p<0.05), which were 573, 991, 850, and 371 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks old, respectively. Uniformity of 4 crossbreds was 84.9%, 80.5%, and 72.5% at 6, 7, and 8 weeks, respectively, and there was no difference among crossbreds. Body weight gain of BB crossbred was highest among crossbreds (p<0.05). Weekly feed intake significantly increased with weeks as 669, 1,839, 2,812, and 3,381 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks respectively (p<0.05). Feed intakes of AA and BB crossbreds were higher at 2 to 4 weeks old than others and that of BB crossbred was highest at 4 to 6 weeks old (p<0.05). Weekly feed conversion ratios were 1.17, 1.86, 3.32, and 9.37 at 0 to 2, 2 to 4, 4 to 6, and 6 to 8 weeks old, respectively, and it increased with age (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in feed conversion ratio among crossbreds. Carcass yields of 4 crossbreds were 73.6%, 71.6%, 73.5%, and 71.7%, respectively, so there was no significant difference among crossbreds. There was no difference in wing, neck, breast and leg ratios among crossbreds. However, back ratios of 4 crossbreds were 17.6%, 18.0%, 15.8%, and 17.6%, respectively, and back ratio of BB was the highest among crossbreds. Finally, these results may provide the basic data on the production, carcass quality, fatty acid and amino acid composition of commercial KND with 2-way crossbreeding. PMID:25656202

  12. How James Wood Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the

  13. Big Wood River, Idaho

    The Big Wood River flows through communities of the Wood River Valley of south-central Idaho. It is one of eight sites at which the USGS is conducting an ecological assessment during the summer of 2014. Study results will be published in 2015....

  14. How James Wood Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  15. Allelic variation in cell wall candidate genes affecting solid wood properties in natural populations and land races of Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Dillon, S K; Nolan, M; Li, W; Bell, C; Wu, H X; Southerton, S G

    2010-08-01

    Forest trees are ideally suited to association mapping due to their high levels of diversity and low genomic linkage disequilibrium. Using an association mapping approach, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers influencing quantitative variation in wood quality were identified in a natural population of Pinus radiata. Of 149 sites examined, 10 demonstrated significant associations (P < 0.05, q < 0.1) with one or more traits after accounting for population structure and experimentwise error. Without accounting for marker interactions, phenotypic variation attributed to individual SNPs ranged from 2 to 6.5%. Undesirable negative correlations between wood quality and growth were not observed, indicating potential to break negative correlations by selecting for individual SNPs in breeding programs. Markers that yielded significant associations were reexamined in an Australian land race. SNPs from three genes (PAL1, PCBER, and SUSY) yielded significant associations. Importantly, associations with two of these genes validated associations with density previously observed in the discovery population. In both cases, decreased wood density was associated with the minor allele, suggesting that these SNPs may be under weak negative purifying selection for density in the natural populations. These results demonstrate the utility of LD mapping to detect associations, even when the power to detect SNPs with small effect is anticipated to be low. PMID:20498299

  16. Vacuum drying of oak wood

    SciTech Connect

    Fohr, J.P.; Chakir, A.; Arnaud, G.; Peuty, M.A. du

    1995-12-31

    Vacuum drying, i.e., drying under absolute gas pressure of about 10{sup 4} Pa, is an efficient means of reducing the process period and of producing good quality wood. The authors will examine here continuous vacuum drying where the plank surfaces are kept at a constant temperature, which remains above the boiling point, and moisture flowing to the surface is extracted from the kiln. They have carried out an experimental study of oak drying under such conditions. The drying rate and moisture content profile of the sample (40 mm thick) are recorded during the whole drying period. A model of continuous drying is established from general conservation equations with the main approximation that the air is rapidly extracted. The two constitutive equations of the model which describe temperature and water content fields are of a diffusive type and coupled through coefficients. The adequate boundary equation is not a convective one, but expresses a hygroscopic equilibrium between the vapor in the chamber and the wood surface. The mass diffusive coefficient can be adjusted to the drying rates through capillary pressure and bound water diffusion functions. The wood heterogeneity (seasonal growth) is the main factor of discrepancy in these functions. The simulated drying rates correspond with the experimental ones.

  17. The use of wood for wind turbine blade construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.

    1979-01-01

    The interrelationships between moisture and wood, conditions for dry rot spore activity, the protection of wood fibers from moisture, wood resin composites, wood laminating, quality control, and the mechanical properties of wood are discussed. The laminated veneer and the bonded sawn stock fabrication techniques, used in the construction of a turbine blade with a monocoque 'D' section forming the leading edge and a built up trailing edge section, are described. A 20 foot root end sample complete with 24 bonded-in studs was successfully subjected to large onetime loads in both the flatwise and edgewise directions, and to fatigue tests. Results indicate that wood is both a viable and advantageous material for use in wind turbine blades. The basic material is reasonably priced, domestically available, ecologically sound, and easily fabricated with low energy consumption.

  18. Trait Ambiguity and Controllability in Evaluations of Self and Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Jack L.; Jacobson, Alan S.

    Research has found that most people tend to rate themselves as above average on desirable skills or qualities and below average on undesirable qualities. Two factors have been found to influence this self-serving bias: (1) controllability or the perceived control one has over developing a trait; and (2) trait ambiguity in which a positive trait

  19. Wood residues: trash or treasure

    SciTech Connect

    Bolgiano, C.

    1983-12-01

    Forest residues have acquired new economic value since the growth of the wood-energy markets has prompted private woodlot owners to begin managing and harvesting their forests after nearly a century of neglect. Estimates place half the commercial forests as overstocked, with poor-quality trees and unmarketable varieties, as well as standing dead or fallen trees and slash which are aesthetically bad. Overzealous cleansing of the forest floor, however, will deplete forests soils of nutrients and expose them to erosion in addition to destroying wildlife habitat. A compromise is needed to balance the ecological and economic benefits. (DCK)

  20. Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling fibre length and lignin content in Arabidopsis thaliana stems.

    PubMed

    Capron, Arnaud; Chang, Xue Feng; Hall, Hardy; Ellis, Brian; Beatson, Rodger P; Berleth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Fibre properties and the biochemical composition of cell walls are important traits in many applications. For example, the lengths of fibres define the strength and quality of paper, and lignin content is a critical parameter for the use of biomass in biofuel production. Identifying genes controlling these traits is comparatively difficult in woody species, because of long generation times and limited amenability to high-resolution genetic mapping. To address this problem, this study mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) defining fibre length and lignin content in the Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line population Col-4 Ler-0. Adapting high-throughput phenotyping techniques for both traits for measurements in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems identified significant QTLs for fibre length on chromosomes 2 and 5, as well as one significant QTL affecting lignin content on chromosome 2. For fibre length, total variation within the population was 208% higher than between parental lines and the identified QTLs explained 50.58% of the observed variation. For lignin content, the values were 261 and 26.51%, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis of the associated intervals identified a number of candidate genes for fibre length and lignin content. This study demonstrates that molecular mapping of QTLs pertaining to wood and fibre properties is possible in Arabidopsis, which substantially broadens the use of Arabidopsis as a model species for the functional characterization of plant genes. PMID:23136168

  1. Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling fibre length and lignin content in Arabidopsis thaliana stems

    PubMed Central

    Berleth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Fibre properties and the biochemical composition of cell walls are important traits in many applications. For example, the lengths of fibres define the strength and quality of paper, and lignin content is a critical parameter for the use of biomass in biofuel production. Identifying genes controlling these traits is comparatively difficult in woody species, because of long generation times and limited amenability to high-resolution genetic mapping. To address this problem, this study mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) defining fibre length and lignin content in the Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line population Col-4×Ler-0. Adapting high-throughput phenotyping techniques for both traits for measurements in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems identified significant QTLs for fibre length on chromosomes 2 and 5, as well as one significant QTL affecting lignin content on chromosome 2. For fibre length, total variation within the population was 208% higher than between parental lines and the identified QTLs explained 50.58% of the observed variation. For lignin content, the values were 261 and 26.51%, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis of the associated intervals identified a number of candidate genes for fibre length and lignin content. This study demonstrates that molecular mapping of QTLs pertaining to wood and fibre properties is possible in Arabidopsis, which substantially broadens the use of Arabidopsis as a model species for the functional characterization of plant genes. PMID:23136168

  2. Superior wood for violins--wood decay fungi as a substitute for cold climate.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Francis W M R; Spycher, Melanie; Fink, Siegfried

    2008-01-01

    Violins produced by Antonio Stradivari during the late 17th and early 18th centuries are reputed to have superior tonal qualities. Dendrochronological studies show that Stradivari used Norway spruce that had grown mostly during the Maunder Minimum, a period of reduced solar activity when relatively low temperatures caused trees to lay down wood with narrow annual rings, resulting in a high modulus of elasticity and low density. The main objective was to determine whether wood can be processed using selected decay fungi so that it becomes acoustically similar to the wood of trees that have grown in a cold climate (i.e. reduced density and unchanged modulus of elasticity). This was investigated by incubating resonance wood specimens of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) with fungal species that can reduce wood density, but lack the ability to degrade the compound middle lamellae, at least in the earlier stages of decay. Microscopic assessment of the incubated specimens and measurement of five physical properties (density, modulus of elasticity, speed of sound, radiation ratio, and the damping factor) using resonance frequency revealed that in the wood of both species there was a reduction in density, accompanied by relatively little change in the speed of sound. Thus, radiation ratio was increased from 'poor' to 'good', on a par with 'superior' resonance wood grown in a cold climate. PMID:18554266

  3. Wood Frog Embryos in an Icy Wetland

    Wood frog embryos in a partly ice-covered Wisconsin wetland. Interconnected wetlands and uplands are critical elements of most North American landscapes and support our quality of life in profound ways. To provide much-needed information, the USGS is leading a growing network of U.S. and Canadian pa...

  4. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  5. Plant functional traits have globally consistent effects on competition.

    PubMed

    Kunstler, Georges; Falster, Daniel; Coomes, David A; Hui, Francis; Kooyman, Robert M; Laughlin, Daniel C; Poorter, Lourens; Vanderwel, Mark; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Wright, S Joseph; Aiba, Masahiro; Baraloto, Christopher; Caspersen, John; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Hanewinkel, Marc; Herault, Bruno; Kattge, Jens; Kurokawa, Hiroko; Onoda, Yusuke; Peñuelas, Josep; Poorter, Hendrik; Uriarte, Maria; Richardson, Sarah; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Sun, I-Fang; Ståhl, Göran; Swenson, Nathan G; Thompson, Jill; Westerlund, Bertil; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A; Zeng, Hongcheng; Zimmerman, Jess K; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Westoby, Mark

    2016-01-14

    Phenotypic traits and their associated trade-offs have been shown to have globally consistent effects on individual plant physiological functions, but how these effects scale up to influence competition, a key driver of community assembly in terrestrial vegetation, has remained unclear. Here we use growth data from more than 3 million trees in over 140,000 plots across the world to show how three key functional traits--wood density, specific leaf area and maximum height--consistently influence competitive interactions. Fast maximum growth of a species was correlated negatively with its wood density in all biomes, and positively with its specific leaf area in most biomes. Low wood density was also correlated with a low ability to tolerate competition and a low competitive effect on neighbours, while high specific leaf area was correlated with a low competitive effect. Thus, traits generate trade-offs between performance with competition versus performance without competition, a fundamental ingredient in the classical hypothesis that the coexistence of plant species is enabled via differentiation in their successional strategies. Competition within species was stronger than between species, but an increase in trait dissimilarity between species had little influence in weakening competition. No benefit of dissimilarity was detected for specific leaf area or wood density, and only a weak benefit for maximum height. Our trait-based approach to modelling competition makes generalization possible across the forest ecosystems of the world and their highly diverse species composition. PMID:26700807

  6. Genetics of hyperpigmentation associated with the Fibromelanosis gene (Fm) and analysis of growth and meat quality traits in crosses of native Indian Kadaknath chickens and non-indigenous breeds.

    PubMed

    Arora, G; Mishra, S K; Nautiyal, B; Pratap, S O; Gupta, A; Beura, C K; Singh, D P

    2011-12-01

    1. The study investigated the extent of hyperpigmentation (a trait fixed in native Indian Kadaknath chickens), bodyweight, carcase quality and leanness at 12 weeks of age in F(1) and back-crosses of Kadaknath with White Leghorn, White Plymouth Rock and Aseel Peela chickens. 2. The objective of the study was to determine if hyperpigmentation was affected by the major gene Fibromelanosis (Fm) and to evaluate the effects of different proportions of Kadaknath genes on growth and carcase quality. 3. The pigmentation pattern of skin indicated that Fm behaved as the primary locus affecting dermal-hyperpigmentation and that the sex-linked Id locus produced an epistatic effect. 4. The results suggested that variable allelic forms of Id were acting in different crosses, which resulted in variation in melanosis of the host. However, no conclusive pattern for shank pigmentation could be explained through genotyping of the Id and Fm loci. 5. Analysis of quantitative traits indicated the positive impact of a Kadaknath genomic proportion of 50% or more on meat texture and carcase leanness. Improvement in leanness occurred in White Rock crosses but not in White Leghorn and Aseel Peela crosses. 6. Thigh-meat texture was influenced more by enhanced Kadaknath genomic proportions than the breast-meat. It was concluded that introgression of Kadaknath genomic proportion beyond 50% in a cross with meat-type chickens, irrespective of the impact Fm, brought improvement in meat quality whereas no such advantage was obtained for growth traits. 7. The beneficial impact of the Kadaknath genome on meat quality calls for further studies to identify causative genes for their selective use to improve meat quality in Kadaknath crossbred chickens. PMID:22221233

  7. Wood's Lamp Examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... dermatologists to assist in the diagnosis of various pigment and infectious disorders. The examination is performed in ... lamp. If a fungal or bacterial infection or pigment disorder is present, Wood's lamp examination can strengthen ...

  8. Impact Tests for Woods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    Although it is well known that the strength of wood depends greatly upon the time the wood is under the load, little consideration has been given to this fact in testing materials for airplanes. Here, results are given of impact tests on clear, straight grained spruce. Transverse tests were conducted for comparison. Both Izod and Charpy impact tests were conducted. Results are given primarily in tabular and graphical form.

  9. Genetic architecture of wood properties based on association analysis and co-expression networks in white spruce.

    PubMed

    Lamara, Mebarek; Raherison, Elie; Lenz, Patrick; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean; MacKay, John

    2016-04-01

    Association studies are widely utilized to analyze complex traits but their ability to disclose genetic architectures is often limited by statistical constraints, and functional insights are usually minimal in nonmodel organisms like forest trees. We developed an approach to integrate association mapping results with co-expression networks. We tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2652 candidate genes for statistical associations with wood density, stiffness, microfibril angle and ring width in a population of 1694 white spruce trees (Picea glauca). Associations mapping identified 229-292 genes per wood trait using a statistical significance level of P < 0.05 to maximize discovery. Over-representation of genes associated for nearly all traits was found in a xylem preferential co-expression group developed in independent experiments. A xylem co-expression network was reconstructed with 180 wood associated genes and several known MYB and NAC regulators were identified as network hubs. The network revealed a link between the gene PgNAC8, wood stiffness and microfibril angle, as well as considerable within-season variation for both genetic control of wood traits and gene expression. Trait associations were distributed throughout the network suggesting complex interactions and pleiotropic effects. Our findings indicate that integration of association mapping and co-expression networks enhances our understanding of complex wood traits. PMID:26619072

  10. Biophysical modelling of intra-ring variations in tracheid features and wood density of Pinus pinaster trees exposed to seasonal droughts.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Sarah; Ogée, Jérôme; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Rayment, Mark; Wingate, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    Process-based models that link seasonally varying environmental signals to morphological features within tree rings are essential tools to predict tree growth response and commercially important wood quality traits under future climate scenarios. This study evaluated model portrayal of radial growth and wood anatomy observations within a mature maritime pine (Pinus pinaster (L.) Aït.) stand exposed to seasonal droughts. Intra-annual variations in tracheid anatomy and wood density were identified through image analysis and X-ray densitometry on stem cores covering the growth period 1999-2010. A cambial growth model was integrated with modelled plant water status and sugar availability from the soil-plant-atmosphere transfer model MuSICA to generate estimates of cell number, cell volume, cell mass and wood density on a weekly time step. The model successfully predicted inter-annual variations in cell number, ring width and maximum wood density. The model was also able to predict the occurrence of special anatomical features such as intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) in growth rings. Since cell wall thickness remained surprisingly constant within and between growth rings, variations in wood density were primarily the result of variations in lumen diameter, both in the model and anatomical data. In the model, changes in plant water status were identified as the main driver of the IADFs through a direct effect on cell volume. The anatomy data also revealed that a trade-off existed between hydraulic safety and hydraulic efficiency. Although a simplified description of cambial physiology is presented, this integrated modelling approach shows potential value for identifying universal patterns of tree-ring growth and anatomical features over a broad climatic gradient. PMID:25769337

  11. High levels of whole raw soybean in diets for Nellore bulls in feedlot: effect on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Cônsolo, N R B; Gardinal, R; Gandra, J R; de Freitas Junior, J E; Rennó, F P; Santana, M H de A; Pflanzer Junior, S B; Pereira, A S C

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole raw soybean (WRS) in the finishing diet of Nellore cattle on productive performance, carcass traits, meat quality, fatty acid profile of meat, and blood parameters. In a completely randomized design, 52 Nellore bulls (mean body weight ± SD: 380 ± 34 kg) were allotted for 84 days. The animals received the following diets with a forage: concentrate ratio of 40/60: (i) WRS0: control diet without soybean grains; (ii) WRS8: diet containing 8% WRS in dry matter basis; (iii) WRS16: diet containing 16% WRS, and (iv) WRS24: diet containing 24% WRS. At intervals of 28 days, the animals were weighed, muscle and adipose tissue was analysed by ultrasound, and blood samples were collected. The animals were slaughtered on day 85 and liver weight and hot carcass weight were measured during slaughter. The pH and carcass dressing were calculated at 24 h after slaughter. Longissimus dorsi muscle samples were collected for the determination of fatty acid profile of meat, ether extract, tenderness and sensory analysis of meat aged for 14 days. Blood cholesterol content increased linearly with increasing proportion of whole raw soybean grains. The diet did not affect performance or carcass attributes. The WRS8 had the highest shear force values. In fatty acid profile, C14:0 decreased (p = 0.05), whereas 16:1, 20:0 and 20:1 fatty acids increased linearly with increasing proportion of WRS (p < 0.05). However, concentration of conjugated linoleic acid cis 9, trans 11 and 17:0 increased with WRS24 and WRS16. In the sensory analysis, WRS24 was more tender with respect to the other treatments (p < 0.05). Finally, the inclusion of WRS in the finishing diet of feedlot Nellore bulls only evidenced little changes in fatty acid profile and tenderness, in animals fed diets containing 16 or 24% soybean. PMID:25110114

  12. Effect of atmospheric stability on the impact of domestic wood combustion to air quality of a small urban township in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grange, S. K.; Salmond, J. A.; Trompetter, W. J.; Davy, P. K.; Ancelet, T.

    2013-05-01

    In the winter of 2011, a field campaign was undertaken in the small township of Nelson, New Zealand to measure the vertical and horizontal distribution of concentrations of airborne particulate matter. The aim of this campaign was to improve our understanding of the causal factors which result in periods of very high concentrations of particulate pollution in small townships during winter where emissions are dominated by the combustion of wood for domestic heating. The results showed that mean hourly surface concentrations of particulates throughout the airshed were characterized by a distinctive diurnal cycle, with two peaks in concentration (one in the late evening and then, unusually, a second mid-morning). Although the timing and magnitude of hourly peak concentrations was variable throughout the valley, there was no evidence to suggest that regional or topographic flows played a significant role in the build-up of pollutants at any given location. Analysis of vertical profiles of black carbon showed that high concentrations of particulates were confined to the lowest 50 m of the boundary layer. Concentrations decreased with increasing height within this polluted surface layer. The atmosphere was very stable during the evening period. After midnight, a period of increased mixing was consistently identified throughout the lowest 100 m of the boundary layer and associated with the sudden cleansing of the surface and lower layers of the boundary layer. Throughout the observational period there was no evidence for the storage of pollutants aloft. Thus the vertical mixing of pollutants to the surface could not account for increased pollutant concentrations during the morning period. However, at this time the boundary layer remained stable and concentrations of black carbon were mixed through a very shallow layer. This suggests that despite lower domestic heating emissions in the morning, the reduced mixing volume is a likely cause of the observed marked peak in morning surface concentrations.

  13. Do community-weighted mean functional traits reflect optimal strategies?

    PubMed

    Muscarella, Robert; Uriarte, María

    2016-03-30

    The notion that relationships between community-weighted mean (CWM) traits (i.e. plot-level trait values weighted by species abundances) and environmental conditions reflect selection towards locally optimal phenotypes is challenged by the large amount of interspecific trait variation typically found within ecological communities. Reconciling these contrasting patterns is a key to advancing predictive theories of functional community ecology. We combined data on geographical distributions and three traits (wood density, leaf mass per area and maximum height) of 173 tree species in Puerto Rico. We tested the hypothesis that species are more likely to occur where their trait values are more similar to the local CWM trait values (the'CWM-optimality' hypothesis) by comparing species occurrence patterns (as a proxy for fitness) with the functional composition of forest plots across a precipitation gradient. While 70% of the species supported CWM-optimality for at least one trait, nearly 25% significantly opposed it for at least one trait, thereby contributing to local functional diversity. The majority (85%) of species that opposed CWM-optimality did so only for one trait and few species opposed CWM-optimality in multivariate trait space. Our study suggests that constraints to local functional variation act more strongly on multivariate phenotypes than on univariate traits. PMID:27030412

  14. Broad Anatomical Variation within a Narrow Wood Density Range—A Study of Twig Wood across 69 Australian Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Ziemińska, Kasia; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Just as people with the same weight can have different body builds, woods with the same wood density can have different anatomies. Here, our aim was to assess the magnitude of anatomical variation within a restricted range of wood density and explore its potential ecological implications. Methods Twig wood of 69 angiosperm tree and shrub species was analyzed. Species were selected so that wood density varied within a relatively narrow range (0.38–0.62 g cm-3). Anatomical traits quantified included wood tissue fractions (fibres, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, vessels, and conduits with maximum lumen diameter below 15 μm), vessel properties, and pith area. To search for potential ecological correlates of anatomical variation the species were sampled across rainfall and temperature contrasts, and several other ecologically-relevant traits were measured (plant height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity). Results Despite the limited range in wood density, substantial anatomical variation was observed. Total parenchyma fraction varied from 0.12 to 0.66 and fibre fraction from 0.20 to 0.74, and these two traits were strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.86, P < 0.001). Parenchyma was weakly (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.35, P < 0.05) or not associated with vessel properties nor with height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.41, P < 0.05). However, vessel traits were fairly well correlated with height and leaf area to sapwood area ratio (0.47 ≤|r|≤ 0.65, all P < 0.001). Modulus of elasticity was mainly driven by fibre wall plus vessel wall fraction rather than by the parenchyma component. Conclusions Overall, there seem to be at least three axes of variation in xylem, substantially independent of each other: a wood density spectrum, a fibre-parenchyma spectrum, and a vessel area spectrum. The fibre-parenchyma spectrum does not yet have any clear or convincing ecological interpretation. PMID:25906320

  15. Effect of species and wood to bark ratio on pelleting of southern woods

    SciTech Connect

    Bradfield, J.; Levi, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    Six common southern hardwoods and loblolly pine were pelleted in a laboratory pellet mill. The pellet furnishes were blended to test the effect of different wood to bark ratios on pellet durability and production rate. Included was a ratio chosen to simulate the wood to bark ratio found in whole-tree chips. This furnish produced good quality pellets for all species tested. Pelleting of the pure wood of hardwoods was not successful; furnish routinely blocked the pellet mill dies. Pure pine wood, however, did produce acceptable pellets. It was noted that, as lignin and extractive content increased above a threshold level, the precentage of fines produced in a pellet durability test increased. Thus, all pine and tupelo wood/bark mixes produces high fines. This reduces the desirability of the pellets in the marketplace. Further research is necessary to confirm this relationship. This study suggests that both tree species and wood/bark ratio affect the durability of pellets and the rate with which they can be produced in a laboratory pellet mill. 9 references.

  16. The Trait in Latent Trait Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael V.

    Significant to a latent trait or item response theory analysis of a mental test is the determination of exactly what is being quantified. The following are practical problems to be considered in the formulation of a good theory: (1) deciding whether two tests measure the same trait or traits; (2) analyzing the relative contributions of a pair of…

  17. Tracers of wood smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, M. A. K.; Rasmussen, R. A.

    Smoke from wood burning is a significant source of air pollution in many parts of the world. When several sources simultaneously cause air pollution, it is often difficult to determine how much comes from wood burning. Wood smoke has unique chemical characteristics that can be used as indicators, including elemental composition, particularly potassium and chlorine, the ratios of organic and elemental carbon, and gases such as methyl chloride. This paper deals with formulating and applying the chemical mass balance approach incorporating both gas- and aerosol-phase tracers to a study carried out at Olympia-Lacey in Washington. In this study, three types of tracers were measured simultaneously and used to estimate wood smoke pollution during Winter, namely elemental composition and organic carbon in the particle phase and methyl chloride in the gas phase. The results from the different tracers are found to be in agreement. The air pollution at the study site was dominated by wood smoke mostly from low-temperature combustion (about 80%), with additional but smaller contributions from oil furnaces (15%), automobiles (4%) and occasionally from other nearby sources.

  18. Genetic markers on BTA14 predictive for residual feed intake in beef steers and their effects on carcass and meat quality traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the high cost of feed for animal production, genetic selection for animals that metabolize feed more efficiently could result in substantial cost savings for cattle producers. The purpose of this study was to identify DNA markers predictive for differences among cattle for traits associated wit...

  19. Laser processing of phenolic wood substitutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Lusquiños, F.; Penide, J.; Arias-González, F.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Phenolic resin boards (PRB) are wood substitutes that comprises of a thick core exclusively made of phenolic resin covered by a thin sheet of melamine resin imitating the aspect of natural wood. The use of these materials in furniture and in construction industry has proliferated during last years. Boards made of phenolic resins are dense, hard and very difficult to cut using band saws, disc saws, or milling cutters. Nevertheless, these difficulties can be overcome by means of laser cutting, which is one of the most firmly established techniques for separating materials. This is due to the great advantages of this technique over traditional cutting methods, such as its versatility and flexibility that allow effective cutting. Nevertheless, charring of the cut edge surface caused by laser induced thermal degradation degrades the cut quality under non-optimized processing conditions. In this research work the viability and quality of CO2 laser cutting process of phenolic resin boards and wood particleboard panels has been evaluated. The present work validates the cut of phenolic resin boards by CO2 lasers using a high laser power and elevated cutting speeds. Moreover, this process involves a serious health hazard since the combustion and decomposition of wood may produce fumes and vapors, which can be toxic and carcinogenic according to the International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC). Therefore, this work was complemented by the assessment of the potential toxicity of the condensed residues formed on the cut edges, and assessment of the chemistry of the generated fumes by chromatography.

  20. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  1. Avalanches in Wood Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, T.; Miksic, A.; Ovaska, M.; Alava, Mikko J.

    2015-07-01

    Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  2. Avalanches in Wood Compression.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, T; Miksic, A; Ovaska, M; Alava, Mikko J

    2015-07-31

    Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free. PMID:26274428

  3. Wood energy-commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  4. Mechanical characteristics of aged Hinoki wood from Japanese historical buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Misao; Gril, Joseph; Matsuo, Miyuki; Yano, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Junji; Clair, Bruno; Kubodera, Sigeru; Mistutani, Takumi; Sakamoto, Minoru; Ozaki, Hiromasa; Imamura, Mineo; Kawai, Shuichi

    2009-09-01

    Wood is present in many cultural heritage objects in Japan thanks to its capacity to resist over a long period of time. However, the evolution of its properties in regular use remains insufficiently known. The present study on the effect of wood aging takes advantage of the Japanese context where building traditions have been maintained for centuries. 3-point bending tests were performed in longitudinal (L) and radial (R) directions on small clear wood specimens cut from 8 historical samples and one modern reference considered of high quality by craftsmen. Although aged wood appeared more rigid and stronger than recent wood, after density and humidity corrections were applied no significant variation of L and R rigidity or L strength was observed. The post-linear behaviour, however, was drastically influenced by wood age especially in R direction where the strength and rupture energy decreased markedly with the time elapsed since the wood was processed. Well preserved aged wood considered as safe as long as it is not loaded perpendicular to grain. To cite this article: M. Yokoyama et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  5. Functional traits explain variation in plant life history strategies

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Peter B.; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Compagnoni, Aldo; Hsu, Joanna S.; Ray-Mukherjee, Jayanti; Mbeau-Ache, Cyril; Franco, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Ecologists seek general explanations for the dramatic variation in species abundances in space and time. An increasingly popular solution is to predict species distributions, dynamics, and responses to environmental change based on easily measured anatomical and morphological traits. Trait-based approaches assume that simple functional traits influence fitness and life history evolution, but rigorous tests of this assumption are lacking, because they require quantitative information about the full lifecycles of many species representing different life histories. Here, we link a global traits database with empirical matrix population models for 222 species and report strong relationships between functional traits and plant life histories. Species with large seeds, long-lived leaves, or dense wood have slow life histories, with mean fitness (i.e., population growth rates) more strongly influenced by survival than by growth or fecundity, compared with fast life history species with small seeds, short-lived leaves, or soft wood. In contrast to measures of demographic contributions to fitness based on whole lifecycles, analyses focused on raw demographic rates may underestimate the strength of association between traits and mean fitness. Our results help establish the physiological basis for plant life history evolution and show the potential for trait-based approaches in population dynamics. PMID:24379395

  6. Embryonic developmental patterns and energy expenditure are affected by incubation temperature in wood ducks (Aix sponsa).

    PubMed

    DuRant, S E; Hopkins, W A; Hepp, G R

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in birds has demonstrated that incubation temperature influences a suite of traits important for hatchling development and survival. We explored a possible mechanism for the effects on hatchling quality by determining whether incubation temperature influences embryonic energy expenditure of wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Because avian embryos are ectothermic, we hypothesized that eggs incubated at higher temperatures would have greater energy expenditure at any given day of incubation. However, because eggs incubated at lower temperatures take longer to hatch than embryos incubated at higher temperatures, we hypothesized that the former would expend more energy during incubation. We incubated eggs at three temperatures (35.0°, 35.9°, and 37.0°C) that fall within the range of temperatures of naturally incubated wood duck nests. We then measured the respiration of embryos every 3 d during incubation, immediately after ducks externally pipped, and immediately after hatching. As predicted, embryos incubated at the highest temperature had the highest metabolic rates on most days of incubation, and they exhibited faster rates of development. Yet, because of greater energy expended during the hatching process, embryos incubated at the lowest temperature expended 20%-37% more energy during incubation than did embryos incubated at the higher temperatures. Slower developmental rates and greater embryonic energy expenditure of embryos incubated at the lowest temperature could contribute to their poor physiological performance as ducklings compared with ducklings that hatch from eggs incubated at higher temperatures. PMID:21897082

  7. Early and 24 h post-mortem changes in breast muscle quality traits of two turkey genotypes and their reciprocal crosses raised under semi-confined conditions.

    PubMed

    Damaziak, K; Pietrzak, D; Michalczuk, M; Adamczak, L; Chmiel, M; Florowski, T; Gozdowski, D; Niemiec, J

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of reciprocal crossing of turkeys on early and 24 h post-mortem changes in quality traits of their breast muscles. The turkeys of slow-growing (SG) and fast-growing (FG) lines as well as SF (SG × FG) and FS crosses (FG × SG) were reared with access to free range. After slaughter turkey breast muscles were examined in the following terms: 5 min, 45 min, 2 h and 24 h post-mortem, for: temperature, pH, glycogen content (G), lactate content (L) and electrical conductivity (EC). Quality attributes of the breast meat were evaluated based on chemical composition, water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (%), shear force (N) and colour (L*, a*, b*). Despite differences in the rate of post-mortem changes, the genotype of turkeys had no significant effect upon many quality traits assessed 24 h post-mortem. Meat of lighter birds (SG and SF) was characterised by a lower fat content but a similar protein content compared to meat of FS and FG turkeys. In addition, meat of males from these groups was darker. Meat from the breast muscles of heavier birds (FS and FG) was harder. Significant negative maternal effects were determined for temperature of meat of both male and female turkeys, for pH2 and EC24 of males as well as for L2, L24 and cooking loss of female meat. Positive heterosis was confirmed only for pH2 of female meat and for G2 of male meat. In summary, the direction of fast- and slow-growing turkey crossing may affect the quality of their meat. However, meat of both types of hybrids reared under semi-confined conditions (with the possibility of using free range) was characterised by appropriate quality parameters. PMID:26927475

  8. Experimental study of wood downdraft gasification for an improved producer gas quality through an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach.

    PubMed

    Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan

    2011-04-01

    This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings. PMID:21292477

  9. Classroom Demonstrations of Wood Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulger, A. N.

    Presented in this manual are 20 activities selected to show some of the properties of wood and how these properties relate to the cellular structure of wood. Each activity includes stated objectives, indicates materials needed, and explains procedures. Illustrations related to the activities, glossary of terms, and photographs of wood structure…

  10. Modeling of alkane emissions from a wood stain

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.S.; Guo, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The article discusses full-scale residential house tests to evaluate the effects of organic emissions from a wood finishing product--wood stain--on indoor air quality (IAQ). The test house concentrations of three alkane species, nonane, decane, and undecane, were measured as a function of time after the application of the wood stain. It was found that the test house concentrations can be simulated by an integrated IAQ model which takes into consideration source, sink, and ventilation effects. The alkane emissions were controlled by an evaporation-like process.

  11. Plasma treatment of wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volokitin, G. G.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Sinitsyn, V. A.; Volokitin, O. G.; Shekhovtsov, V. V.; Vaschenko, S. P.; Kuz'min, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma technology was developed to create protective-decorative coatings on the wood surfaces. Experimental investigation on applying the protective coating using the low-temperature plasma energy as well as studies of the distribution of temperature fields over the section of the treated workpiece have been carried out, and the calculated results have been compared with the experimental data.

  12. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  13. Woods Hole Passage

    This photograph is of the seafloor in the Woods Hole Passage and shows a mussel reef and boring sponge. This photograph was collected as part of the Southeastern Massachusetts Mapping Cooperative between the USGS and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) during a sampling survey...

  14. Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Biomass and Wood Chemistry of Populus under Different Nitrogen Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Novaes, E.; Osorio, L.; Drost, D. R.; Miles, B. L.; Boaventura-Novaes, C. R. D.; Benedict, C.; Dervinis, C.; Yu, Q.; Sykes, R.; Davis, M.; Martin, T. A.; Peter, G. F.; Kirst, M.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic control of carbon allocation and partitioning in woody perennial plants is poorly understood despite its importance for carbon sequestration, biofuels and other wood-based industries. It is also unclear how environmental cues, such as nitrogen availability, impact the genes that regulate growth, biomass allocation and wood composition in trees. We phenotyped 396 clonally replicated genotypes of an interspecific pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus for wood composition and biomass traits in above- and below-ground organs. The loci that regulate growth, carbon allocation and partitioning under two nitrogen conditions were identified, defining the contribution of environmental cues to their genetic control. Sixty-three quantitative trait loci were identified for the 20 traits analyzed. The majority of quantitative trait loci are specific to one of the two nitrogen treatments, demonstrating significant nitrogen-dependent genetic control. A highly significant genetic correlation was observed between plant growth and lignin/cellulose composition, and quantitative trait loci co-localization identified the genomic position of potential pleiotropic regulators. Pleiotropic loci linking higher growth rates to wood with less lignin are excellent targets to engineer tree germplasm improved for pulp, paper and cellulosic ethanol production. The causative genes are being identified with a genetical genomics approach.

  15. Wood anatomical correlates with theoretical conductivity and wood density across China: evolutionary evidence of the functional differentiation of axial and radial parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jingming; Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims In recent years considerable effort has focused on linking wood anatomy and key ecological traits. Studies analysing large databases have described how these ecological traits vary as a function of wood anatomical traits related to conduction and support, but have not considered how these functions interact with cells involved in storage of water and carbohydrates (i.e. parenchyma cells). Methods We analyzed, in a phylogenetic context, the functional relationship between cell types performing each of the three xylem functions (conduction, support and storage) and wood density and theoretical conductivity using a sample of approx. 800 tree species from China. Key Results Axial parenchyma and rays had distinct evolutionary correlation patterns. An evolutionary link was found between high conduction capacity and larger amounts of axial parenchyma that is probably related to water storage capacity and embolism repair, while larger amounts of ray tissue have evolved with increased mechanical support and reduced hydraulic capacity. In a phylogenetic principal component analysis this association of axial parenchyma with increased conduction capacity and rays with wood density represented orthogonal axes of variation. In multivariate space, however, the proportion of rays might be positively associated with conductance and negatively with wood density, indicating flexibility in these axes in species with wide rays. Conclusions The findings suggest that parenchyma types may differ in function. The functional axes represented by different cell types were conserved across lineages, suggesting a significant role in the ecological strategies of the angiosperms. PMID:23904446

  16. Identification of QTL for grain quality traits in a cross of soft wheat cultivars Pioneer brand ‘25R26’ and ‘Foster’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    End-use quality of wheat, defined by milling, composition, and rhealogical properties, is vital to the entire wheat industry. An improved understanding of the genetics that control wheat quality is needed to efficiently improve wheat quality. Our objective was to determine the genetics of multipl...

  17. Light scattering by wood fibers.

    PubMed

    Saarinen, K; Muinonen, K

    2001-10-01

    We consider the scattering of light by single wood fibers both theoretically and experimentally. We describe the size and the shape distributions and the internal structure and chemical composition of the wood fibers. We have modeled the random shape of the hollow, cylindrical wood fiber by using multivariate lognormal statistics. We have computed wood-fiber absorption and scattering cross sections, asymmetry parameters, and scattering phase matrices in the ray-optics approximation. Finally, we have provided experimental results from angular scattering measurements for wood fibers and present what we believe is the first comparison between these measurements and ray-optics computations for Gaussian random wood-fiber models. In spite of the complicated internal structure of the wood fiber, our model together with the ray-optics treatment explains the scattering measurements surprisingly well. PMID:18364787

  18. Uncertainty quantified trait predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazayeli, Farideh; Kattge, Jens; Banerjee, Arindam; Schrodt, Franziska; Reich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Functional traits of organisms are key to understanding and predicting biodiversity and ecological change, which motivates continuous collection of traits and their integration into global databases. Such composite trait matrices are inherently sparse, severely limiting their usefulness for further analyses. On the other hand, traits are characterized by the phylogenetic trait signal, trait-trait correlations and environmental constraints, all of which provide information that could be used to statistically fill gaps. We propose the application of probabilistic models which, for the first time, utilize all three characteristics to fill gaps in trait databases and predict trait values at larger spatial scales. For this purpose we introduce BHPMF, a hierarchical Bayesian extension of Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF). PMF is a machine learning technique which exploits the correlation structure of sparse matrices to impute missing entries. BHPMF additionally utilizes the taxonomic hierarchy for trait prediction. Implemented in the context of a Gibbs Sampler MCMC approach BHPMF provides uncertainty estimates for each trait prediction. We present comprehensive experimental results on the problem of plant trait prediction using the largest database of plant traits, where BHPMF shows strong empirical performance in uncertainty quantified trait prediction, outperforming the state-of-the-art based on point estimates. Further, we show that BHPMF is more accurate when it is confident, whereas the error is high when the uncertainty is high.

  19. A life cycle evaluation of wood pellet gasification for district heating in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Pa, Ann; Bi, Xiaotao T; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2011-05-01

    The replacement of natural gas combustion for district heating by wood waste and wood pellets gasification systems with or without emission control has been investigated by a streamlined LCA. While stack emissions from controlled gasification systems are lower than the applicable regulations, compared to the current base case, 12% and 133% increases are expected in the overall human health impacts for wood pellets and wood waste, respectively. With controlled gasification, external costs and GHG emission can be reduced by 35% and 82% on average, respectively. Between wood pellets and wood waste, wood pellets appear to be the better choice as it requires less primary energy and has a much lower impact on the local air quality. PMID:21377867

  20. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  1. Wood burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Allaire, R.A.; Vandewoestine, R.V.

    1982-08-24

    Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue in communication therewith for removal of exhaust from the chamber with a catalytic converter means being movably mounted in the flue whereby the impedance presented to the exhaust by the converter may be selectively varied so as to minimize the impedance presented by the converter means when additional fuel is added to the stove.

  2. Wood Composite Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  3. Flavonoid insertion into cell walls improves wood properties.

    PubMed

    Ermeydan, Mahmut A; Cabane, Etienne; Masic, Admir; Koetz, Joachim; Burgert, Ingo

    2012-11-01

    Wood has an excellent mechanical performance, but wider utilization of this renewable resource as an engineering material is limited by unfavorable properties such as low dimensional stability upon moisture changes and a low durability. However, some wood species are known to produce a wood of higher quality by inserting mainly phenolic substances in the already formed cell walls--a process so-called heartwood formation. In the present study, we used the heartwood formation in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) as a source of bioinspiration and transferred principles of the modification in order to improve spruce wood properties (Picea abies) by a chemical treatment with commercially available flavonoids. We were able to effectively insert hydrophobic flavonoids in the cell wall after a tosylation treatment for activation. The chemical treatment reduced the water uptake of the wood cell walls and increased the dimensional stability of the bulk spruce wood. Further analysis of the chemical interaction of the flavonoid with the structural cell wall components revealed the basic principle of this bioinspired modification. Contrary to established modification treatments, which mainly address the hydroxyl groups of the carbohydrates with hydrophilic substances, the hydrophobic flavonoids are effective by a physical bulking in the cell wall most probably stabilized by ?-? interactions. A biomimetic transfer of the underlying principle may lead to alternative cell wall modification procedures and improve the performance of wood as an engineering material. PMID:23027798

  4. Effects of Graded Levels of Chromium Methionine on Performance, Carcass Traits, Meat Quality, Fatty Acid Profiles of Fat, Tissue Chromium Concentrations, and Antioxidant Status in Growing-Finishing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yao-Yao; Gong, Li-Min; Xue, Jian-Xiang; Cao, Jun; Zhang, Li-Ying

    2015-11-01

    A 97-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary chromium methionine (CrMet) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, fatty acid profiles of fat, tissue chromium concentrations, and antioxidant status in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 180 crossbred pigs with a mean initial body weight (BW) 30.18 ± 0.28 kg were allotted to 5 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment and 6 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design based on BW and sex. Treatments were added with 0 (control), 100, 200, 400, and 800 μg/kg chromium as CrMet. Blood samples were obtained from the anterior vena cava on days 97. Carcass characteristics, pork quality, and tissue chromium concentration data were collected from one pig per pen. The results indicated that supplemental CrMet did not significantly affect growth performance, carcass traits, or meat amino acid profiles. Chromium at 100, 400, and 800 μg/kg decreased drip loss but increased shear force (P < 0.05). Pigs fed 100 or 400 μg/kg had a higher 24-h pH than the control (P < 0.05). While meat color, muscle moisture, crude protein, or crude fat were not affected by CrMet. Supplemental 800 μg/kg chromium reduced C18:0 levels in belly fat (P < 0.05), and chromium supplementation increased cis-9, trans 11-conjugated linoleic acid levels linearly (P < 0.05). Dietary CrMet supplementation increased serum, kidney, and muscle chromium contents (P < 0.05) but did not affect liver chromium contents. Besides, tissue chromium concentrations were increased linearly with increased chromium dosage (P < 0.05). Chromium at 400 μg/kg increased serum glutathione peroxidase activities (P < 0.05), and chromium at 800 μg/kg decreased serum total antioxidant capacity levels (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, liver and kidney antioxidant status were not significantly affected by CrMet. These results indicated that dietary supplementation CrMet did not significantly influence growth and carcass traits, but improved meat quality at the expense of tenderness. Therefore, the long-term exposure to 800 μg/kg chromium affected fatty acid compositions and reduced serum antioxidant capacity. PMID:25947934

  5. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization in beech and spruce forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Nickolas K.; Mina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    A novel synergistic approach to reducing emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is presented. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization (FCO) aims to provide cleaner burning fuels through optimization of forestry and renewable energy management practices. In this work, beech and spruce forests of average and high quality were modelled and analysed to determine the volume of fuel wood and its associated bark fraction produced during typical forestry cycles. Two separate fuel wood bark production regimes were observed for beech trees, while only one production regime was observed for spruce. The single tree and stand models were combined with existing thinning parameters to replicate existing management practices. Utilizing estimates of initial seedling numbers and existing thinning patterns a dynamic model was formed that responded to changes in thinning practices. By varying the thinning parameters, this model enabled optimization of the forestry practices for the reduction of bark impurities in the fuel wood supply chain. Beech forestry cycles responded well to fuel cycle optimization with volume reductions of bark from fuel wood of between ˜10% and ˜20% for average and high quality forest stands. Spruce, on the other hand, was fairly insensitive to FCO with bark reductions of 0-5%. The responsiveness of beech to FCO further supports its status as the preferred RWC fuel in Switzerland. FCO could easily be extended beyond Switzerland and applied across continental Europe and North America.

  6. Chromosomes 3B and 4D are associated with several milling and baking quality traits in a soft white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is marketed based on end-use quality characteristics and better knowledge of the underlying genetics of specific quality parameters is essential to enhance the breeding process. A set of 188 recombinant inbred lines from a ‘Louise’ by ‘Penawawa’ mapping population was grown in two crop years a...

  7. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  8. Biotechnology in the wood industry.

    PubMed

    Mai, C; Kües, U; Militz, H

    2004-02-01

    Wood is a natural, biodegradable and renewable raw material, used in construction and as a feedstock in the paper and wood product industries and in fuel production. Traditionally, biotechnology found little attention in the wood product industries, apart from in paper manufacture. Now, due to growing environmental concern and increasing scientific knowledge, legal restrictions to conventional processes have altered the situation. Biotechnological approaches in the area of wood protection aim at enhancing the treatability of wood with preservatives and replacing chemicals with biological control agents. The substitution of conventional chemical glues in the manufacturing of board materials is achieved through the application of fungal cultures and isolated fungal enzymes. Moreover, biotechnology plays an important role in the waste remediation of preservative-treated waste wood. PMID:12937955

  9. [Tropical woods and contact eczema].

    PubMed

    Ngangu, Z; Foussereau, J

    1982-01-01

    An enquiry was carried out in Zaire among workers handling different woods. The aim of the investigation was to establish which woods provoke undesirable reactions of the skin and mucous membranes. Besides the well known toxic woods, 6 types of wood were identified, which had not been known to be cause of these reactions: --Autranella congolensis (dermatitis; ocular and respiratory manifestations); --Drypetes gossweileri (dermatitis; ocular and respiratory manifestations); --Ceiba pentandra (essentially pruriginous manifestations); --Diba di Nzambi (common name) and Ficus capensis (bullous dermatitis); --Combretodendron macrocarpum (dermatitis; ocular and respiratory manifestations). PMID:6218978

  10. Wood burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Allaire, R.A.; Pardue, W.F.; Vandewoestine, R.V.

    1982-05-18

    Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue for removing exhaust therefrom and also a catalytic converter means for oxidizing oxidizable species in the exhaust. A passageway is provided for bypassing the exhaust around the catalytic converter means, the passageway being controlled by a bypass damper for controlling access to the passageway for varying impedance otherwise presented to the exhaust by the converter, for example, during the addition of fuel to the stove. Such an arrangement minimizes back pressure caused by the converter means.

  11. Environmental Influences on Wood Chemistry and Density of Populus and Loblolly Pine

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, G.A.

    2006-08-11

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) determine the degree to which physical and chemical wood properties vary in association with environmental and silvicultural practices in Populus and loblolly pine and (2) develop and verify species-specific empirical models in an effort to create a framework for understanding environmental influences on wood quality.

  12. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  14. Wood ash for application in municipal biowaste composting.

    PubMed

    Kurola, Jukka M; Arnold, Mona; Kontro, Merja H; Talves, Matti; Romantschuk, Martin

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to clarify the impacts of pH control by wood ash amendment on biowaste composting processes. To achieve this, fresh source separated municipal biowaste was mixed with low doses (2-8% wt/vol) of wood ash and processed in a pilot and large-scale composting systems. The results indicated a correlation between a low initial pH and delay in the early rise of the process temperature. Wood ash elevated the composting temperatures and pH, and stimulated the mineralisation both in the pilot scale and the industrial large-scale processes. According to the results addition of amounts of 4-8% wood ash is sufficient for efficient biowaste composting process and yields a safe end product. However, to minimise the environmental risk for heavy metal contamination, and meet the criteria for the limit values of the impurities in wood ash, strict quality control of the applied wood ashes should be implemented. PMID:21349704

  15. Influence of Maternal and Postweaning Linseed Dietary Supplementation on Growth Rate, Lipid Profile, and Meat Quality Traits of Light Sarda Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Mughetti, Laura; Ranucci, David; Acuti, Gabriele; Olivieri, Oliviero; Miraglia, Dino; Branciari, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dietary extruded linseed (EL) on growth performance, meat quality, and lipid profile of Semimembranosus and Longissimus lumborum muscles of 81 Sarda lambs were studied in a 3 × 3 design: EL content (0%, 10%, and 20%) of maternal dietary concentrate fed from 20 d to parturition to 60 d of lactation and EL content (0%, 10%, 20%) of lamb concentrate fed after weaning for 30 d. The basal diet was composed of alfalfa and meadow hay during pregnancy and alfalfa hay during lactation. At slaughter, carcass and meat quality were evaluated. Sensory quality of Semimembranosus from 0% and 20% EL lambs was assessed. Both maternal and postweaning diets affected growth performance, with higher body weights recorded with the 10% EL concentrate. Carcass and meat quality were not affected by diet. Saturated and monounsaturated FA decreased and n-3 polyunsaturated FA increased with increasing EL content in lamb diet. An increase in vaccenic and rumenic acid was associated with the EL content of the maternal diet. Both diets increased the n-6/n-3 FA ratio. No differences in acceptability were detected by consumers among groups. It is concluded that EL supplementation and early life nutrition can influence performance and FA metabolism in growing lambs. PMID:27034972

  16. Influence of Maternal and Postweaning Linseed Dietary Supplementation on Growth Rate, Lipid Profile, and Meat Quality Traits of Light Sarda Lambs.

    PubMed

    Trabalza-Marinucci, Massimo; Mughetti, Laura; Ranucci, David; Acuti, Gabriele; Olivieri, Oliviero; Miraglia, Dino; Branciari, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dietary extruded linseed (EL) on growth performance, meat quality, and lipid profile of Semimembranosus and Longissimus lumborum muscles of 81 Sarda lambs were studied in a 3 × 3 design: EL content (0%, 10%, and 20%) of maternal dietary concentrate fed from 20 d to parturition to 60 d of lactation and EL content (0%, 10%, 20%) of lamb concentrate fed after weaning for 30 d. The basal diet was composed of alfalfa and meadow hay during pregnancy and alfalfa hay during lactation. At slaughter, carcass and meat quality were evaluated. Sensory quality of Semimembranosus from 0% and 20% EL lambs was assessed. Both maternal and postweaning diets affected growth performance, with higher body weights recorded with the 10% EL concentrate. Carcass and meat quality were not affected by diet. Saturated and monounsaturated FA decreased and n-3 polyunsaturated FA increased with increasing EL content in lamb diet. An increase in vaccenic and rumenic acid was associated with the EL content of the maternal diet. Both diets increased the n-6/n-3 FA ratio. No differences in acceptability were detected by consumers among groups. It is concluded that EL supplementation and early life nutrition can influence performance and FA metabolism in growing lambs. PMID:27034972

  17. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: development of a market conformity tool for pork products based on technological quality traits.

    PubMed

    Gonzàlez, J; Gispert, M; Gil, M; Hviid, M; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K H; Zimmer, C; Fàbrega, E

    2014-12-01

    A market conformity tool, based on technological meat quality parameters, was developed within the Q-PorkChains project, to be included in a global sustainability evaluation of pig farming systems. The specific objective of the market conformity tool was to define a scoring system based on the suitability of meat to elaborate the main pork products, according to their market shares based on industry requirements, in different pig farming systems. The tool was based on carcass and meat quality parameters that are commonly used for the assessment of technological quality, which provide representative and repeatable data and are easily measurable. They were the following: cold carcass weight; lean meat percentage; minimum subcutaneous back fat depth at m. gluteus medius level, 45 postmortem and ultimate pH (measured at 24-h postmortem) in m. longissimus lumborum and semimembranosus; meat colour; drip losses and intramuscular fat content in a m. longissimus sample. Five categories of pork products produced at large scale in Europe were considered in the study: fresh meat, cooked products, dry products, specialties and other meat products. For each of the studied farming systems, the technological meat quality requirements, as well as the market shares for each product category within farming system, were obtained from the literature and personal communications from experts. The tool resulted in an overall conformity score that enabled to discriminate among systems according to the degree of matching of the achieved carcass and meat quality with the requirements of the targeted market. In order to improve feasibility, the tool was simplified by selecting ultimate pH at m. longissimus or semimembranosus, minimum fat thickness measured at the left half carcass over m. gluteus medius and intramuscular fat content in a m. longissimus sample as iceberg indicators. The overall suitability scores calculated by using both the complete and the reduced tools presented good correlation and the results obtained were similar. The tool could be considered as robust enough to discriminate among different systems, since it was tested in a wide range of them. It also can be used to detect improvement opportunities to enhance sustainability of pig farming systems. The final objective of the study was achieved, since the market suitability tool could be used in an integrated sustainability analysis of pig farming systems. PMID:25196445

  18. Healthy volunteers exposed to wood stove particles demonstrate inflammatory changes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction. Human exposure to particles associated with wood burning is of great consequence in both indoor air quality and air pollution and has been listed by the World Health Organization as one of the world's ten greatest health concerns. This investigation tested the postu...

  19. MODELING LARGE WOOD STRUCTURES IN SAND BED STREAMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-stream large wood structures (LWS) are becoming increasingly popular throughout the world. The LWS improve aquatic habitat quality and protect banks from erosion. While most reports describe the LWS in the Northwest as successful, LWS in one Mississippi sand-bed stream had an unacceptable failure...

  20. Possibility of tree selection and breeding for genetic improvement of wood properties of Gmelina arborea

    SciTech Connect

    Akachuku, A.E.

    1984-06-01

    Wood samples of Gmelina arborea were collected from Nigerian plantations. The wood density was measured with an X-ray densitometer. Fiber length was measured with a modified map measurer. Fiber proportion was determined with a modification of Ladell's (1959) randomized dot technique. Considerable between-tree differences were observed in wood density, fiber length, fiber proportion, and sizes of trees of the same age, planted at the same spacing within the same environment. The magnitude of within-tree variations in these wood properties was different in trees within the same plot. Some individual trees combined comparatively high density, fiber length, and fiber proportion with fast growth rate and uniform wood. There was sufficient phenotypic variation to encourage genetic improvement of the wood properties and growth rate by selecting and breeding trees with higher values of these traits. Tree selection should be based on a preliminary screening for tree form and volume growth followed by a second selection for the desired wood properties.

  1. The relationship between wood density and mortality in a global tropical forest data set.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Nathan J B; Metz, Margaret R; Condit, Richard S; Chave, Jérôme

    2010-12-01

    Wood density is thought to be an important indicator of plant life history because it is coupled to many aspects of whole-plant form and function. We used a hierarchical Bayesian approach to explain variation in mortality rates with wood density, drawing on data for 765,500 trees from 1639 species at 10 sites located across the Old and New World tropics. Mortality rates declined with increasing wood density at five of 10 sites. Similar negative trends were detected at four additional sites, while one site showed no relationship. Our model explained 40% of variation in mortality on average. Both wood density and mortality rates show a high degree of phylogenetic conservatism. Grouping species by family across sites in a second analysis, we found considerable variation in the relationship between wood density and mortality, with 10 of 27 families demonstrating a strong negative relationship. Our results highlight the importance of wood density as a functional trait in tropical forests, as it is strongly linked to variation in survival. However, the relationship varied among families, plots, and even census intervals within sites, indicating that the factors responsible for the relationship between wood density and mortality vary spatially, taxonomically and temporally. PMID:21058950

  2. Investigating the molecular underpinnings underlying morphology and changes in carbon partitioning during tension wood formation in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Mizrachi, Eshchar; Maloney, Victoria J; Silberbauer, Janine; Hefer, Charles A; Berger, Dave K; Mansfield, Shawn D; Myburg, Alexander A

    2015-06-01

    Tension wood has distinct physical and chemical properties, including altered fibre properties, cell wall composition and ultrastructure. It serves as a good system for investigating the genetic regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis and wood formation. The reference genome sequence for Eucalyptus grandis allows investigation of the global transcriptional reprogramming that accompanies tension wood formation in this global wood fibre crop. We report the first comprehensive analysis of physicochemical wood property changes in tension wood of Eucalyptus measured in a hybrid (E. grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla) clone, as well as genome-wide gene expression changes in xylem tissues 3 wk post-induction using RNA sequencing. We found that Eucalyptus tension wood in field-grown trees is characterized by an increase in cellulose, a reduction in lignin, xylose and mannose, and a marked increase in galactose. Gene expression profiling in tension wood-forming tissue showed corresponding down-regulation of monolignol biosynthetic genes, and differential expression of several carbohydrate active enzymes. We conclude that alterations of cell wall traits induced by tension wood formation in Eucalyptus are a consequence of a combination of down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis and hemicellulose remodelling, rather than the often proposed up-regulation of the cellulose biosynthetic pathway. PMID:25388807

  3. Exposure to wood smoke particles produces an inflammation in healthy volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Human exposure to wood smoke particles (WSP) is of consequence in indoor air quality, exposures from wild fires, burning ofbiomass, and air pollution. This investigation tested the postulate that healthy volunteers exposed to WSP would demonstrate pulmonary and cardio...

  4. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  5. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  6. Lipids, tocopherols, and carotenoids in leaves of amaranth and quinoa cultivars and a new approach to overall evaluation of nutritional quality traits.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Hernandez, Marta; Zhang, Hua; Marcone, Massimo F; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2014-12-31

    Composition of lipophilic phytochemicals including fatty acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids in leaves of 6 quinoa and 14 amaranth cultivars was analyzed. The oil yields in quinoa and amaranth leaves were only 2.72-4.18%, which contained mainly essential fatty acids and had a highly favorable ω-3/ω-6 ratio (2.28-3.89). Pro-vitamin A carotenoids, mainly α- and β-carotenes, and xanthophylls, predominantly lutein and violaxanthin, were found in all samples. The primary tocopherol isomers present in both quinoa and amaranth leaves were α- and β-tocopherols. Added to the discussion on the lipophilic nutrients was the normalization of ω-3/ω-6 ratio, α-tocopherol equivalents, and carotenoids, in an attempt to establish a novel system for evaluation of the overall quality attributes of lipophilic nutrients (NQ value). The NQ value, but not the individual components, was highly correlated with all the antioxidant activities, supporting the ranking order of the potential nutritional quality of quinoa and amaranth leaves based on this new method. PMID:25465272

  7. Generalized Latent Trait Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

  8. Radiation disinfestation of wood products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunstadt, Peter

    1998-06-01

    Infestation of wood by insects, fungi and nematodes has been, for decades, a major challenge to trade in wood products around the world. The damage that can be inflicted on plants and animals through the introduction of unwanted pests into importing regions can reach hundreds of millions of dollars annually. Now that Methyl Bromide's days appear to be numbered, alternative methods of pest eradication in wood products for export must be sought at once, so as to avoid last minute scrambling by the industry when Methyl Bromide becomes finally and irreversibly unavailable. Other existing technologies are either costly (e.g. kiln drying) or still under development (e.g. RF vacuum drying and RF steam sterilization). This paper examines a variety of risk mitigation methods and presents an outline of a radiation processing system for wood disinfestation.

  9. A six-month prospective evaluation of personality traits, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in ayahuasca-naïve subjects.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Cazorla, Irene Maurício; Giglio, Joel Sales; Strassman, Rick

    2009-09-01

    The authors assessed 23 subjects immediately before and six months (27.5 weeks) after their first ayahuasca experience in an urban Brazilian religious setting, either Santo Daime (N = 15) or União do Vegetal (N = 8). Measures included scores on instruments assessing psychiatric symptoms, personality variables and quality of life. Independent variables were the frequency of ayahuasca use throughout the period and the length of ayahuasca wash-out after six months. Santo Daime subjects had a significant reduction of minor psychiatric symptoms, improvement of mental health, and a change in attitude towards more confidence and optimism. The União do Vegetal group had a significant decrease in physical pain, and attitude change towards more independence. Independence was positively correlated with the frequency of ayahuasca use and negatively correlated with the wash-out period. We discuss possible mechanisms by which these changes may occur and suggest areas for future research. PMID:19999673

  10. The Differences in Chemical Composition, Physical Quality Traits and Nutritional Values of Horse Meat as Affected by Various Retail Cut Types

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil Nam; Park, Kyoung Mi; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo Hyun; Park, Beom Young; Chae, Hyun Seok; Van Ba, Hoa

    2016-01-01

    The effects of retail cut type on chemical, quality and nutritional characteristics of horse meat were studied. Jeju female breed horses (n = 9) at 32-mo-old were slaughtered and the carcasses at 24 h post-mortem were fabricated into 10 retail cuts including: tender-loin, loin, strip-loin, shoulder-chuck-roll, shoulder-clod, top-round, outside-round, brisket, short-plate-brisket, and shank. The results revealed that all of parameters (chemical, meat quality and nutritional composition) examined significantly (p<0.05) differed between the cuts. The chemical composition range (minimum to maximum) of cuts was found as such: moisture 65.06% to 71.69%; protein 19.07% to 21.28%; collagen 1.40% to 2.45%; fat 2.56% to 12.14% and cholesterol 55.76 to 79.50 mg/100 g. Shoulder-chuck-roll had the highest pH and water-holding capacity, while top-round had the highest cooking loss. Shear force ranged between the cuts from 2.80 kg/cm2 to 4.98 kg/cm2. The Cu, Fe, and Zn contents ranged between the cuts from 1.52 mg/kg to 2.75 mg/kg, 21.25 mg/kg to 30.85 mg/kg, and 16.51 mg/kg to 40.42 mg/kg, respectively. Additionally, most of the cuts studied showed favorable polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid, n-3/n-6 and essential amino acid/non-essential amino acid ratios. PMID:26732332

  11. Effects of muscle fiber type on glycolytic potential and meat quality traits in different Tibetan pig muscles and their association with glycolysis-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shen, L Y; Luo, J; Lei, H G; Jiang, Y Z; Bai, L; Li, M Z; Tang, G Q; Li, X W; Zhang, S H; Zhu, L

    2015-01-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition, glycolytic potential, mitochondrial content, and gene expression related to energy metabolism were analyzed in eight muscles from Tibetan pigs, to study how meat quality develops in different muscle tissues. The muscles were classified into three clusters, based on MyHC composition: masseter, trapezius, and latissimus dorsi as 'slow-oxidative-type'; psoas major and semimembranosus as 'intermediate-type'; and longissimus dorsi, obliquus externus abdominis, and semitendinosus as 'fast-glycolytic-type'. The 'slow-oxidative-type' muscles had the highest MyHC I and MyHC IIA content (P < 0.01); 'intermediate-type' muscles, the highest MyHC IIx content (P < 0.01); and 'fast-glycolytic-type' muscles, the highest MyHC IIb content (P < 0.01). The pH values measured in 'slow-oxidative-type' muscles were higher than those in the other clusters were; however, the color of 'fast-glycolytic-type' muscles was palest (P < 0.01). Mitochondrial content increased in the order: fast-glycolytic-type < intermediate-type < slow-oxidative-type. In the 'slow-oxidative-type' muscles, the expression levels of genes related to ATP synthesis were higher, but were lower for those related to glycogen synthesis and glycolysis. Mitochondrial content was significantly positively correlated with MyHC I content, but negatively correlated with MyHC IIb content. MyHC I and mitochondrial content were both negatively correlated with glycolytic potential. Overall, muscles used frequently in exercise had a higher proportion of type I fibers. 'Slow-oxidative-type' muscles, rich in type I fibers with higher mitochondrial and lower glycogen and glucose contents, had a higher ATP synthesis efficiency and lower glycolytic capacity, which contributed to their superior meat quality. PMID:26600496

  12. On the role of CFRP reinforcement for wood beams stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianasi, A. C.

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, carbon fiber composites have been increasingly used in different ways in reinforcing structural elements. Specifically, the use of composite materials as a reinforcement for wood beams under bending loads requires paying attention to several aspects of the problem such as the number of the composite layers applied on the wood beams. Study consolidation of composites revealed that they are made by bonding fibrous material impregnated with resin on the surface of various elements, to restore or increase the load carrying capacity (bending, cutting, compression or torque) without significant damage of their rigidity. Fibers used in building applications can be fiberglass, aramid or carbon. Items that can be strengthened are concrete, brick, wood, steel and stone, and in terms of structural beams, walls, columns and floors. This paper describes an experimental study which was designed to evaluate the effect of composite material on the stiffness of the wood beams. It proposes a summary of the fundamental principles of analysis of composite materials and the design and use. The type of reinforcement used on the beams is the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheet and plates and also an epoxy resin for bonding all the elements. Structural epoxy resins remain the primary choice of adhesive to form the bond to fiber-reinforced plastics and are the generally accepted adhesives in bonded CFRP-wood connections. The advantages of using epoxy resin in comparison to common wood-laminating adhesives are their gap-filling qualities and the low clamping pressures that are required to form the bond between carbon fiber plates or sheets and the wood beams. Mechanical tests performed on the reinforced wood beams showed that CFRP materials may produce flexural displacement and lifting increases of the beams. Observations of the experimental load-displacement relationships showed that bending strength increased for wood beams reinforced with CFRP composite plates and sheets compared to those without CFRP reinforcement. The main conclusion of the tests is that the tensioning forces allow beam taking a maximum load for a while, something that is particularly useful when we consider a real construction, so in case of excess lift beam, we have time to take strengthening measures and when is about a catastrophic request (earthquake) the construction remain partially functional. The experiments have shown that the method of increasing resistance of wood constructions with composite materials is good for it. The solution is easy to implement and has low costs.

  13. Predicting microbial traits with phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Goberna, Marta; Verdú, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Phylogeny reflects genetic and phenotypic traits in Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic conservatism of microbial traits has prompted the application of phylogeny-based algorithms to predict unknown trait values of extant taxa based on the traits of their evolutionary relatives to estimate, for instance, rRNA gene copy numbers, gene contents or tolerance to abiotic conditions. Unlike the 'macrobial' world, microbial ecologists face scenarios potentially compromising the accuracy of trait reconstruction methods, as, for example, extremely large phylogenies and limited information on the traits of interest. We review 990 bacterial and archaeal traits from the literature and support that phylogenetic trait conservatism is widespread through the tree of life, while revealing that it is generally weak for ecologically relevant phenotypic traits and high for genetically complex traits. We then perform a simulation exercise to assess the accuracy of phylogeny-based trait predictions in common scenarios faced by microbial ecologists. Our simulations show that ca. 60% of the variation in phylogeny-based trait predictions depends on the magnitude of the trait conservatism, the number of species in the tree, the proportion of species with unknown trait values and the mean distance in the tree to the nearest neighbour with a known trait value. Results are similar for both binary and continuous traits. We discuss these results under the light of the reviewed traits and provide recommendations for the use of phylogeny-based trait predictions for microbial ecologists. PMID:26371406

  14. Comprehensive genetic dissection of wood properties in a widely-grown tropical tree: Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Eucalyptus is an important genus in industrial plantations throughout the world and is grown for use as timber, pulp, paper and charcoal. Several breeding programmes have been launched worldwide to concomitantly improve growth performance and wood properties (WPs). In this study, an interspecific cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis was used to identify major genomic regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL) controlling the variability of WPs. Results Linkage maps were generated for both parent species. A total of 117 QTLs were detected for a series of wood and end-use related traits, including chemical, technological, physical, mechanical and anatomical properties. The QTLs were mainly clustered into five linkage groups. In terms of distribution of QTL effects, our result agrees with the typical L-shape reported in most QTL studies, i.e. most WP QTLs had limited effects and only a few (13) had major effects (phenotypic variance explained > 15%). The co-locations of QTLs for different WPs as well as QTLs and candidate genes are discussed in terms of phenotypic correlations between traits, and of the function of the candidate genes. The major wood property QTL harbours a gene encoding a Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR), a structural enzyme of the monolignol-specific biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions Given the number of traits analysed, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the genetic architecture of wood properties in this Eucalyptus full-sib pedigree. At the dawn of Eucalyptus genome sequence, it will provide a framework to identify the nature of genes underlying these important quantitative traits. PMID:21651758

  15. Single and combined effects of peppermint and thyme essential oils on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding peppermint essential oil (PEO), thyme essential oil (TEO), or their combination to diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-lite laying hens. Significant interactions between PEO and TEO on FCR, EP, and EM were observed ( P < 0.05). The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. Also, increased EW and FI were observed in the laying hens fed the diet added by PEO compared to the birds fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between PEO and TEO on the serum level of cholesterol, shell thickness, and Hough unit of egg ( P < 0.05), so that serum content of cholesterol decreased, but egg shell thickness and Hough unit increased in the hens fed the diet supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined form of PEO and TEO could have beneficial effects on performance parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  16. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Yam, Rita S. W.; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents. PMID:26927135

  17. Single and combined effects of peppermint and thyme essential oils on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 3 C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding peppermint essential oil (PEO), thyme essential oil (TEO), or their combination to diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 3 C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-lite laying hens. Significant interactions between PEO and TEO on FCR, EP, and EM were observed (P < 0.05). The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased (P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. Also, increased EW and FI were observed in the laying hens fed the diet added by PEO compared to the birds fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between PEO and TEO on the serum level of cholesterol, shell thickness, and Hough unit of egg (P < 0.05), so that serum content of cholesterol decreased, but egg shell thickness and Hough unit increased in the hens fed the diet supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined form of PEO and TEO could have beneficial effects on performance parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition.

  18. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Yam, Rita S W; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents. PMID:26927135

  19. Growth, carcass and meat quality traits in beef from Angus, Hereford and cross-breed grazing steers, and their association with SNPs in genes related to fat deposition metabolism.

    PubMed

    Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Goszczynski, D E; Ripoli, M V; Melucci, L M; Pardo, A M; Colatto, E; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Mezzadra, C A; Depetris, G J; Giovambattista, G; Villarreal, E L

    2016-04-01

    Grazing steers from Angus and Hereford breeds, their cross-breeds and a three-way cross-breed (Limousin×Angus-Hereford) were measured for growth, carcass and meat quality traits. Breed effects were studied, and the association of SNPs with fat deposition and fatty acid (FA) composition (leptin, melanocortin-4 receptor, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, FA synthase and thyroglobulin) was tested. Limousin cross-breed showed the greatest final body weight, ultrasound rib eye area, dressing percentage, carcass and leg length, and the lowest backfat thickness and intramuscular fat content. Genetic groups had similar pH, shear force, cooking loss, L* and b* and n-6:n-3 ratio. Meat from 1/2-Angus presented greater a* than Limousin cross-breed. Whereas Angus had the highest total SFA content, Hereford had the lowest total SFA and the highest total MUFA. Limousin cross-breed had greater content of several individual PUFAs, total PUFA, n-6 and n-3 FA than Angus and 1/2-Angus. Leptin and FA synthase were associated with some FAs, supporting their influence over fat metabolism for grazing animals. PMID:26771144

  20. An oligo-based microarray offers novel transcriptomic approaches for the analysis of pathogen resistance and fruit quality traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mascarell-Creus, Albert; Cañizares, Joaquin; Vilarrasa-Blasi, Josep; Mora-García, Santiago; Blanca, José; Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Saladié, Montserrat; Roig, Cristina; Deleu, Wim; Picó-Silvent, Belén; López-Bigas, Nuria; Aranda, Miguel A; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Nuez, Fernando; Puigdomènech, Pere; Caño-Delgado, Ana I

    2009-01-01

    Background Melon (Cucumis melo) is a horticultural specie of significant nutritional value, which belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance is second only to the Solanaceae. Its small genome of approx. 450 Mb coupled to the high genetic diversity has prompted the development of genetic tools in the last decade. However, the unprecedented existence of a transcriptomic approaches in melon, highlight the importance of designing new tools for high-throughput analysis of gene expression. Results We report the construction of an oligo-based microarray using a total of 17,510 unigenes derived from 33,418 high-quality melon ESTs. This chip is particularly enriched with genes that are expressed in fruit and during interaction with pathogens. Hybridizations for three independent experiments allowed the characterization of global gene expression profiles during fruit ripening, as well as in response to viral and fungal infections in plant cotyledons and roots, respectively. Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation together with functional-enrichment analysis are presented in this study. Conclusion The platform validation and enrichment analyses shown in our study indicate that this oligo-based microarray is amenable for future genetic and functional genomic studies of a wide range of experimental conditions in melon. PMID:19821986

  1. Experimental analysis and simulation modeling of forest management impacts on wood thrushes, Hylocichla mustelina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    North American Breeding Bird Survey data show that wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) populations in eastern U.S. forests have declined 1.8% per year during 1966-95. The declining quality of breeding forest tracts in North America is one possible cause for the apparent decline of some neotropical migratory birds, such as the wood thrush. In Georgia, however, wood thrush populations have declined during a period of increasing pine forest area and larger patch sizes. We hypothesized that forest management practices such as thinning and prescribed burning might create unsuitable habitat for wood thrushes. We conducted a four-year before/after, treatment/control experiment at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia to study to the effects of a treatment of thinning and prescribed burning on wood thrush demographic parameters. We simultaneously monitored wood thrush adults and juveniles with mark-recapture, radio-telemetry, nest searches, and plot-map surveys. Our analyses showed that wood thrushes were less likely to emigrate from the study compartments after the treatment, and wood thrushes exhibited some tendency to increase preference for hardwood habitats and decrease preference for pine habitats following the treatment. However, we observed no effects of treatment on nest success, adult survival, and adult and juvenile dispersal distances. We also found that female wood thrushes had lower survival rates than males during the breeding season, and we documented large-scale, within-year dispersal movements of adult (up to 17 km) and juvenile (up to 7 km) wood thrushes. We conclude that landscape level habitat quantity and quality must be considered during songbird management decisions. The documentation of sex- and age-specific wood thrush survival and movement rates was critical for construction of a set of population models. We used three stochastic models to learn more about wood thrush population dynamics and make predictions about population growth rates, reproductive success, and the effect of habitat changes on wood thrush populations. The simplest source/sink population model suggests that the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge's wood thrush population is probably stable or increasing, and wood thrush populations in treated areas had higher growth rates than birds in untreated areas. We were able to use the individual-based model of wood thrush productivity to predict fecundity, a parameter that we could not measure directly in the field. Again, females on treated areas had higher fecundity than birds on untreated areas. Our spatially-based model predicted that wood thrush populations should respond positively to predicted changes in the age/size class structure of the Refuge's pine forests. Our model also showed that most wood thrushes leave the Refuge's forest compartments during the breeding season, and these dispersal movements are extremely important to understanding and managing wood thrush populations. The use of prescribed burning and retention shelterwood silviculture at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge does not appear to negatively affect the local wood thrush population. Continued use of the current management regime should result in adequate nesting, foraging, and escape habitats for wood thrushes. However, landscape-level habitat availability and quality, including lands outside the Refuge, must be considered when making management decisions that may affect wood thrushes.

  2. Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

    1997-07-01

    The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

  3. Robert Williams Wood: pioneer of invisible light.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Amit

    2016-03-01

    The Wood's lamp aids in the diagnosis of multiple infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic dermatologic conditions. Although the Wood's lamp has many applications, which have improved both the diagnosis and management of disease, the man credited for its invention is relatively unknown in medicine. Robert Williams Wood, a prominent physicist of the early 20th century, is credited for the invention of the Wood's lamp. Wood was the father of infrared and ultraviolet photography and made significant contributions to other areas in optics and spectroscopy. Wood's work encompassed the formative years of American Physics; he published over 200 original papers over his lifetime. A few years after the invention of the Wood's lamp for ultraviolet photography, physicians in Europe adopted the Wood's lamp for dermatologic applications. Wood's lamp remains popular in clinics globally, given its ease of use and ability to improve diagnostic precision. PMID:26752503

  4. Characterizing invertebrate traits in wadeable streams of the contiguous US: differences among ecoregions and land uses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Schmidt, Travis S.

    2012-01-01

    Much is known about invertebrate community traits in basins across Europe, but no comprehensive description of traits exists for the continental US. Little is known about the trait composition of invertebrates in reference or least-disturbed basins of the US, how trait composition varies among ecoregions, or how consistently traits respond to land use. These elements are essential to development of trait-based tools for conservation and assessment of biological integrity. We compared invertebrate traits of least-disturbed basins among ecoregions of the US. Benthic invertebrate data (presence/absence) from 1987 basins were translated into 56 binary traits (e.g., bivoltine, clinger). Basins were classified as least-disturbed, agricultural, or urban, and grouped into 9 ecoregions. Landuse, climatic, physiographic, and hydrologic data were used to describe ecoregions and to evaluate least-disturbed basin quality. The unique habitat template of each ecoregion selected for trait compositions in least-disturbed basins that differed among ecoregions. Among the traits examined, life-history (e.g., voltinism, development) and ecological traits (e.g., rheophily, thermal preference) differed most among ecoregions. Agricultural and urban land uses selected for trait compositions that differed from least-disturbed, but the extent of the differences depended on ecoregion and quality of the least-disturbed basins. No trait compositions unique to specific land uses were found. However, a disturbance syndrome was observed in that the magnitude and direction of trait responses to urban and agricultural land uses were consistent among ecoregions. Each ecoregion had a unique trait composition, but trait compositions could be used to aggregate ecoregions into 3 broad regions: Western Mountains, Plains and Lowlands, and Eastern Highlands. Our results indicate that large-scale trait-based assessment tools for the US will require calibration to account for regional differences in the trait composition of basins and in the quality of least-disturbed basins.

  5. Refraction and absorption of microwaves in wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziherl, Saša; Bajc, Jurij; Čepič, Mojca

    2013-03-01

    A demonstration experiment for physics students showing the dependence of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of wood on the direction of microwaves is presented. Wood and microwaves enable study of anisotropic properties, which are typically found in crystals. Wood is used as the persuasive representative of uniaxial anisotropic materials due to its visible structure and its consequent anisotropic properties. Wood can be cut in a general direction and wooden plates a few centimetres thick with well-defined fibre orientation are easily prepared. Microwaves are used because wood is transparent for microwaves and their centimetre-scale wavelength is comparable to the wood structure.

  6. Role of levoglucosan as a tracer of wood combustion in an alpine region.

    PubMed

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Malloci, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    Wood is the most used renewable energy source in the Italian Alpine regions but is one of the major sources of particulate matter too. In order to contribute to the assessment of the role of wood combustion in atmospheric pollution, some measurements of the concentration of a specific wood combustion tracer, levoglucosan, were performed and are presented and discussed in this paper, in the frame of a multi-step approach useful for decision makers. The experimental study presented in this paper was conducted in two urban sites, located in the same alpine town, during summer and winter, and in three mountain sites, where wood was expected to be widely used for domestic heating, during winter. Results showed differences between rural and urban areas and between winter and summer seasons. As explained in this paper, these analyses are useful when the role of wood combustion has to be studied and strategies for air quality improvement have to be planned and monitored. PMID:22720425

  7. Dominant impact of residential wood burning on particulate matter in Alpine valleys during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szidat, Sönke; Prévôt, André S. H.; Sandradewi, Jisca; Alfarra, M. Rami; Synal, Hans-Arno; Wacker, Lukas; Baltensperger, Urs

    2007-03-01

    Within the project AEROWOOD (Aerosols from wood burning versus other sources), particulate matter was collected at two Swiss Alpine valleys during winter. Apportionment of aerosols from transit traffic and residential wood burning was performed using radiocarbon (14C) determinations of the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) fractions. On daily average, 88% and 65% of the total carbonaceous matter (including all other atoms than carbon) originated from non-fossil sources inside and outside of the village, respectively, which is mainly attributed to wood burning. These proportions were generally higher during the evening compared to morning hours, when traffic intensity waned and heating activities increased. 14C measurements of EC indicated episodes of both nearly pure traffic and wood-burning sources, respectively, of which the latter extreme has not been observed for EC under ambient conditions before. Results show that regulatory measures for the improvement of air quality must consider residential wood burning as an important source even in industrialized countries.

  8. Congeners in sugar cane spirits aged in casks of different woods.

    PubMed

    Bortoletto, Aline M; Alcarde, André R

    2013-08-15

    The profile of volatile compounds and aging markers in sugar cane spirits aged for 36 months in casks made of 10 types of wood were studied. The ethanol content, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters, higher alcohols, and methanol were determined. In addition, gallic, vanilic and syringic acids, siringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, vanillin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural were identified and quantified. The profile of volatile compounds characterised aging in each type of wood. The beverage aged in oak cask achieved the highest contents of maturation-related congeners. The Brazilian woods, similar to oak, were jequitibá rosa and cerejeira, which presented the highest contents of some maturation-related compounds, such as vanillin, vanilic acid, syringaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. Although oak wood conferred more chemical complexity to the beverage, Brazilian woods, singly or complementarily, present potential for spirit characterisation and for improving the quality of sugar cane spirits. PMID:23561163

  9. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Alexander P; Csank, Adam Z; Reyes, Alberto V; McKellar, Ryan C; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2012-01-01

    We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18)O and δ(2)H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information. PMID:23029080

  10. Pristine Early Eocene Wood Buried Deeply in Kimberlite from Northern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Alexander P.; Csank, Adam Z.; Reyes, Alberto V.; McKellar, Ryan C.; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2012-01-01

    We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada’s Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ18O and δ2H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12–17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information. PMID:23029080

  11. Hydrolysis of glycosidically bound flavour compounds from oak wood by Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Audrey; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline; de Revel, Gilles

    2008-02-01

    Malolactic fermentation (MLF), which is conducted by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), has a significant influence on the stability and organoleptic quality of wine. Recent studies have shown that when MLF is carried out in oak wood barrels, LAB were also able to interact with wood and increase volatile compound contents such as vanillin during MLF. The release of these compounds indicates that LAB may convert vanillin precursors present in oak wood. In this work, the effect of commercial glycosidases on the released vanillin was firstly studied. This aldehyde is present in wood extracts in monoglycosidic forms where the major glycones are arabinose and xylose. Other aglycons released during MLF in barrels, syringaldehyde and whisky-lactones, can be considered as other sources of aroma. Secondly, strains selected with high activities toward glycoside substrates could hydrolyse vanillin glycoside precursors from oak wood with the same efficiency as commercial enzymes. PMID:17993382

  12. Flexible control in processing affective and non-affective material predicts individual differences in trait resilience.

    PubMed

    Genet, Jessica J; Siemer, Matthias

    2011-02-01

    Trait resilience is a stable personality characteristic that involves the self-reported ability to flexibly adapt to emotional events and situations. The present study examined cognitive processes that may explain individual differences in trait resilience. Participants completed self-report measures of trait resilience, cognitive flexibility and working memory capacity tasks, and a novel affective task-switching paradigm that assesses the ability to flexibly switch between processing the affective versus non-affective qualities of affective stimuli (i.e., flexible affective processing). As hypothesised, cognitive flexibility and flexible affective processing were unique predictors of trait resilience. Working memory capacity was not predictive of trait resilience, indicating that trait resilience is tied to specific cognitive processes rather than overall better cognitive functioning. Cognitive flexibility and flexible affective processing were not associated with other trait measures, suggesting that these flexibility processes are unique to trait resilience. This study was among the first to investigate the cognitive abilities underlying trait resilience. PMID:21432680

  13. Leonard Wood: surgeon, soldier, administrator.

    PubMed

    Craddock, W L

    1995-01-01

    Leonard Wood's (1860-1927) 42 years of distinguished service to the United States are covered herein. Wood received the Congressional Medal of Honor for the capture of the Apaches. He was commander of the famous "Rough Riders," and was distinguished for his Cuban labors as Military Governor. As Army Chief of Staff, he and Theodore Roosevelt pursued the problems of military preparedness for America's involvement in World War I. After World War I, Wood quelled disruptive situations caused by growing industrial problems. He became a supporter of veterans' rights, enrolling 27,000 veterans in college and providing them with the necessary education that would help solve the problems of four million veterans. After being operated on successfully for a brain tumor by Harvey Cushing in 1910, he suffered a recurrence while serving his second tour as the Philippines' Military Governor. Returning home, he died in 1927 during the second surgery. PMID:7746431

  14. Association between Occupational Exposure to Wood Dust and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Sardón, Montserrat; Chamorro, Antonio-J.; Hernández-García, Ignacio; Iglesias-de-Sena, Helena; Martín-Rodero, Helena; Herrera, Cristian; Marcos, Miguel; Mirón-Canelo, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review to analyze the association between occupational exposure to wood dust and cancer. Methods A systematic literature search of entries made in the MEDLINE-PubMed database between 1957 and 2013 was conducted to identify studies that had assessed the relationship between occupational exposure to wood dust and different types of cancer. A meta-analysis of selected case-control and cohort studies was subsequently performed. Results A total of 114 studies were identified and 70 were selected for review. Of these, 42 studies focused on the relationship between wood dust and nasal cancer (n = 22), lung cancer (n = 11), and other types of cancer (n = 9). Low-to-moderate quality evidence that wood dust acts as a carcinogen was obtained, and a stronger association between wood dust and nasal adenocarcinoma was observed. A lesser association between wood dust exposure and lung cancer was also observed. Several studies suggested that there is a relationship between wood dust and the onset of other cancers, although there was no evidence to establish an association. A meta-analysis that included four case-controls studies showed that workers exposed to wood dust exhibited higher rates of nasal adenocarcinoma than other workers (odds ratio = 10.28; 95% confidence interval: 5.92 and 17.85; P<0,0001), although a large degree of heterogeneity was found. Conclusions Low-to-moderate quality evidence supports a causal association between cancer and occupational exposure to wood dust, and this association was stronger for nasal adenocarcinoma than for lung cancer. There was no evidence of an association between wood dust exposure and the other cancers examined. PMID:26191795

  15. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood. PMID:21194917

  16. Linking Tropical Forest Function to Hydraulic Traits in a Size-Structured and Trait-Based Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersen, B. O.; Gloor, E. U.; Fauset, S.; Fyllas, N.; Galbraith, D.; Baker, T. R.; Rowland, L.; Fisher, R.; Binks, O.; Mencuccini, M.; Malhi, Y.; Stahl, C.; Wagner, F. H.; Bonal, D.; da Costa, A. C. L.; Ferreira, L.; Meir, P.

    2014-12-01

    A major weakness of forest ecosystem models applied to Amazonia is their inability to capture the diversity of responses to changes in water availability commonly observed within and across forest communities, severely hampering efforts to predict the fate of Amazon forests under climate change. Such models often prescribe moisture sensitivity using heuristic response functions which are uniform across all individuals and lack important knowledge about trade-offs in hydraulic traits. We address this weakness by implementing a process representation of plant hydraulics into an individual- and trait-based model (Trait Forest Simulator; TFS) intended for application at discrete sites across Amazonia. The model represents a trade-off in the safety and efficiency of water conduction in xylem tissue through hydraulic traits, which then lead to variation in plant water use and growth dynamics. The model accounts for the buffering effects of leaf and stem capacitance on leaf water potential at short time scales, and cavitation-induced reductions in whole-plant conductance over longer periods of water stress. We explore multiple possible links between this hydraulic trait spectrum and other whole-plant traits, such as maximum photosynthetic capacity and wood density. The model is shown to greatly improve the diversity of tree response to seasonal changes in water availability as well as response to drought, as determined by comparison with sap flux and stem dendrometry measurements. Importantly, this individual- and trait-based framework provides a testbed for identifying both critical processes and functional traits needed for inclusion in coarse-scale Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, which will lead to reduced uncertainty in the future state of Amazon tropical forests.

  17. Wood Properties and Kinds; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. This booklet is concerned largely with the physical composition and…

  18. The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiemann, Harry D

    1919-01-01

    This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

  19. Strange Creatures: An Additive Wood Sculpture Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project where students create strange creatures using scraps of wood. Discusses how the students use the wood and other materials. Explains that the students also write about the habitat characteristics of their creatures. Includes learning objectives. (CMK)

  20. Single and combined effects of peppermint and thyme essential oils on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C).

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding peppermint essential oil (PEO), thyme essential oil (TEO), or their combination to diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-lite laying hens. Significant interactions between PEO and TEO on FCR, EP, and EM were observed (P < 0.05). The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased (P < 0.05) in the hens fed the diets supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. Also, increased EW and FI were observed in the laying hens fed the diet added by PEO compared to the birds fed the basal diet. There were significant interactions between PEO and TEO on the serum level of cholesterol, shell thickness, and Hough unit of egg (P < 0.05), so that serum content of cholesterol decreased, but egg shell thickness and Hough unit increased in the hens fed the diet supplemented by the combined form of PEO and TEO compared to those fed the basal diet. From the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation by combined form of PEO and TEO could have beneficial effects on performance parameters of hens reared under cold stress condition. PMID:26238513

  1. Evaluation of Three Electronic Noses for Detecting Incipient Wood Decay

    PubMed Central

    Baietto, Manuela; Wilson, Alphus D.; Bassi, Daniele; Ferrini, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Tree assessment methodologies, currently used to evaluate the structural stability of individual urban trees, usually involve a visual analysis followed by measurements of the internal soundness of wood using various instruments that are often invasive, expensive, or inadequate for use within the urban environment. Moreover, most conventional instruments do not provide an adequate evaluation of decay that occurs in the root system. The intent of this research was to evaluate the possibility of integrating conventional tools, currently used for assessments of decay in urban trees, with the electronic nose–a new innovative tool used in diverse fields and industries for various applications such as quality control in manufacturing, environmental monitoring, medical diagnoses, and perfumery. Electronic-nose (e-nose) technologies were tested for the capability of detecting differences in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by wood decay fungi and wood from healthy and decayed trees. Three e-noses, based on different types of operational technologies and analytical methods, were evaluated independently (not directly compared) to determine the feasibility of detecting incipient decays in artificially-inoculated wood. All three e-nose devices were capable of discriminating between healthy and artificially-inoculated, decayed wood with high levels of precision and confidence. The LibraNose quartz microbalance (QMB) e-nose generally provided higher levels of discrimination of sample unknowns, but not necessarily more accurate or effective detection than the AromaScan A32S conducting polymer and PEN3 metal-oxide (MOS) gas sensor e-noses for identifying and distinguishing woody samples containing different agents of wood decay. However, the conducting polymer e-nose had the greater advantage for identifying unknowns from diverse woody sample types due to the associated software capability of utilizing prior-developed, application-specific reference libraries with aroma pattern-recognition and neural-net training algorithms. PMID:22205858

  2. Affective Traits in Schizophrenia and Schizotypy

    PubMed Central

    Horan, William P.; Blanchard, Jack J.; Clark, Lee Anna; Green, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, population-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review focuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based dispositions to experience corresponding emotional states. Individuals with schizophrenia report a pattern of stably elevated NA and low PA throughout the illness course. Among affected individuals, these traits are associated with variability in several clinically important features, including functional outcome, quality of life, and stress reactivity. Furthermore, evidence that elevated NA and low PA (particularly the facet of anhedonia) predict the development of psychosis and are detectable in high-risk samples suggests that these traits play a role in vulnerability to schizophrenia, though they are implicated in other forms of psychopathology as well. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment, etiological models, and future research to advance the study of affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy. PMID:18667393

  3. Application of photocuring technique on wood surface and its prospects in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattcacharia, S. K.; Khan, Mubarak A.

    2005-07-01

    Photocuring technique has unveiled a new horizon in polymer science. Application of photocuring technique on wood surface has enhanced the use of low grade wood. As Bangladesh is an overpopulated country, necessity of good quality wood is increasing day by day. So low grade wood, like Simul or Partex, locally produced particleboard, would come out with great use. As Partex board, produced from Jute sticks and various types of indigenous low grade wood and particle board are abundant in Bangladesh, so photocuring could play a major role to improve the quality of low grade wood and serve the nation. Already, a lot of research works were carried out by the local scientists to improve the wood surface using UV curing method. Different formulations were also developed by the local scientists using various oligomer, monomer and different types of additives. The used oligomers are epoxy, polyester, urethane, etc. and monomers of different functionalities and used additives are acrylic monomer, CaCO3, sand, MgSiO3, talc, etc. Thin films were prepared on glass plate with different formulations using UV radiation and different characteristics properties (pendulum hardness, abrasion, gloss (60° and 20°), microscratch hardness, weathering effect, adhesion strength, etc.) were studied. Now, a Pilot Plant has already been established with the financial assistance by the government of Bangladesh, worth US 3.5 million.

  4. A comparison of co-combustion characteristics of coal with wood and hydrothermally treated municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Muthuraman, Marisamy; Namioka, Tomoaki; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2010-04-01

    In this work, thermogravimetric analysis was used to investigate the co-combustion characteristics of wood and municipal solid waste (MSW) with Indian coal. Combustion characteristics like volatile release, ignition were studied. Wood presented an enhanced reaction rate reflecting its high volatile and low ash contents, while MSW enhanced ignition behavior of Indian coal. The results indicate that blending of both, wood and MSW improves devolatization properties of coal. Significant interaction was detected between wood and Indian coal, and reactivity of coal has improved upon blending with wood. On the other hand, MSW shows a good interaction with Indian coal leading to significant reduction in ignition temperature of coal and this effect was more pronounced with higher blending ratio of MSW. Hence MSW blending could more positively support the combustion of low quality Indian coal as compared to wood, due to its property of enhancement of ignition characteristics. PMID:20006927

  5. Balsa wood as an energy dissipator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoell, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    Studies have been undertaken to determine response of balsa wood in variety of environmental conditions. Response is dependent upon state of balsa wood as well as environment to which it is exposed, but certain combinations of conditions serve to increase significantly energy-dissipating capacity of wood relative to its normal capacity.

  6. Strengthen Wood Education through a Comprehensive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mative, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Wood education programs across the nation, at and below the secondary levels of education, have declined in enrollment in recent years. To many, wood education means only carpentry or woodworking. A systematic approach to the subject, as a part of a materials science course, can reverse the material's negative connotation and make wood education

  7. Strengthen Wood Education through a Comprehensive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mative, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Wood education programs across the nation, at and below the secondary levels of education, have declined in enrollment in recent years. To many, wood education means only carpentry or woodworking. A systematic approach to the subject, as a part of a materials science course, can reverse the material's negative connotation and make wood education…

  8. Woods Middle School: A Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Elisabeth

    1993-01-01

    Profiles the activities of the School of the Woods in Houston, which in the early 1980s began a Montessori middle school program to complement the already existing elementary instruction. Discusses the physical environment of the school, the activities of the students and teachers, the curriculum, and the contributions of parents. (MDM)

  9. GELIFICATION OF WOOD DURING COALIFICATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, Patrick G.; Romankiw, Lisa A.; Evans, John R.

    1985-01-01

    Coalified wood was examined by SEM and CPMAS**1**3C NMR to delineate chemical and physical alterations responsible for gelification. Early coalification selectively degrades cellulosic components, preserving lignin-like components that are eventually transformed to coal. Cellular morphology persists until the chemical composition becomes uniform, at which point the cells coalesce under compaction and gelify.

  10. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  11. Origins of Metastatic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Vanharanta, Sakari; Massagu, Joan

    2014-01-01

    How cancer cells acquire the competence to colonize distant organs remains a central question in cancer biology. Tumors can release large numbers of cancer cells into the circulation, but only a small proportion of these cells survive on infiltrating distant organs and even fewer form clinically meaningful metastases. During the past decade, many predictive gene signatures and specific mediators of metastasis have been identified, yet how cancer cells acquire these traits has remained obscure. Recent experimental work and high-resolution sequencing of human tissues have started to reveal the molecular and tumor evolutionary principles that underlie the emergence of metastatic traits. PMID:24135279

  12. Wood decomposing abilities of diverse lignicolous fungi on nondecayed and decayed beech wood.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Yu; Osono, Takashi; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We tested the decay abilities of 28 isolates from 28 lignicolous fungal species (Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and Zygomycota) with the pure culture test. We used beech wood powder in varying moisture conditions and decay stages (nondecayed, intermediately decayed and well decayed) as substrates. The weight loss in wood powder was -0.2-17.8%. Five isolates of Basidiomycota (Bjerkandera adusta, Mycena haematopus, Omphalotus guepiniformis, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes versicolor) caused high weight losses in nondecayed wood. We detected significant effects of decay stage on weight loss in wood in most isolates tested, whereas moisture content rarely had an effect on weight loss. Among Basidiomycota and Xylariaceae in Ascomycota weight loss was greater for nondecayed wood than for intermediately and well decayed wood. In contrast four isolates in Ascomycota (Scytalidium lignicola, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, T. koningii) caused substantial weight loss in intermediately and well decayed wood, although they rarely caused weight loss in nondecayed wood. Zygomycota caused low weight loss in wood. Wood decay stages also affected decomposition of wood chemical components. Acid-unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) decomposition was reduced, whereas holocellulose decomposition was stimulated by some strains of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in well decayed wood. T. harzianum in particular caused significant weight loss of holocellulose in well decayed wood, although this fungus caused negligible weight loss of both AUR and holocellulose in nondecayed wood. We discuss these changes in the decay patterns of AUR and holocellulose with varying wood decay stages in relation to the role of fungal decomposition of woody debris in forests. PMID:21262989

  13. Multi-trait BLUP model indicates sorghum hybrids with genetic potential for agronomic and nutritional traits.

    PubMed

    Almeida Filho, J E; Tardin, F D; Guimarães, J F R; Resende, M D V; Silva, F F; Simeone, M L; Menezes, C B; Queiroz, V A V

    2016-01-01

    The breeding of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, aimed at improving its nutritional quality, is of great interest, since it can be used as a highly nutritive alternative food source and can possibly be cultivated in regions with low rainfall. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential and genetic diversity of grain-sorghum hybrids for traits of agronomic and nutritional interest. To this end, the traits grain yield and flowering, and concentrations of protein, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, and zinc in the grain were evaluated in 25 grain-sorghum hybrids, comprising 18 experimental hybrids of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo and seven commercial hybrids. The genetic potential was analyzed by a multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) model, and cluster analysis was accomplished by squared Mahalanobis distance using the predicted genotypic values. Hybrids 0306037 and 0306034 stood out in the agronomic