Sample records for wood quality traits

  1. Walnut demonstrates strong genetic variability for adaptive and wood quality traits in a network of juvenile field tests across Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Fady; F. Ducci; N. Aleta; J. Becquey; R. Diaz Vazquez; F. Fernandez Lopez; C. Jay-Allemand; F. Lefèvre; A. Ninot; K. Panetsos; A. Pisanelli; H. Rumpf

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive and wood quality trait data were collected and analyzed on commercially available Juglans regia and J. regia×J. nigra provenances and progenies planted across Europe in a multi-site network. A total of 19 seed sources, replicated 35 times per site, were planted at 13 sites from 5 European countries, encompassing the potential distribution area of timber production plantation sites. The

  2. Global meta-analysis of wood decomposition rates: a role for trait variation among tree species?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James T. Weedon; William K. Cornwell; Johannes H. C. Cornelissen; Amy E. Zanne; Christian Wirth; David A. Coomes

    2009-01-01

    The carbon flux from woody debris, a crucial uncertainty within global carbon-climate models, is simultaneously affected by climate, site environment and species-based variation in wood quality. In the first global analysis attempting to explicitly tease out the wood quality contribution to decomposition, we found support for our hypothesis that, under a common climate, interspecific differences in wood traits affect woody

  3. Genomics of Quality Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seeds of the cereal crops provide a large portion of both the total calories and protein in the human diet. The utility of any cereal depends on the precise characteristics of their grain and the summation of parameters that translate in the grain "quality" for speific utilizations. This chapter...

  4. Size-dependent changes in wood chemical traits: a comparison of neotropical saplings and large trees

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam R.; Thomas, Sean C.; Zhao, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Wood anatomical traits are important correlates of life-history strategies among tree species, yet little is known about wood chemical traits. Additionally, size-dependent changes in wood chemical traits have been rarely examined, although these changes may represent an important aspect of tree ontogeny. Owing to selection for pathogen resistance and biomechanical stability, we predicted that saplings would show higher lignin (L) and wood carbon (Cconv), and lower holocellulose (H) concentrations, compared with conspecific large trees. To test these expectations, we quantified H, L and Cconv in co-occurring Panamanian tree species at the large tree vs. sapling size classes. We also examined inter- and intraspecific patterns using multivariate and phylogenetic analyses. In 15 of 16 species, sapling L concentration was higher than that in conspecific large trees, and in all 16 species, sapling H was lower than that in conspecific large trees. In 16 of 24 species, Cconv was higher in saplings than conspecific large trees. All large-tree traits were unrelated to sapling values and were unrelated to four life-history variables. Wood chemical traits did not show a phylogenetic signal in saplings, instead showing similar values across distantly related taxa; in large trees, only H showed a significant phylogenetic signal. Size-dependent changes in wood chemistry show consistent and predictable patterns, suggesting that ontogenetic changes in wood chemical traits are an important aspect of tree functional biology. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that at early ontogenetic stages, trees are selected for greater L to defend against cellulose-decaying pathogens, or possibly to confer biomechanical stability.

  5. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for meat quality and muscle metabolic traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Esmailizadeh, A K; Morris, C A; Cullen, N G; Kruk, Z A; Lines, D S; Hickey, S M; Dobbie, P M; Bottema, C D K; Pitchford, W S

    2011-12-01

    A whole-genome scan was carried out in New Zealand and Australia to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for live animal and carcass composition traits and meat quality attributes in cattle. Backcross calves (385 heifers and 398 steers) were generated, with Jersey and Limousin backgrounds. The New Zealand cattle were reared and finished on pasture, whilst Australian cattle were reared on grass and finished on grain for at least 180 days. This paper reports on meat quality traits (tenderness measured as shear force at 4-5 ages on two muscles as well as associated traits of meat colour, pH and cooking loss) and a number of metabolic traits. For meat quality traits, 18 significant QTL (P?traits, 11 significant QTL (P?traits and meat quality traits. Six significant QTL for meat quality and metabolic traits were found at the proximal end of chromosome 2. BTA2 and BTA29 were the most common chromosomes harbouring QTL for meat quality traits; QTL for improved tenderness were associated with Limousin-derived and Jersey-derived alleles on these two chromosomes, respectively. PMID:22035000

  6. Monthly and seasonal variation of mohair growth and quality traits 

    E-print Network

    Portal, Enrique

    1972-01-01

    MONTHLY AND SEASONAL VARIATION OF MOHAIR GR(%TH AND QUALITY TRAITS A Thesis by Enrique Portal Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972... and Quality Traits. (May 1972) Enrique Portal, Agriculture Engineer, Universidad Central de Venezuela Directed by Dr. James W. Bassett Eleven Angora does were used to measure variation in mohair fleeces traits from five body areas at two consecutive...

  7. Genetic variation of hydraulic and wood anatomical traits in hybrid poplar and trembling aspen.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Stefan G; Hacke, Uwe G; Hamann, Andreas; Thomas, Barb R

    2011-04-01

    Intensive forestry systems and breeding programs often include either native aspen or hybrid poplar clones, and performance and trait evaluations are mostly made within these two groups. Here, we assessed how traits with potential adaptive value varied within and across these two plant groups. Variation in nine hydraulic and wood anatomical traits as well as growth were measured in selected aspen and hybrid poplar genotypes grown at a boreal planting site in Alberta, Canada. Variability in these traits was statistically evaluated based on a blocked experimental design. We found that genotypes of trembling aspen were more resistant to cavitation, exhibited more negative water potentials, and were more water-use-efficient than hybrid poplars. Under the boreal field test conditions, which included major regional droughts, height growth was negatively correlated with branch vessel diameter (Dv ) in both aspen and hybrid poplars and differences in Dv were highly conserved in aspen trees from different provenances. Differences between the hybrid poplars and aspen provenances suggest that these two groups employ different water-use strategies. The data also suggest that vessel diameter may be a key trait in evaluating growth performance in a boreal environment. PMID:21223285

  8. Sound quality assessment of wood for xylophone bars.

    PubMed

    Aramaki, Mitsuko; Baillères, Henri; Brancheriau, Loïc; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Ystad, Sølvi

    2007-04-01

    Xylophone sounds produced by striking wooden bars with a mallet are strongly influenced by the mechanical properties of the wood species chosen by the xylophone maker. In this paper, we address the relationship between the sound quality based on the timbre attribute of impacted wooden bars and the physical parameters characterizing wood species. For this, a methodology is proposed that associates an analysis-synthesis process and a perceptual classification test. Sounds generated by impacting 59 wooden bars of different species but with the same geometry were recorded and classified by a renowned instrument maker. The sounds were further digitally processed and adjusted to the same pitch before being once again classified. The processing is based on a physical model ensuring the main characteristics of the wood are preserved during the sound transformation. Statistical analysis of both classifications showed the influence of the pitch in the xylophone maker judgement and pointed out the importance of two timbre descriptors: the frequency-dependent damping and the spectral bandwidth. These descriptors are linked with physical and anatomical characteristics of wood species, providing new clues in the choice of attractive wood species from a musical point of view. PMID:17471752

  9. Identification of quantitative trait loci for wood and fibre properties in two full-sib pedigrees of Eucalyptus globulus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Thamarus; Kylie Groom; Alexander D Bradley; Carolyn A Raymond; Laurence R Schimleck; Emlyn R Williams; Gavin F Moran

    2004-01-01

    Regions of the genome influencing wood and fibre traits in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. have been identified in two full-sib pedigrees that share a common male parent. The first pedigree, cross A, contains 148 progeny, and the second pedigree, cross B, contains 135 progeny. Subsets of progeny of these two controlled crosses were planted at seven sites throughout Australia in 1990.

  10. Manager traits and quality-of-care performance in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Aij, Kjeld Harald; Aernoudts, René L M C; Joosten, Gepke

    2015-07-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to assess the impact of the leadership traits of chief executive officers (CEOs) on hospital performance in the USA. The effectiveness and efficiency of the CEO is of critical importance to the performance of any organization, including hospitals. Management systems and manager behaviours (traits) are of crucial importance to any organization because of their connection with organizational performance. To identify key factors associated with the quality of care delivered by hospitals, the authors gathered perceptions of manager traits from chief executive officers (CEOs) and followers in three groups of US hospitals delivering different levels of quality of care performance. Design/methodology/approach - Three high- and three low-performing hospitals were selected from the top and bottom 20th percentiles, respectively, using a national hospital ranking system based on standard quality of care performance measures. Three lean hospitals delivering intermediate performance were also selected. A survey was used to gather perceptions of manager traits (providing a modern or lean management system inclination) from CEOs and their followers in the three groups, which were compared. Findings - Four traits were found to be significantly different (alpha < 0.05) between lean (intermediate-) and low-performing hospitals. The different perceptions between these two hospital groups were all held by followers in the low-performing hospitals and not the CEOs, and all had a modern management inclination. No differences were found between lean (intermediate-) and high-performing hospitals, or between high- and low-performing hospitals. Originality/value - These findings support a need for hospital managers to acquire appropriate traits to achieve lean transformation, support a benefit of measuring manager traits to assess progress towards lean transformation and lend weight to improved quality of care that can be delivered by hospitals adopting a lean system of management. PMID:26083635

  11. Intraspecific Relationships among Wood Density, Leaf Structural Traits and Environment in Four Co-Occurring Species of Nothofagus in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Sarah J.; Allen, Robert B.; Buxton, Rowan P.; Easdale, Tomás A.; Hurst, Jennifer M.; Morse, Christopher W.; Smissen, Rob D.; Peltzer, Duane A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant functional traits capture important variation in plant strategy and function. Recent literature has revealed that within-species variation in traits is greater than previously supposed. However, we still have a poor understanding of how intraspecific variation is coordinated among different traits, and how it is driven by environment. We quantified intraspecific variation in wood density and five leaf traits underpinning the leaf economics spectrum (leaf dry matter content, leaf mass per unit area, size, thickness and density) within and among four widespread Nothofagus tree species in southern New Zealand. We tested whether intraspecific relationships between wood density and leaf traits followed widely reported interspecific relationships, and whether variation in these traits was coordinated through shared responses to environmental factors. Sample sites varied widely in environmental variables, including soil fertility (25–900 mg kg–1 total P), precipitation (668–4875 mm yr–1), temperature (5.2–12.4 °C mean annual temperature) and latitude (41–46 °S). Leaf traits were strongly correlated with one another within species, but not with wood density. There was some evidence for a positive relationship between wood density and leaf tissue density and dry matter content, but no evidence that leaf mass or leaf size were correlated with wood density; this highlights that leaf mass per unit area cannot be used as a surrogate for component leaf traits such as tissue density. Trait variation was predicted by environmental factors, but not consistently among different traits; e.g., only leaf thickness and leaf density responded to the same environmental cues as wood density. We conclude that although intraspecific variation in wood density and leaf traits is strongly driven by environmental factors, these responses are not strongly coordinated among functional traits even across co-occurring, closely-related plant species. PMID:23527041

  12. Perceived quality of wood images influenced by the skewness of image histogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, Shigehito; Mizokami, Yoko; Yaguchi, Hirohisa

    2015-06-01

    The shape of image luminance histograms is related to material perception. We investigated how the luminance histogram contributed to improvements in the perceived quality of wood images by examining various natural wood and adhesive vinyl sheets with printed wood grain. In the first experiment, we visually evaluated the perceived quality of wood samples. In addition, we measured the colorimetric parameters of the wood samples and calculated statistics of image luminance. The relationship between visual evaluation scores and image statistics suggested that skewness and kurtosis affected the perceived quality of wood. In the second experiment, we evaluated the perceived quality of wood images with altered luminance skewness and kurtosis using a paired comparison method. Our result suggests that wood images are more realistic if the skewness of the luminance histogram is slightly negative.

  13. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI (QTL) ANALYSIS OF CANNING QUALITY TRAITS IN KIDNEY BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canning quality of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), of which the degree of splitting (SPLT) and overall appearance (APP) if canned beans are major components, is a complex trait that exhibits quantitative. The objectives of this study were to identify major genes that affect APP and SPLT in kidney...

  14. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci for Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in a Wild Boar × Large White Intercross1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Andersson-Eklund; L. Marklund; K. Lundstrom; C. S. Haley; K. Andersson; I. Hansson; M. Moller; L. Andersson

    2010-01-01

    An intercross between wild boar and a domestic Large White pig population was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for body propor- tions, weight of internal organs, carcass composition, and meat quality. The results concerning growth traits and fat deposition traits have been reported elsewhere. In the present study, all 200 F2 animals, their parents, and their grandparents were

  15. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for seed quality traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Badigannavar, Ashok; Myers, Gerald O

    2015-03-01

    Cottonseed contains 16% seed oil and 23% seed protein by weight. High levels of palmitic acid provides a degree of stability to the oil, while the presence of bound gossypol in proteins considerably changes their properties, including their biological value. This study uses genetic principles to identify genomic regions associated with seed oil, protein and fibre content in upland cotton cultivars. Cotton association mapping panel representing the US germplasm were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, yielding 234 polymorphic DNA fragments. Phenotypic analysis showed high genetic variability for the seed traits, seed oil range from 6.47-25.16%, protein from 1.85-28.45% and fibre content from 15.88-37.12%. There were negative correlations between seed oil and protein content.With reference to genetic diversity, the average estimate of FST was 8.852 indicating a low level of genetic differentiation among subpopulations. The AMOVA test revealed that variation was 94% within and 6% among subpopulations. Bayesian population structure identified five subpopulations and was in agreement with their geographical distribution. Among the mixed models analysed, mixed linear model (MLM) identified 21 quantitative trait loci for lint percentage and seed quality traits, such as seed protein and oil. Establishing genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for the seed quality traits could be valuable in understanding the genetic relationships and their utilization in breeding programmes. PMID:25846880

  16. Stability of quantitative trait loci for growth and wood properties across multiple pedigrees and environments in Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jules S; Potts, Brad M; Downes, Geoffrey M; Pilbeam, David; Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; Vaillancourt, René E

    2013-06-01

    · Eucalypts are one of the most planted tree genera worldwide, and there is increasing interest in marker-assisted selection for tree improvement. Implementation of marker-assisted selection requires a knowledge of the stability of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). This study aims to investigate the stability of QTLs for wood properties and growth across contrasting sites and multiple pedigrees of Eucalyptus globulus. · Saturated linkage maps were constructed using 663 genotypes from four separate families, grown at three widely separated sites, and were employed to construct a consensus map. This map was used for QTL analysis of growth, wood density and wood chemical traits, including pulp yield. · Ninety-eight QTLs were identified across families and sites: 87 for wood properties and 11 for growth. These QTLs mapped to 38 discrete regions, some of which co-located with candidate genes. Although 16% of QTLs were verified across different families, 24% of wood property QTLs and 38% of growth QTLs exhibited significant genotype-by-environment interaction. · This study provides the most detailed assessment of the effect of environment and pedigree on QTL detection in the genus. Despite markedly different environments and pedigrees, many QTLs were stable, providing promising targets for the application of marker-assisted selection. PMID:23517065

  17. Quantitative trait loci for grain quality, productivity, morphological and agronomical traits in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-F. Rami; P. Dufour; G. Trouche; G. Fliedel; C. Mestres; F. Davrieux; P. Blanchard; P. Hamon

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain quality, yield components and other traits were investigated in two Sorghum caudatumguinea\\u000a recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. A total of 16 traits were evaluated (plant height, panicle length, panicle compactness,\\u000a number of kernels\\/panicle, thousand-kernel weight, kernel weight\\/panicle, threshing percentage, dehulling yield, kernel flouriness,\\u000a kernel friability, kernel hardness, amylose content, protein content, lipid content, germination

  18. Genetic mapping analysis of bread-making quality traits in spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we assess the genetic architecture of bread-making quality traits in spring wheat. A mapping population derived from BR34 and Grandin, a soft x hard cross, was used to measure 20 end-use quality traits including six kernel characteristics, seven milling and flour traits, four dough mi...

  19. Carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Fernandes, S; Sartori, J R; Teixeira, P S S; Moura, A S A M T

    2013-03-01

    Rabbits are very sensitive to heat stress because they have difficulty eliminating excess body heat. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress on slaughter weight, dressing percentage and carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits from two genetic groups. Ninety-six weaned rabbits were used: half were from the Botucatu genetic group and half were crossbreds between New Zealand White sires and Botucatu does. They were assigned to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (two genetic groups and three ambient temperatures: 18°C, 25°C and 30°C) and kept under controlled conditions in three environmental chambers from 5 to 10 weeks of age. Slaughter took place at 10 weeks, on 2 consecutive days. Meat quality measurements were made in the longissimus muscle. Actual average ambient temperature and relative humidity in the three chambers were 18.4°C and 63.9%, 24.4°C and 80.2% and 29.6°C and 75.9%, respectively. Purebred rabbits were heavier at slaughter and had heavier commercial and reference carcasses than crossbreds at 30°C; however, no differences between genetic groups for these traits were found at lower temperatures. No genetic group × ambient temperature interaction was detected for any other carcass or meat quality traits. The percentages of distal parts of legs, skin and carcass forepart were higher in crossbred rabbits, indicating a lower degree of maturity at slaughter in this group. The percentage of thoracic viscera was higher in the purebreds. Lightness of the longissimus muscle was higher in the purebreds, whereas redness was higher in the crossbreds. Slaughter, commercial and reference carcass weights and the percentages of thoracic viscera, liver and kidneys were negatively related with ambient temperature. Commercial and reference carcass yields, and the percentage of distal parts of legs, on the other hand, had a positive linear relationship with ambient temperature. Meat redness and yellowness diminished as ambient temperature increased, whereas cooking loss was linearly elevated with ambient temperature. Meat color traits revealed paler meat in the purebreds, but no differences in instrumental texture properties and water-holding capacity between genetic groups. Purebred rabbits were less susceptible to heat stress than the crossbreds. Heat stress resulted in lower slaughter and carcass weights and proportional reductions of organ weights, which contributed to a higher carcass yield. Moreover, it exerted a small, but negative, effect on meat quality traits. PMID:23031323

  20. Whole genome QTL mapping for growth, meat quality and breast meat yield traits in turkey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species and is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. Demand of turkey meat is increasing very rapidly. Genetic markers linked to genes affecting quantitative traits can increase the selection response of animal breeding programs. The use of these molecular markers for the identification of quantitative trait loci, and subsequently fine-mapping of quantitative trait loci regions, allows for pinpointing of genes that underlie such economically important traits. Results The quantitative trait loci analyses of the growth curve, body weight, breast yield and the meat quality traits showed putative quantitative trait loci on 21 of the 27 turkey chromosomes covered by the linkage map. Forty-five quantitative trait loci were detected across all traits and these were found in 29 different regions on 21 chromosomes. Out of the 45 quantitative trait loci, twelve showed significant (p < 0.01) evidence of linkage while the remaining 33 showed suggestive evidence (p < 0.05) of linkage with different growth, growth curve, meat quality and breast yield traits. Conclusion A large number of quantitative trait loci were detected across the turkey genome, which affected growth, breast yield and meat quality traits. Pleiotropic effects or close linkages between quantitative trait loci were suggested for several of the chromosomal regions. The comparative analysis regarding the location of quantitative trait loci on different turkey, and on the syntenic chicken chromosomes, along with their phenotypic associations, revealed signs of functional conservation between these species. PMID:21745371

  1. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES: METHOD 28 CERTIFICATION AND AUDITING OF WOOD HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quality assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing particulate matter sampling of wood heaters according to EPA protocol, Method 28. These procedures may be u...

  2. Demonstration of Genome-Wide Association Studies for Identifying Markers for Wood Property and Male Strobili Traits in Cryptomeria japonica

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Kentaro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Moriguchi, Yoshinari; Ujino-Ihara, Tokuko; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Taguchi, Yuriko; Tsubomura, Miyoko; Mishima, Kentaro; Iki, Taiichi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Futamura, Norihiro; Shinohara, Kenji; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an alternative to bi-parental QTL mapping in long-lived perennials. In the present study, we examined the potential of GWAS in conifers using 367 unrelated plus trees of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, which is the most widely planted and commercially important tree species in Japan, and tried to detect significant associations between wood property traits and quantity of male strobili on the one hand, and 1,032 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assigned to 1,032 genes on the other. Association analysis was performed with the mixed linear model taking into account kinship relationships and subpopulation structure. In total, 6 SNPs were found to have significant associations with the variations in phenotype. These SNPs were not associated with the positions of known genes and QTLs that have been reported to date, thus they may identify novel QTLs. These 6 SNPs were all found in sequences showing similarities with known genes, although further analysis is required to dissect the ways in which they affect wood property traits and abundance of male strobili. These presumptive QTL loci provide opportunities for improvement of C. japonica, based on a marker approach. The results suggest that GWAS has potential for use in future breeding programs in C. japonica. PMID:24260312

  3. Genome-wide identification of quantitative trait loci in a cross between Hampshire and Landrace II: Meat quality traits

    PubMed Central

    Markljung, Ellen; Braunschweig, Martin H; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Bruun, Camilla S; Sawera, Milena; Cho, In-Cheol; Hedebro-Velander, Ingela; Josell, Åsa; Lundström, Kerstin; von Seth, Gertrud; Jørgensen, Claus B; Fredholm, Merete; Andersson, Leif

    2008-01-01

    Background Meat quality traits are important in pig breeding programs, but they are difficult to include in a traditional selection program. Marker assisted selection (MAS) of meat quality traits is therefore of interest in breeding programs and a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis is the key to identifying markers that can be used in MAS. In this study, Landrace and Hampshire intercross and backcross families were used to investigate meat quality traits. Hampshire pigs are commonly used as the sire line in commercial pig breeding. This is the first time a pedigree including Hampshire pigs has been used for a QTL analysis of meat quality traits. Results In total, we analyzed 39 meat quality traits and identified eight genome-wide significant QTL peaks in four regions: one on chromosome 3, two on chromosome 6 and one on chromosome 16. At least two of the QTLs do not appear to have been detected in previous studies. On chromosome 6 we identified QTLs for water content in M. longissimus dorsi (LD), drip loss in LD and post mortem pH decline in LD. On chromosomes 3 and 16 we identified previously undetected QTLs for protein content in LD and for freezing and cooking loss respectively. Conclusion We identified at least two new meat quality trait QTLs at the genome-wide significance level. We detected two QTLs on chromosome 6 that possibly coincide with QTLs detected in other studies. We were also able to exclude the C1843T mutation in the ryanodine receptor (RYR1) as a causative mutation for one of the chromosome 6 QTLs in this cross. PMID:18304368

  4. Health-related quality of life in women exposed to wood smoke while cooking.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, A N; Umasankar, K; Gupta, D

    2014-08-01

    Using the abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-Bref) questionnaire, we evaluated the effect of exposure to smoke from wood combustion while cooking on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in 85 women using wood and 85 women using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuel in India. Age, years of cooking and hours spent daily in the kitchen were similar between women in the two groups. WHOQOL-Bref transformed scores in psychological, social relationships and environment domains were significantly lower in women in using wood than in those using LPG, suggesting that HRQL was impaired across domains among these women. PMID:25199018

  5. The associations between Vrs1 alleles and grain quality traits in spring barley Hordeum vulgare L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley head row type is a major trait affecting end use quality. Six rowed forms emerged due to mutations in the Vrs1 gene in two rowed barleys. Whether barley is two (Vrs1) or six rowed (vrs1) directly affects a wide range of morphological traits related to seed yield and grain quality. Vrs1 has be...

  6. Personality Traits, Education, and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Older Adult Primary Care Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Chapman; Paul Duberstein; Jeffrey M. Lyness

    2007-01-01

    Both lower education and the personality trait of neuroticism have been associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among older adults, but little is known about the role of other personality traits in HRQOL. We examined the associations of all Five-Factor Model personality traits and education, above and beyond physician-rated medical burden, with different aspects of HRQOL in a

  7. Muscle protein changes post mortem in relation to pork quality traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Warner; R. G. Kauffman; M. L. Greaser

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between post-mortem traits of muscle proteins and water loss traits was investigated using 84 pork loins representing the four quality traits of PSE, RSE (reddishpink, soft, exudative), RFN (reddish-pink, firm, non-exudative) and DFD. Protein solubility measurements (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and total) were lower and myosin denaturation (quantified by myofibrillar ATPase activity) was higher for PSE samples compared with samples

  8. Wood fuel quality of two Salix viminalis stands fertilised with sludge, ash and sludge–ash mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anneli Adler; Ioannis Dimitriou; Pär Aronsson; Theo Verwijst; Martin Weih

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of stand structure and fertilisation with wood ash and\\/or sludge on wood fuel quality of Salix viminalis. The relative proportions of bark and wood in 1-, 2- and 3-year-old shoot populations were determined. The concentrations of essential elements (N, P, K) and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni) in bark and wood were used to

  9. Genetic analysis of bone quality traits and growth in a random mating broiler population.

    PubMed

    González-Cerón, F; Rekaya, R; Aggrey, S E

    2015-05-01

    We report the genetic relationship between growth and bone quality traits in a random mating broiler control population. Traits studied were growth rates from week 0 to 4 [body weight gain (BWG) 0 to 4], from week 0 to 6 (BWG 0 to 6), and residual feed intake (RFI) from week 5 to 6 (RFI 5 to 6). Bone quality traits were obtained at 6 weeks of age. These traits were shank weight (SW), shank length (SL), shank diameter (SDIAM), tibia weight (TW), tibia length (TL), and tibia diameter (TDIAM). Likewise, tibia was used to obtain the tibia density (TDEN), tibia breaking strength (TBS), tibia mineral density (TMD), tibia mineral content (TMC), and tibia ash content (TAC). At the phenotypic level, growth traits were positively correlated with most of the bone quality traits except with TDEN and TAC which tended to show unfavorable associations (-0.04 to -0.31). Heritability of bone quality traits ranged from 0.08 to 0.54. The additive genetic associations of growth traits with weight, length, and diameter of shank and tibia were positive (0.37 to 0.80). A similar pattern was observed with TMD and TMC (0.06 to 0.65). In contrast, growth traits showed unfavorable genetic associations with TDEN, TBS, and TAC (-0.03 to -0.18). It was concluded that bone quality traits have an additive genetic background and they can be improved by means of genetic tools. It appears that selection for growth is negatively correlated with some traits involved in the integrity, health, and maturity of leg bones. PMID:25784765

  10. Genetic Diversity for Morphological and Quality Traits in Quinoa( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Germplasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bhargava; S. Shukla; S. Rajan; D. Ohri

    2007-01-01

    Twenty nine germplasm lines of Chenopodium quinoa and two of Chenopodium berlandieri subsp. nuttalliae were evaluated for 12 morphological and 7 quality traits for two test seasons. The 19 traits were analyzed for cluster and principal component analysis. The first four PCs contributed 78.70 % of the variability among the germplasm lines. The first PC accounted for 39.5% of the

  11. Association mapping for growth, straightness and wood chemistry traits in the Pinus pinaster Aquitaine breeding population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camille Lepoittevin; Luc Harvengt; Christophe Plomion; Pauline Garnier-Géré

    Association mapping is a recommended method to dissect the genetic basis of naturally occurring trait variation in non-model\\u000a tree species with outcrossing mating systems and large population sizes. We report here the results of the first association-mapping\\u000a study in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), a conifer species of economical importance for timber and pulp production in south-western Europe. Two association

  12. How do drought and warming influence survival and wood traits of Picea mariana saplings?

    PubMed

    Balducci, Lorena; Deslauriers, Annie; Giovannelli, Alessio; Beaulieu, Marilène; Delzon, Sylvain; Rossi, Sergio; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K

    2015-01-01

    Warming and drought will occur with increased frequency and intensity at high latitudes in the future. How heat and water stress can influence tree mortality is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate how carbon resources, stem hydraulics, and wood anatomy and density determine the ability of black spruce saplings to survive daytime or night-time warming (+ 6 °C in comparison with control) in combination with a drought period. Plant water relations, the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates and starch, mortality rate, and wood anatomy and density of saplings were monitored. Warming, in conjunction with 25 d of water deficit, increased sapling mortality (10% and 20% in night-time and daytime warming, respectively) compared with the control conditions (0.8%). Drought substantially decreased gas exchange, and also pre-dawn and mid-day leaf water potential to values close to -3MPa which probably induced xylem embolism (xylem air entry point, P??, being on average around -3MPa for this species). In addition, the recovery of gas exchange never reached the initial pre-stress levels, suggesting a possible loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity associated with cavitation. Consequently, mortality may be due to xylem hydraulic failure. Warmer temperatures limited the replenishment of starch reserves after their seasonal minimum. Lighter wood was formed during the drought period, reflecting a lower carbon allocation to cell wall formation, preventing the adaptation of the hydraulic system to drought. Saplings of black spruce experienced difficulty in adapting under climate change conditions, which might compromise their survival in the future. PMID:25371502

  13. Association of eight EST-derived SNPs with carcass and meat quality traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiong; Zhang, Zhe; Jiao, Yiren; Xu, Jian; Dang, Hongquyen; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Zhiguo; Duan, Junli; Zhang, Hao; Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Chong

    2015-02-01

    The identification of genetic markers associated with important economic traits is fundamental to improving the productivity and quality of livestock. In this investigation, we searched for 177 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) putatively involved in meat quality from the available pig EST database, and detected eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight ESTs. We investigated the associations of these SNPs with 18 carcass and meat quality traits in a Landrace?×?Lantang F2 resource population (n?=?257). Association analysis revealed that seven SNPs (except E42) were associated with some of the carcass- and meat quality-related traits. Particularly, significant associations of three SNPs (E53, E82, and E36) with backfat thickness traits were observed. Further, the genetic effects of E53 on four live backfat thickness traits were validated in an independent population (n?=?221). More investigations about E53 sequence characteristics were performed, i.e., radiation hybrid (RH) mapping, 3'-RACE, and screening analysis of the positive BAC clones. Our research identified the genetic effects of eight EST-derived SNPs on carcass and meat quality traits, and suggested that E53 may be a useful marker for live backfat thickness traits in pig breeding programs. PMID:25081836

  14. Quality Control of Wood-Pulp Chips Using A 3D Laser Scanner and Functional Pattern Recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lopez; J. A. Vilan; J. M. Matias; J. Taboada

    2007-01-01

    We describe a real-time quality control system for wood chips using a 3D laser scanner. The work evaluates the appropriateness of applying a functional rather than the typical vectorial approach to a pattern recognition problem. The problem to be resolved was to construct an online system for controlling wood-pulp chip granulometry quality for implementation in a wood-pulp factory. A functional

  15. Genome-wide association of meat quality traits and tenderness in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork quality has a large impact on consumer preference and perception of eating quality. A genome-wide association was performed for pork quality traits [intramuscular fat (IMF)], slice shear force (SSF), color attributes, purge, cooking loss, and pH] from 531 to 1,237 records on barrows and gilts o...

  16. Sire effects on carcass and meat quality traits of young Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Bonin, M N; Ferraz, J B S; Eler, J P; Rezende, F M; Cucco, D C; Carvalho, M E; Silva, R C G; Gomes, R C; Oliveira, E C M

    2014-01-01

    Meat quality is being increasingly demanded by consumers in recent years. Several factors can affect meat quality, ranging from animal traits such as breed and genetic heritage to pre- and post-slaughter processes. This study investigated the influence of Nellore bulls on carcass and meat quality traits. We used 475 young uncastrated males, the progeny of 54 bulls, to evaluate characteristics of the following carcass traits: hot carcass weight, rib-eye area, and fat thickness. We also evaluated the following beef quality traits: marbling, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and shear force at 0, 7, and 14 days of aging. Bulls had a significant influence (P?0.05) on rib-eye area, fat thickness, marbling, drip loss at 14 days of aging and color at all aging periods. Based on these results, the use of bulls with high breeding values for these traits can provide important advances in carcass traits and meat quality in breeding programs of Nellore cattle that are raised in tropical conditions. PMID:24841657

  17. Resonance wood [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]--evaluation and prediction of violin makers' quality-grading.

    PubMed

    Buksnowitz, Christoph; Teischinger, Alfred; Müller, Ulrich; Pahler, Andreas; Evans, Robert

    2007-04-01

    The definition of quality in the field of resonance wood for musical instrument making has attracted considerable interest over decades but has remained incomplete. The current work compares the traditional knowledge and practical experience of violin makers with a material-science approach to objectively characterize the properties of resonance wood. Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] has earned a very high reputation for the construction of resonance tops of stringed instruments and resonance boards of keyboard instruments, and was therefore chosen as the focus of the investigation. The samples were obtained from numerous renowned resonance wood regions in the European Alps and cover the whole range of available qualities. A set of acoustical, anatomical, mechanical and optical material properties was measured on each sample. These measurements were compared with subjective quality grading by violin makers, who estimated the acoustical, optical and overall suitability for violin making. Multiple linear regression models were applied to evaluate the predictability of the subjective grading using the measured material characteristics as predictors. The results show that luthiers are able to estimate wood quality related to visible features, but predictions of mechanical and acoustical properties proved to be very poor. PMID:17471750

  18. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci underlying sensory meat quality traits in three French beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Allais, S; Levéziel, H; Hocquette, J F; Rousset, S; Denoyelle, C; Journaux, L; Renand, G

    2014-10-01

    Improving the traits that underlie meat quality is a major challenge in the beef industry. The objective of this paper was to detect QTL linked to sensory meat quality traits in 3 French beef cattle breeds. We genotyped 1,059, 1,219, and 947 young bulls and their sires belonging to the Charolais, Limousin, and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds, respectively, using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). After estimating relevant genetic parameters using VCE software, we performed a linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis on 4 meat traits: intramuscular fat content, muscle lightness, shear force, and tenderness score. Heritability coefficients largely ranged between 0.10 and 0.24; however, they reached a maximum of 0.44 and 0.50 for intramuscular fat content and tenderness score, respectively, in the Charolais breed. The 2 meat texture traits, shear force and tenderness score, were strongly genetically correlated (-0.91 in the Charolais and Limousin breed and -0.86 in the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed), indicating that they are 2 different measures of approximately the same trait. The genetic correlation between tenderness and intramuscular fat content differed across breeds. Using a significance threshold of 5 × 10(-4) for QTL detection, we found more than 200 significant positions across the 29 autosomal chromosomes for the 4 traits in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds; in contrast, there were only 78 significant positions in the Limousin breed. Few QTL were common across breeds. We detected QTL for intramuscular fat content located near the myostatin gene in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds. No mutation in this gene has been reported for the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed; therefore, it suggests that an unknown mutation could be segregating in this breed. We confirmed that, in certain breeds, markers in the calpastatin and calpain 1 gene regions affect tenderness. We also found new QTL as several QTL on chromosome 3 that are significantly associated with meat tenderness in the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed. Overall, these results greatly contribute to the goal of building a panel of markers that can be used to select animals of high meat quality. PMID:25149327

  19. Gene discovery and product development for grain quality traits.

    PubMed

    Mazur, B; Krebbers, E; Tingey, S

    1999-07-16

    The composition of oils, proteins, and carbohydrates in seeds of corn, soybean, and other crops has been modified to produce grains with enhanced value. Both plant breeding and molecular technologies have been used to produce plants carrying the desired traits. Genomics-based strategies for gene discovery, coupled with high-throughput transformation processes and miniaturized, automated analytical and functionality assays, have accelerated the identification of product candidates. Molecular marker-based breeding strategies have been used to accelerate the process of moving trait genes into high-yielding germplasm for commercialization. These products are being tested for applications in food, feed, and industrial markets. PMID:10411493

  20. Nitrogen immobilization by wood-chip application: Protecting water quality in a northern hardwood forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homyak, P.M.; Yanai, R.D.; Burns, D.A.; Briggs, R.D.; Germain, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Forest harvesting disrupts the nitrogen cycle, which may affect stream water quality by increasing nitrate concentrations, reducing pH and acid neutralizing capacity, and mobilizing aluminum and base cations. We tested the application of wood chips derived from logging slash to increase immobilization of N after harvesting, which should reduce nitrate flux to streams. In August 2004, a stand of northern hardwoods was patch-clearcut in the Catskill Mountains, NY, and four replicates of three treatments were implemented in five 0.2-ha cut patches. Wood chips were applied to the soil surface at a rate equivalent to the amount of slash smaller than eight inches in diameter (1?? treatment). A second treatment doubled that rate (2??), and a third treatment received no chips (0??). Additionally, three uncut reference plots were established in nearby forested areas. Ion exchange resin bags and soil KCl-extractions were used to monitor nitrate availability in the upper 5-10 cm of soil approximately every seven weeks, except in winter. Resin bags indicated that the wood chips retained 30% or 42% of the nitrate pulse, while for KCl extracts, the retention rate was 78% or 100% of the difference between 0?? and uncut plots. During the fall following harvest, wood-chip treated plots had resin bag soil nitrate concentrations about 25% of those in 0?? plots (p = 0.0001). In the first growing season after the cut, nitrate concentrations in wood-chip treated plots for KCl extracts were 13% of those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.03) in May and about half those in 0?? treatments (p = 0.01) in July for resin bags. During spring snowmelt, however, nitrate concentrations were high and indistinguishable among treatments, including the uncut reference plots for resin bags and below detection limit for KCl extracts. Wood chips incubated in litterbags had an initial C:N of 125:1, which then decreased to 70:1 after one year of field incubation. These changes in C:N values indicate that the wood-chip application can potentially immobilize between 19 and 38 kg N ha-1 in the first year after harvesting, depending on the rate of wood-chip application. Our results suggest that the application of wood chips following harvesting operations can contribute to the protection of water quality and warrant additional research as a new Best Management Practice following cutting in regions that receive elevated levels of atmospheric N deposition. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Trait Hostility, Perceived Stress, and Sleep Quality in a Sample of Normal Sleepers

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Nicholas D.; Fireman, Gary D.; Levin, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To date, no studies have directly examined the effects of cognitive trait hostility on prospectively assessed sleep quality. This is important as individuals with heightened trait hostility demonstrate similar patterns of reactivity to perceived stressors as is often reported by poor sleepers. The present study hypothesized that increased trait hostility is associated with poorer subjective sleep quality and that perceived stress mediates this relationship. Methods. A sample of 66 normal sleepers completed daily sleep and stress logs for two weeks. Trait hostility was measured retrospectively. Results. The cognitive dimension of trait hostility was significantly correlated with subjectively rated sleep quality indicators, and these relationships were significantly mediated by perceived daily stress. Individuals with higher levels of trait cognitive hostility reported increased levels of perceived stress which accounted for their poorer sleep ratings as measured by both retrospective and prospective measures. Conclusions. Overall, the findings indicate that high levels of cognitive hostility are a significant risk factor for disturbed sleep and suggest that this might be a fruitful target for clinical intervention. PMID:23766918

  2. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES: METHOD 5G DETERMINATION OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM WOOD HEATERS FROM A DILUTION TUNNEL SAMPLING LOCATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quality assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing particulate matter sampling of wood heaters according to EPA protocol, Method 5G. These procedures may be u...

  3. Pericarp polypeptides and SRAP markers associated with fruit quality traits in an interspecific tomato backcross.

    PubMed

    Pereira da Costa, J H; Rodríguez, G R; Pratta, G R; Picardi, L A; Zorzoli, R

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect polypeptides and genomic regions associated with fruit quality traits in a backcross generation using as parent the Argentinean cultivated tomato Caimanta of Solanum lycopersicum and the wild accession LA722 of S. pimpinellifolium. We tested two types of molecular marker: polypeptide profile (at two ripening stages, mature green and red ripe) and SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism). A polypeptide of 45 kDa present in the wild parents at the mature green stage was associated with larger fruit and long shelf life. Some amplification fragments from SRAP markers were associated with more than one quality trait such as fruit color, firmness, titratable acidity, and fruit soluble solids content. This study demonstrated for the first time the usefulness of the polypeptide profiles of pericarp and SRAP markers in finding associations with quality fruit traits in a tomato backcross generation. PMID:24615080

  4. Identifying QTL and genetic correlations between fur quality traits in mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Thirstrup, J P; Anistoroaei, R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Christensen, K; Fredholm, M; Nielsen, V H

    2014-02-01

    Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F2 design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally with American Black short nap mink. In all, 1082 mink encompassing three generations were used for the analyses. The mink were genotyped for 104 microsatellites covering all 14 autosomes. The QTL analyses were performed by least-square regression implemented in gridqtl software. Genetic and phenotypic correlations and heritabilities were estimated using the average information-restricted maximum-likelihood method. Evidence was found for QTL affecting fur quality traits on nine autosomes. QTL were detected for guard hair thickness on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6 and 13; for guard hair length on chromosomes 2, 3 and 6; for wool density on chromosomes 6 and 13; for surface on chromosomes 7, 12 and 13; for quality on chromosomes 6, 7, 11 and 13; and for skin length on chromosomes 7 and 9. Proximity of locations of QTL for guard hair length, guard hair thickness and for wool density and quality suggests that some of the traits are in part under the influence of the same genes. Traits under the influence of QTL at close or identical positions also were traits that were strongly genotypically correlated. Based on the results of correlation analyses, the most important single traits influencing the quality were found to be density of wool, guard hair thickness and appearance of the surface. PMID:24303917

  5. Estimation of Genetic Associations between Production and Meat Quality Traits in Duroc Pigs.

    PubMed

    Cabling, M M; Kang, H S; Lopez, B M; Jang, M; Kim, H S; Nam, K C; Choi, J G; Seo, K S

    2015-08-01

    Data collected from 690 purebred Duroc pigs from 2009 to 2012 were used to estimate the heritability, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between production and meat quality traits. Variance components were obtained through the restricted maximum likelihood procedure using Wombat and SAS version 9.0. Animals were raised under the same management in five different breeding farms. The average daily gain, loin muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BF), and lean percent (LP) were measured as production traits. Meat quality traits included pH, cooking loss, lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), marbling score (MS), moisture content (MC), water holding capacity (WHC), and shear force. The results showed that the heritability estimates for meat quality traits varied largely from 0.19 to 0.79. Production traits were moderate to highly heritable from 0.41 to 0.73. Genotypically, the BF was positively correlated (p<0.05) with MC (0.786), WHC (0.904), and pH (0.328) but negatively correlated with shear force (-0.533). The results of genetic correlations indicated that selection for less BF could decrease pH, moisture content, and WHC and increase the shear force of meat. Additionally, a significant positive correlation was recorded between average daily gain and WHC, which indicates pork from faster-growing animals has higher WHC. Furthermore, selection for larger LMA and LP could increase MS and lightness color of meat. The meat quality and production traits could be improved simultaneously if desired. Hence, to avoid further deterioration of pork characteristics, appropriate selection of traits should be considered. PMID:26104512

  6. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI?6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women. PMID:26030141

  7. Genome-wide Association Study of Integrated Meat Quality-related Traits of the Duroc Pig Breed

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taeheon; Shin, Dong-Hyun; Cho, Seoae; Kang, Hyun Sung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Heebal; Seo, Kang-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The increasing importance of meat quality has implications for animal breeding programs. Research has revealed much about the genetic background of pigs, and many studies have revealed the importance of various genetic factors. Since meat quality is a complex trait which is affected by many factors, consideration of the overall phenotype is very useful to study meat quality. For integrating the phenotypes, we used principle component analysis (PCA). The significant SNPs refer to results of the GRAMMAR method against PC1, PC2 and PC3 of 14 meat quality traits of 181 Duroc pigs. The Genome-wide association study (GWAS) found 26 potential SNPs affecting various meat quality traits. The loci identified are located in or near 23 genes. The SNPs associated with meat quality are in or near five genes (ANK1, BMP6, SHH, PIP4K2A, and FOXN2) and have been reported previously. Twenty-five of the significant SNPs also located in meat quality-related QTL regions, these result supported the QTL effect indirectly. Each single gene typically affects multiple traits. Therefore, it is a useful approach to use integrated traits for the various traits at the same time. This innovative approach using integrated traits could be applied on other GWAS of complex-traits including meat-quality, and the results will contribute to improving meat-quality of pork. PMID:25049955

  8. Association between FTO polymorphism in exon 3 with carcass and meat quality traits in crossbred ducks.

    PubMed

    Gan, W; Song, Q; Zhang, N N; Xiong, X P; Wang, D M C; Li, L

    2015-01-01

    The fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is an excellent candidate gene that affects energy metabolism. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FTO are associated with carcass and meat quality traits in pigs, cattle, and rabbits. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between novel SNPs in the FTO coding region and carcass and meat quality traits in 95 crossbred ducks, using DNA sequencing. We found two transitions G/A (SNP 387 and 473) within exon 3. SNP 387 was a synonymous mutation, whereas SNP 473 was a missense mutation. Association analysis suggested that SNP g.387G>A was significantly associated with all of the carcass traits measured, the intramuscular fat content (IMF), cooking yield (CY), pH values 45 min after slaughter (pH45m), drip losses from the breast muscle, and the leg muscle (P < 0.05). For SNP g.473G>A, the genotype AA exhibited greater leg muscle weight than the genotypes GG or AG (P < 0.05). The D value suggested that the two SNPs exhibited strong linkage disequilibrium. Three haplotypes (G1G2, G1A2, and A1A2) were significantly associated with IMF, CY, the a* value, and all of the carcass traits measured (P < 0.05). The results suggest that FTO is a candidate locus that affects carcass and meat quality traits in ducks. PMID:26125879

  9. Genetic and phenotypic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits in commercial crossbred pigs.

    PubMed

    Miar, Y; Plastow, G S; Moore, S S; Manafiazar, G; Charagu, P; Kemp, R A; Van Haandel, B; Huisman, A E; Zhang, C Y; McKay, R M; Bruce, H L; Wang, Z

    2014-07-01

    Pork quality and carcass characteristics are now being integrated into swine breeding objectives because of their economic value. Understanding the genetic basis for these traits is necessary for this to be accomplished. The objective of this study was to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits in 2 Canadian swine populations. Data from a genomic selection study aimed at improving meat quality with a mating system involving hybrid Landrace × Large White and Duroc pigs were used to estimate heritabilities and phenotypic and genetic correlations among them. Data on 2,100 commercial crossbred pigs for meat quality and carcass traits were recorded with pedigrees compromising 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Significant fixed effects (company, sex, and slaughter batch), covariates (cold carcass weight and slaughter age), and random additive and common litter effects were fitted in the models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASReml to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters. Heritability estimates (±SE) for carcass traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.22 ± 0.08 for longissimus dorsi muscle area to 0.63 ± 0.04 for trimmed ham weight, except for firmness, which was low. Heritability estimates (±SE) for meat quality traits varied from 0.10 ± 0.04 to 0.39 ± 0.06 for the Minolta b* of ham quadriceps femoris muscle and shear force, respectively. Generally, most of the genetic correlations were significant (P < 0.05) and ranged from low (0.18 ± 0.07) to high (-0.97 ± 0.35). There were high negative genetic correlations between drip loss with pH and shear force and a positive correlation with cooking loss. Genetic correlations between carcass weight (both hot and cold) with carcass marbling were highly positive. It was concluded that selection for increasing primal and subprimal cut weights with better pork quality may be possible. Furthermore, the use of pH is confirmed as an indicator for pork water-holding capacity and cooking loss. The heritabilities of carcass and pork quality traits indicated that they can be improved using traditional breeding methods and genomic selection, respectively. The estimated genetic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits can be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations. PMID:24778330

  10. Estimation of Pork Quality Traits Using Exsanguination Blood and Postmortem Muscle Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Choe, J. H.; Choi, M. H.; Ryu, Y. C.; Go, G. W.; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, S. H.; Lim, K. S.; Lee, E. A.; Kang, J. H.; Hong, K. C.; Kim, B. C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study was designed to estimate the pork quality traits using metabolites from exsanguination blood and postmortem muscle simultaneously under the Korean standard pre- and post-slaughter conditions. A total of 111 Yorkshire (pure breed and castrated male) pigs were evaluated under the Korean standard conditions. Measurements were taken of the levels of blood glucose and lactate at exsanguination, and muscle glycogen and lactate content at 45 min and 24 h postmortem. Certain pork quality traits were also evaluated. Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis including stepwise regression were performed. Exsanguination blood glucose and lactate levels were positively correlated with each other, negatively related to postmortem muscle glycogen content and positively associated with postmortem muscle lactate content. A rapid and extended postmortem glycolysis was associated with high levels of blood glucose and lactate, with high muscle lactate content, and with low muscle glycogen content during postmortem. In addition, these were also correlated with paler meat color and reduced water holding capacity. The results of multiple regression analyses also showed that metabolites in exsanguination blood and postmortem muscle explained variations in pork quality traits. Especially, levels of blood glucose and lactate and content of muscle glycogen at early postmortem were significantly associated with an elevated early glycolytic rate. Furthermore, muscle lactate content at 24 h postmortem alone accounted for a considerable portion of the variation in pork quality traits. Based on these results, the current study confirmed that the main factor influencing pork quality traits is the ultimate lactate content in muscle via postmortem glycolysis, and that levels of blood glucose and lactate at exsanguination and contents of muscle glycogen and lactate at postmortem can explain a large portion of the variation in pork quality even under the standard slaughter conditions. PMID:25925063

  11. Genotype and environmental interaction for fruit quality traits in vintage tomato varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the second most commonly consumed vegetable after in the world, after potato. There is a growing demand for quality tomato in the market place. Traits such as lycopene, total soluble solids (TSS), vitamin C and titratable acid (TA) content contribute to the overal...

  12. BREED EFFECTS ON GROWTH, CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY TRAITS OF SHEEP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to estimate direct breed effects on growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. Rams of nine breeds (Composite, Dorper, Dorset, Finnsheep, Katahdin, Rambouillet, Romanov, Suffolk, and Texel) were mated to Composite ewes. Data recorded on 804 progeny of 130 rams were analy...

  13. Effects of litter size and sex on meat quality traits of kid meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Todaro; A Corrao; M. L Alicata; R Schinelli; P Giaccone; A Priolo

    2004-01-01

    The influence of litter size and sex on meat quality traits was investigated using 40 Nebrodi kids slaughtered at 47 days of age. Carcass measurements (body components, carcass joints, pelvic limb tissue composition, meat fatty acid composition and M. longissimus dorsi (LD) colour), body weight at birth and at slaughter were evaluated. Nebrodi kids had a low body weight at

  14. EVALUATION OF WOOL AND HAIR BREEDS FOR GROWTH, CARCASS, AND MEAT QUALITY TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A consumer-responsive goal of the sheep industry is consistent production of uniform, safe, nutritious, lean lamb that results in an enjoyable and pleasant eating experience. Important differences may exist between breeds of sheep for traits that affect consumer perceptions of lamb quality. Theref...

  15. Japanese quail meat quality: characteristics, heritabilities, and genetic correlations with some slaughter traits.

    PubMed

    Narinc, Dogan; Aksoy, Tulin; Karaman, Emre; Aygun, Ali; Firat, Mehmet Ziya; Uslu, Mustafa Kemal

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic parameters of several breast meat quality traits and their genetic relationships with some slaughter traits [BW, breast yield (BRY), and abdominal fat yield (AFY)]. In total, 1,093 pedigreed quail were slaughtered at 35 d of age to measure BRY, AFY, and breast meat quality traits [ultimate pH (pHU), Commission Internationale d'Eclairage color parameters (L*, lightness; a*, redness; and b*, yellowness), thawing and cooking loss (TL and CL, respectively), and Warner-Bratzler shear value (WB)]. The average pHU, L*, a*, and b* were determined to be 5.94, 43.09, 19.24, and 7.74, respectively. In addition, a very high WB average (7.75 kg) indicated the firmness of breast meat. High heritabilities were estimated for BW, BRY, and AFY (0.51, 0.49, and 0.35). Genetic correlations of BW between BRY and AFY were found to be high (0.32 and 0.58). On the other hand, the moderate negative relationship between BRY and AFY (-0.24) implies that selection for breast yield should not increase abdominal fat. The pHU was found to be the most heritable trait (0.64), whereas the other meat quality traits showed heritabilities in the range of 0.39 to 0.48. Contrary to chickens, the genetic correlation between pHU and L* was low. The pHU exhibited a negative and high correlation with BW and AFY, whereas L* showed a positive but smaller relationship with these traits. Moreover, pHU exhibited high negative correlations (-0.43 and -0.62) with TL and WB, whereas L* showed a moderate relationship (0.24) with CL. This genetic study confirmed that the multi-trait selection could be used to improve meat quality traits. Further, the ultimate pH of breast meat is a relevant selection criterion due to its strong relationships with either water-holding capacity and texture or low abdominal fatness. PMID:23776259

  16. Genetic analysis of nutritional quality traits in sorghum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lexingtons Muthama Nduulu

    2001-01-01

    Although sorghum is the major source of protein for millions of people in the developing countries, its low nutritional quality make it less competitive as a food and feed crop. To increase the efficiency of screening and selection of sorghum for increased levels of protein digestibility, quick and reliable assays that can be used to phenotype large populations are required.

  17. Genetic and Phenotypic Correlations between Performance Traits with Meat Quality and Carcass Characteristics in Commercial Crossbred Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Miar, Younes; Plastow, Graham; Bruce, Heather; Moore, Stephen; Manafiazar, Ghader; Kemp, Robert; Charagu, Patrick; Huisman, Abe; van Haandel, Benny; Zhang, Chunyan; McKay, Robert; Wang, Zhiquan

    2014-01-01

    Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch), covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age), random effects (additive, litter and maternal) were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n?=?9) with meat quality (n?=?25) and carcass (n?=?19) traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (±SE), ranged from 0.07±0.13 to 0.45±0.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a) selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b) selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c) selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations. PMID:25350845

  18. Association mapping for yield and grain quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Embrapa Rice Core Collection (ERiCC) with 86 SSR and field data from two experiments. A clear subdivision between lowland and upland accessions was apparent, thereby indicating the presence of population structure. Thirty-two accessions with admixed ancestry were identified through structure analysis, these being discarded from association analysis, thus leaving 210 accessions subdivided into two panels. The association of yield and grain-quality traits with SSR was undertaken with a mixed linear model, with markers and subpopulation as fixed factors, and kinship matrix as a random factor. Eight markers from the two appraised panels showed significant association with four different traits, although only one (RM190) maintained the marker-trait association across years and cultivation. The significant association detected between amylose content and RM190 was in agreement with previous QTL analyses in the literature. Herein, the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization was demonstrated, even when considering low marker density. The high linkage disequilibrium expected in rice lines and cultivars facilitates the detection of marker-trait associations for implementing marker assisted selection, and the mining of alleles related to important traits in germplasm. PMID:21637426

  19. Association mapping for yield and grain quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Borba, Tereza Cristina; Brondani, Rosana Pereira Vianello; Breseghello, Flávio; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes; Mendonça, João Antônio; Rangel, Paulo Hideo Nakano; Brondani, Claudio

    2010-07-01

    Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Embrapa Rice Core Collection (ERiCC) with 86 SSR and field data from two experiments. A clear subdivision between lowland and upland accessions was apparent, thereby indicating the presence of population structure. Thirty-two accessions with admixed ancestry were identified through structure analysis, these being discarded from association analysis, thus leaving 210 accessions subdivided into two panels. The association of yield and grain-quality traits with SSR was undertaken with a mixed linear model, with markers and subpopulation as fixed factors, and kinship matrix as a random factor. Eight markers from the two appraised panels showed significant association with four different traits, although only one (RM190) maintained the marker-trait association across years and cultivation. The significant association detected between amylose content and RM190 was in agreement with previous QTL analyses in the literature. Herein, the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization was demonstrated, even when considering low marker density. The high linkage disequilibrium expected in rice lines and cultivars facilitates the detection of marker-trait associations for implementing marker assisted selection, and the mining of alleles related to important traits in germplasm. PMID:21637426

  20. Association analysis for quality traits in a diverse panel of Chinese sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wenliang; Zhang, Yanxin; Lü, Haixia; Li, Donghua; Wang, Linhai; Zhang, Xiurong

    2013-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of a sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) panel for association analysis, and investigate the genetic basis of oil content (OC), protein content, oleic acid concentration, and linoleic acid concentration using association mapping. A panel of 216 sesame accessions was phenotyped in a multi-environment trial and fingerprinted with 608 polymorphic loci produced by 79 primers, including simple sequence repeats (SSRs), sequence-related amplified polymorphisms (SRAPs), and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Population structure analysis revealed two subgroups in the population. The Q model performed better for its ability to re-identify associations for the four traits at highly significant P-values compared to the other three mixed models. And a total of 35 and 25 associations for the four traits in 2010 and 2011 were identified, respectively, with the Q model after Bonferroni correction. Among those associations, only one for OC was re-identified in two environments, and several markers associated simultaneously with multiple traits were discovered. These results suggest the power and stability of the Q model for association analysis of nutritional traits in this sesame panel for its slight population stratification and familial relationship, which could aid in dissecting complex traits, and could help to develop strategies for improving nutritional quality. PMID:23570323

  1. Application of nontargeted metabolite profiling to discover novel markers of quality traits in an advanced population of malting barley.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Adam L; Broeckling, Corey D; Kirkpatrick, Kaylyn R; Prenni, Jessica E

    2014-02-01

    The process of breeding superior varieties for the agricultural industry is lengthy and expensive. Plant metabolites may act as markers of quality traits, potentially expediting the appraisal of experimental lines during breeding. Here, we evaluated the utility of metabolites as markers by assessing metabolic variation influenced by genetic and environmental factors in an advanced breeding setting and in relation to the phenotypic distribution of 20 quality traits. Nontargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolite profiling was performed on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain and malt from 72 advanced malting barley lines grown at two distinct but climatically similar locations, with 2-row and 6-row barley as the main genetic factors. 27 420 molecular features were detected, and the metabolite and quality trait profiles were similarly influenced by genotype and environment; however, malt was more influenced by genotype compared with barley. An O2PLS model characterized molecular features and quality traits that covaried, and 1319 features associated with at least one of 20 quality traits. An indiscriminant MS/MS acquisition and novel data analysis method facilitated the identification of metabolites. The analysis described 216 primary and secondary metabolites that correlated with multiple quality traits and included amines, amino acids, alkaloids, polyphenolics and lipids. The mechanisms governing quality trait-metabolite associations were interpreted based on colocalization to genetic markers and their gene annotations. The results of this study support the hypothesis that metabolism and quality traits are co-influenced by relatively narrow genetic and environmental factors and illustrate the utility of grain metabolites as functional markers of quality traits. PMID:24119106

  2. Water storage dynamics in the main stem of subtropical tree species differing in wood density, growth rate and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Oliva Carrasco, Laureano; Bucci, Sandra J; Di Francescantonio, Débora; Lezcano, Oscar A; Campanello, Paula I; Scholz, Fabián G; Rodríguez, Sabrina; Madanes, N; Cristiano, Piedad M; Hao, Guang-You; Holbrook, N Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Wood biophysical properties and the dynamics of water storage discharge and refilling were studied in the trunk of canopy tree species with diverse life history and functional traits in subtropical forests of northeast Argentina. Multiple techniques assessing capacitance and storage capacity were used simultaneously to improve our understanding of the functional significance of internal water sources in trunks of large trees. Sapwood capacitances of 10 tree species were characterized using pressure-volume relationships of sapwood samples obtained from the trunk. Frequency domain reflectometry was used to continuously monitor the volumetric water content in the main stems. Simultaneous sap flow measurements on branches and at the base of the tree trunk, as well as diurnal variations in trunk contraction and expansion, were used as additional measures of stem water storage use and refilling dynamics. All evidence indicates that tree trunk internal water storage contributes from 6 to 28% of the daily water budget of large trees depending on the species. The contribution of stored water in stems of trees to total daily transpiration was greater for deciduous species, which exhibited higher capacitance and lower sapwood density. A linear relationship across species was observed between wood density and growth rates with the higher wood density species (mostly evergreen) associated with lower growth rates and the lower wood density species (mostly deciduous) associated with higher growth rates. The large sapwood capacitance in deciduous species may help to avoid catastrophic embolism in xylem conduits. This may be a low-cost adaptation to avoid water deficits during peak water use at midday and under temporary drought periods and will contribute to higher growth rates in deciduous tree species compared with evergreen ones. Large capacitance appears to have a central role in the rapid growth patterns of deciduous species facilitating rapid canopy access as these species are less shade tolerant than evergreen species. PMID:25428825

  3. Joint analysis of quantitative trait loci and major-effect causative mutations affecting meat quality and carcass composition traits in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting meat quality traits in pigs is crucial for the design of efficient marker-assisted selection programs and to initiate efforts toward the identification of underlying polymorphisms. The RYR1 and PRKAG3 causative mutations, originally identified from major effects on meat characteristics, can be used both as controls for an overall QTL detection strategy for diversely affected traits and as a scale for detected QTL effects. We report on a microsatellite-based QTL detection scan including all autosomes for pig meat quality and carcass composition traits in an F2 population of 1,000 females and barrows resulting from an intercross between a Pietrain and a Large White-Hampshire-Duroc synthetic sire line. Our QTL detection design allowed side-by-side comparison of the RYR1 and PRKAG3 mutation effects seen as QTLs when segregating at low frequencies (0.03-0.08), with independent QTL effects detected from most of the same population, excluding any carrier of these mutations. Results Large QTL effects were detected in the absence of the RYR1 and PRKGA3 mutations, accounting for 12.7% of phenotypic variation in loin colour redness CIE-a* on SSC6 and 15% of phenotypic variation in glycolytic potential on SSC1. We detected 8 significant QTLs with effects on meat quality traits and 20 significant QTLs for carcass composition and growth traits under these conditions. In control analyses including mutation carriers, RYR1 and PRKAG3 mutations were detected as QTLs, from highly significant to suggestive, and explained 53% to 5% of the phenotypic variance according to the trait. Conclusions Our results suggest that part of muscle development and backfat thickness effects commonly attributed to the RYR1 mutation may be a consequence of linkage with independent QTLs affecting those traits. The proportion of variation explained by the most significant QTLs detected in this work is close to the influence of major-effect mutations on the least affected traits, but is one order of magnitude lower than effect on variance of traits primarily affected by these causative mutations. This suggests that uncovering physiological traits directly affected by genetic polymorphisms would be an appropriate approach for further characterization of QTLs. PMID:21875434

  4. Quality of Life as a Mediator between Behavioral Challenges and Autistic Traits for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Matson, Johnny L.

    2013-01-01

    A multiple mediation model was proposed to integrate core concepts of challenging behaviors with autistic traits to increase understanding of their relationship to quality of life (QoL). It was hypothesized that QoL is a possible mediator between the severity of challenging behaviors and autistic traits in adults with intellectual disability.…

  5. Prediction model of a joint analysis of beef growth and carcass quality traits.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, H R; Verbyla, A P; Pitchford, W S

    2011-01-01

    A joint growth-carcass analysis was conducted to develop equations for predicting carcass quality traits associated with variation in growth path of crossbred cattle. During a four-year period (1994-1997) of the Australian "Southern Crossbreeding Project", mature Hereford cows (r = 581) were mated to 97 sires of Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin, and Belgian Blue breeds, resulting in 1141 calves. Data included body weight measurements of steers and heifers from birth until slaughter and four carcass quality traits: hot standard carcass weight, rump fat depth, rib eye muscle area, and intramuscular fat content. The model provides nine outputs: median and mean of carcass quality traits, predicted means, and lower and upper confidence intervals, as well as predicted intervals of carcass quality traits (95%) and economic values for domestic market and export markets. Input to the model consists of sex, sire breeds, age (in days)-weight (kg) pairs and slaughter age (500 days for heifer and 700 days for steers). The prediction model is able to accommodate different sexes across seven sire breeds and various management groups at any slaughter age. Its strength lies in its simplicity and flexibility, desirable to accommodate producers with different management schemes. In general, fat depth and intramuscular fat were found to be more affected by differences in growth rate than hot carcass weight and eye muscle area. Also, export market value was more sensitive to growth rate modifications than domestic market value. This model provides a tool by which the producer can estimate the impact of management decisions. PMID:21425095

  6. Evaluation of the chemical quality traits of soybean seeds, as related to sensory attributes of soymilk.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming

    2015-04-15

    The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs. PMID:25466078

  7. The influences of weaning age and weight on carcass traits and meat quality of pigs.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyung Bo; Kim, Gap-Don; Kang, Dong-Geun; Kim, Yeong-Hwa; Yang, Ik-Dong; Ryu, Youn-Chul

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the effects of weaning age and weight on pigs, and their interaction with carcass traits and meat quality. A total of 468 piglets were obtained from 57 sows and four boars and grouped by age at weaning (D21, 18-24 days; D28, 25-32 days). Each weaning group was subdivided into three weight groups (L, M and H) according to weaning weight. The D28 group had heavier carcass weight, redness and yellowness, but had lower marbling scores and less drip loss than the D21 group (P?quality traits in pigs were significantly related to their age and weight at weaning. Therefore, we find that piglet weaning age and weight are no less important than post-weaning growth performance and behavior, with regard to carcass traits and meat quality. PMID:25474735

  8. Association analysis of fiber quality traits and exploration of elite alleles in Upland cotton cultivars/accessions (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Cai, Caiping; Ye, Wenxue; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the elite alleles and germplasm accessions related to fiber quality traits will accelerate the breeding of cotton for fiber quality improvement. In this study, 99 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions with diverse origins were used to perform association analysis of fiber quality traits using 97 polymorphic microsatellite marker primer pairs. A total of 107 significant marker-trait associations were detected for three fiber quality traits under three different environments, with 70 detected in two or three environments and 37 detected in only one environment. Among the 70 significant marker-trait associations, 52.86% were reported previously, implying that these are stable loci for target traits. Furthermore, we detected a large number of elite alleles associated simultaneously with two or three traits. These elite alleles were mainly from accessions collected in China, introduced to China from the United States, or rare alleles with a frequency of less than 5%. No one cultivar contained more than half of the elite alleles, but 10 accessions were collected from China and the two introduced from the United States did contain more than half of these alleles. Therefore, there is great potential for mining elite alleles from germplasm accessions for use in fiber quality improvement in modern cotton breeding. PMID:24428209

  9. Four genes located on a SSC2 meat quality QTL region are associated with different meat quality traits in Landrace x Chinese-European crossbred population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for different meat quality traits have been localized on the q arm of porcine chromosome 2 at position 55–78 cM. Association analyses were performed in a commercial Landrace x Chinese-European (LCE) crossbred population (n = 446) slaughtered at approximately 127...

  10. Seed source, seed traits, and frugivore habits: Implications for dispersal quality of two sympatric primates.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; González-Di Pierro, Ana Ma; Lombera, Rafael; Guillén, Susana; Estrada, Alejandro

    2014-06-11

    • Premise of the study: Frugivore selection of fruits and treatment of seeds together with seed deposition site are crucial for the population dynamics of vertebrate-dispersed plants. However, frugivore species may influence dispersal quality differently even when feeding on the same fruit species and, while animals disperse some seeds, others simply fall beneath the parent plant.• Methods: In southern Mexico, we investigated to see if within-species seed traits (i.e., length, width, weight, and volume) and germination success differed according to seed source. For five tropical tree species we obtained ingested seeds from two sources, howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces; and noningested seeds from two sources, the ground and tree crowns (with predispersed seeds used as control).• Key results: A principal components' analysis showed that traits of seeds ingested by howler monkeys differed from other sources while seeds ingested by spider monkeys were similar to noningested seeds. Howlers consumed on average the larger seeds in Ampelocera hottlei, Brosimum lactescens, and Dialium guianense. Both primate species consumed the smaller seeds in Spondias mombin, while no seed trait differences among seed sources were found in Spondias radlkoferi. For all five tree species, germination rate was greatest for seeds ingested by howler monkeys.• Conclusions: For the studied plant species, seed ingestion by howler monkeys confers higher dispersal quality than ingestion by spider monkeys or nondispersal. Dispersal services of both primate species, however, are not redundant and may contribute to germination heterogeneity within plant populations in tropical forests. PMID:24920763

  11. Carcass and meat quality traits in Nellore and F1 Nellore-Araguaia crosses.

    PubMed

    Costa, N V; Aboujaoude, C; Vieira, G S; Paiva, V V; Moraes Neto, R A; Gondim, V S; Alves, L R; Torres, M C L; Antunes, R C

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated and compared carcass traits and meat quality in Nellore cattle and F1 crosses between Nellore and Araguaia, where 17 individuals were from the Nellore group and 19 were ½ Nellore and ½ Araguaia crosses. All animals belonged to the same birth season and were raised in pasture systems under the same nutritional, environmental, and management conditions. When the animals reached slaughter weight, they were taken to an industrial slaughterhouse where food was not provided for 24 h (free access to water); they were then stunned, bled, the leather was removed, and they were eviscerated. The carcasses were weighed (hot weight), kept in chilled storage for approximately 24 h at 4°C, and weighed again to obtain the chilled carcass weight. Carcass yield, carcass length, carcass width, leg length, thigh perimeter, loin eye area (LEA), retail cuts, cooling loss, pH, fat depth, marbling rate, intramuscular fat, color, and shear force were analyzed and sensory analysis of the meat was conducted. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed for the following variables: slaughter weight, hot and chilled carcass weights, carcass and leg lengths, thigh perimeter, LEA, retail cuts, and lightness (L*), where the ½ Nellore ½ Araguaia individuals showed higher means for all of these traits, except leg length and L*. Therefore, crossbreeding between Nellore and Araguaia did not affect the meat's sensory characteristics, but contributed to an improvement in carcass traits, providing an alternative for farmers that aim for good meat quality, with a higher meat percentage. PMID:26125733

  12. Quantitative genetics of growth, carcass-quality traits, and disease resistance in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops [female] x Morone saxatilis [male])

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiaoxue

    2009-05-15

    A 10 x 10 factorial mating design and a ‘common-garden’ rearing approach were employed to examine genetic effects and heritability of growth, carcass-quality traits, and disease resistance, important production traits in the aquaculture of hybrid...

  13. Quantitative genetics of growth, carcass-quality traits, and disease resistance in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops [female] x Morone saxatilis [male]) 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiaoxue

    2009-05-15

    A 10 x 10 factorial mating design and a ‘common-garden’ rearing approach were employed to examine genetic effects and heritability of growth, carcass-quality traits, and disease resistance, important production traits in the aquaculture of hybrid...

  14. Phenotypic Data Collection and Sample Preparation for Genomics of Wood Formation and Cellulosic Biomass Traits in Sunflower: Ames, IA location.

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, Laura F.

    2011-06-17

    Three fields were planted in Ames in 2010, two association mapping fields, N3 and A, and a recombinant inbred line field, N13. Phenotype data and images were transferred to UGA to support genetic and genomic analyses of woody biomass-related traits.

  15. Psychopathic personality traits and their influence on parenting quality: results from a nationally representative sample of Americans.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; da Silva Costa, Christian; Poersch, Ana Paula; Freddi, Micheli Cristina; Stelmach, Mônica Celis; Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A

    2014-12-01

    Psychopathic personality traits have consistently been found to predict a range of negative and dysfunctional outcomes. As a result, it is somewhat surprising that the research to date has failed to empirically examine the potential association between psychopathic personality traits and parenting quality. The current study addressed this omission in the literature by analyzing a community sample of adults. The results revealed that respondents scoring higher on psychopathic personality traits tended to report more negative parenting quality. These results were detected for both males and females and remained significant even after controlling for the effects of parental transmission and child-effects. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a statistically significant association between psychopathic personality traits and parenting quality. We conclude with a discussion of what these findings mean for psychopathy research and the parenting the literature. PMID:25092358

  16. QTL analysis and comparative genomics of herbage quality traits in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

    PubMed

    Cogan, N O I; Smith, K F; Yamada, T; Francki, M G; Vecchies, A C; Jones, E S; Spangenberg, G C; Forster, J W

    2005-01-01

    Genetic control of herbage quality variation was assessed through the use of the molecular marker-based reference genetic map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and genomic DNA-derived simple sequence repeat-based (SSR) framework marker set was enhanced, with RFLP loci corresponding to genes for key enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis and fructan metabolism. Quality traits such as crude protein (CP) content, estimated in vivo dry matter digestibility (IVVDMD), neutral detergent fibre content (NDF), estimated metabolisable energy (EstME) and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content were measured by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis of herbage harvests. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed using single-marker regression, simple interval mapping and composite interval mapping approaches, detecting a total of 42 QTLs from six different sampling experiments varying by developmental stage (anthesis or vegetative growth), location or year. Coincident QTLs were detected on linkage groups (LGs) 3, 5 and 7. The region on LG3 was associated with variation for all measured traits across various experimental datasets. The region on LG7 was associated with variation for all traits except CP, and is located in the vicinity of the lignin biosynthesis gene loci xlpomt1 (caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase), xlpccr1 (cinnamoyl CoA-reductase) and xlpssrcad 2.1 (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase). Comparative genomics analysis of these gene classes with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) provides evidence for conservation of gene order over evolutionary time and the basis for cross-specific genetic information transfer. The identification of co-location between QTLs and functionally associated genetic markers is critical for the implementation of marker-assisted selection programs and for linkage disequilibrium studies, which will enable future improvement strategies for perennial ryegrass. PMID:15558228

  17. Stability of some quality traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Mut, Zeki; Aydin, Nevzat; Bayramoglu, H Orhan; Ozcan, Hasan

    2010-07-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine some quality traits such as thousand grain weight (TGW), hectoliter weight (HW), grain protein content (GPC), Zeleny sedimentation volume (ZSV) and stability of quality traits of 25 bread wheat genotypes. The experiment was conducted at seven environmental conditions during 2 growing periods (2003-2004 and 2004-2005) using randomized complete block design with four replicates. The ANOVA showed that out of the total sum of squares, 48.4, 28.0 and 23.6% for TGW, 71.4, 14.9 and 13.7% for HW, 54.4, 23.0 and 22.6% for GPC, 44.7, 41.7 and 13.6% for ZSV was attributable to E, G and G x E interaction effects, respectively. Thousand grain weight, hectoliter weight, grain protein content and Zeleny sedimentasyon volume of genotypes changed from 34.5 to 41.4 g, from 76.5 to 80.4 Kg, from 11.49 to 13.37% and from 22.1 to 46.0 ml, respectively. Seven stability parameters, covering a wide range of statistical approaches, were used so as to predict the genotypes. The study of genotypic stability showed that Bezostaya and advanced lines numbered 11 and 24 had high stability for quality traits and proved to be the best within the pool of the studied genotypes. Also, 8 and 17 numbered genotypes demonstrated high stability for TGW, HW, GPC and HW, GPC and ZSV, respectively. PMID:21186725

  18. Epistatic QTL pairs associated with meat quality and carcass composition traits in a porcine Duroc × Pietrain population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses in pig have revealed numerous individual QTL affecting growth, carcass composition, reproduction and meat quality, indicating a complex genetic architecture. In general, statistical QTL models consider only additive and dominance effects and identification of epistatic effects in livestock is not yet widespread. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize epistatic effects between common and novel QTL regions for carcass composition and meat quality traits in pig. Methods Five hundred and eighty five F2 pigs from a Duroc × Pietrain resource population were genotyped using 131 genetic markers (microsatellites and SNP) spread over the 18 pig autosomes. Phenotypic information for 26 carcass composition and meat quality traits was available for all F2 animals. Linkage analysis was performed in a two-step procedure using a maximum likelihood approach implemented in the QxPak program. Results A number of interacting QTL was observed for different traits, leading to the identification of a variety of networks among chromosomal regions throughout the porcine genome. We distinguished 17 epistatic QTL pairs for carcass composition and 39 for meat quality traits. These interacting QTL pairs explained up to 8% of the phenotypic variance. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate the significance of epistasis in pigs. We have revealed evidence for epistatic relationships between different chromosomal regions, confirmed known QTL loci and connected regions reported in other studies. Considering interactions between loci allowed us to identify several novel QTL and trait-specific relationships of loci within and across chromosomes. PMID:20977705

  19. Trait canalization analysis of water quality, temperature, and developmental associations with early life stages of two fish species.

    PubMed

    Simon, Thomas P

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of trait robustness based on environmental fluctuation in ontogenetic life stages are needed to evaluate stability and trait response during critical developmental events. Hardness, alkalinity, acidity, light intensity, and thermal differences were studied for trait canalization variation in morphometric, meristic, ontogenetic processes, and pigment characteristics. Trait canalization was observed with no statistical differences (p > 0.05) in mixed random two-way ANOVA comparisons between various block and treatment effects for hardness, alkalinity or acidity. Thermal block variation differences in six measures, including mandible length, yolk sac length, midpostanal depth, and head width, incubation, and hatching length, varied significantly (p ? 0.05) with declining temperatures. Water quality and thermal attributes exhibited trait canalization and did not increase character state variation in the early life stage morphological expression, which result in stable phenotypic inheritance rather than variable environmental conditions during embryonic and larval development. PMID:25863479

  20. The Negative Correlation between Fiber Color and Quality Traits Revealed by QTL Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gaskin; Sun, Junling; Pan, Zhaoe; He, Shoupu; Zhu, Heqin; Sun, Jie; Du, Xiongming

    2015-01-01

    Naturally existing colored cotton was far from perfection due to having genetic factors for lower yield, poor fiber quality and monotonous color. These factors posed a challenge to colored cotton breeding and innovation. To identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber color along with understanding of correlation between fiber color and quality in colored cotton, a RIL and two F2 populations were generated from crosses among Zong128 (Brown fiber cotton) and two white fiber cotton lines which were then analyzed in four environments. Two stable and major QTLs (qLC-7-1, qFC-7-1) for fiber lint and fuzz color were detected accounting for 16.01%-59.85% of the phenotypic variation across multiple generations and environments. Meanwhile, some minor QTLs were also identified on chromosomes 5, 14, 21 and 24 providing low phenotypic variation (<5%) from only F2 populations, not from the RILs population. Especially, a multiple-effect locus for fiber color and quality has been detected between flanking markers NAU1043 and NAU3654 on chromosome 7 (A genome) over multiple environments. Of which, qLC-7-1, qFC-7-1 were responsible for positive effects and improved fiber color in offsprings. Meanwhile, the QTLs (qFL-7-1, qFU-7-1, qFF-7-1, qFE-7-1, and qFS-7-1) for fiber quality had negative effects and explained 2.19%-8.78% of the phenotypic variation. This multiple-effect locus for fiber color and quality may reveal the negative correlation between the two types of above traits, so paving the way towards cotton genetic improvement. PMID:26121363

  1. Physically challenging song traits, male quality, and reproductive success in house wrens.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Emily R A

    2013-01-01

    Physically challenging signals are likely to honestly indicate signaler quality. In trilled bird song two physically challenging parameters are vocal deviation (the speed of sound frequency modulation) and trill consistency (how precisely syllables are repeated). As predicted, in several species, they correlate with male quality, are preferred by females, and/or function in male-male signaling. Species may experience different selective pressures on their songs, however; for instance, there may be opposing selection between song complexity and song performance difficulty, such that in species where song complexity is strongly selected, there may not be strong selection on performance-based traits. I tested whether vocal deviation and trill consistency are signals of male quality in house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), a species with complex song structure. Males' singing ability did not correlate with male quality, except that older males sang with higher trill consistency, and males with more consistent trills responded more aggressively to playback (although a previous study found no effect of stimulus trill consistency on males' responses to playback). Males singing more challenging songs did not gain in polygyny, extra-pair paternity, or annual reproductive success. Moreover, none of the standard male quality measures I investigated correlated with mating or reproductive success. I conclude that vocal deviation and trill consistency do not signal male quality in this species. PMID:23527137

  2. Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease Caregivers: The Contribution of Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Tew, Eloise H.; Naismith, Sharon L.; Pereira, Marilia; Lewis, Simon J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease imposes significant demands not only on patients but also on those people living and caring for them, who often have a reduction in their quality of life. The factors that may ameliorate these effects, such as an individual's personality, are not understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to look at the relative contribution of caregiver personality on their quality of life, specifically attempting to identify those traits, which may be protective or harmful. Two hundred and seventy-four caregivers of patients with Parkinson's disease were included in this study. Caregivers were given questionnaires to complete, including the Big Five Inventory and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life BREF version. Univariate correlations demonstrated that depression and anxiety were the largest predictors of reduced quality of life amongst caregivers. However, after controlling for these potential confounds, conscientiousness was associated with enhanced psychological quality of life and openness positively predicted benefits in the environmental domain. Neuroticism was associated with reduced quality of life in the psychological domain. Thus, screening for neuroticism may help identify those caregivers who would benefit from intervention strategies, which could in the long term help reduce the need for nursing home placement of Parkinson's disease patients. PMID:24024183

  3. MHD coal-fired flow facility baseline water-quality study. Woods Reservoir, May 1979-April 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.

    1980-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) is located on Woods Reservoir at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Part of the role of UTSI, as participants in the DOE program, is to document environmental aspects of coal-fired MHD. In early 1979, prior to operation of the CFFF, a water quality program was initiated to establish baseline conditions for the reservoir. The study was designed to provide an accurate assessment of water quality which could be used as a basis for comparison to evaluate the impact, if any, of the plant operation on the aquatic environment. Results of a one year baseline study of water quality on Woods Reservoir are presented in this report. The key findings are that this reservoir is a eutrophic lake. Its predominant ions are calcium and bicarbonate and its pH is circumneutral.

  4. Pre-freezing raw hams affects quality traits in cooked hams: potential influence of protein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Utrera, M; Armenteros, M; Ventanas, S; Solano, F; Estévez, M

    2012-12-01

    The influence of protein carbonylation and lipid oxidation on colour and texture changes in cooked hams from fresh and pre-frozen (frozen/thawed) raw material was studied. Samples from three muscles, biceps femoris (BF) quadriceps femoris (QF) and semimembranosus (SM) were analysed for the gain of specific protein carbonyls, ?-aminoadipic and ?-glutamic semialdehydes, the gain of TBA-RS and their colour and texture properties by instrumental and sensory techniques. The formation of protein carbonyls occurred concomitantly with an intense loss of redness and increase of hardness. Both phenomena were found to be more intense in QF and SM muscles in cooked hams elaborated from frozen material. Lipid oxidation played a negligible role on the impaired quality traits observed in cooked hams as a result of pre-freezing. Plausible mechanisms by which protein carbonylation may be implicated in the loss of quality in cooked hams produced from pre-frozen material are discussed. PMID:22748310

  5. Identification of expression QTL (eQTL) of genes expressed in porcine M. longissimus dorsi and associated with meat quality traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siriluck Ponsuksili; Eduard Murani; Manfred Schwerin; Karl Schellander; Klaus Wimmers

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic analysis of transcriptional profiles is a promising approach for identifying and dissecting the genetics of complex traits like meat performance. Accordingly, expression levels obtained by microarray analysis were taken as phenotypes in a linkage analysis to map eQTL. Moreover, expression levels were correlated with traits related to meat quality and principle components with high loadings of these traits.

  6. Mapping of QTLs for morpho-agronomic and seed quality traits in a RIL population of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Pérez-Vega; Astrid Pañeda; Cristina Rodríguez-Suárez; Ana Campa; Ramón Giraldez; Juan José Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling phenological traits (days to\\u000a flowering, days to end of flowering, days to harvest as green pod, and days to maturity), seed size traits (seed length, seed\\u000a height, seed width, and seed weight), and seed quality traits (water absorption, and coat proportion), in common bean. A population

  7. Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock*

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

    2013-01-01

    Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5?-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

  8. Comparison between the three porcine RN genotypes for growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits

    PubMed Central

    Le Roy, Pascale; Elsen, Jean-Michel; Caritez, Jean-Claude; Talmant, André; Juin, Hervé; Sellier, Pierre; Monin, Gabriel

    2000-01-01

    A three-step experimental design has been carried out to add evidence about the existence of the RN gene, with two segregating alleles RN- and rn+, having major effects on meat quality in pigs, to estimate its effects on production traits and to map the RN locus. In the present article, the experimental population and sampling procedures are described and discussed, and effects of the three RN genotypes on growth and carcass traits are presented. The RN genotype had no major effect on growth performance and killing out percentage. Variables pertaining to carcass tissue composition showed that the RN- allele is associated with leaner carcasses (about 1 s.d. effect without dominance for back fat thickness, 0.5 s.d. effect with dominance for weights of joints). Muscle glycolytic potential (GP) was considerably higher in RN- carriers, with a maximum of a 6.85 s.d. effect for the live longissimus muscle GP. Physico-chemical characteristics of meat were also influenced by the RN genotype in a dominant way, ultimate pH differing by about 2 s.d. between homozygous genotypes and meat colour by about 1 s.d. Technological quality was also affected, with a 1 s.d. decrease in technological yield for RN- carriers. The RN genotype had a more limited effect on eating quality. On the whole, the identity between the acid meat condition and the RN- allele effect is clearly demonstrated (higher muscle GP, lower ultimate pH, paler meat and lower protein content), and the unfavourable relationship between GP and carcass lean to fat ratio is confirmed. PMID:14736400

  9. Identification of expression QTL (eQTL) of genes expressed in porcine M. longissimus dorsi and associated with meat quality traits

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic analysis of transcriptional profiles is a promising approach for identifying and dissecting the genetics of complex traits like meat performance. Accordingly, expression levels obtained by microarray analysis were taken as phenotypes in a linkage analysis to map eQTL. Moreover, expression levels were correlated with traits related to meat quality and principle components with high loadings of these traits. By using an up-to-date annotation and localization of the respective probe-sets, the integration of eQTL mapping data and information of trait correlated expression finally served to point to candidate genes for meat quality traits. Results Genome-wide transcriptional profiles of M. longissimus dorsi RNAs samples of 74 F2 animals of a pig resource population revealed 11,457 probe-sets representing genes expressed in the muscle. Linkage analysis of expression levels of these probe-sets provided 9,180 eQTL at the suggestive significance threshold of LOD > 2. We mapped 653 eQTL on the same chromosome as the corresponding gene and these were designated as 'putative cis-eQTL'. In order to link eQTL to the traits of interest, probe-sets were addressed with relative transcript abundances that showed correlation with meat quality traits at p ? 0.05. Out of the 653 'putative cis-eQTL', 262 transcripts were correlated with at least one meat quality trait. Furthermore, association of expression levels with composite traits with high loadings for meat quality traits generated by principle component analysis were taken into account leading to a list of 85 genes exhibiting cis-eQTL and trait dependent expression. Conclusion Holistic expression profiling was integrated with QTL analysis for meat quality traits. Correlations between transcript abundance and meat quality traits, combined with genetic positional information of eQTL allowed us to prioritise candidate genes for further study. PMID:20950486

  10. Genome-wide association analysis reveals genetic loci and candidate genes for meat quality traits in Chinese Laiwu pigs.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xinwei; Liu, Xianxian; Zhou, Lisheng; Yang, Jie; Yang, Bin; Ma, Huanban; Xie, Xianhua; Huang, Yixuan; Fang, Shaoming; Xiao, Shijun; Ren, Jun; Chen, Congying; Ma, Junwu; Huang, Lusheng

    2015-04-01

    Meat quality traits have economically significant impacts on the pig industry, and can be improved using molecular approaches in pig breeding. Since 1994 when the first genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in pig was reported, over the past two decades, numerous QTLs have been identified for meat quality traits by family based linkage analyses. However, little is known about the genetic variants for meat quality traits in Chinese purebred or outbred populations. To unveil it, we performed a genome-wide association study for 10 meat quality traits in Chinese purebred Laiwu pigs. In total, 75 significant SNPs (P < 1.01 × 10(-6)) and 33 suggestive SNPs (P < 2.03 × 10(-5)) were identified. On SSC12, a region between 56.22 and 61.49 Mb harbored a cluster of SNPs that were associated with meat color parameters (L*, lightness; a*, redness; b*, yellowness) and moisture content of longissimus muscle (LM) and semimembranosus muscle at the genome-wide significance level. A region on SSC4 also has pleiotropic effects on moisture content and drip loss of LM. In addition, this study revealed at least five novel QTLs and several candidate genes including 4-linked MYH genes (MYH1, MYH2, MYH3, and MYH13), MAL2, LPAR1, and PRKAG3 at four significant loci. Except for the SSC12 QTL, other QTLs are likely tissue-specific. These results provide new insights into the genetic basis of meat quality traits in Chinese Laiwu pigs and some significant SNPs reported here could be incorporated into the selection programs involving this breed. PMID:25678226

  11. The identification of 14 new genes for meat quality traits in chicken using a genome-wide association study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meat quality is an important economic trait in chickens. To identify loci and genes associated with meat quality traits, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of F2 populations derived from a local Chinese breed (Beijing-You chickens) and a commercial fast-growing broiler line (Cobb-Vantress). Results In the present study, 33 association signals were detected from the compressed mixed linear model (MLM) for 10 meat quality traits: dry matter in breast muscle (DMBr), dry matter in thigh muscle (DMTh), intramuscular fat content in breast muscle (IMFBr), meat color lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values, skin color L*, a* (redness) and b* values, abdominal fat weight (AbFW) and AbFW as a percentage of eviscerated weight (AbFP). Relative expressions of candidate genes identified near significant signals were compared using samples of chickens with High and Low phenotypic values. A total of 14 genes associated with IMFBr, meat color L*, AbFW, and AbFP, were differentially expressed between the High and Low phenotypic groups. These genes are, therefore, prospective candidate genes for meat quality traits: protein tyrosine kinase (TYRO3) and microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST1) for IMFBr; collagen, type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2) for meat color L*; and RET proto-oncogene (RET), natriuretic peptide B (NPPB) and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) for the abdominal fat (AbF) traits. Conclusions Based on the association signals and differential expression of nearby genes, 14 candidate loci and genes for IMFBr, meat L* and b* values, and AbF are identified. The results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying meat quality traits in chickens. PMID:23834466

  12. Exercise addiction: a study of eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachment styles.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask; Bilenberg, Niels; Støving, René Klinky

    2014-02-28

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels of excitement-seeking and achievement striving whereas scores on straightforwardness and compliance were lower than in the exercise control group. The addiction group reported more bodily pain and injuries. This study supports the hypothesis that exercise addiction is separate to an eating disorder, but shares some of the concerns of body and performance. It is driven by a striving for high goals and excitement which results in pain and injuries from overuse. PMID:24342179

  13. Assessing the impact of a wood stove replacement program on air quality and children's health.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J; Navidi, William; Sheppard, Lianne; Bergauff, Megan; Palmer, Chris

    2011-12-01

    Many rural mountain valley communities experience elevated ambient levels of fine particulate matter (PM*) in the winter, because of contributions from residential wood-burning appliances and sustained temperature inversion periods during the cold season. A wood stove change-out program was implemented in a community heavily affected by wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of this intervention program on ambient and indoor PM2.5 concentrations and to identify possible corresponding changes in the frequency of childhood respiratory symptoms and infections and illness-related school absences. Over 1100 old wood stoves were replaced with new EPA-certified wood stoves or other heating sources. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations were 30% lower in the winter after the changeout program, compared with baseline winters, which brought the community's ambient air within the PM2.5 standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The installation of a new wood stove resulted in an overall reduction in indoor PM2.5 concentrations in a small sample of wood-burning homes, but the effects were highly variable across homes. Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were associated with decreased reports of childhood wheeze and of other childhood respiratory health conditions. The association was not limited to children living in homes with wood stoves nor does it appear to be limited to susceptible children (e.g., children with asthma). Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were also associated with lower illness-related school absences among older children, but this finding was not consistent across all age-groups. This community-level intervention provided a unique opportunity to prospectively observe exposure and outcome changes resulting from a targeted air pollution reduction strategy. PMID:22852484

  14. RNA-Seq Using Two Populations Reveals Genes and Alleles Controlling Wood Traits and Growth in Eucalyptus nitens

    PubMed Central

    Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; Southerton, Simon; Thumma, Bala

    2014-01-01

    Eucalyptus nitens is a perennial forest tree species grown mainly for kraft pulp production in many parts of the world. Kraft pulp yield (KPY) is a key determinant of plantation profitability and increasing the KPY of trees grown in plantations is a major breeding objective. To speed up the breeding process, molecular markers that can predict KPY are desirable. To achieve this goal, we carried out RNA-Seq studies on trees at extremes of KPY in two different trials to identify genes and alleles whose expression correlated with KPY. KPY is positively correlated with growth measured as diameter at breast height (DBH) in both trials. In total, six RNA bulks from two treatments were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq platform. At 5% false discovery rate level, 3953 transcripts showed differential expression in the same direction in both trials; 2551 (65%) were down-regulated and 1402 (35%) were up-regulated in low KPY samples. The genes up-regulated in low KPY trees were largely involved in biotic and abiotic stress response reflecting the low growth among low KPY trees. Genes down-regulated in low KPY trees mainly belonged to gene categories involved in wood formation and growth. Differential allelic expression was observed in 2103 SNPs (in 1068 genes) and of these 640 SNPs (30%) occurred in 313 unique genes that were also differentially expressed. These SNPs may represent the cis-acting regulatory variants that influence total gene expression. In addition we also identified 196 genes which had Ka/Ks ratios greater than 1.5, suggesting that these genes are under positive selection. Candidate genes and alleles identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for future association studies aimed at identifying molecular markers for KPY and growth. PMID:24967893

  15. RNA-Seq using two populations reveals genes and alleles controlling wood traits and growth in Eucalyptus nitens.

    PubMed

    Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; Southerton, Simon; Thumma, Bala

    2014-01-01

    Eucalyptus nitens is a perennial forest tree species grown mainly for kraft pulp production in many parts of the world. Kraft pulp yield (KPY) is a key determinant of plantation profitability and increasing the KPY of trees grown in plantations is a major breeding objective. To speed up the breeding process, molecular markers that can predict KPY are desirable. To achieve this goal, we carried out RNA-Seq studies on trees at extremes of KPY in two different trials to identify genes and alleles whose expression correlated with KPY. KPY is positively correlated with growth measured as diameter at breast height (DBH) in both trials. In total, six RNA bulks from two treatments were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq platform. At 5% false discovery rate level, 3953 transcripts showed differential expression in the same direction in both trials; 2551 (65%) were down-regulated and 1402 (35%) were up-regulated in low KPY samples. The genes up-regulated in low KPY trees were largely involved in biotic and abiotic stress response reflecting the low growth among low KPY trees. Genes down-regulated in low KPY trees mainly belonged to gene categories involved in wood formation and growth. Differential allelic expression was observed in 2103 SNPs (in 1068 genes) and of these 640 SNPs (30%) occurred in 313 unique genes that were also differentially expressed. These SNPs may represent the cis-acting regulatory variants that influence total gene expression. In addition we also identified 196 genes which had Ka/Ks ratios greater than 1.5, suggesting that these genes are under positive selection. Candidate genes and alleles identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for future association studies aimed at identifying molecular markers for KPY and growth. PMID:24967893

  16. Slaughtering Age Effect on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Italian Heavy Draught Horse Foals

    PubMed Central

    De Palo, P.; Maggiolino, A.; Centoducati, P.; Tateo, A.

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the effect of slaughtering age on horse carcass traits and on meat quality. Eighteen male Italian heavy draught horse (IHDH) breed foals were employed in the study. Soon after foaling they were randomly subdivided in 3 groups according to 3 age at slaughtering classes: 6 months old, 11 months old and 18 months old. Live weight, hot carcass weight and dressing percentage of each animal were recorded. After slaughtering, meat samples were collected from Longissimus Dorsi muscle between 13th and 18th thoracic vertebra of each animal and then analyzed. The right half carcass of each animal was then divided in cuts. Each one was subdivided into lean, fat and bones. Then, the classification of the lean meat in first and second quality cuts was performed according to the butchers’ customs. Older animals were characterized by a lower incidence of first quality cuts (p<0.01) on carcass. Younger animals showed greater content in protein (p<0.01). Fatty acid profile showed an increasing trend of PUFA connected to the increasing of slaughtering age (p<0.05). The unsaturation index of intramuscular fatty acids was not affected by slaughtering age, confirming that horse meat, if compared to beef, is more suitable from a nutritional point of view. Season influenced reproduction, birth as well as production aspects of this species. The different slaughtering age could represent the way to produce meat of IHDH foals during the entire year without change in the qualitative standard expected by consumers. PMID:25049752

  17. Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Meat Quality Traits in a Porcine Large White × Minzhu Intercross Population

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Weizhen; Cheng, Duxue; Chen, Shaokang; Wang, Ligang; Li, Yong; Ma, Xiaojun; Song, Xin; Liu, Xin; Li, Wen; Liang, Jing; Yan, Hua; Zhao, Kebin; Wang, Chuduan; Wang, Lixian; Zhang, Longchao

    2012-01-01

    Pork quality is an economically important trait and one of the main selection criteria for breeding in the swine industry. In this genome-wide association study (GWAS), 455 pigs from a porcine Large White × Minzhu intercross population were genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60K Beadchip, and phenotyped for intramuscular fat content (IMF), marbling, moisture, color L*, color a*, color b* and color score in the longissimus muscle (LM). Association tests between each trait and the SNPs were performed via the Genome Wide Rapid Association using the Mixed Model and Regression-Genomic Control (GRAMMAR-GC) approach. From the Ensembl porcine database, SNP annotation was implemented using Sus scrofa Build 9. A total of 45 SNPs showed significant association with one or multiple meat quality traits. Of the 45 SNPs, 36 were located on SSC12. These significantly associated SNPs aligned to or were in close approximation to previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) and some were located within introns of previously reported candidate genes. Two haplotype blocks ASGA0100525-ASGA0055225-ALGA0067099-MARC0004712-DIAS0000861, and ASGA0085522-H3GA0056170 were detected in the significant region. The first block contained the genes MYH1, MYH2 and MYH4. A SNP (ASGA0094812) within an intron of the USP43 gene was significantly associated with five meat quality traits. The present results effectively narrowed down the associated regions compared to previous QTL studies and revealed haplotypes and candidate genes on SSC12 for meat quality traits in pigs. PMID:22532790

  18. EFFECT OF ENDOPHYTE TYPE ON CARCASS TRAITS, MEAT QUALITY, AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF BEEF CATTLE GRAZING TALL FESCUE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Realini; S. K. Duckett; B. G. Lyon; C. S. Hoveland; J. H. Bouton; J. R. Sackmann; M. H. Gillis; K. R. Smith

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY Fourteen Hereford steers were used to compare carcass traits, meat quality, and fatty acid composition of beef from cattle grazing tall fescue infected with either wild-type (TOXIC; n = 6) or novel, non-toxic (MAXQ; n = 8) endophyte. At the end of the grazing period (135 d), steers were harvested at a commercial meat plant and carcass data collected.

  19. Novel polymorphisms of the PRKAG2 gene and their association with body measurement and meat quality traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Fu, C Z; Tian, W Q; Li, Y K; Wei, S J; Cheng, G; Wang, H B; Zan, L S

    2015-01-01

    Body measurement and meat quality traits play important roles in the evaluation of productivity and economy in cattle, which are influenced by genes and environmental factors. PRKAG2, which encodes the ?2 regulatory subunit of AMPK, is associated with key metabolic pathways in muscle. We detected bovine PRKAG2 gene polymorphisms and analyzed their associations with body measurement and meat quality traits of cattle. DNA samples were taken from 578 Qinchuan cattle aged 18-24 months. DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to detect PRKAG2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Sequence analysis revealed three SNPs in exon 3 (g.95925G>A, g.95973G>C, and g.95992A>G) and one g.96058T>C mutation in intron 3. g.95973G>C, g.95992A>G, and g.96058T>C each showed 3 genotypes: GG, GC, and CC; AA, AG, and GG; and TT, TC, and CC, respectively. In contrast, g.95925G>A only showed 2 genotypes, GG and GA. Analysis showed that g.95925G>A had no effects on body measurement and meat quality traits, whereas the other 3 polymorphisms were significantly associated with some of the body measurement and meat quality traits in the Qinchuan cattle population. It is inferred that the PRKAG2 gene can be used for marker-assisted selection to improve the body measurement and meat quality traits in the Qinchuan cattle population. PMID:25966135

  20. Comparison of breast muscle traits and meat quality characteristics in 2 commercial chicken hybrids.

    PubMed

    Petracci, M; Sirri, F; Mazzoni, M; Meluzzi, A

    2013-09-01

    A trial was conducted to compare muscle traits and meat quality characteristics of the pectoralis muscle in 2 chicken commercial hybrids having standard (SBY) and high breast yield (HBY), respectively. A total of 2,124 one-day-old male chicks, equally divided into 2 experimental groups represented by strains (SBY and HBY), were grown using homogenous conditions and fed the same standard diets until reaching live weight of 4.2 kg at 53 and 55 d for the SBY and HBY groups, respectively. Thirty-six birds per each genotype were randomly selected, and their pectoralis major muscles were used to assess meat quality properties (color attributes, pH, drip loss, cook loss, Allo-Kramer shear values after cooking, moisture, proteins, total lipids, and ashes) as well as histological traits (cross-sectional area, frequency of abnormal fibers, and intramuscular fat infiltration). As expected, HBY genotype had higher breast yield (31.0 vs. 30.0%; P ? 0.05). Histological evaluations showed that HBY pectoralis muscles had higher cross-sectional fiber area coupled with a dramatically higher (P ? 0.001) incidence of abnormal fibers and more abundant infiltration of intramuscular fat. Moreover, histopathological anomalous features such as central nuclei, proliferation of endomysial and perimysial collagen, inflammatory infiltrate, and necrosis of the fibers were also observed. As for meat quality, SBY hybrid showed lower ultimate pH values (5.97 vs. 6.07; P ? 0.01), whereas overall color parameters were not affected by genotype. Breast meat from the HBY genotype also exhibited significantly lower ability to retain liquid during refrigerated storage (drip loss, 2.46 vs. 2.06%; P ? 0.05) and cooking (26.2 vs. 21.1%; P ? 0.05) as well as higher shear-force values (2.59 vs. 2.11 kg/g; P ? 0.001). Finally, with regard to chemical composition, significant differences (P ? 0.05) were detected in protein (22.8 vs. 23.5%) and lipid (1.65 vs. 1.82%) contents, which were significantly lower in the HBY hybrid, whereas moisture content tended (P = 0.07) to be inferior in the SBY hybrid. PMID:23960128

  1. Phytochrome RNAi enhances major fibre quality and agronomic traits of the cotton Gossypium hirsutum L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y.; Buriev, Zabardast T.; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Johnie N.; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E.

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous improvement of fibre quality, early-flowering, early-maturity and productivity in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) is a challenging task for conventional breeding. The influence of red/far-red light ratio on the fibre length prompted us to examine the phenotypic effects of RNA interference (RNAi) of the cotton PHYA1 gene. Here we show a suppression of up to ~70% for the PHYA1 transcript, and compensatory overexpression of up to ~20-fold in the remaining phytochromes in somatically regenerated PHYA1 RNAi cotton plants. Two independent transformants of three generations exhibited vigorous root and vegetative growth, early-flowering, significantly improved upper half mean fibre length and an improvement in other major fibre characteristics. Small decreases in lint traits were observed but seed cotton yield was increased an average 10-17% compared with controls. RNAi-associated phenotypes were heritable and transferable via sexual hybridization. These results should aid in the development of early-maturing and productive Upland cultivars with superior fibre quality.

  2. Phytochrome RNAi enhances major fibre quality and agronomic traits of the cotton Gossypium hirsutum L.

    PubMed

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Buriev, Zabardast T; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Johnie N; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous improvement of fibre quality, early-flowering, early-maturity and productivity in Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) is a challenging task for conventional breeding. The influence of red/far-red light ratio on the fibre length prompted us to examine the phenotypic effects of RNA interference (RNAi) of the cotton PHYA1 gene. Here we show a suppression of up to ~70% for the PHYA1 transcript, and compensatory overexpression of up to ~20-fold in the remaining phytochromes in somatically regenerated PHYA1 RNAi cotton plants. Two independent transformants of three generations exhibited vigorous root and vegetative growth, early-flowering, significantly improved upper half mean fibre length and an improvement in other major fibre characteristics. Small decreases in lint traits were observed but seed cotton yield was increased an average 10-17% compared with controls. RNAi-associated phenotypes were heritable and transferable via sexual hybridization. These results should aid in the development of early-maturing and productive Upland cultivars with superior fibre quality. PMID:24430163

  3. Drought alters timing, quantity, and quality of wood formation in Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Eilmann, Britta; Zweifel, Roman; Buchmann, Nina; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Rigling, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    Drought has been frequently discussed as a trigger for forest decline. Today, large-scale Scots pine decline is observed in many dry inner-Alpine valleys, with drought discussed as the main causative factor. This study aimed to analyse the impact of drought on wood formation and wood structure. To study tree growth under contrasting water supply, an irrigation experiment was installed in a mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest at a xeric site in a dry inner-Alpine valley. Inter- and intra-annual radial increments as well as intra-annual variations in wood structure of pine trees were studied. It was found that non-irrigated trees had a noticeably shorter period of wood formation and showed a significantly lower increment. The water conduction cells were significantly enlarged and had significantly thinner cell walls compared with irrigated trees. It is concluded that pine trees under drought stress build a more effective water-conducting system (larger tracheids) at the cost of a probably higher vulnerability to cavitation (larger tracheids with thinner cell walls) but without losing their capability to recover. The significant shortening of the growth period in control trees indicated that the period where wood formation actually takes place can be much shorter under drought than the 'potential' period, meaning the phenological growth period. PMID:21273335

  4. Bayesian Statistical Analyses for Presence of Single Genes Affecting Meat Quality Traits in a Crossed Pig Population

    PubMed Central

    Janss, LLG.; Van-Arendonk, JAM.; Brascamp, E. W.

    1997-01-01

    Presence of single genes affecting meat quality traits was investigated in F(2) individuals of a cross between Chinese Meishan and Western pig lines using phenotypic measurements on 11 traits. A Bayesian approach was used for inference about a mixed model of inheritance, postulating effects of polygenic background genes, action of a biallelic autosomal single gene and various nongenetic effects. Cooking loss, drip loss, two pH measurements, intramuscular fat, shearforce and back-fat thickness were traits found to be likely influenced by a single gene. In all cases, a recessive allele was found, which likely originates from the Meishan breed and is absent in the Western founder lines. By studying associations between genotypes assigned to individuals based on phenotypic measurements for various traits, it was concluded that cooking loss, two pH measurements and possibly backfat thickness are influenced by one gene, and that a second gene influences intramuscular fat and possibly shearforce and drip loss. Statistical findings were supported by demonstrating marked differences in variances of families of fathers inferred as carriers and those inferred as noncarriers. It is concluded that further molecular genetic research effort to map single genes affecting these traits based on the same experimental data has a high probability of success. PMID:9071593

  5. Assessment of ecological quality of the tajan river in iran using a multimetric macroinvertebrate index and species traits.

    PubMed

    Aazami, Jaber; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Abdoli, Asghar; Sohrabi, Hormoz; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obtained for 17 sites. The Shahid-Rajaie dam divides the Tajan River into an up- and downstream part, with different land uses. Eighteen metrics were used to represent four components of ecosystem quality, including tolerance (Hilsenhoff, SIGNAL), diversity (Margalef, Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, and Evenness), abundance (total number of taxa, individuals, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, EPT, and Insects), and composition of assemblages (% Ephemeroptera, % Plecoptera, % Trichoptera, and % EPT Taxa). The integrated MMI was calculated by averaging the obtained scores of all indices. In the next step, we gathered information on 22 biological traits of macroinvertebrates to evaluate whether (group of) traits could be identified that are indicative for specific or general stress. Result showed a decrease in MMI from upstream (very good water quality) to downstream (bad) due to human activities. Industrial activities like pulping and papermaking operations or sand mining in the downstream part had more effects than agriculture and fish ponds in the upstream part. A redundancy analysis biplot showed the variation between the modalities of trait of macroinvertebrates and their correlation with physico-chemical parameters in Tajan River. The findings show that traits can be indicative for different kind of stress but that more effort has to be put in gathering data sets to disentangle the effect of habitat quality, pollution, and the physico-chemical properties of high- versus lowland rivers. PMID:25861910

  6. Assessment of Ecological Quality of the Tajan River in Iran Using a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index and Species Traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aazami, Jaber; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Abdoli, Asghar; Sohrabi, Hormoz; Van den Brink, Paul J.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biological water of the Iranian Tajan River using different metrics, i.e., a Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index (MMI) and a traits-based method. Twenty-eight physico-chemical parameters, 10 habitat factors, and abundance of macroinvertebrates were obtained for 17 sites. The Shahid-Rajaie dam divides the Tajan River into an up- and downstream part, with different land uses. Eighteen metrics were used to represent four components of ecosystem quality, including tolerance (Hilsenhoff, SIGNAL), diversity (Margalef, Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, and Evenness), abundance (total number of taxa, individuals, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, EPT, and Insects), and composition of assemblages (% Ephemeroptera, % Plecoptera, % Trichoptera, and % EPT Taxa). The integrated MMI was calculated by averaging the obtained scores of all indices. In the next step, we gathered information on 22 biological traits of macroinvertebrates to evaluate whether (group of) traits could be identified that are indicative for specific or general stress. Result showed a decrease in MMI from upstream (very good water quality) to downstream (bad) due to human activities. Industrial activities like pulping and papermaking operations or sand mining in the downstream part had more effects than agriculture and fish ponds in the upstream part. A redundancy analysis biplot showed the variation between the modalities of trait of macroinvertebrates and their correlation with physico-chemical parameters in Tajan River. The findings show that traits can be indicative for different kind of stress but that more effort has to be put in gathering data sets to disentangle the effect of habitat quality, pollution, and the physico-chemical properties of high- versus lowland rivers.

  7. Effects of bovine SMO gene polymorphisms on the body measurement and meat quality traits of Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y R; Li, Y K; Fu, C Z; Wang, J L; Wang, H B; Zan, L S

    2014-01-01

    Beef cattle breeding programs focus on improving important economic traits, including growth rates, and meat quantity and quality. Molecular marker-assisted selection based on genetic variation represents a potential method for breeding genetically improved livestock with better economic traits. Smoothened (SMO) protein is a signal transducer that contributes to the regulation of both osteogenesis and adipogenesis through the hedgehog pathway. In this study, we detected polymorphisms in the bovine SMO gene of Qinchuan cattle, and we analyzed their associations with body measurement traits (BMTs) and meat quality traits (MQTs). Using DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, 3 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the SMO gene of 562 cattle: 1 G > C mutation on exon 9 (G21234C) and 2 C > T mutations on exon 11 (C22424T and C22481T). Association analysis showed that polymorphisms on both the G21234C and C22424T loci significantly affected certain BMTs and MQTs (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), whereas those on the C22481T locus did not (P > 0.05). Therefore, the SMO gene could be used as a candidate gene to alter BMTs and MQTs in Qinchuan cattle or for marker-assisted selection to breed cattle with superior BMTs and MQTs. PMID:25299195

  8. Effect of housing conditions on production, carcass and meat quality traits of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Matics, Zs; Szendr?, Zs; Odermatt, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Nagy, I; Radnai, I; Dalle Zotte, A

    2014-01-01

    Production, carcass traits and meat quality of rabbits housed in cages or in different pens were compared. Rabbits (n=579) were sorted into 5 groups: C=cage (2 rabbits/cage); pen without platform: P11=9 rabbits/pen; P16=14 rabbits/pen; pen with platform: PW=wire net platform, 14 rabbits/pen; PD=platform with straw-litter, 14 rabbits/pen. Feed intake and average daily gain between 5 and 11 weeks, and body weight at 11 weeks were significantly higher in C rabbits than that of the mean of pen-housed groups, while the PD group had the lowest growth performance. C rabbits had the smallest hind part to reference carcass (P<0.001) and the largest percentage of perirenal and scapular fat (P<0.001). The meat/bone ratio was the largest in group C (P<0.05). Differences were recorded in a* value and lipid content of m. Longissimus dorsi. Rabbits housed in cages generally had the best performance whereas those housed in pens with platform exhibited the worst. PMID:23896135

  9. The effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzinpour, Amjad; Karashi, Naser

    2013-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles could prove to be a valuable alternative raw material for antibiotics and disinfectants as it is relatively free of adverse effects. Nanosilver is now been put to practical use in commonly used items, such as, clothes, electric home appliances, and electronic industry, but has not been widely applied in the medical or pharmacological fields. This study was designed to investigate the effects of nanosilver on egg quality traits in laying Japanese quail in completely randomized design with four treatments and six repetitions at 0, 4, 8 and 12 ppm of silver nanoparticle levels. Eggs collected daily and egg parameters, including egg weight, length, width; yolk weight and eggshell thickness were examined. The effect of the different silver nanoparticle levels was determined using the General Linear Model of SAS procedure, whilst differences between the groups were determined using least significant difference test. Results indicated that silver nanoparticles at all levels caused significantly reduce of yolk weight and hen-day egg production for each week than the control treatment ( P < 0.05), whilst silver nanoparticle had no significant effect on egg weight, egg length and width and eggshell thickness.

  10. Utility of Metabolomics toward Assessing the Metabolic Basis of Quality Traits in Apple Fruit with an Emphasis on Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Daniel; Andrews, Preston K.; Reganold, John P.; Davies, Neal M.; Lange, B. Markus

    2012-01-01

    A gas chromatography–mass spectrometry approach was employed to evaluate the use of metabolite patterns to differentiate fruit from six commercially grown apple cultivars harvested in 2008. Principal component analysis (PCA) of apple fruit peel and flesh data indicated that individual cultivar replicates clustered together and were separated from all other cultivar samples. An independent metabolomics investigation with fruit harvested in 2003 confirmed the separate clustering of fruit from different cultivars. Further evidence for cultivar separation was obtained using a hierarchical clustering analysis. An evaluation of PCA component loadings revealed specific metabolite classes that contributed the most to each principal component, whereas a correlation analysis demonstrated that specific metabolites correlate directly with quality traits such as antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and total anthocyanins, which are important parameters in the selection of breeding germplasm. These data sets lay the foundation for elucidating the metabolic basis of commercially important fruit quality traits. PMID:22881116

  11. Use of Genome Sequence Information for Meat Quality Trait QTL Mining for Causal Genes and Mutations on Pig Chromosome 17

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhi-Liang; Ramos, Antonio M.; Humphray, Sean J.; Rogers, Jane; Reecy, James M.; Rothschild, Max F.

    2011-01-01

    The newly available pig genome sequence has provided new information to fine map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in order to eventually identify causal variants. With targeted genomic sequencing efforts, we were able to obtain high quality BAC sequences that cover a region on pig chromosome 17 where a number of meat quality QTL have been previously discovered. Sequences from 70 BAC clones were assembled to form an 8-Mbp contig. Subsequently, we successfully mapped five previously identified QTL, three for meat color and two for lactate related traits, to the contig. With an additional 25 genetic markers that were identified by sequence comparison, we were able to carry out further linkage disequilibrium analysis to narrow down the genomic locations of these QTL, which allowed identification of the chromosomal regions that likely contain the causative variants. This research has provided one practical approach to combine genetic and molecular information for QTL mining. PMID:22303339

  12. Quality has been the operative word when it comes to describing Wood-

    E-print Network

    -based shipping manifest system was error- prone, time consuming and did not provide the level of accuracy needed that customers claimed were never delivered. Worse yet, there was no way for Wood-Mode to check the accuracy: (425) 348-2762 Media Sales Phone: (513) 874-5882 Customer Service and Support Toll Free NA: (800) 755

  13. Quality of groundwater and surface water, Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, July and August 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, Candice B.; Bartolino, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Residents and resource managers of the Wood River Valley of south-central Idaho are concerned about the effects that population growth might have on the quality of groundwater and surface water. As part of a multi-phase assessment of the groundwater resources in the study area, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the quality of water at 45 groundwater and 5 surface-water sites throughout the Wood River Valley during July and August 2012. Water samples were analyzed for field parameters (temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity), major ions, boron, iron, manganese, nutrients, and Escherichia coli (E.coli) and total coliform bacteria. This study was conducted to determine baseline water quality throughout the Wood River Valley, with special emphasis on nutrient concentrations. Water quality in most samples collected did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards for drinking water. E. coli bacteria, used as indicators of water quality, were detected in all five surface-water samples and in two groundwater samples collected. Some analytes have aesthetic-based recommended drinking water standards; one groundwater sample exceeded recommended iron concentrations. Nitrate plus nitrite concentrations varied, but tended to be higher near population centers and in agricultural areas than in tributaries and less populated areas. These higher nitrate plus nitrite concentrations were not correlated with boron concentrations or the presence of bacteria, common indicators of sources of nutrients to water. None of the samples collected exceeded drinking-water standards for nitrate or nitrite. The concentration of total dissolved solids varied considerably in the waters sampled; however a calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate water type was dominant (43 out of 50 samples) in both the groundwater and surface water. Three constituents that may be influenced by anthropogenic activity (chloride, boron, and nitrate plus nitrite) deviate from this pattern and show a wide distribution of concentrations in the unconfined aquifer, indicating possible anthropogenic influence. Time-series plots of historical water-quality data indicated that nitrate does not seem to be increasing or decreasing in groundwater over time; however, time-series plots of chloride concentrations indicate that chloride may be increasing in some wells. The small amount of temporal variability in nitrate concentrations indicates a lack of major temporal changes to groundwater inputs.

  14. Effect of Genotype and Age on Egg Quality Traits in Naked Neck Chicken under Tropical Climate from India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Rajkumar; R. P. Sharma; K. S. Rajaravind; M. Niranjan; B. L. N. Reddy; T. K. Bhattachar; R. N. Chatterjee

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive study was undertaken to evaluate the egg quality traits in three naked neck genotypes, NaNa (homozygous), Nana (heterozygous) and nana (normal) by utilizing 556 eggs collected at 28, 32, 36 and 40 weeks of age. The overall mean egg weight, shape index and Haugh unit values were 56.41 g, 75.79 and 75.98, respectively. The yolk index, yolk height

  15. Influence of Male Sterile Cytoplasms on the PhysicoChemical Grain Quality Traits in Hybrid Rice ( Oryza Sativa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hariprasanna; F. U. Zaman; A. K. Singh

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Possible unfavourable influence of sterility inducing cytoplasm on physico-chemical grain quality traits in rice hybrids is one of the important concerns hindering the large-scale adoption of hybrid rice technology. Produce from 23 pairs of CMS line × restorer (AF1) and maintainer line × restorer (BF1) cross combinations carrying different cyto-sterile sources (WA, ARC, Mutagenized IR 62829B and Kalinga I) was

  16. Joint analysis of beef growth and carcass quality traits through calculation of co-variance components and correlations.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, H R; Verbyla, A P; Pitchford, W S

    2011-01-01

    A joint growth-carcass model using random regression was used to estimate the (co)variance components of beef cattle body weights and carcass quality traits and correlations between them. During a four-year period (1994-1997) of the Australian "southern crossbreeding project", mature Hereford cows (N = 581) were mated to 97 sires of Jersey, Wagyu, Angus, Hereford, South Devon, Limousin, and Belgian Blue breeds, resulting in 1141 calves. Data included 13 (for steers) and 8 (for heifers) body weight measurements approximately every 50 days from birth until slaughter and four carcass quality traits: hot standard carcass weight, rump fat depth, rib eye muscle area, and intramuscular fat content. The mixed model included fixed effects of sex, sire breed, age (linear, quadratic and cubic), and their interactions between sex and sire breed with age. Random effects were sire, dam, management (birth location, year, post-weaning groups), and permanent environmental effects, and their interactions with linear, quadratic and cubic growth, when possible. Phenotypic, sire and dam correlations between body weights and hot standard carcass weight and rib eye muscle area were positive and moderate to high from birth to feedlot period. Management variation accounted for the largest proportion of total variation in both growth and carcass traits. Management correlations between carcass traits were high, except between rump fat depth and intramuscular fat (r = 0.26). Management correlations between body weight and carcass traits during the pre-weaning period were positive except for intramuscular fat. The correlations were low from birth to weaning, then increased dramatically and were high during the feedlot period. PMID:21425094

  17. Identification of Associated SSR Markers for Yield Component and Fiber Quality Traits Based on Frame Map and Upland Cotton Collections

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hongde; Chen, Min; Yi, Xianda; Bie, Shu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Youchang; Lan, Jiayang; Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Youlu; Jiao, Chunhai

    2015-01-01

    Detecting QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that enhance cotton yield and fiber quality traits and accelerate breeding has been the focus of many cotton breeders. In the present study, 359 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were used for the association mapping of 241 Upland cotton collections. A total of 333 markers, representing 733 polymorphic loci, were detected. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distances were 8.58 cM (r2 > 0.1) and 5.76 cM (r2 > 0.2). 241 collections were arranged into two subgroups using STRUCTURE software. Mixed linear modeling (MLM) methods (with population structure (Q) and relative kinship matrix (K)) were applied to analyze four phenotypic datasets obtained from four environments (two different locations and two years). Forty-six markers associated with the number of bolls per plant (NB), boll weight (BW), lint percentage (LP), fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber micornaire value (FM) were repeatedly detected in at least two environments. Of 46 associated markers, 32 were identified as new association markers, and 14 had been previously reported in the literature. Nine association markers were near QTLs (at a distance of less than 1–2 LD decay on the reference map) that had been previously described. These results provide new useful markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs and new insights for understanding the genetic basis of Upland cotton yields and fiber quality traits at the whole-genome level. PMID:25635680

  18. Identification of associated SSR markers for yield component and fiber quality traits based on frame map and Upland cotton collections.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongde; Chen, Min; Yi, Xianda; Bie, Shu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Youchang; Lan, Jiayang; Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Youlu; Jiao, Chunhai

    2015-01-01

    Detecting QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that enhance cotton yield and fiber quality traits and accelerate breeding has been the focus of many cotton breeders. In the present study, 359 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were used for the association mapping of 241 Upland cotton collections. A total of 333 markers, representing 733 polymorphic loci, were detected. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distances were 8.58 cM (r2 > 0.1) and 5.76 cM (r2 > 0.2). 241 collections were arranged into two subgroups using STRUCTURE software. Mixed linear modeling (MLM) methods (with population structure (Q) and relative kinship matrix (K)) were applied to analyze four phenotypic datasets obtained from four environments (two different locations and two years). Forty-six markers associated with the number of bolls per plant (NB), boll weight (BW), lint percentage (LP), fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber micornaire value (FM) were repeatedly detected in at least two environments. Of 46 associated markers, 32 were identified as new association markers, and 14 had been previously reported in the literature. Nine association markers were near QTLs (at a distance of less than 1-2 LD decay on the reference map) that had been previously described. These results provide new useful markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs and new insights for understanding the genetic basis of Upland cotton yields and fiber quality traits at the whole-genome level. PMID:25635680

  19. Analysis of a slow-growing line reveals wide genetic variability of carcass and meat quality-related traits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Slow-growing lines are widely used in France for the production of high quality free-range chickens. While such production is mainly dedicated to the whole carcass market, new prospects are opening up for the development of cuts and processed products. Whether the body composition and meat quality of slow-growing birds can be improved by selection has thus become an important issue. The genetic parameters of growth, body composition and breast meat quality traits were evaluated in relation to behaviour at slaughter in a large pedigree population including 1022 male and female slow-growing birds. Results The heritability coefficients (h2) of body weight and body composition traits varied from 0.3 to 0.5. Abdominal fat percentage was genetically positively correlated with body weight but negatively correlated with breast muscle yield. The characteristics of the breast meat (i.e., post-mortem fall in pH, colour, drip loss, shear-force and lipid content) were all heritable, with h2 estimates ranging from 0.18 to 0.48. The rate and extent of the fall in pH were under different genetic control. Strong negative genetic correlations were found between the ultimate pH and the lightness, yellowness and drip loss of the meat. Wing flapping on the shackle line was significantly heritable and exhibited marked genetic correlations with the pH at 15 min post-slaughter and the redness of the meat. The genetic relationships between meat quality traits, body weight and body composition appeared slightly different between males and females. Conclusion This study suggested that there are a number of important criteria for selection on carcass and breast meat quality in slow-growing birds. Selection for reduced abdominal fatness and increased breast muscle yield should be effective as both traits were found to be highly heritable and favourably correlated. Substantial improvement in meat quality could be achieved by selection on ultimate pH which was highly heritable and strongly correlated with the colour and water-holding capacity of the meat. Moreover, this study revealed for the first time that the behaviour at slaughter is partly genetically determined in the chicken. PMID:23088779

  20. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for oil and protein contents and their relationships with other seed quality traits in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, T; Rahman, M H; Stringam, G R; Yeh, F; Good, A G

    2006-11-01

    A detailed RFLP-genomic map was used to study the genetics of oil, seed and meal protein and sum of oil and seed/meal protein contents in a recombinant doubled-haploid population developed by crossing black- and yellow-seeded Brassica juncea lines. Two yellow seed color genes (SC-B4, SC-A6) and one QTL for erucic acid content (E(1b)) showed pleiotropic effect for oil, protein and sum of oil and seed/meal protein contents. Six (O-A1, O-A6, O-A9, O-B3, O-B4, O-B5) and five (SP-A1, SP-A9, SP-B4, SP-B6, SP-C) QTLs were significant for oil and seed protein contents, respectively. Tight linkage of three of these QTLs (SP-A1, SP-A9, SP-B4, O-A1, O-A9, O-B4), with opposite effects, poses challenge to the plant breeders for simultaneous improvement of negatively correlated (r = -0.7**) oil and seed protein contents. However, one QTL for oil content (O-B3) and two for seed protein content (SP-B6, SP-C) were found to be unlinked, which offer the possibility for simultaneous improvement of these two traits. QTLs significant for meal protein (MP-A1, MP-A6, MP-A9, MP-B5, MP-B6) were significant at least for oil, seed protein or sum of oil and seed/meal protein contents (T-A6, T-A7, T-B4, T-B5). Sum of oil and seed protein contents and sum of oil and meal protein contents had a perfect correlation, as well as same epistatic interactions and QTLs with similar additive effect. This indicates that protein in seed or meal has practically the same meaning for breeding purposes. Epistatic interactions were significant for the quality traits, and their linkage reflected association among the traits. PMID:16960718

  1. Relationship between pectoralis major muscle histology and quality traits of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, M; Petracci, M; Meluzzi, A; Cavani, C; Clavenzani, P; Sirri, F

    2015-01-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the influence of myodegeneration of pectoralis major muscle on quality traits and chemical composition of breast meat of heavy-size male broilers. For this purpose, a total of 72 pectoralis major muscles were randomly collected from broilers farmed under homogeneous conditions and graded into three categories (mild, n = 22; moderate, n = 33; and severe, n = 17) based on the presence of abnormal fibers (giant fibers, fibers with hyaline degeneration, and damaged and/or necrotic fibers) evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Color, pH, drip loss, Allo-Kramer shear values, and chemical composition (moisture, proteins, total lipids, ashes, and collagen) were determined on nonmarinated breast meat. Purge loss and cook loss, total yield, and Allo-Kramer shear values were measured on vacuum-tumbled samples. Samples showing moderate myodegeneration had the highest mean cross-sectional area of the fibers, while samples with severe myodegeneration had myofibers of different diameter and without the characteristic polygonal shape, multifocal degeneration and necrosis, as well as infiltration of CD3-immunoreactive cells. Cooking losses of nonmarinated meat were lower in the mild group with respect to moderate and severe groups (21.4 vs. 24.7 and 24.7%; P < 0.001). Breast muscles with severe damage, in comparison with mild degenerated samples, showed higher moisture (75.4 vs. 74.4%; P < 0.05) and lower protein percentages (21.1 vs. 22.6%; P < 0.001). The lipid percentage of severely degenerated samples was higher than that from moderate group (2.94 vs. 2.36; P < 0.05), while collagen content was not modified by histological lesion levels. Marinated meat from the mild group had higher uptake and total marinade yield after cooking. In conclusion, almost all breast fillets of heavy broiler chickens produced under intensive farming systems had histological lesions, which reflected on the chemical composition of the meat and the impaired water holding/binding capacities of the meat. PMID:25577799

  2. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES: METHOD 28A MEASUREMENT OF AIR TO FUEL RATIO AND MINIMUM BURN RATE FOR WOOD-FIRED APPLIANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quality assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing measurement of air-to-fuel ratio and minimum burn rate determinations according to EPA protocol, Method 28A...

  3. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of the Opitutaceae Bacterium Strain TAV1, a Symbiont of the Wood-Feeding Termite Reticulitermes flavipes

    SciTech Connect

    Isanapong, Jantiya [University of Texas, Arlington; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pennacchio, Len [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Rodrigues, Jorge L.M. [University of Texas, Arlington

    2012-01-01

    Microbial communities in the termite hindgut are essential for degrading plant material. We present the high-quality draft genome sequence of the Opitutaceae bacterium strain TAV1, the first member of the phylum Verrucomicrobia to be isolated from wood-feeding termites. The genomic analysis reveals genes coding for lignocellulosic degradation and nitrogen fixation.

  4. Effect of polymorphisms in candidate genes on carcass and meat quality traits in double muscled Piemontese cattle.

    PubMed

    Ribeca, C; Bonfatti, V; Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Gallo, L; Carnier, P

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between 10 candidate genes and carcass weight and conformation, carcass daily gain, and meat quality (pH, color, cooking loss, drip loss and shear force) in 990 double-muscled Piemontese young bulls. Animals were genotyped at each of the following genes: growth hormone, growth hormone receptor, pro-opiomelanocortin, pro-opiomelanocortin class 1 homeobox 1, melanocortin-4 receptor, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1, thyroglobulin, carboxypeptidase E and gamma-3 regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase. All the investigated SNPs had additive effects which were relevant for at least one of the traits. Relevant associations between the investigated SNPs and carcass weight, carcass daily gain and carcass conformation were detected, whereas associations of SNPs with meat quality were moderate. Results confirmed some of previously reported associations, but diverged for others. Validation in other cattle breeds is required to use these SNPs in gene-assisted selection programs for enhancement of carcass traits and meat quality. PMID:24361557

  5. Study of wood defects recognition based on Image Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongbo Mu; Dawei Qi; Mingming Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Image Processing of wood defects is important for wood defects recognition. Wood defects influence on wood production quality. X-ray testing system was adopted to detect wood defects. Because it not only can detect wood seeming defects, but also can detect inner defects. The collected images with defects were done median filter processing and edge detection so that the position, size

  6. Genomic selection accuracy for grain quality traits in biparental wheat populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection (GS) is a promising tool for plant and animal breeding that uses genome wide molecular marker data to capture small and large effect quantitative trait loci and predict the genetic value of selection candidates. Genomic selection has been shown previously to have higher prediction ...

  7. Pre-Service Teachers: Dispositional Traits, Emotional States, and Quality of Teacher-Student Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripski, Michael B.; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Decker, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Given the interactive nature of teaching, dispositional characteristics (i.e., traits that dispose a person towards certain behaviors, choices, and experiences) like assertiveness and openness or emotional states such as sadness, worry, and stress may play important roles in a teacher's ability to interact in meaningful, engaging, and effective…

  8. Identification of Genetic Loci Associated with Quality Traits in Almond via Association Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Font i Forcada, Carolina; Oraguzie, Nnadozie; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Espiau, Maria Teresa; Socias i Company, Rafael; Fernández i Martí, Angel

    2015-01-01

    To design an appropriate association study, we need to understand population structure and the structure of linkage disequilibrium within and among populations as well as in different regions of the genome in an organism. In this study, we have used a total of 98 almond accessions, from five continents located and maintained at the Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA; Spain), and 40 microsatellite markers. Population structure analysis performed in ‘Structure’ grouped the accessions into two principal groups; the Mediterranean (Western-Europe) and the non-Mediterranean, with K = 3, being the best fit for our data. There was a strong subpopulation structure with linkage disequilibrium decaying with increasing genetic distance resulting in lower levels of linkage disequilibrium between more distant markers. A significant impact of population structure on linkage disequilibrium in the almond cultivar groups was observed. The mean r2 value for all intra-chromosomal loci pairs was 0.040, whereas, the r2 for the inter-chromosomal loci pairs was 0.036. For analysis of association between the markers and phenotypic traits, five models comprising both general linear models and mixed linear models were selected to test the marker trait associations. The mixed linear model (MLM) approach using co-ancestry values from population structure and kinship estimates (K model) as covariates identified a maximum of 16 significant associations for chemical traits and 12 for physical traits. This study reports for the first time the use of association mapping for determining marker-locus trait associations in a world-wide almond germplasm collection. It is likely that association mapping will have the most immediate and largest impact on the tier of crops such as almond with the greatest economic value. PMID:26111146

  9. A Study to Determine Non-Academic Traits of a Successful Student in an Open Learning Center Environment at John Wood Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronquist, Shirley; And Others

    John Wood Community College's Open Learning Center (OLC) offers an alternative to traditional classroom approaches using one-to-one instruction, a competency-based learning format, and flexible scheduling. Due to concern over the high attrition rate in OLC courses, a study was conducted to identify the characteristics and variables contributing to…

  10. Comparison of quality traits of meat from korean native chickens and broilers used in two different traditional korean cuisines.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Jun Heon; Kim, Jong Geun; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-07-01

    With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC) and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL), KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS), broiler for baeksuk (BL), and broiler for samgyetang (BS) were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5'-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines. PMID:25049883

  11. Comparison of Quality Traits of Meat from Korean Native Chickens and Broilers Used in Two Different Traditional Korean Cuisines

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Jun Heon; Kim, Jong Geun; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC) and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL), KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS), broiler for baeksuk (BL), and broiler for samgyetang (BS) were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5’-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines. PMID:25049883

  12. Polymorphisms and expression analysis of SOX-6 in relation to porcine growth, carcass, and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine; Heidt, Hanna; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Neuhoff, Christiane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and expression of SOX-6 to support its candidacy for growth, carcass, and meat quality traits in pigs. The first SNP, rs81358375, was associated with pH 45min post mortem in loin (pH1L), the thickness of backfat and side fat, and carcass length in Pietrain (Pi) population, and related with backfat thickness and daily gain in Duroc×Pietrain F2 (DuPi) population. The other SNP, rs321666676, was associated with meat colour in Pi population. In DuPi population, the protein, not mRNA, level of SOX-6 in high pH1L pigs was significantly less abundant compared with low pH1L pigs, where microRNAs targeting SOX-6 were also differently regulated. This paper shows that SOX-6 could be a potential candidate gene for porcine growth, carcass, and meat quality traits based on genetic association and gene expression. PMID:25935846

  13. Molecular detection of QTLs for agronomic and quality traits in a doubled haploid population derived from two Canadian wheats (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Huang, X Q; Cloutier, S; Lycar, L; Radovanovic, N; Humphreys, D G; Noll, J S; Somers, D J; Brown, P D

    2006-08-01

    Development of high-yielding wheat varieties with good end-use quality has always been a major concern for wheat breeders. To genetically dissect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for yield-related traits such as grain yield, plant height, maturity, lodging, test weight and thousand-grain weight, and for quality traits such as grain and flour protein content, gluten strength as evaluated by mixograph and SDS sedimentation volume, an F1-derived doubled haploid (DH) population of 185 individuals was developed from a cross between a Canadian wheat variety "AC Karma" and a breeding line 87E03-S2B1. A genetic map was constructed based on 167 marker loci, consisting of 160 microsatellite loci, three HMW glutenin subunit loci: Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1, and four STS-PCR markers. Data for investigated traits were collected from three to four environments in Manitoba, Canada. QTL analyses were performed using composite interval mapping. A total of 50 QTLs were detected, 24 for agronomic traits and 26 for quality-related traits. Many QTLs for correlated traits were mapped in the same genomic regions forming QTL clusters. The largest QTL clusters, consisting of up to nine QTLs, were found on chromosomes 1D and 4D. HMW glutenin subunits at Glu-1 loci had the largest effect on breadmaking quality; however, other genomic regions also contributed genetically to breadmaking quality. QTLs detected in the present study are compared with other QTL analyses in wheat. PMID:16838135

  14. Effect of leptin gene polymorphisms on growth, slaughter and meat quality traits of grazing Brangus steers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Corva; G. V. Fernandez Macedo; L. A. Soria; J. Papaleo Mazzucco; M. Motter; E. L. Villarreal; A. Schor; C. A. Mezzadra; L. M. Melucci; M. C. Miquel

    2009-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone that affects the regulation of feed intake, energy balance and body composition in mammals. Several polymorphisms in the bovine leptin gene have been associated with phenotypic variance of these traits. We evaluated two known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the leptin gene of 253 grazing Brangus steers. Brangus is a 5\\/8 Angus-3\\/8 Brahman composite. Data were

  15. Association Analysis of Soft Wheat Quality Traits in Eastern US Soft Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soft wheat quality is highly heritable, is controlled by multiple loci, and has been mapped in a number of bi-parental crosses. We extended the mapping information on soft wheat quality by using association analysis between genetic markers and quality phenotyping in 192 soft winter wheat cultivars ...

  16. The effect of diet quality on physiological and life-history traits in the harvestman Pachylus paessleri.

    PubMed

    Naya, Daniel E; Lardies, Marco A; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2007-02-01

    The balance between energy acquisition and expenditure is critical to the survival and reproductive success of animals. Here we investigate the long-term effects of diet quality on physiological and life-history flexibility in the harvestman, Pachylus paessleri. We used cow meal as a protein-rich diet and potatoes as a carbohydrate-rich diet in order to reproduce two extreme conditions regarding food quality in harvestmen natural habitat. As proxy variables of the energy expenditure process, we quantified standard metabolic rate (maintenance), changes in body mass (somatic condition), and fecundity (reproduction). We found that animals consuming the protein-rich diet were able to increase both their body condition and fecundity. However, the increment in these two life-history traits was correlated with higher maintenance costs. In contrast, the carbohydrate-rich diet did not provide enough specific nutrients for reproductive events, although it may have allowed animals to survive for a long time. Thus, according to the quality of the diet available in the environment, harvestman females can adopt different life-history strategies correlated with phenotypic adjustments at anatomical and physiological levels. In the Mediterranean region, spatial and temporal changes in food quality are typical, so greater phenotypic flexibility is expected to cope with this kind of environmental variation. PMID:17196974

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Loci and Candidate Genes for Body Composition and Meat Quality Traits in Beijing-You Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guiping; Wang, Fangjie; Wu, Dan; Zheng, Maiqing; Chen, Jilan; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Yaodong; Wen, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Body composition and meat quality traits are important economic traits of chickens. The development of high-throughput genotyping platforms and relevant statistical methods have enabled genome-wide association studies in chickens. In order to identify molecular markers and candidate genes associated with body composition and meat quality traits, genome-wide association studies were conducted using the Illumina 60 K SNP Beadchip to genotype 724 Beijing-You chickens. For each bird, a total of 16 traits were measured, including carcass weight (CW), eviscerated weight (EW), dressing percentage, breast muscle weight (BrW) and percentage (BrP), thigh muscle weight and percentage, abdominal fat weight and percentage, dry matter and intramuscular fat contents of breast and thigh muscle, ultimate pH, and shear force of the pectoralis major muscle at 100 d of age. The SNPs that were significantly associated with the phenotypic traits were identified using both simple (GLM) and compressed mixed linear (MLM) models. For nine of ten body composition traits studied, SNPs showing genome wide significance (P<2.59E?6) have been identified. A consistent region on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 4 (GGA4), including seven significant SNPs and four candidate genes (LCORL, LAP3, LDB2, TAPT1), were found to be associated with CW and EW. Another 0.65 Mb region on GGA3 for BrW and BrP was identified. After measuring the mRNA content in beast muscle for five genes located in this region, the changes in GJA1 expression were found to be consistent with that of breast muscle weight across development. It is highly possible that GJA1 is a functional gene for breast muscle development in chickens. For meat quality traits, several SNPs reaching suggestive association were identified and possible candidate genes with their functions were discussed. PMID:23637794

  18. Spatial Variability in Water Quality and Surface Sediment Diatom Assemblages in a Complex Lake Basin: Lake of the Woods, Ontario, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergi Pla; Andrew M. Paterson; John P. Smol; Bev J. Clark; Ron Ingram

    2005-01-01

    Lake of the Woods (LOW) is an international waterbody spanning the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba, and the U.S. state of Minnesota. In recent years, there has been a perception that water quality has deteriorated in northern regions of the lake, with an increase in the frequency and intensity of toxin-producing cyanobacterial blooms. However, given the lack of long-term

  19. SNP variation in the promoter of the PRKAG3 gene and association with meat quality traits in pig

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The PRKAG3 gene encodes the ?3 subunit of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), a protein that plays a key role in energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene such as I199V are associated with important pork quality traits. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of the PRKAG3 gene, SNP variation in the PRKAG3 promoter and meat quality phenotypes in pork. Results PRKAG3 gene expression was found to correlate with a number of traits relating to glycolytic potential (GP) and intramuscular fat (IMF) in three phenotypically diverse F1 crosses comprising of 31 Large White, 23 Duroc and 32 Pietrain sire breeds. The majority of associations were observed in the Large White cross. There was a significant association between genotype at the g.-311A>G locus and PRKAG3 gene expression in the Large White cross. In the same population, ten novel SNPs were identified within a 1.3 kb region spanning the promoter and from this three major haplotypes were inferred. Two tagging SNPs (g.-995A>G and g.-311A>G) characterised the haplotypes within the promoter region being studied. These two SNPs were subsequently genotyped in larger populations consisting of Large White (n?=?98), Duroc (n?=?99) and Pietrain (n?=?98) purebreds. Four major haplotypes including promoter SNP’s g.-995A>G and g.-311A>G and I199V were inferred. In the Large White breed, HAP1 was associated with IMF% in the M. longissmus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and driploss%. HAP2 was associated with IMFL% GP-influenced traits pH at 24 hr in LTL (pHULT), pH at 45 min in LTL (pH45LT) and pH at 45 min in the M. semimembranosus muscle (pH45SM). HAP3 was associated with driploss%, pHULT pH45LT and b* Minolta. In the Duroc breed, associations were observed between HAP1 and driploss% and pHUSM. No associations were observed with the remaining haplotypes (HAP2, HAP3 and HAP4) in the Duroc breed. The Pietrain breed was monomorphic in the promoter region. The I199V locus was associated with several GP-influenced traits across all three breeds and IMF% in the Large White and Pietrain breed. No significant difference in promoter function was observed for the three main promoter haplotypes when tested in vitro. Conclusion Gene expression levels of the porcine PRKAG3 are associated with meat quality phenotypes relating to glycolytic potential and IMF% in the Large White breed, while SNP variation in the promoter region of the gene is associated with PRKAG3 gene expression and meat quality phenotypes. PMID:22831392

  20. considered, for ADG, as a consequence of group-feeding the two sibs in a common pen and, for meat quality traits, as an effect of the common slaughter-day environment , as

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    quality traits, as an effect of the « common slaughter-day environment », as the two sibs were usuallyconsidered, for ADG, as a consequence of group-feeding the two sibs in a common pen and, for meat estimates under individual feeding. The genetic correlations between meat quality and the other traits were

  1. Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Eggshell Quality in an F 2 Population Derived from Strong and Weak Eggshell Lines of the White Leghorn Chicken Breed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    De-ji YANG; O Sasaki; M Minezawa; K Nirasawa; H Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    Broken and cracked eggshells cause major economic losses to the egg production industry. An F2 population of 262 hens obtained by crossing a strong egg shell line with a weak egg shell line of the White Leghorn breed was used for detecting the quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting eggshell quality. The 2 lines were developed from the same founder population

  2. Changes in muscle cell cation regulation and meat quality traits are associated with genetic selection for high body weight and meat yield in broiler chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale A Sandercock; Zoe E Barker; Malcolm A Mitchell; Paul M Hocking

    2009-01-01

    Between-breed genetic variation for muscle and meat quality traits was determined at eight weeks of age in 34 lines of purebred commercial broiler and layer lines and traditional breeds (categories) of chickens. Between-breed genetic variation for plasma ion concentrations and element concentration in muscle dry matter and ash were determined. Plasma from broilers had higher concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg++,

  3. Identification of cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci using intraspecific crosses derived from two near-isogenic lines differing in fiber bundle strength.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber properties are very important to the yarn quality. Modern high-speed textile operations around the world require long, strong and fine cotton fibers. The objective of this research was to identify stable fiber quantitative trait loci (QTL) that could be used in cotton breeding through m...

  4. The interaction between calpastatin and RYR1 genes for some pork quality traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ko?win-Podsiad?a; J. Kury?; E. Krz?cio; A. Zybert; W. Przybylski

    2003-01-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate a relationship between polymorphism's of calapastatin gene (CAST) identified with HinfI, MspI and RsaI restriction endonucleases in pigs and meat quality characteristics and also interactions between CAST and RYR1 genes. Investigations were carried out on group of 89 fatteners being crosses of (Polish Large White×Polish Landrace)×(Hampshire×Pietrain). Some meat quality characteristics, glycolytic potential

  5. Effects of Postmortem Injection Time, Injection Level, and Concentration of Calcium Chloride on Beef Quality Traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Wheeler; M. Koohmaraie; J. L. Lansdell; G. R. Siragusa; M. F. Miller

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the optimum protocol for maximizing meat quality with CaC12 injection. Experiment 1 compared the effects of 30 min or 24 h postmortem injection of 175 mM CaCl2 or water at 10% (wt\\/wt) to controls on various measures of meat quality. An injection of CaC12 reduced (P < .05) shear force values in all three

  6. The use of wood for wind turbine blade construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gougeon; M. Zuteck

    1979-01-01

    The interrelationships between moisture and wood, conditions for dry rot spore activity, the protection of wood fibers from moisture, wood resin composites, wood laminating, quality control, and the mechanical properties of wood are discussed. The laminated veneer and the bonded sawn stock fabrication techniques, used in the construction of a turbine blade with a monocoque 'D' section forming the leading

  7. Genetic variances, heritabilities and maternal effects on body weight, breast meat yield, meat quality traits and the shape of the growth curve in turkey birds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Turkey is an important agricultural species and is largely used as a meat bird. In 2004, turkey represented 6.5% of the world poultry meat production. The world-wide turkey population has rapidly grown due to increased commercial farming. Due to the high demand for turkey meat from both consumers and industry global turkey stocks increased from 100 million in 1970 to over 276 million in 2004. This rapidly increasing importance of turkeys was a reason to design this study for the estimation of genetic parameters that control body weight, body composition, meat quality traits and parameters that shape the growth curve in turkey birds. Results The average heritability estimate for body weight traits was 0.38, except for early weights that were strongly affected by maternal effects. This study showed that body weight traits, upper asymptote (a growth curve trait), percent breast meat and redness of meat had high heritability whereas heritabilities of breast length, breast width, percent drip loss, ultimate pH, lightness and yellowness of meat were medium to low. We found high positive genetic and phenotypic correlations between body weight, upper asymptote, most breast meat yield traits and percent drip loss but percent drip loss was found strongly negatively correlated with ultimate pH. Percent breast meat, however, showed genetic correlations close to zero with body weight traits and upper asymptote. Conclusion The results of this analysis and the growth curve from the studied population of turkey birds suggest that the turkey birds could be selected for breeding between 60 and 80 days of age in order to improve overall production and the production of desirable cuts of meat. The continuous selection of birds within this age range could promote high growth rates but specific attention to meat quality would be needed to avoid a negative impact on the quality of meat. PMID:21266032

  8. The association of CAPN1 316 marker genotypes with growth and meat quality traits of steers finished on pasture.

    PubMed

    Miquel, María C; Villarreal, Edgardo; Mezzadra, Carlos; Melucci, Lilia; Soria, Liliana; Corva, Pablo; Schor, Alejandro

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the association of a SNP in the ?-calpain gene at position 316 with growth and quality of meat traits of steers grown on pasture. Fifty-nine Brangus and 20 Angus steers were genotyped for CAPN1 316. Warner Bratzler shear force was measured in l. lumborum samples after a 7-day aging period. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed, including shear force (WBSF), final weight (FW), average daily gain (ADG), backfat thickness (BFT), average monthly fat thickness gain (AMFTG), rib-eye area (REA), and beef rib-eye depth (RED) as dependent variables. The CAPN1 316 genotype was statistically significant. Univariate analyses were done with these variables. The marker genotype was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for WBSF (kg: CC: 4.41 ± 0.57; CG: 5.58 ± 0.20; GG: 6.29 ± 0.18), FW (kg: CC: 360.23 ± 14.71; CG: 381.34 ± 5.26; GG: 399.23 ± 4.68), and ADG (kg/d: CC: 0.675 ± 0.046; CG: 0.705 ± 0.016; GG: 0.765 ± 0.014) Shear force, final weight and average daily gain were significantly different according to the CAPN1 316 marker genotypes. The marker genotype was statistically significant in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.001). The first characteristic root explained 89% of the differences among genotypes. WBSF, FW and ADG were the most important traits in the first vector, indicating that animals with the marker genotype for lowest WBSF also have the lowest FW and ADG. PMID:21637511

  9. Effects of Variants in Proopiomelanocortin and Neuropeptide Y Genes on Growth, Carcass, and Meat Quality Traits in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-Chao; Chen, Shi-Yi; Jia, Xian-Bo; Wang, Jie; Lai, Song-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Appetite-related neuropeptides proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) are essential for regulating feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of variants in POMC and NPY genes on growth, carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits. A total of six SNPs were identified for POMC (n = 2) and NPY (n = 4) genes by direct sequencing. Three SNPs were subsequently genotyped by using MassArray system (Sequenom iPLEXassay) in 235 individuals, which belong to three meat rabbit breeds, including 93 Ira rabbits; 81 Champagne rabbits and 61 Tianfu black rabbits. The SNP c.112-12G>T was in intron-exon boundaries (intron 1) of POMC gene, and the association analysis showed that individuals with TT genotype had a greater 84 d body weight (BW84), eviscerated weight and semi-eviscerated weight than those with GT genotype (p<0.05); the TT individuals were also higher than those GG in the ripe meat ratio (RMR) (p<0.05). The g.1778G>C SNP, which was in complete linkage with other three SNPs (g.1491G>A, g.1525G>T and g.1530C>T) in intron 1 of NPY gene, was significantly correlated with eviscerated slaughter percentage and semi-eviscerated slaughter percentage in rabbits, and the individuals with CC genotype had a better performance than CG genotype (p<0.05). These findings would provide primary clues for the biological roles of POMC and NPY underlying the rabbit growth-related traits. PMID:25049995

  10. The association of CAPN1 316 marker genotypes with growth and meat quality traits of steers finished on pasture

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the association of a SNP in the ?-calpain gene at position 316 with growth and quality of meat traits of steers grown on pasture. Fifty-nine Brangus and 20 Angus steers were genotyped for CAPN1 316. Warner Bratzler shear force was measured in l. lumborum samples after a 7-day aging period. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed, including shear force (WBSF), final weight (FW), average daily gain (ADG), backfat thickness (BFT), average monthly fat thickness gain (AMFTG), rib-eye area (REA), and beef rib-eye depth (RED) as dependent variables. The CAPN1 316 genotype was statistically significant. Univariate analyses were done with these variables. The marker genotype was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for WBSF (kg: CC: 4.41 ± 0.57; CG: 5.58 ± 0.20; GG: 6.29 ± 0.18), FW (kg: CC: 360.23 ± 14.71; CG: 381.34 ± 5.26; GG: 399.23 ± 4.68), and ADG (kg/d: CC: 0.675 ± 0.046; CG: 0.705 ± 0.016; GG: 0.765 ± 0.014) Shear force, final weight and average daily gain were significantly different according to the CAPN1 316 marker genotypes. The marker genotype was statistically significant in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.001). The first characteristic root explained 89% of the differences among genotypes. WBSF, FW and ADG were the most important traits in the first vector, indicating that animals with the marker genotype for lowest WBSF also have the lowest FW and ADG. PMID:21637511

  11. Automated Single-Kernel Sorting to Select for Quality Traits in Wheat Breeding Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An automated single kernel near-infrared system was used to select kernels to enhance the end-use quality of hard red wheat breeder samples. Twenty breeding populations and advanced lines were sorted for hardness index, protein content, and kernel color. To determine if the phenotypic sorting was b...

  12. Silicon supplements affect floricultural quality traits and elemental nutrient concentrations of greenhouse produced gerbera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophia Kamenidou; Todd J. Cavins; Stephen Marek

    2010-01-01

    In greenhouse production most floricultural crops are cultivated in soilless substrates with limited concentrations of the beneficial element silicon (Si). Inclusion of supplemental silicon in greenhouse production is reported to affect the quality of several herbaceous plants that accumulate Si in their tissue. The goals of this study were to evaluate the effects of different Si sources and concentrations on

  13. Influence of production system in local and conventional pig breeds on stress indicators at slaughter, muscle and meat traits and pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Bonhomme, N; Méteau, K; Prunier, A

    2015-08-01

    Sensory quality of pork is a complex phenotype determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study aimed at describing the respective influences of breed and production system on the development of pork quality. Plasma stress indicators and Longissimus muscle (LM) composition, physicochemical and sensory quality traits were determined in two contrasted breeds - the conventional Large White (LW, n=40) and the French local Basque (B, n=60). Pigs were reared in either a conventional (C; n=20 per breed), alternative (A; sawdust bedding and outdoor area, n=20 per breed) or extensive system (E; free-range, n=20 B). All the pigs from A and C systems were slaughtered at the same slaughterhouse, whereas B pigs from the E system were slaughtered at a local commercial abattoir. Major breed differences were found for almost all traits under study. LM from B pigs exhibited higher lipid, lower water and collagen concentrations, as well as lower collagen thermal solubility (P0.05) influence plasma stress indicators, LM chemical composition and physicochemical or sensory traits of pork. In contrast, within the B pigs, the E system affected the meat quality more. Lower plasma cortisol levels (P<0.05), but higher plasma lactate, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and more skin lesions (P<0.05), indicating higher muscular activity during pre-slaughter handling, were found in pigs produced in the E compared with the C system. E pigs exhibited higher meat pH1 and pHu values and shear force (P<0.01) and exhibited lower lightness, hue angle and drip and thawing losses (P<0.01) compared with the C pigs, whereas LM lipid, protein or collagen concentrations were not affected. Regarding sensory traits, the E system produced redder meat, but did not impact the eating quality of pork. Altogether, this study demonstrates that differences in meat quality between B and LW breeds can be modulated by extensive pig production system. PMID:25908582

  14. Effects of Crossbreeding and Gender on the Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Korean Native Black Pig and Duroc Crossbred

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin; Panjono; Lee, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jeong Koo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe the effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of Korean Native Black Pig (KNP) and KNP×Duroc crossbred (KNP×D). A total of 50 pigs comprising seven KNP barrows, eight KNP gilts, twenty KNP×D barrows and fifteen KNP×D gilts were used in this study. Animals were reared in the same housing condition with same feed diet for six months prior to slaughter. After an overnight chilling, the carcasses were graded, and samples of Musculus longissimus dorsi were obtained for meat quality analysis. The slaughter and carcass weights and dressing percentage of KNP×D were higher (p<0.001) than those of KNP. The slaughter and carcass weights and backfat thickness of barrows were higher (p<0.01) than those of gilts. There were no significant difference in carcass conformation and quality grade between KNP and KNP×D as well as barrow and gilt. Fat content of KNP×D was higher (p<0.001) than that of KNP. Fat content of barrow was higher (p<0.001) than that of gilt. There was interaction between crossbreeding and gender on the fat content. KNP gilt showed higher fat content than KNP barrow whereas KNP×D barrow showed higher fat content than KNP×D gilt. Lightness, redness, yellowness, chroma and hue angle values and color preference of meat of KNP×D were lower (p<0.001) than those of KNP. Redness, yellowness and chroma values of meat of barrow were lower (p<0.05) than those of gilt. It is concluded that crossbreeding KNP with Duroc increases carcass productivity and meat fat but decreases meat color values and preference. Crossbreeding of KNP with Duroc produces a better fat deposition in meat of barrows than in gilts. PMID:25050045

  15. Comparison of NIRS approach for prediction of internal quality traits in three fruit species.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabrieli Alves; Bureau, Sylvie; Renard, Catherine Marie-Geneviève Claire; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; de Castilhos, Fernanda

    2014-01-15

    NIR Spectroscopy ability was investigated to assess the fruit structure effect (passion fruit, tomato and apricot) on prediction performance of soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA). Relationships between spectral wavelengths and SSC and TA were evaluated through the application of chemometric techniques based on partial least squares (PLS). Good prediction performance was obtained for apricot with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.95 for SSC and TA and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP%) of 3.3% and 14.2%, respectively. For the passion fruit and tomato, the prediction models were not satisfactorily accurate due to the high RMSEP. Results showed that NIR technology can be used to evaluate apricot internal quality, however, it was not appropriate to evaluate internal quality in fruits with thick skin, (passion fruit), and/or heterogeneous internal structure (tomato). PMID:24054234

  16. Cytoplasmic effects on quality traits of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ekiz; A. Safi Kiral; A. Akçin; L. Simsek

    1998-01-01

    The inheritances of thousand kernel weight (TKW), protein percentage, protein quality and grain hardness were studied through\\u000a an 11 x 11 complete diallel set of bread wheat genotypes consisting of four alloplasmic lines of Selkirk, two alloplasmic\\u000a lines of Siete Cerros 66, and five commercial cultivars. Genetic components accounted for 93%, 90%, 78%, and 92% of total\\u000a variation for TKW,

  17. Genetic variability and interrelationship among various morphological and quality traits in quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atul Bhargava; Sudhir Shukla; Deepak Ohri

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation of seed yield, morphological variability and nutritional quality of 27 germplasm lines of Chenopodium quinoa and 2 lines of C. berlandieri subsp. nuttalliae was carried out in subtropical North Indian conditions over a 2-year period. Seed yield ranged from 0.32 to 9.83t\\/ha, higher yields being shown by four Chilean, two US, one Argentinian and one Bolivian line. Two lines

  18. Identification of QTL controlling meat quality traits in an F2 cross between two chicken lines selected for either low or high growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Nadaf, Javad; Gilbert, Hélène; Pitel, Frédérique; Berri, Cécile M; Feve, Katia; Beaumont, Catherine; Duclos, Michel J; Vignal, Alain; Porter, Tom E; Simon, Jean; Aggrey, Samuel E; Cogburn, Larry A; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background Meat technological traits (i.e. meat pH, water retention and color) are important considerations for improving further processing of chicken meat. These quality traits were originally characterized in experimental lines selected for high (HG) and low (LG) growth. Presently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits were analyzed in an F2 population issued from the HG × LG cross. A total of 698 animals in 50 full-sib families were genotyped for 108 microsatellite markers covering 21 linkage groups. Results The HG and LG birds exhibit large differences in body weight and abdominal fat content. Several meat quality traits [pH at 15 min post-slaughter (pH15) and ultimate pH (pHu), breast color-redness (BCo-R) and breast color-yellowness (BCo-Y)] were lower in HG chickens. In contrast, meat color-lightness (BCo-L) was higher in HG chickens, whereas meat drip loss (DL) was similar in both lines. HG birds were more active on the shackle line. Association analyses were performed using maximum-likelihood interval mapping in QTLMAP. Five genome-wide significant QTLs were revealed: two for pH15 on GGA1 and GGA2, one for DL on GGA1, one for BCo-R and one for BCo-Y both on GGA11. In addition, four suggestive QTLs were identified by QTLMAP for BCo-Y, pHu, pH15 and DL on GGA1, GGA4, GGA12 and GGA14, respectively. The QTL effects, averaged on heterozygous families, ranged from 12 to 31% of the phenotypic variance. Further analyses with QTLExpress confirmed the two genome-wide QTLs for meat color on GGA11, failed to identify the genome-wide QTL for pH15 on GGA2, and revealed only suggestive QTLs for pH15 and DL on GGA1. However, QTLExpress qualified the QTL for pHu on GGA4 as genome-wide. Conclusion The present study identified genome-wide significant QTLs for all meat technological traits presently assessed in these chickens, except for meat lightness. This study highlights the effects of divergent selection for growth rate on some behavioral traits, muscle biochemistry and ultimately meat quality traits. Several QTL regions were identified that are worthy of further characterization. Some QTLs may in fact co-localize, suggesting pleiotropic effects for some chromosomal regions. PMID:17559654

  19. Mapping of QTLs for morpho-agronomic and seed quality traits in a RIL population of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Vega, Elena; Pañeda, Astrid; Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Campa, Ana; Giraldez, Ramón; Ferreira, Juan José

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling phenological traits (days to flowering, days to end of flowering, days to harvest as green pod, and days to maturity), seed size traits (seed length, seed height, seed width, and seed weight), and seed quality traits (water absorption, and coat proportion), in common bean. A population of 104 F(7) recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an inter-gene pool cross between Xana, and Cornell 49242, was used to develop a genetic linkage map including 175 AFLPs, 27 microsatellites, 30 SCARs, 33 ISSRs, 12 RAPDs, 13 loci codifying for seed proteins, and the four genes Fin,fin (growth habit); Asp,asp (seed coat shininess); P,p (seed color); and I,i (resistance to bean common mosaic virus). The map has a total length of 1,042 cM distributed across 11 linkage groups aligned to those of the core linkage map of bean using common molecular markers as anchor points. The QTL analyses were carried out over three environments using the mean environment data with composite interval mapping. Thirty-one QTLs for ten traits were found to be significant in at least one environment and in the mean environment data, the number of significant QTLs identified per trait ranging from two to five. Twenty-seven of these QTLs mapped forming clusters in eight different chromosomal regions. The rationale for this clustered mapping and the possible relationship between some QTLs for phenological traits and the genes Fin and I are discussed. PMID:20084493

  20. Genetics of Eucalyptus wood properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn A. Raymond

    2002-01-01

    Traditional methods of assessing wood properties are both destructive and expensive, limiting the numbers of samples that can be processed. Over the past decade, non-destructive sampling techniques and new assessment methods have been developed leading to a large increase in the numbers of trees and traits that can be evaluated. This technology has enabled the assessment of progeny trials to

  1. Untargeted Metabolic Quantitative Trait Loci Analyses Reveal a Relationship between Primary Metabolism and Potato Tuber Quality1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Carreno-Quintero, Natalia; Acharjee, Animesh; Maliepaard, Chris; Bachem, Christian W.B.; Mumm, Roland; Bouwmeester, Harro; Visser, Richard G.F.; Keurentjes, Joost J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in -omics technologies such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics along with genotypic profiling have permitted dissection of the genetics of complex traits represented by molecular phenotypes in nonmodel species. To identify the genetic factors underlying variation in primary metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum), we have profiled primary metabolite content in a diploid potato mapping population, derived from crosses between S. tuberosum and wild relatives, using gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry. In total, 139 polar metabolites were detected, of which we identified metabolite quantitative trait loci for approximately 72% of the detected compounds. In order to obtain an insight into the relationships between metabolic traits and classical phenotypic traits, we also analyzed statistical associations between them. The combined analysis of genetic information through quantitative trait locus coincidence and the application of statistical learning methods provide information on putative indicators associated with the alterations in metabolic networks that affect complex phenotypic traits. PMID:22223596

  2. Tissue expression and predicted protein structures of the bovine ANGPTL3 and association of novel SNPs with growth and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Chen, N B; Ma, Y; Yang, T; Lin, F; Fu, W W; Xu, Y J; Li, F; Li, J Y; Gao, S X

    2015-08-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) is a secreted protein that regulates lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. This study was conducted to better understand the effect of ANGPTL3 on important economic traits in cattle. First, transcript profiles for ANGPTL3 were measured in nine different Jiaxian cattle tissues. Second, polymorphisms were identified in the complete coding region and promoter region of the bovine ANGPTL3 gene in 707 cattle samples. Finally, an association study was carried out utilizing these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to determine the effect of these SNPs on the growth and meat quality traits. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that ANGPTL3 was mainly expressed in the liver. The promoter of the bovine ANGPTL3 contained several putative transcription factor binding sites (SF1, HNF-1, LXR?, NF??, HNF-3 and C/EBP). In total, four SNPs of the bovine ANGPTL3 gene were identified by direct sequencing. SNP1 (rs469906272: g.-38T>C) was identified in the promoter, SNP2 (rs451104723:g.104A>T) and SNP3 (rs482516226: g.509A>G) were identified in exon 1, and SNP4 (rs477165942: g.8661T>C) was identified in exon 6. Changes in predicted protein structures due to non-synonymous SNPs were analyzed. Haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium were also investigated. Analysis of four SNPs in cattle from different native Chinese breeds (Nanyang (NY) and Jiaxian (JX)) and commercial breeds (Angus (AG), Hereford (HF), Limousin (LM), Luxi (LX), Simmental (ST) and Jinnan (JN)) revealed a significant association with growth traits (including: BW and hipbone width) and meat quality traits (including: Warner-Bratzler shear force and ribeye area). Therefore, implementation of these four mutations in selection indices in the beef industry may be beneficial in selecting individuals with superior growth and meat quality traits. PMID:25951897

  3. A Whole Genome Association Study on Meat Quality Traits Using High Density SNP Chips in a Cross between Korean Native Pig and Landrace

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K.-T; Lee, Y.-M.; Alam, M.; Choi, B. H.; Park, M. R.; Kim, K.-S.; Kim, T.-H.; Kim, J.-J.

    2012-01-01

    A whole genome association (WGA) study was performed to detect significant polymorphisms for meat quality traits in an F2 cross population (N = 478) that were generated with Korean native pig sires and Landrace dams in National Livestock Research Institute, Songwhan, Korea. The animals were genotyped using Illumina porcine 60k SNP beadchips, in which a set of 46,865 SNPs were available for the WGA analyses on ten carcass quality traits; live weight, crude protein, crude lipids, crude ash, water holding capacity, drip loss, shear force, CIE L, CIE a and CIE b. Phenotypes were regressed on additive and dominance effects for each SNP using a simple linear regression model, after adjusting for sex, sire and slaughter stage as fixed effects. With the significant SNPs for each trait (p<0.001), a stepwise regression procedure was applied to determine the best set of SNPs with the additive and/or dominance effects. A total of 106 SNPs, or quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected, and about 32 to 66% of the total phenotypic variation was explained by the significant SNPs for each trait. The QTL were identified in most porcine chromosomes (SSCs), in which majority of the QTL were detected in SSCs 1, 2, 12, 13, 14 and 16. Several QTL clusters were identified on SSCs 12, 16 and 17, and a cluster of QTL influencing crude protein, crude lipid, drip loss, shear force, CIE a and CIE b were located between 20 and 29 Mb of SSC12. A pleiotropic QTL for drip loss, CIE L and CIE b was also detected on SSC16. These QTL need to be validated in commercial pig populations for genetic improvement in meat quality via marker-assisted selection. PMID:25049513

  4. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms of the bovine methyltransferase 3b gene and their association with meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Guo, X Y; Xu, X Z; Wu, M; Zhang, X; Li, Q; Ma, P P; Zhang, Y; Wang, C Y; Geng, F J; Qin, C H; Liu, L; Shi, W H; Wang, Y C; Yu, Y

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential for adipose deposition in mammals. We screened SNPs of the bovine DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) gene in Snow Dragon beef, a commercial beef cattle population in China. Nine SNPs were found in the population and three of six novel SNPs were chosen for genotyping and analyzing a possible association with 16 meat quality traits. The frequencies of the alleles and genotypes of the three SNPs in Snow Dragon beef were similar to those in their terminal-paternal breed, Wagyu. Association analysis disclosed that SNP1 was not associated with any of the traits; SNP2 was significantly associated with lean meat color score and chuck short rib score, and SNP3 had a significant effect on dressing percentage and back-fat thickness in the beef population. The individuals with genotype GG for SNP2 had a 25.7% increase in lean meat color score and a 146% increase in chuck short rib score, compared with genotype AA. The cattle with genotype AG for SNP3 had 35.7 and 24% increases in dressing percentage and 28.8 and 29.2% increases in back-fat thickness, compared with genotypes GG and AA, respectively. Genotypic combination analysis revealed significant interactions between SNP1 and SNP2 and between SNP2 and SNP3 for the traits rib-eye area and live weight. We conclude that there is considerable evidence that DNMT3b is a determiner of beef quality traits. PMID:22843074

  5. Sponge and dough bread making: genetic and phenotypic relationships with wheat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Colin R; Taylor, Julian; Larroque, Oscar; Coombes, Neil; Verbyla, Arunas P; Nath, Zena; Kutty, Ibrahim; Rampling, Lynette; Butow, Barbara; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Tomoskozi, Sandor; Balazs, Gabor; Békés, Ferenc; Mann, Gulay; Quail, Ken J; Southan, Michael; Morell, Matthew K; Newberry, Marcus

    2010-09-01

    The genetic and phenotypic relationships among wheat quality predictors and sponge and dough bread making were evaluated in a population derived from a cross between an Australian cultivar 'Chara' and a Canadian cultivar 'Glenlea'. The genetic correlation across sites for sponge and dough loaf volume was high; however, phenotypic correlations across sites for loaf volume were relatively low compared with rheological tests. The large difference between sites was most likely due to temperature differences during grain development reflected in a decrease in the percentage of unextractable polymeric protein and mixing time. Predictive tests (mixograph, extensograph, protein content and composition, micro-zeleny and flour viscosity) showed inconsistent and generally poor correlations with end-product performance (baking volume and slice area) at both sites, with no single parameter being effective as a predictor of end-product performance. The difference in the relationships between genetic and phenotypic correlations highlights the requirement to develop alternative methods of selection for breeders and bakers in order to maximise both genetic gain and predictive assessment of grain quality. PMID:20495901

  6. Association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms of fatty acid synthase gene and meat quality traits in Datong Yak (Bos grunniens).

    PubMed

    Chu, M; Wu, X Y; Guo, X; Pei, J; Jiao, F; Fang, H T; Liang, C N; Ding, X Z; Bao, P J; Yan, P

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is a key enzyme in fatty acid anabolism that plays an important role in the fat deposit of eukaryotic cells. Therefore, in this study, we detected 2 novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FASN gene in 313 adult individuals of Datong yak using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing techniques. SNP g.5477C>T is located in intron 3 of FASN, and 3 genotypes, HH, HG, and GG, were detected in this mutation site. SNP g.16930T>A is located in exon 37 of FASN, and 2 genotypes, EE and EF, were detected in this site. Association analysis of these 2 SNPs with meat quality traits showed that in SNP g.5477C>T, yaks with the HH genotype and HG genotype had significantly higher intramuscular fat content than individuals with the GG genotype (P < 0.01). In SNP g.16930T>A, yaks with the EE genotype also had significantly higher IMF content than individuals with the EF genotype (P < 0.01). The results indicate that FASN may be used as a candidate gene affecting intramuscular fat content in Datong yaks. PMID:25867409

  7. Association of PPAR?2 polymorphisms with carcass and meat quality traits in a Pietrain x Jinhua F2 population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Xiaoling; Guo, Xiaoling; Lv, Zunzhou; Zhou, Hongmei; Xu, Ningying

    2011-01-01

    The PPAR?2 gene is a key regulator of both proliferation and preadipocyte differentiation in mammals. Herein its genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed using PCR-SSCP in eight pig breeds (N = 416). Two kinds of polymorphisms of the PPAR?2 gene were detected, including a previously reported shift SNP A177G (Met59Val) in exon 1 and a novel silent mutation G876A in exon 5. The results revealed that European pig breeds carry a higher allele A frequency at the A177G locus and a fixed GG genotype at the G876A locus. Allele A at the G876A locus was only found in Jinhua pigs. The association between haplotype (A177G/G876A) and carcass and meat quality traits was analyzed in a Pietrain x Jinhua F2 population (N = 248). The PPAR?2 gene was found to be significantly associated with backfat thickness at the shoulder (p < 0.05), 6–7th ribs (p < 0.01), last rib (p < 0.01), gluteus medius (p <0.05) and ham weight (p < 0.01). Significant effects of different haplotypes on ham weight and backfat thickness at the 6–7th ribs, last rib, and gluteus medius were also observed. PMID:21637544

  8. Wood Quality: The Effects

    E-print Network

    is to minimize competition-related mortality. Key PointsKey Points Steve Fitzgerald, OSU Extension #12;#12;#12;Maximum volume yield? of thinnings and final harvest? Large diameter of crop trees? Short rotations? Top;Trees/acre Treesize Zone of competition mortality Optimum growth zone Crown closure #12;#12;Crossover

  9. Effects of corn distillers dried grains with solubles on quality traits of pork.

    PubMed

    McClelland, K M; Rentfrow, G; Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D; Azain, M J

    2012-11-01

    The high cost of feed grains has led swine producers to seek alternative feedstuffs, such as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). However, little is known about the effects of high levels of DDGS in swine diets on pork quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate belly processing and bacon, sausage, and loin quality of pigs fed high levels of DDGS. Sixty pigs averaging 34 kg BW were fed fortifi ed corn-soybean meal diets containing 0%, 15%, 30%, or 45% DDGS. At 120 kg BW, the pigs were humanely harvested and bellies, loins, and shoulders were removed from the left side of each carcass. Flex tests of bellies indicated that they became softer (linear, P < 0.03) as DDGS levels increased. The PUFA in backfat and belly fat increased linearly (P < 0.005), as did iodine values with increasing 0DDGS in the diet. Bellies were pumped to target 12% brine retention, cooked, and sliced at a commercial facility. Slicing yield was not affected by DDGS level fed. Fresh bacon slices were scored 1 to 6 with 1 representing no visible cracks in the fat and 6 representing a spider weblike shattering of the fat. Shatter scores decreased (linear, P < 0.001) with increasing dietary DDGS. Bratwurststyle sausage was produced by combining ground Boston butts and picnics to target 30% fat, blended with commercial seasonings, and stuffed into natural casings. Loose sausage was placed on trays, overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride wrap, and stored under constant, cool white fl orescent lighting (1,300 lx) at 4°C. Objective color values (L*, a*, and b*) were taken on loosepackaged sausage mix at 6 locations at the same time daily for 7 d. Sausage was also sampled for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at the same time daily on d 0, 3, 5, and 7. Color scores of sausage were not consistently affected by DDGS level in the diet and the changes were slight. The TBARS in sausage from pigs fed the 30% and 45% DDGS diets increased to a greater extent from d 0 to 7 than in those fed the control or 15% DDGS diets. An 8-member, trained panel evaluated the sensory attributes of bacon slices, sausage, and loin chops. The DDGS resulted in a softer texture (P < 0.004) and increased juiciness (P < 0.04) in sausages, but no differences in sensory scores were found in bacon slices or loin chops. The results indicate that the softer bellies, greater concentrations of PUFA in carcass fat, and greater iodine values associated with feeding increased DDGS did not negatively affect slicing yield of cured bellies, quality of fresh bacon slices, or eating quality of bacon, sausage, or loin chops. PMID:22952373

  10. The Impact of Sawmill Wood Wastes on the Water Quality and Fish Communities of Benin River, Niger Delta Area, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis O. Arimoro; Robert B. Ikomi; Efe C. Osalor

    The impact of sawmill wood wastes on the distribution of fish at the Sapele section of Benin River, Niger Delta, Nigeria was investigated from March to August 2005. A total of 558 individuals were collected by the fishing gear used, representing 23 taxa and 11 families. Three stations 1, 2 and 3 were selected from upstream of the site receiving

  11. Implications of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities on quality traits of raw and marinated chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Mudalal, S; Lorenzi, M; Soglia, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2015-04-01

    One of the consequences of intense genetic selection for growth of poultry is the recent appearance of abnormalities in chicken breast muscles, such as white striping (characterised by superficial white striations) and wooden breast (characterised by pale and bulged areas with substantial hardness). The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality traits of chicken fillets affected by white striping and wooden breast abnormalities. In two replications, 192 fillets were divided into the following four classes: normal (n=48; absence of any visual defects), white striping (n=48, presence of white striations), wooden breast (n=48; diffusely presence of hardened areas) and white striping/wooden breast (n=48; fillets affected by both abnormalities). Morphology, raw meat texture and technological properties were assessed in both unprocessed (pH, colour, drip loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force) and marinated meat (marinade uptake, purge loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force). Fillets affected by white striping, wooden breast or both abnormalities exhibited higher breast weights compared with normal fillets (305.5, 298.7, 318.3 and 244.7 g, respectively; P<0.001). Wooden breast, either alone or in combination with white striping, was associated with a significant (P<0.001) increase of fillet thickness in the caudal area and raw meat hardness compared with both normal and the white striping abnormality, for which there was no difference. Overall, the occurrence of the individual and combined white striping and wooden breast abnormalities resulted in substantial reduction in the quality of breast meat, although these abnormalities are associated with distinct characteristics. Wooden breast fillets showed lower marinade uptake and higher cooking losses than white-striped fillets for both unprocessed and marinated meats. On the other hand, white-striped fillets showed a moderate decline in marinade and cooking yield. Fillets affected by both abnormalities had the highest (P<0.001) ultimate pH values. In contrast, the effects on colour of raw and cooked meat, drip loss, purge loss and cooked meat shear force were negligible or relatively low and of little practical importance. Thus, the presence of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities impair not only breast meat appearance but also the quality of both raw and marinated meats mainly by reducing water holding/binding abilities. PMID:25500004

  12. Identification of QTLs for fruit quality traits in Japanese apples: QTLs for early ripening are tightly related to preharvest fruit drop

    PubMed Central

    Kunihisa, Miyuki; Moriya, Shigeki; Abe, Kazuyuki; Okada, Kazuma; Haji, Takashi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kim, Hoytaek; Nishitani, Chikako; Terakami, Shingo; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    Many important apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit quality traits are regulated by multiple genes, and more information about quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits is required for marker-assisted selection. In this study, we constructed genetic linkage maps of the Japanese apple cultivars ‘Orin’ and ‘Akane’ using F1 seedlings derived from a cross between these cultivars. The ‘Orin’ map consisted of 251 loci covering 17 linkage groups (LGs; total length 1095.3 cM), and the ‘Akane’ map consisted of 291 loci covering 18 LGs (total length 1098.2 cM). We performed QTL analysis for 16 important traits, and found that four QTLs related to harvest time explained about 70% of genetic variation, and these will be useful for marker-assisted selection. The QTL for early harvest time in LG15 was located very close to the QTL for preharvest fruit drop. The QTL for skin color depth was located around the position of MYB1 in LG9, which suggested that alleles harbored by ‘Akane’ are regulating red color depth with different degrees of effect. We also analyzed soluble solids and sugar component contents, and found that a QTL for soluble solids content in LG16 could be explained by the amount of sorbitol and fructose. PMID:25320559

  13. Identification of QTLs for fruit quality traits in Japanese apples: QTLs for early ripening are tightly related to preharvest fruit drop.

    PubMed

    Kunihisa, Miyuki; Moriya, Shigeki; Abe, Kazuyuki; Okada, Kazuma; Haji, Takashi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kim, Hoytaek; Nishitani, Chikako; Terakami, Shingo; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2014-09-01

    Many important apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit quality traits are regulated by multiple genes, and more information about quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits is required for marker-assisted selection. In this study, we constructed genetic linkage maps of the Japanese apple cultivars 'Orin' and 'Akane' using F1 seedlings derived from a cross between these cultivars. The 'Orin' map consisted of 251 loci covering 17 linkage groups (LGs; total length 1095.3 cM), and the 'Akane' map consisted of 291 loci covering 18 LGs (total length 1098.2 cM). We performed QTL analysis for 16 important traits, and found that four QTLs related to harvest time explained about 70% of genetic variation, and these will be useful for marker-assisted selection. The QTL for early harvest time in LG15 was located very close to the QTL for preharvest fruit drop. The QTL for skin color depth was located around the position of MYB1 in LG9, which suggested that alleles harbored by 'Akane' are regulating red color depth with different degrees of effect. We also analyzed soluble solids and sugar component contents, and found that a QTL for soluble solids content in LG16 could be explained by the amount of sorbitol and fructose. PMID:25320559

  14. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) Associated with Maintenance of Bread Making Quality under Heat Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum) 

    E-print Network

    Beecher, Francis Ward

    2010-10-12

    . Due to the amount of DNA required and the difficulty of the testing procedure, RFLPs have been largely replaced by PCR based genetic markers. Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is another technique used to identify DNA markers...). The reduction in grain weight induced by heat stress has not been shown to affect grain germination rates (Banowetz et al. 1999). Mapping of QTLs Traits in crop species are typically divided into two types: qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative traits...

  15. A high-throughput assay for rapid and simultaneous analysis of perfect markers for important quality and agronomic traits in rice using multiplexed MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Masouleh, Ardashir K; Waters, Daniel L E; Reinke, Russel F; Henry, Robert J

    2009-05-01

    The application of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in plant breeding involves the analysis of a large number of samples, and therefore requires rapid, inexpensive and highly automated multiplex methods to genotype the sequence variants. We have optimized a high-throughput multiplexed SNP assay for eight polymorphisms which explain two agronomic and three grain quality traits in rice. Gene fragments coding for the agronomic traits plant height (semi-dwarf, sd-1) and blast disease resistance (Pi-ta) and the quality traits amylose content (waxy), gelatinization temperature (alk) and fragrance (fgr) were amplified in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. A single base extension reaction carried out at the polymorphism responsible for each of these phenotypes within these genes generated extension products which were quantified by a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight system. The assay detects both SNPs and indels and is co-dominant, simultaneously detecting both homozygous and heterozygous samples in a multiplex system. This assay analyses eight functional polymorphisms in one 5 microL reaction, demonstrating the high-throughput and cost-effective capability of this system. At this conservative level of multiplexing, 3072 assays can be performed in a single 384-well microtitre plate, allowing the rapid production of valuable information for selection in rice breeding. PMID:19379284

  16. Mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting eggshell quality on chromosome 9 in an F(2) intercross between two chicken lines divergently selected for eggshell strength.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Yang, D; Sasaki, O; Furukawa, T; Nirasawa, K

    2009-10-01

    Broken and cracked eggshells are major causes of significant economic losses to the egg production industry. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 9 influencing the quality of eggshells were identified by analysing an intercross between two parent lines developed from the same founder population by a two-way selection for eggshell strength with non-destructive deformation conducted over 14 generations. Chromosome-wide highly significant (P < 0.01) QTL associated with egg weight (EW), short length of egg (SLE), long length of egg (LLE) and eggshell weight were mapped to the distal region of chromosome 9. Among the QTL affecting EW, SLE and LLE, ovocalyxin-32 was identified as a potential candidate gene influencing eggshell traits. Marker-assisted selection based on these QTL could be used to develop strategies for reducing the breakage and cracking of eggs in commercial layer houses. PMID:19780721

  17. Genetic components of milk Fourier-transform infrared spectra used to predict breeding values for milk composition and quality traits in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Dagnachew, B S; Meuwissen, T H E; Adnøy, T

    2013-09-01

    The usual practice today is that milk component phenotypes are predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and they are then, together with pedigree information, used in BLUP for calculation of individual estimated breeding values. Here, this is referred to as the indirect prediction (IP) approach. An alternative approach-a direct prediction (DP) method-is proposed, where genetic analyses are directly conducted on the milk FTIR spectral variables. Breeding values of all derived milk traits (protein, fat, fatty acid composition, and coagulation properties, among others) can then be predicted as traits correlated only to the genetic information of the spectra. For the DP, no need exists to predict the phenotypes before calculating breeding values for each of the traits-the genetic analysis is done once for the spectra, and is applicable to all traits derived from the spectra. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of DP and IP of milk composition and quality traits on prediction error variance (PEV) and genetic gain. A data set containing 27,927 milk FTIR spectral observations and milk composition phenotypes (fat, lactose, and protein) belonging to 14,869 goats of 271 herds was used for training and evaluating models. Partial least squares regression was used for calibrating prediction models for fat, protein, and lactose percentages. Restricted maximum likelihood was used to estimate variance components of the spectral variables after principal components analysis was applied to reduce the spectral dimension. Estimated breeding values were predicted for fat, lactose, and protein percentages using DP and IP methods. The DP approach reduced the mean PEV by 3.73, 4.07, and 7.04% for fat, lactose, and protein percentages, respectively, compared with the IP method. Given the reduction in PEV, relative genetic gains were 2.99, 2.78, and 4.85% for fat, lactose, and protein percentages, respectively. We concluded that more accurate estimated breeding values could be found using genetic components of milk FTIR spectra compared with single-trait animal model analyses on phenotypes predicted from the spectra separately. The potential and application is not only limited to milk FTIR spectra, but could also be extended to any spectroscopy techniques implemented in other species and for other traits. PMID:23831101

  18. Accuracy of pedigree and genomic predictions of carcass and novel meat quality traits in multi-breed sheep data assessed by cross-validation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic predictions can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. This is especially useful for meat quality traits in sheep. Carcass and novel meat quality traits were predicted in a multi-breed sheep population that included Merino, Border Leicester, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk sheep and their crosses. Methods Prediction of breeding values by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) based on pedigree information was compared to prediction based on genomic BLUP (GBLUP) and a Bayesian prediction method (BayesR). Cross-validation of predictions across sire families was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictions based on the correlation of predicted and observed values and the regression of observed on predicted values was used to evaluate bias of methods. Accuracies and regression coefficients were calculated using either phenotypes or adjusted phenotypes as observed variables. Results and conclusions Genomic methods increased the accuracy of predicted breeding values to on average 0.2 across traits (range 0.07 to 0.31), compared to an average accuracy of 0.09 for pedigree-based BLUP. However, for some traits with smaller reference population size, there was no increase in accuracy or it was small. No clear differences in accuracy were observed between GBLUP and BayesR. The regression of phenotypes on breeding values was close to 1 for all methods, indicating little bias, except for GBLUP and adjusted phenotypes (regression = 0.78). Accuracies calculated with adjusted (for fixed effects) phenotypes were less variable than accuracies based on unadjusted phenotypes, indicating that fixed effects influence the latter. Increasing the reference population size increased accuracy, indicating that adding more records will be beneficial. For the Merino, Polled Dorset and White Suffolk breeds, accuracies were greater than for the Border Leicester breed due to the smaller sample size and limited across-breed prediction. BayesR detected only a few large marker effects but one region on chromosome 6 was associated with large effects for several traits. Cross-validation produced very similar variability of accuracy and regression coefficients for BLUP, GBLUP and BayesR, showing that this variability is not a property of genomic methods alone. Our results show that genomic selection for novel difficult-to-measure traits is a feasible strategy to achieve increased genetic gain. PMID:23146144

  19. Association of selected SNP with carcass and taste panel assessed meat quality traits in a commercial population of Aberdeen Angus-sired beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Jennifer L; Bishop, Stephen C; McCorquodale, Caroline; Williams, John L; Wiener, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), previously associated with meat and milk quality traits in cattle, in a population of 443 commercial Aberdeen Angus-cross beef cattle. The eight SNP, which were located within five genes: ?-calpain (CAPN1), calpastatin (CAST), leptin (LEP), growth hormone receptor (GHR) and acylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), are included in various commercial tests for tenderness, fatness, carcass composition and milk yield/quality. Methods A total of 27 traits were examined, 19 relating to carcass quality, such as carcass weight and fatness, one mechanical measure of tenderness, and the remaining seven were sensory traits, such as flavour and tenderness, assessed by a taste panel. Results An SNP in the CAPN1 gene, CAPN316, was significantly associated with tenderness measured by both the tenderometer and the taste panel as well as the weight of the hindquarter, where animals inheriting the CC genotype had more tender meat and heavier hindquarters. An SNP in the leptin gene, UASMS2, significantly affected overall liking, where animals with the TT genotype were assigned higher scores by the panellists. The SNP in the GHR gene was significantly associated with odour, where animals inheriting the AA genotype produced steaks with an intense odour when compared with the other genotypes. Finally, the SNP in the DGAT1 gene was associated with sirloin weight after maturation and fat depth surrounding the sirloin, with animals inheriting the AA genotype having heavier sirloins and more fat. Conclusion The results of this study confirm some previously documented associations. Furthermore, novel associations have been identified which, following validation in other populations, could be incorporated into breeding programmes to improve meat quality. PMID:19555501

  20. A functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) focusing on tree architecture and wood quality

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, M. Paulina; Norero, Aldo; Vera, Jorge R.; Pérez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims Functional–structural models are interesting tools to relate environmental and management conditions with forest growth. Their three-dimensional images can reveal important characteristics of wood used for industrial products. Like virtual laboratories, they can be used to evaluate relationships among species, sites and management, and to support silvicultural design and decision processes. Our aim was to develop a functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) given its economic importance in many countries. Methods The plant model uses the L-system language. The structure of the model is based on operational units, which obey particular rules, and execute photosynthesis, respiration and morphogenesis, according to their particular characteristics. Plant allometry is adhered to so that harmonic growth and plant development are achieved. Environmental signals for morphogenesis are used. Dynamic turnover guides the normal evolution of the tree. Monthly steps allow for detailed information of wood characteristics. The model is independent of traditional forest inventory relationships and is conceived as a mechanistic model. For model parameterization, three databases which generated new information relating to P. radiata were analysed and incorporated. Key Results Simulations under different and contrasting environmental and management conditions were run and statistically tested. The model was validated against forest inventory data for the same sites and times and against true crown architectural data. The performance of the model for 6-year-old trees was encouraging. Total height, diameter and lengths of growth units were adequately estimated. Branch diameters were slightly overestimated. Wood density values were not satisfactory, but the cyclical pattern and increase of growth rings were reasonably well modelled. Conclusions The model was able to reproduce the development and growth of the species based on mechanistic formulations. It may be valuable in assessing stand behaviour under different environmental and management conditions, assisting in decision-making with regard to management, and as a research tool to formulate hypothesis regarding forest tree growth and development. PMID:21987452

  1. Polymorphisms in the delta-like 2 homolog gene and their association with growth and meat-quality traits in Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Yang, N; Zan, L S; Li, Y K; Gao, J B; Ma, X H; Fu, C Z; Wang, H; Adoligbe, C

    2014-01-01

    The delta-like 2 homolog (DLK2) modulates adipogenesis, hematopoiesis, osteogenesis, and other cell-differentiation processes. In the present study, we detected potential polymorphisms in the DLK2 gene in 604 individuals of Qinchuan cattle by using PCR-RFLP and DNA-sequencing methods. Herein, we identified five novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (g.888G>A, g.910A>G, g.995G>A, g.4321A>G, g.4850A>G) and analyzed their association with measured traits. Four of the five analyzed polymorphisms were associated with at least one of the following traits: body weight (BW), chest depth (CD), chest circumference (CC), back fat thickness (BT), and rib-eye area (REA). To the best of our knowledge, our research is the first to report the association of DLK2 gene polymorphisms with growth and meat quality traits in Qinchuan cattle. In summary, the results of our study suggest that the DLK2 gene can be used as a candidate gene in beef cattle breeding. PMID:24737437

  2. A complete genetic linkage map and QTL analyses for bast fibre quality traits, yield and yield components in jute (Corchorus olitorius L.).

    PubMed

    Topdar, N; Kundu, A; Sinha, M K; Sarkar, D; Das, M; Banerjee, S; Kar, C S; Satya, P; Balyan, H S; Mahapatra, B S; Gupta, P K

    2013-01-01

    We report the first complete microsatellite genetic map of jute (Corchorus olitorius L.; 2n = 2x = 14) using an F6 recombinant inbred population. Of the 403 microsatellite markers screened, 82 were mapped on the seven linkage groups (LGs) that covered a total genetic distance of 799.9 cM, with an average marker interval of 10.7 cM. LG5 had the longest and LG7 the shortest genetic lengths, whereas LG1 had the maximum and LG7 the minimum number of markers. Segregation distortion of microsatellite loci was high (61%), with the majority of them (76%) skewed towards the female parent. Genomewide non-parametric single-marker analysis in combination with multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL)-models (MQM) mapping detected 26 definitive QTLs for bast fibre quality, yield and yield-related traits. These were unevenly distributed on six LGs, as colocalized clusters, at genomic sectors marked by 15 microsatellite loci. LG1 was the QTL-richest map sector, with the densest colocalized clusters of QTLs governing fibre yield, yield-related traits and tensile strength. Expectedly, favorable QTLs were derived from the desirable parents, except for nearly all of those of fibre fineness, which might be due to the creation of new gene combinations. Our results will be a good starting point for further genome analyses in jute. PMID:23821949

  3. Human Traits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners investigate variations in human traits. This allows learners' natural curiosity about their identity to draw them into the study of heredity. Learners can investigate traits such as earlobe attachment, tongue rolling, hair and eye color, and hair texture. Through these traits, learners get an introduction to different inheritance patterns such as simple and incomplete dominance. Activity is usually done over multiple days to give learners time to survey people about their traits.

  4. QTL influencing growth and wood properties in Eucalyptus globulus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jules S. Freeman; Simon P. Whittock; Brad M. Potts; René E. Vaillancourt

    2009-01-01

    Regions of the genome affecting physical and chemical wood properties (quantitative trait loci (QTL)), as well as growth,\\u000a were identified using a clonally replicated, outbred F2 family (112 genotypes, each with two ramets) of Eucalyptus globulus, planted in a field trial in north-west Tasmania. Traits studied were growth (assessed by stem diameter), wood density, cellulose\\u000a content, pulp yield and lignin

  5. [Associations of PRLR/AluI gene polymorphism with reproductive, growth and meat quality traits in pigs].

    PubMed

    Mikha?lov, N V; Usatov, A V; Getmantseva, L V; Bakoev, S Iu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine associations between genotypes for the prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene and swine reproductive, growth and meat traits. 210 sows of three genetic groups: Large White (LW), Danish Landrace (LD) and Landrace x Yorkshire x Duroc (L x x Y x D) were included. The studied reproductive traits included the total number of born (TNB), number born alive (NBA). The growth traits were the number of days to 100-kg, average daily gains (ADG). The meat traits were the average backfat thickness (BFT), half carcass weight (HCW), area of M. longissimus dorsi (MLT) and lean meat content (LM). The polymorphism was detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. It was shown that BB genotype is associated with the best NBA on 1.9 and 0.7 piglets at sows LW and LD, respectively. AB genotype is associated with best number of days to 100-kg at sows LD on 3.1 days and AA genotype with less BFT on 1.7 mm, bigger HCW on 0.5 kg and MLT on 5, 4 cm I at L x Y x D. PMID:25318178

  6. Boar fertility and semen quality characteristics in lines of pigs selected for component traits of female reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection for 11 generations for ovulation rate (OR) or uterine capacity (UC) resulted in significant changes in component traits of litter size. Our objective was to characterize male fertility as a correlated response to selection compared to an unselected control line (CO). Each boar (n=60) fro...

  7. A Muscle Hypertrophy Condition in Lamb (Callipyge): Characterization of Effects on Muscle Growth and Meat Quality Traits1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Koohmaraie; S. D. Shackelford; T. L. Wheeler; S. M. Lonergan; M. E. Doumit; Roman L. Hruska

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment was con- ducted to determine the effect of the callipyge phenotype on traits affecting muscle growth and meat tenderness. Dorset wethers (n = 40) that were either carriers or non-carriers were fed grain and slaugh- tered at 169 d of age. Callipyge phenotype did not affect ( P > .05) slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, or weights

  8. Woods 1 Chenoa S. Woods

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    at the American Education Research Association Annual Conference, Philadelphia, CA. Woods, C. To be presented at the Annual California Educational Research Association conference, Anaheim Perspective. To be presented at the Annual California Educational Research Association

  9. A new genomic resource dedicated to wood formation in Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    Rengel, David; Clemente, Hélène San; Servant, Florence; Ladouce, Nathalie; Paux, Etienne; Wincker, Patrick; Couloux, Arnaud; Sivadon, Pierre; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Background Renowned for their fast growth, valuable wood properties and wide adaptability, Eucalyptus species are amongst the most planted hardwoods in the world, yet they are still at the early stages of domestication because conventional breeding is slow and costly. Thus, there is huge potential for marker-assisted breeding programs to improve traits such as wood properties. To this end, the sequencing, analysis and annotation of a large collection of expressed sequences tags (ESTs) from genes involved in wood formation in Eucalyptus would provide a valuable resource. Results We report here the normalization and sequencing of a cDNA library from developing Eucalyptus secondary xylem, as well as the construction and sequencing of two subtractive libraries (juvenile versus mature wood and vice versa). A total of 9,222 high quality sequences were collected from about 10,000 cDNA clones. The EST assembly generated a set of 3,857 wood-related unigenes including 2,461 contigs (Cg) and 1,396 singletons (Sg) that we named 'EUCAWOOD'. About 65% of the EUCAWOOD sequences produced matches with poplar, grapevine, Arabidopsis and rice protein sequence databases. BlastX searches of the Uniref100 protein database allowed us to allocate gene ontology (GO) and protein family terms to the EUCAWOOD unigenes. This annotation of the EUCAWOOD set revealed key functional categories involved in xylogenesis. For instance, 422 sequences matched various gene families involved in biosynthesis and assembly of primary and secondary cell walls. Interestingly, 141 sequences were annotated as transcription factors, some of them being orthologs of regulators known to be involved in xylogenesis. The EUCAWOOD dataset was also mined for genomic simple sequence repeat markers, yielding a total of 639 putative microsatellites. Finally, a publicly accessible database was created, supporting multiple queries on the EUCAWOOD dataset. Conclusion In this work, we have identified a large set of wood-related Eucalyptus unigenes called EUCAWOOD, thus creating a valuable resource for functional genomics studies of wood formation and molecular breeding in this economically important genus. This set of publicly available annotated sequences will be instrumental for candidate gene approaches, custom array development and marker-assisted selection programs aimed at improving and modulating wood properties. PMID:19327132

  10. Effects of surface inactivation, high temperature drying and preservative treatment on surface roughness and colour of alder and beech wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ismail Aydin; Gursel Colakoglu

    2005-01-01

    Although extensive research has been conducted in wood surface quality analysis, a unified approach to surface quality characterisation does not exist. Measurements of the variation in surface roughness and surface colour are used widely for the evaluation of wood surface quality. Colour is a basic visual feature for wood and wood-based products. Colour measurement is one of the quality control

  11. A new genomic resource dedicated to wood formation in Eucalyptus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Rengel; Hélène San Clemente; Florence Servant; Nathalie Ladouce; Etienne Paux; Patrick Wincker; Arnaud Couloux; Pierre Sivadon; Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renowned for their fast growth, valuable wood properties and wide adaptability, Eucalyptus species are amongst the most planted hardwoods in the world, yet they are still at the early stages of domestication because conventional breeding is slow and costly. Thus, there is huge potential for marker-assisted breeding programs to improve traits such as wood properties. To this end, the

  12. Effect of Dietary L-ascorbic Acid (L-AA) on Production Performance, Egg Quality Traits and Fertility in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) at Low Ambient Temperature.

    PubMed

    Shit, N; Singh, R P; Sastry, K V H; Agarwal, R; Singh, R; Pandey, N K; Mohan, J

    2012-07-01

    Environmental stress boosts the levels of stress hormones and accelerates energy expenditure which subsequently imbalance the body's homeostasis. L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) has been recognized to mitigate the negative impact of environmental stress on production performances in birds. The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the effect of different dietary levels of L-AA on production performance, egg quality traits and fertility in Japanese quail at low ambient temperature. Sixty matured females (15 wks) were equally divided into three groups (20/group) based on the different dietary levels of L-AA (0, 250 and 500 ppm) and coupled with an equal number of males (1:1) obtained from the same hatch. They were managed in uniform husbandry conditions without restriction of feed and water at 14 h photo-schedule. Except for feed efficiency, body weight change, feed consumption and hen-day egg production were recorded highest in 500 ppm L-AA supplemented groups. Among the all egg quality traits studied, only specific gravity, shell weight and thickness differed significantly (p<0.05) in the present study. Fertility was improved significantly (p<0.01) to a dose dependent manner of L-AA. The findings of the present study concluded that dietary L-AA can be a caring management practice at least in part to alleviate the adverse effect of cold induced stress on production performance in Japanese quail. PMID:25049657

  13. Changes in muscle cell cation regulation and meat quality traits are associated with genetic selection for high body weight and meat yield in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sandercock, Dale A; Barker, Zoe E; Mitchell, Malcolm A; Hocking, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    Between-breed genetic variation for muscle and meat quality traits was determined at eight weeks of age in 34 lines of purebred commercial broiler and layer lines and traditional breeds (categories) of chickens. Between-breed genetic variation for plasma ion concentrations and element concentration in muscle dry matter and ash were determined. Plasma from broilers had higher concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg++, total and free Ca++ and lower free:total Ca++ than plasma from layer and traditional lines. Muscle from broilers contained more Na and higher concentrations of K, Mg and Ca per mg of ash but not of dry matter compared with layer and traditional lines. In comparison with layer and traditional lines, broiler genotypes were over three times heavier, their plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), a marker of muscle tissue damage, was higher, their breast muscle colour was lighter (L*) and less red (a*) and yellow (b*) in appearance, the initial and final pH of their muscles were lower, the pH change was higher and their breast muscle was more tender. Thus, genetic selection for broiler traits has markedly altered cation regulation in muscle cells and may be associated with changes in muscle cell function and the development of pathology and meat quality problems. PMID:19284683

  14. Genetic analyses of agronomic and seed quality traits of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqing; Zhou, Weijun

    2006-04-01

    The heritability, the number of segregating genes and the type of gene interaction of nine agronomic traits were analysed based on F2 populations of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea through ovary culture. The nine traits-plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, length of pod, seed weight per plant and 1000-seed weight-had heritabilities of 0.927, 0.215, 0.172, 0.381, 0.360, 0.972, 0.952, 0.516 and 0.987 respectively, while the mean numbers of controlling genes for these characters were 7.4, 10.4, 9.9, 12.9, 11.5, 21.7, 20.5, 19.8 and 6.4 respectively. According to estimated coefficients of skewness and kurtosis of the traits tested, no significant gene interaction was found for plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight. Seed yield per plant is an important target for oilseed production. In partial correlation analysis, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight were positively correlated with seed yield per plant. On the other hand, length of pod was negatively correlated (r = -0.69) with seed yield per plant. Other agronomic characters had no significant correlation to seed yield per plant. In this experiment, the linear regressions of seed yield per plant and other agronomic traits were also analysed. The linear regression equation was y = 0.074x8 + 1.819x9 + 6.72x12- 60.78 (R2= 0.993), where x8, x9 and x12 represent number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight respectively. The experiment also showed that erucic acid and oil contents of seeds from F2 plants were lower than those of their maternal parents. However, glucosinolate content was higher than that of the maternal plants. As for protein content, similar results were found in the F2 plants and their maternal parents. It was shown that the four quality traits, i.e. erucic acid, glucosinolate, oil content, and protein content, had heritability values of 0.614, 0.405, 0.153 and 0.680 respectively. PMID:16809839

  15. The transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in conifers.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana; Paiva, Jorge; Louzada, José; Lima-Brito, José

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, forestry scientists have adapted genomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to the search for candidate genes related to the transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in several tree species. Gymnosperms, in particular, the conifers, are ecologically and economically important, namely, for the production of wood and other forestry end products. Until very recently, no whole genome sequencing of a conifer genome was available. Due to the gradual improvement of the NGS technologies and inherent bioinformatics tools, two draft assemblies of the whole genomes sequence of Picea abies and Picea glauca arose in the current year. These draft genome assemblies will bring new insights about the structure, content, and evolution of the conifer genomes. Furthermore, new directions in the forestry, breeding and research of conifers will be discussed in the following. The identification of genes associated with the xylem transcriptome and the knowledge of their regulatory mechanisms will provide less time-consuming breeding cycles and a high accuracy for the selection of traits related to wood production and quality. PMID:24288610

  16. The Transcriptomics of Secondary Growth and Wood Formation in Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ana; Paiva, Jorge; Louzada, José; Lima-Brito, José

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, forestry scientists have adapted genomics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to the search for candidate genes related to the transcriptomics of secondary growth and wood formation in several tree species. Gymnosperms, in particular, the conifers, are ecologically and economically important, namely, for the production of wood and other forestry end products. Until very recently, no whole genome sequencing of a conifer genome was available. Due to the gradual improvement of the NGS technologies and inherent bioinformatics tools, two draft assemblies of the whole genomes sequence of Picea abies and Picea glauca arose in the current year. These draft genome assemblies will bring new insights about the structure, content, and evolution of the conifer genomes. Furthermore, new directions in the forestry, breeding and research of conifers will be discussed in the following. The identification of genes associated with the xylem transcriptome and the knowledge of their regulatory mechanisms will provide less time-consuming breeding cycles and a high accuracy for the selection of traits related to wood production and quality. PMID:24288610

  17. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and potential for water-supply contamination near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, W.S.; Mirecki, J.E.; Kingsbury, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogeologic and ground-water-quality data were collected near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee to determine the extent and magnitude of ground-water contamination in offsite areas and to assess the potential for contamination of nearby water-supply wells. New methods were used to collect ground-water samples from the alluvial aquifer at six offsite stations at depths of less than about 40 feet below land surface. In addition, 36 offsite wells were installed at these stations to collect samples from the alluvial aquifer and to depths of about 150 feet in the deeper Fort Pillow aquifer. Ground-water samples collected by the new methods and from the 36 offsite wells were analyzed for selected volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The samples collected from the 36 wells also were analyzed for major and trace inorganic constituents. Naphthalene and some volatile organic compounds were detected at low concentrations in samples from both the alluvial aquifer and the Fort Pillow aquifer. To assess the potential for water-supply contamination from the site, four water-supply wells to the east (upgradient) and three wells to the west (down- gradient) of the abandoned plant site were sampled. These samples were analyzed for the same analytes as the samples from the 36 wells. Although volatile organic compounds and elevated concentrations of trace and major inorganic constituents were measured in samples from some wells east of the site, no organic compounds associated with the wood- preserving process were detected. No contaminants from the site were detected in samples from wells west of the site.

  18. Evaluation of a sperm quality analyzer and the effect of dietary antioxidants on semen traits of breeder birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stacey Lee Neuman

    2001-01-01

    A relatively new instrument known as a Sperm Quality Analyzer ® (SQA) offers a rapid assessment of sperm quality and quantity by providing a sperm quality index (SQI). The SQA measures the intensity of sperm activity and motile concentration by determining the number and amplitude of sperm movements per second in a capillary tube as detected through light beam interference.

  19. Quantification of amylose, amylopectin, and ?-glucan in search for genes controlling the three major quality traits in barley by genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiaoli; Rasmussen, Søren K.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan concentration in a collection of 254 European spring barley varieties allowed to identify 20, 17, and 21 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers, respectively, associated with these important grain quality traits. Negative correlations between the content of amylose and ?-glucan (R = ?0.62, P < 0.01) and amylopectin and ?-glucan (R = ?0.487, P < 0.01) were found in this large collection of spring barley varieties. Besides HvCslF6, amo1 and AGPL2, sex6, and waxy were identified among the major genes responsible for ?-glucan, amylose and amylopectin content, respectively. Several minor genes like HvGSL4, HvGSL3, and HvCesA6, PWD were also detected by GWAS for the first time. Furthermore, the gene encoding ?-fructofuranosidase, located on the short arm of chromosome 7H at 1.49 cM, and SRF6, encoding “leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase protein” on chromosome 2 H, are proposed to be new candidate genes for amylopectin formation in barley endosperm. Several of the associated SNPs on chromosome 1, 5, 6, and 7H mapped to overlapping regions containing QTLs and genes controlling the three grain constituents. In particular chromosomes 5 and 7H carry many QTLs controlling barley grain quality. Amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan were interacted among each other through a metabolic network connected by UDP showing pleiotropic effects. Taken together, these results showed that cereal quality traits related each other and regulated through an interaction network, the identified major genes and genetic regions for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan is a helpful for further research on carbohydrates and barley breeding. PMID:24860587

  20. Tribology in secondary wood machining

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, P.L.; Hawthorne, H.M.; Andiappan, J.

    1998-07-01

    Secondary wood manufacturing covers a wide range of products from furniture, cabinets, doors and windows, to musical instruments. Many of these are now mass produced in sophisticated, high speed numerical controlled machines. The performance and the reliability of the tools are key to an efficient and economical manufacturing process as well as to the quality of the finished products. A program concerned with three aspects of tribology of wood machining, namely, tool wear, tool-wood friction characteristics and wood surface quality characterization, was set up in the Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute (IMTI) of the National Research Council of Canada. The studies include friction and wear mechanism identification and modeling, wear performance of surface-engineered tool materials, friction-induced vibration and cutting efficiency, and the influence of wear and friction on finished products. This research program underlines the importance of tribology in secondary wood manufacturing and at the same time adds new challenges to tribology research since wood is a complex, heterogeneous, material and its behavior during machining is highly sensitive to the surrounding environments and to the moisture content in the work piece.

  1. WoodChemistry Wood Degradation & Preservation

    E-print Network

    Geldenhuys, Jaco

    31 WoodChemistry Wood Degradation & Preservation Chemical Utilization of Wood Pulp & Paper. Lignin carbohydrate complexes in biomaterials The existence of covalent bonds between lignin, such as the reactions taking place during the formation of wood, the natural molecular weight distribution of lignin

  2. MAPPING PHENOTYPIC TRAITS IN SWINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERIN KRISTEN WAGNER

    2011-01-01

    The Illinois Meat Quality Pedigree (IMQP), a three-generation Berkshire x Duroc resource population, was created to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing carcass composition, growth, and meat quality traits in pigs. Each animal in the IMQP population was genotyped for 137 microsatellite markers and 43,486 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Two different analyses were performed to detect QTL in this population. For

  3. Use of near infrared spectroscopy for estimating meat chemical composition, quality traits and fatty acid content from cattle fed sunflower or flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Prieto, N; López-Campos, O; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Juárez, M; Uttaro, B

    2014-10-01

    This study tested the ability of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict meat chemical composition, quality traits and fatty acid (FA) composition from 63 steers fed sunflower or flaxseed in combination with high forage diets. NIRS calibrations, tested by cross-validation, were successful for predicting crude protein, moisture and fat content with coefficients of determination (R(2)) (RMSECV, g·100g(-1) wet matter) of 0.85 (0.48), 0.90 (0.60) and 0.86 (1.08), respectively, but were not reliable for meat quality attributes. This technology accurately predicted saturated, monounsaturated and branched FA and conjugated linoleic acid content (R(2): 0.83-0.97; RMSECV: 0.04-1.15mg·g(-1) tissue) and might be suitable for screening purposes in meat based on the content of FAs beneficial to human health such as rumenic and vaccenic acids. Further research applying NIRS to estimate meat quality attributes will require the use on-line of a fibre-optic probe on intact samples. PMID:24976561

  4. Pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    After devastating vast areas of pine forests in Asian countries, the pine wilt disease spread into European forests in 1999 and is causing worldwide concern. This disease involves very complicated interactions between a pathogenic nematode, its vector beetle, host pine species, and fungi in dead hosts. Pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode is determined not only by its physical and chemical traits but also by its behavioral traits. Most life history traits of the pine wood nematode, such as its phoretic relationship with vector beetles, seem to be more effective in virulent than in avirulent isolates or species. As the pathogenicity determinants, secreted enzymes, and surface coat proteins are very important, they have therefore been studied intensively. The mechanism of quick death of a large pine tree as a result of infection by a tiny nematode could be ascribed to the dysfunction of the water-conducting system caused by the death of parenchyma cells, which must have originally evolved as an inherent resistant system. PMID:23663004

  5. 13. Traits! Selected literature!

    E-print Network

    Nierstrasz, Oscar

    .3 Roadmap! > Why traits?" > Traits in a Nutshell" > Case study -- Streams" > Traits in Pharo" > Future in a Nutshell" > Case study -- Streams" > Traits in Pharo" > Future of Traits" #12;Problem: how to share study -- Streams" > Traits in Pharo" > Future of Traits" #12;Traits are parameterized behaviours

  6. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated 43 to 420 micrograms per liter. Sediment elutriate samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubta, Pimephales promelas, Photobacterium phosphoreum, and Salenastrum capricornulum.

  7. Effect of dietary formates on growth performance, carcass traits, sensory quality, intestinal microflora, and stomach alterations in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Overland, M; Granli, T; Kjos, N P; Fjetland, O; Steien, S H; Stokstad, M

    2000-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of adding salts of formic acid to diets for growing-finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, 72 pigs (23.1 kg and 104.5 kg initial and final BW) were used to evaluate the effect of Ca/Na-formate and K-diformate on performance and carcass traits. Treatments were organized in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement with two feeding regimens (limit and semi-ad libitum feeding) and three diets (control, .85% Ca/Na-formate, and .8% K-diformate). No significant feeding regime x diet interaction was found. The K-diformate diet increased overall ADG of pigs compared with the control and Ca/Na-formate diets, but had no effect on ADFI or gain/feed (G/F) ratio. Neither K-diformate nor Ca/Na-formate had any effect on carcass lean or fat content. In Exp. 2, 10 limit-fed pigs (24.3 kg and 85.1 kg initial and final BW) were used to study the effect of K-diformate on performance and sensory quality of pork. Adding .8% K-diformate to diets increased ADG (P < .13) and G/F (P < .04), but had no effect on sensory quality of the pork or content of formate in liver, kidney, or muscle tissue of pigs. In Exp. 3, 96 limit-fed pigs (27.1 kg and 105 kg initial and final BW) were used to determine the effect of adding K-diformate to diets on performance, carcass traits, and stomach keratinization and(or) lesions. Adding K-diformate (0, .6, or 1.2%) to diets increased ADG and ADFI (linear P < .01). The K-diformate reduced the percentage of carcass fat (linear P < .03) and fat area in the cutlet (linear P < .09) and increased percentage lean in the ham (linear P < .01), flank (linear P < .02), loin (linear P < .09), and neck and shoulder (linear P < .09). The K-diformate had no negative effect on stomach alterations. In Exp. 3, the concentration of coliform bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated in eight control and eight 1.2% K-diformate-fed pigs. The K-diformate reduced the number of coliforms in the duodenum (P < .03), jejunum (P < .02), and rectum (P < .10) of pigs. In conclusion, K-diformate improved growth performance and carcass quality of growing-finishing pigs, whereas Ca/Na-formate had no effect. K-diformate had no adverse effect on sensory quality of pork or on stomach alteration scores. PMID:10907830

  8. Evaluation of canning quality traits in black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by visible/near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) processing presents unique challenges because of discoloration, breakage, development of undesirable textures and off-flavors during canning and storage. These quality issues strongly affect processing standards and consumer acceptance for beans. In this research, ...

  9. ORIGINAL PAPER Determining the transition from juvenile to mature wood

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ORIGINAL PAPER Determining the transition from juvenile to mature wood microfibril angle 2012 Abstract & Context The transition of microfibril angle (MFA) values from juvenile to mature wood much of a log is higher quality mature wood based on MFA. & Methods MFA was measured from pith to bark

  10. 5, 35933621, 2008 Species traits and

    E-print Network

    Erwin, Terry

    growth rates across functional groups defined on the basis of these two traits. In similar size classes, biomass growth rates vary10 little between trees that differ in wood density and maximum height. However, biomass growth rates are generally higher in western Amazonia across all functional groups. Thirdly, we

  11. Imprinting analysis of porcine DIO3 gene in two fetal stages and association analysis with carcass and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Mu; Wu, Hua-Yu; Guo, Ling; Mei, Shu-Qi; Zhang, Peng-Peng; Li, Feng-E; Zheng, Rong; Deng, Chang-Yan

    2012-03-01

    Imprinted genes play important roles in mammalian growth, development and behavior. In this study, we obtained 1568 bp mRNA sequence of porcine DIO3 (deiodinase, iodothyronine, type III), and also identified its imprinting status during porcine fetal development. The complete open reading frame (ORF) encoding 278 amino acids. The porcine DIO3 mRNA was expressed predominantly in backfat, mildly in liver, uterus, kidney, heart, small intestine, muscle and stomach, and almost absent in spleen and lung. A single nucleotide polymorphism in exon (A/C (687)) was used to investigate the allele frequencies in different pig breeds and the imprinting status in porcine embryonic tissues. The results indicate that DIO3 was imprinted in all the tested tissues. Statistical analysis showed the DIO3 gene polymorphism was significantly associated with almost all the fat deposition and carcass traits, including lean meat percentage (LMP), fat meat percentage (FMP), ratio of lean to fat (RLF), shoulder fat thickness (SFT), sixth-seventh rib fat thickness (RFT), buttock fat thickness (BFT), loin eye area (LEA), and intramuscular fat (IMF). PMID:21660470

  12. Gender- and Age-Related Differences in the Association between Social Relationship Quality and Trait Levels of Salivary Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Granger, Douglas A.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of studies linking individual differences in the quality of social relationships and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have focused on the early development of attachment between infants and their caregivers. Later in development, during middle childhood and adolescence, the parallel HPA links to…

  13. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent G Deluc; David R Quilici; Alain Decendit; Jérôme Grimplet; Matthew D Wheatley; Karen A Schlauch; Jean-Michel Mérillon; John C Cushman; Grant R Cramer

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. RESULTS: The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of

  14. Response to Phenotypic and Marker-Assisted Selection for Yield and Quality Component Traits in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though the potential benefits of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for line and population development to improve yield in cucumber have been demonstrated, its application during tandem selection for yield and quality components has not been investigated. Therefore, two cucumber recombinant inbr...

  15. Association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in candidate genes and QTL regions with pork quality traits in commercial pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous reports have described genetic markers or genomic regions (QTL) associated with pork quality and/or palatability. Validation of these associations in other commercial populations is necessary before these markers should be used. Therefore, 156 SNP markers from 45 candidate genes and 8 QTL r...

  16. Effects of dietary supplementation with creatine monohydrate during the finishing period on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and muscle glycolytic potential of broilers subjected to transport stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Li, J L; Gao, T; Lin, M; Wang, X F; Zhu, X D; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2014-12-01

    A total of 320 male Arbor Acres broiler chickens (28 days old) were randomly allotted to one of the three experimental diets supplemented with 0 (160 birds), 600 (80 birds) or 1200 mg/kg (80 birds) creatine monohydrate (CMH) for 14 days. On the morning of 42 day, after an 8-h fast, the birds of CMH-free group were divided into two equal groups, and all birds of these four groups were transported according to the follow protocol: 0.75-h transport without CMH supplementation (as a lower stress control group), 3-h transport without CMH supplementation, 3-h transport with 600 or 1200 mg/kg CMH supplementation. Each treatment group was composed of 8 replicates with 10 birds each. The results showed that supplementation of CMH for 14 days before slaughter did not affect the overall growth performance and carcass traits of stressed broilers (P>0.05). A 3-h transport decreased plasma glucose concentration, elevated plasma corticosterone concentration, increased bird live weight loss, breakdown of muscle glycogen, as well as the accumulation of muscle lactate (P<0.05), which induced some detrimental changes to breast meat quality (lower ultimate pH and higher drip loss, P<0.05). Nevertheless, supplementation of 1200 mg/kg CMH reduced chicken weight loss, decreased the contents of lactate and glycolytic potential in pectoralis major of 3-h transported broilers (P<0.05), which is beneficial to maintain breast meat quality by reducing the drip loss (P<0.05). These findings suggest that the reduction of muscle glycolysis is probably the reason for maintainance of meat quality by supplementation of CMH in transported broilers. PMID:25075432

  17. Effect of feeding system and breed on growth performance, and carcass and meat quality traits in two continental beef breeds.

    PubMed

    Avilés, C; Martínez, A L; Domenech, V; Peña, F

    2015-09-01

    A total of 100 young bulls were allotted a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of the feeding system (concentrate and wheat straw: T; total mixed ration comprised of the same concentrate, maize silage and wheat straw: TMR) and breed (Limousine: LI; Retinta: RE) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. The diets were administrated ad libitum for 193days. The average daily weight gain was similar (P>0.05) for both diets, while the LI bulls grew significantly (P<0.05) more than RE. T bulls showed higher L*, a* and rib bone percentage. TMR bulls showed higher carcass yield, conformation and fatness, and greater changes in ultrasound measurements, except ? UGMD and rib fat percentage. Instrumental meat quality, except shear force at 1 and 21days of ageing, was not affected (P>0.05) by the diets. Breed significantly affected most of the analyzed characteristics. PMID:25978859

  18. Isolation of a set of ripening-related genes from strawberry: their identification and possible relationship to fruit quality traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Manning

    1998-01-01

    .   The ripening of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.), a non-climacteric fruit, is a complex developmental process that involves many changes in gene expression. To understand\\u000a how these changes relate to the biochemistry and composition of the fruit the specific genes involved have been examined.\\u000a A high-quality cDNA library prepared from ripe strawberry fruit was differentially screened for ripening-related clones using

  19. TNP1 Functional SNPs in bta-miR-532 and bta-miR-204 Target Sites Are Associated with Semen Quality Traits in Chinese Holstein Bulls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Chunhong; Zhang, Wei; Ju, Zhihua; Wang, Xiuge; Jiang, Qiang; Sun, Yan; Huang, Jinming; Zhong, Jifeng; Wang, Changfa

    2015-06-01

    Transition nuclear proteins (TNPs), major proteins found in the chromatin of condensing spermatids, have been implicated in spermatogenesis and male fertility. In this study, DNA samples were collected from 404 Chinese Holstein bulls and sequenced to identify genetic variants in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of TNP1 and to investigate genetic variations in the TNP1 gene and their common haplotypes. This study was also conducted to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and expression levels by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, bioinformatics analyses, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and fluorescence assay. Results showed that one new single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; g. 528 G>A, ss1388116558) and one reported SNP (g. 442 A>G, rs110469441) were found in the 3'-UTR of the TNP1 gene. Bioinformatics analysis results revealed that both loci were located in bta-miR-532-binding and bta-miR-204-binding regions, respectively. Association studies revealed that bulls with H1H1 (AGAG) and H1H3 (AGGG) haplotype combinations exhibited a lower deformity rate than those with other haplotype combinations (P < 0.05). The qPCR results showed that the relative mRNA expression of TNP1 in bulls with H1H1 haplotype combination was significantly higher than that in bulls with H4H4 haplotype combination (P < 0.05). MicroRNA qPCR results suggested that bta-miR-532 expression was downregulated by 5-fold in adult bull testicular tissues compared with that in fetal bull testicular tissues; by contrast, bta-miR-204 expression was downregulated by 1.6-fold. Luciferase assay results also indicated that TNP1 expression was directly targeted by bta-miR-532 and bta-miR-204 in murine Leydig tumor cell lines. These results provide the first indication of g. 442 A>G-mediated and g. 528 G>A-mediated translational suppression in which SNPs altered the binding of bta-miR-204 and bta-miR-532 to the 3'-UTR of TNP1; the mediated translational suppression could be involved in the regulation of TNP1 expression and may influence the morphological characteristics of Chinese Holstein bull sperm. We propose that SNPs on the TNP1 3'-UTR may help select semen quality trait in Chinese Holstein bulls in the dairy industry. PMID:25904013

  20. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Conditions During Restoration of the Wood River Wetland, Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon, 2003-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Snyder, Daniel T.; Duff, John H.; Triska, Frank J.; Lee, Karl K.; Avanzino, Ronald J.; Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Restoring previously drained wetlands is a strategy currently being used to improve water quality and decrease nutrient loading into Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. In this 2003-05 study, ground- and surface-water quality and hydrologic conditions were characterized in the Wood River Wetland. Nitrogen and phosphorus levels, primarily as dissolved organic nitrogen and ammonium (NH4) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), were high in surface waters. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations also were elevated in surface water, with median concentrations of 44 and 99 milligrams of carbon per liter (mg-C/L) in the North and South Units of the Wood River Wetland, respectively, reaching a maximum of 270 mg-C/L in the South Unit in late autumn. Artesian well water produced NH4 and SRP concentrations of about 6,000 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of 36,500 ug-N/L NH4 and 4,110 ug-P/L SRP in one 26-28 ft deep piezometer well. Despite the high ammonium concentrations, the nitrate levels were moderate to low in wetland surface and ground waters. The surface-water concentrations of NH4 and SRP increased in spring and summer, outpacing those for chloride (a conservative tracer), indicative of evapoconcentration. In-situ chamber experiments conducted in June and August 2005 indicated a positive flux of NH4 and SRP from the wetland sediments. Potential sources of NH4 and SRP include diffusion of nutrients from decomposed peat, decomposing aquatic vegetation, or upwelling ground water. In addition to these inputs, evapoconcentration raised surface-water solute concentrations to exceedingly high values by the end of summer. The increase was most pronounced in the South Unit, where specific conductance reached 2,500 uS/cm and median concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus reached 18,000-36,500 ug-N/L and about 18,000-26,000 ug-P/L, respectively. Water-column SRP and total phosphorus levels decreased during autumn and winter following inputs of irrigation water and precipitation, which have lower nutrient concentrations. The SRP concentrations, however, decreased faster than the dilution rate alone, possibly due to precipitation of phosphorus with iron, manganese, or calcium. The high concentrations of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus during the growing season give rise to a rich plant community in the wetland consisting of emergent and submergent macrophytes and algae including phytoplankton and benthic and epiphytic algae that have pronounced effects on dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH. Midday readings of surface-water DO during summer often were supersaturated (as much as 310 percent saturation) with elevated pH (as much as 9.2 units), indicative of high rates of photosynthesis. Minimum DO concentrations in the shallow ground-water piezometer wells were 0.4 mg/L in the North Unit and 0.8 mg/L in the South Unit during summer, which is probably low enough to support microbial denitrification. Denitrification was confirmed during in-situ experiments conducted at the sediment-water interface, but rates were low due to low background nitrate (NO3). Nevertheless, denitrification (and plant uptake) likely contribute to low nitrate levels. Another possible cause of low nitrate levels is dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA), a microbial process that converts and decreases nitrate to ammonia. DNRA explains the excess ammonia production measured in the chambers treated with nitrate. Surface-water levels and standing surface-water volume in the Wood River Wetland reached a maximum in early spring, inundating 80-90 percent of the wetland. Surface-water levels and standing volume then declined reaching a minimum in August through November, when the South Unit was only 10 percent inundated and the North Unit was nearly dry. The shallow ground-water levels followed a trend similar to surface-water levels and indicated a strong upward gradient. A monthly water budget was developed individually for the North

  1. Effects of halothane genotype and pre-slaughter treatment on pig meat quality. Part 2. Physico-chemical traits of cured-cooked ham and sensory traits of cured-cooked and dry-cured hams.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, X; Gilbert, S; Vendeuvre, J-L

    2002-12-01

    Forty-eight castrated F(2) offspring of Piétrain and Large White pigs were allocated to a 3×2 factorial design in order to study the interactive effect of halothane genotype (NN, Nn and nn) and pre-slaughter treatment (referred to as 'Experimental' (EXP) and 'Commercial-like' (COL) conditions; the latter involving short transportation, mixing unfamiliar pigs and slaughtering shortly after transport) on the qualities of cured-cooked and dry-cured hams. At 24 h post mortem, the hams were collected and assigned to cured-cooked (right ham) and dry-cured (left ham) ham processing. A sample of M. semimembranosus (SM) was collected before cooked ham processing, was used for chemical composition analysis, cured and then cooked at various temperatures. Cooking losses and compression tests were carried out after cooking on these SM samples. The water and collagen content of SM muscle was significantly higher in nn pigs compared with the two other genotypes. At all cooking temperatures (60, 65 and 70 °C), SM muscles from nn pigs showed higher cooking losses and instrumentally assessed toughness than the other genotypes, the heterozygous pigs being intermediate. The technological yield of cured-cooked ham processing was lower in nn, compared with NN and Nn animals. Cooked hams from nn pigs were drier, tougher, stringier and less smooth than NN and Nn pigs. The heterozygous pigs were similar to normal pigs for all texture characteristics with the exception of toughness for which they got a significantly higher score than NN pigs. The pigs slaughtered under the COL conditions had a better slice cohesiveness and a significantly lower dryness, than pigs slaughtered under the EXP conditions. The effect of HAL genotype on slice cohesiveness was significant only when pigs were slaughtered under the EXP conditions. Dry-cured hams from nn pigs showed significantly more visual defects, but were less tough, smoother and more fondant (softer) than NN and Nn pigs. The dry-cured hams from pigs slaughtered under the COL conditions had a better cohesiveness between muscles and a more intense yellow colour of fat than those from pigs slaughtered under the EXP conditions. COL pigs were also judged significantly less tough, smoother and more fondant than EXP ones. Overall, the effects of pre-slaughter treatment were small compared with those of the HAL genotype. The effects of HAL genotype on the sensory traits of cured-cooked ham were similar to those reported for fresh meat. However, the good textural characteristics of dry-cured ham processed from HAL positive pigs are somewhat surprising and need to be confirmed. PMID:22061751

  2. Is mind-mindedness trait-like or a quality of close relationships? Evidence from descriptions of significant others, famous people, and works of art.

    PubMed

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; Harris-Waller, Jayne

    2014-03-01

    The four studies reported here sought to explore the nature of the construct of mind-mindedness. In Study 1, involving 37 mothers of 5- to 8-year-old children, mothers' verbal mind-minded descriptions of their children were positively correlated with their mind-minded descriptions of their current romantic partner. Participants in Studies 2 (N=114), 3 (N=173), and 4 (N=153) were young adults who provided written descriptions of: a close friend and their current romantic partner (Study 2); two specified famous people, two works of art, and a close friend (Study 3); a specified famous person, a famous person of the participant's choice, and a close friend (Study 4). Study 2 obtained paper-and-pen written descriptions, whereas participants completed descriptions in electronic format in Studies 3 and 4. Mind-minded descriptions of friends and partners were positively correlated, but there was no relation between mind-minded descriptions of a friend and the tendency to describe famous people or works of art in mind-minded terms. Levels of mind-mindedness were higher in descriptions of friends compared with descriptions of famous people or works of art. Administration format was unrelated to individuals' mind-mindedness scores. The results suggest that mind-mindedness is a facet of personal relationships rather than a trait-like quality. PMID:24448488

  3. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    PubMed Central

    Deluc, Laurent G; Quilici, David R; Decendit, Alain; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Schlauch, Karen A; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2009-01-01

    Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation. Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits. PMID:19426499

  4. Effects of different rearing systems on muscle and meat quality traits of slow- and medium-growing male chickens.

    PubMed

    Almasi, A; Andrassyne, B G; Milisits, G; Kustosne, P O; Suto, Z

    2015-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of production system on the meat quality of slow- and medium-growing chickens. A total of 1075 1-d-old male chicks were equally divided into 6 experimental groups, represented by three strains (SG: TETRA-H, MG1: TETRA HB Color, MG2: Shaver Farm) and were reared in a poultry house in floor pens (12 males/m(2)). On d 49, 150 healthy birds (50/genotype) were placed in a free-range family farm while the rest of the birds remained indoors. All birds were fed ad libitum and consumed the same diet. On d 70, 20 birds of each experimental group were slaughtered and muscle samples were taken from the left breast and thigh muscles. Thigh muscle of SG males kept on free range was darker (L* = 75.12 vs. 78.33) with lower frying loss (45.9% vs. 55.9%) compared with the indoor group. Similar results were obtained from the MG1 group. Free-range MG2 males had lighter thigh meat (L* = 50.7 vs. 57.8) and lower frying loss compared to the indoor group. In general, the indoor treatment had a lower impact on breast meat than the outdoor system. Regardless of the rearing system, genotypic differences were more pronounced in thigh than in breast muscle. PMID:25680005

  5. Genetic Variation in the Chemical Components of Eucalyptus globulus Wood

    PubMed Central

    Stackpole, Desmond J.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Alves, Ana; Rodrigues, José; Potts, Brad M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of lignin and other wood chemical components, there are few studies of the natural genetic variation that exists within plant species and its adaptive significance. We used models developed from near infra-red spectroscopy to study natural genetic variation in lignin content and monomer composition (syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio [S/G]) as well as cellulose and extractives content, using a 16-year-old field trial of an Australian tree species, Eucalyptus globulus. We sampled 2163 progenies of 467 native trees from throughout the native geographic range of the species. The narrow-sense heritability of wood chemical traits (0.25–0.44) was higher than that of growth (0.15), but less than wood density (0.51). All wood chemical traits exhibited significant broad-scale genetic differentiation (QST = 0.34–0.43) across the species range. This differentiation exceeded that detected with putatively neutral microsatellite markers (FST = 0.09), arguing that diversifying selection has shaped population differentiation in wood chemistry. There were significant genetic correlations among these wood chemical traits at the population and additive genetic levels. However, population differentiation in the S/G ratio of lignin in particular was positively correlated with latitude (R2 = 76%), which may be driven by either adaptation to climate or associated biotic factors. PMID:22384327

  6. QTLs and candidate genes for wood properties in maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster Ait.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Pot; Jose-Carlos Rodrigues; Philippe Rozenberg; Guillaume Chantre; Josquin Tibbits; Christine Cahalan; Frédérique Pichavant; Christophe Plomion

    2006-01-01

    A three-generation outbred pedigree of 186 individuals was used to identify the genomic regions involved in the variability\\u000a of chemical and physical wood properties of Pinus pinaster. A total of 54 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) was detected, with an average of 2.4 QTLs per trait. Clusters of wood properties\\u000a QTLs were found at several points in the genome, suggesting the

  7. Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling fibre length and lignin content in Arabidopsis thaliana stems

    PubMed Central

    Berleth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Fibre properties and the biochemical composition of cell walls are important traits in many applications. For example, the lengths of fibres define the strength and quality of paper, and lignin content is a critical parameter for the use of biomass in biofuel production. Identifying genes controlling these traits is comparatively difficult in woody species, because of long generation times and limited amenability to high-resolution genetic mapping. To address this problem, this study mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) defining fibre length and lignin content in the Arabidopsis recombinant inbred line population Col-4×Ler-0. Adapting high-throughput phenotyping techniques for both traits for measurements in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems identified significant QTLs for fibre length on chromosomes 2 and 5, as well as one significant QTL affecting lignin content on chromosome 2. For fibre length, total variation within the population was 208% higher than between parental lines and the identified QTLs explained 50.58% of the observed variation. For lignin content, the values were 261 and 26.51%, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis of the associated intervals identified a number of candidate genes for fibre length and lignin content. This study demonstrates that molecular mapping of QTLs pertaining to wood and fibre properties is possible in Arabidopsis, which substantially broadens the use of Arabidopsis as a model species for the functional characterization of plant genes. PMID:23136168

  8. Effect of insulin-like growth factor-I on some quality traits and fertility of cryopreserved ovine semen.

    PubMed

    Padilha, R T; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Cavalcante, M M; Almeida, A P; Haag, K T; Gastal, M O; Nunes, J F; Rodrigues, A P R; Figueiredo, J R; Oliveira, M A L

    2012-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on the quality and fertility of frozen/thawed ovine semen. Five rams (five ejaculates/ram) were used for evaluation of semen parameters. Before cryopreservation, ejaculates were divided into four aliquots and extended with Tris alone or supplemented with human IGF-I (50, 100, or 250 ng/mL). Semen was evaluated immediately after thawing (T0), after 1 h (T1) and 2 h (T2) post-incubation at 37 °C. The percentage of live cells (fluorescence analysis-calcein and ethidium), acrosome integrity (NAR) and motility were analyzed, and hypo-osmotic swelling tests (HOST) were used to evaluate membrane resistance. In addition, AI was performed using 121 ewes to compare the optimal concentration of IGF-I vs. Tris alone on pregnancy rates after laparoscopic insemination. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by transrectal ultrasonography. After 1 and 2 h post-incubation, in every group, percentage motile sperm, NAR and HOST decreased compared to semen at T0. Motility was higher (P < 0.05) in the IGF-I 100 and IGF-I 250 groups when compared to the IGF-I 50 and Tris groups (76.2 and 74.4% vs. 66.2 and 64.4 percent, respectively) at T0, after 1 h (67 and 63.6% vs. 56.2 and 54.7%) and 2 h post-incubation (58.2 and 55.8% vs. 48 and 47.2%). Furthermore, viability was higher (P < 0.05) in the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) 100 and IGF-I 250 groups than in the IGF-I 50 and Tris groups (88.7 and 88.3% vs. 76.6 and 77.6%, respectively) at T0. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in NAR or hypo-osmotic swelling tests (HOST) among groups. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in fertility between the IGF-I 100 and Tris groups. In conclusion, IGF-I improved subjective sperm motility and structural integrity of the plasma membrane without a significant effect on 45-day pregnancy rates after laparoscopic insemination of ewes with frozen-thawed semen. PMID:22541171

  9. Performance, egg quality traits, and serum metabolite concentrations of laying hens affected by dietary supplemental chromium picolinate and vitamin C under a heat-stress condition.

    PubMed

    Torki, Mehran; Zangeneh, Samira; Habibian, Mahmood

    2014-02-01

    A 3?×?2 factorial experiment consisting three levels (0, 200, and 400 ?g/kg) of chromium (chromium picolinate) and two levels (0 and 250 mg/kg) of vitamin C was employed to evaluate the effects of these dietary supplements on performance, egg quality traits, and serum biochemical parameters of heat-stressed laying hens (Lohmann LSL-Lite) from 66 to 74 weeks of age. Feed intake increased when birds were given either 400 ?g/kg chromium or 250 mg/kg vitamin C (P??0.05). The birds that fed on diet with chromium or vitamin C produced eggs with higher shell mass and thickness compared to the control. Both eggshell mass and thickness decreased when vitamin C and chromium were supplemented simultaneously, and birds given the diet supplemented with 400 ?g/kg chromium and 250 mg/kg vitamin C had eggshell mass and thickness similar to those of the control group. The serum concentration of chromium increased due to increasing level of dietary chromium (P?

  10. Variation in wood properties among five full-sib families of Norway spruce ( Picea abies )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Steffenrem; Pekka Saranpää; Sven-Olof Lundqvist; Tore Skrøppa

    2007-01-01

    Genetic- and environmental variation and correlation patterns were characterized for modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus\\u000a of rupture (MOR) and related wood traits: latewood proportion, wood density, spiral grain, microfibril angle and lignin content\\u000a in five full-sib families of Norway spruce. The families were evaluated on the basis of clearwood specimens from the juvenile\\u000a -mature wood transition zone of 93 sampled

  11. Chipper Woods Bird Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Chipper Woods Bird Observatory (CWBO) is a non-profit organization committed to bringing "good science to the conservation of birds and their habitats through scientific research, scientific training and educational programs designed for all age groups." The CWBO website contains a nice variety of bird information and images for budding birders. The siteâ??s Bird Photos section provides good quality images and information for an extensive selection of birds including the Peregrine Falcon, Barn Swallow, Tufted Titmouse, Scarlet Tanager, and many more. Various bird-related topics -â?? such as migrating geese, owl pellets, West Nile Virus, and Bald Eagle Restoration -â?? are covered as well. The CWBO website contains checklists for Indiana birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. The site also offers a banding summary, newsletter, list of publications, and short quiz for kids. The CWBO site is available in Spanish and English.

  12. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  13. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation supports research and programs throughout the nation ... POLICY TERMS AND CONDITIONS © 2001–2015 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Residential Wood Residential wood combustion (RWC) is

    E-print Network

    Residential Wood Combustion Residential wood combustion (RWC) is increasing in Europe because PM2.5. Furthermore, other combustion- related sources of OA in Europe may need to be reassessed. Will it affect global OA emission estimates? Combustion of biofuels is globally one of the major OA sources

  15. Signature wood modifications reveal decomposer community history.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Jonathan S; Kaffenberger, Justin T; Liew, Feng Jin; Song, Zewei

    2015-01-01

    Correlating plant litter decay rates with initial tissue traits (e.g. C, N contents) is common practice, but in woody litter, predictive relationships are often weak. Variability in predicting wood decomposition is partially due to territorial competition among fungal decomposers that, in turn, have a range of nutritional strategies (rot types) and consequences on residues. Given this biotic influence, researchers are increasingly using culture-independent tools in an attempt to link variability more directly to decomposer groups. Our goal was to complement these tools by using certain wood modifications as 'signatures' that provide more functional information about decomposer dominance than density loss. Specifically, we used dilute alkali solubility (DAS; higher for brown rot) and lignin:density loss (L:D; higher for white rot) to infer rot type (binary) and fungal nutritional mode (gradient), respectively. We first determined strength of pattern among 29 fungi of known rot type by correlating DAS and L:D with mass loss in birch and pine. Having shown robust relationships for both techniques above a density loss threshold, we then demonstrated and resolved two issues relevant to species consortia and field trials, 1) spatial patchiness creating gravimetric bias (density bias), and 2) brown rot imprints prior or subsequent to white rot replacement (legacy effects). Finally, we field-tested our methods in a New Zealand Pinus radiata plantation in a paired-plot comparison. Overall, results validate these low-cost techniques that measure the collective histories of decomposer dominance in wood. The L:D measure also showed clear potential in classifying 'rot type' along a spectrum rather than as a traditional binary type (brown versus white rot), as it places the nutritional strategies of wood-degrading fungi on a scale (L:D=0-5, in this case). These information-rich measures of consequence can provide insight into their biological causes, strengthening the links between traits, structure, and function during wood decomposition. PMID:25811364

  16. Signature Wood Modifications Reveal Decomposer Community History

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Jonathan S.; Kaffenberger, Justin T.; Liew, Feng Jin; Song, Zewei

    2015-01-01

    Correlating plant litter decay rates with initial tissue traits (e.g. C, N contents) is common practice, but in woody litter, predictive relationships are often weak. Variability in predicting wood decomposition is partially due to territorial competition among fungal decomposers that, in turn, have a range of nutritional strategies (rot types) and consequences on residues. Given this biotic influence, researchers are increasingly using culture-independent tools in an attempt to link variability more directly to decomposer groups. Our goal was to complement these tools by using certain wood modifications as ‘signatures’ that provide more functional information about decomposer dominance than density loss. Specifically, we used dilute alkali solubility (DAS; higher for brown rot) and lignin:density loss (L:D; higher for white rot) to infer rot type (binary) and fungal nutritional mode (gradient), respectively. We first determined strength of pattern among 29 fungi of known rot type by correlating DAS and L:D with mass loss in birch and pine. Having shown robust relationships for both techniques above a density loss threshold, we then demonstrated and resolved two issues relevant to species consortia and field trials, 1) spatial patchiness creating gravimetric bias (density bias), and 2) brown rot imprints prior or subsequent to white rot replacement (legacy effects). Finally, we field-tested our methods in a New Zealand Pinus radiata plantation in a paired-plot comparison. Overall, results validate these low-cost techniques that measure the collective histories of decomposer dominance in wood. The L:D measure also showed clear potential in classifying ‘rot type’ along a spectrum rather than as a traditional binary type (brown versus white rot), as it places the nutritional strategies of wood-degrading fungi on a scale (L:D=0-5, in this case). These information-rich measures of consequence can provide insight into their biological causes, strengthening the links between traits, structure, and function during wood decomposition. PMID:25811364

  17. Sickle Cell Trait

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

  18. The Trait in Latent Trait Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael V.

    Significant to a latent trait or item response theory analysis of a mental test is the determination of exactly what is being quantified. The following are practical problems to be considered in the formulation of a good theory: (1) deciding whether two tests measure the same trait or traits; (2) analyzing the relative contributions of a pair of…

  19. Trait anxiety, trait depression, worry, and memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Reidy

    2004-01-01

    A study is reported which investigated the proposal that high trait anxiety is associated with a memory bias for worry themes. Forty-five participants were categorised as being high or low trait anxious on the basis of scores on the (Spielberger et al., 1983) (Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y) (1983)). The participants were requested to rate a number

  20. Proposed quality measures for palliative care in the critically ill: A consensus from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Critical Care Workgroup

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Mularski; J. Randall Curtis; J. Andrew Billings; Robert Burt; Ira Byock; Cathy Fuhrman; Anne C. Mosenthal; Justine Medina; Daniel E. Ray; Gordon D. Rubenfeld; Lawrence J. Schneiderman; Patsy D. Treece; Robert D. Truog; Mitchell M. Levy

    2006-01-01

    For critically ill patients and their loved ones, high-quality health care includes the provision of excellent palliative care. To achieve this goal, the healthcare system needs to identify, mea- sure, and report specific targets for quality palliative care for critically ill or injured patients. Our objective was to use a con- sensus process to develop a preliminary set of quality

  1. Emissions Characterization of Residential Wood-Fired Hydronic Heater Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential wood-fired hydronic heaters (RWHHs) can negatively impact the local ambient air quality and thus are of major environmental concern in wood burning areas of the U. S. Few studies have been conducted which characterize the emissions from RWHHs. To address the lack of e...

  2. RESEARCH AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-VOC WOOD COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a project, cofunded by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and the U.S. EPA, to develop a new, low volatile organic compound (VOC) wood coating. Traditional wood furniture coating technologies contain organic solvents which become air pol...

  3. Genetic markers on BTA14 predictive for residual feed intake in beef steers and their effects on carcass and meat quality traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the high cost of feed for animal production, genetic selection for animals that metabolize feed more efficiently could result in substantial cost savings for cattle producers. The purpose of this study was to identify DNA markers predictive for differences among cattle for traits associated wit...

  4. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    G. Wiltsee.

    1999-01-21

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories (wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  5. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  6. Functional traits explain variation in plant life history strategies.

    PubMed

    Adler, Peter B; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Compagnoni, Aldo; Hsu, Joanna S; Ray-Mukherjee, Jayanti; Mbeau-Ache, Cyril; Franco, Miguel

    2014-01-14

    Ecologists seek general explanations for the dramatic variation in species abundances in space and time. An increasingly popular solution is to predict species distributions, dynamics, and responses to environmental change based on easily measured anatomical and morphological traits. Trait-based approaches assume that simple functional traits influence fitness and life history evolution, but rigorous tests of this assumption are lacking, because they require quantitative information about the full lifecycles of many species representing different life histories. Here, we link a global traits database with empirical matrix population models for 222 species and report strong relationships between functional traits and plant life histories. Species with large seeds, long-lived leaves, or dense wood have slow life histories, with mean fitness (i.e., population growth rates) more strongly influenced by survival than by growth or fecundity, compared with fast life history species with small seeds, short-lived leaves, or soft wood. In contrast to measures of demographic contributions to fitness based on whole lifecycles, analyses focused on raw demographic rates may underestimate the strength of association between traits and mean fitness. Our results help establish the physiological basis for plant life history evolution and show the potential for trait-based approaches in population dynamics. PMID:24379395

  7. Thickness measurement of thin wood material by differential laser triangulation method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joni M. Hattuniemi; Anssi J. Mäkynen

    2008-01-01

    Improving end product quality, minimizing the manufacturing costs and maximizing the yield in wood industry, an accurate, high speed and non-contacting measurement method for measuring thin wood thickness variations is required. Optically homogeneous materials have been measured successfully with laser triangulation for decades; however, non-homogeneous and porous target materials, such as wood, are more complicated to measure with high accuracy.

  8. Wood pellet production

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Southern Energy Limited's wood pellet refinery, Bristol, Florida, produces wood pellets for fuel from scrap wood from a nearby sawmill and other hog fuel delivered to the plant from nearby forest lands. The refinery will provide 50,000 tons of pellets per year to the Florida State Hospital at Chattahoochee to fire recently converted boilers in the central power plant. The pellets are densified wood, having a moisture content of about 10% and a heating value of 8000 Btu/lb. They are 0.5 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 inches in length.

  9. The use of wood for wind turbine blade construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.

    1979-01-01

    The interrelationships between moisture and wood, conditions for dry rot spore activity, the protection of wood fibers from moisture, wood resin composites, wood laminating, quality control, and the mechanical properties of wood are discussed. The laminated veneer and the bonded sawn stock fabrication techniques, used in the construction of a turbine blade with a monocoque 'D' section forming the leading edge and a built up trailing edge section, are described. A 20 foot root end sample complete with 24 bonded-in studs was successfully subjected to large onetime loads in both the flatwise and edgewise directions, and to fatigue tests. Results indicate that wood is both a viable and advantageous material for use in wind turbine blades. The basic material is reasonably priced, domestically available, ecologically sound, and easily fabricated with low energy consumption.

  10. Delineation of interspecific epistasis on fiber quality traits in Gossypium hirsutum by ADAA analysis of intermated G. barbadense chromosome substitution lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. SahaJ; J. Wu; J. N. Jenkins; J. C. McCarty; R. Hayes; D. M. Stelly

    2011-01-01

    Genetic diversity is the foundation of any crop improvement program, but the most cultivated Upland cotton [Gossypium hirsutum L., 2n = 52, genomic formula 2(AD)1] has a very narrow gene pool resulting from its evolutionary origin and domestication history. Cultivars of this cotton species\\u000a (G. hirsutum L.) are prized for their combination of exceptional yield, other agronomic traits, and good fiber properties, whereas

  11. Superior wood for violins--wood decay fungi as a substitute for cold climate.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Francis W M R; Spycher, Melanie; Fink, Siegfried

    2008-01-01

    Violins produced by Antonio Stradivari during the late 17th and early 18th centuries are reputed to have superior tonal qualities. Dendrochronological studies show that Stradivari used Norway spruce that had grown mostly during the Maunder Minimum, a period of reduced solar activity when relatively low temperatures caused trees to lay down wood with narrow annual rings, resulting in a high modulus of elasticity and low density. The main objective was to determine whether wood can be processed using selected decay fungi so that it becomes acoustically similar to the wood of trees that have grown in a cold climate (i.e. reduced density and unchanged modulus of elasticity). This was investigated by incubating resonance wood specimens of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) with fungal species that can reduce wood density, but lack the ability to degrade the compound middle lamellae, at least in the earlier stages of decay. Microscopic assessment of the incubated specimens and measurement of five physical properties (density, modulus of elasticity, speed of sound, radiation ratio, and the damping factor) using resonance frequency revealed that in the wood of both species there was a reduction in density, accompanied by relatively little change in the speed of sound. Thus, radiation ratio was increased from 'poor' to 'good', on a par with 'superior' resonance wood grown in a cold climate. PMID:18554266

  12. Wood residues: trash or treasure

    SciTech Connect

    Bolgiano, C.

    1983-12-01

    Forest residues have acquired new economic value since the growth of the wood-energy markets has prompted private woodlot owners to begin managing and harvesting their forests after nearly a century of neglect. Estimates place half the commercial forests as overstocked, with poor-quality trees and unmarketable varieties, as well as standing dead or fallen trees and slash which are aesthetically bad. Overzealous cleansing of the forest floor, however, will deplete forests soils of nutrients and expose them to erosion in addition to destroying wildlife habitat. A compromise is needed to balance the ecological and economic benefits. (DCK)

  13. Laser applications in wood processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broenstad, B. M.; Auman, N.; Toennessen, K.

    1993-08-01

    Lasers have been used for special woodprocessing purposes for more than twenty years. Besides dieboard manufacturing, which was one of the earliest applications, CO2 lasers are also used for different cutting, marking and engraving operations. High quality slots in varying depths are produced in wood and different plywood materials at high cutting speeds and with excellent accuracy. Decorative marking operations are performed by means of masking techniques, or by moving a defocused beam over the workpiece. Formerly collected and stored data is directly used for laser cutting of card-board and 3D map modeling. Examples of products are shown, processing data given and limitations discussed.

  14. WOOD ANATOMY INSTRUCTIONS FOR LABORATORY

    E-print Network

    Cufar, Katarina

    .................................... 33 Exercise 9. The wood of Albizia adianthifolia from tropical Central Africa.................................... 35 Exercise 10. The wood of Manilkara fouilloyana from tropical Central Africa

  15. Chopwell Wood Health Project

    E-print Network

    Commission, Gateshead Primary Care Trust, Derwentside Primary Care Trust and the Friends of Chopwell Wood Primary Care Trust. amanda.potts@ghpct.nhs.uk Kim McGarry ­ Health Promotion Specialist (Young People), Derwentside Primary Care Trust. kim.mcgarry@durhamclspct.nhs.uk Liz Searle - Friends of Chopwell Wood. 2

  16. Fibre wall and lumen fractions drive wood density variation across 24 Australian angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Ziemi?ska, Kasia; Butler, Don W.; Gleason, Sean M.; Wright, Ian J.; Westoby, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Wood density is considered a key plant trait, affecting mechanical and physiological performance, yet its biological meaning is still rather unclear. Accordingly we investigated the anatomical underpinnings of wood density in trees and shrubs. We measured wood density and anatomical traits in distal stems 4–10 mm diameter under bark in 24 Australian species. Proportions of wood components that are functionally distinct were analysed, including fibre wall and lumen, vessel wall and lumen, and axial and ray parenchyma. Wood density was mainly driven by the density of wood outside vessel lumens (densityNV) rather than by vessel lumen fraction. In turn, densityNV variation was chiefly affected by fibre wall and lumen fractions. Considerable anatomical variation was observed at a given densityNV, especially among medium-densityNV species (0.60–0.85 g cm?3); this range of medium densityNV roughly translates to 0.50–0.75 g cm?3 of overall density. The anatomy of these species formed a continuum from low fibre lumen and medium parenchyma fractions to medium fibre lumen and low parenchyma fractions. Our data suggest that wood density is an emergent property influenced by a complex anatomy rather than an unambiguous functional trait, particularly in medium-density species. With much anatomical variation, they likely represent a wide range of ecological strategies.

  17. Uncertainty quantified trait predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazayeli, Farideh; Kattge, Jens; Banerjee, Arindam; Schrodt, Franziska; Reich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Functional traits of organisms are key to understanding and predicting biodiversity and ecological change, which motivates continuous collection of traits and their integration into global databases. Such composite trait matrices are inherently sparse, severely limiting their usefulness for further analyses. On the other hand, traits are characterized by the phylogenetic trait signal, trait-trait correlations and environmental constraints, all of which provide information that could be used to statistically fill gaps. We propose the application of probabilistic models which, for the first time, utilize all three characteristics to fill gaps in trait databases and predict trait values at larger spatial scales. For this purpose we introduce BHPMF, a hierarchical Bayesian extension of Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF). PMF is a machine learning technique which exploits the correlation structure of sparse matrices to impute missing entries. BHPMF additionally utilizes the taxonomic hierarchy for trait prediction. Implemented in the context of a Gibbs Sampler MCMC approach BHPMF provides uncertainty estimates for each trait prediction. We present comprehensive experimental results on the problem of plant trait prediction using the largest database of plant traits, where BHPMF shows strong empirical performance in uncertainty quantified trait prediction, outperforming the state-of-the-art based on point estimates. Further, we show that BHPMF is more accurate when it is confident, whereas the error is high when the uncertainty is high.

  18. 20 Engineered Wood Journal Spring 2004 re wood design course

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Rakesh

    is primarily taught at two places: departments of wood science (or forest products/forestry) and departments, just maintaining the status quo could spell trouble for a wood products industry facing ever-greater competition from non-wood building materials. University education about wood as an engineering material

  19. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  20. Generating power with waste wood

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, R.S.

    1995-02-01

    Among the biomass renewables, waste wood has great potential with environmental and economic benefits highlighting its resume. The topics of this article include alternate waste wood fuel streams; combustion benefits; waste wood comparisons; waste wood ash; pilot scale tests; full-scale test data; permitting difficulties; and future needs.

  1. Multiple-interval mapping for quantitative trait loci controlling endosperm traits.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Chen-Hung

    2004-01-01

    Endosperm traits are trisomic inheritant and are of great economic importance because they are usually directly related to grain quality. Mapping for quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying endosperm traits can provide an efficient way to genetically improve grain quality. As the traditional QTL mapping methods (diploid methods) are usually designed for traits under diploid control, they are not the ideal approaches to map endosperm traits because they ignore the triploid nature of endosperm. In this article, a statistical method considering the triploid nature of endosperm (triploid method) is developed on the basis of multiple-interval mapping (MIM) to map for the underlying QTL. The proposed triploid MIM method is derived to broadly use the marker information either from only the maternal plants or from both the maternal plants and their embryos in the backcross and F2 populations for mapping endosperm traits. Due to the use of multiple intervals simultaneously to take multiple QTL into account, the triploid MIM method can provide better detection power and estimation precision, and as shown in this article it is capable of analyzing and searching for epistatic QTL directly as compared to the traditional diploid methods and current triploid methods using only one (or two) interval(s). Several important issues in endosperm trait mapping, such as the relation and differences between the diploid and triploid methods, variance components of genetic variation, and the problems if effects are present and ignored, are also addressed. Simulations are performed to further explore these issues, to investigate the relative efficiency of different experimental designs, and to evaluate the performance of the proposed and current methods in mapping endosperm traits. The MIM-based triploid method can provide a powerful tool to estimate the genetic architecture of endosperm traits and to assist the marker-assisted selection for the improvement of grain quality in crop science. The triploid MIM FORTRAN program for mapping endosperm traits is available on the worldwide web (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/chkao/). PMID:15342535

  2. Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; Schaeffer, Sheldon

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the Coordinator's Notebook focuses on the quality of Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs. The bulk of the issue is devoted to an article "Quality in ECCD: Everyone's Concern" (Judith Evans), which reviews the need for a definition of high quality in ECCD programs and discusses how diverse stakeholders define quality.…

  3. Phylogenetic composition and properties of bacteria coexisting with the fungus Hypholoma fasciculare in decaying wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vendula Valášková; Wietse de Boer; Paulien J A Klein Gunnewiek; Martin Pospíšek; Petr Baldrian

    2009-01-01

    White-rot fungi are major degraders of woody materials in terrestrial environments because of their ability to decompose lignin. However, little is known on the possible associations of white-rot fungi with other microorganisms during wood decay. We investigated the numbers, community composition and functional traits of bacteria present in natural wood samples under advanced decay by the white-rot basidiomycete Hypholoma fasciculare.

  4. The influence of cambial age on breeding for wood properties in Picea glauca

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Lenz; John MacKay; André Rainville; Alain Cloutier; Jean Beaulieu

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the influence of cambial age on correlations between different wood traits and the possibility of early selection\\u000a in order to help decision-making for the improvement of juvenile wood in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss). Increment cores were analysed from 375 trees covering 25 open-pollinated families from a 30-year-old provenance–progeny\\u000a trial in Quebec, Canada. Genetic and phenotypic correlations

  5. Wood's Lamp Examination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dermatologists to assist in the diagnosis of various pigment and infectious disorders. The examination is performed in ... lamp. If a fungal or bacterial infection or pigment disorder is present, Wood's lamp examination can strengthen ...

  6. Laser processing of phenolic wood substitutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Lusquiños, F.; Penide, J.; Arias-González, F.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Phenolic resin boards (PRB) are wood substitutes that comprises of a thick core exclusively made of phenolic resin covered by a thin sheet of melamine resin imitating the aspect of natural wood. The use of these materials in furniture and in construction industry has proliferated during last years. Boards made of phenolic resins are dense, hard and very difficult to cut using band saws, disc saws, or milling cutters. Nevertheless, these difficulties can be overcome by means of laser cutting, which is one of the most firmly established techniques for separating materials. This is due to the great advantages of this technique over traditional cutting methods, such as its versatility and flexibility that allow effective cutting. Nevertheless, charring of the cut edge surface caused by laser induced thermal degradation degrades the cut quality under non-optimized processing conditions. In this research work the viability and quality of CO2 laser cutting process of phenolic resin boards and wood particleboard panels has been evaluated. The present work validates the cut of phenolic resin boards by CO2 lasers using a high laser power and elevated cutting speeds. Moreover, this process involves a serious health hazard since the combustion and decomposition of wood may produce fumes and vapors, which can be toxic and carcinogenic according to the International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC). Therefore, this work was complemented by the assessment of the potential toxicity of the condensed residues formed on the cut edges, and assessment of the chemistry of the generated fumes by chromatography.

  7. Wood anatomical correlates with theoretical conductivity and wood density across China: evolutionary evidence of the functional differentiation of axial and radial parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jingming; Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims In recent years considerable effort has focused on linking wood anatomy and key ecological traits. Studies analysing large databases have described how these ecological traits vary as a function of wood anatomical traits related to conduction and support, but have not considered how these functions interact with cells involved in storage of water and carbohydrates (i.e. parenchyma cells). Methods We analyzed, in a phylogenetic context, the functional relationship between cell types performing each of the three xylem functions (conduction, support and storage) and wood density and theoretical conductivity using a sample of approx. 800 tree species from China. Key Results Axial parenchyma and rays had distinct evolutionary correlation patterns. An evolutionary link was found between high conduction capacity and larger amounts of axial parenchyma that is probably related to water storage capacity and embolism repair, while larger amounts of ray tissue have evolved with increased mechanical support and reduced hydraulic capacity. In a phylogenetic principal component analysis this association of axial parenchyma with increased conduction capacity and rays with wood density represented orthogonal axes of variation. In multivariate space, however, the proportion of rays might be positively associated with conductance and negatively with wood density, indicating flexibility in these axes in species with wide rays. Conclusions The findings suggest that parenchyma types may differ in function. The functional axes represented by different cell types were conserved across lineages, suggesting a significant role in the ecological strategies of the angiosperms. PMID:23904446

  8. Experimental study of wood downdraft gasification for an improved producer gas quality through an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach.

    PubMed

    Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan

    2011-04-01

    This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings. PMID:21292477

  9. Anatomical explanations for the changes in properties of western red cedar ( Thuja plicata ) wood during heat treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Awoyemi; I. P. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Thermal treatment is an alternative to the chemical treatment in wood preservation, which has been used to some extent in\\u000a improving timber quality. Despite the enormous works done so far on the effects of heat treatment on wood properties, very\\u000a little is known about the anatomical changes in the various wood species during the process. Wood samples from western red

  10. Wood energy-commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  11. Avalanches in wood compression

    E-print Network

    Tero Mäkinen; Amandine Miksic; Markus Ovaska; Mikko J. Alava

    2015-06-15

    Wood is a multi-scale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power-laws. The stress- strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using Digital Image Correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  12. Bacterial associations with decaying wood: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol A. Clausen

    1996-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting bacteria are associated with wood decay and may have an indirect influence on the decay process. Bacteria are able to affect wood permeability, attack wood structure, or work synergistically with other bacteria and soft-rot fungi to predispose wood to fungal attack. Bacteria that can inhabit chemically treated wood are recognized. The natural ability of certain bacterial genera to decompose

  13. Polymorphism of MyoD1 and Myf6 genes and associations with carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Du, X H; Gan, Q F; Yuan, Z R; Gao, X; Zhang, L P; Gao, H J; Li, J Y; Xu, S Z

    2013-01-01

    Myogenic determination factor 1 (MyoD1) and myogenic factor 6 (Myf6) genes belong to the myogenic differentiation (MyoD) gene family, which play key roles in growth and muscle development. The study aimed to investigate the effects of variants in cattle MyoD1 and Myf6 on carcass and meat traits. We screened single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of both genes in 8 cattle populations, including Simmental, Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Limousin, Qinchuan, Luxi, and Jinnan by sequencing. The G782A locus was identified in exon 1 of MyoD1 (MyoD1-BglI) as well as the T186C locus in exon 1 of Myf6 (Myf6-ApaLI). For the two SNPs, the A allele was significantly more frequent than the B allele in the populations tested. The ?(2) test showed that the MyoD1-BglI locus conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the 8 populations, as did the Myf6-ApaLI locus, with the exception of the Simmental population (P > 0.05). Association analysis revealed that the MyoD1-BglI locus was significantly associated with loin muscle area (LMA) (P < 0.05), and the Myf6-ApaLI locus was significantly associated with carcass length (CL) (P < 0.05). Animals with BB and AB genotypes for the MyoD1-BglI locus had larger LMAs compared to animals with AA genotype. Individuals with BB genotype had longer CLs compared to those with AA and AB genotypes. We conclude that the two SNPs might provide useful genetic markers, opening up new possibilities for cattle breeding and improvements in gene-assisted selection. PMID:24391012

  14. Genetic variability of seed-quality traits in gamma-induced mutants of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) under water-stressed condition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Haddadi; B. Yazdi-samadi; M. Berger; M. R. Naghavi; A. Calmon; A. Sarrafi

    2011-01-01

    Sunflower is one of the major annual world crops grown for edible oil and its meal is a potential source of protein for human\\u000a consumption. It contains tocopherol that decreases potential risk of chronic diseases in human. The objectives of the current\\u000a research are to assess the genetic variability and to identify AFLP markers and candidate genes associated with seed-quality

  15. Stratocumulus Clouds ROBERT WOOD

    E-print Network

    Wood, Robert

    REVIEW Stratocumulus Clouds ROBERT WOOD University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (Manuscript of the climatological, structural, and organizational aspects of stratocumulus clouds and the physical processes controlling them. More of Earth's surface is covered by stratocumulus clouds than by any other cloud type

  16. Genetic parameters for visually assessed traits and their relationships to wool production and liveweight in Australian Merino sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. I. MortimerA; D. L. RobinsonB; K. D. Atkins; F. D. Brien; A. A. Swan; P. J. Taylor; N. M. Fogarty

    2009-01-01

    Heritability was estimated for a range of visually assessed traits recorded on Merino sheep, together with the phenotypic and genetic correlations among the visually assessed traits and correlations of the visually assessed traits with measuredwoolproductiontraitsandliveweight.Datawerederivedfromfourresearchresource flocks,witharangeof12958 to57128recordsfromanimalswith478to1491siresforthevarioustraits.Theestimatesofheritabilitywerehighforthewool quality traits of handle, wool character and wool colour (0.33-0.34) and the conformation traits of face cover, neck wrinkle and body wrinkle (0.42-0.45),

  17. Flavonoid insertion into cell walls improves wood properties.

    PubMed

    Ermeydan, Mahmut A; Cabane, Etienne; Masic, Admir; Koetz, Joachim; Burgert, Ingo

    2012-11-01

    Wood has an excellent mechanical performance, but wider utilization of this renewable resource as an engineering material is limited by unfavorable properties such as low dimensional stability upon moisture changes and a low durability. However, some wood species are known to produce a wood of higher quality by inserting mainly phenolic substances in the already formed cell walls--a process so-called heartwood formation. In the present study, we used the heartwood formation in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) as a source of bioinspiration and transferred principles of the modification in order to improve spruce wood properties (Picea abies) by a chemical treatment with commercially available flavonoids. We were able to effectively insert hydrophobic flavonoids in the cell wall after a tosylation treatment for activation. The chemical treatment reduced the water uptake of the wood cell walls and increased the dimensional stability of the bulk spruce wood. Further analysis of the chemical interaction of the flavonoid with the structural cell wall components revealed the basic principle of this bioinspired modification. Contrary to established modification treatments, which mainly address the hydroxyl groups of the carbohydrates with hydrophilic substances, the hydrophobic flavonoids are effective by a physical bulking in the cell wall most probably stabilized by ?-? interactions. A biomimetic transfer of the underlying principle may lead to alternative cell wall modification procedures and improve the performance of wood as an engineering material. PMID:23027798

  18. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  19. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization in beech and spruce forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Nickolas K.; Mina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    A novel synergistic approach to reducing emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is presented. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization (FCO) aims to provide cleaner burning fuels through optimization of forestry and renewable energy management practices. In this work, beech and spruce forests of average and high quality were modelled and analysed to determine the volume of fuel wood and its associated bark fraction produced during typical forestry cycles. Two separate fuel wood bark production regimes were observed for beech trees, while only one production regime was observed for spruce. The single tree and stand models were combined with existing thinning parameters to replicate existing management practices. Utilizing estimates of initial seedling numbers and existing thinning patterns a dynamic model was formed that responded to changes in thinning practices. By varying the thinning parameters, this model enabled optimization of the forestry practices for the reduction of bark impurities in the fuel wood supply chain. Beech forestry cycles responded well to fuel cycle optimization with volume reductions of bark from fuel wood of between ˜10% and ˜20% for average and high quality forest stands. Spruce, on the other hand, was fairly insensitive to FCO with bark reductions of 0-5%. The responsiveness of beech to FCO further supports its status as the preferred RWC fuel in Switzerland. FCO could easily be extended beyond Switzerland and applied across continental Europe and North America.

  20. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Ji?í; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloni?ný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  1. Wood waste reduction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lenckus, D.

    1982-07-01

    Design and operating features of wood waste reduction systems or hogs are reviewed. Three major factors are identified in the selection of a hog, the eventual use of the final product and the size and quantity of the waste product to be processed. The importance of placement and installation are also emphasized. A number of hogs are then assessed and a list of manufacturers provided.

  2. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, WHOI, the largest independent oceanographic institution in the world, is a private, non-profit research facility dedicated to the study of marine science and to the education of marine scientists. Site provides information on graduate programs, undergraduate opportunities, facilities, and more. An abundance of information on the research program and its vessels, including an extensive collection of Deep Submergence Vehicle Alvin material. Also includes downloadable data, photos, and video.

  3. Out of the woods.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1992-01-01

    Throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America women are pushed out of forests and from their maintenance by governments and private interests for cash crop development disregarding the role of women in conserving forests. In developing countries forests are a source of wood for fuel; 60-80% of women gather wood for family needs in America. Fruits, vegetables, and nuts gathered in woods enhance their diet. Indonesian women pick bananas, mangos, guavas, and avocados from trees around their homes; in Senegal shea-nut butter is made from a local tree fruit to be sold for cash. Women provide labor also in logging, wood processing, and tree nurseries. They make charcoal and grow seedlings for sale. In India 40% of forest income and 75% of forest products export earnings are derived from nonwood resources. Poor, rural women make items out of bamboo, rattan, and rope to sell: 48% of women in an Egyptian province make a living through such activities. In India 600,000 women harvest tendu leaves for use as wrappings for cigarettes. The expansion of commercial tree plantations replacing once communal natural forests has forced poor households to spend up to 4-% of their income on fuel that they used to find in forests. Tribal women in India know the medicinal uses of 300 forest species, and women in Sierra Leone could name 31 products they obtained or made from trees and bushes, while men named only 8 items. Only 1 forestry project appraised by the World Bank during 1984-97 named women as beneficiaries, and only 1 out of 33 rural development programs funded by the World Bank did. Women provide food, fuel, and water for their families in subsistence economies, they know sustainable methods of forestry, yet they are not included in development programs whose success or failure could hinge on more attention to women's contribution and on more equity. PMID:12285836

  4. Modelling variability of wood density in beech as affected by ring age, radial growth and climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Bouriaud; N. Bréda; G. Le Moguédec; G. Nepveu

    2004-01-01

    Although it has been recognized as a key parameter of wood quality and a good source of information on growth, annual wood density has been little studied within diffuse-porous trees such as beech ( Fagus sylvaticaLiebl.). In this paper we examine the variability encountered in beech ring density series and analyze the influences of ring age, ring width, climate and

  5. Causes for the Improved Water Resistance in Pine Wood Linear Welded Joints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Mansouri; A. Pizzi; J. M. Leban; L. Delmotte; O. Lindgren; M. Vaziri

    2011-01-01

    Linear vibration welding of good quality pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood from Sweden containing a small proportion of a native mixture of terpenoic acids, known under the collective name of rosin, has been shown to yield joints of much upgraded water resistance. This has been shown to be due to the protecting influence the molten rosin from the wood itself has

  6. Effects of providing dietary wood (oak) charcoal to broiler chicks and laying hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan Rüstü Kutlu; Ilknur Ünsal; Murat Görgülü

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to determine whether dietary wood (oak) charcoal applied during entire or phase feeding period would affect growth performance, abdominal fat weight, carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass composition and nutrient excretion of broilers and to determine whether dietary wood charcoal supplementation would affect laying performance and egg quality of laying hens. In the first experiment, different

  7. Environmental Influences on Wood Chemistry and Density of Populus and Loblolly Pine

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, G.A.

    2006-08-11

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) determine the degree to which physical and chemical wood properties vary in association with environmental and silvicultural practices in Populus and loblolly pine and (2) develop and verify species-specific empirical models in an effort to create a framework for understanding environmental influences on wood quality.

  8. FROM FOREST TO PRODUCT: NEW SOLUTIONS FOR RAPID, COMPREHENSIVE WOOD AND FIBRE ANALYSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail E. Sherson; Kathy L. Woo; Ho Fan Jang; Shannon Huntley; James Drummond; Francides Gomes

    Even with the latest developments in pulp processing and papermaking technologies, wood and fibre properties remain key factors contributing to both production efficiencies and product performance. There is a need for tools to efficiently measure wood and fibre quality attributes, whether those fibres are plantation based, such as eucalyptus and hybrid poplars, or from natural forests such as boreal softwoods

  9. DNA Extraction From Processed Wood: A Case Study for the Identification of an Endangered

    E-print Network

    Protocols DNA Extraction From Processed Wood: A Case Study for the Identification of an Endangered to the extraction of whole genomic DNA from processed wood samples to explore the possibility of identifying an endangered trop- ical timber species by using DNA sequencing technology. High-yield and high-quality DNA

  10. L-R: Kathleen Morgan, Jasmine Hall Ratliff of Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and Peter Gillies

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Robert M.

    L-R: Kathleen Morgan, Jasmine Hall Ratliff of Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and Peter Gillies the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to establish the institute whose new home will be a four-story, 88 the quality of school meals by introducing more fruits and vegetables. Morgan welcomed Executive Dean Robert M

  11. The Trait Psychology Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.

    1980-01-01

    Arguments associated with trait psychology are reviewed with an application in the field of sport psychology. The role of cognition and perception in sport and physical activities is also discussed. (CJ)

  12. Adhesive Bonding of Wood Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles B. Vick

    ContentsAdhesion to Wood 9--1Surface Properties of Wood Adherends 9--2Extractives on Surfaces 9--3Knife- and Abrasive-Planed Surfaces 9--3Veneer Surfaces 9--4Surfaces of Wood and Nonwood Composite Products 9--5Physical Properties of Wood Adherends 9--6Density and Porosity 9--6Moisture Content and Dimensional Changes 9--7Adhesives 9--9Composition 9--9Health and Safety 9--10Strength and Durability 9--10Adhesive Selection 9--12Bonding Process 9--15Moisture Content Control 9--15...

  13. Plant functional traits predict green roof ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Tran, Stephanie; Gebert, Luke

    2015-02-17

    Plants make important contributions to the services provided by engineered ecosystems such as green roofs. Ecologists use plant species traits as generic predictors of geographical distribution, interactions with other species, and ecosystem functioning, but this approach has been little used to optimize engineered ecosystems. Four plant species traits (height, individual leaf area, specific leaf area, and leaf dry matter content) were evaluated as predictors of ecosystem properties and services in a modular green roof system planted with 21 species. Six indicators of ecosystem services, incorporating thermal, hydrological, water quality, and carbon sequestration functions, were predicted by the four plant traits directly or indirectly via their effects on aggregate ecosystem properties, including canopy density and albedo. Species average height and specific leaf area were the most useful traits, predicting several services via effects on canopy density or growth rate. This study demonstrates that easily measured plant traits can be used to select species to optimize green roof performance across multiple key services. PMID:25599106

  14. Research Summary Cultural values of trees, woods and forests

    E-print Network

    , a higher quality of life achieved for local populations, and the diversity of cultural landscapes increasedResearch Summary Cultural values of trees, woods and forests Forest managers have to take account of cultural values as one of the central themes of Sustainable Forest Management (SFM). These are accounted

  15. Healthy volunteers exposed to wood stove particles demonstrate inflammatory changes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction. Human exposure to particles associated with wood burning is of great consequence in both indoor air quality and air pollution and has been listed by the World Health Organization as one of the world's ten greatest health concerns. This investigation tested the postu...

  16. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R.B.; Gerin, M.; Raatgever, J.W.; de Bruyn, A.

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  17. Cellulose microfibril angle in the cell wall of wood fibres.

    PubMed

    Barnett, J R; Bonham, Victoria A

    2004-05-01

    The term microfibril angle (MFA) in wood science refers to the angle between the direction of the helical windings of cellulose microfibrils in the secondary cell wall of fibres and tracheids and the long axis of cell. Technologically, it is usually applied to the orientation of cellulose microfibrils in the S2 layer that makes up the greatest proportion of the wall thickness, since it is this which most affects the physical properties of wood. This review describes the organisation of the cellulose component of the secondary wall of fibres and tracheids and the various methods that have been used for the measurement of MFA. It considers the variation of MFA within the tree and the biological reason for the large differences found between juvenile (or core) wood and mature (or outer) wood. The ability of the tree to vary MFA in response to environmental stress, particularly in reaction wood, is also described. Differences in MFA have a profound effect on the properties of wood, in particular its stiffness. The large MFA in juvenile wood confers low stiffness and gives the sapling the flexibility it needs to survive high winds without breaking. It also means, however, that timber containing a high proportion of juvenile wood is unsuitable for use as high-grade structural timber. This fact has taken on increasing importance in view of the trend in forestry towards short rotation cropping of fast grown species. These trees at harvest may contain 50% or more of timber with low stiffness and therefore, low economic value. Although they are presently grown mainly for pulp, pressure for increased timber production means that ways will be sought to improve the quality of their timber by reducing juvenile wood MFA. The mechanism by which the orientation of microfibril deposition is controlled is still a matter of debate. However, the application of molecular techniques is likely to enable modification of this process. The extent to which these techniques should be used to improve timber quality by reducing MFA in juvenile wood is, however, uncertain, since care must be taken to avoid compromising the safety of the tree. PMID:15191232

  18. GLOBAL WOOD SUPPLY Sten Nilsson

    E-print Network

    · Increasing demand for wood through population and economic growth · More expensive wood · Where should: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_rku6deQBORg/SwGkWH3uE9I/AAAAAAAAIYY/CJxii5vYPN0/s1600/Forest+Indonesia.jpg #12;INDONESIAN TROPICAL FOREST Source: http://forests.org/shared/alerts/img/indonesia

  19. [Biological effect of wood dust].

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Doma?ska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mo?ocznik, A

    1993-01-01

    The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis. PMID:8231799

  20. Wood joints and laminated wood beams assembled by mechanically-welded wood dowels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-F. Bocquet; A. Pizzi; A. Despres; H. R. Mansouri; L. Resch; D. Michel; F. Letort

    2007-01-01

    Dowel welding by high-speed rotation was used to join two wood blocks and strong joints were obtained. Dowel angle to the surface of the wood blocks to be joined had a marked influence on the mechanical performance of the joint. When the dowel was inserted at 90° to the substrate, the dowel was subjected to and resisted a shear force

  1. Adaptive Traits, 1 Running Head: ADAPTIVE TRAITS ASSOCIATED WITH PSYCHOPATHY

    E-print Network

    Scholl, Brian

    Adaptive Traits, 1 Running Head: ADAPTIVE TRAITS ASSOCIATED WITH PSYCHOPATHY Adaptive Traits Associated with Psychopathy in a "Successful," Non-Criminal Population Scott A. Snyder Advisor: Kristi-institutionalized in society. Using the PPI- R, a self-report measure of psychopathy, this study investigated which

  2. cell trait? Know your sickle cell trait status.

    E-print Network

    Devoto, Stephen H.

    blood flow to the tissues and muscles. During intense exercise, athletes with sickle cell trait haveWhat is sickle cell trait? Know your sickle cell trait status. Engage in a slow and gradual or a breather. If you experience symptoms such as muscle pain, abnormal weakness, undue fatigue

  3. Predicting species' range limits from functional traits for the tree flora of North America.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Ulrike; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

    2014-09-23

    Using functional traits to explain species' range limits is a promising approach in functional biogeography. It replaces the idiosyncrasy of species-specific climate ranges with a generic trait-based predictive framework. In addition, it has the potential to shed light on specific filter mechanisms creating large-scale vegetation patterns. However, its application to a continental flora, spanning large climate gradients, has been hampered by a lack of trait data. Here, we explore whether five key plant functional traits (seed mass, wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), maximum height, and longevity of a tree)--indicative of life history, mechanical, and physiological adaptations--explain the climate ranges of 250 North American tree species distributed from the boreal to the subtropics. Although the relationship between traits and the median climate across a species range is weak, quantile regressions revealed strong effects on range limits. Wood density and seed mass were strongly related to the lower but not upper temperature range limits of species. Maximum height affects the species range limits in both dry and humid climates, whereas SLA and longevity do not show clear relationships. These results allow the definition and delineation of climatic "no-go areas" for North American tree species based on key traits. As some of these key traits serve as important parameters in recent vegetation models, the implementation of trait-based climatic constraints has the potential to predict both range shifts and ecosystem consequences on a more functional basis. Moreover, for future trait-based vegetation models our results provide a benchmark for model evaluation. PMID:25225398

  4. Predicting species’ range limits from functional traits for the tree flora of North America

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Ulrike; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Using functional traits to explain species’ range limits is a promising approach in functional biogeography. It replaces the idiosyncrasy of species-specific climate ranges with a generic trait-based predictive framework. In addition, it has the potential to shed light on specific filter mechanisms creating large-scale vegetation patterns. However, its application to a continental flora, spanning large climate gradients, has been hampered by a lack of trait data. Here, we explore whether five key plant functional traits (seed mass, wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), maximum height, and longevity of a tree)—indicative of life history, mechanical, and physiological adaptations—explain the climate ranges of 250 North American tree species distributed from the boreal to the subtropics. Although the relationship between traits and the median climate across a species range is weak, quantile regressions revealed strong effects on range limits. Wood density and seed mass were strongly related to the lower but not upper temperature range limits of species. Maximum height affects the species range limits in both dry and humid climates, whereas SLA and longevity do not show clear relationships. These results allow the definition and delineation of climatic “no-go areas” for North American tree species based on key traits. As some of these key traits serve as important parameters in recent vegetation models, the implementation of trait-based climatic constraints has the potential to predict both range shifts and ecosystem consequences on a more functional basis. Moreover, for future trait-based vegetation models our results provide a benchmark for model evaluation. PMID:25225398

  5. Rufus Woods Photographs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The photographer Rufus Woods documented the vast transformation of the area around what became the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State. This massive project was not without controversy, and many people were upset that they had to move their worldly possessions and homes for the construction of this massive dam. North central Washington was dramatically changed, and this digital collection provides some remarkable evidence of the process. Staff members at the Central Washington University Libraries completed the collection, and there are several hundred photographs in this archive. Visitors can browse through the items by date or by title, and they can also perform more detailed searches as well. Some of the highlights here include visitors parading across the top of the completed dam, power transmission towers, and some of the buildings that would later be swept under the water as the reservoir behind the dam filled up.

  6. Putting Traits in Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphane Ducasse

    2009-01-01

    Traits have been proposed as a mechanism to compose and share behavioral units between distinct class hierarchies. Several\\u000a versions have been developed and they have been used to build complex libraries. This keynote puts in perspective the current\\u000a versions and stress their relationships and limits.

  7. The Woods Hole Laboratory, 1885-1985

    E-print Network

    The Woods Hole Laboratory, 1885-1985: A Century of Service Woods Hole Laboratory Northeast, Lectures, and Rededication of the Woods Hole Laboratory Contents Foreword and Acknowledgments Committees and Contributions of the Woods Hole Fisheries Laboratory Centennial Lecture II: The MBL and the Fisheries-A Century

  8. A database of lotic invertebrate traits for North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vieira, Nicole K.M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Carlisle, Daren M.; Moulton, Stephen R., II; Koski, Marci L.; Kondratieff, Boris C.

    2006-01-01

    The assessment and study of stream communities may be enhanced if functional characteristics such as life-history, habitat preference, and reproductive strategy were more widely available for specific taxa. Species traits can be used to develop these functional indicators because many traits directly link functional roles of organisms with controlling environmental factors (for example, flow, substratum, temperature). In addition, some functional traits may not be constrained by taxonomy and are thus applicable at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, a comprehensive summary of traits for North American invertebrate taxa does not exist. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in cooperation with Colorado State University compiled a database of traits for North American invertebrates. A total of 14,127 records for over 2,200 species, 1,165 genera, and 249 families have been entered into the database from 967 publications, texts and reports. Quality-assurance procedures indicated error rates of less than 3 percent in the data entry process. Species trait information was most complete for insect taxa. Traits describing resource acquisition and habitat preferences were most frequently reported, whereas those describing physiological tolerances and reproductive biology were the least frequently reported in the literature. The database is not exhaustive of the literature for North American invertebrates and is biased towards aquatic insects, but it represents a first attempt to compile traits in a web-accessible database. This report describes the database and discusses important decisions necessary for identifying ecologically relevant, environmentally sensitive, non-redundant, and statistically tractable traits for use in bioassessment programs.

  9. Transcriptional regulation in wood formation.

    PubMed

    Demura, Taku; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2007-02-01

    Wood (i.e. xylem tissue) in trees is mainly composed of two types of cells, fibres and tracheary elements. Recent molecular studies of various trees, as well as the non-tree species Arabidopsis thaliana and Zinnia elegans, have revealed coordinated gene expression during differentiation of these cells in wood and the presence of several transcription factors that might govern the complex networks of transcriptional regulation. This article reviews recent findings concerning the regulation of genes by transcription factors involved in wood formation such as AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF), CLASS III HOMEODOMAIN-LEUCINE ZIPPER (HD-ZIPIII), KANADI (KAN), MYB and NAM/ATAF/CUC (NAC). PMID:17224301

  10. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Haskell, Marie J.; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection. PMID:25374582

  11. WOOD RESEARCH 52 (2): 2007

    E-print Network

    Cufar, Katarina

    of cambial cells and undifferentiated xylem derivatives, and formation of callus, traumatic resin canals and wound-wood. The border between cambial cells and radially expanding cells located inside the callus

  12. Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification 

    E-print Network

    McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

  13. Treatment of Wood Preserving Wastewater

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, T. D.; Shack, P. A.

    The wastewater produced by the wood preserving industry presents a difficult problem to treat economically. A review of the literature indicates the size of the industry has limited the pursuit of an orderly and economic solution. Atmospheric...

  14. The syntax* package Mark Wooding

    E-print Network

    Mintmire, John W.

    document which needs the package: o A system of abbreviated forms for typesetting syntactic The syntax* package Mark Wooding . . . . . . 43 ___________________________* The syntax package is currently at version 1.07, dated 17 May

  15. WoodPhysics Surface Degradation

    E-print Network

    Geldenhuys, Jaco

    charcoal production A low cost pyrolysis unit was developed to produce charcoal from wood waste. The coal. In this way the charcoal can be sufficiently used for cooking, but at the same time the danger of shack

  16. Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification

    E-print Network

    McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

  17. Individual and social components of wood ant response to conifer sawfly defence (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Diprionidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KENNETH F. RAFFA

    1996-01-01

    Although wood ants frequently encounter defended prey, there has been little study of how anti-predator traits affect worker behaviour patterns. Interactions between western thatching ants,Formica obscuripesForel, and chemically defended conifer sawfly larvae were observed in a laboratory setting. Individual ant responses to sawflies were strongly affected by prey defence status and predator approach behaviour. Solitary workers that initially examined (antennated,

  18. Comprehensive genetic dissection of wood properties in a widely-grown tropical tree: Eucalyptus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marc Gion; Audrey Carouché; Sylvie Deweer; Franck Bedon; Frédérique Pichavant; Jean-Paul Charpentier; Henri Baillères; Philippe Rozenberg; Victor Carocha; Nina Ognouabi; Daniel Verhaegen; Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati; Philippe Vigneron; Christophe Plomion

    2011-01-01

    Background  \\u000a Eucalyptus is an important genus in industrial plantations throughout the world and is grown for use as timber, pulp, paper and charcoal.\\u000a Several breeding programmes have been launched worldwide to concomitantly improve growth performance and wood properties (WPs).\\u000a In this study, an interspecific cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis was used to identify major genomic regions (Quantitative Trait

  19. Clines in polygenic traits.

    PubMed

    Barton, N H

    1999-12-01

    This article outlines theoretical models of clines in additive polygenic traits, which are maintained by stabilizing selection towards a spatially varying optimum. Clines in the trait mean can be accurately predicted, given knowledge of the genetic variance. However, predicting the variance is difficult, because it depends on genetic details. Changes in genetic variance arise from changes in allele frequency, and in linkage disequilibria. Allele frequency changes dominate when selection is weak relative to recombination, and when there are a moderate number of loci. With a continuum of alleles, gene flow inflates the genetic variance in the same way as a source of mutations of small effect. The variance can be approximated by assuming a Gaussian distribution of allelic effects; with a sufficiently steep cline, this is accurate even when mutation and selection alone are better described by the 'House of Cards' approximation. With just two alleles at each locus, the phenotype changes in a similar way: the mean remains close to the optimum, while the variance changes more slowly, and over a wider region. However, there may be substantial cryptic divergence at the underlying loci. With strong selection and many loci, linkage disequilibria are the main cause of changes in genetic variance. Even for strong selection, the infinitesimal model can be closely approximated by assuming a Gaussian distribution of breeding values. Linkage disequilibria can generate a substantial increase in genetic variance, which is concentrated at sharp gradients in trait means. PMID:10689800

  20. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1969-12-31

    Established in 1930, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution is one of the world's most well-regarded research institutions, devoted to the mission of developing a fundamental understanding of the processes and characteristics that govern how the oceans work and how they interact with the earth as a whole. From the site's main page, visitors can develop a general understanding of the Institution's activities by looking through the information provided about their research departments (e.g., biology and marine chemistry); their research groups; and their highly-regarded ocean institutes, which include the Deep Ocean Exploration Institute and the Ocean Life Institute. Students and educators will want to make sure and visit the Dive and Discover section of the site, which allows users to "travel" on the bottom of a number of oceans in a miniature submarine. Divided into six sections, the trip contains a host of information for people who are interested in learning about the variety of life in the Pacific Ocean and about different geological processes, like plate tectonics.

  1. Association between Occupational Exposure to Wood Dust and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Sardón, Montserrat; Chamorro, Antonio-J.; Hernández-García, Ignacio; Iglesias-de-Sena, Helena; Martín-Rodero, Helena; Herrera, Cristian; Marcos, Miguel; Mirón-Canelo, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review to analyze the association between occupational exposure to wood dust and cancer. Methods A systematic literature search of entries made in the MEDLINE-PubMed database between 1957 and 2013 was conducted to identify studies that had assessed the relationship between occupational exposure to wood dust and different types of cancer. A meta-analysis of selected case-control and cohort studies was subsequently performed. Results A total of 114 studies were identified and 70 were selected for review. Of these, 42 studies focused on the relationship between wood dust and nasal cancer (n = 22), lung cancer (n = 11), and other types of cancer (n = 9). Low-to-moderate quality evidence that wood dust acts as a carcinogen was obtained, and a stronger association between wood dust and nasal adenocarcinoma was observed. A lesser association between wood dust exposure and lung cancer was also observed. Several studies suggested that there is a relationship between wood dust and the onset of other cancers, although there was no evidence to establish an association. A meta-analysis that included four case-controls studies showed that workers exposed to wood dust exhibited higher rates of nasal adenocarcinoma than other workers (odds ratio = 10.28; 95% confidence interval: 5.92 and 17.85; P<0,0001), although a large degree of heterogeneity was found. Conclusions Low-to-moderate quality evidence supports a causal association between cancer and occupational exposure to wood dust, and this association was stronger for nasal adenocarcinoma than for lung cancer. There was no evidence of an association between wood dust exposure and the other cancers examined. PMID:26191795

  2. The effect of moisture content in fibre laser cutting of pine wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos Hernández-Castañeda, Juan; Kursad Sezer, Huseyin; Li, Lin

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports a statistical analysis of the multiple-pass laser cutting of wet and dry pine wood with a Ytterbium fibre laser. As multiple factors affect the laser wood cutting process, finding the optimal combination of process parameters is necessary to achieve good quality and high process efficiency. Design of experiments (DOE) and statistical modelling were used in this study to investigate the significant process parameters and their interactions. A high brightness, 1 kW IPG single mode, continuous wave Ytterbium doped fibre laser was employed to cut wet and dry pine wood samples. The parameters investigated are laser power, traverse speed, focal plane position (f.p.p.), gas pressure, number of passes, direction of cut (normal or parallel to wood's tracheids) and the moisture content. The experimental results were compared against process responses defining the efficiency (i.e. kerf depth and energy consumption) and quality of the cut section (i.e. kerf width, heat affected zone—HAZ, edge surface roughness and perpendicularity). It has been found that the laser cutting process was mainly affected by the moisture content and the cut direction with respect to the wood's tracheids, followed by traverse speed, laser power and the number of passes. The effect of moisture content on energy consumption in the laser cutting process of both wet and dry wood is analysed. The wood cutting results with fibre laser are compared with those from a CO 2 laser.

  3. Genetic determinism of anatomical and hydraulic traits within an apple progeny.

    PubMed

    Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Gorza, Olivier; Cochard, Hervé; Martinez, Sébastien; Celton, Jean-Marc; Ripetti, Véronique; Lartaud, Marc; Bry, Xavier; Trottier, Catherine; Costes, Evelyne

    2011-08-01

    The apple tree is known to have an isohydric behaviour, maintaining rather constant leaf water potential in soil with low water status and/or under high evaporative demand. However, little is known on the xylem water transport from roots to leaves from the two perspectives of efficiency and safety, and on its genetic variability. We analysed 16 traits related to hydraulic efficiency and safety, and anatomical traits in apple stems, and the relationships between them. Most variables were found heritable, and we investigated the determinism underlying their genetic control through a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis on 90 genotypes from the same progeny. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that all traits related to efficiency, whether hydraulic conductivity, vessel number and area or wood area, were included in the first PC, whereas the second PC included the safety variables, thus confirming the absence of trade-off between these two sets of traits. Our results demonstrated that clustered variables were characterized by common genomic regions. Together with previous results on the same progeny, our study substantiated that hydraulic efficiency traits co-localized with traits identified for tree growth and fruit production. PMID:21477120

  4. The Adjective Generation Technique (AGT) and the Trait-Anxiety, State-Anxiety Distinction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Bem P.

    Research involving Potkay and Allen's Adjective Generation Technique (AGT) is reviewed concerning the measurement of anxiety. In this paper, no distinction is made between state anxiety and trait anxiety. It is suggested that state and trait anxiety may be considered apart from behavioral consistency. The issue of dramaturgical quality is…

  5. Quantitative trait locus effects and environmental interaction in a sample of North American barley germ plasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Hayes; B. H. Liu; S. J. Knapp; F. Chen; B. Jones; T. Blake; J. Franckowiak; D. Rasmusson; M. Sorrells; S. E. Ullrich; D. Wesenberg; A. Kleinhofs

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) and QTL x environment (E) interaction effects for agronomic and malting quality traits were measured using a 123-point linkage map and multi-environment phenotype data from an F1-derived doubled haploid population of barley (Hordeum vulgare). The QTL × E interactions were due to differences in magnitude of QTL effects. Highly significant QTL effects were found for all

  6. Phenotypic and genetic description of fibre traits in South American domestic camelids (llamas and alpacas)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. Frank; M. V. H. Hick; C. D. Gauna; H. E. Lamas; C. Renieri; M. Antonini

    2006-01-01

    Even though llamas and alpacas are multipurpose animals, fibre production remains the main trait from an international market point of view. The objectives of this review are to describe the phenotypic traits that determine fibre quality, and to identify the genetic mechanisms governing them. The finer and lesser prickling effect the fibre has, the higher its value is. All these

  7. Influence of age on physical traits of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) eggs

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Note Influence of age on physical traits of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) eggs M and internal traits of Japanese quail eggs during 6 months of lay were ana- lyzed. Variables such as egg weight, specific gravity, egg shape index, albumen and yolk heights and their indices, internal quality unit (IQU

  8. Effects of different leaf traits on growth rates of insect herbivores on willows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamoru Matsuki; Stephen K MacLean Jr

    1994-01-01

    We examined relative effects of traits of leaf quality of ten willow species (Salix: Salicaceae) on growth rates of five species of insect herbivores found in interior Alaska (a willow sawfly, Nematus calais; the tiger swallowtail butterfly, Papilio canadensis; and three species of chrysomelid beetles, Gonioctena occidentalis, Calligrapha verrucosa, and Chrysomela falsa). Leaf traits examined were water content, toughness, total

  9. No associations between PrP genotypes and reproduction traits in INRA 401 sheep1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. G. Vitezica; C. R. Moreno; L. Bodin; D. Francois; F. Barillet; J. C. Brunel; J. M. Elsen

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the potential association of PrP genotypes with ewe reproductive traits and lamb growth traits was investigated. Data were included on ewes and lambs of the INRA 401 breed from the Bourges-La Sapiniere INRA experimental farm. This breed was chosen because of good breeding (prolificacy and maternal abilities) and carcass qualities, and the large number of available animals

  10. Wood burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, V.J.

    1982-08-10

    An air tight wood burning stove (10) for heating a designated space comprises a housing (12) having an access opening (50) in the front wall (14) thereof and at least one glass panel (64) containing door (54, 56) hingedly mounted on the front wall for closing the opening (50). A latching mechanism (60) on the door (54, 56) engages with undercut flange means (52, 53) surrounding opening (50) for positively maintaining the door (54, 56) in the closed position. A firebrick lined combustion chamber (34) within the housing receives logs through opening (50) for burning and the production of hot combustion gases. An air chamber (48) is formed within the housing (12) in air flow communication with the combustion chamber (34) for feeding air thereto through openings (94, 96) in the air chamber walls (46, 90). A damper 92, which may be manually or thermostatically controlled, controls cool air flow from room floor level into the air chamber (48) and then through openings (94, 96) into combustion chamber (34) wherein the air is heated. The hot combustion gases and heated air rise within housing (12) and are discharged through flue means (28, 30) to the outside. In passing upwardly the gases and air fl over the outside surface of and heat the air within a plurality of air carrying tubular heat exchange conduits (98) which are disposed adjacent the top of assembly (12) and extend therethrough upwardly and forwardly from conduit air inlets at the rear wall (24) to conduit air discharge outlets at the front wall (14).

  11. Measuring wood density by means of X-ray computer tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charline Freyburger; Fleur Longuetaud; Frédéric Mothe; Thiéry Constant; Jean-Michel Leban

    2009-01-01

    – \\u000a \\u000a • Wood density is a characteristic of major interest. Usually, it is used as an indicator of wood quality; however, in the\\u000a context of global change, it is increasingly used for biomass and carbon storage estimations. X-ray computer tomography is\\u000a a method which enables quick estimates of wood density after applying a calibration procedure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • A review of

  12. Relationships Among Ecologically Important Dimensions of Plant Trait Variation in Seven Neotropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Ian J.; Ackerly, David D.; Bongers, Frans; Harms, Kyle E.; Ibarra-Manriquez, Guillermo; Martinez-Ramos, Miguel; Mazer, Susan J.; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Paz, Horacio; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Poorter, Lourens; Silman, Miles R.; Vriesendorp, Corine F.; Webb, Cam O.; Westoby, Mark; Wright, S. Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims When ecologically important plant traits are correlated they may be said to constitute an ecological ‘strategy’ dimension. Through identifying these dimensions and understanding their inter-relationships we gain insight into why particular trait combinations are favoured over others and into the implications of trait differences among species. Here we investigated relationships among several traits, and thus the strategy dimensions they represented, across 2134 woody species from seven Neotropical forests. Methods Six traits were studied: specific leaf area (SLA), the average size of leaves, seed and fruit, typical maximum plant height, and wood density (WD). Trait relationships were quantified across species at each individual forest as well as across the dataset as a whole. ‘Phylogenetic’ analyses were used to test for correlations among evolutionary trait-divergences and to ascertain whether interspecific relationships were biased by strong taxonomic patterning in the traits. Key Results The interspecific and phylogenetic analyses yielded congruent results. Seed and fruit size were expected, and confirmed, to be tightly related. As expected, plant height was correlated with each of seed and fruit size, albeit weakly. Weak support was found for an expected positive relationship between leaf and fruit size. The prediction that SLA and WD would be negatively correlated was not supported. Otherwise the traits were predicted to be largely unrelated, being representatives of putatively independent strategy dimensions. This was indeed the case, although WD was consistently, negatively related to leaf size. Conclusions The dimensions represented by SLA, seed/fruit size and leaf size were essentially independent and thus conveyed largely independent information about plant strategies. To a lesser extent the same was true for plant height and WD. Our tentative explanation for negative WD–leaf size relationships, now also known from other habitats, is that the traits are indirectly linked via plant hydraulics. PMID:16595553

  13. Evaluation of Three Electronic Noses for Detecting Incipient Wood Decay

    PubMed Central

    Baietto, Manuela; Wilson, Alphus D.; Bassi, Daniele; Ferrini, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Tree assessment methodologies, currently used to evaluate the structural stability of individual urban trees, usually involve a visual analysis followed by measurements of the internal soundness of wood using various instruments that are often invasive, expensive, or inadequate for use within the urban environment. Moreover, most conventional instruments do not provide an adequate evaluation of decay that occurs in the root system. The intent of this research was to evaluate the possibility of integrating conventional tools, currently used for assessments of decay in urban trees, with the electronic nose–a new innovative tool used in diverse fields and industries for various applications such as quality control in manufacturing, environmental monitoring, medical diagnoses, and perfumery. Electronic-nose (e-nose) technologies were tested for the capability of detecting differences in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by wood decay fungi and wood from healthy and decayed trees. Three e-noses, based on different types of operational technologies and analytical methods, were evaluated independently (not directly compared) to determine the feasibility of detecting incipient decays in artificially-inoculated wood. All three e-nose devices were capable of discriminating between healthy and artificially-inoculated, decayed wood with high levels of precision and confidence. The LibraNose quartz microbalance (QMB) e-nose generally provided higher levels of discrimination of sample unknowns, but not necessarily more accurate or effective detection than the AromaScan A32S conducting polymer and PEN3 metal-oxide (MOS) gas sensor e-noses for identifying and distinguishing woody samples containing different agents of wood decay. However, the conducting polymer e-nose had the greater advantage for identifying unknowns from diverse woody sample types due to the associated software capability of utilizing prior-developed, application-specific reference libraries with aroma pattern-recognition and neural-net training algorithms. PMID:22205858

  14. The effect of mineral fillers on the thermal properties of wood-plastic composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ossi Martikka; Tiina Huuhilo; Svetlana Butylina; Timo Kärki

    2012-01-01

    The thermal properties of wood-plastic composites with five different mineral fillers were studied. The tested mineral fillers were calcite (CaCO3), two different qualities of wollastonite, soapstone, and talc. The amount of wood, mineral, and plastic (polypropylene) was kept constant. Only the mineral type has been changed during the tests. The thermal behavior of the samples was studied by using a

  15. SELECTED PROPERTIES OF WOOD STRAND AND ORIENTED STRANDBOARD FROM SMALL-DIAMETER SOUTHERN PINE TREES1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangping Han; Qinglin Wu; John Z. Lu

    Thermal and mechanical properties of southern pine and willow strands and properties of southern pine oriented strandboard (OSB) from small-diameter logs were investigated in this study. The effects of density and species group on tensile strength, dynamic moduli, and thermal stability of wood strands, and of strand quality (i.e., wood fines) on three-layer OSB properties were analyzed. Strand tensile strength

  16. Interaction of ozone with wooden building products, treated wood samples and exotic wood species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schripp, Tobias; Langer, Sarka; Salthammer, Tunga

    2012-07-01

    Wooden building products indoors are known to be able to affect the perceived air quality depending on their emission strength. The indoor application of modern ecological lacquer systems (eco-lacquers or 'green' lacquers) may be a much stronger source than the substrates itself. Especially with regard to the formation of ultrafine particles by gas-to-particle conversion in the presence of ozone or other reactive species the impact of the applied building products on the indoor air quality has to be addressed. The present study reports a two concentration step ozonation of OSB panels, painted beech boards, and a number of solid 'exotic' wood types in a 1 m³ emission test chamber. The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) was recorded as well as the formation of ultrafine particles in the range 7-300 nm. The products are characterized on the basis of their ozone deposition velocity; the obtained values of 0.008-0.381 cm s-1 are comparable with previously published data. Within the samples of the present study one eco-lacquer was the strongest source of VOC (total VOC ˜ 60 mg m-3) while the wooden building products (OSB) were of intermediate emission strength. The lowest emission was found for the solid (exotic) wood samples. The VOC release of the samples corresponded roughly to the particle formation potential. However, the strongest UFP formation was measured for one solid wood sample ('Garapa') which showed a strong surface reaction in the presence of ozone and formed a large number of particles <40 nm. Overall, the experiments demonstrated the necessity of real-life samples for the estimation of UFP indoor air pollution from the ozone chemistry of terpenes.

  17. A dimensional analysis of personality disorder traits in eating disorder subtypes 

    E-print Network

    Mangrum, Laurel Frances

    1993-01-01

    A Dimensional Analysis of Personality Disorder Traits in Eating Disorder Subtypes. (August 1993) Laurel Frances Mangrum, B. S. , Oklahoma State University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr, Donald Woods Early researchers in the eating disorder... as clinical syndromes frequently obtaining concomitant Axis II diagnoses, This thesis follows the style and format of the Journal of Consultin and Clinical Ps cholo Prevalence rates of eating disorders found in past studies vary. DSM-III-R (American...

  18. Strange Creatures: An Additive Wood Sculpture Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project where students create strange creatures using scraps of wood. Discusses how the students use the wood and other materials. Explains that the students also write about the habitat characteristics of their creatures. Includes learning objectives. (CMK)

  19. Decreasing the leachibility of boron wood preservatives 

    E-print Network

    Gezer, Engin Derya

    1996-01-01

    The use of boron in wood preservatives has been growing since the 1930s, primarily in various boric acid/borax mixtures. Boron preservatives have several advantages for application as wood preservatives including a broad spectrum of activity...

  20. Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles

    E-print Network

    Jackman, John A.

    2006-03-28

    Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others....

  1. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  2. Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles 

    E-print Network

    Jackman, John A.

    2006-03-28

    Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others....

  3. Handling of impregnated waste wood and characterization of ash residues after combustion of the wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisbeth M. Ottosen; Iben V. Kristensen; Anne Juul Pedersen; Henrik K. Hansen

    In the next ten years the amounts of waste wood impregnated with Cu, Cr and As (CCA) is expected to increase dramatically world wide. CCA has been widely used for wood preservation since the early 1950s and because the fixation of CCA in the wood is good, the concentration of CCA is still high, when the wood is at the

  4. Tailored Testing, Measurement Problems and Latent Trait Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reckase, Mark D.

    This paper has shown the advantages of tailored testing over traditional methods, the need for latent trait theory in the application of tailored testing, and some of the results available to show the quality of estimates obtained by tailored testing procedures. Since the tailored testing procedures overcome many of the problems with traditional…

  5. Paternity testing and delivering trait-predictive genotypic data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the RosBREED project, the Genotyping Team (Team Leader: Nahla Bassil) leads the effort to obtain DNA data needed to enable marker-assisted breeding for critical fruit quality traits. These data are obtained from reference genotypes of apple, peach, cherry and strawberry carefully chosen to repres...

  6. Multiple transgene traits may create un-intended fitness effects in Brassica napus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, genetically modified crops are being developed to express multiple ?stacked? traits for different types of transgenes, for example, herbicide resistance, insect resistance, crop quality and resistance to environmental factors. The release of crops that express mult...

  7. Influence of Wood Welding Frequency on Wood Constituents Chemical Modifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Delmotte; H. R. Mansouri; P. Omrani; A. Pizzi

    2009-01-01

    Interesting chemical differences betwen weldlines obtained at 100 Hz and 150 Hz frequencies in linear vibration wood welding were observed by FT-IR and C NMR. An increase in the proportion of unoxidized phenolic groups in the lignin is observed by FT-IR and the increased joint strength observed is ascribed to the improved adhesion derived from this. The much decreased level

  8. Wood Properties and Kinds; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. This booklet is concerned largely with the physical composition and…

  9. Management alternatives of energy wood thinning stands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jani Heikkilä; Matti Sirén; ja Olli Äijälä

    2007-01-01

    Energy wood thinning has become a feasible treatment alternative of young stands in Finland. Energy wood thinnings have been carried out mainly in stands where precommercial thinning has been neglected and the harvesting conditions for industrial wood thinning are difficult. Despite of its positive effects on harvesting costs and on renewable energy potential, whole-tree harvesting has been constantly criticized for

  10. Strengthen Wood Education through a Comprehensive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mative, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Wood education programs across the nation, at and below the secondary levels of education, have declined in enrollment in recent years. To many, wood education means only carpentry or woodworking. A systematic approach to the subject, as a part of a materials science course, can reverse the material's negative connotation and make wood education…

  11. Thermal properties of wood-gypsum boards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bekhta; E. Dobrowolska

    2006-01-01

    Transient simultaneous measurements of thermal conductivity, volume heat capacity and thermal diffusivity of laboratory wood-gypsum boards have been performed with ISOMET 2104 at room temperature. The influences of wood particle content, density and moisture content on thermal properties were investigated. The measurements were performed in a direction perpendicular to the board plane. The effect of density and wood particle content

  12. Wood Structure and Adhesive Bond Strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles R. Frihart

    Much of the literature on the bonding of wood and other lignocellulosic materials has concentrated on traditional adhesion theories. This has led to misconceptions because wood is a porous material on both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. A better understanding of wood bonding can be developed by investigating the theories of adhesion and bond strength, taking into consideration the unusual

  13. THE GLUING OF WOOD WITH SYNTHETIC ADHESIVES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Klein

    1964-01-01

    The bonding of wood by means of glue has been practised for many centuries.Adhesion between an adhesive and wood is the result of unbalanced secondary valency forces (Van der Waal's forces) present on the interfaces. It is fundamental to good adhesion that the adhesive must (a) wet the surface it is required to adhere to and (b) penetrate the wood

  14. Reuse of Wood Wastes for Energy Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Demirbas

    2009-01-01

    Forests are principal global economic as well as ecological resource. Wood biomass involves trees with commercial structure and forest residues not being used in the traditional forest products industries. Available forest residues may appear to be an attractive fuel source. Forest residues are parts of trees such as branches, small-diameter wood, stumps and dead wood as well as undergrowth and

  15. Correlation among commercial traits and the possible maternal effects for these traits in the reciprocal populations of Atlantic and Superior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reciprocal populations of Atlantic and Superior were created with the objective of combining the desired traits of the two parents and selecting a new variety with similar characteristics as Atlantic but with improved internal quality. Both parents have contrasting characteristics for yield, specifi...

  16. Wood identification with PCR targeting noncoding chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoshu; Zhao, Guangjie; Ping, Liyan

    2011-12-01

    Wood identification is extremely important in the modern forest industry. It also has significant applications in forensics, as well as in archeology and ecological research. In this study, five universal primer pairs amplifying chloroplast noncoding sequences of 300-1,200 bp were designed. Sequencing these amplicons in combination can lead to reliable identification of logs and wood products to cultivar, ecotype, or even the falling population. These primer pairs work on both gymnosperms and angiosperm trees. They also are potentially applicable to accurately identify shrubs and herbaceous species. In addition, a wood DNA purification method is proposed in which N-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB) is used to increase the quality and quantity of extracted DNA. This method was first validated using air-dried timber disks from three different tree species that were felled 4 years ago. The sapwood and outer heartwood provided the best locations for DNA extraction. The method was also successfully applied to extract DNA from the recalcitrant processed white oak wood, randomly selected staves of wine barrels. The single nucleotide polymorphism detected on the oak DNA sequences showed correlation to their geographical origins. PMID:22038094

  17. Fluctuating asymmetry in certain morphological traits in laboratory populations of Drosophila ananassae.

    PubMed

    Vishalakshi, C; Singh, B N

    2006-07-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA, subtle random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry) is often used as a measure of developmental instability (DI), which results from perturbations in developmental pathways caused by genetic or environmental stressors. During the present study, we estimated FA in 5 morphological traits, viz. wing length (WL), wing to thorax ratio (W:T), sternopleural bristle number (SBN), sex-comb tooth number (SCTN), and ovariole number (ON) in 18 laboratory populations of Drosophila ananassae. FA levels of measured traits differed significantly among populations except for SBN (in males and females) and W:T ratio (in females). Positional fluctuating asymmetry (PFA), a sensitive measure of DI, also varied significantly among the populations for SBN in females and SCTN in males. Interestingly, both males and females were similar for nonsexual traits. However, when FA across all traits (sexual and nonsexual) was combined into a single composite index (CFA), significant differences were found for both populations and sexes. Males showed higher CFA values than females, suggesting that males are more prone to developmental perturbations. The magnitude of FA differed significantly among traits, being lowest for nonsexual traits (SBN, WL, W:T ratio) and highest for sexual traits (SCTN and ON). The trait size of sexual traits (SCTN and ON) was positively correlated with their asymmetry. The possible reasons for variation in FA both among traits and among populations, and the usefulness of FA as an indicator of developmental stress and phenotypic quality in D. ananassae are discussed. PMID:16936786

  18. Exaggerated trait growth in insects.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Laura; Gotoh, Hiroki; Brent, Colin S; Dworkin, Ian; Emlen, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size the surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles (Lucanidae), the claspers of praying mantids (Mantidae), the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Caelifera), and the giant heads of soldier ants (Formicidae) and termites (Isoptera). Developmentally, disproportionate growth can arise through trait-specific modifications to the activity of at least four pathways: the sex determination pathway, the appendage patterning pathway, the insulin/IGF signaling pathway, and the juvenile hormone/ecdysteroid pathway. Although most exaggerated traits have not been studied mechanistically, it is already apparent that distinct developmental mechanisms underlie the evolution of the different types of exaggerated traits. We suggest this reflects the nature of selection in each instance, revealing an exciting link between mechanism, form, and function. We use this information to make explicit predictions for the types of regulatory pathways likely to underlie each type of exaggerated trait. PMID:25341090

  19. Condition-dependent expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits in guppies

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Moshiur; Kelley, Jennifer L; Evans, Jonathan P

    2013-01-01

    Female choice can impose persistent directional selection on male sexually selected traits, yet such traits often exhibit high levels of phenotypic variation. One explanation for this paradox is that if sexually selected traits are costly, only the fittest males are able to acquire and allocate the resources required for their expression. Furthermore, because male condition is dependent on resource allocation, condition dependence in sexual traits is expected to underlie trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history functions. In this study we test these ideas by experimentally manipulating diet quality (carotenoid levels) and quantity in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing freshwater fish that is an important model for understanding relationships between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits. Specifically, we test for condition dependence in the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits (behavior, ornamentation, sperm traits) and determine whether diet manipulation mediates relationships among these traits. Consistent with prior work we found a significant effect of diet quantity on the expression of both pre- and postcopulatory male traits; diet-restricted males performed fewer sexual behaviors and exhibited significant reductions in color ornamentation, sperm quality, sperm number, and sperm length than those fed ad libitum. However, contrary to our expectations, we found no significant effect of carotenoid manipulation on the expression of any of these traits, and no evidence for a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection. Our results further underscore the sensitivity of behavioral, ornamental, and ejaculate traits to dietary stress, and highlight the important role of condition dependence in maintaining the high variability in male sexual traits. PMID:23919162

  20. Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen

    E-print Network

    Wood, Stephen L.

    26 Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen Florida Institute of Technology United States and environmental data gathering capacities. Included in these types are autonomous underwater gliders that have four classes of underwater gliders: 1) those that use mechanical or electrical means of changing

  1. Period Determination for 1660 Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oey, Julian; Alvarez, Eduardo Manuel

    2012-07-01

    Lightcurve analysis for asteroid 1660 Wood was performed in collaboration with observers in Australia and Uruguay from observations obtained during the asteroid's favorable opposition in 2012. The synodic rotation period was found to be 6.8090 ± 0.0002 h and the lightcurve amplitude was 0.14 ± 0.03 mag.

  2. GELIFICATION OF WOOD DURING COALIFICATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, Patrick G.; Romankiw, Lisa A.; Evans, John R.

    1985-01-01

    Coalified wood was examined by SEM and CPMAS**1**3C NMR to delineate chemical and physical alterations responsible for gelification. Early coalification selectively degrades cellulosic components, preserving lignin-like components that are eventually transformed to coal. Cellular morphology persists until the chemical composition becomes uniform, at which point the cells coalesce under compaction and gelify.

  3. Environmental Impacts of Treated Wood

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Environmental Research Center Florida International University Miami, Florida Tait Chirenje Natural Science through the Florida Center for Environmental Solutions, National Science Foundation Grant No. 0126172. Any of treated-wood research and their efforts in organizing the con- ference entitled Environmental Impacts

  4. Carbon dynamics in wood products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Pingoud; A. PUSSINEN

    2001-01-01

    The carbon (C) reservoir of wood products in Finnishconstruction and civil engineering was estimated by three inventoriesincluding the years 1980, 1990 and 1995. The inventory method ismainly based on the statistics of Finnish building stock. The use of differentconstruction materials in different parts of buildings is estimated for eachbuilding type. Information collected through building permits includes thematerials of bearing frames

  5. Toward Trait-Based Mortality Models for Tropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Aubry-Kientz, Mélaine; Hérault, Bruno; Ayotte-Trépanier, Charles; Baraloto, Christopher; Rossi, Vivien

    2013-01-01

    Tree mortality in tropical forests is a complex ecological process for which modelling approaches need to be improved to better understand, and then predict, the evolution of tree mortality in response to global change. The mortality model introduced here computes an individual probability of dying for each tree in a community. The mortality model uses the ontogenetic stage of the tree because youngest and oldest trees are more likely to die. Functional traits are integrated as proxies of the ecological strategies of the trees to permit generalization among all species in the community. Data used to parametrize the model were collected at Paracou study site, a tropical rain forest in French Guiana, where 20,408 trees have been censused for 18 years. A Bayesian framework was used to select useful covariates and to estimate the model parameters. This framework was developed to deal with sources of uncertainty, including the complexity of the mortality process itself and the field data, especially historical data for which taxonomic determinations were uncertain. Uncertainty about the functional traits was also considered, to maximize the information they contain. Four functional traits were strong predictors of tree mortality: wood density, maximum height, laminar toughness and stem and branch orientation, which together distinguished the light-demanding, fast-growing trees from slow-growing trees with lower mortality rates. Our modelling approach formalizes a complex ecological problem and offers a relevant mathematical framework for tropical ecologists to process similar uncertain data at the community level. PMID:23675500

  6. Design of methodology for wood chips moisture estimation determined for gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luká?, Ladislav; Kuna, Štefan; Kizek, Ján; Repášová, Magdaléna

    2014-03-01

    The moisture content of the charged wood chips is a significant factor affecting the gasification process. The increased moisture content increases the demand on the energy consumption, which is needed to cover the heat consumption related to the water evaporation and adversely affects the wood gas quality and input fuel amount. Monitoring of the moisture content in wood chips is therefore the diagnostic tools suitable to evaluate the operational parameters of the whole gasification process. Present paper describes the design of the suitable methodology to measure and estimate the wood chips moisture content. The issues related to the moisture content estimation include preliminary the selection of the suitable methodology based on the assumed moisture content in the wood chips. Further factor which needs to be considered is the fact that the moisture content in wood chips is time dependent due to the changing parameters of the ambient air (as temperature, pressure and air humidity). Correctly estimated moisture content will enable to improve the wood chips gasification process.

  7. Thickness measurement of thin wood material by differential laser triangulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattuniemi, Joni M.; Mäkynen, Anssi J.

    2008-06-01

    Improving end product quality, minimizing the manufacturing costs and maximizing the yield in wood industry, an accurate, high speed and non-contacting measurement method for measuring thin wood thickness variations is required. Optically homogeneous materials have been measured successfully with laser triangulation for decades; however, non-homogeneous and porous target materials, such as wood, are more complicated to measure with high accuracy. The light scattering in wood is strongest in the parallel direction of wood grain cells shaping the originally round laser spot into an elongated form (tracheid effect). This study is focused on discovering an optimal sensor head orientation with respect to the elongated spot, comparing two different sensor technologies, testing how surface roughness affects on thickness measurements and determining the optimal laser wavelength range for measurement of wood thickness. The main sources of measurement uncertainty for laser triangulation in the measurement of thin wood thickness are also discussed. The results suggest that the laser triangulation plane should be aligned perpendicular to the grain direction and the wavelength of light around 550 nm might be optimal choice in order to minimize the measurement error.

  8. Covariation in Plant Functional Traits and Soil Fertility within Two Species-Rich Forests

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojuan; Swenson, Nathan G.; Wright, S. Joseph; Zhang, Liwen; Song, Kai; Du, Yanjun; Zhang, Jinlong; Mi, Xiangcheng; Ren, Haibao; Ma, Keping

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of plant species along environmental gradients is expected to be predictable based on organismal function. Plant functional trait research has shown that trait values generally vary predictably along broad-scale climatic and soil gradients. This work has also demonstrated that at any one point along these gradients there is a large amount of interspecific trait variation. The present research proposes that this variation may be explained by the local-scale sorting of traits along soil fertility and acidity axes. Specifically, we predicted that trait values associated with high resource acquisition and growth rates would be found on soils that are more fertile and less acidic. We tested the expected relationships at the species-level and quadrat-level (20×20 m) using two large forest plots in Panama and China that contain over 450 species combined. Predicted relationships between leaf area and wood density and soil fertility were supported in some instances, but the majority of the predicted relationships were rejected. Alternative resource axes, such as light gradients, therefore likely play a larger role in determining the interspecific variability in plant functional traits in the two forests studied. PMID:22509355

  9. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q.; Bardana, E.J. Jr.

    1989-09-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.29 references.

  10. Application of liquefied wood as a new particle board adhesive system.

    PubMed

    Kunaver, Matjaz; Medved, Sergej; Cuk, Natasa; Jasiukaityte, Edita; Poljansek, Ida; Strnad, Tatjana

    2010-02-01

    Different types of southern European hardwoods and softwoods were subjected to a liquefaction process with glycerol/diethylene glycol. The liquefied spruce wood was reacted in a condensation reaction in the hot press with different melamine-formaldehyde and melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin precursors and used as adhesives for wood particle boards. The mechanical properties of these particle boards and the determination of formaldehyde release, proved that addition of 50% of the liquefied wood to such resin precursors caused the product to meet the European standard quality demands for particle boards. Up to 40% reduction of the formaldehyde emission was achieved. The temperature of the press unit was lowered from 180 degrees C to 160 degrees C with no significant influence on the mechanical properties. On the basis of the presented results it was possible to conclude that liquefied wood can be used as substitute for synthetic resin precursors in adhesives that are used for the particle board production. PMID:19836945

  11. Geological Substrates Shape Tree Species and Trait Distributions in African Moist Forests

    PubMed Central

    Fayolle, Adeline; Engelbrecht, Bettina; Freycon, Vincent; Mortier, Frédéric; Swaine, Michael; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Fauvet, Nicolas; Cornu, Guillaume; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the factors that shape the distribution of tropical tree species at large scales is a central issue in ecology, conservation and forest management. The aims of this study were to (i) assess the importance of environmental factors relative to historical factors for tree species distributions in the semi-evergreen forests of the northern Congo basin; and to (ii) identify potential mechanisms explaining distribution patterns through a trait-based approach. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the distribution patterns of 31 common tree species in an area of more than 700,000 km2 spanning the borders of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and the Republic of Congo using forest inventory data from 56,445 0.5-ha plots. Spatial variation of environmental (climate, topography and geology) and historical factors (human disturbance) were quantified from maps and satellite records. Four key functional traits (leaf phenology, shade tolerance, wood density, and maximum growth rate) were extracted from the literature. The geological substrate was of major importance for the distribution of the focal species, while climate and past human disturbances had a significant but lesser impact. Species distribution patterns were significantly related to functional traits. Species associated with sandy soils typical of sandstone and alluvium were characterized by slow growth rates, shade tolerance, evergreen leaves, and high wood density, traits allowing persistence on resource-poor soils. In contrast, fast-growing pioneer species rarely occurred on sandy soils, except for Lophira alata. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate strong environmental filtering due to differential soil resource availability across geological substrates. Additionally, long-term human disturbances in resource-rich areas may have accentuated the observed patterns of species and trait distributions. Trait differences across geological substrates imply pronounced differences in population and ecosystem processes, and call for different conservation and management strategies. PMID:22905127

  12. Mapping QTL main and interaction influences on milling quality in elite U.S. rice germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) head-rice yield (HR) is a key export and domestic quality trait whose genetic control is poorly understood. With the goal of identifying genomic regions influencing HR, quantitative-trait-locus (QTL) mapping was carried out for quality-related traits in recombinant inbred line...

  13. A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revised classification of the Parulidae (Aves)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovette, I.J.; Perez-Eman, J. L.; Sullivan, J.P.; Banks, R.C.; Fiorentino, I.; Cordoba-Cordoba, S.; Echeverry-Galvis, M.; Barker, F.K.; Burns, K.J.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, S.M.; Bermingham, E.

    2010-01-01

    The birds in the family Parulidae-commonly termed the New World warblers or wood-warblers-are a classic model radiation for studies of ecological and behavioral differentiation. Although the monophyly of a 'core' wood-warbler clade is well established, no phylogenetic hypothesis for this group has included a full sampling of wood-warbler species diversity. We used parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods to reconstruct relationships among all genera and nearly all wood-warbler species, based on a matrix of mitochondrial DNA (5840 nucleotides) and nuclear DNA (6 loci, 4602 nucleotides) characters. The resulting phylogenetic hypotheses provide a highly congruent picture of wood-warbler relationships, and indicate that the traditional generic classification of these birds recognizes many non-monophyletic groups. We recommend a revised taxonomy in which each of 14 genera (Seiurus, Helmitheros, Mniotilta, Limnothlypis, Protonotaria, Parkesia, Vermivora, Oreothlypis, Geothlypis, Setophaga, Myioborus, Cardellina, Basileuterus, Myiothlypis) corresponds to a well-supported clade; these nomenclatural changes also involve subsuming a number of well-known, traditional wood-warbler genera (Catharopeza, Dendroica, Ergaticus, Euthlypis, Leucopeza, Oporornis, Parula, Phaeothlypis, Wilsonia). We provide a summary phylogenetic hypothesis that will be broadly applicable to investigations of the historical biogeography, processes of diversification, and evolution of trait variation in this well studied avian group. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Utilization of flavonoid compounds from bark and wood: a review.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    Flavonoid compounds, which are extracted from bark and wood and used commercially, are flavan 3-ols as monomers and their polymers, which are called "condensed tannins". Reactions of the condensed tannins with formaldehyde are the basis for wood adhesives. In the late 1940s, tannin research for wood adhesives was begun and the world-first commercial use of wattle tannin from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark as wood adhesives occurred in Australia in the 1960s. In addition, wattle tannin-based adhesives were further developed in South Africa and the uses of these adhesives have been continuing to date. The success of wattle tannin in wood adhesives is demonstrated by the collaboration of the ACIAR with the CAF in the early 1990s. Although radiata pine bark (Pinus radiata) could be a useful resource for the production of wood adhesives, three problems prevented its use in this application: low extractive yields from the bark, variable quality of the tannin extracts and excessive viscosity of the formulated tannin adhesives. In order to overcome these problems, various extraction methods have been proposed. Studies on tannin adhesives from bark of other pine species are also described. Furthermore, the use of the tannin in the bark without extraction is described as "bark adhesives" from radiata pine and black wattle. The use of radiata tannin without formaldehyde for moulded wood products is also described. Owing to the strong antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds, bark extracts from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, synonym P. maritima) and radiata pine have been commercialized as nutritional supplements: Pycnogenol and Enzogenol, respectively. The background and the development of Pycnogenol and the basic difference in the preparation processes between Pycnogenol and Enzogenol are described. On the basis of the discovery that the SOSA value for wattle tannin is approximately 10 times that of extracts from pine bark supplements (Pycnogenol and Enzogenol), chemical, biochemical and clinical studies on wattle tannin were conducted. Results from these studies are outlined. Wattle tannin has been developed as a nutritional supplement and marketed as Acapolia in Japan. PMID:25924541

  15. Pattern of inbreeding depression, condition dependence, and additive genetic variance in Trinidadian guppy ejaculate traits

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Dosselli, Ryan; Pilastro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species, a male's reproductive success depends on his fertilization capability and traits enhancing competitive fertilization success will be under strong, directional selection. This leads to the prediction that these traits should show stronger condition dependence and larger genetic variance than other traits subject to weaker or stabilizing selection. While empirical evidence of condition dependence in postcopulatory traits is increasing, the comparison between sexually selected and ‘control’ traits is often based on untested assumption concerning the different strength of selection acting on these traits. Furthermore, information on selection in the past is essential, as both condition dependence and genetic variance of a trait are likely to be influenced by the pattern of selection acting historically on it. Using the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing fish with high levels of multiple paternity, we performed three independent experiments on three ejaculate quality traits, sperm number, velocity, and size, which have been previously shown to be subject to strong, intermediate, and weak directional postcopulatory selection, respectively. First, we conducted an inbreeding experiment to determine the pattern of selection in the past. Second, we used a diet restriction experiment to estimate their level of condition dependence. Third, we used a half-sib/full-sib mating design to estimate the coefficients of additive genetic variance (CVA) underlying these traits. Additionally, using a simulated predator evasion test, we showed that both inbreeding and diet restriction significantly reduced condition. According to predictions, sperm number showed higher inbreeding depression, stronger condition dependence, and larger CVA than sperm velocity and sperm size. The lack of significant genetic correlation between sperm number and velocity suggests that the former may respond to selection independently one from other ejaculate quality traits. Finally, the association between sperm number and condition suggests that this trait may mediate the genetic benefits of polyandry which have been shown in this species. PMID:24455127

  16. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an overview of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution educational program. The site includes resources at the K-12, undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral levels. Main K-12 resource page features journals and logs from several WHOI expeditions, including dives to the New England Seamounts. Teacher links include information on curriculum supplements and additional sites of interest; sites include aquariums, weather, research vessels, marine science careers, and marine mammals to name a few.

  17. Particleboards from Acetylated Wood Flakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Wagner; Clemens Schwarzinger; Manuela Leidl; Harald Schmidt; Andreas Endesfelder

    2007-01-01

    Summary.  Particleboards from acetylated wood flakes with various resins were pressed and compared with untreated control boards with\\u000a respect to their weathering resistance and mechanical strength. The industrially used melamine, urea, and phenol resins showed\\u000a a poor adhesion behavior to the acetylated flakes resulting in a high decrease of the mechanical strength of the particleboards.\\u000a A novel type of apolar resin

  18. Blood parasites of wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O., Jr.; Knipling, G.D.

    1971-01-01

    Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

  19. Joining wood by friction welding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Stamm; J. Natterer; P. Navi

    2005-01-01

    At the Chair of Timber Constructions of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) tests were carried out\\u000a to join wooden work pieces by friction welding without any additional welding deposit. It could be determined that this kind\\u000a of technology, which is mainly used for thermoplastics and metal, can also be applied to wood. Tests were carried out

  20. Examination of chinese wood oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maximilian Toch

    1926-01-01

    Two samples of Chinese wood oil were used (one from J+M.C and the other from M.A.F. Co.). Each of these was adulterated with 5 per cent, 10 per cent; and 15 per cent by weight of the following oils: paraffin oil, soya bean oil, linseed oil, perilla oil, corn oil, menhaden oil, stillingia oil, peanut oil, tea seed oil, tallow

  1. Dynamic uniaxial crushing of wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Reid; C. Peng

    1997-01-01

    Experimental results are provided from a series of tests on the uniaxial dynamic crushing of cylindrical specimens of five species of wood selected for the density range they cover and tested up to impact velocities of approximately 300 ms?1. An account of the macro-deformation and micro-deformation modes resulting from quasi-static and dynamic uniaxial compression is given. Measurements of the force

  2. Analyzing global carbon uptake patterns using plant trait data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Weg, M. J.; Musavi, T. S.; Van Bodegom, P.; Kattge, J.; Mahecha, M. D.; Reichstein, M.; Bahn, M.

    2013-12-01

    Environment and climate are two important factors in determining global terrestrial CO2 flux patterns, as well as vegetation type and structure. At the moment, in many global CO2 flux analyses the vegetation is represented by plant functional types (PFTs). However, the variance in plant traits within PFTs is as large as between them, suggesting that PFTs do not necessary represent patterns of plant traits as found world wide. And while the correlations between plant traits (e.g. foliar nutrients, leaf mass per area) and CO2 uptake are well established at plant level, this is not the case at ecosystem level. The recently established plant trait database TRY (www.TRY-db.org), together with FLUXNET data give us now new opportunities to analyze ecosystem CO2fluxes at global scale using species plant traits rather than PFTs. Analyzing worldwide CO2 flux data with plant traits comes with some challenges regarding the different spatio-and temporal nature of both data types. Therefore, rather than directly using CO2 fluxes (for which each FLUXNET sites has a different seasonality and different diurnal pattern), we can derive so called ecosystem functional properties (EFPs), which are emergent properties of the ecosystem in response to environmental drivers and are influenced by the structural and physiological properties of the ecosystem. The plant traits in turn are scaled up in a way they become an average representative value for the sites in the analysis, and become suitable to compare to EFPs. Here we present the results of a first study that analyzed global patterns of the EFP GPP1000 max (the maximum gross primary productivity at light saturation) with plant traits measured in situ and derived from the TRY database. In addition to presenting the results we discuss the importance of differences in data origins and data quality (e.g. in situ traits vs. database derived traits, leaf area index (LAI) data from auxiliary FLUXNET data vs remotely sensed LAI, etc.) for this type of analysis.

  3. Functional traits, convergent evolution, and periodic tables of niches.

    PubMed

    Winemiller, Kirk O; Fitzgerald, Daniel B; Bower, Luke M; Pianka, Eric R

    2015-08-01

    Ecology is often said to lack general theories sufficiently predictive for applications. Here, we examine the concept of a periodic table of niches and feasibility of niche classification schemes from functional trait and performance data. Niche differences and their influence on ecological patterns and processes could be revealed effectively by first performing data reduction/ordination analyses separately on matrices of trait and performance data compiled according to logical associations with five basic niche 'dimensions', or aspects: habitat, life history, trophic, defence and metabolic. Resultant patterns then are integrated to produce interpretable niche gradients, ordinations and classifications. Degree of scheme periodicity would depend on degrees of niche conservatism and convergence causing species clustering across multiple niche dimensions. We analysed a sample data set containing trait and performance data to contrast two approaches for producing niche schemes: species ordination within niche gradient space, and niche categorisation according to trait-value thresholds. Creation of niche schemes useful for advancing ecological knowledge and its applications will depend on research that produces functional trait and performance datasets directly related to niche dimensions along with criteria for data standardisation and quality. As larger databases are compiled, opportunities will emerge to explore new methods for data reduction, ordination and classification. PMID:26096695

  4. Invited review: overview of new traits and phenotyping strategies in dairy cattle with a focus on functional traits.

    PubMed

    Egger-Danner, C; Cole, J B; Pryce, J E; Gengler, N; Heringstad, B; Bradley, A; Stock, K F

    2015-02-01

    For several decades, breeding goals in dairy cattle focussed on increased milk production. However, many functional traits have negative genetic correlations with milk yield, and reductions in genetic merit for health and fitness have been observed. Herd management has been challenged to compensate for these effects and to balance fertility, udder health and metabolic diseases against increased production to maximize profit without compromising welfare. Functional traits, such as direct information on cow health, have also become more important because of growing concern about animal well-being and consumer demands for healthy and natural products. There are major concerns about the impact of drugs used in veterinary medicine on the spread of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria that can negatively impact human health. Sustainability and efficiency are also increasingly important because of the growing competition for high-quality, plant-based sources of energy and protein. Disruptions to global environments because of climate change may encourage yet more emphasis on these traits. To be successful, it is vital that there be a balance between the effort required for data recording and subsequent benefits. The motivation of farmers and other stakeholders involved in documentation and recording is essential to ensure good data quality. To keep labour costs reasonable, existing data sources should be used as much as possible. Examples include the use of milk composition data to provide additional information about the metabolic status or energy balance of the animals. Recent advances in the use of mid-infrared spectroscopy to measure milk have shown considerable promise, and may provide cost-effective alternative phenotypes for difficult or expensive-to-measure traits, such as feed efficiency. There are other valuable data sources in countries that have compulsory documentation of veterinary treatments and drug use. Additional sources of data outside of the farm include, for example, slaughter houses (meat composition and quality) and veterinary labs (specific pathogens, viral loads). At the farm level, many data are available from automated and semi-automated milking and management systems. Electronic devices measuring physiological status or activity parameters can be used to predict events such as oestrus, and also behavioural traits. Challenges concerning the predictive biology of indicator traits or standardization need to be solved. To develop effective selection programmes for new traits, the development of large databases is necessary so that high-reliability breeding values can be estimated. For expensive-to-record traits, extensive phenotyping in combination with genotyping of females is a possibility. PMID:25387784

  5. The contribution of wood to the flavor of alcoholic beverages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph A. Maga

    1989-01-01

    Wood can play a significant role in contributing flavor to alcoholic beverages. Specific aspects covered in this review include wood composition in general; the various types of wood used in aging alcoholic products; oak composition and flavor properties; cork composition and its desirable and undesirable flavors; the effect of wood on wine flavor; the effect of wood on distilled spirit

  6. Wood Programs. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaylor, Robert; And Others

    This courseware evaluation rates the Wood Programs software developed by the Iowa Department of Public Instruction. (These programs--not contained in this document--include understanding board feet, wood characteristics, wood safety drill, wood dimensions, wood moisture, operating the table saw, radial arm, measurement drill, fraction drill, and…

  7. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

  8. Carbon sequestration via wood burial.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink.It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 +/- 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized.Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

  9. Extraction of chromium, copper, and arsenic from CCA-treated wood by using wood vinegar.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Seok; Ahn, Byoung Jun; Kim, Gyu-Hyeok

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, wood vinegar was used to extract chromium, copper, and arsenic from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. The extraction efficiency for CCA elements was evaluated using various concentrations of wood vinegar, extraction temperatures, and extraction periods. The extraction efficiency for CCA elements increased with increasing the concentration of wood vinegar and the extraction conditions, resulting in maximal removal rate of copper (95.7%), followed by arsenic (92.7%) and chromium (86.3%). Since wood vinegar afforded high levels of copper extraction, its use was extended to copper-based preservative-treated wood, wherein significant extraction of copper up to 97.6% and 95.7% was obtained from alkaline copper quats (ACQ)- and copper azole (CuAz)-treated sawdust, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the application of wood vinegar for the extraction of metal elements from CCA-treated wood. PMID:22781144

  10. Wood fuel resources in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hornick

    1982-01-01

    Fuelwood is now a major forest product in the United States. Currently 2 to 2.5% of the U.S. energy consumption is met with wood. There is an adequate supply of unused wood annually to meet 10-15% of energy needs. Because of Btu content, moisture, and lack of uniformity in shape and sizes, wood as a source of energy presents some

  11. Wood Fired Steam Plants in Georgia

    E-print Network

    Bulpitt, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    substantial when the system is fully operational, however, and when all the problem areas are solved the simple payback on such a system will be approximately 3 to 4 years. INTEGRATED PRODUCTS, INC. Integrated Products, Inc., is a textile manu facturing.... The installation of the wood energy system at the Integrated Products plant marks an important step in demonstrating the feasibility of using wood fuel in nonforest industries. While other textile firms have built wood fired steam plants, Integrated Products has...

  12. Processing of wood-thermoplastic composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mladen Šercer; Pero Raos; Maja Rujni?-Sokele

    2009-01-01

    Natural and wood fibre plastic composites (WPC) are among the most rapidly growing markets within the plastics industry. They\\u000a are manufactured by combining either wood or other natural fibers such as flax, hemp, jute or kenaf with polymers. Thermoplastic\\u000a resins, such as polypropylene, polyethylene or polystyrene, are mixed with other materials (such as wood), and form a composite\\u000a product. The

  13. Multiple trait analysis of genetic mapping for quantitative trait loci

    SciTech Connect

    Changjian Jiang [Jiangsu Agricultural College (China)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Zhao-Bang Zeng, [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    We present in this paper models and statistical methods for performing multiple trait analysis on mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the composite interval mapping method. By taking into account the correlated structure of multiple traits, this joint analysis has several advantages, compared with separate analyses, for mapping QTL, including the expected improvement on the statistical power of the test for QTL and on the precision of parameter estimation. Also this joint analysis provides formal procedures to test a number of biologically interesting hypotheses concerning the nature of genetic correlations between different traits. Among the testing procedures considered are those for joint mapping, pleiotropy, QTL by environment interaction, and pleiotropy vs. close linkage. The test of pleiotropy (one pleiotropic QTL at a genome position) vs. close linkage (multiple nearby nonpleiotropic QTL) can have important implications for our understanding of the nature of genetic correlations between different traits in certain regions of a genome and also for practical applications in animal and plant breeding because one of the major goals in breeding is to break unfavorable linkage. Results of extensive simulation studies are presented to illustrate various properties of the analyses. 14 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Meta-Analysis of High-Density SNP Associations for Beef Cattle Production Traits from Three Countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 50,000 SNP were evaluated for associations with growth, carcass, and meat quality traits in three populations of cattle in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Regression coefficients for each SNP were independently estimated within each country. Coefficients for similar traits were stand...

  15. DNA polymorphisms and haplotype patterns of transcription factors involved in barley endosperm development are associated with key agronomic traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grit Haseneyer; Silke Stracke; Hans-Peter Piepho; Sascha Sauer; Hartwig H Geiger; Andreas Graner

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Association mapping is receiving considerable attention in plant genetics for its potential to fine map quantitative trait loci (QTL), validate candidate genes, and identify alleles of interest. In the present study association mapping in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is investigated by associating DNA polymorphisms with variation in grain quality traits, plant height, and flowering time to gain further understanding

  16. DIVISION 6 -WOOD AND PLASTICS 06000 GENERAL

    E-print Network

    . 06100 ROUGH CARPENTRY 1. Where fireproofed wood is used, the fireproofing treatment shall to the particular project. 06200 FINISH CARPENTRY 1. Materials and Fabrication: Conform to Architectural Woodwork

  17. Guides to pollution prevention: Wood preserving industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The guide provides an overview of the wood preserving industry and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source reduction and recycling. Treatment with both oilborne and waterborne preservatives is discussed in the guide. However, because in the United States, the majority of wood is treated with chromated copper arsenate, the guide focuses on waterborne preservatives. Process wastewater surface runoff water, and sludge are possible sources of contamination in the wood preserving industry, although in waterborne processes the majority of wastewater is reused. Process wastewater includes water from conditioning, kiln drying, treated wood washing, accumulations in doors or retort sumps, preservative formulation recovery, and rinsing.

  18. EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT, AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

  19. EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

  20. Screening of tea (Camellia sinensis) for trait-associated molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Mphangwe, Nicholas I K; Vorster, Juan; Steyn, J Martin; Nyirenda, Hastings E; Taylor, Nicolette J; Apostolides, Zeno

    2013-09-01

    This study was done to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers that may associate with seven important traits in tea. Sixty RAPD primers were first screened using 18 cultivars under each of the 7 traits, followed by confirmatory screening of 20 promising primers with 32 tea cultivars. Six RAPD primers generated a total of nine specific bands that associated with six desired traits: black tea quality and tolerance to drought, high temperature, low temperature, Phomopsis theae, and high yield. These markers would allow early identification of plant material with the desired traits that can be advanced to the next stage of selection and enhance targeted choice of breeding stocks with the desirable traits. The nine RAPD markers identified in this study could improve precision and efficiency in tea breeding and selection and are an important contribution towards the establishment of marker-assisted selection in tea breeding programmes. PMID:23852798

  1. Plant traits that determine water use in wet tropical trees - do universal rules apply?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, G. T.; Moore, G. W.

    2013-12-01

    At the global scale, evapotranspiration is the strongest predictor of species richness compared with other climatic and non-climatic variables, resulting in higher diversity in wet regions. In water limited climates, evapotranspiration has been shown to drive functional convergence in plant traits such as leaf vein density and wood density that are associated with water usage. However, functional convergence has yet to be demonstrated in wet tropical forests where water is unlimited. In this study, we compared and contrasted structural traits, leaf traits, and transpiration in nine tree species found in a wet tropical montane forest in Costa Rica. Transpiration was determined using three years of data collected from heat dissipation sap flow sensors. Among the nine species we studied, leaf architecture and size varied markedly, but leaf shapes were generally ovate or lancelate (Figure 1). Relationships between secondary and tertiary venation and leaf surface area at the local scale were similar to published relationships at the global scale, except for compound leaves and an outlier species, Calophyllum brasilense, which had dense parallel veins. Despite wide-ranging traits, sap flux was fairly consistent across species, ranging from 380 to 982 kg m-2 d-1. Sap flux was positively correlated with specific leaf area. Similar to global trends, specific leaf area was shown to be positively correlated to tertiary venation but not related to secondary venation. Leaves of wet tropical species tended to have lower leaf mass per unit area than those of dry tropical species. Unlike studies in dry tropical regions, wood density was unrelated to wood sapflux and only weakly related to specific leaf area. It is possible that trees in wetter climates without water deficits do not adhere as closely to universal scaling relationships. In addition, wood density adjustments to guard against water stress might not be as important in wet climates. As we continue to seek universal rules in plant traits, more work is needed to expand these relationships to larger leaves and those with compound leaf structure. Figure 1

  2. 75 FR 66126 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ...731-TA-1179 (Preliminary)] Multilayered Wood Flooring From China AGENCY: United States...reason of imports from China of multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings...of U.S. manufacturers of multilayered wood flooring. The following companies...

  3. 75 FR 79019 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ...731-TA-1179 (Preliminary)] Multilayered Wood Flooring From China Determinations On the...reason of imports from China of multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings...of U.S. manufacturers of multilayered wood flooring. The following companies...

  4. 76 FR 76435 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ...731-TA-1179 (Final)] Multilayered Wood Flooring From China Determinations On the...those imports from China of multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings...of U.S. manufacturers of multilayered wood flooring. The following companies...

  5. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10...NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of...

  6. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

  7. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

  8. 78 FR 30329 - Multilayered Wood Flooring from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ...731-TA-1179 (Final) (Remand)] Multilayered Wood Flooring from China AGENCY: United States...731-TA-1179 (Final) concerning multilayered wood flooring (``MLWF'') from China...Floors, Inc.; BR Custom Surface; Real Wood Floors, LLC; Galleher Corp.; and...

  9. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10...NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of...

  10. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  11. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  12. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  13. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  14. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  15. Root traits for infertile soils

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Dupuy, Lionel X.; Karley, Alison J.; Valentine, Tracy A.; Wiesel, Lea; Wishart, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Crop production is often restricted by the availability of essential mineral elements. For example, the availability of N, P, K, and S limits low-input agriculture, the phytoavailability of Fe, Zn, and Cu limits crop production on alkaline and calcareous soils, and P, Mo, Mg, Ca, and K deficiencies, together with proton, Al and Mn toxicities, limit crop production on acid soils. Since essential mineral elements are acquired by the root system, the development of crop genotypes with root traits increasing their acquisition should increase yields on infertile soils. This paper examines root traits likely to improve the acquisition of these elements and observes that, although the efficient acquisition of a particular element requires a specific set of root traits, suites of traits can be identified that benefit the acquisition of a group of mineral elements. Elements can be divided into three Groups based on common trait requirements. Group 1 comprises N, S, K, B, and P. Group 2 comprises Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Ni. Group 3 contains mineral elements that rarely affect crop production. It is argued that breeding for a limited number of distinct root ideotypes, addressing particular combinations of mineral imbalances, should be pursued. PMID:23781228

  16. Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

  17. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as a contributing source in London. Overall, the source of biomass burning in London was likely a background regional source from mainland Europe overlaid by high contributions from local domestic burning emissions. This could have implications when considering future control strategies during winter. References Fuller, G.W., Sciare, J., Lutz, M., Moukhtar, S., Wagener, S., 2013. New Directions: Time to tackle urban wood burning? Atmospheric Environment 68, 295-296.

  18. Use of frozen semen for estimating genetic gains in production traits in pigs

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Use of frozen semen for estimating genetic gains in production traits in pigs M. MOLENAT J. BOULARD. 100 for growth performance and 1-4 p. 100 for carcass composition. Meat quality seemed to have performance and about 1 p. 100 for carcass composition. The unfavourable trend in meat quality seemed

  19. FLAVOR LIFE VERSUS SHELF LIFE: HOW TO EVALUATE THIS COMPLEX TRAIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavor is a complex trait that comprises an important part of the internal quality of fresh and lightly processed fruits and vegetables. Simplistically, flavor is made up of sweetness, sourness and aroma due to sugars, acids and volatile compounds, respectively. Flavor quality of fruits and vegeta...

  20. Growth Rate and Wood Properties of Norway Spruce Cutting Clones on Different Sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanni Raiskila; Pekka Saranpää; Kurt Fagerstedt; Tapio Laakso; Mia Löija; Riitta Mahlberg; Leena Paajanen; Anne-Christine Ritschkoff

    The effect of growth rate on weight density and strength properties of three Norway spruce cutting clones growing on three different sites in different geographic locations was stud- ied. The purpose was to follow variation in wood physical and mechanical properties and in quality between fast-growing clones grown in environments differing in nutritional and soil properties and climate within the

  1. Wood Storks of the Birdsville colony and swamps of the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, J.M.

    1984-02-16

    Wood Stork feeding sites were studied during the second half of the nesting season for the Birdsville colony (Jenkins Co., Georgia). Foraging locations of the storks were determined. The microhabitat, water quality, and fish density were characterized at stork foraging sites and food resources determined. 14 references, 9 figures, 11 tables.

  2. Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

    2014-05-01

    This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings. PMID:24576635

  3. 21 CFR 866.2600 - Wood's fluorescent lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2600 Wood's fluorescent lamp. (a) Identification. A Wood's...

  4. 21 CFR 866.2600 - Wood's fluorescent lamp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2600 Wood's fluorescent lamp. (a) Identification. A Wood's...

  5. Swedish recovered wood waste: linking regulation and contamination.

    PubMed

    Krook, J; Mårtensson, A; Eklund, M; Libiseller, C

    2008-01-01

    In Sweden, large amounts of wood waste are generated annually from construction and demolition activities, but also from other discarded products such as packaging and furniture. A large share of this waste is today recovered and used for heat production. However, previous research has found that recovered wood waste (RWW) contains hazardous substances, which has significant implications for the environmental performance of recycling. Improved sorting is often suggested as a proper strategy to decrease such implications. In this study, we aim to analyse the impacts of waste regulation on the contamination of RWW. The occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, which contains several hazardous substances, was used as an indicator for contamination. First the management of RWW during 1995-2004 was studied through interviews with involved actors. We then determined the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood in RWW for that time period for each supplier (actor). From the results, it can be concluded that a substantially less contaminated RWW today relies on extensive source separation. The good news is that some actors, despite several obstacles for such upstream efforts, have already today proved capable of achieving relatively efficient separation. In most cases, however, the existing waste regulation has not succeeded in establishing strong enough incentives for less contaminated waste in general, nor for extensive source separation in particular. One important factor for this outcome is that the current market forces encourage involved actors to practice weak quality requirements and to rely on end-of-pipe solutions, rather than put pressure for improvements on upstream actors. Another important reason is that there is a lack of communication and oversight of existing waste regulations. Without such steering mechanisms, the inherent pressure from regulations becomes neutralized. PMID:17509861

  6. Wood Blockboards Fabricated by Rotational Dowel Welding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Belleville; C. Segovia; A. Pizzi; T. Stevanovic; A. Cloutier

    2011-01-01

    Holding wood pieces together by rotationally welded dowels can be used to make blockboard panels with the dowels inserted in the side of the wood substrate slats. The average results for both tensile and three-point bending tests indicate that a 20° dowel insertion angle yields strength results better than 10° and 0° insertion angles. Applied load vs deformation in the

  7. Wood Sculpture in the Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boschen, Joyce

    1972-01-01

    The article discusses various approaches used by first to fifth graders in designing, constructing and sculpting wood pieces. In this case, small wooden parts were donated by a local factory. Article includes useful hints, such as that soft woods are better for younger children, trial and error methods increase enjoyment. (PD)

  8. School of Biological Sciences Juvenile wood

    E-print Network

    within the living tree crown · researchers now make the distinction between `juvenile wood' and `crown · traditionally thought to form within the living tree crown · researchers now make the distinction between, Cameron et al. 2005) The theory is that trees have evolved to have more flexible wood in the canopy

  9. Evaluation of Paulownia elongata wood polyethylene composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paulownia wood flour (PWF), a byproduct of milling lumber, was employed as a bio-filler and blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) via extrusion. Paulownia wood (PW) shavings were milled through a 1-mm screen then separated via shaking into various particle fractions using sieves (#30 - < #2...

  10. Melt Flow Instabilities of Wood Polymer Composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Velichko Hristov

    2009-01-01

    Melt flow instabilities during extrusion of wood polymer composites (WPC) containing 30–60 wt% wood flour (WF) have been investigated. The research emphasized elucidation of the extrudate surface tearing mechanism and its relation to wall slip. This interesting phenomenon has been known in the WPC industry for years; however, it has not received much research interest. It was observed that increasing

  11. Rheological aspects of wood polymer composites extrusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Velichko Hristov

    2007-01-01

    Wood polymer composites (WPC) have received considerable industrial and academic interest due to the fact that natural fillers are an abundant, inexpensive and renewable raw material. One of the challenges is to optimize the processing operations of highly filled WPC. In this thesis, viscosity, viscoelasticity, wall slip, entry flow, and melt flow instabilities of WPC containing 5-70 wt% wood flour

  12. A Better Way to Burn Wood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Rita

    1979-01-01

    Wood pyrolysis is a process that burns wood without air, producing gas and oil that are then burned for heat. Now being tested at Maryville College, Tennessee, the process is expected to cut fuel costs, solve a waste disposal problem, and produce charcoal for sale. (Author/MLF)

  13. DEVELOPING A NO-VOC WOOD TOPCOAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports an evaluation of a new low-VOC (volatile organic compound) wood coating technology, its performance characteristics, and its application and emissions testing. The low-VOC wood coating selected for the project was a two-component, water-based epoxy coating. Poly...

  14. FINE MAPPING OF A MALTING-QUALITY QTL COMPLEX NEAR THE CHROMOSOME 4H S TELOMERE IN BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malting quality has long been an active objective in barley breeding programs. However it is difficult for breeders to manipulate malting quality traits because of inheritance complexity and difficulty in evaluation of these quantitative traits. Quantitative trait Locus (QTL) mapping provides breede...

  15. Software for quantitative trait analysis

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of software currently available for the genetic analysis of quantitative traits in humans. Programs that implement variance components, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Haseman-Elston (H-E) and penetrance model-based linkage analyses are discussed, as are programs for measured genotype association analyses and quantitative trait transmission disequilibrium tests. The software compared includes LINKAGE, FASTLINK, PAP, SOLAR, SEGPATH, ACT, Mx, MERLIN, GENEHUNTER, Loki, Mendel, SAGE, QTDT and FBAT. Where possible, the paper provides URLs for acquiring these programs through the internet, details of the platforms for which the software is available and the types of analyses performed. PMID:16197737

  16. Genetics of reproductive traits: Antagonisms with production traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science, because artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. The addition of genetic techn...

  17. Modulation of leaf economic traits and trait relationships by climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian J. Wright; J. H. C. Cornelissen; D. S. Falster; P. K. Groom; J. Gulias; Kouki Hikosaka; William Lee; Christopher H. Lusk; J. Oleksyn; N. Osada; H. Poorter; David I. Warton; Mark Westoby

    2005-01-01

    Aim Our aim was to quantify climatic influences on key leaf traits and relationships at the global scale. This knowledge provides insight into how plants have adapted to different environmental pressures, and will lead to better calibration of future vegetation-climate models. Location The data set represents vegetation from 175 sites around the world. Methods For more than 2500 vascular plant

  18. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Bolling

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  19. Components of Young Children's Trait Understanding: Behavior-to-Trait Inferences and Trait-to-Behavior Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, David; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2007-01-01

    Trait attribution is central to people's naive theories of people and their actions. Previous developmental research indicates that young children are poor at predicting behaviors from past trait-relevant behaviors. We propose that the cognitive process of behavior-to-behavior predictions consists of two component processes: (1) behavior-to-trait

  20. Exploring the Natural Variation for Seedling Traits and Their Link with Seed Dimensions in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Leo A. J.; van Heusden, Adriaan W.; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W. M.

    2012-01-01

    The success of germination, growth and final yield of every crop depends to a large extent on the quality of the seeds used to grow the crop. Seed quality is defined as the viability and vigor attribute of a seed that enables the emergence and establishment of normal seedlings under a wide range of environments. We attempt to dissect the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of seed quality, through a combined approach of physiology and genetics. To achieve this goal we explored the genetic variation found in a RIL population of Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Moneymaker) x Solanum pimpinellifolium through extensive phenotyping of seed and seedling traits under both normal and nutrient stress conditions and root system architecture (RSA) traits under optimal conditions. We have identified 62 major QTLs on 21 different positions for seed, seedling and RSA traits in this population. We identified QTLs that were common across both conditions, as well as specific to stress conditions. Most of the QTLs identified for seedling traits co-located with seed size and seed weight QTLs and the positive alleles were mostly contributed by the S. lycopersicum parent. Co-location of QTLs for different traits might suggest that the same locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. We show that seed weight has a strong effect on seedling vigor and these results are of great importance for the isolation of the corresponding genes and elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22952841

  1. Effects of nutrient enrichment on the decomposition of wood and associated microbial activity in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulis, V.; Rosemond, A.D.; Suberkropp, K.; Weyers, H.S.; Benstead, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    1. We determined the effects of nutrient enrichment on wood decomposition rates and microbial activity during a 3-year study in two headwater streams at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, NC, U.S.A. After a 1-year pretreatment period, one of the streams was continuously enriched with inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) for 2 years while the other stream served as a reference. We determined the effects of enrichment on both wood veneers and sticks, which have similar carbon quality but differ in physical characteristics (e.g. surface area to volume ratios, presence of bark) that potentially affect microbial colonisation and activity. 2. Oak wood veneers (0.5 mm thick) were placed in streams monthly and allowed to decompose for approximately 90 days. Nutrient addition stimulated ash-free dry mass loss and increased mean nitrogen content, fungal biomass and microbial respiration on veneers in the treatment stream compared with the reference. The magnitude of the response to enrichment was great, with mass loss 6.1 times, and per cent N, fungal biomass and microbial respiration approximately four times greater in the treatment versus reference stream. 3. Decomposition rate and nitrogen content of maple sticks (ca. 1-2 cm diameter) also increased; however, the effect was less pronounced than for veneers. Wood response overall was greater than that determined for leaves in a comparable study, supporting the hypothesis that response to enrichment may be greater for lower quality organic matter (high C:N) than for higher quality (low C:N) substrates. 4. Our results show that moderate nutrient enrichment can profoundly affect decomposition rate and microbial activity on wood in streams. Thus, the timing and availability of wood that provides retention, structure, attachment sites and food in stream ecosystems may be affected by nutrient concentrations raised by human activities.

  2. Recurrence risks for Mendelian traits Autosomal Dominant

    E-print Network

    Dellaire, Graham

    ;· Definition ­ Multifactorial Trait · Trait determined by multiple genetic and environmental factors, which by genetic and environmental factors #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;HIV Environmental exposure Mutated CCR5 receptor

  3. Fitness Traits in Animal Breeding Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Goddard

    Traits measuring reproduction and survival sometimes show a negative genetic trend in livestock populations despite their\\u000a importance to profitability. This occurs due to inbreeding depression and selection for other traits. For many traits there\\u000a are genes with an allele that increases the trait value but is initially at low frequency due to negative effects on fitness.\\u000a Therefore, theory suggests that

  4. EVALUATION OF LEACHATE QUALITY FROM PENTACHLOROPHENOL, CREOSOTE AND ACA

    E-print Network

    #12;EVALUATION OF LEACHATE QUALITY FROM PENTACHLOROPHENOL, CREOSOTE AND ACA PRESERVED WOOD PRODUCTS the leachability characteristics of pentachlorophenol (PCP), creosote and ammoniacal chromium arsenate (ACA) wood timbers, creosote treated marine pilings (poles), and ACA treated utility poles. Bundles of test products

  5. Traits of Pathogens Negatively Affecting

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Traits of Pathogens Negatively Affecting Livestock Lindsey Youngman, Kelly Moffett, Ryan Crawford, Taylor Arsenault #12;Hypothesis Pathogens that can be transmitted via multiple pathways are most likely to have a significant negative consequence on livestock. On the contrary, pathogens that are transmitted

  6. Molecular phylogeny of Pholadoidea Lamarck, 1809 supports a single origin for xylotrophy (wood feeding) and xylotrophic bacterial endosymbiosis in Bivalvia.

    PubMed

    Distel, Daniel L; Amin, Mehwish; Burgoyne, Adam; Linton, Eric; Mamangkey, Gustaf; Morrill, Wendy; Nove, John; Wood, Nicole; Yang, Joyce

    2011-11-01

    The ability to consume wood as food (xylotrophy) is unusual among animals. In terrestrial environments, termites and other xylotrophic insects are the principle wood consumers while in marine environments wood-boring bivalves fulfill this role. However, the evolutionary origin of wood feeding in bivalves has remained largely unexplored. Here we provide data indicating that xylotrophy has arisen just once in Bivalvia in a single wood-feeding bivalve lineage that subsequently diversified into distinct shallow- and deep-water branches, both of which have been broadly successful in colonizing the world's oceans. These data also suggest that the appearance of this remarkable life habit was approximately coincident with the acquisition of bacterial endosymbionts. Here we generate a robust phylogeny for xylotrophic bivalves and related species based on sequences of small and large subunit nuclear rRNA genes. We then trace the distribution among the modern taxa of morphological characters and character states associated with xylotrophy and xylotrepesis (wood-boring) and use a parsimony-based method to infer their ancestral states. Based on these ancestral state reconstructions we propose a set of plausible hypotheses describing the evolution of symbiotic xylotrophy in Bivalvia. Within this context, we reinterpret one of the most remarkable progressions in bivalve evolution, the transformation of the "typical" myoid body plan to create a unique lineage of worm-like, tube-forming, wood-feeding clams. The well-supported phylogeny presented here is inconsistent with most taxonomic treatments for xylotrophic bivalves, indicating that the bivalve family Pholadidae and the subfamilies Teredininae and Bankiinae of the family Teredinidae are non-monophyletic, and that the principle traits used for their taxonomic diagnosis are phylogenetically misleading. PMID:21684342

  7. Trait Affectivity and Nonreferred Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this…

  8. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS ANALYSIS AND METABOLIC PATHWAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of molecular markers for crop plants has enabled research on the genetic basis of quantitative traits. However, despite more than a decade of these studies, called quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, the molecular basis for variation in most agronomic traits is still largely unk...

  9. Comparison of VOC emissions between air-dried and heat-treated Norway spruce ( Picea abies), Scots pine ( Pinus sylvesteris) and European aspen ( Populus tremula) wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyttinen, Marko; Masalin-Weijo, Marika; Kalliokoski, Pentti; Pasanen, Pertti

    2010-12-01

    Heat-treated wood is an increasingly popular decoration material. Heat-treatment improves dimensional stability of the wood and also prevents rot fungus growth. Although production of heat-treated wood has been rapidly increasing, there is only little information about the VOC emissions of heat-treated wood and its possible influences on indoor air quality. In the present study, VOC emissions from three untreated (air-dried) and heat-treated wood species were compared during a four weeks test period. It appeared that different wood species had clearly different VOC emission profiles. Heat-treatment was found to decrease VOC emissions significantly and change their composition. Especially, emissions of terpenes decreased from softwood samples and aldehydes from European aspen samples. Emissions of total aldehydes and organic acids were at the same level or slightly higher from heat treated than air-dried softwood samples. In agreement with another recent study, the emissions of furfural were found to increase and those of hexanal to decrease from all the wood species investigated. In contrast to air-dried wood samples, emissions of VOCs were almost in steady state from heat treated wood samples even in the beginning of the test.

  10. Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.M.

    1982-04-01

    Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

  11. Woods Institute for the Environment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based at Stanford University, the Ward W. and Priscilla B. Woods Institute for the Environment draws on the expertise and creativity of leading academics and decision makers to create practical solutions for people and the planet. Some of their projects include research trying to discover solutions for global environmental sustainability issues and developing strong environment leaders for today and the future. In the site's "Research" area, visitors can learn about their strategic collaborations that deal with food security and ocean viability. In their "Uncommon Dialogue" area, visitors can read transcripts and paper abstracts from meetings that include "California Rangelands" and "Wastewater as a Resource: Focus on the Bay". New visitors should also take a look at the "Gateways For" area, as there is a drop-down menu for journalists, business, and most importantly educators and students seeking to use some of their findings in the classroom.

  12. Recycling of treated wood poles

    SciTech Connect

    Fansham, P. [TWT Wood Products, Inc., Alberta (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    There are approximately 150 million utilities poles in service in North America. Of the 3 million poles removed from service each year, many poles still contain a sound and structurally intact core and only the outer layer has deteriorated. Since most of the old poles are treated with either pentachlorophenol or creosote there are limited disposal options available to pole users. The practice of giving old poles away to farmers or other interested parties in falling into disfavour since this practice does not absolve the utility of the environmental liability associated with the treated wood. TWT has commercialised a thermolysis (Pyrolysis) based process capable of removing oil based preservatives from treated wood. The patented process involves: the shaving of the weathered pole exterior; the rapid distillation of oil based preservatives in an oxygen depleted environment; condensation of the vapours; and separation of liquids. TWT has constructed a 30,000 pole per year facility east of Calgary and has provided recycled poles for the construction of two power lines now in use by TransAlta Utilities Corporation, Canada`s largest investor owned electric utility. TWT has tested two thermolysis (Pyrolysis) technologies and has determined that contact thermolysis using a heated auger design performed better and with less plugging than a fast fluid bed reactor. The fluid bed reactor is prone to coke formation and contamination of the oil by fine char particles. Residual PCP concentration in the shavings was reduced from 9500 ppm to 10 ppm. Leachate testing on the char yielded a PCP concentration of 1.43 ppm in the Leachate, well below the EPA standard maximum of 100 ppm.

  13. Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities

    E-print Network

    Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities In Latin America: A Focus on Brazil Richard Vlosky, Ph.D. Professor-Forest Products Marketing Interim Director-Louisiana Forest Products Laboratory Industry Strategic Services & Publisher: WOOD Markets Monthly newsletter WOOD Markets 2002 - The Solid Wood

  14. COMPARATIVE WOOD ANATOMY OF PERENNIAL SHOOTS OF POTENTILLA (ROSACEAE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Stepanova; E. S. Chavchavadze; S. Jansen

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY The wood anatomy of perennial shoots of 26 Potentilla species was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. Secondary xylem of different growth forms was compared. The wood anatomy of perennial shoots of Potentilla species with growth forms intermediate between shrubs and herbs (except P. biflora and P. palustris) is similar to the wood anatomy of shrubs. Wood anatomy

  15. What does bonding to modified wood tell us about adhesion?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher G. Hunt; Rishawn Brandon; Rebecca E. Ibach; Charles R. Frihart

    Determining adhesive bond performance for chemically modified wood is important not only in relation to its commercial utility but also because this information helps in understanding wood bond durability. Although wood modification is usually used to improve anti-swell efficiency, the modification can alter adhesive bond performance. Generally, modification is expected to diminish adhesion by making the wood surface less polar

  16. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from wood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, N. V.; Oneill, B. A.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from nine wood samples was investigated. The samples of hardwoods were aspen poplar, beech, yellow birch, and red oak. The samples of softwoods were western red cedar, Douglas fir, western hemlock, eastern white pine, and southern yellow pine. There was no significant difference between the wood samples under rising temperature conditions, which are intended to simulate a developing fire, or under fixed temperature conditions, which are intended to simulate a fully developed fire. This test method is used to determine whether a material is significantly more toxic than wood under the preflashover conditions of a developing fire.

  17. Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, E. A.; Krapf, M.; Orasche, J.; Huang, Y.; Zimmermann, R.; Drinovec, L.; Mo?nik, G.; El-Haddad, I.; Slowik, J. G.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2014-10-01

    Residential wood burning contributes significantly to the total atmospheric aerosol burden; however, large uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. Primary emissions are influenced by a variety of parameters, including appliance type, burner wood load and wood type. In addition to directly emitted particles, previous laboratory studies have shown that oxidation of gas phase emissions produces compounds with sufficiently low volatility to readily partition to the particles, forming significant quantities of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, relatively little is known about wood burning SOA and the effects of burn parameters on SOA formation and composition are yet to be determined. There is clearly a need for further study of primary and secondary wood combustion aerosols to advance our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols and their impacts on health, air quality and climate. For the first time, smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of wood loading on both primary and secondary wood combustion products. Products were characterized using a range of particle and gas phase instrumentation, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). A novel approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) quantification from AMS data was developed and results were compared to those from GC-MS analysis of filter samples. Similar total particle mass emission factors were observed under high and average wood loadings, however, high fuel loadings were found to generate significantly higher contributions of PAHs to the total organic aerosol (OA) mass compared to average loadings. PAHs contributed 15 ± 4% (mean ± 2 sample standard deviations) to the total OA mass in high load experiments, compared to 4 ± 1% in average load experiments. With aging, total OA concentrations increased by a factor of 3 ± 1 for high load experiments compared to 1.6 ± 0.4 for average load experiments. In the AMS, an increase in PAH and aromatic signature ions at lower m/z values, likely fragments from larger functionalized PAHs, was observed with aging. Filter samples also showed an increase in functionalized PAHs in the particles with aging, particularly oxidized naphthalene species. As PAHs and their oxidation products are known to have deleterious effects on health, this is a significant finding to aid in the mitigation of negative wood burning impacts by improving burner operation protocols.

  18. Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, E. A.; Krapf, M.; Orasche, J.; Huang, Y.; Zimmermann, R.; Drinovec, L.; Mo?nik, G.; El-Haddad, I.; Slowik, J. G.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Residential wood burning contributes to the total atmospheric aerosol burden; however, large uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. Primary emissions are influenced by a variety of parameters, including appliance type, burner wood load and wood type. In addition to directly emitted particles, previous laboratory studies have shown that oxidation of gas-phase emissions produces compounds with sufficiently low volatility to readily partition to the particles, forming considerable quantities of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, relatively little is known about wood burning SOA, and the effects of burn parameters on SOA formation and composition are yet to be determined. There is clearly a need for further study of primary and secondary wood combustion aerosols to advance our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols and their impacts on health, air quality and climate. For the first time, smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of wood loading on both primary and secondary wood combustion products. Products were characterized using a range of particle- and gas-phase instrumentation, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). A novel approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) quantification from AMS data was developed and results were compared to those from GC-MS analysis of filter samples. Similar total particle mass emission factors were observed under high and average wood loadings; however, high fuel loadings were found to generate significantly higher contributions of PAHs to the total organic aerosol (OA) mass compared to average loadings. PAHs contributed 15 ± 4% (mean ±2 sample standard deviations) to the total OA mass in high-load experiments, compared to 4 ± 1% in average-load experiments. With aging, total OA concentrations increased by a factor of 3 ± 1 for high load experiments compared to 1.6 ± 0.4 for average-load experiments. In the AMS, an increase in PAH and aromatic signature ions at lower m / z values, likely fragments from larger functionalized PAHs, was observed with aging. Filter samples also showed an increase in functionalized PAHs in the particles with aging, particularly oxidized naphthalene species. As PAHs and their oxidation products are known to have deleterious effects on health, this is a noteworthy finding to aid in the mitigation of negative wood burning impacts by improving burner operation protocols.

  19. Volatile organic compound and formaldehyde emissions from Populus davidiana wood treated with low molecular weight urea-formaldehyde resin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Xian; Shen, Jun; Lei, Cheng-Shuai; Feng, Qi

    2014-09-01

    Populus davidiana wood was usually impregnated with low molecular weight thermosetting resins to improve its physical and mechanical properties. However, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde emitted from treated wood have lead to poor indoor air quality (IAQ). The trends of VOC and formaldehyde emissions as a function of the weight percent gain (WPG) factor were mainly investigated in this work. Aldehydes and alkanes were the predominant compositions indentified in the VOC emissions, although low amount of ketones, terpenes and alcohols were also found. With the increase in WPG, VOC and formaldehyde concentrations improved. However, their concentration began to decrease when WPG was over 44.06% (VOC) and 36.35% (formaldehyde), respectively. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) of untreated and treated wood at different WPG levels was detected. It showed that treatment of wood with UF resin significantly improved the mechanical properties. Therefore, it is probably helpful to comprehensively analyze correlations among environmental performance, mechanical performance and processing costs. PMID:25204077

  20. Leaching of boron from wood impregnated with preservative solutions based on boric acid and liquefied wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boštjan Lesar; Franc Budija; Polonca Kralj; Marko Petri?; Miha Humar

    Reducing boron leaching from impregnated wood has been one of the most challenging tasks for at least 50 years. In order to\\u000a slow down the leaching of boron, aqueous solutions of boric acid were combined with liquefied spruce wood. The results clearly\\u000a showed that leaching of boron from spruce wood impregnated with preservative solutions based on boric acid and liquefied

  1. Functional Traits Help Predict Post-Disturbance Demography of Tropical Trees

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Olivier; Hérault, Bruno; Delcamp, Matthieu; Garnier, Éric; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    How tropical tree species respond to disturbance is a central issue of forest ecology, conservation and resource management. We define a hierarchical model to investigate how functional traits measured in control plots relate to the population change rate and to demographic rates for recruitment and mortality after disturbance by logging operations. Population change and demographic rates were quantified on a 12-year period after disturbance and related to seven functional traits measured in control plots. The model was calibrated using a Bayesian Network approach on 53 species surveyed in permanent forest plots (37.5 ha) at Paracou in French Guiana. The network analysis allowed us to highlight both direct and indirect relationships among predictive variables. Overall, 89% of interspecific variability in the population change rate after disturbance were explained by the two demographic rates, the recruitment rate being the most explicative variable. Three direct drivers explained 45% of the variability in recruitment rates, including leaf phosphorus concentration, with a positive effect, and seed size and wood density with negative effects. Mortality rates were explained by interspecific variability in maximum diameter only (25%). Wood density, leaf nitrogen concentration, maximum diameter and seed size were not explained by variables in the analysis and thus appear as independent drivers of post-disturbance demography. Relationships between functional traits and demographic parameters were consistent with results found in undisturbed forests. Functional traits measured in control conditions can thus help predict the fate of tropical tree species after disturbance. Indirect relationships also suggest how different processes interact to mediate species demographic response. PMID:25226586

  2. Effect of growth rate on wood specific gravity and selected mechanical properties in individual species from distinct wood categories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y. Zhang

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the relationships of wood specific gravity and selected mechanical properties (MOR, MOE and Cmax) with growth rate in 16 timber species from four distinct wood categories: 1) first softwood category (FSC); 2) second softwood category (SSC); 3) diffuse-porous wood category (DPC); and 4) ring-porous wood category (RPC). And genetic, silvicultural and environmental influence on the relationships was

  3. Genetic variation of hydraulic and wood anatomical traits in hybrid poplar and trembling aspen

    E-print Network

    Hacke, Uwe

    environment. Introduction Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and other poplars (e.g. Populus balsamifera L.; Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh.; Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray) play an important (Populus ssp.) are among the fastest growing temperate trees and are consid- ered to be vegetational

  4. Modeling Mediterranean Forests Dynamics using an Individual-Trait-Based Simulator (TFS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyllas, Nikolaos; Michelaki, Chrysanthi; Galanidis, Alexandros; Evangelou, Eleftherios; Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis; Arianoutsou, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    There is currently an effort to replace the use of plant functional types with traits continua in the next generation of vegetation dynamics models. This study presents the application of a new individual and trait based forest dynamics model (TFS) at Mediterranean Forest. Four key functional characters are used to express different life strategies in the model that represent a continuum of fast to slow plant economics. These functional traits are leaf dry mass per area (MA), leaf N and P concentrations (NL, PL) and wood density (DW). TFS has originally been developed for tropical forests and in this study is parameterised for different forest types found in Greece along altitudinal gradients. In particular data from approximately 500 individual trees at 50 different sites ranging from 350 to 1650 m asl are used 1) to force the model with site specific trait distributions and 2) to define associations between leaf maximum carboxylation Vmax and electron transport rate Jmax with MA, NL and PL. The model is applied at four different forest types and it is validated against field observations of gross and net primary productivity. Overall and adequate model performance is observed.

  5. Influence of Wood Grain Direction on Linear Welding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Omrani; H. R. Mansouri; A. Pizzi

    2009-01-01

    Wood grain orientation differences in the two surfaces to be bonded yield bondlines of different strengths in linear wood welding. End-grain-to-end-grain welds of good strength were obtained for both beech and oak woods. The tendency to defibration in end-grain-to-end-grain welding indicated that for wood densities higher than or equal to the density of beech wood, end-grain-to-end-grain welding is possible and

  6. Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting some carcass and meat traits in duck (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Mucha, Sebastian; Grajewski, Bartosz; Gornowicz, Ewa; Lisowski, Miros?aw; Radziszewska, Jolanta; Szwaczkowski, Tomasz

    2014-11-01

    Contrary to chicken and livestock mammals, duck genome has not been explored much. Nowadays a relatively small number of reports on molecular variability and mapping of loci in Peking ducks has been published. Therefore, the objective of this study was to detect single loci affecting body weight, carcass and meat traits in Peking ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The study was based on an F2 cross between two parental lines A-55 and GL-30. Phenotypes of 387 birds from generation F2 including carcass and meat quality traits were collected. Linkage map, of the linkage group CAU1, consisting of 29 microsatellite markers was constructed. One highly significant (p?

  7. Quantitative genetics of disease traits.

    PubMed

    Wray, N R; Visscher, P M

    2015-04-01

    John James authored two key papers on the theory of risk to relatives for binary disease traits and the relationship between parameters on the observed binary scale and an unobserved scale of liability (James Annals of Human Genetics, 1971; 35: 47; Reich, James and Morris Annals of Human Genetics, 1972; 36: 163). These two papers are John James' most cited papers (198 and 328 citations, November 2014). They have been influential in human genetics and have recently gained renewed popularity because of their relevance to the estimation of quantitative genetics parameters for disease traits using SNP data. In this review, we summarize the two early papers and put them into context. We show recent extensions of the theory for ascertained case-control data and review recent applications in human genetics. PMID:25823843

  8. Efficient Wood Use in Residential Construction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edminster, Ann

    The online excerpts of this 1998 NRDC handbook summarize the advantages of several wood-efficient approaches to design, material selection, and construction, and describes resources for builders, architects, engineers, developers, lenders, and insurers.

  9. Supercritical gas extraction of wood with methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Labrecque, R.; Kallaguine, S.; Grandmalson, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    A semicontinuous spinning basket type of reactor was designed and built for the supercritical-gas extraction of wood in a flowing solvent. Experiments were carried out to study the extraction of Populus tremuloides in methanol at temperature up to 350 degrees C and pressures up to 17.01 MPa. Oil yields and wood conversion rates were measured as functions of solvent flow rate, rate of agititation, nature of the reactor lining, wood particle size, and rate of temperature increase. The most important factors were shown to be temperature, pressure, and solvent flow rate: the size of the wood particles was significant at low pressures. The results are discussed in the light of current knowledge on pyrolysis.

  10. TREATABILITY STUDIES FOR WOOD PRESERVING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), Site Management Support Branch, conducted a comprehensive treatability project for wood preserving sites in 1995 and 1996. This is a compilation report on the treatability studi...

  11. SOLID WOOD PRODUCTS EFFECTS OF ELEVATED AND

    E-print Network

    SOLID WOOD PRODUCTS EFFECTS OF ELEVATED AND HIGH-TEMPERATURE SCHEDULES ON NARP IN SOUTHERN YELLOW) have been reported to compare warp lumber were dried in two separate charges according to an elevated

  12. Strength of Wood Beams: An Engineering Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dengerud-Au, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Presents a lesson involving the measurement of wood beams and the prediction and testing of their stress limits. Provides an example of a problem with multiple solutions, each with different consequences. (KHR)

  13. Chemistry and stoichiometry of wood liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.G.; Kloden, D.J.; Schaleger, L.L.

    1981-06-01

    The approximate stoichiometry of liquefaction, from data of two PDU runs and a laboratory run is Wood (100 g) + CO (0.1 - 0.4 Mol) ..-->.. CO/sub 2/ (0.5 - 1.0 Mol) + H/sub 2/O (0.4 - 0.8 Mol) + Product (55 - 64 g). Product includes wood oil, water soluble organics and residues. Water is formed by decomposition, carbon dioxide by decomposition and reduction of wood oxygen by CO. Aqueous products include many carboxylic acids plus a roughly equal percentage of non-acids. The wood oil is divided into a neutral fraction and three phenolic fractions of varying molecular weight. Some specific compounds found in water and oil phases are listed.

  14. Wood recognition using image texture features.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang-jun; Zhang, Guang-qun; Qi, Heng-nian

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by theories of higher local order autocorrelation (HLAC), this paper presents a simple, novel, yet very powerful approach for wood recognition. The method is suitable for wood database applications, which are of great importance in wood related industries and administrations. At the feature extraction stage, a set of features is extracted from Mask Matching Image (MMI). The MMI features preserve the mask matching information gathered from the HLAC methods. The texture information in the image can then be accurately extracted from the statistical and geometrical features. In particular, richer information and enhanced discriminative power is achieved through the length histogram, a new histogram that embodies the width and height histograms. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to the state-of-the-art HLAC approaches using the wood stereogram dataset ZAFU WS 24. By conducting extensive experiments on ZAFU WS 24, we show that our approach significantly improves the classification accuracy. PMID:24146821

  15. 5th- Heredity and Traits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss B

    2011-11-11

    These are a list of links and activities about Heredity and Traits. ACTIVITIES Where Did It Come From? (UEN) - Talks about the topics in the 5th grade science core. BEST PICK! Heredity (BrainPop) - Video and activities about Heredity. BEST PICK! Study Jams: Heredity - Video and short quiz about Heredity. BEST PICK! Dog Breeding (PBS Kids) - An interactive experience where you need to figure out which animals to breed to get ...

  16. Energy Intensity Determination in Wood Processing Sawmills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddula, Ramakrishna Babu

    Energy intensity is an important aspect to wood products producing sawmills in the State of West Virginia. This research aims to facilitate the accurate measurement of electrical energy intensity in sawmills by means of energy analysis and diagnostics using various data acquisition devices on electrical motors used in the manufacturing processes. Close to 90% of the electrical energy used in a typical sawmill is consumed by motors alone. The energy intensity determination is being accomplished by data collection with respect to electrical energy consumption parameters as well as production parameters. The electrical energy consumption was recorded on all the major motors in three sawmills for a period of one month. The recorded data were analyzed with respect to the production volume and the specific energy consumption for different size lumber of varying species was developed. The specific energy allocation for different size lumber was done based on the surface area cut to manufacture that lumber. The specific energy consumption of a particular size lumber has been compared with respect to different species. The specific energy consumption of different size lumber of the same species was developed. Sawmills can evaluate the impact of their production decisions on energy consumption using the results of this research. Energy consumption of different size and species was compared among three sawmills. Specific energy consumption of hardwood species in sawmill 1 for 4/4 lumber is varying from 124 kwh to 170 kWh per 1,000 board feet, where as in sawmill 2 it is varying from 79 kwh to 118 kWh and in sawmill 3 it is varying from 90 kwh to 145 kWh. Further, results of the energy assessment conducted in each sawmill would save on average 12% of energy consumption at current operation. Finally, productivity improvement that can be achieved by sawing high quality logs and using new saw blade technologies were discussed.

  17. Mechano-sorptive creep in wood fibres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Mari Olsson; Lennart Salmén; Michaela Eder; Ingo Burgert

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the way in which fibre properties affect the mechano-sorptive creep phenomenon in paper, single wood\\u000a fibres were exposed to tensile stresses at a constant humidity of 80% relative humidity (RH) and in a cyclic humidity environment\\u000a varying between 80 and 30% RH. Contrary to earlier claims, it was demonstrated that single wood fibres exposed to a

  18. Thermal behavior of biodegraded lime wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen-Mihaela Popescu; Alexandru Manoliu; Gabriela Lisa; Petronela Gradinariu; Cornelia Vasile

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the soft-rot fungus Trichoderma viride Pers., on the thermal behavior of lime wood (Tillia cordata Mill.) were investigated. The lime wood pieces were inoculated with the fungus over a 12-week period. At pre-established time intervals two samples were withdrawn from the medium and analyzed by thermogravimetry and differential calorimetry, and the results were correlated with mass loss.

  19. Environmental risk assessments for transgenic crops producing output trait enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Tuttle, Ann; Shore, Scott; Stone, Terry

    2009-01-01

    The environmental risks from cultivating crops producing output trait enzymes can be rigorously assessed by testing conservative risk hypotheses of no harm to endpoints such as the abundance of wildlife, crop yield and the rate of degradation of crop residues in soil. These hypotheses can be tested with data from many sources, including evaluations of the agronomic performance and nutritional quality of the crop made during product development, and information from the scientific literature on the mode-of-action, taxonomic distribution and environmental fate of the enzyme. Few, if any, specific ecotoxicology or environmental fate studies are needed. The effective use of existing data means that regulatory decision-making, to which an environmental risk assessment provides essential information, is not unnecessarily complicated by evaluation of large amounts of new data that provide negligible improvement in the characterization of risk, and that may delay environmental benefits offered by transgenic crops containing output trait enzymes. PMID:19924556

  20. Cascading trait-mediated interactions induced by ant pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Hsun-Yi; Liere, Heidi; Soto, Estelí J; Perfecto, Ivette

    2012-01-01

    Trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMII) can be as important as density-mediated indirect interactions. Here, we provide evidence for a novel trait-mediated cascade (where one TMII affects another TMII) and demonstrate that the mechanism consists of a predator eavesdropping on chemical signaling. Ants protect scale insects from predation by adult coccinellid beetles – the first TMII. However, parasitic phorid flies reduce ant foraging activity by 50% – the second TMII, providing a window of opportunity for female beetles to oviposit in high-quality microsites. Beetle larvae are protected from ant predation and benefit from living in patches with high scale densities. We demonstrate that female beetles can detect pheromones released by the ant when attacked by phorids, and that only females, and especially gravid females, are attracted to the ant pheromone. As ants reduce their movement when under attack by phorids, we conclude that phorids facilitate beetle oviposition, thus producing the TMII cascade. PMID:23139877

  1. Wood energy in eastern and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, P. (School of Geography and Environmental Studies, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Polytechnic, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (Great Britian)); Soussan, J. (Dept. of Geography, Reading Univ., Reading, Berkshire (Great Britian)); Munslow, B. (Centre for African Studies, Liverpool Univ., Liverpool (United Kingdom)); Spence, D. (Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom))

    1989-01-01

    This paper has outlined a learning curve in dealing with the wood energy situation in eastern and southern Africa. The curve began in total ignorance when wood energy was not considered part of the energy problem. Dominance of wood fuel, throughout the region, became immediately apparent on calculation of national energy balances. The discovery of this other energy crisis'' was, again, to prove that a little knowledge is a dangerous thing, since the emphasis on project intervention was at a national, not local, level. In evaluating the success and failure of energy intervention strategies it was increasingly apparent that the wood energy problem was but another symptom of the problems of subsistence production in Africa. Wood energy, in effect, was simply the rubbish that was left from a wider utilization of biomass, and trying to grow woodfuel per se, especially as a full-price monetary good, was impossible so long as the major relationships and the subsistence system remained outside the market. The failures, however, have allowed the identification of a range of methods for woody biomass intervention in eastern and southern Africa, from which wood energy could be an offtake.

  2. Birefringence of wood at terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoruk, Tara M.; Schneider, Jon; Hartley, Ian D.; Reid, Matthew

    2008-06-01

    Fibre content of solid wood plays an important role in the wood products industry in terms of value. Additionally, fibre structure in composite wood products such as Oriented Strand Board (OSB) and paper products plays an important role in terms of strength properties. The effect of moisture content on wood properties is important in the manufacturing process and final product performance, and therefore its effect on the birefringence is of considerable interest. Since solid wood exhibits strong birefringence at terahertz frequencies, there may be potential applications of terahertz spectroscopy to fibre content and structure sensing. There are two potential sources for this strong birefringence: (i) form birefringence resulting from the porous structure of solid wood and (ii) intrinsic birefringence resulting from the dielectric properties of the material itself. In this report, the variability of birefringence within and between species, the dependence of the birefringence on moisture content and the relative contributions from form and intrinsic birefringence are examined. In order to clarify the role of these contributions to the measured birefringence, polarized terahertz reflection spectroscopy is examined and compared to the results obtained in a transmission geometry. Comparison of the birefringence measured in transmission and reflection geometries suggests that form birefringence may dominate.

  3. Evaluating phenanthrene sorption on various wood chars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, G.; Sabatini, D.A.; Chiou, C.T.; Rutherford, D.; Scott, A.C.; Karapanagioti, H.K.

    2005-01-01

    A certain amount of wood char or soot in a soil or sediment sample may cause the sorption of organic compounds to deviate significantly from the linear partitioning commonly observed with soil organic matter (SOM). Laboratory produced and field wood chars have been obtained and analyzed for their sorption isotherms of a model solute (phenanthrene) from water solution. The uptake capacities and nonlinear sorption effects with the laboratory wood chars are similar to those with the field wood chars. For phenanthrene aqueous concentrations of 1 ??gl-1, the organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (log Koc) ranging from 5.0 to 6.4 for field chars and 5.4-7.3 for laboratory wood chars, which is consistent with literature values (5.6-7.1). Data with artificial chars suggest that the variation in sorption potential can be attributed to heating temperature and starting material, and both the quantity and heterogeneity of surface-area impacts the sorption capacity. These results thus help to corroborate and explain the range of log Koc values reported in previous research for aquifer materials containing wood chars. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Single and combined effects of zinc and cinnamon essential oil in diet on productive performance, egg quality traits, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

    PubMed

    Torki, Mehran; Akbari, Mohsen; Kaviani, Keyomars

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding zinc (Zn), cinnamon essential oil (Ci), or their combination in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (8.8?±?3 °C). Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 56-day trial period using 120 Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens. Significant interactions between Ci and Zn on FCR, EW, EP, or EM were observed (P?

  5. Chemical Analysis and Study of Phenolics, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Effect of the Wood and Bark of Maclura tinctoria (L.) D. Don ex Steud.

    PubMed Central

    Lamounier, K. C.; Cunha, L. C. S.; de Morais, S. A. L.; de Aquino, F. J. T.; Chang, R.; do Nascimento, E. A.; de Souza, M. G. M.; Martins, C. H. G.; Cunha, W. R.

    2012-01-01

    Maclura tinctoria (L.) D. Don ex Steud. has one of the highest qualities among the coefficients for Brazilian woods (up to 9.6) and resistance rates equivalent to Indian teak (Tectona grandis). In this study, the macromolecular constituents and total phenols compounds as well as the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of this wood were evaluated. Total phenols and proanthocyanidin levels were higher in wood when compared with bark levels. The antioxidant activity of wood extracts (IC50 = 18.7??g/mL) was more effective than that of bark extracts (IC50 = 20.9??g/mL). Wood and bark extracts revealed a high potential for inhibition of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bark extracts were the most active (MIC from 20 to 60??g/mL). Both antioxidant activity and high potential for bacteria inhibition turn these extracts promising for drug formulations, especially as antibacterial agent. PMID:22454666

  6. MADERA PRESERVADA DE ALAMO (Populus Linn.) COMO MATERIAL DE CONSTRUCCION RESISTENTE AL ATAQUE DE HONGOS E INSECTOS ALAMO (Populus Linn.) PRESERVED WOOD FOR USE AS A STRUCTURAL AND FRAMING TIMBER, RESISTANT TO MUSHROOMS AND INSECTS ATTACK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EEA Santa Cruz

    Windbreaks now occupies around 500 hectares in Santa Cruz province (ARGENTINA). Populus nigra is the most common specie for the purposes of sheltering plantations and livestock by wind. Wood treated with certain preservatives provide high quality material, primarily suited for use as a structural and framing timber. The responses of two poplars woods origins was evaluated. Test of available CCA-C

  7. Treatment of Wood Preserving Wastewater 

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, T. D.; Shack, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    evaporation was one possible means of treatment which had not been studied to any great degree. Two bench scale evaporation units were employed to determine the fundamental relationships affecting wastewater quality during such treatment. In batch evaporation...

  8. Trait-based tests of coexistence mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Adler, Peter B; Fajardo, Alex; Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Kraft, Nathan J B

    2013-10-01

    Recent functional trait studies have shown that trait differences may favour certain species (environmental filtering) while simultaneously preventing competitive exclusion (niche partitioning). However, phenomenological trait-dispersion analyses do not identify the mechanisms that generate niche partitioning, preventing trait-based prediction of future changes in biodiversity. We argue that such predictions require linking functional traits with recognised coexistence mechanisms involving spatial or temporal environmental heterogeneity, resource partitioning and natural enemies. We first demonstrate the limitations of phenomenological approaches using simulations, and then (1) propose trait-based tests of coexistence, (2) generate hypotheses about which plant functional traits are likely to interact with particular mechanisms and (3) review the literature for evidence for these hypotheses. Theory and data suggest that all four classes of coexistence mechanisms could act on functional trait variation, but some mechanisms will be stronger and more widespread than others. The highest priority for future research is studies of interactions between environmental heterogeneity and trait variation that measure environmental variables at within-community scales and quantify species' responses to the environment in the absence of competition. Evidence that similar trait-based coexistence mechanisms operate in many ecosystems would simplify biodiversity forecasting and represent a rare victory for generality over contingency in community ecology. PMID:23910482

  9. The biogeography of marine plankton traits.

    PubMed

    Barton, Andrew D; Pershing, Andrew J; Litchman, Elena; Record, Nicholas R; Edwards, Kyle F; Finkel, Zoe V; Kiørboe, Thomas; Ward, Ben A

    2013-04-01

    Changes in marine plankton communities driven by environmental variability impact the marine food web and global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and other elements. To predict and assess these community shifts and their consequences, ecologists are increasingly investigating how the functional traits of plankton determine their relative fitness along environmental and biological gradients. Laboratory, field and modelling studies are adopting this trait-based approach to map the biogeography of plankton traits that underlies variations in plankton communities. Here, we review progress towards understanding the regulatory roles of several key plankton functional traits, including cell size, N2 -fixation and mixotrophy among phytoplankton, and body size, ontogeny and feeding behaviour for zooplankton. The trait biogeographical approach sheds light on what structures plankton communities in the current ocean, as well as under climate change scenarios, and also allows for finer resolution of community function because community trait composition determines the rates of significant processes, including carbon export. Although understanding of trait biogeography is growing, uncertainties remain that stem, in part, from the paucity of observations describing plankton functional traits. Thus, in addition to recommending widespread adoption of the trait-based approach, we advocate for enhanced collection, standardisation and dissemination of plankton functional trait data. PMID:23360597

  10. Control of fresh meat quality through manipulation of muscle fiber characteristics.

    PubMed

    Joo, S T; Kim, G D; Hwang, Y H; Ryu, Y C

    2013-12-01

    Variations of fresh meat quality exist because the quality traits are affected by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Because the meat quality is basically dependent on muscle fiber characteristics, numerous studies have reported the relationship between quality traits and fiber characteristics. Despite intensive research, the relationship is yet to be fully established, however, the present knowledge suggests several potential ways to manipulate muscle fiber characteristics to improve meat quality. The present paper reviews the definition of fresh meat quality, meat quality traits and variations of meat quality. Also, this review presents recent knowledge underlying the relationship between fresh meat quality traits and muscle fiber characteristics. Finally, the present work proposes several potential factors including breed, genotype, sex, hormone, growth performance, diet, muscle location, exercise and ambient temperature that can be used to manipulate muscle fiber characteristics and subsequently meat quality in animals. PMID:23702339

  11. Biomass wood. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, A.H.

    1983-12-31

    This project supported an on going investigation to develop the commercial application of a multiple-use wood fired heater. As a result of the project, a production model heater has been designed and several units are undergoing performance testing: residental (three), hog parlor (one), community recreation center (one), and Pee Dee Experiment Station (two for tobacco curing tests). The present heater design uses a two-stage air-to-air heat exchanger with a total heating area of approximately 48 square feet and a furnace volume of approximately 18 cubic feet. The heater is rated at 100,000 Btu/hr, and heated air output is thermostatically controlled by the combination of on/off action of a fan moving air across the heated surface and open/closed action of a damper controlling combustion airflow into the furnace. At this time developmental work is directed toward overcoming the remaining obstacle to the immediate commercialization of the heater: controlled removal of excess furnace heat during relatively long no-heat demand periods or in the event of fan outage.

  12. Wood and Timber Properties Programme Timber Quality Steering Group

    E-print Network

    (from models) · Standing trees Diameter and height Stem straightness score Acoustic velocity Competing properties modeller ­ to be recruited #12;Resource Assessment · Stem straightness in production forecast tree diameter and distance · Felled trees Length to lowest dead branch, live branch and live whorl

  13. Indoor particulate matter in rural, wood stove heated homes.

    PubMed

    Semmens, Erin O; Noonan, Curtis W; Allen, Ryan W; Weiler, Emily C; Ward, Tony J

    2015-04-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposures have adverse impacts on public health, but research evaluating indoor PM concentrations in rural homes in the United States using wood as fuel for heating is limited. Our objectives were to characterize indoor PM mass and particle number concentrations (PNCs), quantify infiltration of outdoor PM into the indoor environment, and investigate potential predictors of concentrations and infiltration in 96 homes in the northwestern US and Alaska using wood stoves as the primary source of heating. During two forty-eight hour sampling periods during the pre-intervention winter of a randomized trial, we assessed PM mass (<2.5?m) and PNCs (particles/cm(3)) in six size fractions (0.30-0.49, 0.50-0.99, 1.00-2.49, 2.5-5.0, 5.0-10.0, 10.0+?m). Daily mean (sd) PM2.5 concentrations were 28.8 (28.5)?g/m(3) during the first sampling period and 29.1 (30.1)?g/m(3) during the second period. In repeated measures analyses, household income was inversely associated with PM2.5 and smaller size fraction PNCs, in particular. Time of day was a significant predictor of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations, and infiltration efficiency was relatively low (Finf (sd)=0.27 (0.20)). Our findings demonstrate relatively high mean PM concentrations in these wood burning homes and suggest potential targets for interventions for improving indoor air quality and health in rural settings. PMID:25701812

  14. Marketing wood Products on the Internet: IHLA, 1998 Marketing Wood Products on the Internet

    E-print Network

    Marketing wood Products on the Internet: IHLA, 1998 Marketing Wood Products on the Internet IHLA Fall Regional Meetings - 1998 Bob Smith "When history is written, the creation of the Internet may in the past few years than the Internet. Every major newspaper, magazine, and television station have covered

  15. Wood blockboards for construction fabricated by wood welding with pre-oiled dowels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Segovia; X. Zhou; A. Pizzi

    2012-01-01

    Holding wood pieces together by rotationally welded dowels can be used to make blockboard panels with the dowels inserted in the side of the wood substrate slats. Pre-oiling the dowels with sunflower oil: (i) eases their insertion in the pre-drilled substrate, (ii) allows the insertion of dowels to a much greater depth by its lubricating action for welding, thus allowing

  16. Emission of gases and degradation volatiles from polymeric wood constituents in friction welding of wood dowels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Omrani; E. Masson; A. Pizzi; H. R. Mansouri

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of volatile compounds and gases emitted as smoke at the welding interface during rotational wood dowel welding of a hardwood (beech) and of a softwood (Norway spruce) has shown that the compounds in such a smoke are water vapour, CO2, degradation compounds from wood polymeric carbohydrates and from amorphous lignin, as well as some volatile terpenes, these latter only

  17. Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood

    E-print Network

    Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated WoodDisposal problem Recycling potentialRecycling potential ValueValue--added productsadded products Closed loop recyclingClosed loop recycling #12;Major Current Disposal OptionsMajor Current Disposal Options Incineration

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM A WOOD FINISHING PRODUCT - WOOD STAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of the measurement of emission characteristics of four organic compounds (nonane, decane, undecane, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene) from a wood finishing product, wood stain, in an environmental chamber. It was found that the emission patterns of the four orga...

  19. Exposure to Wood Dust, Resin Acids, and Volatile Organic Compounds During Production of Wood Pellets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katja Hagström; Sara Axelsson; Helena Arvidsson; Ing-Liss Bryngelsson; Cecilia Lundholm; Kåre Eriksson

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate exposure to airborne substances that are potentially harmful to health during the production of wood pellets, including wood dust, monoterpenes, and resin acids, and as an indicator of diesel exhaust nitrogen dioxide. In addition, area measurements were taken to assess background exposure levels of these substances, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and

  20. Dough Rheology and Breadmaking Traits of Flour Mill Streams from a Hard Spring Wheat and Relationships to Sulfur Content and Protein Size Distribution.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the differences in quality traits among individual flour mill streams (FMS) provides more precise blending techniques that would meet customer’s flour specifications. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in dough rheology and breadmaking traits among FMS and their relations...