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1

Original article Wood density traits in Norway spruce understorey  

E-print Network

Original article Wood density traits in Norway spruce understorey: effects of growth rate and birch trees ha-1) on wood density traits in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) understorey were evaluated 84 % of the variation in wood density. (© Inra /Elsevier, Paris.) Norway spruce understorey

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

Wood Quality: The Effects  

E-print Network

/latewood proportions Fiber length Microfibril angle Growth rate ­ rings per inch Juvenile/mature wood Knots Slope of grain Reaction wood Sapwood/heartwood ratio #12;Juvenile Wood & Mature WoodJuvenile Wood & Mature Wood spacing Pre-commercial thinning Commercial thinning Pruning Growth acceleration fertilization brush

3

Association genetics in Pinus taeda L. I. Wood property traits.  

PubMed

Genetic association is a powerful method for dissecting complex adaptive traits due to (i) fine-scale mapping resulting from historical recombination, (ii) wide coverage of phenotypic and genotypic variation within a single experiment, and (iii) the simultaneous discovery of loci and alleles. In this article, genetic association among single nucleotide polymorphisms (58 SNPs) from 20 wood- and drought-related candidate genes and an array of wood property traits with evolutionary and commercial importance, namely, earlywood and latewood specific gravity, percentage of latewood, earlywood microfibril angle, and wood chemistry (lignin and cellulose content), was tested using mixed linear models (MLMs) that account for relatedness among individuals by using a pairwise kinship matrix. Population structure, a common systematic bias in association studies, was assessed using 22 nuclear microsatellites. Different phenotype:genotype associations were found, some of them confirming previous evidence from collocation of QTL and genes in linkage maps (for example, 4cl and percentage of latewood) and two that involve nonsynonymous polymorphisms (cad SNP M28 with earlywood specific gravity and 4cl SNP M7 with percentage of latewood). The strongest genetic association found in this study was between allelic variation in alpha-tubulin, a gene involved in the formation of cortical microtubules, and earlywood microfibril angle. Intragenic LD decays rapidly in conifers; thus SNPs showing genetic association are likely to be located in close proximity to the causative polymorphisms. This first multigene association genetic study in forest trees has shown the feasibility of candidate gene strategies for dissecting complex adaptive traits, provided that genes belonging to key pathways and appropriate statistical tools are used. This approach is of particular utility in species such as conifers, where genomewide strategies are limited by their large genomes. PMID:17110498

González-Martínez, Santiago C; Wheeler, Nicholas C; Ersoz, Elhan; Nelson, C Dana; Neale, David B

2007-01-01

4

Association Genetics in Pinus taeda L. I. Wood Property Traits  

PubMed Central

Genetic association is a powerful method for dissecting complex adaptive traits due to (i) fine-scale mapping resulting from historical recombination, (ii) wide coverage of phenotypic and genotypic variation within a single experiment, and (iii) the simultaneous discovery of loci and alleles. In this article, genetic association among single nucleotide polymorphisms (58 SNPs) from 20 wood- and drought-related candidate genes and an array of wood property traits with evolutionary and commercial importance, namely, earlywood and latewood specific gravity, percentage of latewood, earlywood microfibril angle, and wood chemistry (lignin and cellulose content), was tested using mixed linear models (MLMs) that account for relatedness among individuals by using a pairwise kinship matrix. Population structure, a common systematic bias in association studies, was assessed using 22 nuclear microsatellites. Different phenotype:genotype associations were found, some of them confirming previous evidence from collocation of QTL and genes in linkage maps (for example, 4cl and percentage of latewood) and two that involve nonsynonymous polymorphisms (cad SNP M28 with earlywood specific gravity and 4cl SNP M7 with percentage of latewood). The strongest genetic association found in this study was between allelic variation in ?-tubulin, a gene involved in the formation of cortical microtubules, and earlywood microfibril angle. Intragenic LD decays rapidly in conifers; thus SNPs showing genetic association are likely to be located in close proximity to the causative polymorphisms. This first multigene association genetic study in forest trees has shown the feasibility of candidate gene strategies for dissecting complex adaptive traits, provided that genes belonging to key pathways and appropriate statistical tools are used. This approach is of particular utility in species such as conifers, where genomewide strategies are limited by their large genomes. PMID:17110498

Gonzalez-Martinez, Santiago C.; Wheeler, Nicholas C.; Ersoz, Elhan; Nelson, C. Dana; Neale, David B.

2007-01-01

5

Plant traits and wood fates across the globe: rotted, burned, or consumed?  

E-print Network

debris has a long residence time. Globally, coarse dead wood contains 36­72 Pg C, and understanding what such as stem-diameter distributions. Fire consumption is driven by a slightly narrower range of traits traits and woody debris pools in global vegetation climate models would improve predictions of wood

German, Donovan P.

6

Original article The influence of wood quality  

E-print Network

Original article The influence of wood quality on lumber drying distortion* DJ Cown, AN Haslett, MO; accepted 11 March 1996) Summary - Commercial experience with the sawing of logs from fast-grown plantations pattern, drying method and the influence of planing), product (lumber dimensions) and standards (grading

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

7

Quantitative trait loci analysis of swine meat quality traits.  

PubMed

A QTL study was performed in large half-sib families to characterize the genetic background of variation in pork quality traits as well as to examine the possibilities of including QTL in a marker-assisted selection scheme. The quality traits included ultimate pH in LM and the semimembranosus, drip loss, and the Minolta color measurements L*, a*, and b* representing meat lightness, redness, and yellowness, respectively. The families consist of 3,883 progenies of 12 Duroc boars that were evaluated to identify the QTL. The linkage map consists of 462 SNP markers on 18 porcine autosomes. Quantitative trait loci were mapped using a linear mixed model with fixed factors (sire, sex, herd, month, sow age) and random factors (polygenic effect, QTL effects, and litter). Chromosome-wide and genome-wide significance thresholds were determined by Peipho's approach, and 95% Bayes credibility intervals were estimated from a posterior distribution of the QTL position. In total, 31 QTL for the 6 meat quality traits were found to be significant at the 5% chromosome-wide level, among which 11 QTL were significant at the 5% genome-wide level and 5 of these were significant at the 0.1% genome-wide level. Segregation of the identified QTL in different families was also investigated. Most of the identified QTL segregated in 1 or 2 families. For the QTL affecting ultimate pH in LM and semimembranosus and L* and b* value on SSC6, the positions of the QTL and the shapes of the likelihood curves were almost the same. In addition, a strong correlation of the estimated effects of these QTL was found between the 4 traits, indicating that the same genes control these traits. A similar pattern was seen on SSC15 for the QTL affecting ultimate pH in the 2 muscles and drip loss. The results from this study will be helpful for fine mapping and identifying genes affecting meat quality traits, and tightly linked markers may be incorporated into marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:20495113

Li, H D; Lund, M S; Christensen, O F; Gregersen, V R; Henckel, P; Bendixen, C

2010-09-01

8

Size-dependent changes in leaf and wood chemical traits in two Caribbean rainforest trees.  

PubMed

Tree functional traits and their link to patterns of growth and demography are central to informing trait-based analyses of forest communities, and mechanistic models of forest dynamics. However, few data are available on how functional traits in trees vary through ontogeny, particularly in tropical species; and less is known about how patterns of size-dependent changes in traits may differ across species of contrasting life-history strategies. Here we describe size-dependent variation in seven leaf functional traits and four wood chemical traits, in two Dominican rainforest tree species (Dacryodes excelsa Vahl. and Miconia mirabilis (Aubl.) L.O. Williams), ranging from small saplings to the largest canopy trees. With one exception, all traits showed pronounced variation with tree size (diameter at breast height, DBH). Leaf mass per area (LMA), thickness and tissue density increased monotonically with DBH in both species. Leaf area, leaf nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) : nitrogen (N) ratios also varied significantly with DBH; however, these patterns were unimodal, with peak trait values preceding the DBH at reproductive onset in both species. Size-dependent changes in leaf structural traits (LMA and leaf thickness) were generally similar in both species, while traits associated with leaf-level investment in C gain (leaf area, leaf C : N ratio) showed contrasting ontogenetic trends between species. Wood starch concentration varied with DBH in both species, also showing unimodal patterns with peaks preceding size at reproductive onset. Wood C concentration increased linearly with DBH in both species, though significantly only in M. mirabilis. Size-dependent patterns in wood chemical traits were similar between both species. Our data demonstrate pronounced variation in functional traits through tree ontogeny, probably due to a combination of environmental factors and shifts in resource allocation. Such ontogenetic variation is comparable in magnitude with interspecific variation, and so should be accounted for in trait-based studies of forest dynamics, structure and function. PMID:24336517

Martin, Adam R; Thomas, Sean C

2013-12-01

9

The changing quality of the world wood supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reasons for changes in wood quality and utilization are related to the trends toward harvesting smaller, younger and lower-quality timber, wider use of formerly waste wood, unconventional uses of wood, and improved forest management and new wood manufacturing techniques.1.An unequal distribution of timber along with increasing costs of forest ownership and management is forcing short-rotation forestry, which results in

B. Zobel

1984-01-01

10

Genetic parameters of growth, straightness and wood chemistry traits in Pinus pinaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction\\u000a   Tree breeding is giving an increasing attention to wood properties in order to better fit the requirements of the saw, board,\\u000a pulp and paper industries. In particular, it has been reported that lignin and cellulose content display moderate to high\\u000a heritabilities making them prime candidates for genetic improvement of wood chemistry. Moreover, these traits have been shown\\u000a to be

Camille Lepoittevin; Jean-Pierre Rousseau; Audrey Guillemin; Christophe Gauvrit; François Besson; François Hubert; Denilson da Silva Perez; Luc Harvengt; Christophe Plomion

11

Xenomic networks variability and adaptation traits in wood decaying fungi  

PubMed Central

Fungal degradation of wood is mainly restricted to basidiomycetes, these organisms having developed complex oxidative and hydrolytic enzymatic systems. Besides these systems, wood-decaying fungi possess intracellular networks allowing them to deal with the myriad of potential toxic compounds resulting at least in part from wood degradation but also more generally from recalcitrant organic matter degradation. The members of the detoxification pathways constitute the xenome. Generally, they belong to multigenic families such as the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and the glutathione transferases. Taking advantage of the recent release of numerous genomes of basidiomycetes, we show here that these multigenic families are extended and functionally related in wood-decaying fungi. Furthermore, we postulate that these rapidly evolving multigenic families could reflect the adaptation of these fungi to the diversity of their substrate and provide keys to understand their ecology. This is of particular importance for white biotechnology, this xenome being a putative target for improving degradation properties of these fungi in biomass valorization purposes. PMID:23279857

Morel, Melanie; Meux, Edgar; Mathieu, Yann; Thuillier, Anne; Chibani, Kamel; Harvengt, Luc; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Gelhaye, Eric

2013-01-01

12

Wood-burning appliances and indoor air quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood heating represents an interesting economic alternative to electrical or heating oil and gas systems. However, many people are concerned about poor indoor air quality in homes equipped with wood-burning appliances. We conducted a study in the Quebec City region (Canada) to verify the extent of indoor air contamination, and to examine the frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses among

Benoit Lévesque; Sylvain Allaire; Denis Gauvin; Petros Koutrakis; Suzanne Gingras; Marc Rhainds; Henri Prud'Homme; Jean-François Duchesne

2001-01-01

13

Influence of residential wood combustion on local air quality.  

PubMed

The importance of wood combustion to local air quality was estimated by measuring different air pollutants and conducting chemical mass balance modelling. PM10, PM2.5, PAHs and VOC concentrations in ambient air were measured in a typical Finnish residential area. Measurements were conducted in January-March 2006. For some compounds, wood combustion was clearly the main local source at this site. The effect of wood combustion was more clearly seen for organic compounds than for fine particle mass. For fine particles, background concentrations dominated. However, very high, short-lived concentration peaks were detected, when the wind direction and other weather conditions were favourable. For organic compounds, the effect of wood combustion was seen in diurnal and in two-week average concentrations. PAH-concentrations were often several times higher at the residential area than in the background. Benzene concentrations showed similar diurnal pattern as the use of wood and benzene/toluene ratios indicated that wood combustion is the most important source. A chemical mass balance model was used for studying the effect of wood combustion on the measured concentrations of VOCs. Model results showed that the main local sources for VOCs at Kurkimäki are wood combustion and traffic. Wood combustion was clearly the most important source for many compounds (e.g., benzene). PMID:18272205

Hellén, H; Hakola, H; Haaparanta, S; Pietarila, H; Kauhaniemi, M

2008-04-15

14

Nucleotide Diversity and Linkage Disequilibrium in Cold-Hardiness- and Wood Quality-Related Candidate Genes in Douglas Fir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear sequence variation and linkage disequilibrium (LD) were studied in 15 cold-hardiness- and 3 wood quality-related candidate genes in Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). This set of genes was selected on the basis of its function in other plants and collocation with cold-hardiness-related quantitative trait loci (QTL). The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery panel represented 24 different trees from six

Konstantin V. Krutovsky; David B. Neale

2005-01-01

15

Intraspecific Relationships among Wood Density, Leaf Structural Traits and Environment in Four Co-Occurring Species of Nothofagus in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Plant functional traits capture important variation in plant strategy and function. Recent literature has revealed that within-species variation in traits is greater than previously supposed. However, we still have a poor understanding of how intraspecific variation is coordinated among different traits, and how it is driven by environment. We quantified intraspecific variation in wood density and five leaf traits underpinning the leaf economics spectrum (leaf dry matter content, leaf mass per unit area, size, thickness and density) within and among four widespread Nothofagus tree species in southern New Zealand. We tested whether intraspecific relationships between wood density and leaf traits followed widely reported interspecific relationships, and whether variation in these traits was coordinated through shared responses to environmental factors. Sample sites varied widely in environmental variables, including soil fertility (25–900 mg kg–1 total P), precipitation (668–4875 mm yr–1), temperature (5.2–12.4 °C mean annual temperature) and latitude (41–46 °S). Leaf traits were strongly correlated with one another within species, but not with wood density. There was some evidence for a positive relationship between wood density and leaf tissue density and dry matter content, but no evidence that leaf mass or leaf size were correlated with wood density; this highlights that leaf mass per unit area cannot be used as a surrogate for component leaf traits such as tissue density. Trait variation was predicted by environmental factors, but not consistently among different traits; e.g., only leaf thickness and leaf density responded to the same environmental cues as wood density. We conclude that although intraspecific variation in wood density and leaf traits is strongly driven by environmental factors, these responses are not strongly coordinated among functional traits even across co-occurring, closely-related plant species. PMID:23527041

Richardson, Sarah J.; Allen, Robert B.; Buxton, Rowan P.; Easdale, Tomás A.; Hurst, Jennifer M.; Morse, Christopher W.; Smissen, Rob D.; Peltzer, Duane A.

2013-01-01

16

Genetic diversity among mandarins in fruit-quality traits.  

PubMed

A detailed phenotypic analysis of fruit-quality traits was conducted among 46 mandarin varieties within the Israeli Citrus breeding collection, belonging to genetically different natural subgroups, including common mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), clementine (C. clementina Hort. ex. Tan), satsuma (C. unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (C. deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (C. nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and tangelo (C. reticulata × C. paradisi). Evaluated qualities included physical attributes (size, shape, color, peel thickness, and seed number); physiological properties (ripening period, peelability, and segmentation); nutritional and biochemical composition (vitamin C, phenol, flavonoid, and carotenoid contents and total antioxidant activity); and sensory attributes (total soluble solids and acid levels, flavor preference, sweetness, sourness, and fruitiness). The results indicated wide genetic variability in fruit-quality traits among mandarin varieties and natural subgroups, and statistical and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed multiple correlations among attributes. Such phenomic analysis is an obligatory requirement for identification of molecular markers for distinct fruit-quality traits and for selection of appropriate parents for future breeding programs. PMID:24828369

Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Kaplunov, Tatiana; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir

2014-05-28

17

Wood piece quality evaluation using Choquet integral and fuzzy merging Jeremy Jover1,2  

E-print Network

Wood piece quality evaluation using Choquet integral and fuzzy merging Jeremy Jover1,2 , Vincent,fuzzy operators, Choquet integral, divergent process Abstract: This paper presents a way to evaluate the wood (what is ideally expected). The wood industry is also concerned by these di- vergent process problems

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

18

Cold weather installation of wood flooring by adhesive bonding and its impact on indoor air quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study discusses the effect of installation of wood flooring by adhesive bonding under cold weather conditions on indoor air quality (IAQ) and analyzes an onsite strategy that can ensure the adhesion strength of the wood flooring and improve IAQ. To examine the temperature effects of adhesive bonding on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from wood flooring, the emission rates

Dong Hee Choi; Dong Hwa Kang; Myoung Souk Yeo; Kwang Woo Kim

2012-01-01

19

HETEROSIS FOR CERTAIN YIELD AND QUALITY TRAITS IN WINTER TRITICALE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated heterosis for certain yield and quality traits in F1 hybrids in winter triticale.The highest level of mid-parent heterosis was determined as 20.95 % for seed weight per spike. This was followed by mean mid-parent heterosis values at the rates of 18.07 % and 17.64 % for protein content and spike lenght, respectively. Negative mid- parent heterosis was

Esra AYDOGAN CIFCI; Koksal YAGDI

20

Detection and characterization of quantitative trait loci for meat quality traits in pigs.  

PubMed

In an experimental cross between Meishan and Dutch Large White and Landrace lines, 785 F2 animals with carcass information and their parents were typed for molecular markers covering the entire porcine genome. Linkage was studied between these markers and eight meat quality traits. Quantitative trait locus analyses were performed using interval mapping by regression under two genetic models: 1) the line-cross approach, where the founder lines were assumed to be fixed for different QTL alleles and 2) a half-sib model where a unique allele substitution effect was fitted within each of the 38 half-sib families. The line-cross approach included tests for genomic imprinting and sex-specific QTL effects. In total, three genome-wide significant and 26 suggestive QTL were detected. The significant QTL on chromosomes 3, 4, and 13, affecting meat color, were only detected under the half-sib model. Failure of the line-cross approach to detect the meat color QTL suggests that the founder lines have similar allele frequencies for these QTL. This study provides information on new QTL affecting meat quality traits. It also shows the benefit of analyzing experimental data under different genetic and statistical models. PMID:11768109

de Koning, D J; Harlizius, B; Rattink, A P; Groenen, M A; Brascamp, E W; van Arendonk, J A

2001-11-01

21

Identification of quantitative trait loci influencing wood property traits in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). III. QTL Verification and candidate gene mapping.  

PubMed Central

A long-term series of experiments to map QTL influencing wood property traits in loblolly pine has been completed. These experiments were designed to identify and subsequently verify QTL in multiple genetic backgrounds, environments, and growing seasons. Verification of QTL is necessary to substantiate a biological basis for observed marker-trait associations, to provide precise estimates of the magnitude of QTL effects, and to predict QTL expression at a given age or in a particular environment. Verification was based on the repeated detection of QTL among populations, as well as among multiple growing seasons for each population. Temporal stability of QTL was moderate, with approximately half being detected in multiple seasons. Fewer QTL were common to different populations, but the results are nonetheless encouraging for restricted applications of marker-assisted selection. QTL from larger populations accounted for less phenotypic variation than QTL detected in smaller populations, emphasizing the need for experiments employing much larger families. Additionally, 18 candidate genes related to lignin biosynthesis and cell wall structure were mapped genetically. Several candidate genes colocated with wood property QTL; however, these relationships must be verified in future experiments. PMID:12930758

Brown, Garth R; Bassoni, Daniel L; Gill, Geoffrey P; Fontana, Joseph R; Wheeler, Nicholas C; Megraw, Robert A; Davis, Mark F; Sewell, Mitchell M; Tuskan, Gerald A; Neale, David B

2003-01-01

22

Wood and Timber Properties Programme Timber Quality Steering Group  

E-print Network

decision support software ­ predicting wood properties: Prototype versions available for Sitka spruce: To assess the wood properties of Sitka spruce trees felled within the trial area To compare these results with data from even aged stands of Sitka spruce and wood property model simulations To investigate

23

Demonstration of Genome-Wide Association Studies for Identifying Markers for Wood Property and Male Strobili Traits in Cryptomeria japonica  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an alternative to bi-parental QTL mapping in long-lived perennials. In the present study, we examined the potential of GWAS in conifers using 367 unrelated plus trees of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, which is the most widely planted and commercially important tree species in Japan, and tried to detect significant associations between wood property traits and quantity of male strobili on the one hand, and 1,032 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assigned to 1,032 genes on the other. Association analysis was performed with the mixed linear model taking into account kinship relationships and subpopulation structure. In total, 6 SNPs were found to have significant associations with the variations in phenotype. These SNPs were not associated with the positions of known genes and QTLs that have been reported to date, thus they may identify novel QTLs. These 6 SNPs were all found in sequences showing similarities with known genes, although further analysis is required to dissect the ways in which they affect wood property traits and abundance of male strobili. These presumptive QTL loci provide opportunities for improvement of C. japonica, based on a marker approach. The results suggest that GWAS has potential for use in future breeding programs in C. japonica. PMID:24260312

Uchiyama, Kentaro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Moriguchi, Yoshinari; Ujino-Ihara, Tokuko; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Taguchi, Yuriko; Tsubomura, Miyoko; Mishima, Kentaro; Iki, Taiichi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Futamura, Norihiro; Shinohara, Kenji; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

2013-01-01

24

Bond quality at the FRP–wood interface using wood-laminating adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP)-strengthened glulam would be a more economically viable product if a single adhesive type could be utilised at all the bonded interfaces. This paper describes a test programme that examines the hygrothermal compliance of five commercial wood-laminating adhesives when bonding commercially viable FRP materials to wood. It was seen that the integrity of the bond depended not only

Gary M. Raftery; Annette M. Harte; Peter D. Rodd

2009-01-01

25

Health-related quality of life in women exposed to wood smoke while cooking.  

PubMed

Using the abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-Bref) questionnaire, we evaluated the effect of exposure to smoke from wood combustion while cooking on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in 85 women using wood and 85 women using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuel in India. Age, years of cooking and hours spent daily in the kitchen were similar between women in the two groups. WHOQOL-Bref transformed scores in psychological, social relationships and environment domains were significantly lower in women in using wood than in those using LPG, suggesting that HRQL was impaired across domains among these women. PMID:25199018

Aggarwal, A N; Umasankar, K; Gupta, D

2014-08-01

26

Functional Interactions Among Morphologic and Tissue Quality Traits Define Bone Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Advances in diagnostic and treatment regimens that aim to reduce fracture incidence will benefit from a better understanding\\u000a of how bone morphology and tissue quality define whole-bone mechanical properties.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  The goal of this article was to review what is known about the interactions among morphologic and tissue quality traits and\\u000a how these interactions contribute to bone quality (ie, whole-bone mechanical

Karl J. Jepsen

27

Impact of residential wood burning on indoor air quality Corinne Mandin1,2  

E-print Network

Impact of residential wood burning on indoor air quality Corinne Mandin1,2 , Jacques Ribéron2 email: Eva.Leoz@ineris.fr SUMMARY This study aims at characterizing indoor air quality in single family-negligible source of organic pollutants in ambient air. Thus the project aims at characterizing indoor air quality

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

28

Metal contaminated biochar and wood ash negatively affect plant growth and soil quality after land application.  

PubMed

Pyrolysis or combustion of waste wood can provide a renewable source of energy and produce byproducts which can be recycled back to land. To be sustainable requires that these byproducts pose minimal threat to the environment or human health. Frequently, reclaimed waste wood is contaminated by preservative-treated timber containing high levels of heavy metals. We investigated the effect of feedstock contamination from copper-preservative treated wood on the behaviour of pyrolysis-derived biochar and combustion-derived ash in plant-soil systems. Biochar and wood ash were applied to soil at typical agronomic rates. The presence of preservative treated timber in the feedstock increased available soil Cu; however, critical Cu guidance limits were only exceeded at high rates of feedstock contamination. Negative effects on plant growth and soil quality were only seen at high levels of biochar contamination (>50% derived from preservative-treated wood). Negative effects of wood ash contamination were apparent at lower levels of contamination (>10% derived from preservative treated wood). Complete removal of preservative treated timber from wood recycling facilities is notoriously difficult and low levels of contamination are commonplace. We conclude that low levels of contamination from Cu-treated wood should pose minimal environmental risk to biochar and ash destined for land application. PMID:24915641

Jones, D L; Quilliam, R S

2014-07-15

29

Genome-wide association mapping for kernel and malting quality traits using historical European barley records.  

PubMed

Malting quality is an important trait in breeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). It requires elaborate, expensive phenotyping, which involves micro-malting experiments. Although there is abundant historical information available for different cultivars in different years and trials, that historical information is not often used in genetic analyses. This study aimed to exploit historical records to assist in identifying genomic regions that affect malting and kernel quality traits in barley. This genome-wide association study utilized information on grain yield and 18 quality traits accumulated over 25 years on 174 European spring and winter barley cultivars combined with diversity array technology markers. Marker-trait associations were tested with a mixed linear model. This model took into account the genetic relatedness between cultivars based on principal components scores obtained from marker information. We detected 140 marker-trait associations. Some of these associations confirmed previously known quantitative trait loci for malting quality (on chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 5H). Other associations were reported for the first time in this study. The genetic correlations between traits are discussed in relation to the chromosomal regions associated with the different traits. This approach is expected to be particularly useful when designing strategies for multiple trait improvements. PMID:25372869

Matthies, Inge E; Malosetti, Marcos; Röder, Marion S; van Eeuwijk, Fred

2014-01-01

30

Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Kernel and Malting Quality Traits Using Historical European Barley Records  

PubMed Central

Malting quality is an important trait in breeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). It requires elaborate, expensive phenotyping, which involves micro-malting experiments. Although there is abundant historical information available for different cultivars in different years and trials, that historical information is not often used in genetic analyses. This study aimed to exploit historical records to assist in identifying genomic regions that affect malting and kernel quality traits in barley. This genome-wide association study utilized information on grain yield and 18 quality traits accumulated over 25 years on 174 European spring and winter barley cultivars combined with diversity array technology markers. Marker-trait associations were tested with a mixed linear model. This model took into account the genetic relatedness between cultivars based on principal components scores obtained from marker information. We detected 140 marker-trait associations. Some of these associations confirmed previously known quantitative trait loci for malting quality (on chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 5H). Other associations were reported for the first time in this study. The genetic correlations between traits are discussed in relation to the chromosomal regions associated with the different traits. This approach is expected to be particularly useful when designing strategies for multiple trait improvements. PMID:25372869

Roder, Marion S.; van Eeuwijk, Fred

2014-01-01

31

A partial genome scan to map quantitative trait loci for carcass composition, as assessed by X-ray computer tomography, and meat quality traits in Scottish Blackface Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for traits related to carcass and meat quality in Scottish Blackface sheep. The population studied was a double backcross between lines of sheep divergently selected for carcass lean content (LEAN and FAT lines), comprising nine half-sib families. Carcass composition (600 lambs) was assessed non- destructively using computerized tomography (CT) scanning and meat quality measurements

E. Karamichou; R. I. Richardson; G. R. Nute; K. A. McLean; S. C. Bishop

2006-01-01

32

Genetic effects on carcass-quality traits in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops ? ? Morone saxatilis ?)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A1 0? 10 factorial mating design was used to exam- ine the genetic e¡ects on various carcass-quality traits in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops , ? Morone saxatilis <). A total of 448 o¡spring were raised in a 'common-garden' environment and car- cass-quality traits were assessed at 389 days post fer- tilization; parentage of each ¢sh was inferred from genotypes

Xiaoxue Wang; Kirstin E Ross; Eric Saillant; Delbert M Gatlin; John R Gold

2007-01-01

33

Gene Discovery and Product Development for Grain Quality Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The composition of oils, proteins, and carbohydrates in seeds of corn, soybean, and other crops has been modified to produce grains with enhanced value. Both plant breeding and molecular technologies have been used to produce plants carrying the desired traits. Genomics-based strategies for gene discovery, coupled with high-throughput transformation processes and miniaturized, automated analytical and functionality assays, have accelerated the identification of product candidates. Molecular markerâÂÂbased breeding strategies have been used to accelerate the process of moving trait genes into high-yielding germplasm for commercialization. These products are being tested for applications in food, feed, and industrial markets.

Barbara Mazur (DuPont Agricultural Products Experimental Station;); Enno Krebers (DuPont Agricultural Products Experimental Station;); Scott Tingey (DuPont Agricultural Products Experimental Station;)

1999-07-16

34

Gene discovery and product development for grain quality traits.  

PubMed

The composition of oils, proteins, and carbohydrates in seeds of corn, soybean, and other crops has been modified to produce grains with enhanced value. Both plant breeding and molecular technologies have been used to produce plants carrying the desired traits. Genomics-based strategies for gene discovery, coupled with high-throughput transformation processes and miniaturized, automated analytical and functionality assays, have accelerated the identification of product candidates. Molecular marker-based breeding strategies have been used to accelerate the process of moving trait genes into high-yielding germplasm for commercialization. These products are being tested for applications in food, feed, and industrial markets. PMID:10411493

Mazur, B; Krebbers, E; Tingey, S

1999-07-16

35

Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci underlying sensory meat quality traits in three French beef cattle breeds.  

PubMed

Improving the traits that underlie meat quality is a major challenge in the beef industry. The objective of this paper was to detect QTL linked to sensory meat quality traits in 3 French beef cattle breeds. We genotyped 1,059, 1,219, and 947 young bulls and their sires belonging to the Charolais, Limousin, and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds, respectively, using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). After estimating relevant genetic parameters using VCE software, we performed a linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis on 4 meat traits: intramuscular fat content, muscle lightness, shear force, and tenderness score. Heritability coefficients largely ranged between 0.10 and 0.24; however, they reached a maximum of 0.44 and 0.50 for intramuscular fat content and tenderness score, respectively, in the Charolais breed. The 2 meat texture traits, shear force and tenderness score, were strongly genetically correlated (-0.91 in the Charolais and Limousin breed and -0.86 in the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed), indicating that they are 2 different measures of approximately the same trait. The genetic correlation between tenderness and intramuscular fat content differed across breeds. Using a significance threshold of 5 × 10(-4) for QTL detection, we found more than 200 significant positions across the 29 autosomal chromosomes for the 4 traits in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds; in contrast, there were only 78 significant positions in the Limousin breed. Few QTL were common across breeds. We detected QTL for intramuscular fat content located near the myostatin gene in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds. No mutation in this gene has been reported for the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed; therefore, it suggests that an unknown mutation could be segregating in this breed. We confirmed that, in certain breeds, markers in the calpastatin and calpain 1 gene regions affect tenderness. We also found new QTL as several QTL on chromosome 3 that are significantly associated with meat tenderness in the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed. Overall, these results greatly contribute to the goal of building a panel of markers that can be used to select animals of high meat quality. PMID:25149327

Allais, S; Levéziel, H; Hocquette, J F; Rousset, S; Denoyelle, C; Journaux, L; Renand, G

2014-10-01

36

Application of Wood Ash to Acidic Boralf Soils and its Effect on Oilseed Quality of Canola  

Microsoft Academic Search

crop quality (Vance, 1996; Muse and Mitchell, 1995; Meyers and Kopecky, 1998). For example, brassicaceous Acidic Typic Cryoboralf soils amended with wood ash can raise crops like canola require S for amino acid and protein soil pH and can supplement plant growth by adding minerals and micronutrients. However, presence of other elements in soils such as synthesis. Sulfur is also

S. J. Patterson; S. N. Acharya; A. B. Bertschi; J. E. Thomas

2004-01-01

37

Monthly and seasonal variation of mohair growth and quality traits  

E-print Network

) than those from all other areas, while the back produced the finest fibers. The data on monthly body weights and fiber diameters showed that possible seasonal effects could be responsible for decreasing ten- dencies found during some periods... of the year in both traits. Monthly fiber diameter measurements from the neck, side and britch areas followed closely the pattern exhibited by average fiber diameter for all areas at each shearing. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S The author wants to express his...

Portal, Enrique

2012-06-07

38

Nitrogen immobilization by wood-chip application: Protecting water quality in a northern hardwood forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forest harvesting disrupts the nitrogen cycle, which may affect stream water quality by increasing nitrate concentrations, reducing pH and acid neutralizing capacity, and mobilizing aluminum and base cations. We tested the application of wood chips derived from logging slash to increase immobilization of N after harvesting, which should reduce nitrate flux to streams. In August 2004, a stand of northern hardwoods was patch-clearcut in the Catskill Mountains, NY, and four replicates of three treatments were implemented in five 0.2-ha cut patches. Wood chips were applied to the soil surface at a rate equivalent to the amount of slash smaller than eight inches in diameter (1?? treatment). A second treatment doubled that rate (2??), and a third treatment received no chips (0??). Additionally, three uncut reference plots were established in nearby forested areas. Ion exchange resin bags and soil KCl-extractions were used to monitor nitrate availability in the upper 5-10 cm of soil approximately every seven weeks, except in winter. Resin bags indicated that the wood chips retained 30% or 42% of the nitrate pulse, while for KCl extracts, the retention rate was 78% or 100% of the difference between 0?? and uncut plots. During the fall following harvest, wood-chip treated plots had resin bag soil nitrate concentrations about 25% of those in 0?? plots (p = 0.0001). In the first growing season after the cut, nitrate concentrations in wood-chip treated plots for KCl extracts were 13% of those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.03) in May and about half those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.01) in July for resin bags. During spring snowmelt, however, nitrate concentrations were high and indistinguishable among treatments, including the uncut reference plots for resin bags and below detection limit for KCl extracts. Wood chips incubated in litterbags had an initial C:N of 125:1, which then decreased to 70:1 after one year of field incubation. These changes in C:N values indicate that the wood-chip application can potentially immobilize between 19 and 38 kg N ha-1 in the first year after harvesting, depending on the rate of wood-chip application. Our results suggest that the application of wood chips following harvesting operations can contribute to the protection of water quality and warrant additional research as a new Best Management Practice following cutting in regions that receive elevated levels of atmospheric N deposition. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Homyak, P. M.; Yanai, R. D.; Burns, D. A.; Briggs, R. D.; Germain, R. H.

2008-01-01

39

Trait Hostility, Perceived Stress, and Sleep Quality in a Sample of Normal Sleepers  

PubMed Central

Objective. To date, no studies have directly examined the effects of cognitive trait hostility on prospectively assessed sleep quality. This is important as individuals with heightened trait hostility demonstrate similar patterns of reactivity to perceived stressors as is often reported by poor sleepers. The present study hypothesized that increased trait hostility is associated with poorer subjective sleep quality and that perceived stress mediates this relationship. Methods. A sample of 66 normal sleepers completed daily sleep and stress logs for two weeks. Trait hostility was measured retrospectively. Results. The cognitive dimension of trait hostility was significantly correlated with subjectively rated sleep quality indicators, and these relationships were significantly mediated by perceived daily stress. Individuals with higher levels of trait cognitive hostility reported increased levels of perceived stress which accounted for their poorer sleep ratings as measured by both retrospective and prospective measures. Conclusions. Overall, the findings indicate that high levels of cognitive hostility are a significant risk factor for disturbed sleep and suggest that this might be a fruitful target for clinical intervention. PMID:23766918

Taylor, Nicholas D.; Fireman, Gary D.; Levin, Ross

2013-01-01

40

Storage as a tool to improve wood fuel quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work analysed the influence of storage in the quality of forest biomass for energy generation in the region of Lages, Brazil. Logs of Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden were harvested and piled during the four different seasons: spring, summer, fall and winter. The analyses were performed immediately after harvesting (without being stored), after two, four and six

Martha Andreia Brand; Graciela Inês Bolzon de Muñiz; Waldir Ferreira Quirino; José Otávio Brito

2011-01-01

41

Soil quality in a cropland soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strategy of the European Union "Europe 2020" states that by 2020, 20% of final energy consumption must come from renewables. In this scenario, there is an increasing use of biomass utilization for energy production. Indeed, it is expected that the production of wood-ash will increase in coming years. Wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, can be applied to soil to improve the soil quality and crop production. Since the residue contains significant content of charcoal, the application of mixed wood ash may also improve the SOM content and soil quality in the long term, in soils degraded as a consequence of intensive management. The objective of this study was asses the changes in SOM quality and soil properties in a degraded soils treated with wood ash containing charcoal. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %) and fine texture. The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1, 16 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (16 Mg) and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (32 Mg). The application was carried out once. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark and branches. The wood ash is highly alkaline (pH= 10), contains 10 % of highly condensed black carbon (atomic H/C ratio < 0.5 and T50 en DSC= 500 ºC). The evolution of SOM properties were monitored over three years by solid state 13C CPMAS NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). These techniques were applied in bulk samples and aggregates of different sizes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Several physical properties, such soil aggregate distribution, hydraulic conductivity and available water contente were also determined. Three years after applications the SOM content increased lightly in the treatment receiving more than 16 Mg ha-1 of wood ash. SOM in the treated soils displayed a higher degree of aromaticity than in the untreated soils, indicating a gain in more stable SOM compounds probably as a consequence of the charcoal application. However, both methods also revealed increases in labile C compounds, probably due to the carbohydrates added through root system. Microbial biomass-C and soil respiration increased significantly. The treatments also led to increases in the functional diversity indices. The amended soils showed greater utilization of substrates and the ability of soil bacteria to utilize different C resources was also greatly altered. The application of mixed wood ash did not lead to any difference in MWD, which was around 6 mm in all cases. The application of 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1 increased significantly the hydraulic conductivity (4.07 cmh-1) when compared with in control plots (1.3 cmh-1) and mixed ash plots (1.52 and 2.45 cmh-1, 16 Mg and 32 Mg respectively). However, air-filled porosity was not higher in 16 Mg fly ash plots. AWC was not improved by wood ash application.

Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

2014-05-01

42

Impact of operating wood-burning fireplace ovens on indoor air quality.  

PubMed

The use of combustion heat sources like wood-burning fireplaces has regained popularity in the past years due to increasing energy costs. While the outdoor emissions from wood ovens are strictly regulated in Germany, the indoor release of combustion products is rarely considered. Seven wood burning fireplaces were tested in private homes between November 2012 and March 2013. The indoor air quality was monitored before, during and after operation. The following parameters were measured: ultra-fine particles (5.6-560 nm), fine particles (0.3-20 ?m), PM2.5, NOx, CO, CO2, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Most ovens were significant sources of particulate matter. In some cases, an increase of benzene and BaP concentrations was observed in the indoor air. The results illustrate that wood-burning fireplaces are potential sources of indoor air contaminants, especially ultra-fine particles. Under the aspect of lowering indoor air exchange rates and increasing the use of fuels with a net zero-carbon footprint, indoor combustion sources are an important topic for the future. With regards to consumer safety, product development and inspection should consider indoor air quality in addition to the present fire protection requirements. PMID:24364889

Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Wientzek, Sebastian; Wensing, Michael

2014-05-01

43

Association studies of dormancy and cooking quality traits in direct-seeded indica rice.  

PubMed

Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Assam rice (indica) using 98 SSR markers for dormancy-related traits and cooking quality. Analysis of population structure revealed 10 subgroups in the population. The mean r(2) and D' value for all intrachromosomal loci pairs was 0.24 and 0.51, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium between linked markers decreased with distance. Marker-trait associations were investigated using the unified mixed-model approach, considering both population structure (Q) and kinship (K). Genome-wide scanning, detected a total of seven significant marker-trait associations (P < 0.01), with the R(2) values ranging from 12.0 to 18.0%. The significant marker associations were for grain dormancy (RM27 on chromosome 2), ?-amylase activity (RM27 and RM234 on chromosomes 2 and 7, respectively), germination (RM27 and RM106 on chromosome 2), amylose (RM282 on chromosome 3) and grain length elongation ratio (RM142 on chromosome 4). The present study revealed the association of marker RM27 with traits like dormancy, ?-amylase activity and germination. Simple correlation analysis of these traits revealed that these traits were positively correlated with each other and this marker may be useful for simultaneous improvement of these traits. The study indicates the presence of novel QTLs for a few traits under consideration. The study reveals association of traits like dormancy, ?-amylase activity, germination, amylose content, grain length elongation ratio with SSR markers indicating the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization. PMID:24840818

Rathi, Sunayana; Pathak, K; Yadav, R N S; Kumar, B; Sarma, R N

2014-04-01

44

Hydrogeology, Water Quality, and Ground-Water-Development Alternatives in the Upper Wood River Ground-Water Reservoir, Rhode Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the upper Wood River ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island. The report includes discussion of (1) recharge to and hydraulic properties of the stratified-dri...

D. C. Dickerman, R. W. Bell

1993-01-01

45

Variation of quality traits in cassava roots evaluated in landraces and improved clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 70 million people obtain more than 500 cal per day from cassava roots. The crop is fundamental as food security of poor rural communities, but little is known about variability of root nutritional and quality traits. Roots from 2457 genotypes comprising landraces and improved clones, were screened for their nutritional (cyanogenic potential, carotene, minerals, and sugars contents) and agronomic

A. L. Chávez; T. Sánchez; G. Jaramillo; J. M. Bedoya; J. Echeverry; E. A. Bolaños; H. Ceballos; C. A. Iglesias

2005-01-01

46

Gender-related traits, quality of life, and psychological adjustment among women with irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional illness associated with significant impairment in quality of life. Compared\\u000a to men, women are more likely to meet criteria for IBS, to seek treatment, and experience greater detriments in quality of\\u000a life. In addition to physiological factors, psychosocial factors may contribute to such gender differences. We examined whether\\u000a traits associated with masculine (agentic)

Sabrina C. Voci; Kenneth M. Cramer

2009-01-01

47

Nucleotide Diversity and Linkage Disequilibrium in Cold-Hardiness- and Wood Quality-Related Candidate Genes in Douglas Fir  

PubMed Central

Nuclear sequence variation and linkage disequilibrium (LD) were studied in 15 cold-hardiness- and 3 wood quality-related candidate genes in Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco]. This set of genes was selected on the basis of its function in other plants and collocation with cold-hardiness-related quantitative trait loci (QTL). The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery panel represented 24 different trees from six regions in Washington and Oregon plus parents of a segregating population used in the QTL study. The frequency of SNPs was one SNP per 46 bp across coding and noncoding regions on average. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were also moderately high with Hd = 0.827 ± 0.043 and ? = 0.00655 ± 0.00082 on average, respectively. The nonsynonymous (replacement) nucleotide substitutions were almost five times less frequent than synonymous ones and substitutions in noncoding regions. LD decayed relatively slowly but steadily within genes. Haploblock analysis was used to define haplotype tag SNPs (htSNPs). These data will help to select SNPs for association mapping, which is already in progress. PMID:16157674

Krutovsky, Konstantin V.; Neale, David B.

2005-01-01

48

Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in cold-hardiness- and wood quality-related candidate genes in Douglas fir.  

PubMed

Nuclear sequence variation and linkage disequilibrium (LD) were studied in 15 cold-hardiness- and 3 wood quality-related candidate genes in Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco]. This set of genes was selected on the basis of its function in other plants and collocation with cold-hardiness-related quantitative trait loci (QTL). The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery panel represented 24 different trees from six regions in Washington and Oregon plus parents of a segregating population used in the QTL study. The frequency of SNPs was one SNP per 46 bp across coding and noncoding regions on average. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were also moderately high with H(d) = 0.827 +/- 0.043 and pi = 0.00655 +/- 0.00082 on average, respectively. The nonsynonymous (replacement) nucleotide substitutions were almost five times less frequent than synonymous ones and substitutions in noncoding regions. LD decayed relatively slowly but steadily within genes. Haploblock analysis was used to define haplotype tag SNPs (htSNPs). These data will help to select SNPs for association mapping, which is already in progress. PMID:16157674

Krutovsky, Konstantin V; Neale, David B

2005-12-01

49

Effects of metabolic modifiers on carcass traits and meat quality.  

PubMed

Much research has been conducted and published about metabolic modifiers that increase growth rate, improve feed efficiency, increase carcass leanness, and decrease carcass fatness. Most of these metabolic modifiers have been developed to improve efficiency and profitability of livestock production and to improve carcass composition, with fewer of them developed and researched specifically to improve meat quality. Some of the metabolic modifiers can have negative effects on visual and sensory meat quality, especially when not used as recommended. This review evaluates the various kinds of metabolic modifiers that have been researched for their effects on production efficiency, carcass composition, and meat quality. Nutritional composition of meat generally is improved from use of most of the metabolic modifiers, visual quality is improved by others, but some can have a negative effect on marbling and tenderness. Anabolic steroid implants are very cost effective and practical for beef cattle production but aggressive implants used within 70 days of slaughter or too frequent use of them will reduce tenderness and marbling. Somatatropin and approved ?-agonists are very effective in improving growth performance and carcass leanness in pigs, and ?-agonists are effective in cattle, but improper use of them can have negative effects on marbling and tenderness. Feeding supplemental levels of vitamin E is quite beneficial for improving meat color and shelf-life of beef, lamb, and pork, whereas not supplementing diets with vitamin A has potential for improving marbling in cattle. Immunocastration shows promise for capitalizing on the efficiency of muscle growth of young boars up to a few weeks before slaughter, at which time boar taint is prevented and marbling is improved by immunocastration. Potential exists for improving the fatty acid profile of lipids and increasing conjugated linoleic acid content in beef through dietary manipulation. Supplementing swine diets with conjugated linoleic acid can improve carcass composition of swine, but is not yet cost effective to use. Dietary inclusion of magnesium, manganese, or chromium in diets of pigs and sheep has potential to improve meat color and water-holding capacity. Although, not all of these metabolic modifiers are approved in all countries, proper use of the ones that are approved offers opportunities for economically improving production efficiency and carcass leanness while maintaining acceptable marbling and tenderness, while some provide opportunities to enhance meat color and quality. PMID:22061403

Dikeman, M E

2007-09-01

50

Quantifying And Predicting Wood Quality Of Loblolly And Slash Pine Under Intensive Forest Management Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.

Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III

2006-05-04

51

Improving yield and quality traits of durum wheat by introgressing chromosome segments from hexaploid wheat.  

PubMed

Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum; 2n = 4x = 28; genome AABB) has long been an important food resource for human diets. The projected increase of the world's population to 9.1 billion by 2050 has highlighted the importance and urgency for improving the yield and quality performance of durum wheat. A backcrossed population, which was derived from the durum wheat variety 'Bellaroi' (recurrent parent) and the hexaploid genotype 'CSCR6' (donor parent), was used to investigate the feasibility of improving yield- and quality-related traits of durum wheat by introgressing chromosome fragments from hexaploid wheat. The population means for grain protein content, gluten content, spike length, and spikelet number were improved compared with those of the recurrent parent 'Bellaroi'. A small proportion of the backcross population lines showed significant improvements in spike length and spikelet number compared with the recurrent parent 'Bellaroi'. Some loci with significant effects for plant height, spike length, spikelet number, and thousand-grain weight were identified. Several of these loci affected more than one trait. These results showed that the introgression of chromosome fragments from 'CSCR6' into the durum genetic background could be an effective method for improving yield and quality traits of durum wheat. In addition, the loci showing significant effects on desired traits in this study could be fine mapped using an F2 population obtained by backcrossing the lines that carry the positive allele(s) with the recurrent parent. PMID:24338405

Ma, J; Zhang, C Y; Yan, G J; Liu, C J

2013-01-01

52

Phenotypic diversity and association mapping for fruit quality traits in cultivated tomato and related species.  

PubMed

Association mapping has been proposed as an efficient approach to assist in the identification of the molecular basis of agronomical traits in plants. For this purpose, we analyzed the phenotypic and genetic diversity of a large collection of tomato accessions including 44 heirloom and vintage cultivars (Solanum lycopersicum), 127 S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (cherry tomato) and 17 Solanum pimpinellifolium accessions. The accessions were genotyped using a SNPlex™ assay of 192 SNPs, among which 121 were informative for subsequent analysis. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) of pairwise loci and population structure were analyzed, and the association analysis between SNP genotypes and ten fruit quality traits was performed using a mixed linear model. High level of LD was found in the collection at the whole genome level. It was lower when considering only the 127 S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme accessions. Genetic structure analysis showed that the population was structured into two main groups, corresponding to cultivated and wild types and many intermediates. The number of associations detected per trait varied, according to the way the structure was taken into account, with 0-41 associations detected per trait in the whole collection and a maximum of four associations in the S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme accessions. A total of 40 associations (30 %) were co-localized with previously identified quantitative trait loci. This study thus showed the potential and limits of using association mapping in tomato populations. PMID:23124430

Xu, Jiaxin; Ranc, Nicolas; Muños, Stéphane; Rolland, Sophie; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Desplat, Nelly; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Liang, Yan; Brunel, Dominique; Causse, Mathilde

2013-03-01

53

Genetic and Phenotypic Correlations between Performance Traits with Meat Quality and Carcass Characteristics in Commercial Crossbred Pigs.  

PubMed

Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch), covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age), random effects (additive, litter and maternal) were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n?=?9) with meat quality (n?=?25) and carcass (n?=?19) traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (±SE), ranged from 0.07±0.13 to 0.45±0.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a) selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b) selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c) selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations. PMID:25350845

Miar, Younes; Plastow, Graham; Bruce, Heather; Moore, Stephen; Manafiazar, Ghader; Kemp, Robert; Charagu, Patrick; Huisman, Abe; van Haandel, Benny; Zhang, Chunyan; McKay, Robert; Wang, Zhiquan

2014-01-01

54

Genetic and Phenotypic Correlations between Performance Traits with Meat Quality and Carcass Characteristics in Commercial Crossbred Pigs  

PubMed Central

Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch), covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age), random effects (additive, litter and maternal) were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n?=?9) with meat quality (n?=?25) and carcass (n?=?19) traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (±SE), ranged from 0.07±0.13 to 0.45±0.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a) selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b) selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c) selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations. PMID:25350845

Miar, Younes; Plastow, Graham; Bruce, Heather; Moore, Stephen; Manafiazar, Ghader; Kemp, Robert; Charagu, Patrick; Huisman, Abe; van Haandel, Benny; Zhang, Chunyan; McKay, Robert; Wang, Zhiquan

2014-01-01

55

Genome-wide association of meat quality traits and tenderness in swine.  

PubMed

Pork quality has a large impact on consumer preference and perception of eating quality. A genome-wide association was performed for pork quality traits [intramuscular fat (IMF)], slice shear force (SSF), color attributes, purge, cooking loss, and pH] from 531 to 1,237 records on barrows and gilts of a Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire population using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Associations were detected using MTDFREML for all traits. Intramuscular fat had the greatest number of SNP associations, followed by pH, purge, cooking loss, shear force, and color. Two regions contained associations for multiple traits; one on SSC1 at 255 Mb near calcineurin subunit B (PPP3R2) was associated with SSF, moisture loss, and pH, and one on SSC6 from 28 to 29.5 Mb for purge and IMF containing the candidate genes glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) and KCTD15. Some of the other compelling candidate genes in regions associated with meat quality include CEBPA, SNAI1, and FAM132A for IMF, CAPN1 for SSF, GLUL for pH, and PRKAG3 and ITGB1 with cooking loss. PMID:23942702

Nonneman, D J; Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Wiedmann, R T; Snelling, W M; Rohrer, G A

2013-09-01

56

Quality of Life as a Mediator between Behavioral Challenges and Autistic Traits for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multiple mediation model was proposed to integrate core concepts of challenging behaviors with autistic traits to increase understanding of their relationship to quality of life (QoL). It was hypothesized that QoL is a possible mediator between the severity of challenging behaviors and autistic traits in adults with intellectual disability.…

Garcia-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Matson, Johnny L.

2013-01-01

57

Litter quality and decomposability of species from a Mediterranean succession depend on leaf traits but not on nitrogen supply  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The rate of plant decomposition depends on both the decomposition environment and the functional traits of the individual species (e.g. leaf and litter quality), but their relative importance in determining interspecific differences in litter decomposition remains unclear. The aims of this study were to: (a) determine if species from different successional stages grown on soils with low and high nitrogen levels produce leaf and litter traits that decompose differently under identical conditions; and (b) assess which trait of living leaves best relates to litter quality and litter decomposability Methods The study was conducted on 17 herbaceous species representative of three stages of a Mediterranean successional sere of Southern France. Plants were grown in monocultures in a common garden under two nitrogen levels. To elucidate how different leaf traits affected litter decomposition a microcosm experiment was conducted to determine decomposability under standard conditions. Tests were also carried out to determine how successional stage and nitrogen supply affected functional traits of living leaves and how these traits then modified litter quality and subsequent litter decomposability. Key Results The results demonstrated that leaf traits and litter decomposability varied according to species and successional stage. It was also demonstrated that while nitrogen addition affected leaf and litter traits, it had no effect on decomposition rates. Finally, leaf dry matter content stood out as the leaf trait best related to litter quality and litter decomposability Conclusions In this study, species litter decomposability was affected by some leaf and litter traits but not by soil nitrogen supply. The results demonstrated the strength of a trait-based approach to predict changes in ecosystem processes as a result of species shifts in ecosystems. PMID:19710073

Kazakou, Elena; Violle, Cyrille; Roumet, Catherine; Pintor, Cristina; Gimenez, Olivier; Garnier, Eric

2009-01-01

58

Phenotypic Data Collection and Sample Preparation for Genomics of Wood Formation and Cellulosic Biomass Traits in Sunflower: Ames, IA location.  

SciTech Connect

Three fields were planted in Ames in 2010, two association mapping fields, N3 and A, and a recombinant inbred line field, N13. Phenotype data and images were transferred to UGA to support genetic and genomic analyses of woody biomass-related traits.

Marek, Laura F.

2011-06-17

59

Molecular mapping of grain physico-chemical and cooking quality traits using recombinant inbred lines in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross between Pusa1266 (a new plant type) with Jaya (a popular\\u000a indica rice variety) was used for mapping QTL associated with grain physico-chemical and cooking quality traits in rice. A total\\u000a of 310 recombinant inbred lines were evaluated for nine grain physico-chemical and cooking quality traits at two locations\\u000a in India,

S. Guleria; V. Sharma; B. Marathi; S. Anand; N. K. Singh; T. Mohapatra; S. Gopala Krishnan; K. V. Prabhu; A. K. Singh

60

Detection of QTL controlling metabolism, meat quality, and liver quality traits of the overfed interspecific hybrid mule duck.  

PubMed

The mule duck, an interspecific hybrid obtained by crossing common duck (Anas platyrhynchos) females with Muscovy (Cairina moschata) drakes, is widely used for fatty liver production. The purpose of the present study was to detect and map single and pleiotropic QTL that segregate in the common duck species, and influence the expression of traits in their overfed mule duck offspring. To this end, we generated a common duck backcross (BC) population by crossing Kaiya and heavy Pekin experimental lines, which differ notably in regard to the BW and overfeeding ability of their mule progeny. The BC females were mated to Muscovy drakes and, on average, 4 male mule ducks hatched per BC female (1600 in total) and were measured for growth, metabolism during growth and the overfeeding period, overfeeding ability, and the quality of their breast meat and fatty liver. The phenotypic value of BC females was estimated for each trait by assigning to each female the mean value of the phenotypes of her offspring. Estimations allowed for variance, which depended on the number of male offspring per BC and the heritability of the trait considered. The genetic map used for QTL detection consisted of 91 microsatellite markers aggregated into 16 linkage groups (LG) covering a total of 778 cM. Twenty-two QTL were found to be significant at the 1% chromosome-wide threshold level using the single-trait detection option of the QTLMap software. Most of the QTL detected were related to the quality of breast meat and fatty liver: QTL for meat pH 20 min post mortem were mapped to LG4 (at the 1% genome-wide significance level), and QTL for meat lipid content and cooking losses were mapped to LG2a. The QTL related to fatty liver weight and liver protein and lipid content were for the most part detected on LG2c and LG9. Multitrait analysis highlighted the pleiotropic effects of QTL in these chromosome regions. Apart from the strong QTL for plasma triglyceride content at the end of the overfeeding period mapped to chromosome Z using single-trait analysis, all metabolic trait QTL were detected with the multitrait approach: the QTL mapped to LG14 and LG21 affected the plasma cholesterol and triglyceride contents, whereas the QTL mapped to LG2a seemed to impact glycemia and the basal plasma corticosterone content. A greater density genetic map will be needed to further fine map the QTL. PMID:23148259

Kileh-Wais, M; Elsen, J M; Vignal, A; Feves, K; Vignoles, F; Fernandez, X; Manse, H; Davail, S; André, J M; Bastianelli, D; Bonnal, L; Filangi, O; Baéza, E; Guéméné, D; Genêt, C; Bernadet, M D; Dubos, F; Marie-Etancelin, C

2013-02-01

61

Effect of Hybridization on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Erlang Mountainous Chickens  

PubMed Central

Native chickens hold a significant share of the market in China. In response to the huge demand from the market, the productivity of Chinese native chickens needs to be improved. Cross breeding is an effective method to increase productivity, although it might affect meat quality. In this study, two pure lines (SD02 and SD03) of Erlang mountainous chickens were hybridized with a yellow feather and faster growing line (SD01). The effect of hybridization on carcass and meat quality (physiochemical and textural traits) was measured in the F1 population at d 91 of age. The hybrids exhibited higher body weight and dressed weight, and amount of semi-eviscerated, eviscerated, breast muscle and abdominal fat (p<0.05). Abdominal fat yield also increased (p<0.05) compared to the offspring of the two pure-lines. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in meat quality traits except for the myofiber diameter and density and the shear force of the breast muscle. Overall, the offspring of cross-lines were similar to pure lines in meat color, pH value, inosinic acid, crude protein, crude fat, dry matter, moisture content and amino acid composition in the breast muscle. These results suggest that productivity can be improved via cross-breeding while maintaining meat quality of the Erlang mountainous chicken. PMID:25049734

Yin, H. D.; Gilbert, E. R.; Chen, S. Y.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Z. C.; Zhao, X. L.; Zhang, Yao; Zhu, Q.

2013-01-01

62

Genetic parameters of egg quality traits on different pedigree layers with special focus on dynamic stiffness.  

PubMed

Egg quality traits are of utmost importance in layer breeding programs due to their effect on profitability in the egg production industry and on the production of quality chicks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and estimate genetic parameters of different quality traits: egg weight, breaking strength, dynamic stiffness (Kdyn), egg shape index, eggshell thickness, and albumen height. Eggs were obtained from 4 pure lines of birds. Two different tests were performed: a white breeding program, with eggs from a male and female line of a white egg layer program that were analyzed at 67 to 70 wk of age, and a brown breeding program, with eggs from a male and female line of a brown egg layer program that were analyzed at 32 to 36 wk of age. In general, heritabilities were moderate to high for all traits (h(2) = 0.23 to 0.71). A high genetic correlation was estimated in both tests between breaking strength and Kdyn (rg = +0.40 to +0.61). Shell thickness was also positively correlated with breaking strength (rg = +0.50 to +0.63) and Kdyn (rg = +0.28 to +0.69). These moderate relationships demonstrate that the strength of an egg not only relies on the shell thickness but also on the quality and uniformity of eggshell construction. Dynamic stiffness might be preferred for breeding purposes due to its lower negative genetic correlation with egg weight and its higher heritability (h(2) = 0.35 to 0.70) compared with breaking strength (h(2) = 0.23 to 0.35). Breaking strength and Kdyn were positively correlated with shape index, which confirms that round eggs will show higher shell stability. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor egg shape to maintain an optimal form. PMID:25104763

Blanco, A E; Icken, W; Ould-Ali, D; Cavero, D; Schmutz, M

2014-10-01

63

Secondary sex traits, parasites, immunity and ejaculate quality in the Arctic charr  

PubMed Central

Ejaculate quality may limit male reproductive success. Sperm cells are immunologically perceived as non-self in the male reproductive tract and may therefore be attacked by the immune system. Males may consequently have to suppress their immune system in order to produce high-quality ejaculates. This suppression may be influenced by the current level of parasite infections, suggesting that only parasite-resistant males are able to produce high-quality ejaculates. In a study of naturally infected male Arctic charr sampled during their spawning period, we found that the density of circulating granulocytes, spleen mass and the intensity of infection by one nematode species located outside the testes were negatively associated with ejaculate quality. This suggests that a male's extra-testicular immune environment may affect the production of high-quality ejaculates and that parasite infections located in the extra-testicular soma may influence ejaculate quality, a trait most likely under directional selection. Moreover, male fertilization potential was negatively correlated with their red spawning coloration. In conclusion, these results emphasize the importance of parasites and immunity as factors generating variability in sperm quality, suggesting that parasite resistance may be of importance for maintaining variance in reproductive success even after copulation.

Liljedal, S.; Folstad, I.; Skarstein, F.

1999-01-01

64

Mobile phones affect multiple sperm quality traits: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

As mobile phone usage is growing rapidly, there is a need for a comprehensive analysis of the literature to inform scientific debates about the adverse effects of mobile phone radiation on sperm quality traits. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of the eligible published research studies on human males of reproductive age. Eleven studies were eligible for this analysis. Based on the meta-analysis, mobile phone use was significantly associated with deterioration in semen quality (Hedges’s g = -0.547; 95% CI: -0.713, -0.382; p < 0.001). The traits particularly affected adversely were sperm concentration, sperm morphology, sperm motility, proportion of non-progressive motile sperm (%), proportion of slow progressive motile sperm (%), and sperm viability. Direct exposure of spermatozoa to mobile phone radiation with in vitro study designs also significantly deteriorated the sperm quality (Hedges’s g = -2.233; 95% CI: -2.758, -1.708; p < 0.001), by reducing straight line velocity, fast progressive motility, Hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test score, major axis (µm), minor axis (µm), total sperm motility, perimeter (µm), area (µm 2), average path velocity, curvilinear velocity, motile spermatozoa, and  acrosome reacted spermatozoa (%). The strength of evidence for the different outcomes varied from very low to very high. The analysis shows that mobile phone use is possibly associated with a number of deleterious effects on the spermatozoa. PMID:24327874

Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

2013-01-01

65

Physically Challenging Song Traits, Male Quality, and Reproductive Success in House Wrens  

PubMed Central

Physically challenging signals are likely to honestly indicate signaler quality. In trilled bird song two physically challenging parameters are vocal deviation (the speed of sound frequency modulation) and trill consistency (how precisely syllables are repeated). As predicted, in several species, they correlate with male quality, are preferred by females, and/or function in male-male signaling. Species may experience different selective pressures on their songs, however; for instance, there may be opposing selection between song complexity and song performance difficulty, such that in species where song complexity is strongly selected, there may not be strong selection on performance-based traits. I tested whether vocal deviation and trill consistency are signals of male quality in house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), a species with complex song structure. Males’ singing ability did not correlate with male quality, except that older males sang with higher trill consistency, and males with more consistent trills responded more aggressively to playback (although a previous study found no effect of stimulus trill consistency on males’ responses to playback). Males singing more challenging songs did not gain in polygyny, extra-pair paternity, or annual reproductive success. Moreover, none of the standard male quality measures I investigated correlated with mating or reproductive success. I conclude that vocal deviation and trill consistency do not signal male quality in this species. PMID:23527137

Cramer, Emily R. A.

2013-01-01

66

Trait Mindfulness and Work-Family Balance among Working Parents: The Mediating Effects of Vitality and Sleep Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the relationship between trait mindfulness and work-family balance among a sample of working parents. Sleep quality and vitality are tested as mediators of this relationship. Results indicate that those with greater mindfulness report greater work-family balance, better sleep quality, and greater vitality. As…

Allen, Tammy D.; Kiburz, Kaitlin M.

2012-01-01

67

Phenotypic diversity and relationships of fruit quality traits in peach and nectarine [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] breeding progenies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agronomic and fruit quality traits were evaluated and compared for three consecutive years on 1,111 seedlings coming from\\u000a 15 peach and nectarine breeding crosses, grown under a Mediterranean climate. Significant differences among and within the\\u000a different progenies were found for most of the traits analyzed. The breeding population segregated for several Mendelian characters\\u000a such as peach or nectarine fruit, round

Celia M. Cantín; Yolanda Gogorcena; María Ángeles Moreno

2010-01-01

68

Neuroticism personality trait is associated with Quality of Life in patients with Chronic Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate Quality of life (QoL) in chronic heart failure (CHF) in relation to Neuroticism personality trait and CHF severity. METHODS: Thirty six consecutive, outpatients with Chronic Heart Failure (6 females and 30 males, mean age: 54 ± 12 years), with a left ventricular ejection fraction ? 45% at optimal medical treatment at the time of inclusion, were asked to answer the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) for Quality of Life assessment and the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory for personality assessment. All patients underwent a symptom limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle-ergometer, in order to access CHF severity. A multivariate linear regression analysis using simultaneous entry of predictors was performed to examine which of the CHF variables and of the personality variables were correlated independently to QoL scores in the two summary scales of the KCCQ, namely the Overall Summary Scale and the Clinical Summary Scale. RESULTS: The Neuroticism personality trait score had a significant inverse correlation with the Clinical Summary Score and Overall Summary Score of the KCCQ (r = -0.621, P < 0.05 and r = -0.543, P < 0.001, respectively). KCCQ summary scales did not show significant correlations with the personality traits of Extraversion, Openness, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness. Multivariate linear regression analysis using simultaneous entry of predictors was also conducted to determine the best linear combination of statistically significant univariate predictors such as Neuroticism, VE/VCO2 slope and VO2 peak, for predicting KCCQ Clinical Summary Score. The results show Neuroticism (? = -0.37, P < 0.05), VE/VCO2 slope (? = -0.31, P < 0.05) and VO2 peak (? = 0.37, P < 0.05) to be independent predictors of QoL. In multivariate regression analysis Neuroticism (b = -0.37, P < 0.05), the slope of ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide output during exercise, (VE/VCO2 slope) (b = -0.31, P < 0.05) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), (b = 0.37, P < 0.05) were independent predictors of QoL (adjusted R2 = 0.64; F = 18.89, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Neuroticism is independently associated with QoL in CHF. QoL in CHF is not only determined by disease severity but also by the Neuroticism personality trait. PMID:25349656

Samartzis, Lampros; Dimopoulos, Stavros; Manetos, Christos; Agapitou, Varvara; Tasoulis, Athanasios; Tseliou, Eleni; Pozios, Iraklis; Kaldara, Elisavet; Terrovitis, John; Nanas, Serafim

2014-01-01

69

MHD coal-fired flow facility baseline water-quality study. Woods Reservoir, May 1979-April 1980  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) is located on Woods Reservoir at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Part of the role of UTSI, as participants in the DOE program, is to document environmental aspects of coal-fired MHD. In early 1979, prior to operation of the CFFF, a water quality program was initiated to establish baseline conditions for the reservoir. The study was designed to provide an accurate assessment of water quality which could be used as a basis for comparison to evaluate the impact, if any, of the plant operation on the aquatic environment. Results of a one year baseline study of water quality on Woods Reservoir are presented in this report. The key findings are that this reservoir is a eutrophic lake. Its predominant ions are calcium and bicarbonate and its pH is circumneutral.

Cooper, J.

1980-12-01

70

Dietary mercury has no observable effects on thyroid-mediated processes and fitness-related traits in wood frogs.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxicant known to cause developmental and behavioral abnormalities in vertebrates. Increasing evidence suggests that Hg can also disrupt endocrine functions and endocrine-dependent processes. For example, dietary Hg has been shown to delay tail resorption during metamorphic climax in amphibians, a process mediated by thyroid hormones. However, a direct link between Hg, hormone disruption, and developmental delays in amphibians has not been explored. Therefore, we examined the effects of dietary Hg (0.01, 2.5, and 10 ?g/g total Hg, dry wt) on thyroid hormone concentrations, development, growth, performance, and survival of wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). Tadpoles accumulated Hg in a concentration-dependent manner; total Hg concentrations in tadpoles at the beginning of metamorphic climax (Gosner stage 42) were 0.03, 1.06, 3.54 ?g/g, dry wt, for control, low, and high Hg diets, respectively. During metamorphic climax, tadpoles eliminated 35% of the inorganic Hg from their tissues but retained most of their accumulated methylmercury. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effect of Hg on the duration of tadpole development, size at metamorphosis, tail resorption time, or hopping performance. Consistent with the lack of effects on development, we also detected no differences in whole-body thyroid hormone concentrations among our dietary treatments. Our results, when compared with the effects of Hg on other amphibians, suggest that amphibian species may differ substantially in their sensitivity to dietary Hg, emphasizing the need for data on multiple species when establishing toxicity benchmarks. PMID:21851131

Wada, Haruka; Bergeron, Christine M; McNabb, F M Anne; Todd, Brian D; Hopkins, William A

2011-09-15

71

Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock*  

PubMed Central

Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5?-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

2013-01-01

72

Exercise addiction: a study of eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachment styles.  

PubMed

Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels of excitement-seeking and achievement striving whereas scores on straightforwardness and compliance were lower than in the exercise control group. The addiction group reported more bodily pain and injuries. This study supports the hypothesis that exercise addiction is separate to an eating disorder, but shares some of the concerns of body and performance. It is driven by a striving for high goals and excitement which results in pain and injuries from overuse. PMID:24342179

Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask; Bilenberg, Niels; Støving, René Klinky

2014-02-28

73

Slaughtering Age Effect on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Italian Heavy Draught Horse Foals  

PubMed Central

The present work describes the effect of slaughtering age on horse carcass traits and on meat quality. Eighteen male Italian heavy draught horse (IHDH) breed foals were employed in the study. Soon after foaling they were randomly subdivided in 3 groups according to 3 age at slaughtering classes: 6 months old, 11 months old and 18 months old. Live weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of each animal were recorded. After slaughtering, meat samples were collected from Longissimus Dorsi muscle between 13th and 18th thoracic vertebra of each animal and then analyzed. The right half carcass of each animal was then divided in cuts. Each one was subdivided into lean, fat and bones. Then, the classification of the lean meat in first and second quality cuts was performed according to the butchers’ customs. Older animals were characterized by a lower incidence of first quality cuts (p<0.01) on carcass. Younger animals showed greater content in protein (p<0.01). Fatty acid profile showed an increasing trend of PUFA connected to the increasing of slaughtering age (p<0.05). The unsaturation index of intramuscular fatty acids was not affected by slaughtering age, confirming that horse meat, if compared to beef, is more suitable from a nutritional point of view. Season influenced reproduction, birth as well as production aspects of this species. The different slaughtering age could represent the way to produce meat of IHDH foals during the entire year without change in the qualitative standard expected by consumers. PMID:25049752

De Palo, P.; Maggiolino, A.; Centoducati, P.; Tateo, A.

2013-01-01

74

Effect of stand and tree attributes on growth and wood quality characteristics from a spacing trial with Populus xiaohei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of stand density (1000 stems\\/ha, 500 stems\\/ha and 250 stems\\/ha) on tree growth and wood quality characteristics\\u000a was studied in a 27-year-old plantation species of Populus xiaohei in China. Results indicated that stand density had significant effects on tree radial growth and crown size, and the lowest\\u000a stand density produced trees with the largest stem taper. In terms

Ze-Hui Jiang; Xiao-Qing Wang; Ben-Hua Fei; Hai-Qing Ren; Xing-E. Liu

2007-01-01

75

Effect of thinning on relationships between three measures of wood stiffness in Pinus radiata: standing trees vs. logs vs. short clear specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of thinning on the relationship of wood quality traits measured on standing trees (dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOE) and outerwood density) and traits measured on logs or short clear specimens was determined using data collected from radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) trees growing in 22 unthinned and 16 thinned plots of harvest age trees in New South

Carolyn A. Raymond; Bill Joe; Dean W. Anderson; Duncan J. Watt

2008-01-01

76

Effects of supplemental levels of hesperetin and naringenin on egg quality, serum traits and antioxidant activity of laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hesperetin and naringenin phytochemicals are naturally occurring flavanoids in citrus fruits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing different levels of extracted hesperetin and naringenin on egg quality, serum traits and antioxidant activity in laying hens. Two experiments were conducted, each for 10 weeks, in a completely randomized experiment design. Each had 100 Leghorn laying

S. Ting; H. S. Yeh; T. F. Lien

2011-01-01

77

Identification of Haplotypes in Promoter of Prolactin Gene and Their Effect on Egg Production and Quality Traits in Layer Chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of prolactin hormone is a crucial event in regulating egg production in chickens for which promoter plays the vital role in expressing the prolactin gene. The objective of the present study was to identify haplotypes in the prolactin promoter and their effects on egg production and egg quality traits in White Leghorn chicken. Single stranded conformation polymorphism followed by

T. K. Bhattacharya; R. N. Chatterjee; R. P. Sharma; M. Niranjan; U. Rajkumar; B. L. N. Reddy

2011-01-01

78

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Sound design for vocalizations: Quality in the woods, consistency in the fields  

E-print Network

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Sound design for vocalizations: Quality in the woods, consistency in the fields Timothy J Brown of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. #12;Reproduced with permission

Handford, Paul

79

Association of calpastatin gene polymorphisms and meat quality traits in pig.  

PubMed

Calpastatin is associated with the rate of post mortem degradation of structural proteins due to the regulation of calpain activity. In the present research, the associations between polymorphisms within 6th intron of porcine CAST gene and several meat quality traits were analyzed. The CAST gene polymorphisms affected meat colour, pH, water holding-capacity (WHC) and texture parameters (toughness, firmness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience) measured in longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles. The analysis performed on the most numerous breeds maintained in Poland, suggested that the most interesting polymorphisms were CAST/HpaII and CAST/RsaI, which had the greatest effect on WHC regardless of the breed analyzed and had an effect on meat pH, firmness and toughness for most breeds. Interestingly, for almost all breeds, the significant effect of both mutations on intramuscular fat content (IMF) was detected. The provided data confirmed the use of CAST gene as a genetic marker in breeding programmes which allows performing a selection focussed on improving the quality of pork. PMID:24583321

Ropka-Molik, K; Bereta, A; Tyra, M; Ró?ycki, M; Piórkowska, K; Szyndler-N?dza, M; Szmato?a, T

2014-06-01

80

Effect of nutritive level on carcass traits and meat quality of IHDH foals  

PubMed Central

The present work describes the effect of nutritive level on horse carcass traits and on meat quality. Eighteen male Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH) breed foals were employed in the study. Soon after foaling they were randomly subdivided into three groups according to three nutritive level classes: 150%, 180% and 200% of maintenance requirements. Live weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of each animal were recorded. After slaughtering, meat samples were collected from Longissimus dorsi muscle. The right half carcass of each animal was then divided into cuts. Each one was subdivided into lean, fat and bones. Live weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage were not affected by nutritive level (P > 0.05). Horses fed with the lower nutritive level showed a higher incidence of lean and a lower incidence of fat (P < 0.01). Moreover, fatty acid profile was not affected by nutritive level (P > 0.05). Probably the tendency of IHDH foals to concentrate adipogenesis in the subcutaneous district could explain the lack of influence of nutritive level on meat quality parameters and its influence on carcass and cut composition, which tend to be richer in fat. PMID:24961285

De Palo, Pasquale; Tateo, Alessandra; Maggiolino, Aristide; Centoducati, Pasquale

2014-01-01

81

Molecular characterization, expression profile, and association study with meat quality traits of porcine PFKM gene.  

PubMed

Glycolytic potential is a hot aspect to meat quality research in recent years. Phosphofructokinase, muscle type (PFKM), is a key regulatory enzyme used to catalyze the irreversible conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate in glycolysis. The present study was designed to investigate the association of PFKM SNP and meat quality traits in pigs. In this study, the 2,864-bp full-length cDNA sequence of the porcine PFKM gene was obtained, which contained 30 bp of 5' UTR, 2,343 bp of coding region, and 491 bp of 3' UTR. The porcine PFKM mRNA was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) T129C in exon 13 of PFKM gene was detected, with its allele frequencies significantly different between Chinese indigenous pig breed and Western pig breeds. The SNP was significantly associated with meat color value (m. biceps femoris), meat marbling (m. longissimus dorsi), meat marbling (m. biceps femoris), intramuscular fat (m. longissimus dorsi) (P<0.01), and water moisture (m. longissimus dorsi) in the Large White×Meishan F2 population. These results laid a foundation for further investigations on the detailed physiological function of porcine PFKM gene. PMID:24840038

Wang, Jun; Qin, Liang; Feng, Yanping; Zheng, Rong; Deng, Changyan; Xiong, Yuanzhu; Zuo, Bo

2014-08-01

82

Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs.  

PubMed

1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability. PMID:23647192

Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z

2013-01-01

83

Determining the genetic heritability of wood properties  

E-print Network

Determining the genetic heritability of wood properties of Sitka spruce critical to timber strength of wood properties critical to spruce timber quality and strength, to aid with future developments in the wood quality of Sitka spruce to be possible. #12;

84

The influence of substrate quality and stream size on wood decomposition dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woody materials decayed more rapidly in a first order stream than in larger streams in eastern Quebec, Canada. The rate of annual mass loss (k) was highest (k=1.20) for alder wood chips in a first order stream and lowest (k=0.04) for black spruce wood chips in a ninth order stream. Decay rates for woody materials in a first order stream

Jerry M. Melillo; Robert J. Naiman; John D. Aber; Keith N. Eshleman

1983-01-01

85

Impacts of air cleaners on indoor air quality in residences impacted by wood smoke.  

PubMed

Residential wood combustion is an important source of ambient air pollution, accounting for over 25% of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Canada. In addition to these ambient contributions, wood smoke pollutants can enter the indoor environment directly when loading or stoking stoves, resulting in a high potential for human exposure. A study of the effectiveness of air cleaners at reducing wood smoke-associated PM2.5 of indoor and outdoor origin was conducted in 31 homes during winter 2009-10. Day 1, the residents' wood burning appliance operated as usual with no air cleaner. Days 2 and 3, the wood burning appliance was not operational and the air cleaner was randomly chosen to operate in "filtration" or "placebo filtration" mode. When the air cleaner was operating, total indoor PM2.5 levels were significantly lower than on placebo filtration days (p = 0.0001) resulting in a median reduction of 52%. There was also a reduction in the median PM2.5 infiltration factor from 0.56 to 0.26 between these 2 days, suggesting the air cleaner was responsible for increased PM2.5 deposition on filtration days. Our findings suggest that the use of an air cleaner reduces exposure to indoor PM2.5 resulting from both indoor and ambient wood smoke sources. PMID:25247985

Wheeler, Amanda J; Gibson, Mark D; MacNeill, Morgan; Ward, Tony J; Wallace, Lance A; Kuchta, James; Seaboyer, Matt; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Guernsey, Judith Read; Stieb, David M

2014-10-21

86

The relevance of different near infrared technologies and sample treatments for predicting meat quality traits in commercial beef cuts.  

PubMed

Visible and near infrared reflectance (Vis-NIR, 350 to 1800 nm), and near infrared transmittance (NIT, 850 to 1050 nm) spectroscopy were used to predict beef quality traits of intact and ground meat samples. Calibration equations were developed from reference data (n = 312) of pH, color traits (L*, a*, and b*), ageing loss (%), cooking loss (%), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF, N) using partial least squares regressions. Predictive ability of the models was assessed by coefficient of determination of cross-validation (R(2)(CV)) and root mean square error of cross-validation. Quality traits were better predicted on intact than on ground samples, and the best results were obtained using Vis-NIR spectroscopy. Predictions were good (R(2)(CV) = 0.62 to 0.73) for pH, L*, and a*, hardly sufficient (R(2)(CV) = 0.34 to 0.60) for b*, cooking loss, and WBSF, and unsatisfactory for ageing loss (R(2)(CV) = 0.15). Vis-NIR spectroscopy might be used to predict some physical beef quality traits on intact meat samples. PMID:23098602

De Marchi, M; Penasa, M; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

2013-02-01

87

Wood stains  

MedlinePLUS

Wood stains are products used for wood finishing. Wood stain poisoning occurs when someone swallows these substances. This is ... Various wood stains Note: This list does not include all sources of wood stain.

88

Identification of putative candidate genes for juvenile wood density in Pinus radiata.  

PubMed

Wood formation is a complex developmental process driven by the annual activity of the vascular cambium. Conifers usually produce juvenile wood at young ages followed by mature wood for the rest of their lifetime. Juvenile wood exhibits poorer wood quality (i.e., lower density) compared with mature wood and can account for up to 50% of short-rotation harvested logs, thus representing a major challenge for commercial forestry globally. Wood density is an important quality trait for many timber-related products. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of juvenile wood density is critical for the improvement of juvenile wood quality via marker-aided selection. A previous study has identified several candidate genes affecting mature wood density in Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.; however, genes associated with juvenile wood density in conifers remain poorly characterized. Here, cDNA microarrays containing 3320 xylem unigenes were used to investigate genes differentially transcribed in juvenile wood with high (HD) and low density (LD) in Pinus radiata D.Don. In total, 814 xylem unigenes with differential transcription were identified in at least one of two microarray experiments and 73 genes (45 for HD, 28 for LD) were identified in both experiments, thus representing putative candidate genes for juvenile wood density. Interestingly, cellulose synthases (PrCesA3, PrCesA11) and sucrose synthase (SuSy), which are involved in secondary cell wall formation, had stronger transcription in juvenile wood with HD, while genes functioning in primary wall formation (pectin synthesis, cell expansion and other modifications) were more transcribed in LD wood. Cell wall genes encoding monolignol biosynthesis enzymes, arabinogalactan proteins, actins and tubulins were differentially transcribed in either HD or LD juvenile wood; however, the latter had exclusively greater transcription of genes involved in monolignol polymerization (laccase and peroxidase). The identified candidate genes also included many non-cell-wall genes (transcription factors, environmental-responsive genes, hormone signalling, etc.) and genes with unknown functions, suggesting complex gene pathways in the regulation of juvenile wood density. Interestingly, 19 out of 73 candidate genes for wood density were among the 108 candidate genes previously identified for microfibril angle, and 16 genes appeared to influence both traits in a synergistic manner for wood stiffness. PMID:22826379

Li, Xinguo; Wu, Harry X; Southerton, Simon G

2012-08-01

89

Bayesian Statistical Analyses for Presence of Single Genes Affecting Meat Quality Traits in a Crossed Pig Population  

PubMed Central

Presence of single genes affecting meat quality traits was investigated in F(2) individuals of a cross between Chinese Meishan and Western pig lines using phenotypic measurements on 11 traits. A Bayesian approach was used for inference about a mixed model of inheritance, postulating effects of polygenic background genes, action of a biallelic autosomal single gene and various nongenetic effects. Cooking loss, drip loss, two pH measurements, intramuscular fat, shearforce and back-fat thickness were traits found to be likely influenced by a single gene. In all cases, a recessive allele was found, which likely originates from the Meishan breed and is absent in the Western founder lines. By studying associations between genotypes assigned to individuals based on phenotypic measurements for various traits, it was concluded that cooking loss, two pH measurements and possibly backfat thickness are influenced by one gene, and that a second gene influences intramuscular fat and possibly shearforce and drip loss. Statistical findings were supported by demonstrating marked differences in variances of families of fathers inferred as carriers and those inferred as noncarriers. It is concluded that further molecular genetic research effort to map single genes affecting these traits based on the same experimental data has a high probability of success. PMID:9071593

Janss, LLG.; Van-Arendonk, JAM.; Brascamp, E. W.

1997-01-01

90

The effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles could prove to be a valuable alternative raw material for antibiotics and disinfectants as it is relatively free of adverse effects. Nanosilver is now been put to practical use in commonly used items, such as, clothes, electric home appliances, and electronic industry, but has not been widely applied in the medical or pharmacological fields. This study was designed to investigate the effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail in completely randomized design with four treatments and six repetitions at 0, 4, 8 and 12 ppm of silver nanoparticle levels. Eggs collected daily and egg parameters, including egg weight, length, width; yolk weight and eggshell thickness were examined. The effect of the different silver nanoparticle levels was determined using the General Linear Model of SAS procedure, whilst differences between the groups were determined using least significant difference test. Results indicated that silver nanoparticles at all levels caused significantly reduce of yolk weight and hen-day egg production for each week than the control treatment ( P < 0.05), whilst silver nanoparticle had no significant effect on egg weight, egg length and width and eggshell thickness.

Farzinpour, Amjad; Karashi, Naser

2013-04-01

91

Franchisee leadership traits vs. manager leadership traits an exploratory study comparing hope, leadership, commitment and service quality delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to add to the understanding of the role of franchising in entrepreneurship and to help franchise systems improve\\u000a efficiency, the constructs of organizational leadership, hope, organizational commitment, and service quality perceptions\\u000a of franchised managers and franchisees are differentiated in the current study. For scholars and practitioners, the dynamic\\u000a relationship between entrepreneurship, franchisees, and management is an important triangle

Robin B. DiPietro; Denver E. Severt; Dianne H. B. Welsh; Peter V. Raven

2008-01-01

92

Effects of bovine SMO gene polymorphisms on the body measurement and meat quality traits of Qinchuan cattle.  

PubMed

Beef cattle breeding programs focus on improving important economic traits, including growth rates, and meat quantity and quality. Molecular marker-assisted selection based on genetic variation represents a potential method for breeding genetically improved livestock with better economic traits. Smoothened (SMO) protein is a signal transducer that contributes to the regulation of both osteogenesis and adipogenesis through the hedgehog pathway. In this study, we detected polymorphisms in the bovine SMO gene of Qinchuan cattle, and we analyzed their associations with body measurement traits (BMTs) and meat quality traits (MQTs). Using DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, 3 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the SMO gene of 562 cattle: 1 G > C mutation on exon 9 (G21234C) and 2 C > T mutations on exon 11 (C22424T and C22481T). Association analysis showed that polymorphisms on both the G21234C and C22424T loci significantly affected certain BMTs and MQTs (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), whereas those on the C22481T locus did not (P > 0.05). Therefore, the SMO gene could be used as a candidate gene to alter BMTs and MQTs in Qinchuan cattle or for marker-assisted selection to breed cattle with superior BMTs and MQTs. PMID:25299195

Zhang, Y R; Li, Y K; Fu, C Z; Wang, J L; Wang, H B; Zan, L S

2014-01-01

93

Utility of Metabolomics toward Assessing the Metabolic Basis of Quality Traits in Apple Fruit with an Emphasis on Antioxidants  

PubMed Central

A gas chromatography–mass spectrometry approach was employed to evaluate the use of metabolite patterns to differentiate fruit from six commercially grown apple cultivars harvested in 2008. Principal component analysis (PCA) of apple fruit peel and flesh data indicated that individual cultivar replicates clustered together and were separated from all other cultivar samples. An independent metabolomics investigation with fruit harvested in 2003 confirmed the separate clustering of fruit from different cultivars. Further evidence for cultivar separation was obtained using a hierarchical clustering analysis. An evaluation of PCA component loadings revealed specific metabolite classes that contributed the most to each principal component, whereas a correlation analysis demonstrated that specific metabolites correlate directly with quality traits such as antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and total anthocyanins, which are important parameters in the selection of breeding germplasm. These data sets lay the foundation for elucidating the metabolic basis of commercially important fruit quality traits. PMID:22881116

Cuthbertson, Daniel; Andrews, Preston K.; Reganold, John P.; Davies, Neal M.; Lange, B. Markus

2012-01-01

94

Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: Influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential and limitations of a fungal bio-treatment of Norway spruce chips with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Different fungal

Teris A. van Beek; Bram Kuster; Frank W. Claassen; Taisto Tienvieri; Frédérique Bertaud; Gilles Lenon; Michel Petit-Conil; Reyes Sierra-Alvarez

2007-01-01

95

Effects of two low phytic acid mutations on seed quality and nutritional traits in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr).  

PubMed

Reduction of phytic acid in soybean seeds has the potential to improve the nutritional value of soybean meal and lessen phosphorus pollution in large scale animal farming. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of two new low phytic acid (LPA) mutations on seed quality and nutritional traits. Multilocation/season comparative analyses showed that the two mutations did not affect the concentration of crude protein, any of the individual amino acids, crude oil, and individual saturated fatty acids. Among other traits, Gm-lpa-TW75-1 had consistently higher sucrose contents (+47.4-86.1%) and lower raffinose contents (-74.2 to -84.3%) than those of wild type (WT) parent Taiwan 75; Gm-lpa-ZC-2 had higher total isoflavone contents (3038.8-4305.4 microg/g) than its parent Zhechun # 3 (1583.6-2644.9 microg/g) in all environments. Further tests of homozygous F(3) progenies of the cross Gm-lpa-ZC-2 x Wuxing # 4 (WT variety) showed that LPA lines had a mean content of total isoflavone significantly higher than WT lines. This study demonstrated that two LPA mutant genes have no negative effects on seed quality and nutritional traits; they instead have the potential to improve a few other properties. Therefore, these two mutant genes are valuable genetic resources for breeding high quality soybean varieties. PMID:19323582

Yuan, Feng-Jie; Zhu, Dan-Hua; Deng, Bo; Fu, Xu-Jun; Dong, De-Kun; Zhu, Shen-Long; Li, Bai-Quan; Shu, Qing-Yao

2009-05-13

96

Genetic control and identification of QTLs associated with visual quality traits of field pea (Pisum sativum L.).  

PubMed

Visual quality of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is one of the most important determinants of the market value of the harvested crop. Seed coat color, seed shape, and seed dimpling are the major components of visual seed quality of field pea and are considered as important breeding objectives. The objectives of this research were to study the genetics and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed coat color, seed shape, and seed dimpling of green and yellow field peas. Two recombinant inbred line populations (RILs) consisting of 120 and 90 lines of F(5)-derived F(7) (F(5:7)) yellow pea (P. sativum 'Alfetta' × P. sativum 'CDC Bronco') and green pea (P. sativum 'Orb' × P. sativum 'CDC Striker'), respectively, were evaluated over two years at two locations in Saskatchewan, Canada. Quantitative inheritance with polygenic control and transgressive segregation were observed for all visual quality traits studied. All 90 RILs of the green pea population and 92 selected RILs from the yellow pea population were screened using AFLP and SSR markers and two linkage maps were developed. Nine QTLs controlling yellow seed lightness, 3 for yellow seed greenness, 15 for seed shape, and 9 for seed dimpling were detected. Among them, five QTLs located on LG II, LG IV, and LG VII were consistent in at least two environments. The QTLs and their associated markers will be useful tools to assist pea breeding programs attempting to pyramid positive alleles for the traits. PMID:21491970

Ubayasena, Lasantha; Bett, Kirstin; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Warkentin, Thomas

2011-04-01

97

Performance of a mobile mechanical screen to improve the commercial quality of wood chips for energy.  

PubMed

The study analyzed the performance of a mobile screening device for upgrading coarse wood chips to residential user standards, by removing oversize particles and fines. The machine was designed for transportation to forest landings, logistic terminals and plant chip yards. Average productivity was 1.9 oven-dry tons (odt) h(-1), corresponding to a screening cost of 28.5€ odt(-1). This figure was lower than the price increase obtained by upgrading industrial chips to residential user standards. Hence, screening offered a profit of 4.7€ odt(-1), or 16% of the original screening cost. The screening process was capable of upgrading chips from industrial to residential specifications, by reducing the incidence of oversize particles below the 1% critical threshold. Screening also allowed a substantial reduction in the content of fines. A similar effect was not verified for crushed wood, which failed to meet the specifications for residential fuel. PMID:21620693

Spinelli, Raffaele; Ivorra, Laura; Magagnotti, Natascia; Picchi, Gianni

2011-08-01

98

Quantitative genetics of growth, carcass-quality traits, and disease resistance in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops [female] x Morone saxatilis [male])  

E-print Network

and genetic correlations (? s.e.) between body weight and carcass-quality traits???????????..????????? 51 13 Estimates and standard errors (s.e.) of General Combining Ability (GCA) for body weight (BW), fillet weight, intraperitoneal fat percentage (IFP... and genetic correlations (? s.e.) between body weight and carcass-quality traits???????????..????????? 51 13 Estimates and standard errors (s.e.) of General Combining Ability (GCA) for body weight (BW), fillet weight, intraperitoneal fat percentage (IFP...

Wang, Xiaoxue

2009-05-15

99

Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330

Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

2013-07-01

100

Analysis of a slow-growing line reveals wide genetic variability of carcass and meat quality-related traits  

PubMed Central

Background Slow-growing lines are widely used in France for the production of high quality free-range chickens. While such production is mainly dedicated to the whole carcass market, new prospects are opening up for the development of cuts and processed products. Whether the body composition and meat quality of slow-growing birds can be improved by selection has thus become an important issue. The genetic parameters of growth, body composition and breast meat quality traits were evaluated in relation to behaviour at slaughter in a large pedigree population including 1022 male and female slow-growing birds. Results The heritability coefficients (h2) of body weight and body composition traits varied from 0.3 to 0.5. Abdominal fat percentage was genetically positively correlated with body weight but negatively correlated with breast muscle yield. The characteristics of the breast meat (i.e., post-mortem fall in pH, colour, drip loss, shear-force and lipid content) were all heritable, with h2 estimates ranging from 0.18 to 0.48. The rate and extent of the fall in pH were under different genetic control. Strong negative genetic correlations were found between the ultimate pH and the lightness, yellowness and drip loss of the meat. Wing flapping on the shackle line was significantly heritable and exhibited marked genetic correlations with the pH at 15 min post-slaughter and the redness of the meat. The genetic relationships between meat quality traits, body weight and body composition appeared slightly different between males and females. Conclusion This study suggested that there are a number of important criteria for selection on carcass and breast meat quality in slow-growing birds. Selection for reduced abdominal fatness and increased breast muscle yield should be effective as both traits were found to be highly heritable and favourably correlated. Substantial improvement in meat quality could be achieved by selection on ultimate pH which was highly heritable and strongly correlated with the colour and water-holding capacity of the meat. Moreover, this study revealed for the first time that the behaviour at slaughter is partly genetically determined in the chicken. PMID:23088779

2012-01-01

101

Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the leptin gene with carcass and meat quality traits of beef cattle.  

PubMed

Studies with different populations are required to properly characterize the robustness of associations of polymorphisms in candidate genes with economically important traits across beef cattle populations before this sort of genetic information can be used efficiently in breeding and management decisions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of previously reported SNP in the bovine leptin gene with carcass and meat quality traits from a large sample of crossbred beef cattle. Five SNP (UASMS1, UASMS2, UASMS3, E2JW, and E2FB) were genotyped on 1,111 crossbred bulls, heifers, and steers. The measured traits included fat, lean, and bone yield (%) by partial rib dissection, grade fat, LM area, HCW, quality grade, LM i.m. fat, and tenderness evaluation of LM and semitendinosus muscle. Only four SNP were analyzed (UASMS1, UASMS2, E2JW, and E2FB), because UASMS1 and UASMS3 were completely linked. A uni-variate mixed-inheritance animal model was used to evaluate the association of either genotypes or haplo-types with the traits. The two leptin exon 2 SNP were associated with fat and lean yield and grade fat (E2JW, P < 0.01; E2FB, P < 0.05), and they interacted in their effect on LM tenderness (P < 0.01). The leptin promoter SNP were either not associated with any of the traits (UASMS2) or with fat yield only (UASMS1). Three haplotypes (TCAC, CCAT, TTAC) were at high frequency in the population (88%) and had similar effects on all the traits. Compared with the common haplotypes, one haplotype (CCTT) showed a significantly different effect on fat and lean yield and grade fat (P < 0.01), and one haplotype (TTTT) had a different effect on LM tenderness (P < 0.03). Therefore, important associations between SNP within the leptin gene with lean yield, fatness (fat yield and subcutaneous fat), and tenderness were detected. Results confirm some of the previously reported associations, but diverge with respect to others, showing that further efforts are required to validate some prospective associations. PMID:16100055

Schenkel, F S; Miller, S P; Ye, X; Moore, S S; Nkrumah, J D; Li, C; Yu, J; Mandell, I B; Wilton, J W; Williams, J L

2005-09-01

102

Genetic parameters and prediction of genotypic values for root quality traits in cassava using REML/BLUP.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and predict the genotypic values of root quality traits in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). A total of 471 cassava accessions were evaluated over two years of cultivation. The evaluated traits included amylose content (AML), root dry matter (DMC), cyanogenic compounds (CyC), and starch yield (StYi). Estimates of the individual broad-sense heritability of AML were low (hg(2) = 0.07 ± 0.02), medium for StYi and DMC, and high for CyC. The heritability of AML was substantially improved based on mean of accessions (hm(2) = 0.28), indicating that some strategies such as increasing the number of repetitions can be used to increase the selective efficiency. In general, the observed genotypic values were very close to the predicted average of the improved population, most likely due to the high accuracy (>0.90), especially for DMC, CyC, and StYi. Gains via selection of the 30 best genotypes for each trait were 4.8 and 3.2% for an increase and decrease for AML, respectively, an increase of 10.75 and 74.62% for DMC for StYi, respectively, and a decrease of 89.60% for CyC in relation to the overall mean of the genotypic values. Genotypic correlations between the quality traits of the cassava roots collected were generally favorable, although they were low in magnitude. The REML/BLUP method was adequate for estimating genetic parameters and predicting the genotypic values, making it useful for cassava breeding. PMID:25177949

Oliveira, E J; Santana, F A; Oliveira, L A; Santos, V S

2014-01-01

103

PLCz Functional Haplotypes Modulating Promoter Transcriptional Activity Are Associated with Semen Quality Traits in Chinese Holstein Bulls  

PubMed Central

The sperm-specific phospholipase C zeta (PLCz) is a candidate sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor that triggers a characteristic series of physiological stimuli via cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations during fertilization. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PLCz gene expression remain largely unknown. To explore the genetic variations in the 5?-flanking region of the PLCz gene and their common haplotypes in Chinese Holstein bulls, as well as to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and transcriptional activity, DNA samples were collected from Chinese Holstein bulls and sequenced for the identification of genetic variants in the 5?-flanking region of PLCz. Two genetic variants were identified, and their haplotypic profiles were constructed. The two novel genetic variations (g. ?456 G>A and g. +65 T>C) were genotyped in 424 normal Chinese Holstein bulls. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that both loci are in transcription factor binding sites of the core promoter region. The association studies revealed that the two genetic variations and their haplotype combinations significantly affected semen quality traits. Using serially truncated constructs of the bovine PLCz promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 726 bp (?641 nt to +112 nt) fragment constitutes the core promoter region. Furthermore, four haplotypes, H1H1 (GTGT), H2H2 (GCGC), H3H3 (ATAT), and H4H4 (ACAC), were significantly associated with semen quality traits and successfully transfected into MLTC-1 cell lines. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the different haplotypes exhibited distinct promoter activities. Maximal promoter activity was demonstrated by the H2H2 haplotypes, as compared with the other haplotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on genetic variants and their respective haplotypes in the 5?-flanking region of PLCz gene that can influence the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls as well as contribute to the transcriptional activity of the PLCz promoter. PMID:23554927

Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Yan; Qi, Chao; Gao, Qin; Zhou, Lei; Li, Qiuling; Wang, Lingling; Zhong, Jifeng; Liu, Mei; Wang, Changfa

2013-01-01

104

The enduring impact of maladaptive personality traits on relationship quality and health in later life.  

PubMed

Over the past 5 years, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) has been collecting data on personality in later life with an emphasis on maladaptive personality, social integration, and health outcomes in a representative sample of 1,630 adults aged 55-64 living in the St. Louis area. This program has confirmed the importance of considering both the normal range of personality and in particular the role of maladaptive traits in order to understand individuals' relationships, life events, and health outcomes. In the current article, we discuss the explanatory benefits of considering maladaptive traits or traits associated with personality disorders when discussing the role of personality in social and health outcomes, with an emphasis on adults in middle to later life, and integrate these findings into the greater literature. PMID:23998798

Gleason, Marci E J; Weinstein, Yana; Balsis, Steve; Oltmanns, Thomas F

2014-12-01

105

Wood Gasification Facility : Quality Assurance Project Plan : Facility Located at North Powder, Oregon.  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Biomass Energy Program, managed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), proposes to develop appropriate methodologies and conduct a testing program of a commercial-scale biomass gasifier to establish: (1) the validity of the test procedures; and (2) the performance of the gasification facility. It is proposed to conduct the testing at the wood gasification plant located at North Powder, Oregon, now operated by Idaho Timber Products of Boise, Idaho. The North Powder wood gasifier is an air-oxidized unit producing about 100 million Btu's per hour in the form of high temperature low-Btu gas (LBG). The gasifier utilizes a fluidized bed to partially combust and gasify mill wastes. Such units hold promise for making the energy of solid biomass available to a broader range of end uses, since the fuel gas created can be readily used by a wide variety of combustion devices or other process equipment. 5 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs.

Freeburn, Scott A.; Houck, James E.

1989-05-05

106

Anatomical variation in quality traits of pork B.L. DUMONT  

E-print Network

females (N = 47) and Pietrain males (N = 10) slaugh- tered in standard conditions) by measuring pH, colour Agricoles et Alimentaires, 6, rue de l'Université, B.P. 313, 29191 Quimper Cedex Measurements of pH, light according to the trait (larger for C than for WHC or pH). Within each muscle, slight differences were also

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

Trait Impressions as Overgeneralized Responses to Adaptively Significant Facial Qualities: Evidence from Connectionist Modeling  

E-print Network

impressions of normal adult faces varying in attractiveness as well as several elderly stereotypes. Activation stereotypes. The evolutionary importance of appropriate responses to unfit individu- als or babies is presumed large effects, comparable in magnitude to the effects of an individual's gender or personality traits

Fellous, Jean-Marc

108

Impact of proximal cytoplasmic droplets on quality traits and in-vitro embryo production efficiency of cryopreserved bull spermatozoa  

PubMed Central

Background Proximal cytoplasmic droplets (PCDs), a remnant of germ cell cytoplasm, are common non-specific morphological defects in bovine semen. This study evaluated the effect of higher percentages of PCDs on the quality of frozen-thawed bovine semen, embryo production and early embryo development. Methods Three ejaculates from each of five (group 1: PCD ? 1%, control) and eight adult Bos indicus bulls (group 2: PCD ? 24%) were analysed. Semen samples were examined for: post-thaw motility, vigour of movement, concentration, sperm morphology, slow thermoresistance test (STT), membrane integrity, acrosome status, mitochondrial function using fluorescent probes association (FITC-PSA, PI and JC-1) and sperm chromatin integrity using acridine orange assay. Two bulls from group 2, with 28.5% and 48.5% PCD, respectively, and three bulls from the control group, each with 0% PCD, were selected for IVF (in vitro fertilisation). Results Semen analyses revealed a significant correlation (P < 0.01) between increased rates of PCD and sperm quality traits. Nevertheless, no differences were observed in sperm motility and vigour either before or after the STT or in the percentage of intact acrosomes (analysed by differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) after STT), but membrane integrity, acrosome status (evaluated with FITC-PSA staining method after thawing) and mitochondrial function were reduced, when compared with group 1 (P < 0.05). The higher incidence of PCD was positively correlated to chromatin damage, especially after three hours of incubation at 37°C. IVF showed similar results for bull C2 (group 1, control) and bull P2 (group 2, group with higher PCDs). Conclusion Higher PCD levels influenced spermatozoa quality traits. IVF and embryo development data showed that cleavage, blastocyst formation and blastocyst hatching may have been influenced by the interaction of morphology traits and individual bull effects. PMID:22240071

2012-01-01

109

Identification of haplotypes in promoter of prolactin gene and their effect on egg production and quality traits in layer chicken.  

PubMed

Expression of prolactin hormone is a crucial event in regulating egg production in chickens for which promoter plays the vital role in expressing the prolactin gene. The objective of the present study was to identify haplotypes in the prolactin promoter and their effects on egg production and egg quality traits in White Leghorn chicken. Single stranded conformation polymorphism followed by sequencing was conducted to explore polymorphism at 561 bp promoter of prolactin gene. The effect of haplotype combinations on egg production and quality traits were estimated following general linear model technique. The expression of prolactin by different haplogroups was quantified by qPCR. Total 28 haplotypes were found in White Leghorn chicken of which h1 haplotype possessed the highest frequency of 0.46 and h8, h14, h16, h25, h26, and h28 haplotypes had the lowest frequency (0.1%). The egg production up to 52 and 64 weeks of age were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) associated with haplotype combinations where the highest 52-w (52 weeks) egg production was found in animals with h1/h22 combination and the lowest production was observed in the birds with h1/h2 haplogroup. The haplotype combinations had the significant effect (p < 0.05) on Haugh Unit, yolk index and albumen weight at 40 weeks of age; Haugh Unit and albumen weight at 52 weeks of age and Haugh unit, yolk weight and yolk percentage at 64 weeks of age. The prolactin expression in h1/h22 birds was found to be the lowest and in h1/h5 birds to be the highest. The prolactin expression showed significant effect on 52-w egg production and albumin weight at 52 weeks age. In conclusion, it may be stated that the prolactin promoter was highly polymorphic and had the significant association with egg production and quality traits in White Leghorn chicken. PMID:21500109

Bhattacharya, T K; Chatterjee, R N; Sharma, R P; Niranjan, M; Rajkumar, U; Reddy, B L N

2011-04-01

110

Effect of polymorphisms in candidate genes on carcass and meat quality traits in double muscled Piemontese cattle.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between 10 candidate genes and carcass weight and conformation, carcass daily gain, and meat quality (pH, color, cooking loss, drip loss and shear force) in 990 double-muscled Piemontese young bulls. Animals were genotyped at each of the following genes: growth hormone, growth hormone receptor, pro-opiomelanocortin, pro-opiomelanocortin class 1 homeobox 1, melanocortin-4 receptor, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, thyroglobulin, carboxypeptidase E and gamma-3 regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase. All the investigated SNPs had additive effects which were relevant for at least one of the traits. Relevant associations between the investigated SNPs and carcass weight, carcass daily gain and carcass conformation were detected, whereas associations of SNPs with meat quality were moderate. Results confirmed some of previously reported associations, but diverged for others. Validation in other cattle breeds is required to use these SNPs in gene-assisted selection programs for enhancement of carcass traits and meat quality. PMID:24361557

Ribeca, C; Bonfatti, V; Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Gallo, L; Carnier, P

2014-03-01

111

Wood and Wood Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood has been utilized by humans since antiquity. Trees provided a source of many products required by early humans such as food, medicine, fuel, and tools. For example, the bark of the willow tree, when chewed, was used as a painkiller in early Greece and was the precursor of the present-day aspirin. Wood served as the primary fuel in the United States until about the turn of the 19th century, and even today over one-half of the wood now harvested in the world is used for heating fuel.

Young, Raymond A.

112

High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of the Opitutaceae Bacterium Strain TAV1, a Symbiont of the Wood-Feeding Termite Reticulitermes flavipes  

SciTech Connect

Microbial communities in the termite hindgut are essential for degrading plant material. We present the high-quality draft genome sequence of the Opitutaceae bacterium strain TAV1, the first member of the phylum Verrucomicrobia to be isolated from wood-feeding termites. The genomic analysis reveals genes coding for lignocellulosic degradation and nitrogen fixation.

Isanapong, Jantiya [University of Texas, Arlington; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pennacchio, Len [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Rodrigues, Jorge L.M. [University of Texas, Arlington

2012-01-01

113

Quality trait variations in [(60)Co]-irradiated wheat and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit mutant identification.  

PubMed

With 300 Gy of [(60)Co] ?-ray radiation of dry wheat seeds of Vortex 9722, the protein content, wet gluten content, sedimentation value, and hardness variation were analyzed in 341 lines in M4. Using over population mean ± 2X standard deviation as the screening standard, 8 lines with higher protein and wet gluten content and 4 lines with lower protein and wet gluten content were selected. In the M5 generation, the quality traits - silty parameters and high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) - were further analyzed in these 12 lines. The results showed that in the M5 generation, the quality traits in some variants were significantly different from those in the parents; the farinograms varied greatly. Eleven variants had significantly different HMW-GS bands compared to their parents. The parents had a HMW-GS composition of 5 + 14 + 15 + 12 + 9, and the variants had HMW-GS of 11 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 12 subunits or 1 + 5 + 7 + 8 + 12 subunits, indicating that the glutenin loci of these lines were mutated. PMID:25366793

Lai, D-E; Wang, M; Zhang, C-Y

2014-01-01

114

Comparison of Quality Traits of Meat from Korean Native Chickens and Broilers Used in Two Different Traditional Korean Cuisines  

PubMed Central

With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC) and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL), KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS), broiler for baeksuk (BL), and broiler for samgyetang (BS) were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5’-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines. PMID:25049883

Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Jun Heon; Kim, Jong Geun; Jo, Cheorun

2013-01-01

115

A comparison between slaughter traits and meat quality of various sheep breeds: wool, dual-purpose and mutton.  

PubMed

The slaughter and meat quality traits of 20-month-old wool (Merino), dual-purpose (Dohne Merino and South African Mutton Merino [SAMM]) and mutton (Dormer) type sheep were compared. Average live weights of SAMM and Dormer sheep were 23% heavier than those of Dohne Merinos which were 28% heavier than Merinos. Fat depths at the thirteenth rib and lumbar regions of Merino and Dohne Merino sheep were lower than those of SAMM and Dormer sheep. The cooking loss, drip loss and shearing value from the M. longissimus dorsi did not differ between breeds. The initial juiciness and sustained juiciness of meat from Merinos were rated significantly lower by sensory analysis. Meat from Dohne Merino was rated significantly more tender for the attribute first bite. It was demonstrated that Dormer and SAMM sheep had heavier but fatter carcasses than Merinos and Dohne Merinos, with differences in meat quality between breeds. PMID:22391055

Cloete, J J E; Hoffman, L C; Cloete, S W P

2012-07-01

116

Analysis of the associations between polymorphisms in GNAS complex locus and growth, carcass and meat quality traits in pigs.  

PubMed

Imprinted genes are interesting candidates for marker assisted selection in farm animals. One of them-GNAS complex locus is engaged in obesity pathogenesis in humans and mice. In our study, we identified new polymorphism in porcine GNAS gene (variable number of CT repeats, accession number: rs196952953) and found that this polymorphism is in linkage disequilibrum with GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T. Statistical analysis (GLM procedure), performed on 552 animals (Large White n = 258 and Landrace n = 269), revealed that deduced haplotypes and GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T are associated with growth performance and a few carcass traits, but not with feed intake. We observed significant additive effects of GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T genotype and haplotype 2 (C/278 bp) on test daily gain (TDG), average daily gain (ADG), number of days on test, age of the slaughter (P < 0.01) and FCR ratio (P < 0.05). Animals with two copies of C/278 haplotype had significantly higher: TDG, ADG, lower feed:gain ratio and faster reached the weight of 100 kg. When carcass traits were considered, significant associations between GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T polymorphism, haplotype 2 (C/278) and weight of ham with and without backfat and skin (WH) (WH2), length of the carcass, height and the width of the loin, meat percentage, weight of the main cuts were identified. The significant dominance effects of GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T polymorphism and haplotype 2 on WH and WH2 were observed (P < 0.05). When the two breeds were analyzed separately significant associations were observed for most of the traits in Landrace while in Large White the same trends were present but the differences were mostly not significant. Among meat quality traits we found significant association between haplotype and IMF content in Landrace (P < 0.03). Our results show for the first time that GNAS complex locus may modulate economically important traits in pigs. PMID:24057249

Oczkowicz, Maria; Ropka-Molik, Katarzyna; Tyra, Miros?aw

2013-11-01

117

Identification of four SNPs and association analysis with meat quality traits in the porcine Pitx2c gene.  

PubMed

The association of the porcine Pitx2c gene with meat quality traits was investigated in the present study. A total of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found. Allele frequencies of four SNPs were further detected in four commercial breeds and eight Chinese indigenous breeds. Single SNP and meat quality associations were analyzed in a Yorkshire×Meishan F(2) population. The SNPs c.474C>T (P<0.01) and c.636C>T (P<0.05) showed a significant association with meat color (MCV1). The SNPs c.*37G>A and c.*47G>A were significantly associated with drip loss rate (DLR), water holding capacity (WHC) and meat color value (MCV1) consistently (P<0.05). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis revealed that the adjacent SNPs were in LD. Two major haplotypes were identified, and association analysis between haplotype combinations and meat quality indicated that the presence of two copies of haplotype 1 -CCGG- may improve meat quality. PMID:21574044

Wu, WangJun; Zuo, Bo; Ren, ZhuQing; Hapsari, A A R; Lei, MingGang; Xu, DeQuan; Li, FengE; Xiong, YuanZhu

2011-05-01

118

Muscle characteristics and meat quality traits are affected by divergent selection on residual feed intake in pigs.  

PubMed

Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed feed intake and that expected based on requirements for maintenance and production. A divergent selection was conducted during 4 generations in Large White male pigs to produce low and high RFI lines. The present study aims at determining the influence of this selection on biochemical and histological traits of skeletal muscle, and relating these changes to correlated effects on growth, carcass composition, and meat quality traits. At 8 d preslaughter, biopsies from the LM were taken in the fed state on 14 females from each RFI line fed ad libitum. Animals were slaughtered at 107.8 ± 8.0 kg of BW without any previous fasting. Samples of LM, semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BFM), and rhomboideus muscles were taken at both 30 min and 24 h postmortem. Myofiber typing was only assessed in LM. Low RFI pigs ("efficient") had leaner carcasses with greater muscle content (P < 0.001), less backfat thickness (P < 0.001), and less intramuscular fat content in all 4 muscles (P < 0.01 to P = 0.04). Their greater muscle content was associated with hypertrophy of all fast-twitch fibers. Glycogen content in all glycolytic muscles (i.e., LM, SM and BFM), was greater in low than high RFI pigs. The greater accumulation of glycogen in LM of low RFI pigs was specifically located in the fast-twitch glycolytic IIBW fibers, which correspond to fibers containing IIb, IIb + IIx, or IIx myosin heavy chains. The difference in muscle glycogen content between RFI line pigs was more significant in the living animals (P = 0.0003) than at 30 min postmortem (P = 0.08). This was associated with a decreased ultimate pH (P = 0.001), and greater lightness of color (P = 0.002) and drip loss (P = 0.04) in LM of low than high RFI line pigs, suggesting that selection for reduced RFI may impair some meat quality traits, such as water-holding capacity. Pigs from the low RFI line exhibited a greater (P = 0.02) percentage of IIBW fibers in LM and tended (P < 0.10) to have less lipid ?-oxidative capacity in LM, SM, and BFM. In contrast, no difference (P > 0.10) between lines was found for citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, mitochondrial activity, and expression of genes coding for uncoupling proteins 2 and 3. Differences between RFI pigs in plasma leptin, cortisol, and thyroid hormone concentrations are presented and discussed. In conclusion, selection for low RFI influenced muscle properties in a way favoring muscle mass, but likely impairing meat quality. PMID:21148787

Lefaucheur, L; Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Louveau, I; Damon, M; Prunier, A; Billon, Y; Sellier, P; Gilbert, H

2011-04-01

119

A genome-wide association study of production traits in a commercial population of Large White pigs: evidence of haplotypes affecting meat quality  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been detected in pigs over the past 20 years using microsatellite markers. However, due to the low density of these markers, the accuracy of QTL location has generally been poor. Since 2009, the dense genome coverage provided by the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip has made it possible to more accurately map QTL using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our objective was to perform high-density GWAS in order to identify genomic regions and corresponding haplotypes associated with production traits in a French Large White population of pigs. Methods Animals (385 Large White pigs from 106 sires) were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and evaluated for 19 traits related to feed intake, growth, carcass composition and meat quality. Of the 64 432 SNPs on the chip, 44 412 were used for GWAS with an animal mixed model that included a regression coefficient for the tested SNPs and a genomic kinship matrix. SNP haplotype effects in QTL regions were then tested for association with phenotypes following phase reconstruction based on the Sscrofa10.2 pig genome assembly. Results Twenty-three QTL regions were identified on autosomes and their effects ranged from 0.25 to 0.75 phenotypic standard deviation units for feed intake and feed efficiency (four QTL), carcass (12 QTL) and meat quality traits (seven QTL). The 10 most significant QTL regions had effects on carcass (chromosomes 7, 10, 16, 17 and 18) and meat quality traits (two regions on chromosome 1 and one region on chromosomes 8, 9 and 13). Thirteen of the 23 QTL regions had not been previously described. A haplotype block of 183 kb on chromosome 1 (six SNPs) was identified and displayed three distinct haplotypes with significant (0.0001?quality traits. Conclusions GWAS analyses with the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip enabled the detection of 23 QTL regions that affect feed consumption, carcass and meat quality traits in a LW population, of which 13 were novel QTL. The proportionally larger number of QTL found for meat quality traits suggests a specific opportunity for improving these traits in the pig by genomic selection. PMID:24528607

2014-01-01

120

Genetic Improvement of Mentha arvensis Based on Essential Oil Yield and Quality Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic divergence among 38 genotypes of Japanese mint Mentha arvensis, studied under the climatic conditions of northern India, could be grouped into eight clusters based on essential oil yield and quality components. Genotypes with relatively high essential oil yields could be identified and suggest the possibility of developing high-yielding, Japanese mint plants having good oil quality. Identification of genotype performance

S. P. Singh; Srikant Sharma; R. K. Tewari

1998-01-01

121

Effect of feedstock moisture content on the quality of liquids from fast pyrolysis of spruce wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of water in biomass influences its behaviour during pyrolysis and affects the physical properties and quality of the pyrolysis liquid. The effects of varying feed moisture content were investigated in a 150g\\/h rig. The feedstock was spruce; the range of temperatures covered 450-550°C and the range of feed moisture contents from bone dry to 13.4% wet basis. The

Peiyan Liu; R. A. Hague; A. V. Bridgwater

122

SNP variation in the promoter of the PRKAG3 gene and association with meat quality traits in pig  

PubMed Central

Background The PRKAG3 gene encodes the ?3 subunit of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), a protein that plays a key role in energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene such as I199V are associated with important pork quality traits. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of the PRKAG3 gene, SNP variation in the PRKAG3 promoter and meat quality phenotypes in pork. Results PRKAG3 gene expression was found to correlate with a number of traits relating to glycolytic potential (GP) and intramuscular fat (IMF) in three phenotypically diverse F1 crosses comprising of 31 Large White, 23 Duroc and 32 Pietrain sire breeds. The majority of associations were observed in the Large White cross. There was a significant association between genotype at the g.-311A>G locus and PRKAG3 gene expression in the Large White cross. In the same population, ten novel SNPs were identified within a 1.3 kb region spanning the promoter and from this three major haplotypes were inferred. Two tagging SNPs (g.-995A>G and g.-311A>G) characterised the haplotypes within the promoter region being studied. These two SNPs were subsequently genotyped in larger populations consisting of Large White (n?=?98), Duroc (n?=?99) and Pietrain (n?=?98) purebreds. Four major haplotypes including promoter SNP’s g.-995A>G and g.-311A>G and I199V were inferred. In the Large White breed, HAP1 was associated with IMF% in the M. longissmus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and driploss%. HAP2 was associated with IMFL% GP-influenced traits pH at 24 hr in LTL (pHULT), pH at 45 min in LTL (pH45LT) and pH at 45 min in the M. semimembranosus muscle (pH45SM). HAP3 was associated with driploss%, pHULT pH45LT and b* Minolta. In the Duroc breed, associations were observed between HAP1 and driploss% and pHUSM. No associations were observed with the remaining haplotypes (HAP2, HAP3 and HAP4) in the Duroc breed. The Pietrain breed was monomorphic in the promoter region. The I199V locus was associated with several GP-influenced traits across all three breeds and IMF% in the Large White and Pietrain breed. No significant difference in promoter function was observed for the three main promoter haplotypes when tested in vitro. Conclusion Gene expression levels of the porcine PRKAG3 are associated with meat quality phenotypes relating to glycolytic potential and IMF% in the Large White breed, while SNP variation in the promoter region of the gene is associated with PRKAG3 gene expression and meat quality phenotypes. PMID:22831392

2012-01-01

123

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in PtoCesA7 and their association with growth and wood properties in Populus tomentosa.  

PubMed

Cellulose synthase (CesA) genes encode the enzymes that synthesize cellulose; therefore, CesAs play central roles in plant development and affect the yield and quality of wood, essential properties for industrial applications of plant biomass. To effectively manipulate wood biosynthesis in trees and improve wood quality, we thus require a better understanding of the natural variation in CesAs. Association studies have emerged as a powerful tool for identification of variation associated with quantitative traits. Here, we used a candidate gene-based association mapping approach to identify PtoCesA7 allelic variants that associate with growth and wood quality traits in Populus tomentosa. We isolated a full-length PtoCesA7 cDNA and observed high PtoCesA7 expression in xylem, consistent with the xylem-specific expression of CesA7. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in PtoCesA7, sampled from the P. tomentosa natural distribution, revealed that PtoCesA7 harbors high nucleotide diversity (?(T) = 0.0091) and low LD (r(2) ? 0.1, within 800 bp). By association analysis, we identified seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (false discovery rate Q < 0.10) and 12 haplotypes (Q < 0.10) that associated with growth and wood properties, explaining 3.62-10.59 % of the phenotypic variance. We also validated 9 of the 10 significant marker-trait associations in at least one of three smaller subsets (climatic regions) or in a linkage-mapping population. Thus, our study identified functional PtoCesA7 allelic variants associated with growth and wood quality traits, giving new insights into genes affecting wood quality and quantity. From an applied perspective, the SNPs revealed in this study have potential applications in marker-assisted breeding. PMID:24549852

Tian, Jiaxing; Chang, Mengqi; Du, Qingzhang; Xu, Baohua; Zhang, Deqiang

2014-06-01

124

Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Loci and Candidate Genes for Body Composition and Meat Quality Traits in Beijing-You Chickens  

PubMed Central

Body composition and meat quality traits are important economic traits of chickens. The development of high-throughput genotyping platforms and relevant statistical methods have enabled genome-wide association studies in chickens. In order to identify molecular markers and candidate genes associated with body composition and meat quality traits, genome-wide association studies were conducted using the Illumina 60 K SNP Beadchip to genotype 724 Beijing-You chickens. For each bird, a total of 16 traits were measured, including carcass weight (CW), eviscerated weight (EW), dressing percentage, breast muscle weight (BrW) and percentage (BrP), thigh muscle weight and percentage, abdominal fat weight and percentage, dry matter and intramuscular fat contents of breast and thigh muscle, ultimate pH, and shear force of the pectoralis major muscle at 100 d of age. The SNPs that were significantly associated with the phenotypic traits were identified using both simple (GLM) and compressed mixed linear (MLM) models. For nine of ten body composition traits studied, SNPs showing genome wide significance (P<2.59E?6) have been identified. A consistent region on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 4 (GGA4), including seven significant SNPs and four candidate genes (LCORL, LAP3, LDB2, TAPT1), were found to be associated with CW and EW. Another 0.65 Mb region on GGA3 for BrW and BrP was identified. After measuring the mRNA content in beast muscle for five genes located in this region, the changes in GJA1 expression were found to be consistent with that of breast muscle weight across development. It is highly possible that GJA1 is a functional gene for breast muscle development in chickens. For meat quality traits, several SNPs reaching suggestive association were identified and possible candidate genes with their functions were discussed. PMID:23637794

Zhao, Guiping; Wang, Fangjie; Wu, Dan; Zheng, Maiqing; Chen, Jilan; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Yaodong; Wen, Jie

2013-01-01

125

Predicting Extractives, Lignin, and Cellulose Contents Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy on Solid Wood in Eucalyptus globulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy can be used to reliably predict both the physical and chemical wood properties of Eucalyptus. However, studies have been based on ground wood, which is costly and time?consuming to obtain. Predicting wood traits from NIR spectral data taken from solid wood would greatly increase the speed and cost?effectiveness of this procedure. Existing ground wood calibrations

Fiona S. Poke; Carolyn A. Raymond

2006-01-01

126

Material: Wood Waste CWC Best Practices in Wood Waste Recycling  

E-print Network

Issue: Low-grade wood waste is defined by the feedstock quality requirements set by the regional endusers. These quality requirements are typically driven by the finished products. Therefore, there is a direct correlation between the value of the low-grade material and the marketability of the processed product. Low-grade wood includes railroad ties, and demolition, painted, and pressure-treated wood. Wood wastes having the lowest or no value to the processor or end-user are classified as low-grade wood. Also, wood requiring special handling is considered low-grade because of the additional processing and marketing costs. Best Practice: This Best Practice recommends low-grade wood be identified at the scale house upon arrival to the facility. Immediate identification of the low-grade wood allows the appropriate fee to be charged. The different fee charges should reflect the level of labor and equipment effort required to process the wood waste, as well as, the lower potential market value of the load. Once the low-grade wood is identified, the load should be directed to a separate tipping area from the higher quality material. This practice assumes an on-site tipping space exists for several waste stream classifications. An important step in upgrading low-grade wood waste is to keep the various categories of feedstocks segregated. Many of the newer facilities realized this variability of the supply and prepared the receiving

Upgrading Low-grade

127

Spatial Variability in Water Quality and Surface Sediment Diatom Assemblages in a Complex Lake Basin: Lake of the Woods, Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake of the Woods (LOW) is an international waterbody spanning the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba, and the U.S. state of Minnesota. In recent years, there has been a perception that water quality has deteriorated in northern regions of the lake, with an increase in the frequency and intensity of toxin-producing cyanobacterial blooms. However, given the lack of long-term

Sergi Pla; Andrew M. Paterson; John P. Smol; Bev J. Clark; Ron Ingram

2005-01-01

128

Changes in muscle cell cation regulation and meat quality traits are associated with genetic selection for high body weight and meat yield in broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between-breed genetic variation for muscle and meat quality traits was determined at eight weeks of age in 34 lines of purebred commercial broiler and layer lines and traditional breeds (categories) of chickens. Between-breed genetic variation for plasma ion concentrations and element concentration in muscle dry matter and ash were determined. Plasma from broilers had higher concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg++,

Dale A Sandercock; Zoe E Barker; Malcolm A Mitchell; Paul M Hocking

2009-01-01

129

Geohydrology and quality of water in aquifers in Lucas, Sandusky, and Wood counties, northwestern Ohio  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrology and quality of ground water were evaluated for the surficial sand and carbonate aquifers in northwestern Ohio. A locally important surficial sand aquifer in western Lucas County was evaluated on the basis of data from 10 wells completed in undeveloped and developed areas. The carbonate aquifer in Silurian and Devonian bedrock at its northernmost extent on the Ohio mainland was evaluated on the basis of data from previous studies and data from 466 wells and 11 springs. Most data are for the period 1985-88. The unconfined surficial sand aquifer is less than 50 ft. (feet) thick. Clay-rich drift, which restricts vertical movement of water, underlines the aquifer. Recharge is from precipitation, and discharge is by evapotranspiration and by flow to local streams and drainage ditches. Water levels are generally 2 to 8 ft. below land surface and fluctuate a total of about 3.5 ft. seasonally in a forested area. Concentrations of iron and manganese in ground water are excessive in some areas. Waters from shallow drive-point wells in residential areas contained larger concentrations of dissolved solids, hardness, sodium, and chloride than did waters from identical wells in undeveloped areas. The presence of nitrate nitrogen an other selected constituents in ground water in residential areas, and the absence of these constituents in ground water in undeveloped areas, indicate that the surficial sand aquifer has been affected by development. In carbonate aquifer, fractures, bedding-plane joints, and other secondary openings are the principal water-bearing zones. These zones can be areally and stratigraphically separated by low-permeability rock. Leaky artesian or semiconfined conditions predominate beneath most of the 1,400-mi? study area. The aquifer is confined by relatively impermeable underlying shale of Silurian age and overlying clay-rich drift of Quaternary age. Unproductive strata, including evaporites, within the sequence of carbonate rocks also confine some water-bearing zones. The carbonate aquifer is part of a regional ground-water-flow system; however, subsystems such as the eastern karst and central outcrops are locally important. The potentiometric surface indicates that recharge from areas south and west of the study area flows toward discharge areas along major rivers (Maumee, Portage, and Sandusky) , to a buried bedrock valley in central Sandusky County, and to springs and flowing wells. The potentiometric surface flattens markedly near the southern shore of Lake Erie, where ground-water levels approximate those of the lake, indicating a hydraulic connection between the lake and the aquifer. Hydrogeologic characteristics and water-quality data indicate that Lake Erie is not a major source of recharge to the aquifer. Ground-water ages inferred from tritium concentrations and potentiometric-surface maps indicate that recharge from precipitation enters the aquifer by subsurface drainage in karstified strata in eastern Sandusky County and by infiltration in shallow bedrock areas where drift is less than 20 ft. thick. The quality of water in the carbonate aquifer is described with reference to 52 properties and constituents that characterize chemical, radiochemical, bacteriologic, and physical conditions. Ground-water samples from 135 wells and 11 springs are used in the characterization. On the basis of these data, water from the aquifer is generally suitable for drinking and for most domestic purposes. The most areally widespread aesthtic factors limiting the use of ground water are hardness, concentrations of dissolved solids, sulfate and iron, and the presence of hydrogen sulfide. Selected bacteria are commonly present and may compromise the potability of water from the aquifer. Coliform bacteria from surface sources were found in 47 of 143 water samples. Analyses for total coliform bacteria indicate that 36 of the 125 samples from wells maintained for potable supply have bacteria counts of 4

Breen, K. J.; Dumouchelle, D. H.

1991-01-01

130

Evaluation of three bovine Y specific microsatellite loci as an alternative biomarkers for semen quality traits in crossbred bull.  

PubMed

Although some of the studies earlier reported that bovine semen parameters are associated with some candidate markers genes, but scanty of reports available regarding the effect of allelic variation in Y specific microsatellite markers on semen quality parameters in bulls. In the present study we have targeted three Y specific microsatellite markers (INRA126, INRA 189 and BM861) for their association ship analysis with some semen quality parameters among Frieswal (HF × Sahiwal) crossbred bulls of Indian origin. The polymorphic loci of INRA 126, bulls with 182 and 184 alleles had significantly (P<0.01) higher semen volume as compared to 186 allele, however, 186 allele showed significantly (P<0.01) higher concentration per ml of semen compared to 182 and 184. Interestingly our study also revealed that number of sperm/ejaculate is also significantly (P<0.05) higher in 184 allele compared to 182 and 186. Similarly, association analysis of INRA 189 major three alleles also revealed a significant difference in semen volume and concentration. Allele 89 and 96 having significantly (P<0.01) higher volume compared to 86, whereas allele 86 having significantly (P<0.01) higher concentration per volume of semen than 89 and 96. Again after association of two major alleles (160 and 164) of BM861 loci with semen parameters revealed no significant difference with any of the semen quality parameters chosen here. Therefore the present study may be for the first time revealed that the Y chromosomal microsatellite alleles are important male reproductive biomarkers for improving semen quality traits in bulls. PMID:24139760

Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Sushil; Singh, Umesh; Tyagi, S; Mandal, D K; Sengar, G; Singh, Rani; Kumar, Mahesh; Sharma, Arjava

2013-11-30

131

Myrmecochores can target high-quality disperser ants: variation in elaiosome traits and ant preferences for myrmecochorous Euphorbiaceae in Brazilian Caatinga.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that the traditional view of myrmecochory as a highly diffuse interaction between diaspores and a wide range of ant species attracted to their elaiosomes may not be correct. The effectiveness of dispersal varies markedly among ant species, and combined with differential attractiveness of diaspores due to elaiosome size and composition, this raises the potential for myrmecochorous plants to target ant species that offer the highest quality dispersal services. We ask the question: Do particular physical and chemical traits of elaiosomes result in disproportionate removal of Euphorbiaceae diaspores by high-quality disperser ants in Caatinga vegetation of north-eastern Brazil? We offered seeds of five euphorb species that varied in morphological and chemical traits of elaiosomes to seed-dispersing ants. High-quality seed-disperser ants (species of Dinoponera, Ectatomma and Camponotus) were identified as those that rapidly collected and transported diaspores to their nests, often over substantial distances, whereas low-quality disperser ants (primarily species of Pheidole and Solenopsis) typically fed on elaiosomes in situ, and only ever transported diaspores very short distances. Low-quality disperser ants were equally attracted to the elaiosomes of all study species. However, high-quality dispersers showed a strong preference for diaspores with the highest elaiosome mass (and especially proportional mass). As far as we are aware, this is the first study to identify a mechanism of diaspore selection by high-quality ant dispersers based on elaiosome traits under field conditions. Our findings suggest that myrmecochorous plants can preferentially target high-quality seed-disperser ants through the evolution of particular elaiosome traits. PMID:24085639

Leal, Laura Carolina; Lima Neto, Mário Correia; de Oliveira, Antônio Fernando Morais; Andersen, Alan N; Leal, Inara R

2014-02-01

132

Silicon supplements affect floricultural quality traits and elemental nutrient concentrations of greenhouse produced gerbera  

Microsoft Academic Search

In greenhouse production most floricultural crops are cultivated in soilless substrates with limited concentrations of the beneficial element silicon (Si). Inclusion of supplemental silicon in greenhouse production is reported to affect the quality of several herbaceous plants that accumulate Si in their tissue. The goals of this study were to evaluate the effects of different Si sources and concentrations on

Sophia Kamenidou; Todd J. Cavins; Stephen Marek

2010-01-01

133

The relation of blood glucose level to muscle fiber characteristics and pork quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between blood glucose level, muscle fiber characteristics, and pork quality. Muscle samples were classified into three groups based on blood glucose level measured at slaughter. Pigs with higher area percentages of fiber type IIB showed higher blood glucose levels compared to pigs with lower area percentages of fiber type IIB.

J. H. Choe; Y. M. Choi; S. H. Lee; Y. J. Nam; Y. C. Jung; H. C. Park; Y. Y. Kim; B. C. Kim

2009-01-01

134

Effects of Variants in Proopiomelanocortin and Neuropeptide Y Genes on Growth, Carcass, and Meat Quality Traits in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Appetite-related neuropeptides proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) are essential for regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of variants in POMC and NPY genes on growth, carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits. A total of six SNPs were identified for POMC (n = 2) and NPY (n = 4) genes by direct sequencing. Three SNPs were subsequently genotyped by using MassArray system (Sequenom iPLEXassay) in 235 individuals, which belong to three meat rabbit breeds, including 93 Ira rabbits; 81 Champagne rabbits and 61 Tianfu black rabbits. The SNP c.112-12G>T was in intron-exon boundaries (intron 1) of POMC gene, and the association analysis showed that individuals with TT genotype had a greater 84 d body weight (BW84), eviscerated weight and semi-eviscerated weight than those with GT genotype (p<0.05); the TT individuals were also higher than those GG in the ripe meat ratio (RMR) (p<0.05). The g.1778G>C SNP, which was in complete linkage with other three SNPs (g.1491G>A, g.1525G>T and g.1530C>T) in intron 1 of NPY gene, was significantly correlated with eviscerated slaughter percentage and semi-eviscerated slaughter percentage in rabbits, and the individuals with CC genotype had a better performance than CG genotype (p<0.05). These findings would provide primary clues for the biological roles of POMC and NPY underlying the rabbit growth-related traits. PMID:25049995

Liu, Wen-Chao; Chen, Shi-Yi; Jia, Xian-Bo; Wang, Jie; Lai, Song-Jia

2014-01-01

135

Effects of variants in proopiomelanocortin and neuropeptide y genes on growth, carcass, and meat quality traits in rabbits.  

PubMed

Appetite-related neuropeptides proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) are essential for regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of variants in POMC and NPY genes on growth, carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits. A total of six SNPs were identified for POMC (n = 2) and NPY (n = 4) genes by direct sequencing. Three SNPs were subsequently genotyped by using MassArray system (Sequenom iPLEXassay) in 235 individuals, which belong to three meat rabbit breeds, including 93 Ira rabbits; 81 Champagne rabbits and 61 Tianfu black rabbits. The SNP c.112-12G>T was in intron-exon boundaries (intron 1) of POMC gene, and the association analysis showed that individuals with TT genotype had a greater 84 d body weight (BW84), eviscerated weight and semi-eviscerated weight than those with GT genotype (p<0.05); the TT individuals were also higher than those GG in the ripe meat ratio (RMR) (p<0.05). The g.1778G>C SNP, which was in complete linkage with other three SNPs (g.1491G>A, g.1525G>T and g.1530C>T) in intron 1 of NPY gene, was significantly correlated with eviscerated slaughter percentage and semi-eviscerated slaughter percentage in rabbits, and the individuals with CC genotype had a better performance than CG genotype (p<0.05). These findings would provide primary clues for the biological roles of POMC and NPY underlying the rabbit growth-related traits. PMID:25049995

Liu, Wen-Chao; Chen, Shi-Yi; Jia, Xian-Bo; Wang, Jie; Lai, Song-Jia

2014-05-01

136

Genetic variances, heritabilities and maternal effects on body weight, breast meat yield, meat quality traits and the shape of the growth curve in turkey birds  

PubMed Central

Background Turkey is an important agricultural species and is largely used as a meat bird. In 2004, turkey represented 6.5% of the world poultry meat production. The world-wide turkey population has rapidly grown due to increased commercial farming. Due to the high demand for turkey meat from both consumers and industry global turkey stocks increased from 100 million in 1970 to over 276 million in 2004. This rapidly increasing importance of turkeys was a reason to design this study for the estimation of genetic parameters that control body weight, body composition, meat quality traits and parameters that shape the growth curve in turkey birds. Results The average heritability estimate for body weight traits was 0.38, except for early weights that were strongly affected by maternal effects. This study showed that body weight traits, upper asymptote (a growth curve trait), percent breast meat and redness of meat had high heritability whereas heritabilities of breast length, breast width, percent drip loss, ultimate pH, lightness and yellowness of meat were medium to low. We found high positive genetic and phenotypic correlations between body weight, upper asymptote, most breast meat yield traits and percent drip loss but percent drip loss was found strongly negatively correlated with ultimate pH. Percent breast meat, however, showed genetic correlations close to zero with body weight traits and upper asymptote. Conclusion The results of this analysis and the growth curve from the studied population of turkey birds suggest that the turkey birds could be selected for breeding between 60 and 80 days of age in order to improve overall production and the production of desirable cuts of meat. The continuous selection of birds within this age range could promote high growth rates but specific attention to meat quality would be needed to avoid a negative impact on the quality of meat. PMID:21266032

2011-01-01

137

CWC Best Practices in Wood Waste Recycling Wood Waste Feedstock Specification for Particleboard Material: Wood Waste  

E-print Network

Issue: Particleboard manufacturers closely monitor their wood fiber supplies. Poor quality feedstock causes costly down-time, excessive equipment maintenance or damage, or end-product quality problems. These types of problems jeopardize the long-term viability of the use of wood waste feedstock. Since wood waste processors are trying to displace the traditional virgin wood fiber suppliers, satisfying the particleboard manufacturer’s specifications are critical to sustaining the captured market share. Critical product quality characteristics include: wood species, geometry, color, size distribution, allowable contaminant levels, and moisture content. Best Practice: This Best Practice recommends that wood waste processors and end-users agree to specific product quality requirements in writing. Wood waste processors need to develop these agreements with each individual customer, since the particular details of feedstock specifications vary from one customer to another. The variations in feedstock specifications are determined by the customer’s processing equipment and techniques. Wood waste feedstock requirements include: Wood Species Wood species specifications vary by mill and region. Particleboard mills might have a species preference for their feedstock. Some mills set maximum allowable levels of certain species by weight, such as:

Non-wood Contaminants

138

Untargeted Metabolic Quantitative Trait Loci Analyses Reveal a Relationship between Primary Metabolism and Potato Tuber Quality1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in -omics technologies such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics along with genotypic profiling have permitted dissection of the genetics of complex traits represented by molecular phenotypes in nonmodel species. To identify the genetic factors underlying variation in primary metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum), we have profiled primary metabolite content in a diploid potato mapping population, derived from crosses between S. tuberosum and wild relatives, using gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry. In total, 139 polar metabolites were detected, of which we identified metabolite quantitative trait loci for approximately 72% of the detected compounds. In order to obtain an insight into the relationships between metabolic traits and classical phenotypic traits, we also analyzed statistical associations between them. The combined analysis of genetic information through quantitative trait locus coincidence and the application of statistical learning methods provide information on putative indicators associated with the alterations in metabolic networks that affect complex phenotypic traits. PMID:22223596

Carreno-Quintero, Natalia; Acharjee, Animesh; Maliepaard, Chris; Bachem, Christian W.B.; Mumm, Roland; Bouwmeester, Harro; Visser, Richard G.F.; Keurentjes, Joost J.B.

2012-01-01

139

Association of PPAR?2 polymorphisms with carcass and meat quality traits in a Pietrain x Jinhua F2 population  

PubMed Central

The PPAR?2 gene is a key regulator of both proliferation and preadipocyte differentiation in mammals. Herein its genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed using PCR-SSCP in eight pig breeds (N = 416). Two kinds of polymorphisms of the PPAR?2 gene were detected, including a previously reported shift SNP A177G (Met59Val) in exon 1 and a novel silent mutation G876A in exon 5. The results revealed that European pig breeds carry a higher allele A frequency at the A177G locus and a fixed GG genotype at the G876A locus. Allele A at the G876A locus was only found in Jinhua pigs. The association between haplotype (A177G/G876A) and carcass and meat quality traits was analyzed in a Pietrain x Jinhua F2 population (N = 248). The PPAR?2 gene was found to be significantly associated with backfat thickness at the shoulder (p < 0.05), 6–7th ribs (p < 0.01), last rib (p < 0.01), gluteus medius (p <0.05) and ham weight (p < 0.01). Significant effects of different haplotypes on ham weight and backfat thickness at the 6–7th ribs, last rib, and gluteus medius were also observed. PMID:21637544

Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Xiaoling; Guo, Xiaoling; Lv, Zunzhou; Zhou, Hongmei; Xu, Ningying

2011-01-01

140

Effects on egg quality traits of genotype and diets with mussel meal or wheat-distillers dried grains with solubles.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate effects on exterior and interior egg quality and sensory characteristics of eggs from hens fed diets with admixtures of 3.5 or 7.0% of mussel meal or 20% wheat-distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The mussel meal diets followed organic standards, whereas the DDGS diet was formulated for hens in conventional production. Standard diets, one organic and one conventional from a Swedish feed manufacturer, were included for comparison. The study used 164 Hy-Line White W-98 and 164 Hy-Line Brown layers housed in small-group furnished cages. Egg flavor or odor was not affected by genotype. Egg flavor intensity was stronger in eggs from hens fed either of the mussel diets or the standard organic diet compared with the conventional diet. There were no differences between any of the diets in egg odor intensity, off-flavor, or off-odor. The mussel diets and the standard organic diet gave stronger yolk pigmentation than the conventional and DDGS diet, respectively. Manure DM was lower with the admixture of 7.0% mussel meal than 3.5%. There was a tendency (P < 0.10) toward a difference between diets in dirty eggs, and the percentage was highest with 7.0% mussel meal. Diet or genotype had no effect on egg weight, albumen height, shell deformation, shell breaking strength, or proportion of cracked eggs. Genotype differences were found in weight percentage of albumen, yolk, and shell and in the presence of blood and meat spots and in percentage of dirty eggs. In conclusion, the majority of egg quality traits were unaffected by the diets studied. With the admixture of DDGS used in the present study, the characteristics of eggs were similar to those of eggs produced on the conventional standard diet. There was no indication of impaired egg odor or flavor with the used fractions of DDGS or mussel meal. PMID:20308407

Wall, H; Jönsson, L; Johansson, L

2010-04-01

141

Quality of life and personality traits in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma and their first-degree caregivers  

PubMed Central

Asbestos exposure causes significant pleural diseases, including malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Taking into account the impact of MPM on emotional functioning and wellbeing, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of life and personality traits in patients with MPM and their first-degree caregivers through the World Health Organization Quality of Life–BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). The sample was composed of 27 MPM patients, 55 first-degree relatives enrolled in Casale Monferrato and Monfalcone (Italy), and 40 healthy controls (HC). Patients and relatives reported poorer physical health than the HC. Patients had a higher overall sense of physical debilitation and poorer health than relatives and the HC, more numerous complaints of memory problems and difficulties in concentrating, and a greater belief that goals cannot be reached or problems solved, while often claiming that they were more indecisive and inefficacious than the HC. First-degree relatives reported lower opinions of others, a greater belief that goals cannot be reached or problems solved, support for the notion that they are indecisive and inefficacious, and were more likely to suffer from fear that significantly inhibited normal activities than were HC. In multinomial regression analyses, partial models indicated that sex, physical comorbidities, and the True Response Inconsistency (TRIN-r), Malaise (MLS), and Behavior-Restricting Fears (BRF) dimensions of the MMPI-2-RF had significant effects on group differences. In conclusion, health care providers should assess the ongoing adjustment and emotional wellbeing of people with MPM and their relatives, and provide support to reduce emotional distress. PMID:23983468

Granieri, Antonella; Tamburello, Stella; Tamburello, Antonino; Casale, Silvia; Cont, Chiara; Guglielmucci, Fanny; Innamorati, Marco

2013-01-01

142

Quality of life and personality traits in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma and their first-degree caregivers.  

PubMed

Asbestos exposure causes significant pleural diseases, including malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Taking into account the impact of MPM on emotional functioning and wellbeing, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of life and personality traits in patients with MPM and their first-degree caregivers through the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). The sample was composed of 27 MPM patients, 55 first-degree relatives enrolled in Casale Monferrato and Monfalcone (Italy), and 40 healthy controls (HC). Patients and relatives reported poorer physical health than the HC. Patients had a higher overall sense of physical debilitation and poorer health than relatives and the HC, more numerous complaints of memory problems and difficulties in concentrating, and a greater belief that goals cannot be reached or problems solved, while often claiming that they were more indecisive and inefficacious than the HC. First-degree relatives reported lower opinions of others, a greater belief that goals cannot be reached or problems solved, support for the notion that they are indecisive and inefficacious, and were more likely to suffer from fear that significantly inhibited normal activities than were HC. In multinomial regression analyses, partial models indicated that sex, physical comorbidities, and the True Response Inconsistency (TRIN-r), Malaise (MLS), and Behavior-Restricting Fears (BRF) dimensions of the MMPI-2-RF had significant effects on group differences. In conclusion, health care providers should assess the ongoing adjustment and emotional wellbeing of people with MPM and their relatives, and provide support to reduce emotional distress. PMID:23983468

Granieri, Antonella; Tamburello, Stella; Tamburello, Antonino; Casale, Silvia; Cont, Chiara; Guglielmucci, Fanny; Innamorati, Marco

2013-01-01

143

Influence of a rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid mixture on carcass traits and meat quality in young Simmental heifers.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of feeding rumen-protected CLA during the early growing period on physical and chemical beef properties in young Simmental heifers. A total of 36 heifers (5 mo old; initial BW 185 ± 21 kg) were fed 250 g of different rumen-protected fats daily for 16 wk in 1 of 3 treatment groups: 250 g of a CLA-free control fat; 100 g of a CLA fat containing 2.4% of cis-9,trans-11 CLA and 2.1% of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and 150 g control fat; or 250 g of the CLA fat. Heifer growth performance variables as well as carcass weight, classification (conformation and fatness), and weights of organs and fat depots were not affected (P > 0.05) by CLA supplementation. Concentration of trans-10,cis-12 CLA in tissues (LM and subcutaneous fat) was dose-dependently increased (P < 0.01) by CLA supplementation, whereas that of cis-9,trans-11 CLA in these tissues did not differ (P > 0.05) between groups. The ratio of SFA to MUFA was increased (P < 0.01) in tissues of CLA-fed heifers compared with control heifers. Concentration of ?-tocopherol in LM was greater (P = 0.01) in heifers of the 2 CLA groups than in control heifers. Other quality characteristics such as drip loss during storage, cooking loss, intramuscular fat content, and color variables in LM did not differ (P > 0.05) between groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that feeding rumen-protected CLA during the early growing period changes tissue fatty acid composition but does not influence beef quality variables. Performance variables and carcass traits in young heifers, unlike in pigs and laboratory animals, are not influenced by CLA feeding. PMID:22573839

Schlegel, G; Ringseis, R; Shibani, M; Most, E; Schuster, M; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

2012-05-01

144

Chemical and bioactive quality traits during fruit ripening in eggplant (S. melongena L.) and allied species.  

PubMed

A chemical and bioactive quality evaluation of phytochemicals content of 10 eggplant lines and three allied species (S. sodomaeum, S. aethiopicum and S. integrifolium) was performed. The eggplant lines were divided into the two subgroups of delphinidin-3-rutinoside (D3R) and nasunin (NAS) typologies, on the basis of the anthocyanin detected in their fruit skin. The allied species had higher glycoalkaloids content, lower soluble solids and PPO activity and absence of anthocyanins compared to the eggplant lines; S. sodomaeum stood out for high phenols content. Orthogonal contrast revealed a higher sugar content and low PPO activity in NAS- compared to D3R-typologies, whereas higher chlorogenic acid and anthocyanin contents were present in D3R-typologies. The main effect of the ripening was a decrease in phenols and in the PPO activity, not evidenced in S. sodomaeum, and an increase of glycoalkaloids in overripe fruits. A good relationship was found between superoxide anion scavenging capacity and chlorogenic acid. This study highlighted the pattern of accumulation, also evidencing variations, of several phytochemicals during the eggplant fruit development and ripening. PMID:23134376

Mennella, Giuseppe; Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Fibiani, Marta; D'Alessandro, Antonietta; Francese, Gianluca; Toppino, Laura; Acciarri, Nazzareno; de Almeida, Adelia Emilia; Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo

2012-11-28

145

Novel SNPs in heat shock protein 70 gene and their association with sperm quality traits of Boer goats and Boer crosses.  

PubMed

The semen quality of bucks affects the reproduction performance of the herd and is influenced by genetic and non-genetic factors. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is considered as an important gene affecting semen quality traits. The objectives of this study are to find single nucleotide polymorphisms in HSP70 coding region and their association with semen quality traits on Boer and Boer cross bucks. DNA isolated from 53 goats (36 pure South African Boer and 17 Boer crosses) was subjected to PCR amplification of the exon 1 region of the caprine HSP70 gene. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was used to detect polymorphisms and the variant DNA fragments were sequenced. Two synonymous SNPs (74A>C (ss836187517) and 191C>G (ss836187518)) were detected. Qualities of fresh and post-thaw semen were evaluated for sperm concentration, semen volume, sperm motility and velocity traits, live sperm percentage, and abnormal sperm rate. The C allele of ss836187517 and G allele of ss836187518 were at higher frequencies in both the breeds. The C allele of ss836187517 appeared to be the favorable allele for semen concentration, progressive motility of fresh semen, and motility and sperm lateral head displacement of post-thaw semen. A negative overdominance was observed for ss836187517 alleles on velocity traits of post-thaw semen. The C allele of ss836187518 was favorable for sperm concentration and progressive motility. Results herein suggest that the SNPs in HSP70 may affect on semen quality in tropical regions and specially on the potential of semen for freezing. PMID:24674824

Nikbin, S; Panandam, J M; Yaakub, H; Murugaiyah, M; Sazili, A Q

2014-05-01

146

Delineation of interspecific epistasis on fiber quality traits in Gossypium hirsutum by ADAA analysis of intermated G. barbadense chromosome substitution lines.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity is the foundation of any crop improvement program, but the most cultivated Upland cotton [Gossypium hirsutum L., 2n = 52, genomic formula 2(AD)(1)] has a very narrow gene pool resulting from its evolutionary origin and domestication history. Cultivars of this cotton species (G. hirsutum L.) are prized for their combination of exceptional yield, other agronomic traits, and good fiber properties, whereas the other cultivated 52-chromosome species, G. barbadense L. [2n = 52, genomic formula 2(AD)(2)], is widely regarded as having the opposite attributes. It has exceptionally good fiber qualities, but generally lower yield and less desirable agronomic traits. Breeders have long aspired to combine the best attributes of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, but have had limited success. F(1) hybrids are readily created and largely fertile, so the limited success may be due to cryptic biological and technical challenges associated with the conventional methods of interspecific introgression. We have developed a complementary alternative approach for introgression based on chromosome substitution line, followed by increasingly sophisticated genetic analyses of chromosome-derived families to describe the inheritance and breeding values of the chromosome substitution lines. Here, we analyze fiber quality traits of progeny families from a partial diallel crossing scheme among selected chromosome substitution lines (CS-B lines). The results provide a more detailed and precise QTL dissection of fiber traits, and an opportunity to examine allelic interaction effects between two substituted chromosomes versus one substituted chromosome. This approach creates new germplasm based on pair wise combinations of quasi-isogenic chromosome substitutions. The relative genetic simplicity of two-chromosome interactions departs significantly from complex or RIL-based populations, in which huge numbers of loci are segregating in all 26 chromosome pairs. Data were analyzed according to the ADAA genetic model, which revealed significant additive, dominance, and additive-by-additive epistasis effects on all of the fiber quality traits associated with the substituted chromosome or chromosome arm of CS-B lines. Fiber of line 3-79, the donor parent for the substituted chromosomes, had the highest Upper Half Mean length (UHM), uniformity ratio, strength, elongation, and lowest micronaire among all parents and hybrids. CS-B16 and CS-B25 had significant additive effects for all fiber traits. Assuming a uniform genetic background of the CS-B lines, the comparative analysis of the double-heterozygous hybrid combinations (CS-B × CS-B) versus their respective single heterozygous combinations (CS-B × TM-1) demonstrated that interspecific epistatic effects between the genes in the chromosomes played a major role in most of the fiber quality traits. Results showed that fiber of several hybrids including CS-B16 × CS-B22Lo, CS-B16 × CS-B25 and CS-B16 × TM-1 had significantly greater dominance effects for elongation and hybrid CS-B16 × CS-B17 had higher fiber strength than their parental lines. Multiple antagonistic genetic effects were also present for fiber quality traits associated with most of the substituted chromosomes and chromosome arms. Results from this study highlight the vital importance of epistasis in fiber quality traits and detected novel effects of some cryptic beneficial alleles affecting fiber quality on the 3-79 chromosomes, whose effects were not detected in the 3-79 parental lines. PMID:21301803

Saha, S; Wu, J; Jenkins, J N; McCarty, J C; Hayes, R; Stelly, D M

2011-05-01

147

Drip loss in pork: influencing factors and relation to further meat quality traits.  

PubMed

The paper deals with some general features of drip loss and the most important factors influencing it. Moreover, it shows some exemplary results of an own investigation. Up to now there is no generally valid definition of drip loss available. Therefore measurement procedures have to be strongly standardized, otherwise they provide no comparable results. Drip loss depends on the shortening of sarcomeres which is regulated by the interaction of muscle temperature and rigour development. Hence, the chilling conditions are highly important. However, the main point is the velocity and the extent of the pH fall after slaughter. All factors influencing the occurrence of quality deviations like PSE, DFD, Acid meat, RSE, PFN will inevitably affect the degree of drip loss too. Under the conditions of an own study, investigating material of a progeny testing station, untypically, one third of the loins with higher-than-average wateriness were red rather than pale, and one third of the loins with higher-than-average brightness were only slightly exudative, which is untypical too. Pork with higher-than-average brightness and low wateriness exhibited, apart from the colour deviation, no crucial disadvantages. It showed only a marginally higher loss during storage, thawing and heating. Pork with higher-than-average drip loss - regardless of dark or pale colour - was predominantly combined with a pH(1) less than 6.2, an electrical conductivity 24 h p.m. higher than 5.0 and a loin area higher than 56 cm(2). PMID:17988246

Fischer, K

2007-11-01

148

Diversity and relationships in key traits for functional and apparent quality in a collection of eggplant: fruit phenolics content, antioxidant activity, polyphenol oxidase activity, and browning.  

PubMed

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) varieties with increased levels of phenolics in the fruit present enhanced functional quality, but may display greater fruit flesh browning. We evaluated 18 eggplant accessions for fruit total phenolics content, chlorogenic acid content, DPPH scavenging activity, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, liquid extract browning, and fruit flesh browning. For all the traits we found a high diversity, with differences among accessions of up to 3.36-fold for fruit flesh browning. Variation in total content in phenolics and in chlorogenic acid content accounted only for 18.9% and 6.0% in the variation in fruit flesh browning, and PPO activity was not significantly correlated with fruit flesh browning. Liquid extract browning was highly correlated with chlorogenic acid content (r = 0.852). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified four groups of accessions with different profiles for the traits studied. Results suggest that it is possible to develop new eggplant varieties with improved functional and apparent quality. PMID:23972229

Plazas, Mariola; López-Gresa, María P; Vilanova, Santiago; Torres, Cristina; Hurtado, Maria; Gramazio, Pietro; Andújar, Isabel; Herráiz, Francisco J; Bellés, José M; Prohens, Jaime

2013-09-18

149

Genetic analyses of growth, real-time ultrasound, carcass, and pork quality traits in Duroc and Landrace pigs: II. Heritabilities and correlations.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the genetic control of pork quality traits and relationships among pork quality, growth, and carcass characteristics is required for American swine populations. Data from a 2 x 2 diallel mating system involving Landrace and Duroc pigs were used to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations among growth (ADG), real-time ultrasonic (US) measures of backfat thickness (BF) and longissimus muscle area (LMA), carcass characteristics, and various pork quality traits. Data were collected from 5,649 pigs, 960 carcasses, and 792 loin chops representing 65, 49, and 49 sires, respectively. Genetic parameters were estimated by REML assuming animal models. Heritability estimates were moderate to high for ADG, USBF, USLMA, carcass BF, and LMA, percentage of LM lipid (IMF), pork tenderness, and overall acceptability. Estimates were low to moderate for percentage of cooking loss, pH, shear force, percentage of LM water, water-holding capacity (WHC), pork flavor, and juiciness. Genetic correlations between US and carcass measures of BF and LMA indicate that selection based on US data will result in effective improvement in carcass characteristics. Selection for increased LMA and(or) decreased BF using US is, however, expected to result in decreased IMF and WHC, increased percentage of LM water and shear value, and in decreased juiciness, tenderness, and pork flavor. Average daily gain was favorably correlated with IMF and unfavorably correlated with shear force. Selection for increased ADG is expected to improve WHC but to decrease the percentage of LM water, with an associated decrease in juiciness. The results of this study suggest the feasibility of including meat quality in selection objectives to improve product quality. Favorable genetic correlations between IMF and eating quality traits suggest the possible merit of including IMF in the selection objective to improve, or restrict change in, pork eating quality. PMID:1506302

Lo, L L; McLaren, D G; McKeith, F K; Fernando, R L; Novakofski, J

1992-08-01

150

Effects of lairage time after road transport on some blood indicators of welfare and meat quality traits in sheep.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different lairage time after 8?h road transport on some blood indicators of welfare and meat quality traits in sheep. A total of 84 Ujimqin male sheep (average body weight 27.5?kg, 6?months old) were randomly allotted to one of seven groups: one control group (untransported) and six lairage groups (8?h road transport with 0, 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48?h lairage times respectively). No significant lairage time effects were observed on weight loss. Sheep in 48?h group showed lower hot carcass weight, dressing percentage and higher pH(24?h) than that in other groups. The total haem pigment contents in sheep meat rose and were higher in 24 and 48?h groups than that in the control group. After transport, sheep in 0, 2, 24 and 48?h groups showed higher serum creatine kinase activities, cortisol and glucose concentrations than that in control group. Sheep in lairage groups had higher serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels compared with the control sheep. Sheep in 48?h group showed significant higher packed cell volume, total protein and blood urea nitrogen than that in other groups. Compared with the control group, the white blood cell counts were higher in 0 and 48?h groups. The neutrophil counts in 24 or 48?h groups were higher than that in the control group. The opposite was true for lymphocyte counts. A 6-12?h lairage is recommended in terms of the present transported pattern. PMID:21929728

Liu, H W; Zhong, R Z; Zhou, D W; Sun, H X; Zhao, C S

2012-12-01

151

Growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits as affected by different growth promoters.  

PubMed

The aim of the article was to study the effect of different growth promoters on growth performance, carcass quality, biochemical and haematological traits and immune response of growing rabbits. A total number of 105 male growing NZW rabbits during 35-91 days of age were randomly distributed among 7 groups fed the same basal diet and submitted to different dietary treatments: the first group was unsupplemented and used as control; the other groups were supplemented respectively with bee pollen and/or propolis at 200 mg/kg BW of each and inulin and/or mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) at 35 mg/kg BW of each. Body weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), biochemical and haematological blood parameters, carcass characteristics, histological studies of ileum and spleen and economical efficiency were measured. Bee pollen administered alone or with propolis significantly (p < 0.01) the body weight gain and improved FCR in respect of the control group. Inulin with MOS significantly improved just FCR than the control group. Bee pollen with propolis and MOS supplemented-groups resulted in significantly higher (7.96 and 8.41% respectively) white blood cells compared to the control group. Plasma total cholesterol was significantly higher for the MOS group in respect of the control, bee pollen, inulin and inulin with MOS supplemented-groups. Propolis resulted in significantly higher dressed carcass percentage than the control group and higher carcass index than only bee pollen with propolis supplemented-group. Bee pollen, in particular if in combination with propolis, could be used as a supplement in the growing rabbits during days 35-91 of age with positive effects on growth rate and feed conversion ratio. PMID:23419029

Attia, Y A; El-Hanoun, A M; Bovera, F; Monastra, G; El-Tahawy, W S; Habiba, H I

2014-02-01

152

Pectin Methylesterase Genes Influence Solid Wood Properties of Eucalyptus pilularis1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

This association study of Eucalyptus pilularis populations provides empirical evidence for the role of Pectin Methylesterase (PME) in influencing solid wood characteristics of Eucalyptus. PME6 was primarily associated with the shrinkage and collapse of drying timber, which are phenotypic traits consistent with the role of pectin as a hydrophilic polysaccharide. PME7 was primarily associated with cellulose and pulp yield traits and had an inverse correlation with lignin content. Selection of specific alleles in these genes may be important for improving trees as sources of high-quality wood products. A heterozygote advantage was postulated for the PME7 loci and, in combination with haplotype blocks, may explain the absence of a homozygous class at all single-nucleotide polymorphisms investigated in this gene. PMID:22052017

Sexton, Timothy R.; Henry, Robert J.; Harwood, Chris E.; Thomas, Dane S.; McManus, Luke J.; Raymond, Carolyn; Henson, Michael; Shepherd, Mervyn

2012-01-01

153

Identification of QTLs for fruit quality traits in Japanese apples: QTLs for early ripening are tightly related to preharvest fruit drop  

PubMed Central

Many important apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit quality traits are regulated by multiple genes, and more information about quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits is required for marker-assisted selection. In this study, we constructed genetic linkage maps of the Japanese apple cultivars ‘Orin’ and ‘Akane’ using F1 seedlings derived from a cross between these cultivars. The ‘Orin’ map consisted of 251 loci covering 17 linkage groups (LGs; total length 1095.3 cM), and the ‘Akane’ map consisted of 291 loci covering 18 LGs (total length 1098.2 cM). We performed QTL analysis for 16 important traits, and found that four QTLs related to harvest time explained about 70% of genetic variation, and these will be useful for marker-assisted selection. The QTL for early harvest time in LG15 was located very close to the QTL for preharvest fruit drop. The QTL for skin color depth was located around the position of MYB1 in LG9, which suggested that alleles harbored by ‘Akane’ are regulating red color depth with different degrees of effect. We also analyzed soluble solids and sugar component contents, and found that a QTL for soluble solids content in LG16 could be explained by the amount of sorbitol and fructose. PMID:25320559

Kunihisa, Miyuki; Moriya, Shigeki; Abe, Kazuyuki; Okada, Kazuma; Haji, Takashi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kim, Hoytaek; Nishitani, Chikako; Terakami, Shingo; Yamamoto, Toshiya

2014-01-01

154

Does the expression of a male plumage trait in female Kentish plovers ( Charadrius alexandrinus ) signal individual quality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small percentage (4.5%) of females Kentish plovers (Charadrius alexandrinus) observed breeding in southern Spain expressed a plumage trait characteristic of males: the forecrown (frontal) black bar. The expression of this male trait may be age-related, and reversible, i.e., within individuals it may be present in some years but not in other years. Females with frontal bars were not in

J. A. Amat

2005-01-01

155

The use of thyme and orange essential oils blend to improve quality traits of marinated chicken meat.  

PubMed

Poultry meat contains large quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which lead to oxidative deterioration. Plant essential oils (EO) and natural compounds, with antioxidant properties, may be used to alleviate this problem. Two replications were conducted to evaluate the effects of a mixture (1:1) of thyme and orange oils (EO) on the quality characteristics and the oxidative stability of chicken meat (breast and wing). For each replication, 24 fresh breast fillets and 24 wings were procured from a local grocery store. The EO were added to marinade solution to achieve a final concentration of 0.55% sodium chloride, 0.28% polyphosphate, and 0.05% wt/vol of EO blend. Breasts and wings were split in 2 different groups with homogenous pH and lightness and vacuum tumbled in 2 treatments, a 0.5% EO and a control (CON, no EO). Each group was tested for pH, Commission Internationale d'Eclairage color (lightness, L*; redness, a*; yellowness, b*), moisture content, marinade uptake, purge loss, cook yield, and shear force. Susceptibility to lipid oxidation was determined on fresh and frozen meat by TBA reactive substance analysis (induced oxidation from 0 to 150 min at 37°C). The EO breasts had lower purge loss compared with CON meat. Breast did not show any color, pH, marinade uptake, cooking yield, shear force, or moisture differences due to treatment, although cooked EO breast was slightly less red than CON. The EO wings presented higher a* and b* values after marination and lower purge loss and shear force than CON. No differences were detected on wings for color, pH, marinade uptake, cooking yield, or moisture between EO and CON wings. Both fresh and frozen EO breasts and EO wings were less susceptible to the lipid oxidation during all induced oxidation times compared with CON breasts and wings. In conclusion, EO had a positive effect on broiler breast and wing lipid oxidation without negatively affecting meat quality traits. PMID:24902698

Rimini, Simone; Petracci, Massimiliano; Smith, Douglas P

2014-08-01

156

Formation of Juvenile/Mature Wood in Pinus eldarica medw and Related Wood Properties  

E-print Network

Abstract: The aims of this study were: a) to investigate anatomical properties (tracheid length and annual ring width) and to examine the age of transition from juvenile to mature wood, b) to examine physical properties (oven dry density and volumetric shrinkage) in juvenile and mature wood, c) to determine the relationship among the wood various properties in juvenile/mature wood. Results showed that with increasing cambial age (ring from pith), the values of trachied length and annual ring width increased and decreased, respectively. The duration of juvenile wood was 24 year. The wood density and volume shrinkage content are higher in the mature wood while tracheid length is taller. After determining the age of transition (24 yr), the relationship between tracheid length and ring width and also between the wood density and volume shrinkage were investigated in the juvenile and mature wood by linear regression. According to this correlation, there was a negative relationship between tracheid length and ring width, but this relation in juvenile wood was stronger than mature wood. In addition, the correlation between the wood density and volumetric shrinkage in juvenile wood was weaker than mature wood. Key words:Pinus eldarica Medw Juvenile/mature wood Wood density Tracheid length Annual ring width INTRODUCTION to regulate the quantity and quality of juvenile wood [7].

Abassali Nouri Sadegh; Majid Kiaei

157

WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION  

E-print Network

WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION V #12;#12;443USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. 1997, these trees are a vital component of wildlife and plant ecosystems, water quality, recreation, and esthetic found in the urban forests and the woody component of the urban waste stream. These have the potential

Standiford, Richard B.

158

Genetic components of milk Fourier-transform infrared spectra used to predict breeding values for milk composition and quality traits in dairy goats.  

PubMed

The usual practice today is that milk component phenotypes are predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and they are then, together with pedigree information, used in BLUP for calculation of individual estimated breeding values. Here, this is referred to as the indirect prediction (IP) approach. An alternative approach-a direct prediction (DP) method-is proposed, where genetic analyses are directly conducted on the milk FTIR spectral variables. Breeding values of all derived milk traits (protein, fat, fatty acid composition, and coagulation properties, among others) can then be predicted as traits correlated only to the genetic information of the spectra. For the DP, no need exists to predict the phenotypes before calculating breeding values for each of the traits-the genetic analysis is done once for the spectra, and is applicable to all traits derived from the spectra. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of DP and IP of milk composition and quality traits on prediction error variance (PEV) and genetic gain. A data set containing 27,927 milk FTIR spectral observations and milk composition phenotypes (fat, lactose, and protein) belonging to 14,869 goats of 271 herds was used for training and evaluating models. Partial least squares regression was used for calibrating prediction models for fat, protein, and lactose percentages. Restricted maximum likelihood was used to estimate variance components of the spectral variables after principal components analysis was applied to reduce the spectral dimension. Estimated breeding values were predicted for fat, lactose, and protein percentages using DP and IP methods. The DP approach reduced the mean PEV by 3.73, 4.07, and 7.04% for fat, lactose, and protein percentages, respectively, compared with the IP method. Given the reduction in PEV, relative genetic gains were 2.99, 2.78, and 4.85% for fat, lactose, and protein percentages, respectively. We concluded that more accurate estimated breeding values could be found using genetic components of milk FTIR spectra compared with single-trait animal model analyses on phenotypes predicted from the spectra separately. The potential and application is not only limited to milk FTIR spectra, but could also be extended to any spectroscopy techniques implemented in other species and for other traits. PMID:23831101

Dagnachew, B S; Meuwissen, T H E; Adnøy, T

2013-09-01

159

Growth performance, meat quality traits, and genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci in 3 generations of Japanese quail populations (Coturnix japonica).  

PubMed

The current research was conducted to compare growth, carcass traits, pH, intramuscular collagen (IMC) properties, and genetic bases of IMC and carcasses (breast-muscle weight) of different lines and generations of adult males and females of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Forty-four quails (generation F0), 22 Pharaoh (F-33) meat-type males and 22 Standard (S-22) laying-type females, were crossed to produce the F1 hybrids generation. The F2 generation was created by mating one F1 male with one F1 female, full siblings. The birds, randomly chosen from F0 (22 males and 22 females), F1 (22 males and 22 females), and F2 (84 males and 152 females) were raised to 20 wk of age in collective cages. Quails were fed ad libitum commercial diets. At slaughter, all birds were individually weighed (after a fasting period of 12 h) and dressing yield (without giblets) was calculated. The carcasses were then dissected. Genomic DNA was extracted from all of the blood, and 30 microsatellite markers located on 2 quail chromosomes were genotyped. The F -: 33 quails had higher in vivo and postmortem performances and a higher abdominal fat percentage than those of the egg line. Meat from S -: 22 quails had a slower collagen maturation (hydroxylysylpyridinoline crosslink/collagen) and a higher ultimate pH. The F1 and F2 generations showed an evident sexual dimorphism, and an additional effect could be due to hybrid heterosis evident in F2. Meat from quails of F1 and F2 generations had a lower IMC amount with a higher degree of collagen maturation compared with parental lines. Two statistically significant QTL have been detected on quail chromosome 2 (CJA02): a QTL with an additive effect (0.50) for IMC in the marker bracket GUJ0037 and GUJ0093; a second QTL with additive (1.32) and dominant (1.91) effects for breast-muscle weight in the marker bracket GUJ0084 and GUJ0073. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a QTL associated with breast-muscle weight and IMC in quail and poultry species, respectively. PMID:24931963

Tavaniello, S; Maiorano, G; Siwek, M; Knaga, S; Witkowski, A; Di Memmo, D; Bednarczyk, M

2014-08-01

160

Effects of humic substances supplementation provided through drinking water on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of broilers.  

PubMed

The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of different doses of humic substances (HS) in waterer pan on broiler performances and meat quality. For the trial, 480 chicks (ROSS 308) were allocated into four groups (HS0, HS150, HS300 and HS450) of 120 equally mixed-sex birds, each receiving a drinking water supplemented with 0, 150, 300 and 450 ppm of a humic acid (provided by 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% of HS, v/v) respectively. At the age of 21 and 42 days, feed consumption and live weight were taken. At the age of 42 days, 16 birds per treatment were slaughtered, dressing percentages, digestive tract traits were evaluated and samples of breast (pectoralis major) and thigh (iliotibialis) meat were taken to evaluate the changes in colour characteristics (CIE L*, a* and b*) and chemical composition. The body weight gain increased by the HS300 in relation to the HS0 and HS450, and decreased by the HS450 in relation to the HS0. The feed consumption of birds in the HS450 and feed efficiency of birds in the HS300 were lower and higher than those in the other treatments respectively. The carcass weight of broilers in the HS150 and HS300 were higher than those of in the HS0 and HS450. The carcass weight decreased by the HS450 in relation to the other treatments. The dressing percentage increased by the HS150 in relation to the HS450. The HS450 resulted in breast and thigh meat colour that were lighter than those found in the HS0 birds. The HS450 increased fat content of thigh meat in relation to the HS0. It was concluded that the humic acid supplementation at 300 ppm and 450 ppm appears to have a measurable impact on live performance improving feed efficiency and lightness of breast and thigh meat colours in broilers respectively. PMID:19175461

Ozturk, E; Ocak, N; Coskun, I; Turhan, S; Erener, G

2010-02-01

161

Association of TNP2 Gene Polymorphisms of the bta-miR-154 Target Site with the Semen Quality Traits of Chinese Holstein Bulls  

PubMed Central

Transition protein 2 (TNP2) participates in removing nucleohistones and the initial condensation of spermatid nucleus during spermiogenesis. This study investigated the relationship between the variants of the bovine TNP2 gene and the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls. We detected three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNP2 gene in 392 Chinese Holstein bulls, namely, g.269 G>A (exon 1), g.480 C>T (intron 1), and g.1536 C>T (3?-UTR). Association analysis showed that the semen quality traits of the Chinese Holstein bulls was significantly affected by the three SNPs. The bulls with the haplotypic combinations H6H4, H6H6, and H6H8 had higher initial semen motility than those with the H7H8 and H8H4 haplotypic combinations (P<0.05). SNPs in the microRNA (miRNA) binding region of the TNP2 gene 3?-UTR may have contributed to the phenotypic differences. The phenotypic differences are caused by the altered expression of the miRNAs and their targets. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that the g.1536 C>T site in the TNP2 3?-UTR is located in the bta-miR-154 binding region. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that the TNP2 mRNA relative expression in bulls with the CT and CC genotypes was significantly higher than those with the TT genotype (P<0.05) in the g.1536 C>T site. The luciferase assay also indicated that bta-miR-154 directly targets TNP2 in a murine Leydig cell tumor cell line. The SNP g.1536 C>T in the TNP2 3?-UTR, which altered the binding of TNP2 with bta-miR-154, was found to be associated with the semen quality traits of Chinese Holstein bulls. PMID:24416221

Huang, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaojian; Qi, Chao; Li, Jianbin; Zhong, Jifeng; Li, Guorong; Wang, Changfa

2014-01-01

162

ORIGINAL PAPER Determining the transition from juvenile to mature wood  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Determining the transition from juvenile to mature wood microfibril angle 2012 Abstract & Context The transition of microfibril angle (MFA) values from juvenile to mature wood marks the change from var- iable, low-quality wood to stronger and more consistent wood that can produce

Boyer, Edmond

163

The influence of somatotype components and personality traits on the playing position and the quality of top Croatian female cadet handball players.  

PubMed

The research was conducted with the aim to establish the structure and the differences of morphological features and personality traits between different age groups of female cadet handball players grouped by their playing quality and playing positions. Further on, the research was done on 70 handball players aged 15, 31 on average, who were grouped according to their positions on goalkeepers, outside players, wings and pivots. Furthermore, according to the quality of playing, they were divided in two quality groups of players, those from the wider cadet national team, thus characterised as top female players in Croatia, and those who had never been invited into the cadet national team and thus can be referred to as low-quality, i.e. average female handball players. The structure of predictor variables has indicated the existence of general morphological factor assessing the players' constitution and two personality features factors - neuroticism and extraversion. The variance analysis showed no statistically significant differences of somatotype variables with relation to quality and playing position. By observing basic personality traits, a statistically significant difference was confirmed only in introversion-extraversion with a lower score in goalkeepers than in other positions, which indicates a higher level of introversion in this playing position. Such result was expected since this particular position abounds in specific tasks and demands in the game in relation to all other playing positions. Further on, it has been concluded that the selection of players must not be based only on the stated physical and psychological characteristics, but on relevant anthropological complexes determining performance and sport achievement. PMID:23914494

Cavala, Marijana; Trnini?, Viktorija; Jasi?, Dajana; Tomljanovi?, Mario

2013-05-01

164

Changes in muscle cell cation regulation and meat quality traits are associated with genetic selection for high body weight and meat yield in broiler chickens  

PubMed Central

Between-breed genetic variation for muscle and meat quality traits was determined at eight weeks of age in 34 lines of purebred commercial broiler and layer lines and traditional breeds (categories) of chickens. Between-breed genetic variation for plasma ion concentrations and element concentration in muscle dry matter and ash were determined. Plasma from broilers had higher concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg++, total and free Ca++ and lower free:total Ca++ than plasma from layer and traditional lines. Muscle from broilers contained more Na and higher concentrations of K, Mg and Ca per mg of ash but not of dry matter compared with layer and traditional lines. In comparison with layer and traditional lines, broiler genotypes were over three times heavier, their plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), a marker of muscle tissue damage, was higher, their breast muscle colour was lighter (L*) and less red (a*) and yellow (b*) in appearance, the initial and final pH of their muscles were lower, the pH change was higher and their breast muscle was more tender. Thus, genetic selection for broiler traits has markedly altered cation regulation in muscle cells and may be associated with changes in muscle cell function and the development of pathology and meat quality problems. PMID:19284683

Sandercock, Dale A; Barker, Zoe E; Mitchell, Malcolm A; Hocking, Paul M

2009-01-01

165

Fatty acid profile, carcass and meat quality traits of young Nellore bulls fed crude glycerin replacing energy sources in the concentrate.  

PubMed

Carcass and meat quality traits of 60 Nellore young bulls fed diets without crude glycerin (CG); with CG replacing corn (CGc; 10% of dry matter - DM) in the concentrate; and with CG replacing soybean hull (CGsh; 10% of DM) in the concentrate were evaluated. Diets were evaluated at two concentrate levels (CLs). The CL did not affect cold carcass weight (CCW; P=0.6074), cold carcass dressing (CCD; P=0.9636), rib fat thickness (RFT; P=0.8696) and longissimus muscle area (LMA; P=0.7524). Animals fed diets with CGc or CGsh showed meat with greater deposition of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA; P=0.0022) and CLA (18:2 cis-9, trans-11) contents (P=0.0001) than animals fed diets without CG. The inclusion of 10% of CG in diets CGc or CGsh does not affect the carcass and meat quality traits; however, it increases the MUFA and CLA contents in beef, although these changes are very small in nutritional terms. PMID:24334035

Lage, J F; Berchielli, T T; San Vito, E; Silva, R A; Ribeiro, A F; Reis, R A; Dallantonia, E E; Simonetti, L R; Delevatti, L M; Machado, M

2014-03-01

166

Influence of genetic type and level of concentrate in the finishing diet on carcass and meat quality traits in beef heifers.  

PubMed

Carcass and meat quality traits of thirty-six feedlot beef heifers from different genetic groups (GG) fed at two concentrate levels (CL) were evaluated using 12 - Nellore (NE), 12 - ½Angus x ½Nellore (AN) and 12 - ½Simmental x ½Nellore (SN) animals. Six heifers of each GG were randomly assigned into one of two treatments: concentrate at 0.8% or 1.2% of body weight (BW). Heifers fed concentrate at 0.8% of BW had greater (P<0.05) dressing percentage. None of the proximate analysis components of the beef were affected (P>0.05) by either CL or GG. Heifers from the AN group had higher (P<0.05) carcass weights, 12th rib fat thickness and lower dressing percentage (P<0.05) compared to the other groups. NE heifers had greater WBSF values (P<0.05) than the other genetic groups. Data suggest that the concentrate level can be reduced without compromising meat quality traits. PMID:22127147

Lage, J F; Paulino, P V R; Filho, S C Valadares; Souza, E J O; Duarte, M S; Benedeti, P D B; Souza, N K P; Cox, R B

2012-03-01

167

Association of the leptin gene E2-169T>C and E3-299T>A mutations with carcass and meat quality traits of the Chinese Simmental-cross steers.  

PubMed

Leptin is a hormone affecting the regulation of body composition, energy balance, and meat quality in mammals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in coding region for leptin gene with carcass and meat quality traits of Chinese Simmental-cross steers. Two SNPs (E2-169 T>C and E3-299 T>A) were genotyped on 135 crossbred bulls. The 45 traits being measured included dressing percentage, dressed weight, marbling score, muscle color score, backfat thickness, fatty acid content, etc. Statistical analysis revealed that two SNPs in the exon of leptin gene were associated with the carcass and meat quality traits. The C-bearing genotypes (CC or TC) of E2-169 T>C (C57R) showed higher dressed weight, thickness of loin, MCS, FCS, intramuscular fat content, and polyunsaturated fatty acid content (P<0.05). E3-299 >A(S100T) also showed a significant association with the carcass traits (dressing percentage, living QIB) and fatty acid content in Simmental-cross steers(P<0.05). Our findings suggested that polymorphisms in leptin might be one of the important genetic factors that influence carcass yield and meat quality in beef cattle, and it may be a useful marker for meat quality traits in future marker-assisted selection programs in beef cattle breeding and production. PMID:23291417

Tian, Jing; Zhao, Zhihui; Zhang, Lupei; Zhang, Qingfeng; Yu, Zhongjiang; Li, Junya; Yang, Runjun

2013-04-15

168

Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and potential for water-supply contamination near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrogeologic and ground-water-quality data were collected near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee to determine the extent and magnitude of ground-water contamination in offsite areas and to assess the potential for contamination of nearby water-supply wells. New methods were used to collect ground-water samples from the alluvial aquifer at six offsite stations at depths of less than about 40 feet below land surface. In addition, 36 offsite wells were installed at these stations to collect samples from the alluvial aquifer and to depths of about 150 feet in the deeper Fort Pillow aquifer. Ground-water samples collected by the new methods and from the 36 offsite wells were analyzed for selected volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The samples collected from the 36 wells also were analyzed for major and trace inorganic constituents. Naphthalene and some volatile organic compounds were detected at low concentrations in samples from both the alluvial aquifer and the Fort Pillow aquifer. To assess the potential for water-supply contamination from the site, four water-supply wells to the east (upgradient) and three wells to the west (down- gradient) of the abandoned plant site were sampled. These samples were analyzed for the same analytes as the samples from the 36 wells. Although volatile organic compounds and elevated concentrations of trace and major inorganic constituents were measured in samples from some wells east of the site, no organic compounds associated with the wood- preserving process were detected. No contaminants from the site were detected in samples from wells west of the site.

Parks, W. S.; Mirecki, J. E.; Kingsbury, J. A.

1993-01-01

169

Wood marks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are several insects that can cause damage to trees and wooden structures. Carpenter ants have attacked this truss by chewing small holes in it. Termites also chew holes in wood and will commonly infest houses. They weaken the structure of the house by chewing the wooden beams.

Bjørn Fritsche (None;)

2005-08-23

170

The Transcriptomics of Secondary Growth and Wood Formation in Conifers  

PubMed Central

In the last years, forestry scientists have adapted genomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to the search for candidate genes related to the transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in several tree species. Gymnosperms, in particular, the conifers, are ecologically and economically important, namely, for the production of wood and other forestry end products. Until very recently, no whole genome sequencing of a conifer genome was available. Due to the gradual improvement of the NGS technologies and inherent bioinformatics tools, two draft assemblies of the whole genomes sequence of Picea abies and Picea glauca arose in the current year. These draft genome assemblies will bring new insights about the structure, content, and evolution of the conifer genomes. Furthermore, new directions in the forestry, breeding and research of conifers will be discussed in the following. The identification of genes associated with the xylem transcriptome and the knowledge of their regulatory mechanisms will provide less time-consuming breeding cycles and a high accuracy for the selection of traits related to wood production and quality. PMID:24288610

Carvalho, Ana; Paiva, Jorge; Louzada, José; Lima-Brito, José

2013-01-01

171

The transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in conifers.  

PubMed

In the last years, forestry scientists have adapted genomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to the search for candidate genes related to the transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in several tree species. Gymnosperms, in particular, the conifers, are ecologically and economically important, namely, for the production of wood and other forestry end products. Until very recently, no whole genome sequencing of a conifer genome was available. Due to the gradual improvement of the NGS technologies and inherent bioinformatics tools, two draft assemblies of the whole genomes sequence of Picea abies and Picea glauca arose in the current year. These draft genome assemblies will bring new insights about the structure, content, and evolution of the conifer genomes. Furthermore, new directions in the forestry, breeding and research of conifers will be discussed in the following. The identification of genes associated with the xylem transcriptome and the knowledge of their regulatory mechanisms will provide less time-consuming breeding cycles and a high accuracy for the selection of traits related to wood production and quality. PMID:24288610

Carvalho, Ana; Paiva, Jorge; Louzada, José; Lima-Brito, José

2013-01-01

172

Wood Curriculum vitae 1 ERIC MATTHEW WOOD  

E-print Network

Wood ­ Curriculum vitae 1 ERIC MATTHEW WOOD Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Department/17/2014 Postdoctoral Research Associate, University of Wisconsin-Madison PUBLICATIONS Wood, E. M., A. M. Pidgeon, V. C community structure in U.S protected areas. Ecological Applications in press Wood, E. M., and A. M. Pidgeon

Mladenoff, David

173

FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD COMPOSITES  

E-print Network

FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD COMPOSITES DURING CRACK PROPAGATION Noah Matsumoto Structural. Nairn* Professor and Richardson Chair Wood Science & Engineering Oregon State University Corvallis, OR, USA * Corresponding author: John.Nairn@oregonstate.edu SWST member #12;Fracture Toughness of Wood

Nairn, John A.

174

Genotypic effects on the variation of wood quality and growth traits in plantation forest made by cutting cultivars of Japanese cedar  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of genotypes of planting stocks regarding the variation of the modulus of elasticity of tree trunks\\u000a on standing trees (trunk-MOE), tree height (TH), and diameter at breast height (DBH) in a 19-year-old Japanese cedar plantation\\u000a made with root cuttings. Trunk-MOE was assessed nondestructively using a tree-bending method. Genotypes of individual trees\\u000a were detected using the random

Katsuhiko Takata; Yukio Teraoka

2002-01-01

175

Effect of concentrate level and slaughter body weight on growth performances, carcass traits and meat quality of Barbarine lambs fed oat hay based diet.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate concentrate level (CL) and slaughter body weight (SW) effects on growth performances, carcass traits and meat quality of Barbarine lambs. Twenty-four weaned male lambs (23.1 kg), receiving an oat-hay based diet, were allotted into two groups. The LCL group received low concentrate level (300 g) and the HCL group received high concentrate level (600 g). Lambs were slaughtered at two prefixed weights (35 and 42 kg). For each group and each weight, six lambs were slaughtered. Lambs from HCL group had higher ADG, carcass yields, carcass compactness and subcutaneous fat thickness, and lower carcass meat proportion. CL increase did not affect meat pH, meat and fat color, chemical and fatty acid composition. Late slaughtering improved carcass yields and increased carcass adiposity. However, it did not affect carcass meat proportion and shoulder tissue composition. SW had effect on meat color and fatty acid composition. PMID:23273464

Majdoub-Mathlouthi, L; Saïd, B; Say, A; Kraiem, K

2013-03-01

176

Responses of carbon acquisition traits to irradiance and light quality in Mercurialis annua (Euphorbiaceae): evidence for weak integration of plastic responses.  

PubMed

It is often suggested that traits will be integrated, either because of pleiotropy or because natural selection may favor suites of integrated traits. Plant responses to different environments can provide evidence of such integration. We grew Mercurialis annua plants in high-density stands in high irradiance, in neutral shade, and in high red to far-red (R:FR) shade, resulting in environments of high irradiance, low R:FR; low irradiance, low R:FR; and low irradiance, high R:FR. We measured gas exchange, leaf morphology, stem elongation, and biomass traits and tested the prediction that traits within each functional group would show higher trait integration, as evidenced by high correlations among traits within environments, higher correlations of trait plasticity, and lower plasticity of trait correlations. Overall, we found evidence of only moderate integration for some groups of traits. Functionally related groups of traits, or pairs of traits, could be strongly integrated by one criterion but weakly integrated by another of the criteria. Stem elongation traits, though often observed to be strongly integrated in other taxa, showed little evidence of integration. Internode traits exhibited a novel pattern of responses to low R:FR, with increased elongation of the hypocotyl, decreased elongation of the first internode, and no change in the second internode. We propose that these responses to light are more likely to be the result of natural selection than the consequence of constraints imposed by pleiotropy. PMID:21665740

Sleeman, Jonathan D; Dudley, Susan A; Pannell, John R; Barrett, Spencer C H

2002-09-01

177

Evaluation of subsurface exploration, sampling, and water-quality-analysis methods at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Direct Push Technology (DPT) and a modified-auger method of sampling were used at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, to collect lithologic data and ground-water samples in an area known to be affected by a subsurface creosote plume. The groundwater samples were analyzed using (1) gas chromatography with photo-ionization detection (GS/PID), (2) high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (3) colonmetric phenol analysis, and (4) toxicity bioassay. DPT piezocone and cone-penetrometer-type tools provided lithologic data and ground-water samples at two onsite stations to a depth of refusal of about 35 feet below land surface. With the assistance of an auger rig, this depth was extended to about 65 feet by pushing the tools in advance of the augers. Following the DPT work, a modified-auger method was tested by the USGS. This method left doubt as to the integrity of the samples collected once zones of contamination were penetrated. GC/PID and HPLC methods of water-quality analysis provided the most data concerning contaminants in the ground-water and proved to be the most effective in creosote plume detection. Analyses from these methods showed that the highest concentrations of contaminants were detected at depths less than about 35 feet below land surface. Phenol analyses provided data supplemental to the HPLC analyses. Bioassay data indicated that toxicity associated with the plume extended to depths of about 55 feet below land surface.

Parks, W. S.; Carmichael, J. K.; Mirecki, J. E.

1993-01-01

178

Inheritance of shelf life and other quality traits of tomato fruit estimated from F 1 ’s, F 2 ’s and backcross generations derived from standard cultivar, nor homozygote and wild cherry tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tomato cultivar with high quality fruit and a long shelf life is a main goal in tomato breeding and it would be achieved\\u000a using wild germplasm. The objective of this work was to explore the inheritance for fruit quality traits, especially fruit\\u000a shelf life, in three tomato crosses using a standard Argentinean cultivar (Ca, cv ‘Caimanta’), a ripening mutant

Gustavo Rubén Rodríguez; Guillermo Raúl Pratta; David Rodolfo Liberatti; Roxana Zorzoli; Liliana Amelia Picardi

2010-01-01

179

Influence of rearing conditions on performance, behavioral, and physiological responses of pigs to preslaughter handling, carcass traits, and meat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 120 crossbred [synthetic line x (Large White x Landrace)] pigs (castrated males and females) were used to evaluate the influence of rearing conditions for growing-finishing pigs on growth performance, carcass, stress reactions at slaughter, and meat eating quality. At approximately 35 kg of live weight (LW), littermates were allocated to either a conventional (fully slatted floor, 0.65

B. Lebret; M. C. Meunier-Salaün; A. Foury; P. Mormède; E. Dransfield; J. Y. Dourmad

2006-01-01

180

Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. RESULTS: The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of

Laurent G Deluc; David R Quilici; Alain Decendit; Jérôme Grimplet; Matthew D Wheatley; Karen A Schlauch; Jean-Michel Mérillon; John C Cushman; Grant R Cramer

2009-01-01

181

Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves.  

PubMed

There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits in Angus beef cattle. Final antibody level and response to vaccination were based on neutralizing serum antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2). Calves were followed through development and the feedlot phase, with collection of yearling ultrasound (n=957), preharvest (n=762), and carcass (n=673) data. In this study, 48% of the animals were observed to have positively responded to the vaccine, as evidenced by higher final antibody levels compared to prevaccination antibody levels. Increased final antibody levels were significantly (P<0.05) associated with increased yearling weight and increased subcutaneous fat over the rump. An interaction between final antibody level and weaning time also was associated (P<0.05) with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and meat pH, with a favorable, negative relationship between final antibody and WBSF in calves weaned at initial vaccination. Overall antibody response by wean time interaction had a significant (P<0.05) association with ADG and meat pH, with calves weaned at initial vaccination having a favorable, positive relationship between overall antibody response and ADG. Under both the final antibody and overall antibody response models, animals weaned at initial vaccination had significantly (P<0.05) lower intramuscular fat at yearling time and conversely higher harvest weight than animals weaned at the booster vaccination. When antibody response was grouped (none, low, high), a significant interaction (P<0.05) between antibody response group and weaning time was identified for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW. Animals weaned at the initial vaccination in the high antibody response group had the advantage for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW compared to animals in the high-response group that were weaned at booster vaccination. Linear increases in antibody response generally did not have negative effects on performance or carcass quality traits in finished cattle (P>0.05). Therefore, producers should not be concerned about decreased production or quality attributes as a result of developing a robust antibody response to vaccination for BVDV2 in beef cattle. PMID:24045477

Tait, R G; Downey, E D; Mayes, M S; Park, C A; Ridpath, J F; Garrick, D J; Reecy, J M

2013-11-01

182

Effect of anabolic steroids, alone or in combination with antibiotics, on bull performance, carcass traits and meat quality characteristics.  

PubMed

Two trials were conducted with 32 and 39 finishing Belgian white-red bulls, treated with anabolic agents during 55 to 60 days prior to slaughter. Xenobiotic androgens and estrogens, together with (Exp. I) or without progesterone (Exp. II) were injected at three-week intervals. Diets consisted of maize silage and 7.5 g concentrate daily per kg liveweight. Half of the animals within each experiment received an antibiotic for the entire fattening period lasting about 285 days. Lasalocid-sodium (Exp. I) and virginiamycin (Exp. II) were incorporated at 65 mg per kg concentrate. Anabolic agents improved average daily gain from 1.06 to 1.20 kg (P less than 0.10) and from 1.24 to 1.42 kg (P less than 0.05) respectively. In both trials steroidal growth promoters stimulated intake and improved feed efficiency (P less than 0.10). Feed antibiotics did not significantly affect daily gain during this short term finishing period. A reduced feed intake (P less than 0.05) and improved feed conversion were observed for lasalocid, while there was no difference for virginiamycin. Dry matter intake amounted to 80.5 and 76.3 g per kg metabolic weight and 9.02 and 8.41 kg per kg gain, respectively for control and lasalocid treated animals. The data were 79.6 and 80.3 g and 7.30 and 7.34 kg, respectively, for the experiment with virginiamycin. No significant interaction between anabolics and antibiotics was obtained with respect to gain and feed efficiency. Dressing percentage, carcass composition, carcass grading and meat traits were not affected by anabolic treatment or antibiotic supplementation. PMID:2970832

Boucque, C V; Fiems, L O; Casteels, M; Cottyn, B G; Buysse, F X

1988-04-01

183

Is there an association between immunosuppressant therapy medication adherence and depression, quality of life, and personality traits in the kidney and liver transplant population?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To measure the association of transplant patients’ personality, depression, and quality of life with medication adherence in kidney and liver transplant recipients. Methods A cross-sectional study of liver and kidney transplant recipients greater than 1 year post-transplant was conducted. Patients’ adherence with medications was assessed using the Immunosuppressive Therapy Adherence Scale. Personality and depression were assessed using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire 9, respectively. Quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36, and functional status was determined using the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale. Results A total of 86 kidney and 50 liver transplant patients completed the surveys. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated an association between depression and adherence with immunosuppressive medications in kidney transplant recipients. Kidney transplant patients who exhibited “low openness” scores were 91% more likely to be nonadherent. Kidney transplant patients’ physical functional status was strongly associated with nonadherence, and for each point increase in functionality the patients’ adherence increased by 4%. In the liver sample, age was associated with adherence. For every year increase in age, adherence increased by 7%. Conclusion The presence of low openness as a personality trait, poor physical functional status, and depression were associated with adherence in the kidney transplant population. In the liver transplant population, younger age was associated with nonadherence. PMID:23620661

Gorevski, Elizabeth; Succop, Paul; Sachdeva, Jyoti; Cavanaugh, Teresa M; Volek, Paul; Heaton, Pamela; Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Martin-Boone, Jill E

2013-01-01

184

Molecular characterization of the virulent microorganisms along with their drug-resistance traits associated with the export quality frozen shrimps in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Current investigation characterized export quality shrimp samples in terms of pathogenic load along with the drug-resistance traits of the isolates, and detected the major virulent genes present in those isolates. Among the 30 such shrimp samples (15 each of Macrobrachium rosenbergi or Golda and Penaeus monodon or Bagda) studied, almost all were found to be contaminated with a huge load of bacteria (10(6)-10(8) cfu/g) and fungi (10(4)-10(5) cfu/g). Among the specific pathogens, presence of Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., Klebsiella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Listeria spp. were detected, of which most were likely to be resistant against commonly used antibiotics. Gene specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) study revealed the presence of eae gene in E. coli, aero specific gene in Aeromonas spp., and sodB gene in Vibrio spp. Together with the huge extent of microbial contamination with a drug-resistance attribute, presence of such virulent genes further projects the probable public health risk upon consumption of the export quality shrimps. PMID:25197622

Noor, Rashed; Hasan, Md Faqrul; Rahman, M Majibur

2014-01-01

185

Quality attributes of porcine musculature as related to structural muscle components, carcass traits and certain production factors  

E-print Network

in muscle quality. Hedrick et al. (1968) reported that ham and loins of Duroc harrows were signifi- cantly firmer and darker in color than those of Hampshire barrows. Allen et al. (1966) noted that Yorkshire barrows had significantly higher values... Crossbreds Hampshire Berkshire Barrows 16 Total 13 25 a Considered only in within sex analysis. 19 After thawing for 12 hr at refrigeration temperature (approxi- 0 mately 7 C), each chop from the left side was subjected to the following tests: (a...

Lopez, Ali Leonidas

2012-06-07

186

Isolation of a set of ripening-related genes from strawberry: their identification and possible relationship to fruit quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The ripening of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.), a non-climacteric fruit, is a complex developmental process that involves many changes in gene expression. To understand\\u000a how these changes relate to the biochemistry and composition of the fruit the specific genes involved have been examined.\\u000a A high-quality cDNA library prepared from ripe strawberry fruit was differentially screened for ripening-related clones using

Kenneth Manning

1998-01-01

187

Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) Associated with Maintenance of Bread Making Quality under Heat Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)  

E-print Network

been shown to increase under heat stress (Kolderup et al. 1975). Although increased protein content is a character typically associated with increased bread making quality, the increase in protein content induced by heat stress has been associated..., the hypothesized increase in gliadin synthesis after heat shock is supported by the detection of heat shock elements within the sequence of some gliadin proteins (Blumenthal et al. 1990), thus, the upregulation of gliadin synthesis after heat stress may occur...

Beecher, Francis Ward

2010-10-12

188

Modelling Juvenile Wood Barry Gardiner and Elspeth Macdonald  

E-print Network

Lean #12;01/12/20083 Modelling Juvenile Wood MOE versus Cambial Age in Sitka Spruce Courtesy Paul McModelling Juvenile Wood Barry Gardiner and Elspeth Macdonald Conifer Breeding and Timber Quality Steering Group #12;01/12/20082 Modelling Juvenile Wood Microfibril Angle with Ring Number Courtesy Paul Mc

189

Effects of dietary supplementation with creatine monohydrate during the finishing period on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and muscle glycolytic potential of broilers subjected to transport stress.  

PubMed

A total of 320 male Arbor Acres broiler chickens (28 days old) were randomly allotted to one of the three experimental diets supplemented with 0 (160 birds), 600 (80 birds) or 1200 mg/kg (80 birds) creatine monohydrate (CMH) for 14 days. On the morning of 42 day, after an 8-h fast, the birds of CMH-free group were divided into two equal groups, and all birds of these four groups were transported according to the follow protocol: 0.75-h transport without CMH supplementation (as a lower stress control group), 3-h transport without CMH supplementation, 3-h transport with 600 or 1200 mg/kg CMH supplementation. Each treatment group was composed of 8 replicates with 10 birds each. The results showed that supplementation of CMH for 14 days before slaughter did not affect the overall growth performance and carcass traits of stressed broilers (P>0.05). A 3-h transport decreased plasma glucose concentration, elevated plasma corticosterone concentration, increased bird live weight loss, breakdown of muscle glycogen, as well as the accumulation of muscle lactate (P<0.05), which induced some detrimental changes to breast meat quality (lower ultimate pH and higher drip loss, P<0.05). Nevertheless, supplementation of 1200 mg/kg CMH reduced chicken weight loss, decreased the contents of lactate and glycolytic potential in pectoralis major of 3-h transported broilers (P<0.05), which is beneficial to maintain breast meat quality by reducing the drip loss (P<0.05). These findings suggest that the reduction of muscle glycolysis is probably the reason for maintainance of meat quality by supplementation of CMH in transported broilers. PMID:25075432

Zhang, L; Li, J L; Gao, T; Lin, M; Wang, X F; Zhu, X D; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

2014-12-01

190

Microbial community structure and pH response in relation to soil organic matter quality in wood-ash fertilized, clear-cut or burned coniferous forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humus phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used in clear-cut, wood-ash fertilized (amounts applied: 1000, 2500, and 5000 kg ha?1), or prescribed burned (both in standing and clear-cut) coniferous forests to study the effects of treatments on microbial biomass and community structure. The microbial biomass (total PLFAs) decreased significantly due to the highest rate of wood-ash fertilization, clear-cutting, and the

Erland Bååth; Åsa Frostegård; Taina Pennanen; Hannu Fritze

1995-01-01

191

Through-thickness ultrasonic characterization of wood and  

E-print Network

Through-thickness ultrasonic characterization of wood and agricultural fiber composites Ronnie YOSBusingathroughtransmission ultrasonic technique. This evaluation presents a potential quality control tool for the manufacturing

192

CWC Best Practices in Wood Waste Recycling Material: Wood Waste Specification for Thermoplastic Composites  

E-print Network

Issue: There are a variety of different applications where wood and plastic can be combined to produce high-value materials. This specification addresses applications which use a matrix of thermoplastic resins and wood fiber for use in extrusion or other manufacturing process. Although there are some very different applications of wood-plastic composites, this specification addresses two types of composites; one which uses wood chips as a structural component and one which uses a very fine grade of wood particles (“wood flour”) as a filler for appearance and structural purposes. Failure to satisfy end-user quality requirements for the different types of wood-plastic composites will affect market value and could damage supply relationships. Depending on the type of wood-plastic composite being considered and product requirements, the critical characteristics of the recycled wood waste could include: • acceptable wood species • allowable contaminant levels • acceptable size distribution • acceptable color • acceptable geometry • acceptable moisture content Best Practice: This best practice recommends that written specifications for acceptable wood waste feedstocks be developed and mutually agreed upon along with tests for monitoring compliance with these specifications. Feedstock specifications will vary from end-user to end-user. These variations are due to differences in processing equipment, handling techniques, and product lines. Specifications should be made part of a written contract or agreement that also stipulates other important conditions (price, volume, etc.).

unknown authors

193

The effects of gender and slaughter weight on the growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality characteristics of heavy pigs.  

PubMed

Crossbred pigs (n = 192) from Piétrain x Large White sires mated to Landrace x Large White dams, with a mean BW of 75 +/- 1.3 kg, were used to investigate the effects of gender and slaughter weight (SW) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Pens of pigs (eight pigs/pen) were assigned randomly to one of six treatments arranged in a 2 x 3 factorial design with two genders (barrows or gilts) and three SW (116, 124, or 133 kg). Each treatment was replicated four times. Over the entire trial, barrows had higher (P < 0.001) ADFI (as-fed basis) and ADG than gilts; however, gilts had higher (P < 0.05) gain-to-feed ratios (G:F) than barrows. Barrows had lower (P < 0.01) dressing percents than gilts and produced fatter (P < 0.001) carcasses that had lower trimmed shoulder (P < 0.10) and ham (P < 0.001) yields than gilts. There was a trend for the semimembranosus muscle (SM) from barrows to have a higher (P < 0.10) 45-min pH than that of gilts, but 24-h pH was 0.11 pH unit higher (P < 0.01) in the SM of barrows than gilts. Gender had no (P > 0.10) effect on the moisture and lipid content of the longissimus muscle (LM), nor did gender affect (P > 0.10) LM color, myoglobin content, or thaw loss percentage. However, the LM from barrows had lower (P < 0.05) cooking loss percentages and tended to have lower (P < 0.10) shear force values than the LM from gilts. Pigs slaughtered at 116 kg had higher (P < 0.05) ADG than pigs slaughtered at 124 and 133 kg. Daily feed intake (as-fed basis) was not (P > 0.10) different among SW; however, pigs slaughtered at 116 and 124 kg had higher (P < 0.001) G:F than those slaughtered at 133 kg. Dressing percent, backfat depth, carcass length, and ham and shoulder weights increased (P < 0.001) as SW increased from 116 to 133 kg. The initial (45-min) pH of the SM from pigs slaughtered at 133 kg was higher (P < 0.05) than from pigs slaughtered at 116 or 124 kg; however, 24-h pH was not (P > 0.10) affected by SW. The LM from pigs slaughtered at 133 kg was darker (lower L* values; P < 0.001), redder (higher a* value; P < 0.01), and had more (P < 0.001) myoglobin than the LM of pigs slaughtered at 116 and 124 kg. Barrows and gilts of this particular crossbreed can be used to produce acceptable quality fresh pork when slaughtered at 116 kg; however, increasing SW to 124 kg, or more, decreased live pig performance and carcass leanness without any additional benefits to pork quality attributes. PMID:14974552

Latorre, M A; Lázaro, R; Valencia, D G; Medel, P; Mateos, G G

2004-02-01

194

Wood Resources International  

E-print Network

Wood Resources International Wood Raw Material Consumption on the Rise Despite Weak Global Economy UNECE Timber Committee Meeting October 7-8, 2003 Geneva, Switzerland Håkan Ekström Wood Resources International #12;Wood Resources International Outline · Roundwood Removals · Roundwood Consumption · Raw

195

Duration of feeding conjugated linoleic acid influences growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of finishing barrows.  

PubMed

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was fed to growing-finishing barrows (n = 92) at 0.75% of the diet. A commercial CLA preparation (CLA 60) containing 60% CLA isomers was included at 1.25% to provide 0.75% CLA in the diet. The inclusion of CLA in diets was initiated at various BW and fed until slaughter. Growth, carcass, meat quality, physical, chemical, and sensory data were collected and analyzed. Treatments T1, T2, T3, and T4 included the last 0, 29, 56 and 87 kg, respectively, of weight gain before slaughter. Average daily gain and feed intake were not affected (P > or = 0.06) by CLA, but gain:feed responded quadratically (P = 0.05), over the entire BW gain (28 to 115 kg) with pigs of T2 and T3 having the greatest gain:feed. Loin muscle area increased (P = 0.01) linearly with increasing weight gain while fed CLA, and 10th rib, first rib, and last rib fat depth decreased (P < or = 0.05) linearly. Subjective quality measures on loin muscles increased linearly for marbling (P < 0.05) and tended to increase for firmness (P = 0.07) with increasing weight gain while barrows were fed CLA. Objective Hunter color values for loin chops from T1 and T4 were not different for L* (P = 0.12) or a* (P = 0.08) values but were higher (P < 0.05) for b* values with CLA feeding. Lipid oxidation values of loin muscle tissue were lower (P < 0.05) for pigs fed CLA (T1 vs T4). Increasing the period of weight gain while feeding CLA linearly increased (P < 0.01) saturated fatty acids and CLA isomers in loin tissue and linearly increased (P < 0.01) saturated fatty acids and CLA isomers in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Sensory panel characteristics of loin chops were not changed (P > 0.05) by feeding CLA. Increased gain:feed, increased loin muscle area, decreased fat depth, and improvements in marbling and firmness with CLA feeding could result in improved profitability of pork production systems. PMID:11890399

Wiegand, B R; Sparks, J C; Parrish, F C; Zimmerman, D R

2002-03-01

196

Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay  

PubMed Central

Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits. PMID:19426499

Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jerome; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Merillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

2009-01-01

197

Quantitative inheritance of crop timing traits in interspecific hybrid Petunia populations and interactions with crop quality parameters.  

PubMed

The leaf unfolding rate (i.e., development rate) and the number of nodes forming prior to floral initiation are 2 factors determining production times for floriculture crops. Wild relative species of the cultivated petunia (Petunia x hybrida Vilm.) that exhibited faster development rates than modern cultivars and may therefore be useful genetic sources to develop cultivars with decreased production time were identified. Three interspecific F(2) families, Petunia exserta Stehmann x P. axillaris (Lam.) Britton et al., P. x hybrida 'Mitchell' x P. axillaris, and P. axillaris x P. integrifolia (Hook.) Schinz & Thell. all exhibited transgressive segregation for development rate and node number below the first flower. Development rate and time to flower segregated independently in all families. Leaf number below the first flower was positively correlated with leaf unfolding rate in all families except P. axillaris x P. integrifolia. Time to flower was positively correlated with flower bud number in the P. x hybrida 'Mitchell' x P. axillaris and P. axillaris x P. integrifolia families only. Based on these results, wild Petunia germplasm should be useful for developing petunia cultivars with reduced crop production times, but some negative effects on crop quality parameters may need to be overcome. PMID:20142456

Warner, Ryan M; Walworth, Aaron E

2010-01-01

198

Association of allelic variation in PtoXET16A with growth and wood properties in Populus tomentosa.  

PubMed

Xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases (XETs) modify the xyloglucan-cellulose framework of plant cell walls and, thus, affect cell wall expansion and strength. Dissecting the mechanism by which natural variation in XETs affects wood properties can inform breeding efforts to improve wood quality and yield traits. To this end, we isolated a full-length PtoXET16A cDNA clone from Populus tomentosa. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PtoXET16A was maximally expressed in the root, followed by phloem, cambium, and developing xylem, suggesting that PtoXET16A plays important roles in the development of vascular tissues. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed that PtoXET16A has high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity (? = 0.01266 and ?(w) = 0.01392) and low linkage disequilibrium (r² ? 0.1, within 900 bp). SNP- and haplotype-based association analyses of 426 individuals from a natural population indicated that nine SNPs (including two non-synonymous markers and one splicing variant) (p ? 0.05, false discovery rate Q ? 0.01), and nine haplotypes (p ? 0.05) were significantly associated with growth and wood properties, each explaining from 3.40%-10.95% of phenotypic variance. This work shows that examination of allelic variation and linkage disequilibrium by a candidate-gene-based approach can help to decipher the genetic basis of wood formation. Moreover, the SNP markers identified in this study can potentially be applied for marker-assisted selection to improve growth and wood-property traits in Populus. PMID:25250912

Wang, Bowen; Zhang, Deqiang

2014-01-01

199

Association of Allelic Variation in PtoXET16A with Growth and Wood Properties in Populus tomentosa  

PubMed Central

Xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases (XETs) modify the xyloglucan-cellulose framework of plant cell walls and, thus, affect cell wall expansion and strength. Dissecting the mechanism by which natural variation in XETs affects wood properties can inform breeding efforts to improve wood quality and yield traits. To this end, we isolated a full-length PtoXET16A cDNA clone from Populus tomentosa. Real-time PCR analysis showed that PtoXET16A was maximally expressed in the root, followed by phloem, cambium, and developing xylem, suggesting that PtoXET16A plays important roles in the development of vascular tissues. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed that PtoXET16A has high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity (? = 0.01266 and ?w = 0.01392) and low linkage disequilibrium (r2 ? 0.1, within 900 bp). SNP- and haplotype-based association analyses of 426 individuals from a natural population indicated that nine SNPs (including two non-synonymous markers and one splicing variant) (p ? 0.05, false discovery rate Q ? 0.01), and nine haplotypes (p ? 0.05) were significantly associated with growth and wood properties, each explaining from 3.40%–10.95% of phenotypic variance. This work shows that examination of allelic variation and linkage disequilibrium by a candidate-gene-based approach can help to decipher the genetic basis of wood formation. Moreover, the SNP markers identified in this study can potentially be applied for marker-assisted selection to improve growth and wood-property traits in Populus. PMID:25250912

Wang, Bowen; Zhang, Deqiang

2014-01-01

200

Fitness consequences of delayed maturity in female wood ducks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age at maturity has been suggested to be an important life-history trait with substantial poten- tial for influencing the evolution of life histories. Using known reproductive histories of 90 female wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from a long-term study (1982-96), we investigated the fitness consequences of changes in age at maturity. Female wood ducks that attained sexual maturity as yearlings had

Madan K. Oli; Gary R. Hepp; Robert A. Kennamer

2002-01-01

201

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and quality traits of fossil cereal grains provide clues on sustainability at the beginnings of Mediterranean agriculture.  

PubMed

We present a novel approach to study the sustainability of ancient Mediterranean agriculture that combines the measurement of carbon isotope discrimination (Delta(13)C) and nitrogen isotope composition (delta(15)N) along with the assessment of quality traits in fossil cereal grains. Charred grains of naked wheat and barley were recovered in Los Castillejos, an archaeological site in SE Spain, with a continuous occupation of ca. 1500 years starting soon after the origin of agriculture (ca. 4000 BCE) in the region. Crop water status and yield were estimated from Delta(13)C and soil fertility and management practices were assessed from the delta(15)N and N content of grains. The original grain weight was inferred from grain dimensions and grain N content was assessed after correcting N concentration for the effect of carbonisation. Estimated water conditions (i.e. rainfall) during crop growth remained constant for the entire period. However, the grain size and grain yield decreased progressively during the first millennium after the onset of agriculture, regardless of the species, with only a slight recovery afterwards. Minimum delta(15)N values and grain N content were also recorded in the later periods of site occupation. Our results indicate a progressive loss of soil fertility, even when the amount of precipitation remained steady, thereby indicating the unsustainable nature of early agriculture at this site in the Western Mediterranean Basin. In addition, several findings suggest that barley and wheat were cultivated separately, the former being restricted to marginal areas, coinciding with an increased focus on wheat cultivation. PMID:18438779

Aguilera, Mònica; Araus, José Luis; Voltas, Jordi; Rodríguez-Ariza, Maria Oliva; Molina, Fernando; Rovira, Núria; Buxó, Ramon; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

2008-06-01

202

Variation in, inheritance of, and correlations between a number of growth and form traits in three sycamore populations  

E-print Network

for branch angle would have 11ttle effect 1n improv1ng wood quality . All location*region 1nteractions were nonsignificant; location*- family interactions were signif1cant only for branch angle and planted tree volume. Th1s noticeably reduced...gnif1cant change 1n specific grav1ty or branch angle. Individual or fam11y selection of any 5-year growth trait (height, dbh, or live tree volume) would have been as effective as d1rect selection 1n improv1ng 7-year 11ve tree volume. Five...

Nebgen, Russell James

2012-06-07

203

Mapping quantitative trait loci for milling quality, protein content and color characteristics of rice using a recombinant inbred line population derived from an elite rice hybrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milling properties, protein content, and flour color are important factors in rice. A marker-based genetic analysis of these\\u000a traits was carried out in this study using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an elite hybrid cross ’Shanyou 63’,\\u000a the most-widely grown rice hybrid in production in China. Correlation analysis shows that the traits were inter-correlated,\\u000a though the coefficients were generally

Y. F. Tan; M. Sun; Y. Z. Xing; J. P. Hua; X. L. Sun; Q. F. Zhang; H. Corke

2001-01-01

204

Genetic analyses of agronomic and seed quality traits of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heritability, the number of segregating genes and the type of gene interaction of nine agronomic traits were analysed\\u000a based on F2 populations of synthetic oilseedBrassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization ofB. campestris andB. oleracea through ovary culture. The nine traits—plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of pods\\u000a per plant, number of seeds per

Guoqing Zhang; Weijun Zhou

2006-01-01

205

Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling fibre length and lignin content in Arabidopsis thaliana stems  

PubMed Central

Fibre properties and the biochemical composition of cell walls are important traits in many applications. For example, the lengths of fibres define the strength and quality of paper, and lignin content is a critical parameter for the use of biomass in biofuel production. Identifying genes controlling these traits is comparatively difficult in woody species, because of long generation times and limited amenability to high-resolution genetic mapping. To address this problem, this study mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) defining fibre length and lignin content in the Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line population Col-4×Ler-0. Adapting high-throughput phenotyping techniques for both traits for measurements in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems identified significant QTLs for fibre length on chromosomes 2 and 5, as well as one significant QTL affecting lignin content on chromosome 2. For fibre length, total variation within the population was 208% higher than between parental lines and the identified QTLs explained 50.58% of the observed variation. For lignin content, the values were 261 and 26.51%, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis of the associated intervals identified a number of candidate genes for fibre length and lignin content. This study demonstrates that molecular mapping of QTLs pertaining to wood and fibre properties is possible in Arabidopsis, which substantially broadens the use of Arabidopsis as a model species for the functional characterization of plant genes. PMID:23136168

Berleth, Thomas

2013-01-01

206

Wood's lamp illumination (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

207

HEAT TREATED WOOD  

E-print Network

Heat treated wood is a product which is obtained by intensive treatment of a wood at high temperatures (160-260 ºC). Thus, treated wood permanently changes its properties. Changes occur mainly in hemicelluloses degradation. As a consequence, the reduction of equilibrium moisture content, saturation point, shrinkage and swelling is about 50%, which leads to have more stable wood in use. Thermally treated wood shows increase in natural durability and insulating properties and reduction in water permeability. The growth of wood hardness is about 5%. Negative effects of heat treatment may include reduction of some mechanical properties (i.e. bending and tightening). The reduction of the mechanical properties is about 10-30%. Heat-treated wood is an ecologically clean material in the production and use. The most common use is for external cohesion less structure, cladding, windows, doors, flooring, saunas, swimming pools and the like. Key words: heat treated wood, properties, technology, application.

Nikola Vukas; Izet Horman; Seid Hajdarevi?

208

Wood Bond Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

1989-01-01

209

Selecting broiler chickens for ultimate pH of breast muscle: analysis of divergent selection experiment and phenotypic consequences on meat quality, growth, and body composition traits.  

PubMed

Genetic parameters for ultimate pH of pectoralis major muscle (PM-pHu) and sartorius muscle (SART-pHu); color parameters L*, a*, b*; logarithm of drip loss (LogDL) of pectoralis major (PM) muscle; breast meat yield (BMY); thigh and drumstick yield (TY); abdominal fat percentage (AFP); and BW at 6 wk (BW6) were estimated in 2 lines of broiler chickens divergently selected for PM-pHu. Effects of selection on all the previous traits and on glycolytic potential, pectoralis major muscle pH at 15 min postmortem, curing-cooking yield (CCY), cooking loss (CL), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of the PM muscle were also analyzed after 5 generations. Strong genetic determinism of PM-pHu was observed, with estimated h(2) of 0.57 ± 0.02. There was a significant positive genetic correlation (rg) between PM-pHu and SART-pHu (0.54 ± 0.04), indicating that selection had a general rather than a specific effect on energy storage in skeletal muscles. The h(2) estimates of L*, a*, and b* parameters were 0.58 ± 0.02, 0.39 ± 0.02, and 0.48 ± 0.02, respectively. Heritability estimates for TY, BMY, and AFP were 0.39 ± 0.04, 0.52 ± 0.01, and 0.71 ± 0.02, respectively. Our results indicated different genetic control of LogDL and L* of the meat between the 2 lines; these traits had a strong rg with PM-pHu in the line selected for low ultimate pH (pHu) value (pHu-; -0.80 and -0.71, respectively), which was not observed in the line selected for high pHu value (pHu+; -0.04 and -0.29, respectively). A significant positive rg (0.21 ± 0.04) was observed between PM-pHu and BMY but not between PM-pHu and BW6, AFP, or TY. Significant phenotypic differences were observed after 5 generations of selection between the 2 lines. The mean differences (P < 0.001) in pHu between the 2 lines were 0.42 and 0.21 pH units in the breast and thigh muscle, respectively. Breast meat in the pHu+ line exhibited lower L* (-5 units; P < 0.001), a* (-0.22 units; P < 0.001), b* (-1.53 units; P < 0.001), and drip loss (-1.6 units; P < 0.001) than in the pHu- line. Breast meat of the pHu+ line was also characterized by greater CCY (+6.1 units; P < 0.001), lower CL (-1.66 units; P < 0.01), and lower WBSF after cooking (-5.1 units; P < 0.001) compared to the pHu- line. This study highlighted that selection based on pHu can be effective in improving the processing ability of breast meat and reducing the incidence of meat quality defects without affecting chicken growth performance. PMID:25006074

Alnahhas, N; Berri, C; Boulay, M; Baéza, E; Jégo, Y; Baumard, Y; Chabault, M; Le Bihan-Duval, E

2014-09-01

210

Influence of Wet Storage of Spruce Wood on Groundwater Quality: Investigations by Water-Chemical Methods, Pyrolysis-Fieldionization Mass Spectrometry and Luminiscent-Bacteria Bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

For groundwater below a wet-storage location for spruce wood, water-chemical analyses indicated a distinct pollution by inorganic and organic compounds. Due to the high ammonium concentration mis groundwater was not suitable as drinking water. Using pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry, a direct and fast molecular-chemical characterization of the organic constituents in the polluted groundwater was possible. No pretreatment except freeze-drying was

C. Sorge; H.-R. Schulten; R. G. Weyandt; N. Kamp; M. Brechtel

1994-01-01

211

Sickle Cell Trait  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease (SCD) National Center Homepage Share Compartir Sickle Cell Trait People who inherit one sickle cell gene ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

212

Expression profiling analysis for genes related to meat quality and carcass traits during postnatal development of backfat in two pig breeds.  

PubMed

The competitive equilibrium of fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidation in vivo determines porcine subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) and intramuscular fat (IMF) content. Obese and lean-type pig breeds show obvious differences in adipose deposition; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenotypic variation remains unclear. We used pathway-focused oligo microarray studies to examine the expression changes of 140 genes associated with meat quality and carcass traits in backfat at five growth stages (1-5 months) of Landrace (a leaner, Western breed) and Taihu pigs (a fatty, indigenous, Chinese breed). Variance analysis (ANOVA) revealed that differences in the expression of 25 genes in Landrace pigs were significant (FDR adjusted permutation, P<0.05) among 5 growth stages. Gene class test (GCT) indicated that a gene-group was very significant between 2 pig breeds across 5 growth stages (P (ErmineJ)<0.01), which consisted of 23 genes encoding enzymes and regulatory proteins associated with lipid and steroid metabolism. These findings suggest that the distinct differences in fat deposition ability between Landrace and Taihu pigs may closely correlate with the expression changes of these genes. Clustering analysis revealed a very high level of significance (FDR adjusted, P<0.01) for 2 gene expression patterns in Landrace pigs and a high level of significance (FDR adjusted, P<0.05) for 2 gene expression patterns in Taihu pigs. Also, expression patterns of genes were more diversified in Taihu pigs than those in Landrace pigs, which suggests that the regulatory mechanism of micro-effect polygenes in adipocytes may be more complex in Taihu pigs than in Landrace pigs. Based on a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) model, gene regulatory networks (GRNs) were reconstructed from time-series data for each pig breed. These two GRNs initially revealed the distinct differences in physiological and biochemical aspects of adipose metabolism between the two pig breeds; from these results, some potential key genes could be identified. Quantitative, real-time RT-PCR (QRT-PCR) was used to verify the microarray data for five modulated genes, and a good correlation between the two measures of expression was observed for both 2 pig breeds at different growth stages (R=0.874+/-0.071). These results highlight some possible candidate genes for porcine fat characteristics and provide some data on which to base further study of the molecular basis of adipose metabolism. PMID:18677600

Li, Mingzhou; Zhu, Li; Li, Xuewei; Shuai, Surong; Teng, Xiaokun; Xiao, Huasheng; Li, Qiang; Chen, Lei; Guo, Yujiao; Wang, Jinyong

2008-08-01

213

Causes of color changes in wood during drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forest industry operates in a dynamic and global market where change and competition are the rule rather than the exception.\\u000a The color of wood is one of the most attractive features for the modern wood industry. Even when wood is chosen for its structural\\u000a qualities, attractive and decorative colors are usually an important factor. In many applications, particularly in

Sadoth Sandoval-Torres; Wahbi Jomaa; Francoise Marc; J.-R. Puiggali

2010-01-01

214

Fungicidal value of wood tar from pyrolysis of treated wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the paper was to estimate the fungicidal value of wood tar extracted as a product of pyrolysis of wood previously treated with either creosote oil or CCB-type salt preservative. The effectiveness of wood treated with one of these two wood tar residuals was compared to the effectiveness of wood treated with virgin creosote oil (type WEI-B) and

Bart?omiej Mazela

2007-01-01

215

20 Engineered Wood Journal Spring 2004 re wood design course  

E-print Network

20 Engineered Wood Journal · Spring 2004 A re wood design course offerings in civil, architectural, just maintaining the status quo could spell trouble for a wood products industry facing ever-greater competition from non-wood building materials. University education about wood as an engineering material

Gupta, Rakesh

216

Wood formation in Angiosperms.  

PubMed

Wood formation is a complex biological process, involving five major developmental steps, including (1) cell division from a secondary meristem called the vascular cambium, (2) cell expansion (cell elongation and radial enlargement), (3) secondary cell wall deposition, (4) programmed cell death, and (5) heartwood formation. Thanks to the development of genomic studies in woody species, as well as genetic engineering, recent progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying wood formation. In this review, we will focus on two different aspects, the lignification process and the control of microfibril angle in the cell wall of wood fibres, as they are both key features of wood material properties. PMID:20371107

Déjardin, Annabelle; Laurans, Françoise; Arnaud, Dominique; Breton, Christian; Pilate, Gilles; Leplé, Jean-Charles

2010-04-01

217

Functional traits explain variation in plant life history strategies  

PubMed Central

Ecologists seek general explanations for the dramatic variation in species abundances in space and time. An increasingly popular solution is to predict species distributions, dynamics, and responses to environmental change based on easily measured anatomical and morphological traits. Trait-based approaches assume that simple functional traits influence fitness and life history evolution, but rigorous tests of this assumption are lacking, because they require quantitative information about the full lifecycles of many species representing different life histories. Here, we link a global traits database with empirical matrix population models for 222 species and report strong relationships between functional traits and plant life histories. Species with large seeds, long-lived leaves, or dense wood have slow life histories, with mean fitness (i.e., population growth rates) more strongly influenced by survival than by growth or fecundity, compared with fast life history species with small seeds, short-lived leaves, or soft wood. In contrast to measures of demographic contributions to fitness based on whole lifecycles, analyses focused on raw demographic rates may underestimate the strength of association between traits and mean fitness. Our results help establish the physiological basis for plant life history evolution and show the potential for trait-based approaches in population dynamics. PMID:24379395

Adler, Peter B.; Salguero-Gomez, Roberto; Compagnoni, Aldo; Hsu, Joanna S.; Ray-Mukherjee, Jayanti; Mbeau-Ache, Cyril; Franco, Miguel

2014-01-01

218

Wood nitrogen concentrations in tropical trees: phylogenetic patterns and ecological correlates.  

PubMed

In tropical and temperate trees, wood chemical traits are hypothesized to covary with species' life-history strategy along a 'wood economics spectrum' (WES), but evidence supporting these expected patterns remains scarce. Due to its role in nutrient storage, we hypothesize that wood nitrogen (N) concentration will covary along the WES, being higher in slow-growing species with high wood density (WD), and lower in fast-growing species with low WD. In order to test this hypothesis we quantified wood N concentrations in 59 Panamanian hardwood species, and used this dataset to examine ecological correlates and phylogenetic patterns of wood N. Wood N varied > 14-fold among species between 0.04 and 0.59%; closely related species were more similar in wood N than expected by chance. Wood N was positively correlated with WD, and negatively correlated with log-transformed relative growth rates, although these relationships were relatively weak. We found evidence for co-evolution between wood N and both WD and log-transformed mortality rates. Our study provides evidence that wood N covaries with tree life-history parameters, and that these patterns consistently co-evolve in tropical hardwoods. These results provide some support for the hypothesized WES, and suggest that wood is an increasingly important N pool through tropical forest succession. PMID:25046797

Martin, Adam R; Erickson, David L; Kress, W John; Thomas, Sean C

2014-11-01

219

Woods for Learning Strategy Woods for Learning Strategy | 32 | Woods for Learning Strategy  

E-print Network

Strategy Woods for Learning #12;Woods for Learning Strategy Woods for Learning Strategy | 32 | Woods for Learning Strategy Foreword We want our young people to be successful learners, confident the use of woods for learning. Woodlands provide a rich resource for a range of learning opportunities

220

Chemical changes in hydrothermal treated wood: FTIR analysis of combined hydrothermal and dry heat-treated wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood specimens of Beech (Fagus silvatica L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) modified by a hydrothermal treatment process were analysed by means of Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). The chemical transformation of the cell-wall material was studied and associated with improved wood qualities. For this purpose, FTIR spectroscopy was used as since this technique has been found appropriate

B. F. Tjeerdsma; H. Militz

2005-01-01

221

The use of wood for wind turbine blade construction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interrelationships between moisture and wood, conditions for dry rot spore activity, the protection of wood fibers from moisture, wood resin composites, wood laminating, quality control, and the mechanical properties of wood are discussed. The laminated veneer and the bonded sawn stock fabrication techniques, used in the construction of a turbine blade with a monocoque 'D' section forming the leading edge and a built up trailing edge section, are described. A 20 foot root end sample complete with 24 bonded-in studs was successfully subjected to large onetime loads in both the flatwise and edgewise directions, and to fatigue tests. Results indicate that wood is both a viable and advantageous material for use in wind turbine blades. The basic material is reasonably priced, domestically available, ecologically sound, and easily fabricated with low energy consumption.

Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.

1979-01-01

222

WOOD ANATOMY INSTRUCTIONS FOR LABORATORY  

E-print Network

.................................... 33 Exercise 9. The wood of Albizia adianthifolia from tropical Central Africa.................................... 35 Exercise 10. The wood of Manilkara fouilloyana from tropical Central Africa

Cufar, Katarina

223

Effect of High-Temperature Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) Wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat treatment is a wood modification method that has been used to some extent in improving timber quality. The high temperature thermal treatment of wood is an environmentally friendly method for wood preservation. This technique has attracted considerable attention both in Europe and in North America in recent years.This article presents the results of experimental studies on influence of heat

Süleyman Korkut; Mehmet Budakç?

2009-01-01

224

Juvenile wood effect in red alder ({\\\\it Alnus rubra\\\\\\/}) and Oregon white oak ({\\\\it Quercus garryana\\\\\\/})  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of juvenile wood on the mechanical and physical properties of red alder and Oregon white oak. Tree growth in the first 10-20 years, usually referred to as juvenile wood, often influences wood quality by adversely affecting strength properties. Strength can be reduced up to 50 percent by the presence of

Joel Wesley Evans

1996-01-01

225

ORIGINAL PAPER Variation in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) wood  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Variation in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) wood quality after thinning on wood mechanical properties, thinning is advisable for slow growth naturally regenerated black spruce stands in the northern boreal region. Keywords Black spruce . Modulus of elasticity. Ring density. Wood

Boyer, Edmond

226

?-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype and allele frequencies.  

PubMed

Genetic marker effects and interactions are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to increase divergent haplotype and minor marker allele frequencies to 1) estimate effect size and mode of inheritance for previously reported SNP on targeted beef carcass quality traits; 2) estimate effects of previously reported SNP on nontarget performance traits; and 3) evaluate tenderness SNP specific residual variance models compared to a single residual variance model for tenderness. Divergent haplotypes within µ-calpain (CAPN1), and SNP within calpastatin (CAST) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) were successfully selected to increase their frequencies. Traits evaluated were birth BW, weaning BW, final BW, fat thickness, LM area, USDA marbling score, yield grade, slice shear force (SSF), and visible and near infrared predicted slice shear force. Both CAPN1 and CAST exhibited additive (P < 0.001) modes of inheritance for SSF and neither exhibited dominance (P ? 0.19). Furthermore, the interaction between CAPN1 and CAST for SSF was not significant (P = 0.55). Estimated additive effects of CAPN1 (1.049 kg) and CAST (1.257 kg) on SSF were large in this study. Animals homozygous for tender alleles at both CAPN1 and CAST would have 4.61 kg lower SSF (38.6% of the mean) than animals homozygous tough for both markers. There was also an effect of CAST on yield grade (P < 0.02). The tender CAST allele was associated with more red meat yield and less trimmable fat. There were no significant effects (P ? 0.23) for GHR on any of the traits evaluated in this study. Furthermore, CAST specific residual variance models were found to fit significantly better (P < 0.001) than single residual variance models for SSF, with the tougher genotypes having larger residual variance. Thus, the risk of a tough steak from the undesired CAST genotype is increased through both an increase in mean and an increase in variation. This work confirms the importance of CAPN1 and CAST for tenderness in beef, provides a new effect of CAST on beef tenderness, and questions the utility of GHR as a selection marker for beef quality. PMID:24398843

Tait, R G; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; King, D A; Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Smith, T P L; Bennett, G L

2014-02-01

227

Wood residues: trash or treasure  

SciTech Connect

Forest residues have acquired new economic value since the growth of the wood-energy markets has prompted private woodlot owners to begin managing and harvesting their forests after nearly a century of neglect. Estimates place half the commercial forests as overstocked, with poor-quality trees and unmarketable varieties, as well as standing dead or fallen trees and slash which are aesthetically bad. Overzealous cleansing of the forest floor, however, will deplete forests soils of nutrients and expose them to erosion in addition to destroying wildlife habitat. A compromise is needed to balance the ecological and economic benefits. (DCK)

Bolgiano, C.

1983-12-01

228

CORRELATIONAL SELECTION LEADS TO GENETIC INTEGRATION OF BODY SIZE AND AN ATTRACTIVE PLUMAGE TRAIT IN DARK-EYED JUNCOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a trait's effect on fitness depends on its interaction with other traits, the resultant selection is correlational and may lead to the integration of functionally related traits. In relation to sexual selection, when an ornamental trait interacts with phenotypic quality to determine mating success, correlational sexual selection should generate genetic correlations between the ornament and quality, leading to the

Joel W. McGlothlin; Patricia G. Parker; Val Nolan; Ellen D. Ketterson

2005-01-01

229

Genome-wide association studies of agronomic and quality traits in a set of German winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT).  

PubMed

A set of about 100 winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, comprising diverse and economically important German barley elite germplasm released during the last six decades, was previously genotypically characterized by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using the Illumina GoldenGate BeadArray Technology to detect associations with phenotypic data estimated in three-year field trials at 12 locations. In order to identify further associations and to obtain information on whether the marker type influences the outcome of association genetics studies, the set of winter barley cultivars was re-analyzed using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. As with the analysis of the SNPs, only polymorphic markers present at an allele frequency >5% were included to detect associations in a mixed linear model (MLM) approach using the TASSEL software (P???0.001). The population structure and kinship matrix were estimated on 72 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) covering the whole barley genome. The respective average linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyzed with DArT markers was estimated at 5.73 cM. A total of 52 markers gave significant associations with at least one of the traits estimated which, therefore, may be suitable for marker-assisted breeding. In addition, by comparing the results to those generated using the Illumina GoldenGate BeadArray Technology, it turned out that a different number of associations for respective traits is detected, depending on the marker system. However, as only a few of the respective DArT and Illumina markers are present in a common map, no comprehensive comparison of the detected associations was feasible, but some were probably detected in the same chromosomal regions. Because of the identification of additional marker-trait associations, it may be recommended to use both marker techniques in genome-wide association studies. PMID:24789682

Lex, Jeannette; Ahlemeyer, Jutta; Friedt, Wolfgang; Ordon, Frank

2014-08-01

230

Family Traits and Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play a matching game with their families to discover common inherited traits and traditions. Learners distinguish between inherited traits and learned traditions. This genetics activity is available in English and Spanish.

Utah, University O.

2006-01-01

231

CWC Best Practices in Wood Waste Recycling Visually Identifying Common Wood Waste Contaminants  

E-print Network

Issue: Various sources generate wood waste; this variability causes it to usually contain contaminants. These contaminants might not interfere with processing for particular end-products. For example, compost end-markets could be indifferent to the dirt and grit commonly found in wood waste, whereas composite panel-board markets could have trouble during manufacturing and with end-product performance. However, the end-uses that tolerate contaminants in recovered wood waste generally have the lowest-value markets. To successfully compete with virgin wood materials in higher-value markets, wood-waste processors must minimize the presence of contaminants in their end products. Best Practice: This Best Practice recommends that operators become aware of the common woodwaste contaminants that pose problems for end users. This awareness is among the first steps in achieving satisfactory quality control in wood-waste processing. Visually inspect all incoming loads of material to identify contamination. Following is a listing of the contaminants that frequently enter a processing facility along with recovered wood waste: • Dirt and grit • Ferrous metals (nails, screws, staples,

Material Wood Waste

232

Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process  

E-print Network

influ- enced the compounding quality of wood­polymer blends and finally affected the interfacial bonding was effective for improving the compat- ibility and adhesion at the interface. The two-step process was better

233

ESTATE WOODS LOCATION Bishop's Estate Woods are  

E-print Network

recreational opportunity and their management was minimal. The woods are set behind housing estates, which has by social and private housing. The forest is split into five woodlands ­ Cardowan Moss Local Nature Reserve was built in the 1950s to provide better housing for people living in sub-standard conditions. The housing

234

Scientists Studying Sickle Cell Trait  

MedlinePLUS

... trait, which can cause sudden death in young athletes. In people with sickle cell trait, intense physical ... found to have sickle cell trait. "More student-athletes with sickle cell trait have died than those ...

235

Wood pelletization sourcebook  

SciTech Connect

The Wood Pelletization Sourcebook is a document that provides business guidelines and technical information to those considering entering the wood pelleting business. Also, the sourcebook is a useful supplementary document for lenders to refer to in their analysis of a potential manufacturer`s business plan. A survey of wood pellet manufacturers was conducted during the spring and summer of 1994 to gather information on marketing, pelletization technology, environmental regulations, raw material supply and costs, production costs, and the overall outlook of the industry. The study characterizes different sized pelleting operations, creates a sample business plan for potential manufacturers, and identifies key industry success factors.

Haase, S.; Whittier, J. [NEOS Corporation, Lakewood, CO (United States); Fisher, J. [Pellet Fuels Institute, Edina, MN (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31

236

William B. Wood Complete Publications  

E-print Network

3/24/14 William B. Wood Complete Publications Scientific Research: 1. Wood, W. B., and Berg, P protein-ribosome system from Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 48: 94-104. 2. Wood, W. B Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 23: 237-246. 3. Wood, W. B., and Berg, P. (1964) Influence of DNA secondary

Pace, Norman

237

WOOD RESEARCH 52 (2): 2007  

E-print Network

1 WOOD RESEARCH 52 (2): 2007 1-10 WOOD FORMATION IN NORWAY SPRUCE PICEA ABIES STUDIED BY PINNING, and for secondary phloem formation. KEY WORDS: Norway spruce (Picea abies), wood formation, cambial activity, intact Zupani, Katarina Cufar, Primoz Oven University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Wood

Cufar, Katarina

238

The Arabidopsis wood model-the case for the inflorescence stem.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis thaliana has successfully served as a model to discover genes and proteins that have roles in a wide range of plant traits, including wood-related traits, such as lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose biosynthesis, secondary growth regulation, and secondary cell wall synthesis. Both the radially thickened hypocotyl and the inflorescence stem (flower stalk) have been studied. In this review, we address lingering doubts regarding the utility of Arabidopsis as a model for wood development by highlighting studies that provide new biochemical and biophysical evidence that extend support for the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem as a model for wood development beyond what is currently thought. We describe different aspects of Arabidopsis that make it a highly versatile tool for the study of wood development. One would likely utilise the radially thickened hypocotyl because of its more fully developed vascular cambium for traits related specifically to secondary (i.e. cambial) growth. It is more productive to utilise the inflorescence stem for wood-like biophysical traits. Accession variation has been underexploited as a powerful method to discover genes governing wood-like traits. We discuss recent findings that survey the accession variation in Arabidopsis for biochemical and biophysical properties of various wood traits, such as microfibril angle, tensile strength and cellulose/hemicellulose content. Furthermore we discuss how larger-scale studies of this nature using plants grown in long days (as opposed to the current short-day paradigm) could accelerate gene discovery and our understanding of cell wall and wood development. We highlight some relatively unexplored areas of research relating to the secondary cell wall composition, architecture and biophysical properties of the inflorescence stem, and how these traits are relevant to wood formation. The Arabidopsis inflorescence stem has other characteristics, expressed genes and traits held in common with woody species that have not been widely characterised or discussed to date. We discuss how this conservation may indicate the more general potential for "true" woodiness in herbaceous species, in the context of so-called secondary woodiness. PMID:23849126

Strabala, Timothy J; Macmillan, Colleen P

2013-09-01

239

Poplar wood formation.  

E-print Network

??Genotypical effects on wood formation in aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) have been studied at morphological, ultrastructural and micro-distributional levels. To characterize transgenically in­duced modifications,… (more)

Sandquist, David

2011-01-01

240

Multiple-interval mapping for quantitative trait loci controlling endosperm traits.  

PubMed Central

Endosperm traits are trisomic inheritant and are of great economic importance because they are usually directly related to grain quality. Mapping for quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying endosperm traits can provide an efficient way to genetically improve grain quality. As the traditional QTL mapping methods (diploid methods) are usually designed for traits under diploid control, they are not the ideal approaches to map endosperm traits because they ignore the triploid nature of endosperm. In this article, a statistical method considering the triploid nature of endosperm (triploid method) is developed on the basis of multiple-interval mapping (MIM) to map for the underlying QTL. The proposed triploid MIM method is derived to broadly use the marker information either from only the maternal plants or from both the maternal plants and their embryos in the backcross and F2 populations for mapping endosperm traits. Due to the use of multiple intervals simultaneously to take multiple QTL into account, the triploid MIM method can provide better detection power and estimation precision, and as shown in this article it is capable of analyzing and searching for epistatic QTL directly as compared to the traditional diploid methods and current triploid methods using only one (or two) interval(s). Several important issues in endosperm trait mapping, such as the relation and differences between the diploid and triploid methods, variance components of genetic variation, and the problems if effects are present and ignored, are also addressed. Simulations are performed to further explore these issues, to investigate the relative efficiency of different experimental designs, and to evaluate the performance of the proposed and current methods in mapping endosperm traits. The MIM-based triploid method can provide a powerful tool to estimate the genetic architecture of endosperm traits and to assist the marker-assisted selection for the improvement of grain quality in crop science. The triploid MIM FORTRAN program for mapping endosperm traits is available on the worldwide web (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/chkao/). PMID:15342535

Kao, Chen-Hung

2004-01-01

241

Impact Tests for Woods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although it is well known that the strength of wood depends greatly upon the time the wood is under the load, little consideration has been given to this fact in testing materials for airplanes. Here, results are given of impact tests on clear, straight grained spruce. Transverse tests were conducted for comparison. Both Izod and Charpy impact tests were conducted. Results are given primarily in tabular and graphical form.

1922-01-01

242

Quantifying the extent of variation in the eating quality traits of the M. longissimus dorsi and M. semimembranosus of conventionally processed Irish beef.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to quantify the scale of variation in the eating quality of two commercial beef muscles, M. longissimus dorsi (LD) and M. semimembranosus (Sm). Both the LD and Sm were excised from steers (n=81) and heifers (n=81) (classification grade O4H, O4L, R4H, R4L) within 48 h postmortem, vacuum packaged and stored at 4 °C until tested for eating quality at 14 days postmortem. Quality measurements analysed were: pH, Warner Bratzler shear force, sensory attributes, sarcomere length, Hunter L a b muscle and subcutaneous fat colour and chemical composition. Extent of variation in many eating quality measurements, with the exception of most sensory attributes and subcutaneous fat colour, depended on gender, classification grade or a combination of both. The LD was more variable than the Sm for most quality attributes and heifers were more variable than steers. No one carcass grade was more variable over all attributes analysed; with different grades causing higher or lower variances within certain attributes. Knowledge of the current scale of variation in the eating quality of beef is required by the meat industry, and is one that requires further research. PMID:22064138

Maher, S C; Mullen, A M; Moloney, A P; Buckley, D J; Kerry, J P

2004-02-01

243

Embryonic developmental patterns and energy expenditure are affected by incubation temperature in wood ducks (Aix sponsa).  

PubMed

Recent research in birds has demonstrated that incubation temperature influences a suite of traits important for hatchling development and survival. We explored a possible mechanism for the effects on hatchling quality by determining whether incubation temperature influences embryonic energy expenditure of wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Because avian embryos are ectothermic, we hypothesized that eggs incubated at higher temperatures would have greater energy expenditure at any given day of incubation. However, because eggs incubated at lower temperatures take longer to hatch than embryos incubated at higher temperatures, we hypothesized that the former would expend more energy during incubation. We incubated eggs at three temperatures (35.0°, 35.9°, and 37.0°C) that fall within the range of temperatures of naturally incubated wood duck nests. We then measured the respiration of embryos every 3 d during incubation, immediately after ducks externally pipped, and immediately after hatching. As predicted, embryos incubated at the highest temperature had the highest metabolic rates on most days of incubation, and they exhibited faster rates of development. Yet, because of greater energy expended during the hatching process, embryos incubated at the lowest temperature expended 20%-37% more energy during incubation than did embryos incubated at the higher temperatures. Slower developmental rates and greater embryonic energy expenditure of embryos incubated at the lowest temperature could contribute to their poor physiological performance as ducklings compared with ducklings that hatch from eggs incubated at higher temperatures. PMID:21897082

DuRant, S E; Hopkins, W A; Hepp, G R

2011-01-01

244

Doctors’ traits perceived by Japanese nurses as communication barriers: A questionnaire survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStudies addressing nurses’ traits to improve the quality of nurse–physician communication exist, whereas only a few studies exploring physicians’ traits as communication barriers are conducted.

Kyoko Morinaga; Yohsuke Ohtsubo; Keiko Yamauchi; Yasuhiro Shimada

2008-01-01

245

Influence of rearing conditions on performance, behavioral, and physiological responses of pigs to preslaughter handling, carcass traits, and meat quality1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 120 crossbred (synthetic line × (Large White × Landrace)) pigs (castrated males and females) were used to evaluate the influence of rearing conditions for growing-finishing pigs on growth perfor- mance, carcass, stress reactions at slaughter, and meat eating quality. At approximately 35 kg of live weight (LW), littermates were allocated to either a conven- tional (fully slatted

B. Lebret; M. C. Meunier-Salaun; A. Foury; P. Mormede; E. Dransfield; J. Y. Dourmad

246

Selection for litter size, body weight, and pelt quality in mink (Mustela vison): experimental design and direct response of each trait.  

PubMed

In a five-generation selection experiment, separate lines of mink (Mustela vison) were subjected to selection for improved litter size at 3 wk (F line), BW in September (BS line), and underfur density (P line), and combined selection for litter size and BW (I line). Underfur density was subjectively judged on live animals. One unselected line served as a control (C line). Significant changes were achieved in each trait: litter size in the last generation was 5.3 in the F line vs 3.7 in the C line; September weight in males was 2,254 g in the BS line vs 1,979 g in the C line, and the underfur density score, graded using a 5-point scale, was 4.1 in the P line vs 2.9 in the C line. In the combined line (I line) litter size was only slightly improved, whereas BW was substantially increased (male mean = 2,194 g). A univariate animal model was used to predict genetic values and to estimate variance components with a REML procedure. Heritability estimates were .14 +/- .09 for litter size, .39 +/- .06 for September weight, and .21 +/- .06 for underfur density. It was confirmed that the reproductive performance of heavy of fat animals was poor. Responses were higher than predicted when selecting for September weight and underfur density. In the last generation the average breeding values, relative to the base generation, were +.8 kits for litter size (F line), +365 g for male September weight (BS line), and +1 point for underfur density (P line). The study suggests that negative maternal effects on litter size may exist in mink. PMID:8294277

Lagerkvist, G; Johansson, K; Lundeheim, N

1993-12-01

247

Polymorphism of MyoD1 and Myf6 genes and associations with carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle.  

PubMed

Myogenic determination factor 1 (MyoD1) and myogenic factor 6 (Myf6) genes belong to the myogenic differentiation (MyoD) gene family, which play key roles in growth and muscle development. The study aimed to investigate the effects of variants in cattle MyoD1 and Myf6 on carcass and meat traits. We screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of both genes in 8 cattle populations, including Simmental, Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Limousin, Qinchuan, Luxi, and Jinnan by sequencing. The G782A locus was identified in exon 1 of MyoD1 (MyoD1-BglI) as well as the T186C locus in exon 1 of Myf6 (Myf6-ApaLI). For the two SNPs, the A allele was significantly more frequent than the B allele in the populations tested. The ?(2) test showed that the MyoD1-BglI locus conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the 8 populations, as did the Myf6-ApaLI locus, with the exception of the Simmental population (P > 0.05). Association analysis revealed that the MyoD1-BglI locus was significantly associated with loin muscle area (LMA) (P < 0.05), and the Myf6-ApaLI locus was significantly associated with carcass length (CL) (P < 0.05). Animals with BB and AB genotypes for the MyoD1-BglI locus had larger LMAs compared to animals with AA genotype. Individuals with BB genotype had longer CLs compared to those with AA and AB genotypes. We conclude that the two SNPs might provide useful genetic markers, opening up new possibilities for cattle breeding and improvements in gene-assisted selection. PMID:24391012

Du, X H; Gan, Q F; Yuan, Z R; Gao, X; Zhang, L P; Gao, H J; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

2013-01-01

248

Photodegradation of thermally modified wood.  

PubMed

Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (?E(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers. PMID:23123593

Srinivas, Kavyashree; Pandey, Krishna K

2012-12-01

249

Material: Wood Waste CWC Best Practices in Wood Waste Recycling  

E-print Network

Issue: Pulp and paper industry were originally designed and constructed to use virgin wood feedstocks as a raw material. Some of the virgin wood fiber used for the pulp and paper industry is from lower value roundwood logs that are chipped for pulping. The other major source is from the residuals from sawmill, veneer, and lumber plants. These solid wood production plants produce millions of tons a year of residual barks, chips, and sawdust that they cannot use but can be used for pulping. This wood fiber is too small, or too defective for solid wood manufacturing. The remaining virgin feedstocks are typically derived from the residual chips produced by primary wood products manufacturers (sawmills and plywood plants) that rely on the round log for their raw material. The virgin wood fiber is generally free of non-wood contaminants and relatively uniform in specie, geometry, color, and moisture content. The feedstocks produced from wood waste for the pulp and paper industry are more complex. They frequently contain various quantities of non-wood contaminants, consist of a number of different species (softwood and hardwood varieties), lack uniform geometry, include weathered wood colors, and might vary significantly in moisture content (green wood to kiln dried). These complex characteristics are a challenge for the pulp and paper industry because their production systems were not originally designed to account for these feedstock variations.

Process Modifications; Wood Waste Feedstocks

250

The Woods and Pond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities offer sudents a hands-on approach to learning about their natural surroundings. After visiting a local pond and woods area, they will recognize that pond and woods environments are ecosystems and be able to state some of the differences between the two. They will also learn to identify trees by their leaves and bark and to identify shrubs by their fruit and manner of growth. In addition, they will also learn to identify animals and plants near the pond, and learn to recognize changes in the two ecosystems over a span of months.

1998-01-01

251

A comparison of halothane homozygous negative and positive pietrain sire lines in relation to carcass and meat quality, and welfare traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barrows (n=164) and gilts (n=249) from crosses of a Pietrain homozygous halothane recessive (Pi nn) and two Pietrain homozygous dominant (Pi NN-a and Pi NN-b) sire lines with Landrace×Large White NN sows, were used to study the effect of terminal sire and pre-slaughter treatment on meat quality and animal welfare. The pigs from each of the two farms where they

E. Fàbrega; X. Manteca; M. Gispert; D. Carrión; A. Velarde; J. L. Ruiz-de-la-Torre; A. Diestre

2004-01-01

252

Generations of Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this hands-on activity students track and record the passage of colored pom-pom âtraitsâ through three generations of gingerbread people. Students observe that traits are passed from parents to offspring, and that siblings each receive a different combination of traits from their parents.

2006-01-01

253

Generalized Latent Trait Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

2000-01-01

254

Wood energy-commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

Kennel, R. P.

1978-01-01

255

Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: development of a market conformity tool for pork products based on technological quality traits.  

PubMed

A market conformity tool, based on technological meat quality parameters, was developed within the Q-PorkChains project, to be included in a global sustainability evaluation of pig farming systems. The specific objective of the market conformity tool was to define a scoring system based on the suitability of meat to elaborate the main pork products, according to their market shares based on industry requirements, in different pig farming systems. The tool was based on carcass and meat quality parameters that are commonly used for the assessment of technological quality, which provide representative and repeatable data and are easily measurable. They were the following: cold carcass weight; lean meat percentage; minimum subcutaneous back fat depth at m. gluteus medius level, 45 postmortem and ultimate pH (measured at 24-h postmortem) in m. longissimus lumborum and semimembranosus; meat colour; drip losses and intramuscular fat content in a m. longissimus sample. Five categories of pork products produced at large scale in Europe were considered in the study: fresh meat, cooked products, dry products, specialties and other meat products. For each of the studied farming systems, the technological meat quality requirements, as well as the market shares for each product category within farming system, were obtained from the literature and personal communications from experts. The tool resulted in an overall conformity score that enabled to discriminate among systems according to the degree of matching of the achieved carcass and meat quality with the requirements of the targeted market. In order to improve feasibility, the tool was simplified by selecting ultimate pH at m. longissimus or semimembranosus, minimum fat thickness measured at the left half carcass over m. gluteus medius and intramuscular fat content in a m. longissimus sample as iceberg indicators. The overall suitability scores calculated by using both the complete and the reduced tools presented good correlation and the results obtained were similar. The tool could be considered as robust enough to discriminate among different systems, since it was tested in a wide range of them. It also can be used to detect improvement opportunities to enhance sustainability of pig farming systems. The final objective of the study was achieved, since the market suitability tool could be used in an integrated sustainability analysis of pig farming systems. PMID:25196445

Gonzàlez, J; Gispert, M; Gil, M; Hviid, M; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K H; Zimmer, C; Fàbrega, E

2014-12-01

256

William Ransom Wood Campus center  

E-print Network

William Ransom Wood Campus center Fall 2012--Summer 2013Student Employee Handbook Advice for Leaders 2 Carol Brown Outstanding Student Employee Award 2 History of Wood Center 2 Employment Policies 3-4 Getting Paid, Etc. 5 Five Fun Facts about College Unions 5 Wood Center Contact Information 6 Inside

Hartman, Chris

257

Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood  

E-print Network

Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood Scholarship Award Call for Nominations We are delighted to announce the Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood Scholarship Award for an Outstanding Women's, Gender, and Sexualities (WGSS Wood, a feminist mother, wife, friend, daughter, and lawyer who is remembered by her loved ones

Alpay, S. Pamir

258

The Asian Wood Pellet Markets  

E-print Network

. 25 p. This study examines the three major wood pellet markets in Asia: China, Japan, and South Korea pellets industry. We found that China, the largest energy consumer in Asia, has an established wood pellet market. However, a majority of these wood pellets are manufactured in China, thus imports are minimal

259

Wood: rediscovering an old fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood chips have almost twice the BTU content per dollar as coal and three times the BTU content\\/dollar as oil (according to research being done by the Michigan Technological University). Wood resources are widely distributed throughout the country, and Mr. Paskin estimates that use of waste wood alone could reduce reliance on other energy sources to the extent of the

Paskin

1976-01-01

260

Rheological Model for Wood  

E-print Network

Wood as the most important natural and renewable building material plays an important role in the construction sector. Nevertheless, its hygroscopic character basically affects all related mechanical properties leading to degradation of material stiffness and strength over the service life. Accordingly, to attain reliable design of the timber structures, the influence of moisture evolution and the role of time- and moisture-dependent behaviors have to be taken into account. For this purpose, in the current study a 3D orthotropic elasto-plastic, visco-elastic, mechano-sorptive constitutive model for wood, with all material constants being defined as a function of moisture content, is presented. The corresponding numerical integration approach, with additive decomposition of the total strain is developed and implemented within the framework of the finite element method (FEM). Moreover to preserve a quadratic rate of asymptotic convergence the consistent tangent operator for the whole model is derived. Functionality and capability of the presented material model are evaluated by performing several numerical verification simulations of wood components under different combinations of mechanical loading and moisture variation. Additionally, the flexibility and universality of the introduced model to predict the mechanical behavior of different species are demonstrated by the analysis of a hybrid wood element. Furthermore, the proposed numerical approach is validated by comparisons of computational evaluations with experimental results.

Mohammad Masoud Hassani; Falk K. Wittel; Stefan Hering; Hans J. Herrmann

2014-10-15

261

WOOD POLE MAINTENANCE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the various inspection and treatment methods that can be used to maintain wood poles in- place. Pole inspection has to be carried out to meet National Electric Code safety standards. Unfortunately, inspection only is an expense that leads to a lot of pole replacements. Inspec- tion combined with present internal and external treatments will extend the

Robert E. Birtz

1979-01-01

262

LOCOMOTION OF WOOD DUCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY of several aspects of the life history of the Wood Duck (Aix sponsa) was recently conducted in central Ohio. Survival was of pri- mary concern, and some attention was given to the means utilized by this species for escape from capture. Although speed alone seldom assures escape from pursuing predators, it is a pertinent factor in maximum escape effi-

PAUL A. STEWART

263

A life cycle evaluation of wood pellet gasification for district heating in British Columbia.  

PubMed

The replacement of natural gas combustion for district heating by wood waste and wood pellets gasification systems with or without emission control has been investigated by a streamlined LCA. While stack emissions from controlled gasification systems are lower than the applicable regulations, compared to the current base case, 12% and 133% increases are expected in the overall human health impacts for wood pellets and wood waste, respectively. With controlled gasification, external costs and GHG emission can be reduced by 35% and 82% on average, respectively. Between wood pellets and wood waste, wood pellets appear to be the better choice as it requires less primary energy and has a much lower impact on the local air quality. PMID:21377867

Pa, Ann; Bi, Xiaotao T; Sokhansanj, Shahab

2011-05-01

264

Long-term performance evaluation of wood fibre fills. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the results of a research project to determine the long-term performance of wood fiber embankments, that were constructed by the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) beginning in 1972. At the time of their construction, concern existed that wood fiber fills would only provide a 15 to 20 year service life. Performance of existing wood fiber fills was evaluated based on the quality of the wood fiber material, quality of the effluent, and condition of the pavement. A visual classification system rating the wood fiber from fresh to completely decomposed was developed and used in order to establish a criteria from which all wood fiber material could be rated. Visual examination in conjunction with laboratory tests were used as determining aspects for the effluent quality. The WSDOT Pavement Management System was used to evaluate relative pavement performance. Site descriptions are presented giving specific characteristics and properties of the fills inventoried. An analysis of this information was done to determine the effectiveness of the fills. Over half the wood fiber samples were found to be nearly fresh or fresh and none were found to be completely decomposed. In all but one case, the pavement quality over the wood fiber fills surpassed the comparative highway segment rating indicating the wood fill's performance exceeded that of the surrounding area.

Kilian, A.P.; Ferry, C.D.

1992-08-01

265

Flavonoid insertion into cell walls improves wood properties.  

PubMed

Wood has an excellent mechanical performance, but wider utilization of this renewable resource as an engineering material is limited by unfavorable properties such as low dimensional stability upon moisture changes and a low durability. However, some wood species are known to produce a wood of higher quality by inserting mainly phenolic substances in the already formed cell walls--a process so-called heartwood formation. In the present study, we used the heartwood formation in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) as a source of bioinspiration and transferred principles of the modification in order to improve spruce wood properties (Picea abies) by a chemical treatment with commercially available flavonoids. We were able to effectively insert hydrophobic flavonoids in the cell wall after a tosylation treatment for activation. The chemical treatment reduced the water uptake of the wood cell walls and increased the dimensional stability of the bulk spruce wood. Further analysis of the chemical interaction of the flavonoid with the structural cell wall components revealed the basic principle of this bioinspired modification. Contrary to established modification treatments, which mainly address the hydroxyl groups of the carbohydrates with hydrophilic substances, the hydrophobic flavonoids are effective by a physical bulking in the cell wall most probably stabilized by ?-? interactions. A biomimetic transfer of the underlying principle may lead to alternative cell wall modification procedures and improve the performance of wood as an engineering material. PMID:23027798

Ermeydan, Mahmut A; Cabane, Etienne; Masic, Admir; Koetz, Joachim; Burgert, Ingo

2012-11-01

266

Out of the woods.  

PubMed

Throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America women are pushed out of forests and from their maintenance by governments and private interests for cash crop development disregarding the role of women in conserving forests. In developing countries forests are a source of wood for fuel; 60-80% of women gather wood for family needs in America. Fruits, vegetables, and nuts gathered in woods enhance their diet. Indonesian women pick bananas, mangos, guavas, and avocados from trees around their homes; in Senegal shea-nut butter is made from a local tree fruit to be sold for cash. Women provide labor also in logging, wood processing, and tree nurseries. They make charcoal and grow seedlings for sale. In India 40% of forest income and 75% of forest products export earnings are derived from nonwood resources. Poor, rural women make items out of bamboo, rattan, and rope to sell: 48% of women in an Egyptian province make a living through such activities. In India 600,000 women harvest tendu leaves for use as wrappings for cigarettes. The expansion of commercial tree plantations replacing once communal natural forests has forced poor households to spend up to 4-% of their income on fuel that they used to find in forests. Tribal women in India know the medicinal uses of 300 forest species, and women in Sierra Leone could name 31 products they obtained or made from trees and bushes, while men named only 8 items. Only 1 forestry project appraised by the World Bank during 1984-97 named women as beneficiaries, and only 1 out of 33 rural development programs funded by the World Bank did. Women provide food, fuel, and water for their families in subsistence economies, they know sustainable methods of forestry, yet they are not included in development programs whose success or failure could hinge on more attention to women's contribution and on more equity. PMID:12285836

Jacobson, J L

1992-01-01

267

Wood Composite Adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly\\u000a during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the\\u000a world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting\\u000a global markets. In

Jose Gomez-Bueso; Robert Haupt

2010-01-01

268

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, WHOI, the largest independent oceanographic institution in the world, is a private, non-profit research facility dedicated to the study of marine science and to the education of marine scientists. Site provides information on graduate programs, undergraduate opportunities, facilities, and more. An abundance of information on the research program and its vessels, including an extensive collection of Deep Submergence Vehicle Alvin material. Also includes downloadable data, photos, and video.

269

Wood energy fuel cycle optimization in beech and spruce forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel synergistic approach to reducing emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is presented. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization (FCO) aims to provide cleaner burning fuels through optimization of forestry and renewable energy management practices. In this work, beech and spruce forests of average and high quality were modelled and analysed to determine the volume of fuel wood and its associated bark fraction produced during typical forestry cycles. Two separate fuel wood bark production regimes were observed for beech trees, while only one production regime was observed for spruce. The single tree and stand models were combined with existing thinning parameters to replicate existing management practices. Utilizing estimates of initial seedling numbers and existing thinning patterns a dynamic model was formed that responded to changes in thinning practices. By varying the thinning parameters, this model enabled optimization of the forestry practices for the reduction of bark impurities in the fuel wood supply chain. Beech forestry cycles responded well to fuel cycle optimization with volume reductions of bark from fuel wood of between ˜10% and ˜20% for average and high quality forest stands. Spruce, on the other hand, was fairly insensitive to FCO with bark reductions of 0-5%. The responsiveness of beech to FCO further supports its status as the preferred RWC fuel in Switzerland. FCO could easily be extended beyond Switzerland and applied across continental Europe and North America.

Meyer, Nickolas K.; Mina, Marco

2012-03-01

270

Effects of formulation variables on surface properties of wood plastic composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degree of surface quality of wood plastic composites (WPCs) is a function of both raw material characteristics and the manufacturing variables. The WPC panels comprised of different panel densities (800, 950, 1000, and 1080kg\\/m3), wood flour contents (50, 60, 70, and 80wt.%), wood flour sizes (1mm), and hot-pressing temperatures (190 and 210°C) were manufactured using a dry blend\\/flat-pressing method under

Nadir Ayrilmis; Jan T. Benthien; Heiko Thoemen

271

Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

Ghafghazi, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

2011-01-01

272

1. THE ROLES OF WOOD AND LIGNO CELLULOSE MATERIALS USED IN THE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS STRUCTURES  

E-print Network

The paper presents some aspects regarding to the connections of the features of wood and lingocellulose composites used for musical instruments manufacturing and the particulars of shape, structure and quality of instruments. The paper is organized on three main units. The first unit presents the acoustic properties of wood regarding to: sound velocity in wood, specific acoustic impedance, acoustic damping, acoustic insulation, wood resonance. The second part of paper brings into focus the most important species of resonance wood from the point of view of the quality criteria of wood and materials based on wood used for musical instruments construction. The last part of study presents the experimental results obtained by the cyclic stresses applied to the plates of different guitars. It is important to know the acoustic features of tone wood in correlation with the mechanical properties of wood (resistance to the cyclic stresses, the stiffness on the three main directions, density, the moisture content of wood) for the manufacture of qualitative musical instruments suitable for types of music and personal style of artists.

Phd Student; Mariana Domnica Stanciu

273

Affective Traits in Schizophrenia and Schizotypy  

PubMed Central

This article reviews empirical studies of affective traits in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, population-based investigations of vulnerability to psychosis, and genetic and psychometric high-risk samples. The review focuses on studies that use self-report trait questionnaires to assess Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), which are conceptualized in contemporary models of personality as broad, temperamentally-based dispositions to experience corresponding emotional states. Individuals with schizophrenia report a pattern of stably elevated NA and low PA throughout the illness course. Among affected individuals, these traits are associated with variability in several clinically important features, including functional outcome, quality of life, and stress reactivity. Furthermore, evidence that elevated NA and low PA (particularly the facet of anhedonia) predict the development of psychosis and are detectable in high-risk samples suggests that these traits play a role in vulnerability to schizophrenia, though they are implicated in other forms of psychopathology as well. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for treatment, etiological models, and future research to advance the study of affective traits in schizophrenia and schizotypy. PMID:18667393

Horan, William P.; Blanchard, Jack J.; Clark, Lee Anna; Green, Michael F.

2008-01-01

274

Improving Conifer Timber Quality Steering Group Northern Research Station, Roslin  

E-print Network

and screening for wood quality. 4. Where is the timber quality programme at today? Options for the future in Sitka spruce; · Timber quality model for Sitka spruce; · Wind exposure effects on timber quality; · Effect of windblow on timber quality; · Lodgepole pine provenances; · EU Compression Wood project

275

Environmental Influences on Wood Chemistry and Density of Populus and Loblolly Pine  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the study are to: (1) determine the degree to which physical and chemical wood properties vary in association with environmental and silvicultural practices in Populus and loblolly pine and (2) develop and verify species-specific empirical models in an effort to create a framework for understanding environmental influences on wood quality.

Tuskan, G.A.

2006-08-11

276

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF STRUCTURAL WOOD MEMBERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews techniques that can or have been used for determining the key properties of structural wood members, largely softwood lumber and structural panels. For solid wood materials, moisture content, density, and defects are underlying basic properties that must be assessed independently to arrive at structural values. In reconstituted materials, an additional variable, adhesive quality dominates. In addition to

Frank C. Beall

2007-01-01

277

DNA Extraction From Processed Wood: A Case Study for the Identification of an Endangered  

E-print Network

Protocols DNA Extraction From Processed Wood: A Case Study for the Identification of an Endangered to the extraction of whole genomic DNA from processed wood samples to explore the possibility of identifying an endangered trop- ical timber species by using DNA sequencing technology. High-yield and high-quality DNA

278

Modelling variability of wood density in beech as affected by ring age, radial growth and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it has been recognized as a key parameter of wood quality and a good source of information on growth, annual wood density has been little studied within diffuse-porous trees such as beech ( Fagus sylvaticaLiebl.). In this paper we examine the variability encountered in beech ring density series and analyze the influences of ring age, ring width, climate and

O. Bouriaud; N. Bréda; G. Le Moguédec; G. Nepveu

2004-01-01

279

Wood and combination wood-fired boiler ash characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ashes resulting from the combustion of wood residues in industrial boilers are characterized relative to (i) macroelement compositions, (ii) trace and heavy metal microelement compositions, (iii) organics, and (iv) polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans (PCDD\\/Fs). Ash compositions, both macro- and microelements, are compared with coal ash and limestone. Microelements in wood ashes are also compared with other potential soil amendments such

Arun V. Someshwar

1996-01-01

280

Origins of Metastatic Traits  

PubMed Central

How cancer cells acquire the competence to colonize distant organs remains a central question in cancer biology. Tumors can release large numbers of cancer cells into the circulation, but only a small proportion of these cells survive on infiltrating distant organs and even fewer form clinically meaningful metastases. During the past decade, many predictive gene signatures and specific mediators of metastasis have been identified, yet how cancer cells acquire these traits has remained obscure. Recent experimental work and high-resolution sequencing of human tissues have started to reveal the molecular and tumor evolutionary principles that underlie the emergence of metastatic traits. PMID:24135279

Vanharanta, Sakari; Massagué, Joan

2014-01-01

281

A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students create a "DNA recipe" for a dog to learn how variations in DNA lead to the inheritance of different traits. Strips of paper (representing DNA) are randomly selected and used to assemble a DNA molecule. Students read the DNA recipe to create a drawing of their pet and compare it with others in the class to note similarities and differences. Through this activity, students will learn that every organism requires a set of instructions for specifying its traits and heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.

2006-01-01

282

Wood energy use in the lumber and wood products industry  

SciTech Connect

Wood energy use in the lumber and wood products industry (SIC 24) in 1981 was estimated to be .27 quadrillion Btu's. This estimate is based upon a national survey of randomly selected mills conducted by the National Forest Products Association (NFPA). The results of the survey are compared with an annual energy reporting program for the industry which has 17 corporate participants. The proportionate share of each energy source is similar in the two sources of data. This suggests that the energy use patterns shown in the reporting program are representative of the energy use in the industry at large. Energy from wood-derived fuels account for approximately 70% of the total energy used in the industry. Estimates are made for the volume of wood residues consumed for energy. Qualitative information about anticipated wood energy use, barriers, and incentives was also obtained from the national survey. (Refs. 7)

Goetzl, A.; Tatum, S.

1983-01-01

283

Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01

284

DIVISION 6 -WOOD AND PLASTICS 06000 GENERAL  

E-print Network

DIVISION 6 - WOOD AND PLASTICS ________________________________________________________________________ 06000 GENERAL 1. For both woods and plastics, special attention is called to matters of flame spread-dried. 3. For exterior wood or plastic framed structures, see Division 4 for dimensions of Sample Panel

285

Original article Sperm quality and reproductive traits  

E-print Network

the food web [1]. Consequently, humans and animals could be constantly exposed to these sub- stances Animal Production Institute, University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy (Received 8 December 2000; accepted 5 May 2001) Abstract -- Fifteen Grimaud female hybrid rabbits, 135 days old and weighting

Boyer, Edmond

286

GLOBAL WOOD SUPPLY Sten Nilsson  

E-print Network

;UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Source: http://www.conservationnext.com/UserFiles/Image/old_growth.jpg #12;BROAD · Increasing demand for wood through population and economic growth · More expensive wood · Where should America Expansion potential USA Deficit Canada Deficit #12;RUSSIA Advantages: Raw Materials Source

287

Mechanism and main regularities of the alkaline pyrolysis of wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regularities of the prehydrolysis of biomass for leaf bearing (oak) and coniferous (pine) wood and control tests with pure cellulose were studied. It has been shown that the quality of the composition of liquefaction products changes depending on the content of pentosanes (xylans). Optimal conditions of the prehydrolysis of biomass have been established in the presence of solvents (ethylene-

V. R Rustamov; V. K Kerimov; Sh. J Schachbazov; M. K Kerimov; L. V Rustamova

2002-01-01

288

Healthy volunteers exposed to wood stove particles demonstrate inflammatory changes  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction. Human exposure to particles associated with wood burning is of great consequence in both indoor air quality and air pollution and has been listed by the World Health Organization as one of the world's ten greatest health concerns. This investigation tested the postu...

289

Ghosting in Anaglyphic Stereoscopic Images Andrew J. Woods*  

E-print Network

Ghosting in Anaglyphic Stereoscopic Images Andrew J. Woods* , Tegan Rourke Centre for Marine quality. A common problem with anaglyphic 3D images is ghosting. Ghosting (or crosstalk) is the leaking of an image to one eye, when it is intended exclusively for the other eye. Ghosting degrades the ability

290

Wood joints and laminated wood beams assembled by mechanically-welded wood dowels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dowel welding by high-speed rotation was used to join two wood blocks and strong joints were obtained. Dowel angle to the surface of the wood blocks to be joined had a marked influence on the mechanical performance of the joint. When the dowel was inserted at 90° to the substrate, the dowel was subjected to and resisted a shear force

J.-F. Bocquet; A. Pizzi; A. Despres; H. R. Mansouri; L. Resch; D. Michel; F. Letort

2007-01-01

291

Exposure to wood smoke particles produces an inflammation in healthy volunteers  

EPA Science Inventory

Background. Human exposure to wood smoke particles (WSP) is of consequence in indoor air quality, exposures from wild fires, burning ofbiomass, and air pollution. This investigation tested the postulate that healthy volunteers exposed to WSP would demonstrate pulmonary and cardio...

292

Trait emotional intelligence and the dark triad traits of personality.  

PubMed

This study presents the first behavioral genetic investigation of the relationships between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) and the Dark Triad traits of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. In line with trait EI theory, the construct correlated positively with narcissism, but negatively with the other two traits. Generally, the correlations were consistent across the 4 factors and 15 facets of the construct. Cholesky decomposition analysis revealed that the phenotypic associations were primarily due to correlated genetic factors and secondarily due to correlated nonshared environmental factors, with shared environmental factors being nonsignificant in all cases. Results are discussed from the perspective of trait EI theory with particular reference to the issue of adaptive value. PMID:21314254

Petrides, K V; Vernon, Philip A; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Veselka, Livia

2011-02-01

293

Predicting species' range limits from functional traits for the tree flora of North America  

PubMed Central

Using functional traits to explain species’ range limits is a promising approach in functional biogeography. It replaces the idiosyncrasy of species-specific climate ranges with a generic trait-based predictive framework. In addition, it has the potential to shed light on specific filter mechanisms creating large-scale vegetation patterns. However, its application to a continental flora, spanning large climate gradients, has been hampered by a lack of trait data. Here, we explore whether five key plant functional traits (seed mass, wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), maximum height, and longevity of a tree)—indicative of life history, mechanical, and physiological adaptations—explain the climate ranges of 250 North American tree species distributed from the boreal to the subtropics. Although the relationship between traits and the median climate across a species range is weak, quantile regressions revealed strong effects on range limits. Wood density and seed mass were strongly related to the lower but not upper temperature range limits of species. Maximum height affects the species range limits in both dry and humid climates, whereas SLA and longevity do not show clear relationships. These results allow the definition and delineation of climatic “no-go areas” for North American tree species based on key traits. As some of these key traits serve as important parameters in recent vegetation models, the implementation of trait-based climatic constraints has the potential to predict both range shifts and ecosystem consequences on a more functional basis. Moreover, for future trait-based vegetation models our results provide a benchmark for model evaluation. PMID:25225398

Stahl, Ulrike; Reu, Bjorn; Wirth, Christian

2014-01-01

294

Transcriptional regulation in wood formation.  

PubMed

Wood (i.e. xylem tissue) in trees is mainly composed of two types of cells, fibres and tracheary elements. Recent molecular studies of various trees, as well as the non-tree species Arabidopsis thaliana and Zinnia elegans, have revealed coordinated gene expression during differentiation of these cells in wood and the presence of several transcription factors that might govern the complex networks of transcriptional regulation. This article reviews recent findings concerning the regulation of genes by transcription factors involved in wood formation such as AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF), CLASS III HOMEODOMAIN-LEUCINE ZIPPER (HD-ZIPIII), KANADI (KAN), MYB and NAM/ATAF/CUC (NAC). PMID:17224301

Demura, Taku; Fukuda, Hiroo

2007-02-01

295

Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

Oatman, Olan

1975-01-01

296

Wood River Levee Reconstruction, Madison County, IL  

E-print Network

Wood River Levee Reconstruction, Madison County, IL 25 October 2006 Abstract: The recommended plan provides for flood damage reduction and restores the original degree of protection of the Wood River Levee-federal sponsor is the Wood River Drainage and Levee District. The Wood River Levee System was authorized

US Army Corps of Engineers

297

Composite wood utility poles. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative approach was used to provide a substitute for solid wood poles, which have become increasingly expensive and at times are in short supply. The new poles (COMPOLES) were manufactured using a composite wood material (CWM) consisting of chemically treated wood flakes bonded together with a synthetic adhesive. The chemicals provide durability and dimensional stability. Composite wood material was

G. P. Krueger; A. E. Lund; D. D. Nicholas

1981-01-01

298

FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

PURCELL, FRANK X.

299

A database of lotic invertebrate traits for North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The assessment and study of stream communities may be enhanced if functional characteristics such as life-history, habitat preference, and reproductive strategy were more widely available for specific taxa. Species traits can be used to develop these functional indicators because many traits directly link functional roles of organisms with controlling environmental factors (for example, flow, substratum, temperature). In addition, some functional traits may not be constrained by taxonomy and are thus applicable at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, a comprehensive summary of traits for North American invertebrate taxa does not exist. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in cooperation with Colorado State University compiled a database of traits for North American invertebrates. A total of 14,127 records for over 2,200 species, 1,165 genera, and 249 families have been entered into the database from 967 publications, texts and reports. Quality-assurance procedures indicated error rates of less than 3 percent in the data entry process. Species trait information was most complete for insect taxa. Traits describing resource acquisition and habitat preferences were most frequently reported, whereas those describing physiological tolerances and reproductive biology were the least frequently reported in the literature. The database is not exhaustive of the literature for North American invertebrates and is biased towards aquatic insects, but it represents a first attempt to compile traits in a web-accessible database. This report describes the database and discusses important decisions necessary for identifying ecologically relevant, environmentally sensitive, non-redundant, and statistically tractable traits for use in bioassessment programs.

Vieira, Nicole K.M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Carlisle, Daren M.; Moulton, Stephen R., II; Koski, Marci L.; Kondratieff, Boris C.

2006-01-01

300

Global Timber and Wood Products Market Update -a news brief from Wood Resources International LLC  

E-print Network

Global Timber and Wood Products Market Update - a news brief from Wood Resources International LLC to be the major destination for Latin American wood chips, reports the Wood Resource Quarterly In late 2011 wood chips from only three countries: Vietnam, Indonesia and Australia, who together shipped 1

301

Wood Handbook Wood as an Engineering Material Centennial EditionCentennial Edition  

E-print Network

Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

United States; Forest Service; Wood Handbook; Wood As An Engineering Material

2010-01-01

302

Variation in life-history characteristics among populations of North American wood turtles: a view from the north  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-history traits such as age at maturity, body size and clutch size tend to vary across a species' distribution. The purpose of our study was to describe the demography of a newly discovered population of North American wood turtles Glyptemys insculpta at the species' northern range limit, and to compare our findings to those of other studies to test hypotheses

W. F. Greaves; J. D. Litzgus

2009-01-01

303

Effect of Habitat Conditions and Plant Traits on Leaf Damage in the Carduoideae Subfamily  

PubMed Central

Plant traits are the key factors that determine herbivore foraging selection. The traits serving as defense traits against herbivores represent a wide range of traits, such as chemical, physiological, morphological and life-history traits. While many studies considered plant defense traits at the within-species scale, much less is known from comparisons of a wide range of closely related species. The aim of this study was to identify factors responsible for the intensity of leaf damage in the Carduoideae subfamily of Asteraceae, which hosts many invasive species and thus is potential candidate plant species that could be controlled by biological control. Specifically, we wanted to see the relative importance of habitat characteristics, plant size and plants traits in determining the degree of folivory. The study identified several defense traits able to explain differences in herbivory between species after accounting for differences in the habitats in which the species occur and the plant size. Specifically, the most important traits were traits related to the quality of the leaf tissue expressed as the content of phosphorus, water and specific leaf area, which suggests that the leaf quality had a more important effect on the degree of herbivory than the presence of specific defense mechanisms such as spines and hair. Leaf quality is thus a candidate factor that drives herbivore choice when selecting which plant to feed on and should be considered when assessing the danger that a herbivore will switch hosts when introduced to a new range. PMID:23717643

Münzbergová, Zuzana; Skuhrovec, Ji?í

2013-01-01

304

Effect of habitat conditions and plant traits on leaf damage in the Carduoideae subfamily.  

PubMed

Plant traits are the key factors that determine herbivore foraging selection. The traits serving as defense traits against herbivores represent a wide range of traits, such as chemical, physiological, morphological and life-history traits. While many studies considered plant defense traits at the within-species scale, much less is known from comparisons of a wide range of closely related species. The aim of this study was to identify factors responsible for the intensity of leaf damage in the Carduoideae subfamily of Asteraceae, which hosts many invasive species and thus is potential candidate plant species that could be controlled by biological control. Specifically, we wanted to see the relative importance of habitat characteristics, plant size and plants traits in determining the degree of folivory. The study identified several defense traits able to explain differences in herbivory between species after accounting for differences in the habitats in which the species occur and the plant size. Specifically, the most important traits were traits related to the quality of the leaf tissue expressed as the content of phosphorus, water and specific leaf area, which suggests that the leaf quality had a more important effect on the degree of herbivory than the presence of specific defense mechanisms such as spines and hair. Leaf quality is thus a candidate factor that drives herbivore choice when selecting which plant to feed on and should be considered when assessing the danger that a herbivore will switch hosts when introduced to a new range. PMID:23717643

Münzbergová, Zuzana; Skuhrovec, Ji?í

2013-01-01

305

Trait-mediated assembly processes predict successional changes in community diversity of tropical forests  

PubMed Central

Interspecific differences in relative fitness can cause local dominance by a single species. However, stabilizing interspecific niche differences can promote local diversity. Understanding these mechanisms requires that we simultaneously quantify their effects on demography and link these effects to community dynamics. Successional forests are ideal systems for testing assembly theory because they exhibit rapid community assembly. Here, we leverage functional trait and long-term demographic data to build spatially explicit models of successional community dynamics of lowland rainforests in Costa Rica. First, we ask what the effects and relative importance of four trait-mediated community assembly processes are on tree survival, a major component of fitness. We model trait correlations with relative fitness differences that are both density-independent and -dependent in addition to trait correlations with stabilizing niche differences. Second, we ask how the relative importance of these trait-mediated processes relates to successional changes in functional diversity. Tree dynamics were more strongly influenced by trait-related interspecific variation in average survival than trait-related responses to neighbors, with wood specific gravity (WSG) positively correlated with greater survival. Our findings also suggest that competition was mediated by stabilizing niche differences associated with specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). These drivers of individual-level survival were reflected in successional shifts to higher SLA and LDMC diversity but lower WSG diversity. Our study makes significant advances to identifying the links between individual tree performance, species functional traits, and mechanisms of tropical forest succession. PMID:24706791

Lasky, Jesse R.; Uriarte, Maria; Boukili, Vanessa K.; Chazdon, Robin L.

2014-01-01

306

Treatment of Wood Preserving Wastewater  

E-print Network

The wastewater produced by the wood preserving industry presents a difficult problem to treat economically. A review of the literature indicates the size of the industry has limited the pursuit of an orderly and economic solution. Atmospheric...

Reynolds, T. D.; Shack, P. A.

307

Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification  

E-print Network

This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

1983-01-01

308

Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle  

PubMed Central

Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection. PMID:25374582

Haskell, Marie J.; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P.

2014-01-01

309

Pyrolysis of large wood samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of pyrolysis of large wood samples--up to 27 mm--has been studied by isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. Rate of weight loss can be represented by a first order Arrhenius-type equation, with an activation energy of 125 kJ\\/mole. The temperature inside the wood sample is given by integration of the Fourier law, in which the thermal diffusivity is temperature- and conversion-dependent.

P. Belleville; R. Capart; M. Gelus

1984-01-01

310

Experimental analysis and simulation modeling of forest management impacts on wood thrushes, Hylocichla mustelina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

North American Breeding Bird Survey data show that wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) populations in eastern U.S. forests have declined 1.8% per year during 1966-95. The declining quality of breeding forest tracts in North America is one possible cause for the apparent decline of some neotropical migratory birds, such as the wood thrush. In Georgia, however, wood thrush populations have declined during a period of increasing pine forest area and larger patch sizes. We hypothesized that forest management practices such as thinning and prescribed burning might create unsuitable habitat for wood thrushes. We conducted a four-year before/after, treatment/control experiment at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia to study to the effects of a treatment of thinning and prescribed burning on wood thrush demographic parameters. We simultaneously monitored wood thrush adults and juveniles with mark-recapture, radio-telemetry, nest searches, and plot-map surveys. Our analyses showed that wood thrushes were less likely to emigrate from the study compartments after the treatment, and wood thrushes exhibited some tendency to increase preference for hardwood habitats and decrease preference for pine habitats following the treatment. However, we observed no effects of treatment on nest success, adult survival, and adult and juvenile dispersal distances. We also found that female wood thrushes had lower survival rates than males during the breeding season, and we documented large-scale, within-year dispersal movements of adult (up to 17 km) and juvenile (up to 7 km) wood thrushes. We conclude that landscape level habitat quantity and quality must be considered during songbird management decisions. The documentation of sex- and age-specific wood thrush survival and movement rates was critical for construction of a set of population models. We used three stochastic models to learn more about wood thrush population dynamics and make predictions about population growth rates, reproductive success, and the effect of habitat changes on wood thrush populations. The simplest source/sink population model suggests that the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge's wood thrush population is probably stable or increasing, and wood thrush populations in treated areas had higher growth rates than birds in untreated areas. We were able to use the individual-based model of wood thrush productivity to predict fecundity, a parameter that we could not measure directly in the field. Again, females on treated areas had higher fecundity than birds on untreated areas. Our spatially-based model predicted that wood thrush populations should respond positively to predicted changes in the age/size class structure of the Refuge's pine forests. Our model also showed that most wood thrushes leave the Refuge's forest compartments during the breeding season, and these dispersal movements are extremely important to understanding and managing wood thrush populations. The use of prescribed burning and retention shelterwood silviculture at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge does not appear to negatively affect the local wood thrush population. Continued use of the current management regime should result in adequate nesting, foraging, and escape habitats for wood thrushes. However, landscape-level habitat availability and quality, including lands outside the Refuge, must be considered when making management decisions that may affect wood thrushes.

Banks, R.C.

1998-01-01

311

Coarse particulate matter and airborne endotoxin within wood stove homes.  

PubMed

Emissions from indoor biomass burning are a major public health concern in developing areas of the world. Less is known about indoor air quality, particularly airborne endotoxin, in homes burning biomass fuel in residential wood stoves in higher income countries. A filter-based sampler was used to evaluate wintertime indoor coarse particulate matter (PM????.?) and airborne endotoxin (EU/m³, EU/mg) concentrations in 50 homes using wood stoves as their primary source of heat in western Montana. We investigated number of residents, number of pets, dampness (humidity), and frequency of wood stove usage as potential predictors of indoor airborne endotoxin concentrations. Two 48-h sampling events per home revealed a mean winter PM????.? concentration (± s.d.) of 12.9 (± 8.6) ?g/m³, while PM?.? concentrations averaged 32.3 (± 32.6) ?g/m³. Endotoxin concentrations measured from PM????.? filter samples were 9.2 (± 12.4) EU/m³ and 1010 (± 1524) EU/mg. PM????.? and PM?.? were significantly correlated in wood stove homes (r = 0.36, P < 0.05). The presence of pets in the homes was associated with PM????.? but not with endotoxin concentrations. Importantly, none of the other measured home characteristics was a strong predictor of airborne endotoxin, including frequency of residential wood stove usage. PMID:23551341

McNamara, M; Thornburg, J; Semmens, E; Ward, T; Noonan, C

2013-12-01

312

Reconstructing the Ocean's Interior from Surface Data Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts  

E-print Network

Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts GLENN R. FLIERL Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts JOSEPH H. LACASCE Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway JULIE L. MCCLEAN MAHADEVAN Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts (Manuscript received 14 October

Mahadevan, Amala

313

Intraspecific variability in functional traits matters: case study of Scots pine.  

PubMed

Although intraspecific trait variability is an important component of species ecological plasticity and niche breadth, its implications for community and functional ecology have not been thoroughly explored. We characterized the intraspecific functional trait variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Catalonia (NE Spain) in order to (1) compare it to the interspecific trait variability of trees in the same region, (2) explore the relationships among functional traits and the relationships between them and stand and climatic variables, and (3) study the role of functional trait variability as a determinant of radial growth. We considered five traits: wood density (WD), maximum tree height (H max), leaf nitrogen content (Nmass), specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf biomass-to-sapwood area ratio (B L:A S). A unique dataset was obtained from the Ecological and Forest Inventory of Catalonia (IEFC), including data from 406 plots. Intraspecific trait variation was substantial for all traits, with coefficients of variation ranging between 8% for WD and 24% for B L:A S. In some cases, correlations among functional traits differed from those reported across species (e.g., H max and WD were positively related, whereas SLA and Nmass were uncorrelated). Overall, our model accounted for 47% of the spatial variability in Scots pine radial growth. Our study emphasizes the hierarchy of factors that determine intraspecific variations in functional traits in Scots pine and their strong association with spatial variability in radial growth. We claim that intraspecific trait variation is an important determinant of responses of plants to changes in climate and other environmental factors, and should be included in predictive models of vegetation dynamics. PMID:24850418

Laforest-Lapointe, Isabelle; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Retana, Javier

2014-08-01

314

A Tree of Genetic Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners mark their traits for tongue rolling, PTC tasting (a harmless, bitter chemical), and earlobe attachment on tree leaf cut-outs. They then place their leaves on a large tree with branches, in which each each branch represents a different combination of traits. When completed, the tree forms a visual representation of the frequency of trait combinations within the group. Included are handouts in English and Spanish. This resource also contains information about PTC safety.

Malone, Molly; Starr, Harmony; Mitchell, April

2006-01-01

315

Respiratory diseases in wood workers.  

PubMed Central

A survey was carried out on wood workers and on a group of unexposed, healthy controls. One group of wood workers (group A) were asymptomatic and another (group B) had symptoms either of chronic cough and dyspnoea on exertion (B1) or dyspnoea at work and bronchial hyperreactivity (B2). The control group (group C) was randomly selected from among a population of laboratory workers. No significant differences were found among the groups with respect to the frequency of atopy but the prevalence of a positive skin reaction to wood extracts was significantly higher in the asthmatic subjects. The adjusted FVC and FEV1/FVC% were significantly higher in B1 than in the other groups; the FEV1 was lower in B1 than in B2 and in B2 than in the other groups; TLCO and KCO differed significantly in all four groups. A significant negative correlation was observed between FEV1, MEF50, TLCO and KCO and duration of exposure to wood dusts. The alveolar volumes were not significantly different between the groups and were not correlated with duration of exposure. These results confirm the observation that exposure to wood dust or to some bronchoreactive substances linked with wood working can induce chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD). Some cases of wood dust asthma seem to be related to an immediate allergic reaction, but precipitating antibodies appear to be an index of exposure rather than of disease. The decrease in diffusion capacity can be ascribed to a thickening of the alveolar capillary membranes secondary to an alveolitis like, non-symptomatic, allergic reaction. PMID:3814535

Carosso, A; Ruffino, C; Bugiani, M

1987-01-01

316

Swelling of acetylated wood in organic liquids  

E-print Network

To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly and/or very slowly. On the other hand, the swelling of wood in water, ethylene glycol and alcohols remained unchanged or decreased by the acetylation. Consequently the maximum volume of wood swollen in organic liquids was always larger than that in water. The effect of acetylation on the maximum swollen volume of wood was greater in liquids having smaller solubility parameters. The easier penetration of aprotic organic liquids into the acetylated wood was considered to be due to the scission of hydrogen bonds among the amorphous wood constituents by the substitution of hydroxyl groups with hydrophobic acetyl groups.

Obataya, E; Obataya, Eiichi; Gril, Joseph

2005-01-01

317

Acoustic and adsorption properties of submerged wood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood is a common material for the manufacture of many products. Submerged wood, in particular, is used in niche markets, such as the creation of musical instruments. An initial study performed on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, provided results that showed that the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. This thesis re-examined the submerged wood samples. After allowing the wood to age unabated in a laboratory setting, the wood was retested under the hypothesis that the physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that the acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to sit. The adsorption properties of the submerged wood were examined to show that the submerged wood had a larger accessible area of wood than that of control wood samples. This implied a lower amount of crystalline area within the submerged wood. From the combined adsorption and acoustic data for the submerged wood, relationships between the moisture content and speed of sound were created and combined with previous research to create a proposed model to describe how the speed of sound varies with temperature, moisture content and the moisture content corresponding to complete hydration of sorption sites within the wood.

Hilde, Calvin Patrick

318

Hydrolysis of glycosidically bound flavour compounds from oak wood by Oenococcus oeni.  

PubMed

Malolactic fermentation (MLF), which is conducted by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), has a significant influence on the stability and organoleptic quality of wine. Recent studies have shown that when MLF is carried out in oak wood barrels, LAB were also able to interact with wood and increase volatile compound contents such as vanillin during MLF. The release of these compounds indicates that LAB may convert vanillin precursors present in oak wood. In this work, the effect of commercial glycosidases on the released vanillin was firstly studied. This aldehyde is present in wood extracts in monoglycosidic forms where the major glycones are arabinose and xylose. Other aglycons released during MLF in barrels, syringaldehyde and whisky-lactones, can be considered as other sources of aroma. Secondly, strains selected with high activities toward glycoside substrates could hydrolyse vanillin glycoside precursors from oak wood with the same efficiency as commercial enzymes. PMID:17993382

Bloem, Audrey; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline; de Revel, Gilles

2008-02-01

319

Pristine Early Eocene Wood Buried Deeply in Kimberlite from Northern Canada  

PubMed Central

We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada’s Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose ?18O and ?2H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12–17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information. PMID:23029080

Wolfe, Alexander P.; Csank, Adam Z.; Reyes, Alberto V.; McKellar, Ryan C.; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

2012-01-01

320

EFFECTS OF CAMBIAL AGE AND STEM HEIGHT ON WOOD DENSITY AND GROWTH OF JACK PINE GROWN IN BOREAL STANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jack pine specimens were examined for longitudinal and radial variations in selected wood quality parameters. Wood density and ring width of cross-sections were measured systematically from pith to bark along the merchantable stem using X-ray densitometry. Effects of cambial age and stem height were analyzed using a linear mixed model with two levels of nesting. A strong interaction between the

Suzanne Brais; Marc J. Mazerolle

2009-01-01

321

Mapping quantitative trait loci for kernel composition in almond  

PubMed Central

Background Almond breeding is increasingly taking into account kernel quality as a breeding objective. Information on the parameters to be considered in evaluating almond quality, such as protein and oil content, as well as oleic acid and tocopherol concentration, has been recently compiled. The genetic control of these traits has not yet been studied in almond, although this information would improve the efficiency of almond breeding programs. Results A map with 56 simple sequence repeat or microsatellite (SSR) markers was constructed for an almond population showing a wide range of variability for the chemical components of the almond kernel. A total of 12 putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling these chemical traits have been detected in this analysis, corresponding to seven genomic regions of the eight almond linkage groups (LG). Some QTL were clustered in the same region or shared the same molecular markers, according to the correlations already found between the chemical traits. The logarithm of the odds (LOD) values for any given trait ranged from 2.12 to 4.87, explaining from 11.0 to 33.1?% of the phenotypic variance of the trait. Conclusions The results produced in the study offer the opportunity to include the new genetic information in almond breeding programs. Increases in the positive traits of kernel quality may be looked for simultaneously whenever they are genetically independent, even if they are negatively correlated. We have provided the first genetic framework for the chemical components of the almond kernel, with twelve QTL in agreement with the large number of genes controlling their metabolism. PMID:22720975

2012-01-01

322

Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies.  

PubMed

Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood. PMID:21194917

Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy

2011-04-01

323

Anxiety: States, Traits--Situations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the utility of situational assessments of trait anxiety in predicting state anxiety reactions. Results indicated that the STAI-A-Trait and the S-R GTA Evaluation measures correlated significantly higher with each other than either did with the S-R GTA Physical Danger measure. Both stresses produced significant increases in state…

Kendall, Philip C.

1978-01-01

324

Quantitative trait loci associated with seed and seedling traits in Lactuca.  

PubMed

Seed and seedling traits related to germination and stand establishment are important in the production of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Six seed and seedling traits segregating in a L. sativa cv. Salinas x L. serriola recombinant inbred line population consisting of 103 F8 families revealed a total of 17 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) resulting from three seed production environments. Significant QTL were identified for germination in darkness, germination at 25 and 35 degrees C, median maximum temperature of germination, hypocotyl length at 72 h post-imbibition, and plant (seedling) quality. Some QTL for germination and early seedling growth characteristics were co-located, suggestive of pleiotropic loci regulating these traits. A single QTL (Htg6.1) described 25 and 23% of the total phenotypic variation for high temperature germination in California- and Netherlands-grown populations, respectively, and was significant between 33 and 37 degrees C. Additionally, Htg6.1 showed significant epistatic interactions with other Htg QTL and a consistent effect across all the three seed production environments. L. serriola alleles increased germination at these QTL. The estimate of narrow-sense heritability (h2) of Htg6.1 was 0.84, indicating potential for L. serriola as a source of germination thermotolerance for lettuce introgression programs. PMID:16177902

Argyris, Jason; Truco, María José; Ochoa, Oswaldo; Knapp, Steven J; Still, David W; Lenssen, Ger M; Schut, Johan W; Michelmore, Richard W; Bradford, Kent J

2005-11-01

325

Delay discounting: Trait variable?  

PubMed Central

Delay discounting refers to the tendency for outcomes that are remote in time to have less value than more immediate outcomes. Steep discounting of delayed outcomes is associated with a variety of social maladies. The degree of sensitivity to delayed outcomes may be a stable and pervasive individual characteristic. In analyses of archival data, the present study found positive correlations between the degree of delay discounting for one outcome (as measured by the Area Under the Curve), and the degree of discounting for other outcomes. Along with additional evidence reviewed, these data suggest that delay discounting may be considered a personality trait. Recent research in epigenetics, neuroscience, and behavior suggests delay discounting may prove to be a beneficial target for therapeutic attempts to produce global reductions in impulsivity related to delay discounting. PMID:21385637

Odum, Amy L.

2012-01-01

326

Exploratorium: Traits of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed to complement the redesigned Traits of Life exhibit at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, this fine site allows visitors to view a photo gallery of the new exhibit, investigate some provocative online exhibits, and explore a host of links that are germane to the nature of biology. The exhibits constitute the core of the material available at the site, and are divided into four thematic areas, including "The Stuff of Life," "Life Needs Energy," "Making More Life," and "Change Over Time." "The Stuff of Life" is quite fascinating, as it profiles cells with a flair for the interactive. Users can learn about the workings of a cell through the "Cell Explorer" exhibit, read an interview with David Goodsell (a molecular biologist), and view a poster that describes how proteins make muscles work. The other three areas of online exhibits are similarly arranged and provide a host of educational materials that can be used as teaching aids or as compelling intellectual diversions.

327

Multilevel Assessment of Fish Species Traits to Evaluate Habitat Degradation in Streams of the Upper Midwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used species traits to examine the variation in fish assemblages for 21 streams in the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion along a gradient of habitat disturbance. Fish species were classified based on five species trait-classes (trophic ecology, substrate preference, geomorphic preference, locomotion morphology, and reproductive strategy) and 29 categories within those classes. We used a habitat quality index to

Robert M. Goldstein; Michael R. Meador

2005-01-01

328

Effects of different leaf traits on growth rates of insect herbivores on willows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined relative effects of traits of leaf quality of ten willow species (Salix: Salicaceae) on growth rates of five species of insect herbivores found in interior Alaska (a willow sawfly, Nematus calais; the tiger swallowtail butterfly, Papilio canadensis; and three species of chrysomelid beetles, Gonioctena occidentalis, Calligrapha verrucosa, and Chrysomela falsa). Leaf traits examined were water content, toughness, total

Mamoru Matsuki; Stephen K MacLean Jr

1994-01-01

329

Plant traits are the predominant control on litter decomposition rates within biomes worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide decomposition rates depend both on climate and the legacy of plant functional traits as litter quality. To quantify the degree to which functional differentiation among species affects their litter decomposition rates, we brought together leaf trait and litter mass loss data for 818 species from 66 decomposition experiments on six continents. We show that: (i) the magnitude of species-driven

William K. Cornwell; Johannes H. C. Cornelissen; K. Amatangalo; Ellen Dorrepaal; Valerie T. Eviner; Oscar Godoy; S. E. Hobbir; Bart Hoorens; Hiroko Kurokawa; N. Perez-Harguindeguy; Helen M. Quested; Louis S. Santiago; David A. Wardle; Ian J. Wright; Rien Aerts; Steven D. Allison; Bodegom van P. M; Victor Brovkin; Alex Chatain; Terry V. Callaghan; S. Diaz; Eric Garnier; Diego E. Gurvich; Elena Kazakou; Julia A. Klein; Jenny Read; Peter B. Reich; Nadejda A. Soudzilovskaia; M. Victoria Vaieretti; Mark Westoby

2008-01-01

330

Combining Ability for Disease Resistance, Yield, and Horticultural Traits of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) Clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of genetic differences among commonly cultivated cacao clones, as well as the type of gene ac- tion involved for disease resistance, yield, quality, and horticultural traits, are essential for cacao breeders to select parental clones effi ciently and effectively. This information is also critical for quantitative geneticists in designing and improving quantitative trait loci (QTL) localization strategies using breeding

Cuauhtemoc Cervantes-Martinez; J. Steven Brown; Raymond J. Schnell; Wilbert Phillips-Mora; Jemmy F. Takrama; Juan C. Motamayor

2006-01-01

331

The effect of moisture content in fibre laser cutting of pine wood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a statistical analysis of the multiple-pass laser cutting of wet and dry pine wood with a Ytterbium fibre laser. As multiple factors affect the laser wood cutting process, finding the optimal combination of process parameters is necessary to achieve good quality and high process efficiency. Design of experiments (DOE) and statistical modelling were used in this study to investigate the significant process parameters and their interactions. A high brightness, 1 kW IPG single mode, continuous wave Ytterbium doped fibre laser was employed to cut wet and dry pine wood samples. The parameters investigated are laser power, traverse speed, focal plane position (f.p.p.), gas pressure, number of passes, direction of cut (normal or parallel to wood's tracheids) and the moisture content. The experimental results were compared against process responses defining the efficiency (i.e. kerf depth and energy consumption) and quality of the cut section (i.e. kerf width, heat affected zone—HAZ, edge surface roughness and perpendicularity). It has been found that the laser cutting process was mainly affected by the moisture content and the cut direction with respect to the wood's tracheids, followed by traverse speed, laser power and the number of passes. The effect of moisture content on energy consumption in the laser cutting process of both wet and dry wood is analysed. The wood cutting results with fibre laser are compared with those from a CO 2 laser.

Carlos Hernández-Castañeda, Juan; Kursad Sezer, Huseyin; Li, Lin

332

Dog DNA---A Recipe for Traits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will discover how DNA will "code" for traits by performing a lab activity where segments of paper DNA (genes) are picked at random, a list of traits is made, and a dog is drawn featuring its genetic traits.

Perrault, Tanya

2012-02-20

333

Wood Properties and Kinds; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. This booklet is concerned largely with the physical composition and…

Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

334

Chemical Corrosion Effect on Wood and Wood–Plastic Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of chemical corrosion on the tensile strengths of five types of Bangladeshi timbers (kadom, simul, koroi, mango, and debdaro) and their composites has been evaluated. Wood–plastic composites (WPC) formed by the gamma-radiation induction polymerization of butylmethacrylate (BMA) with those timbers show better resistance to chemical corrosion attack than the parent timbers. Enhanced mechanical properties such as tensile strength of

M. A. Khan; K. M. Idriss Ali; M. U. Ahmed

1993-01-01

335

Interaction of ozone with wooden building products, treated wood samples and exotic wood species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wooden building products indoors are known to be able to affect the perceived air quality depending on their emission strength. The indoor application of modern ecological lacquer systems (eco-lacquers or 'green' lacquers) may be a much stronger source than the substrates itself. Especially with regard to the formation of ultrafine particles by gas-to-particle conversion in the presence of ozone or other reactive species the impact of the applied building products on the indoor air quality has to be addressed. The present study reports a two concentration step ozonation of OSB panels, painted beech boards, and a number of solid 'exotic' wood types in a 1 m³ emission test chamber. The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) was recorded as well as the formation of ultrafine particles in the range 7-300 nm. The products are characterized on the basis of their ozone deposition velocity; the obtained values of 0.008-0.381 cm s-1 are comparable with previously published data. Within the samples of the present study one eco-lacquer was the strongest source of VOC (total VOC ˜ 60 mg m-3) while the wooden building products (OSB) were of intermediate emission strength. The lowest emission was found for the solid (exotic) wood samples. The VOC release of the samples corresponded roughly to the particle formation potential. However, the strongest UFP formation was measured for one solid wood sample ('Garapa') which showed a strong surface reaction in the presence of ozone and formed a large number of particles <40 nm. Overall, the experiments demonstrated the necessity of real-life samples for the estimation of UFP indoor air pollution from the ozone chemistry of terpenes.

Schripp, Tobias; Langer, Sarka; Salthammer, Tunga

2012-07-01

336

Bayesian Shrinkage Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci for Dynamic Traits  

PubMed Central

Many quantitative traits are measured repeatedly during the life of an organism. Such traits are called dynamic traits. The pattern of the changes of a dynamic trait is called the growth trajectory. Studying the growth trajectory may enhance our understanding of the genetic architecture of the growth trajectory. Recently, we developed an interval-mapping procedure to map QTL for dynamic traits under the maximum-likelihood framework. We fit the growth trajectory by Legendre polynomials. The method intended to map one QTL at a time and the entire QTL analysis involved scanning the entire genome by fitting multiple single-QTL models. In this study, we propose a Bayesian shrinkage analysis for estimating and mapping multiple QTL in a single model. The method is a combination between the shrinkage mapping for individual quantitative traits and the Legendre polynomial analysis for dynamic traits. The multiple-QTL model is implemented in two ways: (1) a fixed-interval approach where a QTL is placed in each marker interval and (2) a moving-interval approach where the position of a QTL can be searched in a range that covers many marker intervals. Simulation study shows that the Bayesian shrinkage method generates much better signals for QTL than the interval-mapping approach. We propose several alternative methods to present the results of the Bayesian shrinkage analysis. In particular, we found that the Wald test-statistic profile can serve as a mechanism to test the significance of a putative QTL. PMID:17435239

Yang, Runqing; Xu, Shizhong

2007-01-01

337

Strange Creatures: An Additive Wood Sculpture Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project where students create strange creatures using scraps of wood. Discusses how the students use the wood and other materials. Explains that the students also write about the habitat characteristics of their creatures. Includes learning objectives. (CMK)

Wales, Andrew

2002-01-01

338

SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

339

Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles  

E-print Network

Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others....

Jackman, John A.

2006-03-28

340

Succession of Wood-inhabiting Fungal Communities  

E-print Network

During the Decomposition of Norway Spruce Abstract Dead wood constitutes an important substrateSuccession of Wood-inhabiting Fungal Communities Diversity and Species Interactions During the Decomposition of Norway Spruce Elisabet Ottosson Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences

341

Emerging Technologies in Wood Energy Wood can already be used to produce heat and  

E-print Network

in moving pyrolysis to the field rather than wood to the pyrolysis plant. Gasification uses even higherEmerging Technologies in Wood Energy Wood can already be used to produce heat and electricity using established technologies of District Energy and Combined Heat and Power plants. Using wood to make

342

Seneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC "Illegal" Logging and Global Wood Markets  

E-print Network

Seneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC SUMMARY "Illegal" Logging and Global Wood Markets: The Competitive Impacts on the U.S. Wood Products Industry Prepared for: American Forest Phone: 1-202-463-2713 Fax: 1-202- 463-4703 E-mail: agoetzl@sencreek.com Wood Resources International

343

Rapid wood liquefaction by supercritical phenol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood was rapidly liquefied at the supercritical temperature of phenol. Under these conditions, wood was liquefied by over 90% for 0.5 min, and the combined phenol content of the obtained liquefied wood reached about 75%. The effects of various reaction conditions on liquefaction were investigated. With increases in reaction temperature, phenol\\/wood weight ratio, and the charged mass-to-reactor capacity (w\\/v) ratio, the

S. H. Lee; T. Ohkita

2003-01-01

344

Environmental impact assessment of non-wood based pulp production by soda-anthraquinone pulping process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper pulp manufacturing is the main non-food industrial utilization of plant biomass. Non-wood and agricultural residues are potential raw materials in the production of specialty papers. This chapter aims to quantify the environmental impacts associated with non-wood high quality paper pulp manufacture via soda-anthraquinone (AQ) cooking process by means of the application of LCA methodology in a cradle-to-gate analysis. Hemp

Sara González-García; M. Teresa Moreira; Gerardo Artal; Lluis Maldonado; Gumersindo Feijoo

2010-01-01

345

Effects of preboiling on the acidity and strength properties of heat-treated wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat treatment is an alternative to the chemical treatment in wood preservation, which has been used to some extent in improving\\u000a timber quality. However, reduction in strength properties has been one of the major limitations in the use of this technique\\u000a and therefore investigations on the use of various pre-treatment methods are highly essential. Wood samples from Scots pine\\u000a were

L. Awoyemi; M. C. Jarvis; A. Hapca

2009-01-01

346

Association genetics of chemical wood properties in black poplar (Populus nigra).  

PubMed

Black poplar (Populus nigra) is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, although breeding for this specific end use is required. Our goal was to identify associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers within candidate genes encoding cellulose and lignin biosynthetic enzymes, with chemical wood property phenotypic traits, toward the aim of developing genomics-based breeding technologies for bioethanol production. Pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry was used to determine contents of five- and six-carbon sugars, lignin, and syringyl : guaiacyl ratio. The association population included 599 clones from 17 half-sib families, which were successfully genotyped using 433 SNPs from 39 candidate genes. Statistical analyses were performed to estimate genetic parameters, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and single marker and haplotype-based associations. A moderate to high heritability was observed for all traits. The LD, across all candidate genes, showed a rapid decay with physical distance. Analysis of single marker-phenotype associations identified six significant marker-trait pairs, whereas nearly 280 haplotypes were associated with phenotypic traits, in both an individual and multiple trait-specific manner. The rapid decay of LD within candidate genes in this population and the genetic associations identified suggest a close relationship between the associated SNPs and the causative polymorphisms underlying the genetic variation of lignocellulosic traits in black poplar. PMID:23157484

Guerra, Fernando P; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Sykes, Robert; Davis, Mark F; Stanton, Brian J; Neale, David B

2013-01-01

347

LP-gas from coal, even wood will supplement supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two coal-gasification processes that can produce LPG as a by-product are the Institute of Gas Technology's (IGT) Hyflex process which yields high-quality gasoline as the dominant product, and Gulf Oil Corp.'s SRC II process which produces fuel oil and high-octane, lead-free gasoline as the major products. IGT's Hyflex process can also produce LPG from biomass or wood. A commercial plant

1980-01-01

348

Strengthen Wood Education through a Comprehensive Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wood education programs across the nation, at and below the secondary levels of education, have declined in enrollment in recent years. To many, wood education means only carpentry or woodworking. A systematic approach to the subject, as a part of a materials science course, can reverse the material's negative connotation and make wood education…

Mative, John M.

2005-01-01

349

Donald L. Wood Professional Conference Travel Grants  

E-print Network

Donald L. Wood Professional Conference Travel Grants for Engineering Undergraduates APPLICATION by a generous donation from the estate of Donald L. Wood. The student application and final report will be used to describe our accomplishments to the family of this sponsor. #12;Donald L. Wood Professional Conference

Mahon, Bradford Z.

350

Updated 1-12 Bryan H. Wood  

E-print Network

Updated 1-12 Bryan H. Wood UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS DIRECTOR, PACIFIC DIVISION PLANS, POLICIES, OPERATIONS DEPARTMENT U.S. Marine Corps Mr. Bryan H. Wood is the Director, Pacific Division under the Deputy-Japan International Agreement. Mr. Wood was appointed to his current position in 2010 following 24 years

351

Problematic Wood Waste In Recycled Organic Material  

E-print Network

Wood waste is a significant contributor to the regional waste stream, accounting for approximately 10% of the total waste disposed to landfill in the Greater Sydney Region. Wood waste comprises waste from untreated timber, engineered timber and treated timber products. Wood waste derives from Commercial and Industrial, Construction and Demolition, Transport and Packaging and Utilities

Matthew Warnken; Western Sydney; Waste Board

352

Generating Textures of New Zealand Native Wood  

E-print Network

1 Generating Textures of New Zealand Native Wood Jack Wang Abstract - This report explores algorithms for computer generated textures simulating New Zealand native wood, we out line procedural and Ray tracing. The main goal of this research is to study New Zealand native wood in depth and to gather

Goodman, James R.

353

SOLID WOOD PRODUCTS EFFECTS OF ELEVATED AND  

E-print Network

, juvenile wood caused by one or more growth charac- content, and number offings per inch for the test lumber juvenile wood content, density, ring count, largest knot area, presence of pith, moisture content that boards wood specific gravilty (SG), juvenile dried with the ET schedule had significantly higher crook

354

Wood Structure and Adhesive Bond Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the literature on the bonding of wood and other lignocellulosic materials has concentrated on traditional adhesion theories. This has led to misconceptions because wood is a porous material on both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. A better understanding of wood bonding can be developed by investigating the theories of adhesion and bond strength, taking into consideration the unusual

Charles R. Frihart

355

Properties of commonly used New Hampshire woods  

E-print Network

Properties of commonly used New Hampshire woods Pine, Hemlock, Spruce, Aspen Dries and splits of hardwoods is best with a small amount of kindling wood (pine, hemlock, spruce or aspen) mixed in. Talk and employer. UNH, USDA and NH Counties cooperating. New Hampshire Firewood How to Purchase Your Wood Supply

New Hampshire, University of

356

Research Report Wood properties and uses  

E-print Network

Research Report Wood properties and uses of Sitka spruce in Britain #12;#12;Wood properties. ISBN 978-0-85538-825-6 Moore, J. (2011). Wood properties and uses of Sitka spruce in Britain. Forestry and uses of Sitka spruce in Britain John Moore Forestry Commission: Edinburgh Research Report #12;ii

357

School of Biological Sciences Juvenile wood  

E-print Network

from juvenile to mature wood in Sitka spruce appears to occur ~ rings 12-13 (Brazier and Mobbs 1993 and Mobbs I D (1993) The influence of planting distance on structural wood yields of unthinned Sitka spruce breeding on the development of juvenile wood in Sitka spruce. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35: 2951

358

Period Determination for 1660 Wood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightcurve analysis for asteroid 1660 Wood was performed in collaboration with observers in Australia and Uruguay from observations obtained during the asteroid's favorable opposition in 2012. The synodic rotation period was found to be 6.8090 ± 0.0002 h and the lightcurve amplitude was 0.14 ± 0.03 mag.

Oey, Julian; Alvarez, Eduardo Manuel

2012-07-01

359

Hypermedia in the ambient wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ambient Wood project, carried out as part of the Equator IRC, set out to provide an augmented learning experience for children in an outdoor environment. Using a variety of devices, the children gathered information about the woodland habitats performing basic scientific en- quiry and hypothesis testing. In this paper we describe the supporting information infrastructure used in the project,

Mark J. Weal; Danius T. Michaelides; Mark K. Thompson; David De Roure

2003-01-01

360

The design of complex sexual traits in male barn swallows: associations between signal attributes.  

PubMed

Variation in the expression of sexually selected traits among individuals is widely investigated on the premise that these traits evolved to signal male quality. Significant repeatabilities of sexual signals and their associations with condition, mating success, survivorship and age may be the signatures of sexual selection. However, little is known about the relationship between these sexual attributes. Here we studied 28 acoustic and visual traits in the barn swallow, Hirundo rustica, that may potentially function in sexual selection. Based on effect sizes calculated at the between-individual level, we assessed the relationship between repeatability, condition-dependence, attractiveness, age-dependence and viability indicator value of sexual traits using sexual signals as the units of analyses. Those traits that showed high within-year repeatability also showed high between-year repeatability, indicating that between-individual variation is consistent within and among seasons. In addition, age-dependence of traits, probably causing between-year variation, was negatively related to between-year repeatability. Condition-dependence was negatively correlated with effect sizes for the extent to which traits predicted viability. Therefore, traits that are positively related to immediate condition are those that are negatively related to survival, which may be the signature of a trade-off between current and future reproductive success ultimately reflecting signal reliability. No other significant relationship was found between trait attributes. We conclude that multiple sexual signals reflect different aspects of male quality in the barn swallow. PMID:17040402

Garamszegi, L Z; Hegyi, G; Heylen, D; Ninni, P; de Lope, F; Eens, M; Møller, A P

2006-11-01

361

Spectral characterization of eucalyptus wood.  

PubMed

The main difficulties in wood and pulp analyses arise principally from their numerous components with different chemical structures. Therefore, the basic problem in a specific analytical procedure may be the selective separation of the main carbohydrate-derived components from lignin due to their chemical association and structural coexistence. The processing of the wood determines some structural modification in its components depending on the type of wood and the applied procedure. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry and X-ray diffraction have been applied to analyze Eucalyptus g. wood chips and unbleached and chlorite-bleached pulp. The differences between samples have been established by examination of the spectra of the fractions obtained by successive extraction (acetone extractives, acetone free extractive samples, hemicelluloses, and lignins) by evaluating the derivative spectra, band deconvolution, etc. The energy and the hydrogen bonding distance have been evaluated. The relationship between spectral characteristics and sample composition has been established, as well as the variation of the degree of crystallinity after pulping and bleaching. The integral absorption and lignin/carbohydrate ratios calculated from FT-IR spectra of the IR bands assigned to different bending or stretching in lignin groups are stronger in the spectrum of eucalyptus chips than those from brown stock (BS) pulp spectra because of the smaller total amount of lignin in the latter. FT-IR spectra clearly show that after chlorite bleaching the structure of the wood components is partially modified or removed. Along with FT-IR data, the X-ray results confirmed the low content of lignin in the pulp samples by increasing the calculated values of the crystalline parameters. It was concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a quick method to differentiate Eucalyptus globulus samples. PMID:18028695

Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Singurel, Ghita; Vasile, Cornelia; Argyropoulos, Dimitris S; Willfor, Stefan

2007-11-01

362

Toward Trait-Based Mortality Models for Tropical Forests  

PubMed Central

Tree mortality in tropical forests is a complex ecological process for which modelling approaches need to be improved to better understand, and then predict, the evolution of tree mortality in response to global change. The mortality model introduced here computes an individual probability of dying for each tree in a community. The mortality model uses the ontogenetic stage of the tree because youngest and oldest trees are more likely to die. Functional traits are integrated as proxies of the ecological strategies of the trees to permit generalization among all species in the community. Data used to parametrize the model were collected at Paracou study site, a tropical rain forest in French Guiana, where 20,408 trees have been censused for 18 years. A Bayesian framework was used to select useful covariates and to estimate the model parameters. This framework was developed to deal with sources of uncertainty, including the complexity of the mortality process itself and the field data, especially historical data for which taxonomic determinations were uncertain. Uncertainty about the functional traits was also considered, to maximize the information they contain. Four functional traits were strong predictors of tree mortality: wood density, maximum height, laminar toughness and stem and branch orientation, which together distinguished the light-demanding, fast-growing trees from slow-growing trees with lower mortality rates. Our modelling approach formalizes a complex ecological problem and offers a relevant mathematical framework for tropical ecologists to process similar uncertain data at the community level. PMID:23675500

Aubry-Kientz, Mélaine; Hérault, Bruno; Ayotte-Trépanier, Charles; Baraloto, Christopher; Rossi, Vivien

2013-01-01

363

Wood decomposing abilities of diverse lignicolous fungi on nondecayed and decayed beech wood.  

PubMed

We tested the decay abilities of 28 isolates from 28 lignicolous fungal species (Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and Zygomycota) with the pure culture test. We used beech wood powder in varying moisture conditions and decay stages (nondecayed, intermediately decayed and well decayed) as substrates. The weight loss in wood powder was -0.2-17.8%. Five isolates of Basidiomycota (Bjerkandera adusta, Mycena haematopus, Omphalotus guepiniformis, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes versicolor) caused high weight losses in nondecayed wood. We detected significant effects of decay stage on weight loss in wood in most isolates tested, whereas moisture content rarely had an effect on weight loss. Among Basidiomycota and Xylariaceae in Ascomycota weight loss was greater for nondecayed wood than for intermediately and well decayed wood. In contrast four isolates in Ascomycota (Scytalidium lignicola, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, T. koningii) caused substantial weight loss in intermediately and well decayed wood, although they rarely caused weight loss in nondecayed wood. Zygomycota caused low weight loss in wood. Wood decay stages also affected decomposition of wood chemical components. Acid-unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) decomposition was reduced, whereas holocellulose decomposition was stimulated by some strains of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in well decayed wood. T. harzianum in particular caused significant weight loss of holocellulose in well decayed wood, although this fungus caused negligible weight loss of both AUR and holocellulose in nondecayed wood. We discuss these changes in the decay patterns of AUR and holocellulose with varying wood decay stages in relation to the role of fungal decomposition of woody debris in forests. PMID:21262989

Fukasawa, Yu; Osono, Takashi; Takeda, Hiroshi

2011-01-01

364

Analytical aspects of waterlogged wood in historical shipwrecks.  

PubMed

Conservation methods applied to historical shipwrecks increasingly rely on combining modern analytical techniques to obtain new insights for specially adapted conservation treatments. Crystalline salts formed on waterlogged wood are identified by powder X-ray diffraction while X-ray fluorescence measurements along wood cores show penetration profiles of contaminating elements. Dedicated synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy, especially sulfur and iron K-edge XANES, allows speciation of the large amounts of detrimental sulfur and iron compounds that often are found accumulated within the hull timbers, while high resolution X-ray imaging shows the distribution within the wood microstructure. By fitting spectra of model compounds to high quality sulfur K-edge XANES spectra one can obtain the relative amounts of different types of functional sulfur groups. FT-IR, NMR, ESCA, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and size exclusion chromatography are other useful techniques to analyze the status of the wood and of the consolidation agent polyethylene glycol. Examples are given from analyses of famous artifacts. PMID:21828914

Fors, Yvonne; Jalilehvand, Farideh; Sandström, Magnus

2011-01-01

365

Bayesian mapping of quantitative trait loci for complex binary traits.  

PubMed Central

A complex binary trait is a character that has a dichotomous expression but with a polygenic genetic background. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) for such traits is difficult because of the discrete nature and the reduced variation in the phenotypic distribution. Bayesian statistics are proved to be a powerful tool for solving complicated genetic problems, such as multiple QTL with nonadditive effects, and have been successfully applied to QTL mapping for continuous traits. In this study, we show that Bayesian statistics are particularly useful for mapping QTL for complex binary traits. We model the binary trait under the classical threshold model of quantitative genetics. The Bayesian mapping statistics are developed on the basis of the idea of data augmentation. This treatment allows an easy way to generate the value of a hypothetical underlying variable (called the liability) and a threshold, which in turn allow the use of existing Bayesian statistics. The reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is used to simulate the posterior samples of all unknowns, including the number of QTL, the locations and effects of identified QTL, genotypes of each individual at both the QTL and markers, and eventually the liability of each individual. The Bayesian mapping ends with an estimation of the joint posterior distribution of the number of QTL and the locations and effects of the identified QTL. Utilities of the method are demonstrated using a simulated outbred full-sib family. A computer program written in FORTRAN language is freely available on request. PMID:10880497

Yi, N; Xu, S

2000-01-01

366

Fluctuating Asymmetry and Environmental Stress: Understanding the Role of Trait History  

PubMed Central

While fluctuating asymmetry (FA; small, random deviations from perfect symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits) is widely regarded as a proxy for environmental and genetic stress effects, empirical associations between FA and stress are often weak or heterogeneous among traits. A conceptually important source of heterogeneity in relationships with FA is variation in the selection history of the trait(s) under study, i.e. traits that experienced a (recent) history of directional change are predicted to be developmentally less stable, potentially through the loss of canalizing modifiers. Here we applied X-ray photography on museum specimens and live captures to test to what extent the magnitude of FA and FA-stress relationships covary with directional shifts in traits related to the flight apparatus of four East-African rainforest birds that underwent recent shifts in habitat quality and landscape connectivity. Both the magnitude and direction of phenotypic change varied among species, with some traits increasing in size while others decreased or maintained their original size. In three of the four species, traits that underwent larger directional changes were less strongly buffered against random perturbations during their development, and traits that increased in size over time developed more asymmetrically than those that decreased. As we believe that spurious relationships due to biased comparisons of historic (museum specimens) and current (field captures) samples can be ruled out, these results support the largely untested hypothesis that directional shifts may increase the sensitivity of developing traits to random perturbations of environmental or genetic origin. PMID:23472123

De Coster, Greet; Van Dongen, Stefan; Malaki, Phillista; Muchane, Muchai; Alcantara-Exposito, Angelica; Matheve, Hans; Lens, Luc

2013-01-01

367

Health risks of residential wood heat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resurgence in the use of wood in the United States for residential heating has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in deaths and injuries from residential fires. Toxic materials present in woodsmoke also appear to present a significant public health hazard. As a result of these factors, production of residential wood heat can be up to two orders of magnitude more hazardous than generation of an equivalent amount of electric energy at a coal-fired power plant. Proper care in installation and operation of wood stoves, as well as technological innovations that control wood-stove emissions, can greatly reduce the health and safety hazards of residential heating with wood.

Travis, Curtis C.; Etnier, Elizabeth L.; Meyer, H. Robert

1985-05-01

368

Condition-dependent expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits in guppies  

PubMed Central

Female choice can impose persistent directional selection on male sexually selected traits, yet such traits often exhibit high levels of phenotypic variation. One explanation for this paradox is that if sexually selected traits are costly, only the fittest males are able to acquire and allocate the resources required for their expression. Furthermore, because male condition is dependent on resource allocation, condition dependence in sexual traits is expected to underlie trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history functions. In this study we test these ideas by experimentally manipulating diet quality (carotenoid levels) and quantity in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing freshwater fish that is an important model for understanding relationships between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits. Specifically, we test for condition dependence in the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits (behavior, ornamentation, sperm traits) and determine whether diet manipulation mediates relationships among these traits. Consistent with prior work we found a significant effect of diet quantity on the expression of both pre- and postcopulatory male traits; diet-restricted males performed fewer sexual behaviors and exhibited significant reductions in color ornamentation, sperm quality, sperm number, and sperm length than those fed ad libitum. However, contrary to our expectations, we found no significant effect of carotenoid manipulation on the expression of any of these traits, and no evidence for a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection. Our results further underscore the sensitivity of behavioral, ornamental, and ejaculate traits to dietary stress, and highlight the important role of condition dependence in maintaining the high variability in male sexual traits. PMID:23919162

Rahman, Md Moshiur; Kelley, Jennifer L; Evans, Jonathan P

2013-01-01

369

Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke.  

PubMed Central

The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo[a]pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal. PMID:2686171

Pierson, W E; Koenig, J Q; Bardana, E J

1989-01-01

370

Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke  

SciTech Connect

The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.29 references.

Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q.; Bardana, E.J. Jr.

1989-09-01

371

Recurrence risks for Mendelian traits Autosomal Dominant  

E-print Network

Recurrence risks for Mendelian traits · Autosomal Dominant ­ Risk of next child being affected;· Definition ­ Multifactorial Trait · Trait determined by multiple genetic and environmental factors, which determine individual risk, age of onset, severity of disease and clinical symptoms #12;A trait is determined

Dellaire, Graham

372

Analytical pyrolysis vs. classical wet chemical analysis to assess the decay of archaeological waterlogged wood.  

PubMed

The macromolecular complexity of wood limits the possibility of obtaining complete chemical information on its alteration in archaeological objects. This paper compares the results obtained in the characterisation of the components of archaeological wood by a classical wet chemical method and by an instrumental method based on pyrolysis in presence of hexamethyldisilazane coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, Py(HMDS)-GC/MS. We compare the results obtained with the two methods quantitatively. This enables us to evaluate the efficiency of Py(HMDS)-GC/MS in assessing the chemical composition and the state of conservation of degraded wood. The material analysed consisted of reference sound wood and waterlogged wood from the ?ó?te historical site, located on a small island on Lake Zara?skie in Poland. The samples are from the remains of settlements dating to a period between the 9th and the 12th centuries AD. The results obtained by Py(HMDS)-GC/MS analysis are consistent in the determination of the level of degradation of archaeological wood with the results obtained using traditional techniques. The pyrolysis method is faster, reproducible, and reveals not only the amount but also the quality of the wood constituents, needing a much smaller sample. PMID:22938608

Lucejko, Jeannette J; Zborowska, Magdalena; Modugno, Francesca; Colombini, Maria P; Pr?dzy?ski, W?odzimierz

2012-10-01

373

Life cycle assessment of wood wastes: A case study of ephemeral architecture.  

PubMed

One of the most commonly used elements in ephemeral architecture is a particleboard panel. These types of wood products are produced from wood wastes and they are used in temporary constructions such as trade fairs. Once the event is over, they are usually disposed into landfills. This paper intends to assess the environmental effects related to the use of these wood wastes in the end-of-life stage. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of two scenarios was performed, considering the recycling of wood waste for particleboard manufacture and energy generation from non-renewable resources (Scenario 1) versus the production of energy from the combustion of wood waste and particleboard manufacture with conventional wooden resources (Scenario 2). A sensitive analysis was carried out taking into account the influence of the percentage of recycled material and the emissions data from wood combustion. According to Ecoindicator 99 methodology, Damage to Human Health and Ecosystem Quality are more significant in Scenario 2 whereas Scenario 1 presents the largest contribution to Damage to Resources. Between the two proposed alternatives, the recycling of wood waste for particleboard manufacture seems to be more favorable under an environmental perspective. PMID:15922411

Rivela, Beatriz; Moreira, María Teresa; Muñoz, Iván; Rieradevall, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo

2006-03-15

374

Design of methodology for wood chips moisture estimation determined for gasification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The moisture content of the charged wood chips is a significant factor affecting the gasification process. The increased moisture content increases the demand on the energy consumption, which is needed to cover the heat consumption related to the water evaporation and adversely affects the wood gas quality and input fuel amount. Monitoring of the moisture content in wood chips is therefore the diagnostic tools suitable to evaluate the operational parameters of the whole gasification process. Present paper describes the design of the suitable methodology to measure and estimate the wood chips moisture content. The issues related to the moisture content estimation include preliminary the selection of the suitable methodology based on the assumed moisture content in the wood chips. Further factor which needs to be considered is the fact that the moisture content in wood chips is time dependent due to the changing parameters of the ambient air (as temperature, pressure and air humidity). Correctly estimated moisture content will enable to improve the wood chips gasification process.

Luká?, Ladislav; Kuna, Štefan; Kizek, Ján; Repášová, Magdaléna

2014-03-01

375

Serpula lacrymans, Wood and Buildings.  

PubMed

Serpula lacrymans, the causative agent of dry rot timber decay in buildings, is a Basidiomycete fungus in the Boletales clade. It owes its destructiveness to a uniquely well-developed capacity to colonize by rapid mycelial spread from sites of initial spore infection, coupled with aggressive degradation of wood cellulose. Genomic methods have recently elucidated the evolution and enzymic repertoire of the fungus, suggesting that it has a distinctive mode of brown rot wood decay. Using novel methods to image nutrient translocation, its mycelium has been modeled as a highly responsive resource-supply network. Dry rot is preventable by keeping timber dry. However, in established outbreaks, further mycelial spread can be arrested by inhibitors of translocation. PMID:22305095

Watkinson, S C; Eastwood, D C

2012-01-01

376

Geological Substrates Shape Tree Species and Trait Distributions in African Moist Forests  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the factors that shape the distribution of tropical tree species at large scales is a central issue in ecology, conservation and forest management. The aims of this study were to (i) assess the importance of environmental factors relative to historical factors for tree species distributions in the semi-evergreen forests of the northern Congo basin; and to (ii) identify potential mechanisms explaining distribution patterns through a trait-based approach. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the distribution patterns of 31 common tree species in an area of more than 700,000 km2 spanning the borders of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and the Republic of Congo using forest inventory data from 56,445 0.5-ha plots. Spatial variation of environmental (climate, topography and geology) and historical factors (human disturbance) were quantified from maps and satellite records. Four key functional traits (leaf phenology, shade tolerance, wood density, and maximum growth rate) were extracted from the literature. The geological substrate was of major importance for the distribution of the focal species, while climate and past human disturbances had a significant but lesser impact. Species distribution patterns were significantly related to functional traits. Species associated with sandy soils typical of sandstone and alluvium were characterized by slow growth rates, shade tolerance, evergreen leaves, and high wood density, traits allowing persistence on resource-poor soils. In contrast, fast-growing pioneer species rarely occurred on sandy soils, except for Lophira alata. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate strong environmental filtering due to differential soil resource availability across geological substrates. Additionally, long-term human disturbances in resource-rich areas may have accentuated the observed patterns of species and trait distributions. Trait differences across geological substrates imply pronounced differences in population and ecosystem processes, and call for different conservation and management strategies. PMID:22905127

Fayolle, Adeline; Engelbrecht, Bettina; Freycon, Vincent; Mortier, Frederic; Swaine, Michael; Rejou-Mechain, Maxime; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Fauvet, Nicolas; Cornu, Guillaume; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie

2012-01-01

377

Blood parasites of wood ducks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O., Jr.; Knipling, G.D.

1971-01-01

378

Thermopower of beech wood biocarbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on measurements of the thermopower S of high-porosity samples of beech wood biocarbon with micron-sized sap pores aligned with the tree growth direction. The measurements have been performed in the temperature range 5-300 K. The samples have been fabricated by pyrolysis of beech wood in an argon flow at different carbonization temperatures ( T carb). The thermopower S has been measured both along and across the sap pores, thus offering a possibility of assessing its anisotropy. The curves S( T carb) have revealed a noticeable increase of S for T carb < 1000°C for all the measurement temperatures. This finding fits to the published data obtained for other physical parameters, including the electrical conductivity of these biocarbons, which suggests that for T carb ˜ 1000°C they undergo a phase transition of the insulator-(at T carb < 1000°C)-metal-(at T carb > 1000°C) type. The existence of this transition is attested also by the character of the temperature dependences S( T) of beech wood biocarbon samples prepared at T carb above and below 1000°C.

Smirnov, I. A.; Smirnov, B. I.; Orlova, T. S.; Sulkovski, Cz.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Muha, J.

2011-11-01

379

Fast pyrolysis of pretreated wood  

SciTech Connect

During the 1980`s, several research groups reported the fact that pyrolysis in a non-oxidizing atmosphere of wood that had been prehydrolyzed with dilute acid allowed a substantial depolymerization of the cellulose to occur to give anhydrosugars. More recent work has shown that only deionization of the wood is necessary, and not necessarily a partial hydrolysis. The indigineous alkaline inorganic cations contained in the wood (principally calcium and potassium) have a profound effect on the mechanism of thermal decomposition of the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions. Also, it has been known for many years that alkaline cations are efficient oxidation catalysts for biomass. We have explored the possibility that oxidation reactions in fast pyrolysis of prehydrolyzed, or of deionized, biomass may be altered much more for carbohydrates than for lignins. Results obtained show that fast pyrolysis of pretreated biomass with controlled levels of oxygen will selectively oxidize lignins with relatively little effect on anhydrosugar yields. This partial oxidation approach generated needed heat in situ. As well, by removing a substantial fraction of the lignin-derived material from the pyrolysis liquid, the recovery of anhydrosugars for use as fermentable sugars or as chemicals is simplified.

Piskorz, J.; Radlein, D.; Majerski, P. [Resource Transforms International Ltd, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

1995-11-01

380

Combination coal and wood stove  

SciTech Connect

The combination stove has a fire chamber that is partially cylindrical including a side loading door for loading wood or other combustible material such as coke or coal into the fire chamber. The front of the stove may be opened to enable viewing of the wood or coal burning in the stove by means of an arcuate sliding door that is operable to substantially totally close the chamber or open a section of the front thereof for viewing purposes. The sliding door is covered by a window construction including a tempered glass face. The stove is provided with an open base for supporting the chamber in a shroud covering the top and back of the chamber, preferably including blower means associated therewith. Particularly for wood combustion, the chamber is provided with a top draft extending longitudinally of the chamber and has supported therein a grate. For coal combustion, air input draft is coupled under the grate, preferably also including the capability of forced air draft using a portion of the forced air from the blower.

Gillis, G.A.; Lucier, R.

1983-05-17

381

Quantitative trait loci for biofortification traits in maize grain.  

PubMed

Detecting genes that influence biofortification traits in cereal grain could help increase the concentrations of bioavailable mineral elements in crops to solve the global mineral malnutrition problem. The aims of this study were to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations in maize grain in a mapping population, as well as QTLs for bioavailable Fe, Zn, and Mg, by precalculating their respective ratios with P. Elemental analysis of grain samples was done by coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry in 294 F(4) lines of a biparental population taken from field trials of over 3 years. The population was mapped using sets of 121 polymorphic markers. QTL analysis revealed 32 significant QTLs detected for 7 traits, of which some were colocalized. The Additive-dominant model revealed highly significant additive effects, suggesting that biofortification traits in maize are generally controlled by numerous small-effect QTLs. Three QTLs for Fe/P, Zn/P, and Mg/P were colocalized on chromosome 3, coinciding with simple sequence repeats marker bnlg1456, which resides in close proximity to previously identified phytase genes (ZM phys1 and phys2). Thus, we recommend the ratios as bioavailability traits in biofortification research. PMID:22071312

Simi?, Domagoj; Mladenovi? Drini?, Snezana; Zduni?, Zvonimir; Jambrovi?, Antun; Ledencan, Tatjana; Brki?, Josip; Brki?, Andrija; Brki?, Ivan

2012-01-01

382

Perception of Wood in River Channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In managing river channels, wood is often perceived as hazardous and has traditionally been removed. On the other hand, wood provides many benefits including food and habitat for fish and mechanisms for energy dissipation. Increasing recognition of the positive role of wood has encouraged the reintroduction of wood to restore rivers. However, it is not clear how widely this practice is accepted, and whether traditional views of wood hazards may influence the success of such restoration projects. This paper describes a large-scale effort to increase understanding of how wood is perceived in stream channels. This project, led by H. Piegay and K.J. Gregory, involves an international group of workers from 9 countries in contrasting parts of the world. A total of 1886 surveys were given to students 20-25 years of age to test the hypothesis that the perception of wood is related to one's socio-cultural environment. Students were asked to view a set of 20 standard photographs, 10 with wood and 10 without, and to answer a set of questions related to how hazardous the scenes are perceived. Results show clear differences in perception, with students from Texas, USA, viewing streams with wood to be more dangerous, less aesthetic, and to need more improvement than those without. These perceptions contrast with those from the Pacific northwest and some areas around the world, providing clues to the potential success and acceptance of reintroducing wood in stream restoration.

Chin, A.

2003-12-01

383

Timber Quality Steering Group Meeting Edinburgh Napier University,  

E-print Network

piece of work in the area of Sitka spruce wood quality and its genetic variation. See presentation Shaun to get x2 papers out from the Aberdeen PhD student who looked at variation in MOE and MfA in Sitka spruce in more detail at wood quality (see Elspeth Macdonald; below) Re-analysis of the existing full

384

Carbon sequestration via wood burial  

PubMed Central

To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

Zeng, Ning

2008-01-01

385

Carbon sequestration via wood burial.  

PubMed

To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink.It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 +/- 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized.Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

Zeng, Ning

2008-01-01

386

Personality traits, traitedness, and disorders: towards an enhanced understanding of trait-disorder relationships  

E-print Network

-behavior relationships. That is, if traits are differentially applicable to different individuals, then trait-behavior relationships may be moderated based on the strength with which an individual fits with a given trait model. This study used moderated multiple...

Warner, Megan Beth

2006-10-30

387

Ultrasound-assisted surface-modification of wood particulates for improved wood/plastic composites.  

E-print Network

??The combined effects of alkali and ultrasound treatment of wood flour on the mechanical properties of polypropylene-based wood/plastic composites (WPCs) were examined. FTIR measurements confirmed… (more)

Chang, Wei-Ping, 1981-

2008-01-01

388

Mathematical modeling of the wood ignition process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statements and numerical solution of the problem of igniting the wood wall as a result of the fire seat effect based on the mathematical model of a porous reacting medium are proposed. The original reagent ignition is found to be determined by the processes of drying, pyrolysis (decomposition and synthesis reactions) of dry wood, reaction of the carbon oxide oxidation as well as by the wood thermophysical properties.

Grishin, A. M.; Yakimov, A. S.

2013-12-01

389

Volatile constituents in a wood pyrolysis oil  

E-print Network

Science VOLATILE CONSTITUTENTS IN A WOOD PYROLYSIS OIL A Thesis SHIH-CHIEN LIN Appro d as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) Head of epa tmen (Member Member Nay 1978 442936 ABSTRACT Volatile Constituents in a Wood Pyrolysis Oil..., 1958]. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Pyrolysis products of cellulose and treated cellulose at 600oC f Chin, 1973]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Pyrolysis products of lignin at 450-550 C [Allen and Nattil a, 1971] Properties of wood pyrolysis oil. 12...

Lin, Shih-Chien

2012-06-07

390

Structural wood panels with improved fire resistance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural wood paneling or other molded wood compositions consisting of finely divided wood chips, flour, or strands are bound together and hot pressed with a modified novolac resin which is the cured product of a prepolymer made from an aralkyl ether or halide with a phenol and a hardening agent such as hexamethylene tetramine. The fire resistance of these articles is further improved by incorporating in the binder certain inorganic fillers, especially a mixture of ammonium oxalate and ammonium phosphate.

Sawko, P. M. (inventor)

1980-01-01

391

Wood's light in Microsporum canis positive patients.  

PubMed

In 64 patients with culturally proven Microsporum canis infections, Wood's light examination was performed. In 30 patients (47%) the characteristic fluorescence correlated with the cultural findings, whereas in the remaining 34 patients (53%), Microsporum canis was isolated, although Wood's light examination was negative. Of the 30 positive and 34 negative cases eight patients of each group had been pre-treated. From the results presented, Wood's light examination has a poor sensitivity in cases of Microsporum canis-infections. PMID:9470413

Kefalidou, S; Odia, S; Gruseck, E; Schmidt, T; Ring, J; Abeck, D

1997-12-01

392

A Wood-Fired Gas Turbine Plant  

E-print Network

A WOOD-FIRED GAS TURBINE PLANT Sam H. Powell, Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, Tennessee Joseph T. Hamrick, Aerospace Research Corporation, RBS Electric, Roanoke, VA Abstract This paper covers the research and development of a wood-fired... and deterioration of the walls. This wood?fired gas turbine unit could provide a low cost source of power for areas where conventional methods are now prohibitive and provide a means for recovering energy from a source that now poses disposal problems. When...

Powell, S. H.; Hamrick, J. T.

393

California Wood Energy Program1 Gary Brittner2  

E-print Network

California Wood Energy Program1 Gary Brittner2 The California Department of Forestry Wood Energy projects to increase utilization of wood for energy. The Wood Energy Program came about partly the management of the wood resource. The Department of Forestry recognized that an extensive resource

Standiford, Richard B.

394

Wood Programs. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This courseware evaluation rates the Wood Programs software developed by the Iowa Department of Public Instruction. (These programs--not contained in this document--include understanding board feet, wood characteristics, wood safety drill, wood dimensions, wood moisture, operating the table saw, radial arm, measurement drill, fraction drill, and…

Kaylor, Robert; And Others

395

Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.  

PubMed

This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings. PMID:24576635

French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

2014-05-01

396

Autism traits in the RASopathies  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/MAPK) pathway genes lead to a class of disorders known as RASopathies, including neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome (NS), Costello syndrome (CS), and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC). Previous work has suggested potential genetic and phenotypic overlap between dysregulation of Ras/MAPK signalling and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although the literature offers conflicting evidence for association of NF1 and autism, there has been no systematic evaluation of autism traits in the RASopathies as a class to support a role for germline Ras/MAPK activation in ASDs. Methods We examined the association of autism traits with NF1, NS, CS and CFC, comparing affected probands with unaffected sibling controls and subjects with idiopathic ASDs using the qualitative Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the quantitative Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Results Each of the four major RASopathies showed evidence for increased qualitative and quantitative autism traits compared with sibling controls. Further, each RASopathy exhibited a distinct distribution of quantitative social impairment. Levels of social responsiveness show some evidence of correlation between sibling pairs, and autism-like impairment showed a male bias similar to idiopathic ASDs. Conclusions Higher prevalence and severity of autism traits in RASopathies compared to unaffected siblings suggests that dysregulation of Ras/MAPK signalling during development may be implicated in ASD risk. Evidence for sex bias and potential sibling correlation suggests that autism traits in the RASopathies share characteristics with autism traits in the general population and clinical ASD population and can shed light on idiopathic ASDs. PMID:24101678

Adviento, Brigid; Corbin, Iris L; Widjaja, Felicia; Desachy, Guillaume; Enrique, Nicole; Rosser, Tena; Risi, Susan; Marco, Elysa J; Hendren, Robert L; Bearden, Carrie E; Rauen, Katherine A; Weiss, Lauren A

2014-01-01

397

EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

398

EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT, AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

399

Products of wood smolder and their relation to wood-burning stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The smoldering combustion of solid wood is a process pertinent to both fire safety and to the generation of air pollutants in wood burning stoves; fundamental aspects of this process are examined here in order to provide insights into both of these problem areas. The wood configuration employed here was designed to permit self-sustained smolder with visual access. Tests were

T. Ohlemiller; W. Shaub

1988-01-01

400

The effect of wood extractives on the thermal stability of different wood species  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the thermal stability of different wood species, which is an important factor for the production of wood–polymer composites (WPCs), and investigates the effect of extraction on thermal properties. The chemical composition of four wood species –Quercus alba, Pinus radiata, Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia cyclops – has been determined, as the species is expected to affect the thermal

A. N. Shebani; A. J. van Reenen; M. Meincken

2008-01-01

401

Coextruded Polyethylene and Wood-Flour Composite: Effect of Shell Thickness, Wood Loading, and Core  

E-print Network

on this aspect is very limited. Few published studies include virgin poly- vinyl chloride (PVC)14 and high that coextruded PVC-wood composite had reduced moisture uptake rate, increased flexural strength, and decreased flexural modulus compared with regular PVC-wood control samples.14 Coextruded HDPE-wood composites also had

402

1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers  

E-print Network

1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-07-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology JAPANESE pine (Pinus sp.), spruce(Picea sp.), fir (Abies sp.), cedar (Cedrus sp.) and larch (Larix sp.). Trees. Pupation takes place in the wood and adults emerge by chewing a round exit hole. Adults feed on the tender

Ginzel, Matthew

403

European Panel FederationEuropean Panel Federation viewpoint on wood energy policiesviewpoint on wood energy policies  

E-print Network

--called "green energy"called "green energy" ·· Simultaneously, the taxes on the use of fossil fuelsSimultaneously, the taxes on the use of fossil fuels increaseincrease ·· This leads to increasing costs for wood products.1 million m³ #12;WoodWood--Based Panel IndustryBased Panel Industry Pioneer in sustainable use of resources

404

Are secondary sex traits, parasites and immunity related to variation in primary sex traits in the Arctic charr?  

PubMed Central

Primary and secondary sex traits are influenced by the same sex hormones, and the expression of secondary sex traits may consequently signal males' capacity for sperm production. Sperm quality may also be influenced by immune activity, as sperm are non-self to the male. Parasite infections alter immune activity and may thus reduce ejaculate quality. In the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) the red abdominal colour is considered an ornament that signals important information in mate choice. We captured and individually caged sexually mature male Arctic charr during the spawning period. Afterwards we estimated abdominal colour, parasite infections, gonad mass and several spermatological and immunological variables. Intensity of abdominal colour was positively correlated to testes mass, milt mass and sperm cell numbers produced. Additionally, males with low parasite intensities had high testes mass and produced milt with high sperm density, indicating a trade-off between parasite resistance and development of primary sex traits. Our measures of immunity were, however, not related to primary sex traits. We conclude that females evaluating male abdominal coloration may obtain information about differences between males in fertilization potential and parasite resistance. PMID:15101414

Masvaer, Marthe; Liljedal, Stale; Folstad, Ivar

2004-01-01

405

Overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits is not accounted for by anxiety and depression.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders. PMID:24930576

Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane

2014-10-30

406

Plant traits that determine water use in wet tropical trees - do universal rules apply?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the global scale, evapotranspiration is the strongest predictor of species richness compared with other climatic and non-climatic variables, resulting in higher diversity in wet regions. In water limited climates, evapotranspiration has been shown to drive functional convergence in plant traits such as leaf vein density and wood density that are associated with water usage. However, functional convergence has yet to be demonstrated in wet tropical forests where water is unlimited. In this study, we compared and contrasted structural traits, leaf traits, and transpiration in nine tree species found in a wet tropical montane forest in Costa Rica. Transpiration was determined using three years of data collected from heat dissipation sap flow sensors. Among the nine species we studied, leaf architecture and size varied markedly, but leaf shapes were generally ovate or lancelate (Figure 1). Relationships between secondary and tertiary venation and leaf surface area at the local scale were similar to published relationships at the global scale, except for compound leaves and an outlier species, Calophyllum brasilense, which had dense parallel veins. Despite wide-ranging traits, sap flux was fairly consistent across species, ranging from 380 to 982 kg m-2 d-1. Sap flux was positively correlated with specific leaf area. Similar to global trends, specific leaf area was shown to be positively correlated to tertiary venation but not related to secondary venation. Leaves of wet tropical species tended to have lower leaf mass per unit area than those of dry tropical species. Unlike studies in dry tropical regions, wood density was unrelated to wood sapflux and only weakly related to specific leaf area. It is possible that trees in wetter climates without water deficits do not adhere as closely to universal scaling relationships. In addition, wood density adjustments to guard against water stress might not be as important in wet climates. As we continue to seek universal rules in plant traits, more work is needed to expand these relationships to larger leaves and those with compound leaf structure. Figure 1

Miller, G. T.; Moore, G. W.

2013-12-01

407

7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10...NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of...

2012-01-01

408

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2010-01-01

409

78 FR 30329 - Multilayered Wood Flooring from China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1179 (Final) (Remand)] Multilayered Wood Flooring from China AGENCY: United States...731-TA-1179 (Final) concerning multilayered wood flooring (``MLWF'') from China...Floors, Inc.; BR Custom Surface; Real Wood Floors, LLC; Galleher Corp.; and...

2013-05-22

410

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2012-01-01

411

75 FR 79019 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1179 (Preliminary)] Multilayered Wood Flooring From China Determinations On the...reason of imports from China of multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings...of U.S. manufacturers of multilayered wood flooring. The following companies...

2010-12-17

412

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2013-01-01

413

30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral...Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood products which are permanently installed...

2013-07-01

414

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2011-01-01

415

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

...2014-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2014-01-01

416

30 CFR 77.1913 - Fire-resistant wood.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Fire-resistant wood. 77.1913 Section 77.1913 Mineral...Shaft Sinking § 77.1913 Fire-resistant wood. Except for crossties, timbers, and other wood products which are permanently installed...

2012-07-01

417

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

... 2014-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2014-01-01

418

7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10...NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of...

2010-01-01

419

7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10...NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of...

2014-01-01

420

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2011-01-01